1389 – 2743

AC (Potts) n. 1389 1389. Souls that have come into the other life have wondered that there is such a communication of another’s thoughts, and that they at once know the quality of another person’s faith, as well as that of his disposition. But they were told that the spirit receives much more excellent faculties when it has been separated from the body. During the bodily life there is an influx of the objects of the senses; and also of phantasy from those things which thence inhere in the memory; besides anxieties for the future; various cupidities that are excited by external things; cares for food, clothing, place of abode, children; and other things, concerning which they take no thought in the other life; and therefore on the removal of these obstacles and hindrances, together with the corporeal parts that are of gross sensation, they cannot but be in a more perfect state. The same faculties remain, but are much more perfect, clear, and free; especially with those who have lived in charity and faith in the Lord, and in innocence; for the faculties of all such are immensely elevated above those which they had in the body, being finally elevated even to the angelic faculties of the third heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 1390 1390. Nor is there a communication merely of another’s affections and thoughts, but also of his memory-knowledge, to such an extent that one spirit supposes that he has known what another knows, even if he had known nothing about such matters. Thus there is a communication of all the other’s knowledge. Some spirits retain what is thus communicated, and some do not.

AC (Potts) n. 1391 1391. Communications are made both by conversation with one another, and by ideas together with representations; for the ideas of thought of spirits are simultaneously representative, and by this means all things are set forth in great fullness. They can represent more by a single idea than they can utter by a thousand words. But the angels perceive what is within the idea, what the affection is, what the origin of the affection, what its end; besides other things that are interior.

AC (Potts) n. 1392 1392. The delights and happiness in the other life are wont to be communicated from one to many by a real transmission that is wonderful, by which they too are affected in a similar manner; and these communications are effected without any loss to him who makes the communication. It has been granted me also thus to communicate delights to others by transmissions. From this may be seen what must be the happiness of those who love the neighbor more than themselves, and who desire nothing more than to transfer their happiness to others; a condition that originates in the Lord, who in this manner communicates felicities to the angels. The communications of happiness are such continual transmissions; but without any reflection that they are from such an active origin, and from a determination as it were open and voluntary.

AC (Potts) n. 1393 1393. Communications are also effected in a wonderful way by means of removals, the nature of which cannot be perceived by man. Sad and troublesome things are removed in an instant, and thus things that give delight and happiness are presented without any hindrances; for when these have been removed, the angels flow in, and communicate their happy feelings.

AC (Potts) n. 1394 1394. It is owing to the existence of such perception as enables one to know in an instant what is the quality of another in respect to love and faith, that spirits and angels are joined together into societies in accordance with their agreement, and are separated from fellowship according to their disagreement; and this so exquisitely that there is not the smallest difference which does not dissociate or consociate. Hence the societies in the heavens are so distinct from one another that nothing can be conceived to be more so; and this in accordance with all the differences of love to the Lord, and of faith in Him, which cannot be numbered. Hence comes the form of heaven, which is such as to represent one man; and this form is continually being perfected.

AC (Potts) n. 1395 1395. As regards this kind of perception, I have learned many things from experience, but it would be tedious to relate them all. Often have I heard the deceitful speaking, and have perceived not only that there was deceit, but also what the deceit was, and what special wickedness there was in it. There is as it were an image of the deceit in every tone of the voice. I could also perceive whether the deceit belonged to him who was speaking, or to others who spoke through him. The case is similar with those who are in hatred: the nature of the hatred is at once perceived, and more things that are in it than man can in any wise be induced to believe. When the persons are presented against whom the hatred has been felt, a lamentable state results, for whatever had been thought and plotted against them stands forth to view.

AC (Potts) n. 1396 1396. A certain spirit who while he lived in the world had desired to arrogate to himself merit for his acts and his teaching, went away to the right and came to those who were not of such a character. In order that he might be associated with them, he said that he was nothing, and that he desired to serve them; but instantly, on his first approach, and indeed while he was still far away, they perceived what he was; and they at once replied that he was not what he professed to be, but that he desired to be great, and therefore could not be in agreement with them, who were little. Being ashamed at this, he withdrew, wondering that they knew him so far away.

AC (Potts) n. 1397 1397. As the perceptions are so exquisite, evil spirits cannot approach a sphere, or any society, where there are good spirits who are in mutual love. When they merely approach it they begin to be distressed, and they complain and lament. In his audacity and self-confidence, a spirit who was evil obtruded himself into a certain society that is at the first threshold of heaven; but from the moment of his arrival he was scarcely able to breathe, and became sensible of a cadaverous stench from himself, and therefore fell back.

AC (Potts) n. 1398 1398. There were a number of spirits about me who were not good. An angel came, and I saw that the spirits could not endure his presence; for, as he came nearer, they fell back more and more. I wondered at this, but it was given me to know that the spirits could not stay in the sphere which he had with him. From this, and also from other experience, it has been made evident that one angel can put to flight myriads of evil spirits, for they cannot endure the sphere of mutual love. And yet it was perceived that the sphere of the angel had been tempered by means of others who were associated with him: if it had not been tempered, they would all have been dissipated. From all this it is evident what a perfect perception exists in the other life; and how those who are there are associated together, and also separated from fellowship, in accordance with the perceptions.

AC (Potts) n. 1399 1399. Every spirit has communication with the interior and with the inmost heaven, though he is wholly ignorant of it, and without this communication he could not live. What he is inwardly, is known by the angels who are in his interiors, and he is also ruled by the Lord by means of these angels. Thus there are communications of his interiors in heaven, as there are of his exteriors in the world of spirits. By means of interior communications he is fitted for the use into which he is led without his being aware of it. The case is the same with man: he likewise communicates with heaven by means of angels-although of this he is wholly ignorant-for otherwise he could not live. The things which flow in therefrom into his thoughts, are only the ultimate effects; all his life is from this source, and from this are ruled all the endeavors [conatus] of his life.

AC (Potts) n. 1400 1400. A continuation concerning perceptions and the spheres that arise from them, will be found at the end of this chapter.

CHAPTER 12

1. And Jehovah said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy land, and from thy birth, and from thy father’s house, to the land that I will cause thee to see.
2. And I will make thee into a great nation; and I will bless thee, and will make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing.
3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and will curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed.
4. And Abram went as Jehovah had spoken unto him, and Lot went with him. And Abram was a son of five years and seventy years, when he went forth out of Haran.
5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gotten, and the soul that they had gained in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came.
6. And Abram passed through the land, even unto the place Shechem, even unto the oak-grove Moreh: and the Canaanite was then in the land.
7. And Jehovah was seen of Abram, and said, To thy seed will I give this land. And there he built an altar to Jehovah, who was seen of him.
8. And he removed from thence into the mountain on the east of Bethel, and spread his tent; having Bethel toward the sea, and Ai on the east. And there he built an altar to Jehovah, and called on the name of Jehovah.
9. And Abram journeyed, going and journeying, toward the south.
10. And there was a famine in the land. And Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; because the famine was grievous in the land.
11. And it came to pass that when he drew nigh to come into Egypt, he said unto Sarai his wife, Behold I pray, I know that thou art a woman beautiful to look upon:
12. And it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say, This is his wife; and they will kill me, and will make thee to live.
13. Say, I pray, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.
14. And it came to pass when Abram was come into Egypt, that the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful.
15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken to Pharaoh’s house.
16. And he did well unto Abram for her sake; and he had flock and herd, and he-asses and menservants, and maidservants and she-asses, and camels.
17. And Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues, and his house, because of the word of Sarai, Abram’s wife.
18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she is thy wife?
19. Why saidst thou, She is my sister? and I might have taken her to me for a woman. And now, behold thy wife; take her, and go.
20. And Pharaoh commanded the men concerning him; and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had.

AC (Potts) n. 1401 sRef Gen@12 @0 S0′ 1401. THE CONTENTS
True historical things begin here, all of which are representative, and each word significative. The things related in this chapter concerning Abram represent the Lord’s state from earliest childhood up to youth. As the Lord was born in the same way as other men, He also advanced from an obscure state to one more lucid. “Haran” is the first state, which was obscure; “Shechem” is the second; “the oak-grove Moreh” is the third; “the mountain which had Bethel toward the sea and Ai on the east,” is the fourth; and the “journey thence toward the south into Egypt,” is the fifth.

AC (Potts) n. 1402 sRef Gen@12 @0 S0′ 1402. The things told of Abram’s sojourn in Egypt represent and signify the Lord’s first instruction. “Abram” is the Lord; “Sarai,” as a wife, is truth to be adjoined to the celestial; “Sarai,” as a sister, is intellectual truth; “Egypt” is memory-knowledge [scientia]. The progress from memory-knowledges [a scientificis] even to celestial truths is described; this was according to Divine order, that the Lord’s Human Essence might be conjoined with His Divine Essence, and at the same time become Jehovah.

AC (Potts) n. 1403 1403. THE INTERNAL SENSE
From the first chapter of Genesis up to this point, or rather to the mention of Eber, the historicals have not been true but made-up historicals, which in the internal sense signify celestial and spiritual actualities. But in this chapter and in those which follow, the historicals are not made-up but true historicals; and in the internal sense these in like manner signify celestial and spiritual actualities, as anyone may see from the single consideration that it is the Word of the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1404 1404. In these things now before us, which are true historicals, all the statements and words both in general and in particular have in the internal sense an entirely different signification from that which they bear in the sense of the letter; but the historicals themselves are representative. Abram, who is first treated of, represents in general the Lord, and specifically the celestial man; Isaac, who is afterwards treated of, in like manner represents in general the Lord, and specifically the spiritual man; Jacob also in general represents the Lord, and specifically the natural man. Thus they represent the things which are of the Lord, of His kingdom, and of the church.

AC (Potts) n. 1405 1405. But the internal sense, as has already been clearly shown, is of such a nature that all things in general and in particular are to be understood abstractly from the letter, just as if the letter did not exist; for in the internal sense is the Word’s soul and life, which does not become manifest unless the sense of the letter as it were vanishes. Thus, from the Lord, do the angels perceive the Word when it is being read by man.

AC (Potts) n. 1406 1406. What the historicals in this chapter represent, is evident from the Contents that have been premised; what is signified by the statements and the words, may be seen from what follows, where they are explained.

AC (Potts) n. 1407 sRef Gen@12 @1 S0′ 1407. Verse 1. And Jehovah said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy land, and from thy birth, and from thy father’s house, to the land that I will cause thee to see. These and the things which follow occurred historically, as they are written; but the historicals are representative, and each word is significative. By “Abram” in the internal sense is meant the Lord, as has been said before. By “Jehovah said unto Abram,” is signified the first mental advertence of all; “get thee out of thy land,” signifies the corporeal and worldly things from which He was to recede; “and from thy birth,” signifies the more exterior corporeal and worldly things; “and from thy father’s house,” signifies the more interior of such things; “to the land that I will cause thee to see,” signifies the spiritual and celestial things that were to be presented to view.

AC (Potts) n. 1408 sRef Gen@12 @1 S0′ 1408. These and the things which follow occurred historically as they are written; but the historicals are representatives and all the words are significative. The case is the same with all the historicals of the Word, not only with those in the books of Moses, but also with those in the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. In all these, nothing is apparent but mere history; but although it is history in the sense of the letter, still in the internal sense there are arcana of heaven, which lie stored up and hidden there, and which can never be seen so long as the mind, together with the eye, is kept in the historicals; nor are they revealed until the mind is removed from the sense of the letter. The Word of the Lord is like a body that contains within it a living soul; the things belonging to the soul do not appear while the mind is so fixed in corporeal things that it scarcely believes that there is a soul, still less that it will live after death; but as soon as the mind withdraws from corporeal things, those which are of the soul and life become manifest. And this also is the reason, not only why corporeal things must die before man can be born anew, or be regenerated, but also why the body itself must die so that he may come into heaven and see heavenly things.
[2] Such also is the case with the Word of the Lord: its corporeal things are those which are of the sense of the letter; and when the mind is kept in these, the internal things are not seen at all; but when the former are as it were dead, then for the first time are the latter presented to view. But still the things of the sense of the letter are similar to those which are with man while in the body, to wit, to the knowledges of the memory that come from the things of sense, and which are general vessels that contain interior or internal things within them. It may be known from this that the vessels are one thing, and the essentials contained in the vessels another. The vessels are natural; the essentials contained in the vessels are spiritual and celestial. So likewise the historicals of the Word, and all the expressions in the Word, are general, natural, and indeed material vessels, in which are things spiritual and celestial; and these in no wise come into view except by the internal sense.
[3] This will be evident to everyone from the mere fact that many things in the Word are said according to appearances, and indeed according to the fallacies of the senses, as that the Lord is angry, that He punishes, curses, kills, and many other such things; when yet in the internal sense they mean quite the contrary, namely, that the Lord is in no wise angry and punishes, still less does He curse and kill. And yet to those who from simplicity of heart believe the Word as they apprehend it in the letter, no harm is done while they live in charity. The reason is that the Word teaches nothing else than that everyone should live in charity with his neighbor, and love the Lord above all things. They who do this have in themselves the internal things; and therefore with them the fallacies taken from the sense of the letter are easily dispelled.

AC (Potts) n. 1409 sRef Gen@12 @1 S0′ 1409. That the historicals are representative, but all the words significative, is evident from what has already been said and shown concerning representatives and significatives (n. 665, 920, 1361); nevertheless, since representatives begin here, it is well to give briefly a further explanation of the subject. The Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, looked upon all earthly and worldly, and also bodily things, which were in any wise objects of the senses, as being dead things; but as each and all things in the world present some idea of the Lord’s kingdom, consequently of things celestial and spiritual, when they saw them or apprehended them by any sense, they thought not of them, but of the celestial and spiritual things; indeed they thought not from the worldly things, but by means of them; and thus with them things that were dead became living.
[2] The things thus signified were collected from their lips by their posterity and were formed by them into doctrinals, which were the Word of the Ancient Church, after the flood. With the Ancient Church these were significative; for through them they learned internal things, and from them they thought of spiritual and celestial things. But when this knowledge began to perish, so that they did not know that such things were signified, and began to regard the terrestrial and worldly things as holy, and to worship them, with no thought of their signification, the same things were then made representative. Thus arose the Representative Church, which had its beginning in Abram and was afterwards instituted with the posterity of Jacob. From this it may be known that representatives had their rise from the significatives of the Ancient Church, and these from the celestial ideas of the Most Ancient Church.
[3] The nature of representatives may be manifest from the historicals of the Word, in which all the acts of the fathers, Abram, Isaac, and Jacob, and afterwards those of Moses, and of the judges and kings of Judah and Israel, were nothing but representatives. Abram in the Word, as has been said, represents the Lord; and because he represents the Lord, he represents also the celestial man; Isaac likewise represents the Lord, and thence the spiritual man; Jacob in like manner represents the Lord, and thence the natural man corresponding to the spiritual.
[4] But with representatives the character of the person is not considered at all, but the thing which he represents; for all the kings of Judah and of Israel, of whatever character, represented the Lord’s kingly function; and all the priests, of whatever character, represented His priestly function. Thus the evil as well as the good could represent the Lord and the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom; for, as has been said and shown above, the representatives were altogether separated from the person. Hence then it is that all the historicals of the Word are representative; and because they are representative, it follows that all the words of the Word are significative, that is, that they have a different signification in the internal sense from that which they bear in the sense of the letter.

AC (Potts) n. 1410 sRef Gen@12 @1 S0′ 1410. Jehovah said unto Abram. That this signifies the first mental advertence of all, depends upon the fact that this historical is representative, and the words themselves significative. Such was the style in the Ancient Church, that when anything was true, they said “Jehovah said,” or, “Jehovah spoke,” which signified that it was so; as has been shown above. But after significatives had been turned into representatives, then Jehovah or the Lord did actually speak with men; and when it is then said that Jehovah said, or, Jehovah spoke with anyone, it signifies the same as before; for the Lord’s words in the true historicals involve the same as His words in the made-up ones. There is only this difference, that the latter are composed to be like true history, and the former are not so composed. Wherefore that “Jehovah said unto Abram,” signifies nothing else than the first mental advertence; as when in the Ancient Church anyone was admonished by conscience, or by some other dictate, or by their Word, that a thing was so, it was then said in like manner that “Jehovah said.”

AC (Potts) n. 1411 sRef Gen@12 @1 S0′ 1411. Get thee out of thy land. That this signifies the corporeal and worldly things from which He was to recede, is evident from the signification of “land” or “earth,”* which is variable, adapting itself to the person or thing of which it is predicated-as in the first chapter of Genesis, where likewise “earth” signifies the external man (see also n. 82, 620, 636, 913). That it here signifies corporeal and worldly things, is because these are of the external man. A “land,” in the proper sense, is the land, region, or kingdom itself; it is also the inhabitant thereof; and also the people itself and the nation itself, in the land. Thus the word “land” not only signifies in a broad sense the people or the nation, but also in a limited sense the inhabitant. When the word “land” is used with reference to the inhabitant, its signification is then in accordance with the thing concerning which it is used. It is here used respecting corporeal and worldly things; for the land of his birth, out of which Abram was to go, was idolatrous. In the historical sense, therefore, the meaning here is that Abram should go out from that land; but in the representative sense, that He should recede from the things which are of the external man; that is, that external things should not resist, nor bring in disturbance; and because this is concerning the Lord, it signifies that His externals should agree with His internals.
* The Latin word terra means both “land” and “earth.”

AC (Potts) n. 1412 sRef Gen@12 @1 S0′ 1412. And from thy birth. That this signifies the more exterior corporeal and worldly things, and that “from thy father’s house” signifies the more interior of such things, may be seen from the signification of “birth,” and from the signification of a “father’s house.” There are in man corporeal and worldly things more exterior and more interior; the more exterior are those which are proper to the body, such as pleasures and the things of sense; the more internal are affections and things of memory-knowledge; and these are what are signified by “birth” and a “father’s house.” That these are their significations may be confirmed by many passages of the Word, but as it is evident from the connection, and from looking at the things in the internal sense, there is no need to dwell on the confirmation.

AC (Potts) n. 1413 sRef Gen@12 @1 S0′ 1413. To the land that I will cause thee to see. That this signifies the spiritual and celestial things that would be presented to view, is evident from the signification of “land” (n. 662, 1066), and here indeed of the land of Canaan, by which the Lord’s kingdom is represented, as may be seen from many other passages in the Word. The land of Canaan is therefore called the Holy Land, and also the heavenly Canaan. And because it represented the Lord’s kingdom, it also represented and signified the celestial and spiritual things that belong to His kingdom; here, those which belong to the Lord Himself.

AC (Potts) n. 1414 sRef Gen@12 @1 S0′ 1414. As the Lord is here treated of, more arcana are contained than can ever be thought of and declared. For here, in the internal sense, is meant the Lord’s first state, when born; which state, because most deeply hidden, cannot well be set forth to the comprehension. Suffice it to say that the Lord was like other men, except that He was conceived of Jehovah, but still was born of a virgin mother, and by birth derived infirmities from the virgin mother like those of man in general. These infirmities are corporeal, and it is said of them in this verse that He should recede from them, in order that celestial and spiritual things might be presented for Him to see. There are two hereditary natures connate in man, one from the father, the other from the mother. The Lord’s heredity from the Father was the Divine, but His heredity from the mother was the infirm human. This infirm nature which a man derives hereditarily from his mother, is something corporeal that is dispersed when he is being regenerated, while that which a man derives from his father remains to eternity. But the Lord’s heredity from Jehovah, as was said, was the Divine. Another arcanum is that the Lord’s Human also was made Divine. In Him alone there was a correspondence of all the things of the body with the Divine-a most perfect correspondence, infinitely perfect, giving rise to a union of the corporeal things with Divine celestial things, and of sensuous things with Divine spiritual things; and thus He was the Perfect Man, and the Only Man.

AC (Potts) n. 1415 sRef Gen@12 @2 S0′ 1415. Verse 2. And I will make thee into a great nation; and I will bless thee, and will make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing. “I will make thee into a great nation” signifies the kingdom in the heavens and on the earth; it is said “a great nation,” from things celestial and from goods; “and I will bless thee,” signifies the fructification of celestial things and the multiplication of spiritual things; “and will make thy name great,” signifies glory; “and thou shalt be a blessing,” signifies that from the Lord are all things both in general and in particular.

AC (Potts) n. 1416 sRef Gen@12 @2 S0′ 1416. I will make thee into a great nation. That this signifies the kingdom in the heavens and on the earth, is evident from the signification of a “nation,” as being in the internal sense the celestial of love and the derivative good, thus all in the universe in whom is the celestial of love and of charity; and as in the internal sense the Lord is here treated of, there is meant all the celestial and all the derivative good, thus His kingdom, which is with those who are in love and charity. In the supreme sense the Lord is Himself the “great nation,” because He is the celestial itself, and good itself; for all the good of love and of charity is from Him alone; and therefore the Lord is His kingdom itself, that is, He is the all in all of His kingdom, as is also acknowledged by all the angels in heaven. Hence now it is evident that “I will make thee into a great nation,” signifies the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens and on earth.
sRef Gen@17 @5 S2′ sRef Gen@17 @16 S2′ sRef Gen@17 @15 S2′ [2] That in the internal sense, where the Lord and the celestial things of love are treated of, a “nation” signifies the Lord and all celestial things, is evident from the things adduced above concerning the signification of a “nation,” and of “nations” (n. 1258, 1259). This may also be further confirmed by the following passages. Concerning Abraham it is said:
Thy name shall not any more be called Abram, and thy name shall be Abraham, for the father of a multitude of nations have I given thee (Gen. 17:5).
The letter h in “Abraham” was taken from the name Jehovah, on account of his representation of Jehovah or the Lord. In like manner it is said of Sarai:
Thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be. And I will bless her, and also give thee a son of her; thus I will bless her, and she shall become nations; kings of peoples shall be of her (Gen. 17:15-16);
where “nations” denote the celestial things of love, and “kings of peoples” the spiritual things of faith thence derived, which belong to the Lord alone.
sRef Gen@35 @10 S3′ sRef Gen@35 @11 S3′ sRef Gen@21 @13 S3′ sRef Gen@21 @18 S3′ [3] Concerning Jacob in like manner:
Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name, and He called his name Israel: and God said, I am God the thunderer; increase and multiply; a nation and a congregation of nations shall be from thee, and kings shall go forth out of thy loins (Gen. 35:10-11);
where “Israel” denotes the Lord, and that He Himself is “Israel” in the supreme sense, is well known to some; and when He is “Israel,” it is evident that “a nation” and “an assemblage of nations,” and “kings out of His loins,” are the celestial and the spiritual things of love, and therefore all who are in the celestial and the spiritual things of love. Concerning Ishmael, Abram’s son by Hagar, it is said:
The son of the handmaid I will make him into a nation, because he is thy seed (Gen. 21:13, 18).
What is represented by Ishmael will be seen in its place; the “seed” of Abram is love itself, and from this the term “nation” is used for those begotten of Ishmael.
sRef Ex@19 @6 S4′ sRef Jer@31 @36 S4′ sRef Ex@19 @5 S4′ [4] That a “nation” signifies the celestial things of love, is evident in Moses:
If hearing ye will hear My voice, and will keep My covenant, ye shall also be a peculiar treasure unto Me out of all peoples, and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation (Exod. 19:5, 6);
where “a kingdom of priests,” which is the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens and on earth, being so named from the celestial things of love, is manifestly called “a holy nation;” whereas the Lord’s kingdom from His kingly function was named from the spiritual things of love, and is called “a holy people;” and for this reason “kings out of the loins,” in the passage quoted above, are spiritual things. In Jeremiah:
If these statutes have departed from before Me, saith Jehovah, the seed of Israel also shall cease, that it be not a nation before Me all the days (Jer. 31:36);
“the seed of Israel” denotes the celestial of charity; and when this ceases, there is no longer a nation before the Lord.
sRef Isa@9 @2 S5′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S5′ sRef Isa@9 @3 S5′ sRef Isa@9 @4 S5′ sRef Ps@106 @5 S5′ sRef Isa@9 @7 S5′ [5] In Isaiah:
The people that walk in darkness have seen a great light; Thou hast multiplied the nation (Isa. 9:2-3).
This is said of the church of the nations specifically; but in general of all who are in ignorance and live in charity; these are a “nation,” because they are of the Lord’s kingdom. In David:
That I may see the good of Thy chosen; that I may be glad in the gladness of Thy nation, that I may glory in Thine inheritance (Ps. 106:5).
Here “nation” plainly denotes the Lord’s kingdom. As the signification of “nation” is the celestial of love and the derivative good, there originated, from a perception of this signification, the fact that the men of the Most Ancient Church were distinguished into households, families, and nations; and thereby they perceived the Lord’s kingdom, and consequently the celestial itself. From this Perceptive arose the Significative, and from this the Representative.

AC (Potts) n. 1417 sRef Gen@12 @2 S0′ 1417. That “a great nation” is so called from celestial things and goods, is evident from what has just been said and shown, and also from what was said above (n. 1259). Hence it may be known what in the proper sense is the Church of the Nations.

AC (Potts) n. 1418 sRef Gen@12 @2 S0′ 1418. And I will bless thee. That this signifies the fructification of celestial things and the multiplication of spiritual things, is evident from the signification in the Word of “to bless,” concerning which presently.

AC (Potts) n. 1419 sRef Matt@20 @26 S0′ sRef Matt@20 @28 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @2 S0′ sRef Matt@20 @27 S0′ sRef Mark@10 @44 S0′ sRef Mark@10 @45 S0′ 1419. And I will make thy name great. That this signifies glory, is evident without explication. In the external sense, by “making a name,” and by “glory,” there is signified something worldly; but in the internal sense, something celestial. This celestial is not to strive to be the greatest, but to be the least, by serving all; as the Lord Himself said in Matthew:
It shall not be so among you; but whosoever would be great among you shall be your minister; and whosoever would be first among you shall be your servant: even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many (Matt. 20:26-28; Mark 10:44-45).
It is the celestial of love not to desire to be one’s own, but to belong to all; so that we desire to give others all that is our own; in this consists the essence of celestial love. The Lord, being love itself, or the essence and life of the love of all in the heavens, wills to give to the human race all things that are His; which is signified by His saying that the Son of man came to give His life a ransom for many. From this it is evident that in the internal sense “name” and “glory” are altogether different from what they are in the external sense. In heaven therefore all are rejected who desire to become great and the greatest; because this is contrary to the essence and life of heavenly love, which are from the Lord. Hence also it is that nothing is more contrary to heavenly love than the love of self. Concerning these things see what is related from experience above (n. 450, 452, 952).

AC (Potts) n. 1420 sRef Jer@4 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@28 @14 S0′ sRef Ps@21 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@18 @18 S0′ sRef Gen@26 @4 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @2 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @17 S0′ 1420. And thou shalt be a blessing. That this signifies that all things both in general and in particular are from the Lord, is evident from the signification of “a blessing.” A “blessing” is predicated of all goods; in the external sense, of corporeal, worldly, and natural goods; in the internal sense, of spiritual and celestial goods. “To be a blessing,” is to be the source of all goods, and the giver of all goods. This can by no means be said of Abram, and hence it is evident that by Abram is represented the Lord, who alone is “a blessing.” In like manner in regard to what is said of Abraham hereafter:
Abraham shall surely become a great and numerous nation, and in him shall all the nations of the earth be blessed (Gen. 18:18);
of Isaac:
In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed (Gen. 26:4),
and of Jacob:
In thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed (Gen. 28:14).
That nations cannot be blessed, and are not blessed, in Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and in their seed, but in the Lord, may be seen by everyone. This is clearly said in David:
His name shall endure forever; before the sun shall the name of his son endure; and all nations shall be blessed in him (Ps. 72:17);
where the Lord is treated of. Again:
Thou shalt set him for blessings forever (Ps. 21:6);
where also the Lord is treated of. In Jeremiah:
The nations shall be blessed in Him, and in Him shall they glory (Jer. 4:2).
From these passages it is now evident that “a blessing” signifies the Lord, and that when He is called “a blessing,” it signifies that from Him are all celestial and spiritual things, which alone are goods; and because they alone are goods, they alone are truths; and therefore in proportion as there are celestial and spiritual goods in natural, worldly, and corporeal ones, in the same proportion these are goods, and are “blessed.”

AC (Potts) n. 1421 1421. Verse 3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and will curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed. “I will bless them that bless thee,” signifies all happiness to those who acknowledge the Lord from the heart; “and will curse him that curseth thee,” signifies unhappiness to those who do not acknowledge Him; “and in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed,” signifies that all things true and good are from the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1422 1422. I will bless them that bless thee. That this signifies all happiness to those who acknowledge the Lord from the heart, is evident from the signification of a “blessing,” as involving all and each of the things that are from the Lord, as well those that are good as those that are true; thus celestial, spiritual, natural, worldly, and corporeal things; and because in the universal sense “blessing” embraces all these, it may be seen in each passage, from the connection, what is signified by “to bless;” for this adapts itself to the things of which it is predicated. From this it is evident that “I will bless them that bless thee,” signifies all happiness to those who acknowledge the Lord from the heart; for in the internal sense, as already said, the Lord is here treated of.
sRef Ps@96 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @26 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @19 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @20 S2′ [2] Among the ancients, “to bless Jehovah,” or “the Lord,” was a customary form of speech, as is evident from the Word. Thus in David:
Bless ye God in the congregations, the Lord from the fountain of Israel (Ps. 68:26).
Again:
Sing to Jehovah, bless His name, proclaim His salvation from day to day (Ps. 96:2).
In Daniel:
Then was the secret revealed in a vision of the night; therefore Daniel blessed the God of the heavens; he said, Blessed be the name of God Himself for ever and ever, for wisdom and power are His (Dan. 2:19-20).
Of Zacharias and Simeon we also read that they “blessed God” (Luke 1:64, 2:28). Here it is evident that “to bless the Lord” is to sing to Him, to proclaim the good tidings of His salvation, to preach His wisdom and power, and thus to confess and acknowledge the Lord from the heart. They who do this cannot but be blessed by the Lord, that is, be gifted with those things which belong to blessing, namely, with celestial, spiritual, natural, worldly, and corporeal good; these, when they follow each other in this order, are the goods in which there is happiness.
sRef Ps@119 @12 S3′ sRef Ps@66 @20 S3′ sRef Ps@72 @19 S3′ sRef Luke@1 @68 S3′ sRef Ps@144 @1 S3′ sRef Luke@1 @67 S3′ sRef Ps@28 @6 S3′ sRef Ps@31 @21 S3′ sRef Ps@72 @18 S3′ [3] As “to bless Jehovah,” or “the Lord,” and “to be blessed by Jehovah,” or “the Lord,” was a common form of speech, it was therefore common also to say “Blessed be Jehovah.” As in David:
Blessed be Jehovah, because He hath heard the voice of my supplications (Ps. 28:6).
Again:
Blessed be Jehovah, for He hath made His mercy wonderful to me (Ps. 31:21).
Again:
Blessed be God, who hath not turned away my prayers, nor His mercy from me (Ps. 66:20).
Again:
Blessed be Jehovah God, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things and blessed be His glorious name for ever, and let the whole earth be filled with His glory (Ps. 72:18-19).
Again:
Blessed art Thou, O Jehovah teach me Thy statutes (Ps. 119:12).
Again:
Blessed be Jehovah, my Rock, that teacheth my hands (Ps. 144:1).
In Luke:
Zacharias, filled with the Holy Spirit, prophesied, saying, Blessed be the God of Israel, for He hath visited and wrought deliverance for His people (Luke 1:67-68).

AC (Potts) n. 1423 1423. And will curse him that curseth thee. That this signifies the unhappiness of those who do not acknowledge the Lord, is evident from the signification of “being cursed,” and of “cursing,” as being to turn one’s self away from the Lord, as has been shown before (n. 245, 379), and consequently not to acknowledge Him; for they who do not acknowledge, turn themselves away. Thus “to curse” here involves all things opposite to those involved in “blessing.”

AC (Potts) n. 1424 1424. And in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed. That this signifies that all goods and truths are from the Lord, is evident from the signification of “to bless,” which is treated of in this verse and the preceding; also from the signification of “the families of the ground,” as being all good and truth; for in the Word “families” signify the like as do “nations” and “peoples,” being predicated of both; and it is said, “families of the nations,” and “families of the peoples.” “Nations,” as has been shown, signify goods; and “peoples,” as has also been shown, signify truths (n. 1259); and therefore “families” signify goods and also truths (n. 1261). The reason why these are called “all the families of the ground,” is that all goods and truths are of the faith of love, which is of the church. That by “the ground” is signified the church, consequently the faith of the church, was shown above (n. 566).

AC (Potts) n. 1425 sRef Gen@12 @4 S0′ 1425. Verse 4. And Abram went as Jehovah spoke unto him; and Lot went with him. And Abram was a son of five years and seventy years when he went forth out of Haran. By “Abram,” as already said, is represented the Lord as to His Human Essence. “And Abram went as Jehovah spoke unto him” signifies His progression toward Divine things; “and Lot went with him,” signifies what is sensuous; by “Lot” is represented the Lord as to His sensuous and corporeal man; “and Abram was a son of five years and seventy years,” signifies that as yet there was not very much of the Divine; “when he went forth out of Haran,” signifies an obscure state of the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1426 sRef Gen@12 @4 S0′ 1426. That by “Abram” is represented the Lord as to His Human Essence, is evident from everything that is said of Abram. Afterwards he represents the Lord both as to the Human and also the Divine Essence, and he is then called “Abraham.” The things that have so far been said, from the first verse, represent and signify the Lord’s first mental advertence that He was to put on celestial and thus Divine things. Here there commence the progressions of His Human Essence to His Divine Essence.

AC (Potts) n. 1427 sRef Gen@12 @4 S0′ 1427. And Abram went as Jehovah spoke unto him. That this signifies progression toward Divine things, is evident from what has just been said.

AC (Potts) n. 1428 sRef Gen@12 @4 S0′ 1428. And Lot went with him. That this signifies what is sensuous, and that by “Lot” is represented the Lord as to His sensuous and corporeal man, is evident from the representation of Lot in what follows, where it is said that he was separated from Abram, and was saved by angels; but afterwards, when he was separated, Lot put on another representation, concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter. It is evident that the Lord was born as are other men, but of a virgin mother, and that He possessed what is sensuous and corporeal as do other men; but He differed from other men in the fact that His sensuous and corporeal was afterwards united to celestial things, and was made Divine. The Lord’s sensuous and corporeal itself, or what is the same, His sensuous and corporeal man, as it was in His state of childhood-not as it became when united by means of celestial things to the Divine-is represented by Lot.

AC (Potts) n. 1429 sRef Gen@12 @4 S0′ 1429. Abram was a son of five years and seventy years. That this signifies that as yet there was not very much of the Divine, is evident from the signification of the number “five” as being a little, and of the number “seventy” as being what is holy. That “five” denotes a little, has been shown above (n. 649); and also that “seventy,” like “seven,” signifies what is holy (n. 395, 433, 716, 881): here, because “seventy” is a predicated of the Lord, it signifies the holy Divine. That in the internal sense the numbers of Abram’s years also signify other things, is evident from what has been said and shown before concerning years and numbers (n. 482, 487, 493, 575, 647, 648,, 755, 813); and also from the fact that there is not a syllable or iota in the Word which has not an internal sense; and unless spiritual and celestial things were involved, it would not have been mentioned that Abram was then five years and seventy years old; neither would this have taken place at this age of Abram; as is evident also from other numbers, both of years and of measures, that occur in the Word.

AC (Potts) n. 1430 sRef Gen@12 @4 S0′ 1430. When he went forth out of Haran. That this signifies an obscure state of the Lord, like that of man’s childhood, is evident from the signification of “Haran” in the preceding chapter, whither Terah first came with Abram, and where Terah the father of Abram died,(Gen. 11:31-32); and also from what follows, in that Jacob went to Haran, where Laban dwelt (Gen. 27:43; 28:10; 29:4). Haran was a region where worship was external; and indeed, as regards Terah, Abram, and Laban, it was idolatrous; yet in the internal sense the same is not signified as in the external, but only something that is obscure. When from the external sense we pass to the internal the idea of idolatry does not remain, but is wiped away, just as the idea of holy love arises from the mention of a mountain (see n. 795); in passing from the external sense to the internal, the idea of a mountain first perishes, and there remains the idea of height, and by height is represented holiness. So in all other cases.

AC (Potts) n. 1431 sRef Gen@12 @5 S0′ 1431. Verse 5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gotten, and the soul that they had gained in Haran: and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came. “And Abram took Sarai his wife,” signifies good to which truth has been adjoined; by “Abram,” as has been said, is meant the Lord; here, when He was a child; by Sarai” as a “wife,” is meant truth: “and Lot his brother’s son,” signifies sensuous truth, thus the first that is insinuated into a child; “and all their substance that they had gotten,” signifies all things that are sensuous truths; “and the soul that they had gained in Haran,” signifies every living essential that was possible in that obscure state; “and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan,” signifies that He thus advanced to the celestial things of love; “and into the land of Canaan they came,” signifies that He attained to the celestial things of love.

AC (Potts) n. 1432 sRef Gen@12 @5 S0′ 1432. And Abram took Sarai his wife. That this signifies good to which truth has been adjoined, is evident from that which is signified in the Word by a man and his wife (see n. 915); thus here, in the internal sense, by “Sarai” is signified truth. In all things of man both in general and in particular there is an image of a marriage; nor can there possibly be anything so small as not to contain this image within it, whether it be in the external man and each and everything belonging to it, or in the internal man and each and everything belonging to it. The reason is that all things both in general and in particular come forth and subsist from the Lord, and from the unition of His Human Essence, as in a marriage, with His Divine Essence; and from the conjunction or heavenly marriage of both with His kingdom in the heavens and on earth. In the present case therefore, where there was to be represented the truth that is joined to the Lord’s good, and this by historic facts concerning Abram, it could be represented in no other way than by a “wife.” That there is an image of a marriage in all things both in general and in particular, may be seen above (n. 54, 55, 718, 747, 917).

AC (Potts) n. 1433 sRef Gen@12 @5 S0′ 1433. That by “Abram” is meant the Lord, in the present case when He was a child; and that by “Sarai his wife” is meant truth, is evident from what has been already said.

AC (Potts) n. 1434 sRef Gen@12 @5 S0′ 1434. And Lot his brother’s son. That this signifies sensuous truth, and thus the first that was insinuated into the Lord when a child, is evident from the signification of “Lot,” as being the sensuous-as stated in the explication of the preceding verse-and from the signification of “son,” as being truth (see n. 264, 489, 491, 533); and also from the signification of “brother,” as being the truth of faith (n. 367). Thus sensuous truth is what is here signified, for in the internal sense there is no reflection on the persons and words, but only upon their signification. In heaven they do not know who Lot is, but only the quality that is represented by him; nor do they know what a son is, but the spiritual state by which one is relatively as a son; nor do they know what a brother is, except from brotherhood such as there is in heaven. As regards sensuous truth, it is the first truth that insinuates itself; for in childhood the judgment does not go higher. Sensuous truth consists in seeing all earthly and worldly things as being created by God, and each and every thing for a purpose, and in all things whatsoever a certain image of God’s kingdom. This sensuous truth is insinuated solely with the celestial man; and as the Lord alone was a celestial man, these and similar sensuous truths were insinuated into Him in earliest childhood: whereby He was prepared for the reception of celestial things.

AC (Potts) n. 1435 sRef Gen@12 @5 S0′ 1435. And all the substance that they had gotten. That this signifies all things that are sensuous truths, is evident from what has already been said. All the memory-knowledge from which a man thinks, is called “acquisition” or “substance.” Without the acquisition of memory-knowledges, a man cannot as a man have any idea of thought. The ideas of thought are founded upon those things which have been impressed on the memory from the things of sense; and therefore memory-knowledges are vessels of spiritual things; and affections that are from good pleasures of the body are vessels of celestial things. All these are called “the substance gotten,” and indeed in Haran, by which is signified an obscure state, such as is that of infancy up to childhood.

AC (Potts) n. 1436 sRef Gen@12 @5 S0′ 1436. And the soul that they had gained in Haran. That this signifies every living essential that was possible in that obscure state, is evident from the signification of “soul,” as being what is living essential; and from the signification of “Haran” as being an obscure state, concerning which see the preceding verse. The soul in the proper sense signifies that which lives in man, and thus his very life. That in man which lives is not the body, but the soul, and the body lives by means of the soul. The life itself of man, or the living part of him, is from celestial love; there cannot possibly be anything living which does not derive its origin from this; and therefore by “soul” is here signified the good which lives from celestial love, which good is the living essential itself. In the literal sense, by “soul” is here meant every man, and also every beast that was alive, and which they had procured for themselves; but in the internal sense nothing else is signified than what is living essential.

AC (Potts) n. 1437 sRef Gen@12 @5 S0′ 1437. And they went forth to go into the land of Canaan. That this signifies that He thus advanced to the celestial things of love, is evident from the signification of “the land of Canaan.” That the land of Canaan represents the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens and on earth, is evident from many things in the Word. The reason is that the Representative Church was instituted there, in which all things both in general and in particular represented the Lord and the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom. Not only were the rites representative, but everything connected with them, as well the persons who ministered, as the things by which they ministered, and also the places of the ministration. As the Representative Church was there, the land was called the Holy Land, although it was anything but holy, for it was inhabited by the idolatrous and the profane. This then is the reason why by “the land of Canaan,” here and in what follows, are signified the celestial things of love; for the celestial things of love, and these alone, are in the Lord’s kingdom, and constitute His Kingdom.

AC (Potts) n. 1438 sRef Gen@12 @5 S0′ 1438. And into the land of Canaan they came. That this signifies that He attained to the celestial things of love, is evident from what has just been said concerning the land of Canaan. There is here described the first thing in the Lord’s life-from birth to childhood-namely, that He attained to the celestial things of love. The celestial things of love are the very essentials; the rest come from them. With these He was first of all imbued; for from these as from their seed were all things afterwards made fruitful. The seed itself in Him was celestial, because He was born of Jehovah; and therefore He was the only one who had this seed in Himself. All men whatever have no other seed than something filthy and infernal, in and from which is what is their own; and this is from what is inherited from the father, as is known to everyone; wherefore, unless they receive from the Lord a new seed and a new Own, that is, a new will and a new understanding, they cannot be otherwise than accursed to hell; from which all men, spirits, and angels, are drawn forth, and are continually withheld by the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1439 sRef Gen@12 @6 S0′ 1439. Verse 6. And Abram passed through the land, even unto the place Shechem, even unto the oak-grove Moreh: and the Canaanite was then in the land. “Abram passed through the land, even unto the place Shechem” signifies the Lord’s second state, when the celestial things of love became apparent to Him, which are signified by “Shechem;” “even unto the oak-grove Moreh,” signifies the third state, namely, the first perception, which is “the oak-grove Moreh;” “and the Canaanite was then in the land,” signifies the evil heredity from the mother in His external man.

AC (Potts) n. 1440 sRef Gen@12 @6 S0′ 1440. Abram passed through the land, even unto the place Shechem. That this signifies the Lord’s second state, when the celestial things of love became apparent to Him, is evident from what precedes and from the order of all these events-from what precedes, in that He advanced to the celestial things of love and attained to them, which is signified by “they went forth to go into the land of Canaan,” and by “they came into the land of Canaan;” and from the order of the events, in that after He had advanced to celestial things and had attained to them, they then became apparent to Him. In celestial things there is the very light of the soul; because the Divine itself, that is, Jehovah Himself, is in them; and as the Lord was to conjoin the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, when He attained to celestial things it could not be otherwise than that Jehovah appeared to Him.

AC (Potts) n. 1441 sRef Gen@33 @17 S0′ sRef Gen@33 @20 S0′ sRef Ps@60 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@33 @18 S0′ sRef Gen@33 @19 S0′ sRef Ps@60 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@108 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@108 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@108 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@60 @7 S0′ 1441. That these things are signified by “Shechem,” is also evident from the fact that Shechem is as it were the first station in the land of Canaan, in journeying from Syria, or from Haran; and as the celestial things of love are signified by “the land of Canaan,” it is evident that their first appearing is signified by Shechem. When Jacob returned from Haran into the land of Canaan, he in like manner came to Shechem, as is evident from the following passage:
Jacob journeyed to Succoth, and built him a house, and made booths for his cattle; therefore he called the name of the place Succoth. And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan-aram, and encamped before the city. And he erected there an altar (Gen. 33:17-20);
where also by ” Shechem” is signified the first of light. In David:
God hath spoken in His holiness I will exult, I will divide Shechem, and will mete out the valley of Succoth; Gilead is Mine and Manasseh is Mine and Ephraim is the strength of Mine head; Judah is My lawgiver; Moab is My wash-pot; upon Edom will I cast My shoe; over Philistia will I sound in triumph (Ps. 60:6-8; 108:7-9);
where the signification of “Shechem” is similar. That names signify nothing else than actual things [res], and that so also does “Shechem,” may be plainly seen from these prophetic sayings of David; for otherwise they would be little but an accumulation of names. That Shechem was made a city of refuge (Josh. 20:7), and also a city of the priests (Josh. 21:21), and that a covenant was made there (Josh. 24:1, 25), involve also what is similar.

AC (Potts) n. 1442 sRef Gen@12 @6 S0′ 1442. Unto the oak-grove Moreh. That this signifies the first perception, is also evident from the order. As soon as Jehovah appeared to the Lord in His celestial things it is evident that He attained perception; all perception is from celestial things. What perception is, has been declared and shown before (n. 104, 202, 371, 483, 495, 503, 521, 536, 865). Everyone receives perception from the Lord when he comes to celestial things. They who have become celestial men, such as those of the Most Ancient Church, have all received perception, as before shown (n. 125, 597, 607, 784, 895). They who become spiritual men, that is, who receive charity from the Lord, have something analogous to perception, or rather they have a dictate of conscience, more or less clear, in proportion as they are in the celestial things of charity. The celestial things of charity are attended with this; for in them alone the Lord is present, and in them He appears to man. How much more must this have been the case with the Lord, who from infancy advanced to Jehovah, and was conjoined and united to Him, so that they were One.

AC (Potts) n. 1443 sRef Gen@12 @6 S0′ sRef Deut@11 @30 S0′ sRef Deut@11 @29 S0′ 1443. As regards “the oak-grove Moreh” being the first perception, the case is this. There are with man things intellectual, things rational, and things of memory [scientifica]; his inmost things are intellectual, his interior things are rational, and his exterior things are those of the memory [scientifica]; all these are called his spiritual things, which are in the order here given. The intellectual things of the celestial man are compared to a garden of trees of every kind; his rational things, to a forest of cedars and similar trees, such as there were in Lebanon; but his memory-knowledges [scientifica] are compared to oak-groves, and this from their intertwined branches such as are those of the oak. By trees themselves are signified perceptions; as by the trees of the garden of Eden eastward, inmost perceptions, or those of intellectual things (as before shown, n. 99, 100, 103) by the trees of the forest of Lebanon, interior perceptions, or those of rational things; but by the trees of an oak-grove, exterior perceptions, or those of memory-knowledges, which belong to the external man. Hence it is that “the oak-grove Moreh” signifies the Lord’s first perception; for He was as yet a child, and His spiritual things were not more interior than this. Besides, the oak-grove Moreh was where the sons of Israel also first came when they passed over the Jordan and saw the land of Canaan, concerning which in Moses:
Thou shalt put the blessing upon Mount Gerizim, and the curse upon Mount Ebal. Are they not beyond Jordan, behind the way of the going down of the sun, in the land of the Canaanite that dwelleth in the plain over against Gilgal, beside the oak-groves of Moreh (Deut. 11:29-30);
by which also is signified the first of perception, for the entrance of the sons of Israel represents the entrance of the faithful into the Lord’s kingdom.

AC (Potts) n. 1444 sRef Gen@12 @6 S0′ 1444. And the Canaanite was then in the land. That this signifies the evil heredity from the mother, in His external man, is evident from what has been already said concerning that which was inherited by the Lord; for He was born as are other men, and inherited evils from the mother, against which He fought, and which He overcame. It is well known that the Lord underwent and endured the most grievous temptations (concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter), temptations so great that He fought alone and by His own power against the whole of hell. No one can undergo temptation unless evil adheres to him; he who has no evil cannot have the least temptation; evil is what the infernal spirits excite.
[2] In the Lord there was not any evil that was actual, or His own, as there is in all men, but there was hereditary evil from the mother, which is here called “the Canaanite then in the land.” Concerning this, see what was said above, at verse 1 (n. 1414), namely, that there are two hereditary natures connate in man, one from the father, the other from the mother; that which is from the father remains to eternity, but that which is from the mother is dispersed by the Lord while the man is being regenerated. The Lord’s hereditary nature from His Father, however, was the Divine. His heredity from the mother was evil, and this is treated of here, and is that through which He underwent temptations (see Mark 1:12-13; Matt. 4:1; Luke 4:1-2). But, as already said, He had no evil that was actual, or His own, nor had He any hereditary evil from the mother after He had overcome hell by means of temptations; on which account it is here said that there was such evil at that time, that is, that the “Canaanite was then in the land.”
sRef Zech@14 @21 S3′ [3] The Canaanites were those who dwelt by the sea and by the coast of Jordan, as is evident in Moses. The spies on their return said:
We came unto the land whither thou sentest us, and surely it floweth with milk and honey, and this is the fruit of it. Howbeit the people that dwelleth in the land is strong, and the cities are fenced, very great; and moreover we saw the children of Anak there; Amalek dwelleth in the south; and the Hittite and the Jebusite and the Amorite dwell in the mountains; and the Canaanite dwelleth by the sea, and by the coast of Jordan (Num. 13:27-29).
That the Canaanites dwelt by the sea and by the coast of Jordan, signified evil thence in the external man, such as is the heredity from the mother; for the sea and the Jordan were boundaries.
aRef Ex@33 @2 S4′ aRef Ex@34 @11 S4′ aRef Ex@23 @28 S4′ aRef Ex@23 @23 S4′ [4] That such evil is signified by “the Canaanite,” is also evident in Zechariah:
In that day there shall be no more a Canaanite in the house of Jehovah Zebaoth (Zech. 14:21);
where the Lord’s kingdom is treated of, and it is signified that the Lord will conquer the evil meant by the Canaanite and will expel it from His kingdom. All kinds of evils are signified by the idolatrous nations in the land of Canaan, among which were the Canaanites (see Gen. 15:18-21; Exod. 3:8, 17; 23:23, 28; 33:2; 34:11; Deut. 7:1; 20:17; Josh. 3:10; 24:11; Judges 3:5). What evil is signified by each nation specifically, shall of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told elsewhere.

AC (Potts) n. 1445 sRef Gen@12 @7 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @7 S0′ 1445. Verse 7. And Jehovah was seen of Abram, and said, To thy seed will I give this land. And there he built an altar to Jehovah, who was seen of him. “Jehovah was seen of Abram,” signifies that Jehovah appeared to the Lord while yet a child; “and said, To thy seed will I give this land,” signifies that celestial things should be given to those who should have faith in Him; “and there he built an altar to Jehovah, who was seen of him,” signifies the first worship of His Father from the celestial of love.

AC (Potts) n. 1446 sRef Gen@12 @7 S0′ 1446. Jehovah was seen of Abram. That this signifies that Jehovah appeared to the Lord while yet a child, is evident from the things that precede; also from the very representation of the Lord by Abram; and also from the order, in that He attained to celestial things, then to perception, from which there follows that Jehovah was seen.

AC (Potts) n. 1447 sRef Gen@12 @7 S0′ 1447. And said, To thy seed will I give this land. That this signifies that celestial things should be given to those who should have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of “seed,” and from the signification of “land.” That “seed” signifies faith in the Lord, was shown above (n. 255, 256); and that “land” signifies celestial things, was also shown above, at verse 1 of this chapter (and also n. 620, 636, 662, 1066). In the sense of the letter, by “the seed of Abram” is meant his posterity from Jacob, and by “land” is meant the land of Canaan itself, which would be given them for a possession, so that they might represent the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom and church, and that the Representative Church might be instituted among them, and because the Lord was to be born there; but in the internal sense nothing else is signified by “seed” than faith in the Lord, and by “land” nothing else than celestial things, and in the present passage that celestial things should be given those who should have faith in Him. What is meant by having faith in the Lord has already been shown repeatedly.

AC (Potts) n. 1448 sRef Gen@12 @7 S0′ 1448. And there he built an altar to Jehovah who was seen of him. That this signifies the first worship of His Father from the celestial of love, is evident from the signification of “an altar,” as being the principal representative of worship (n. 921).

AC (Potts) n. 1449 sRef Gen@12 @8 S0′ 1449. Verse 8. And he removed from thence into the mountain on the east of Bethel, and spread his tent; having Bethel toward the sea, and Ai on the east. And there he built an altar to Jehovah, and called on the name of Jehovah. “He removed from thence into the mountain on the east of Bethel,” signifies the Lord’s fourth state when a child, namely, the progression of the celestial things of love, signified by being transferred to a mountain on the east of Bethel; “and spread his tent,” signifies the holy things of faith; “having Bethel toward the sea, and Ai on the east,” signifies that His state was still obscure; “and there he built an altar to Jehovah,” signifies the external worship of His Father from that state; “and called on the name of Jehovah,” signifies the internal worship of His Father from that state.

AC (Potts) n. 1450 sRef Gen@12 @8 S0′ 1450. And he removed from thence into the mountain on the east of Bethel. That this signifies the Lord’s fourth state when a child, is evident from what precedes and from what follows, and also from the order itself. The order was that the Lord should first of all be imbued from infancy with the celestial things of love. The celestial things of love are love to Jehovah and love to the neighbor, and innocence itself in these. From these, as from the veriest fountains of life, flow all other things both in general and particular, for all other things are merely derivations. These celestial things are insinuated into man chiefly in his state of infancy up to childhood, and in fact without knowledges; for they flow in from the Lord, and affect him, before the man knows what love is and what affection is; as may be seen from the state of infants, and afterwards from the state of early childhood. These things in man are the remains which have been spoken of several times; and which are insinuated by the Lord and stored up for use in afterlife (concerning which see n. 468, 530, 560, 561, 660, 661). As the Lord was born as are other men, He was also introduced according to order into celestial things, and in fact by degrees from infancy to childhood, and afterwards into knowledges; and how the case was with Him in regard to these is described in this verse, and is represented in what follows by Abraham’s sojourn in Egypt.

AC (Potts) n. 1451 sRef Gen@12 @8 S0′ 1451. That to be “removed into the mountain on the east of Bethel” signifies the progression of the celestial things of love, is evident from the signification of a “mountain,” as being what is celestial, as has been shown above (n. 795, 796); and from the signification of “the east,” as being Jehovah Himself as to love; for He is the East itself, as has also been shown above (n. 101, and elsewhere); and also from the signification of “Bethel,” as being the knowledge of celestial things. Celestial things are insinuated into man both without knowledges, and with knowledges; celestial things without knowledges from infancy up to childhood, as said just above; but celestial things with knowledges from childhood onward to adult age. And as the Lord was to advance into the knowledges of celestial things, which are signified by “Bethel,” it is here said that Abram passed over thence to a mountain on the east of Bethel.

AC (Potts) n. 1452 sRef Gen@12 @8 S0′ 1452. And spread his tent. That this signifies the holy things of faith, is evident from the signification of a “tent,” as being the holy of love, and consequently the holy of faith from love, as before shown (n. 414). That “he spread his tent,” there signifies that this was now beginning.

AC (Potts) n. 1453 sRef Gen@12 @8 S0′ 1453. Having Bethel toward the sea, and Ai on the East, signifies that the Lord’s state was still obscure, that is to say, in regard to the knowledges of celestial and spiritual things; for it is one thing to be in celestial things, and another to be in the knowledges of celestial things. Infants and children are in celestial things more than adults, because they are in love toward their parents, and in mutual love, and also in innocence; but adults are in the knowledges of celestial things more than infants and children, while very many of them are not in the celestial things of love. Before man is instructed in the things of love and faith, he is in an obscure state, that is, in regard to knowledges; which state is here described by having Bethel toward the sea, that is on the west, and Ai on the east. By “Bethel,” as has been said, is signified the knowledges of celestial things; but by “Ai” the knowledges of worldly things. The knowledges of celestial things are said to be “on the west” when they are in obscurity, for in the Word “the west” signifies what is obscure; and the knowledges of worldly things are said to be “on the east” when they are in clearness, for relatively to the west, the east is clearness. That the west and the east have this signification needs no confirmation, for it is evident to everyone without confirmation.
sRef Gen@13 @3 S2′ sRef Gen@28 @19 S2′ sRef Gen@13 @4 S2′ sRef Gen@35 @1 S2′ [2] And that “Bethel” signifies the knowledges of celestial things, may be seen from other passages in the Word where Bethel is named; as in the next chapter, where it is said that
Abram went on his journeys from the south even to Bethel, unto the place where his tent was in the beginning, between Bethel and Ai, unto the place of the altar which he made there (Gen. 13:3-4);
where “on his journeys from the south to Bethel,” signifies progression into the light of knowledges, on which account it is not here said that Bethel was on the west and Ai on the east. When Jacob saw the ladder, he said:
This is none other but the House of God, and this is the gate of heaven; and he called the name of that place Bethel (Gen. 28:17, 19);
where the knowledge of celestial things is in like manner signified by “Bethel;” for man is a Bethel, that is a House of God, and also a gate of heaven, when he is in the celestial things of knowledges. When a man is being regenerated, he is introduced by means of the knowledges of spiritual and celestial things; but when he has been regenerated, he has then been introduced, and is in the celestial and spiritual things of the knowledges. Afterwards:
God said unto Jacob, Arise, go up to Bethel, and dwell there; make there an altar to God who appeared unto thee (Gen. 35:1, 6-7);
where in like manner “Bethel” signifies knowledges.
sRef 2Ki@17 @28 S3′ sRef 2Ki@17 @27 S3′ sRef Amos@7 @12 S3′ sRef Judg@20 @18 S3′ sRef Judg@20 @26 S3′ sRef Amos@7 @13 S3′ sRef Gen@28 @17 S3′ sRef Judg@20 @27 S3′ [3] That the ark of Jehovah was in Bethel, and that the sons of Israel came thither and inquired of Jehovah (Judges 20:18, 26, 27; 1 Sam. 7:16, 10:3) signify similar things; also that the king of Assyria sent one of the priests whom he had brought from Samaria, and he dwelt in Bethel, and taught them how they should fear Jehovah (2 Kings 17:27, 28). In Amos:
Amaziah said unto Amos, O thou seer, go flee thee away into the land of Judah, and there eat bread, and there shalt thou prophesy; but prophesy not again any more at Bethel, for this is the king’s sanctuary, and this is the house of the kingdom (Amos 7:12-13).
[4] After Jeroboam had profaned Bethel (1 Kings 12:32; 13:1-8; 2 Kings 23:15) it had an opposite representation (see Hosea 10:15; Amos 3:14-15; 4:5-7). But that “Ai” signifies the knowledges of worldly things, may also be confirmed from the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word (see Josh. 7:2; 8:1-28; Jer. 49:3-4).

AC (Potts) n. 1454 sRef Gen@12 @8 S0′ 1454. And he built an altar to Jehovah. That this signifies the external worship of His Father from that state, is evident from the signification of “an altar,” as being the principal representative of worship (n. 921).

AC (Potts) n. 1455 sRef Gen@12 @8 S0′ 1455. And called on the name of Jehovah. That this signifies the internal worship of His Father from that state, is evident from the signification of “calling on the name of Jehovah” (n. 440). Everybody can see that it is external worship to build an altar to Jehovah, and internal to call on the name of Jehovah.

AC (Potts) n. 1456 sRef Gen@12 @9 S0′ 1456. Verse 9. And Abram journeyed, going and journeying toward the south. “And Abram journeyed, going and journeying,” signifies further progression; “toward the south,” signifies into goods and truths, and thus into a state of light as to the interiors.

AC (Potts) n. 1457 sRef Luke@2 @40 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @46 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @48 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @52 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @47 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @80 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @9 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @49 S0′ 1457. And Abram journeyed, going and journeying. That this signifies further progression, is evident from the signification of “to go,” and “to journey.” Among the ancients, travels, journeys, and sojournings, signified nothing else; hence also in the internal sense they signify nothing else in the Word. Here commence the Lord’s advancements into knowledges. That the Lord was also instructed as are other men, may be seen in Luke:
The child* grew and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of His appearing to Israel (Luke 1:80).
The Child grew and waxed strong in spirit, and was filled with wisdom, and grace was upon Him (Luke 2:40).
Joseph and the mother of Jesus after three days found Him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them and asking them questions; and all that heard Him were amazed at His understanding and answers. Seeing Him they wondered; but He said unto them, How is it that ye sought Me? Knew ye not that I must be in the things that are My Father’s? (Luke 2:46-49).
That He was then twelve years old, is stated in verse 42, of the same chapter. Again:
Then Jesus advanced in wisdom and in age, and in grace with God and men (Luke 2:52).
* This was John the Baptist, the Lord’s forerunner. [Reviser.]

AC (Potts) n. 1458 sRef Gen@12 @9 S0′ 1458. That “toward the south” signifies into goods and truths, and thus into a state of light as to the interiors, is evident from the signification of “the south.” That “the south” signifies a state of light, comes from the fact that there are neither quarters nor times in the other life, but states which are signified by quarters and times. The states of intellectual things are as the states of the times of the day and of the year, and also as the states of the quarters. The states of the day are those of evening, night, morning, and noon; the states of the year are those of autumn, winter, spring, and summer; and the states of the quarters are those of the sun, in its relation to the west, the north, the east, and the south. Similar to these are the states of intellectual things. And, what is wonderful, in heaven those are in light who are in a state of wisdom and intelligence, exactly according to their state; those being in the greatest light who are in a state of the highest wisdom and intelligence; but the wisdom there is that of love and charity, and the intelligence is that of faith in the Lord. That in the other life there is light to which the light of the world can scarcely be compared, is to me a fact established by much experience (concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter), and because there is in heaven such a correspondence between light and intellectual things, therefore in the Word, in this and in other passages, nothing else is signified in the internal sense by “the south.” “The south” here signifies the intelligence which is procured by means of knowledges. These knowledges are celestial and spiritual truths, which in heaven are so many radiations of light, and they are also presented visibly by means of the light, as before stated. As the Lord was now to be imbued with knowledges in order that as to the Human Essence also He might become the very Light of heaven, it is here said that “Abram journeyed, going and journeying toward the south.”
sRef Isa@58 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@43 @6 S2′ [2] That this is the signification of “the south,” may be seen from similar passages in the Word, as in Isaiah:
I will say to the north, Give; and to the south, Keep not back; bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth (Isa. 43:6);
“the north” denotes those who are in ignorance; “the south” those who are in knowledges; “sons” truths; and “daughters” goods. Again:
If thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted soul, then shall thy light rise in the darkness, and thy thick darkness as the noonday [or, south-meridies] (Isa. 58:10);
to “draw out the soul to the hungry and to satisfy the afflicted soul,” denotes the goods of charity in general; the “light rising in the darkness,” means that they shall have the intelligence of truth; and “the thick darkness as the south,” means that they shall have the wisdom of good; “the south,” from its heat, signifies good, and from its light, truth.
sRef Ps@91 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@91 @6 S3′ sRef Ezek@40 @2 S3′ sRef Ezek@20 @47 S3′ sRef Ps@37 @6 S3′ sRef Ezek@20 @46 S3′ [3] In Ezekiel:
In the visions of God brought He me into the land of Israel, and set me upon a very high mountain, whereon was as it were the building of a city on the south (Ezek. 40:2);
concerning the New Jerusalem, or the Lord’s kingdom, which, because it is in the light of wisdom and intelligence, is “on the south.” In David:
Jehovah shall bring forth thy righteousness as the light, and thy judgment as the noonday (Ps. 37:6).
Again:
Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror of the night, for the arrow that flieth by day, for the pestilence that walketh in the thick darkness, for the destruction that wasteth at noonday [or, in the south] (Ps. 91:5-6);
“not to fear for the destruction that wasteth in the south,” means not to be afraid because of the damnation which comes upon those who are in knowledges and pervert them. In Ezekiel:
Son of man, set thy face toward the south, and drop [thy word] to the south, and prophesy to the forest of the field of the south, and say to the forest of the south, All faces from the south to the north shall be burned in her (Ezek. 20:46-47);
“the forest of the south,” denotes those who are in the light of truths, and who extinguish it, and thus those of this character who are within the church.
sRef Jer@13 @16 S4′ sRef Dan@8 @9 S4′ sRef Obad@1 @20 S4′ sRef Jer@13 @19 S4′ sRef Dan@8 @10 S4′ [4] In Daniel:
Out of one of them there went forth a little horn, and it grew exceedingly toward the south, and toward the east, and toward beauty [decus], and it grew even to the army of the heavens (Dan. 8:9-10);
meaning those who fight against goods and truths. In Jeremiah:
Give glory to Jehovah your God, before He maketh it grow dark, and before your feet stumble upon the mountains of twilight; and ye look for light, and He turn it into the shadow of death, He shall make it thick darkness; the cities of the south shall be shut, and there is none to open (Jer. 13:16, 19);
“the cities of the south” denote the knowledges of truth and good. In Obadiah:
The captivity of Jerusalem which is in Sepharad shall inherit the cities of the south (Obad. 20);
“the cities of the south” denote in like manner truths and goods; hence the very truths and goods of which they are the heirs; the Lord’s kingdom is here treated of.
[5] That Abram’s journeying, going and journeying toward the south, signifies, as before said, the Lord’s progression into goods and truths, and thus into a state of light as to the interiors, is to be thus understood: knowledges are the things that open the way for seeing celestial and spiritual things; by means of knowledges the way is opened for the internal man to advance toward the external, in which latter are the receiving vessels, which are as many as are the knowledges of good and truth; into these knowledges, as into their vessels, do celestial things inflow.

AC (Potts) n. 1459 1459. Verse 10. And there was a famine in the land. And Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; because the famine was grievous in the land. “There was a famine in the land,” signifies a scarcity of knowledges as yet with the Lord when a child; “and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn,” signifies instruction in knowledges from the Word; “Egypt” is the memory-knowledge of knowledges [scientia cognitionum]; “to sojourn” is to be instructed; “because the famine was grievous in the land,” signifies much scarcity in His external man.

AC (Potts) n. 1460 1460. There was a famine in the land. That this signifies a scarcity of knowledges as yet with the Lord when a child, is evident from what has been already said. During childhood the knowledges in a man never come from that which is interior, but from the objects of the senses, especially from the hearing. For, as before said, there are in the external man receiving vessels, called the things of the memory, and these are formed by means of knowledges-as everybody may know-the internal man flowing in and helping; consequently knowledges are learned and are implanted in the memory in accordance with the influx of the internal man. Thus also was it with the Lord when He was a child-for He was born as are other men and was instructed as are other men-but with Him the interiors were celestial, which adapted the vessels for the reception of the knowledges, and in such a way that the knowledges should afterwards become vessels to receive the Divine. The interiors with Him were Divine, from Jehovah His Father; the exteriors were human, from Mary His mother. Hence it may be seen that with the Lord, equally as with other men, there was in His external man, during His childhood, a scarcity of knowledges.
sRef Jer@5 @12 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @12 S2′ sRef Jer@5 @13 S2′ [2] That “famine” signifies a scarcity of knowledges, is evident from the Word in other places, as in Isaiah:
They do not look into the work of Jehovah, and see not the doing of His hands. Therefore My people go into captivity because they have no knowledge [cognitio], and their glory are mortals of famine, and their multitude are parched with thirst (Isa. 5:12-13);
“mortals of famine” denote a scarcity of the knowledges of celestial things; a “multitude parched with thirst,” a scarcity of the knowledges of spiritual things. In Jeremiah:
They have lied against Jehovah, and have said, It is not He; neither shall evil come upon us; neither shall we see sword nor famine; and the prophets shall become wind, and the word is not in them (Jer. 5:12-13);
“sword and famine” denote the deprivation of the knowledges of truth and of good; “the prophets” are those who teach, in whom the word is not. That “to be consumed by the sword and famine,” is to be deprived of the knowledges of truth and of good; and that vastation is denoted, by “the sword” as to spiritual things, and by “famine” as to celestial things, is evident in various places in the Word (as Jer. 14:13-16, 18; Lam. 4:9; and elsewhere).
sRef Ezek@34 @28 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @16 S3′ sRef Ezek@34 @29 S3′ sRef Ps@105 @16 S3′ sRef Ps@107 @9 S3′ sRef Lam@2 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @17 S3′ [3] So too in Ezekiel:
And I will increase famine upon you, and will break your staff of bread; and I will send upon you famine, and the evil wild beast; and they shall bereave thee, and I will bring the sword upon thee (Ezek. 5:16-17);
“famine” denotes the deprivation of the knowledges of celestial things, or of the knowledges of good, whence come falsities and evils. In David:
And He called for a famine upon the land, He broke the whole staff of bread (Ps. 105:16);
“to break the staff of bread,” signifies to be deprived of heavenly food; for the life of good spirits and angels is sustained by no other food than the knowledges of good and truth, and the goods and truths themselves, whence comes the signification of “famine” and of “bread,” in the internal sense. Again:
He hath satisfied the longing soul, and hath filled the hungry soul with good (Ps. 107:9);
denoting those who desire knowledges. In Jeremiah:
Lift up thy hands for the soul of thy young children, who faint for hunger at the head of all the streets (Lam. 2:19);
“hunger” denotes the lack of knowledges; “the streets,” truths. In Ezekiel:
They shall dwell confidently, and none to make afraid.* And I will raise up for them a plant for a name, and they shall be no more consumed with famine in the land (Ezek. 34:28-29),
denoting that they shall no longer be made destitute of the knowledges of good and truth.
sRef Amos@8 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@7 @16 S4′ sRef Luke@1 @53 S4′ sRef John@6 @35 S4′ sRef Amos@8 @11 S4′ sRef Luke@6 @21 S4′ [4] In John:
They shall hunger no more, neither thirst anymore (Rev. 7:16);
concerning the Lord’s kingdom, where there is an abundance of all celestial knowledges and goods, which is “not to hunger;” and of spiritual knowledges and truths, which is “not to thirst.” In like manner spoke the Lord in John:
I am the Bread of life he that cometh to Me shall never hunger, and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst (John 6:35).
And in Luke:
Blessed are ye that hunger now, for ye shall be filled (Luke 6:21).
And again:
He hath filled the hungry with good things (Luke 1:53);
where celestial goods and their knowledges are treated of. That “famine” signifies a scarcity of knowledges, is plainly said in Amos:
Behold, the days are coming, that I will send a famine upon the land; not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for waters, but of hearing the words of Jehovah (Amos 8:11-12).
* The Latin says, “None doing good,” but benefaciens is evidently a misprint for terrefaciens, as it reads correctly in Apocalypse Explained, 388:8, 650:51. [Reviser.]

AC (Potts) n. 1461 1461. And Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn. That this signifies instruction in knowledges [cognitiones] from the Word is evident from the signification of “Egypt,” and from the signification of “sojourning.” That “Egypt” signifies the memory-knowledge of knowledges, and that “to sojourn” signifies to be instructed, will be seen presently. That in His childhood the Lord was instructed as are other men, is evident from the passages in Luke that were adduced in the explication of verse 9 (n. 1457); and also from what has been said just above concerning the external man, which cannot be reduced to correspondence and agreement with the internal except by means of knowledges. The external man is corporeal and sensuous; nor does it receive anything celestial and spiritual unless knowledges are implanted in it, as in ground; for in these celestial things can have their recipient vessels. But the knowledges must be from the Word. Knowledges from the Word are such that they are open from the Lord Himself; for the Word itself is from the Lord through heaven, and the Lord’s life is in all things of the Word, both in general and in particular, although it does not so appear in the external form. Hence it may be seen that in His childhood the Lord did not will to imbue Himself with any other knowledges than those of the Word, which was open to Him, as before said, from Jehovah Himself, His Father, with whom He was to be united and become One; and this the more, because nothing is said in the Word that does not in its inmosts have regard to Him, and that has not first come from Him; for the Human Essence was only a something that was added to His Divine Essence that was from eternity.

AC (Potts) n. 1462 1462. That relatively to the Lord, “Egypt” is the memory-knowledge of knowledges, but relatively to all other men is memory-knowledge [scientia] in general, is evident from its signification in the Word (concerning which above in various places, especially in n. 1164, 1165). For the Ancient Church was in Egypt as well as in many other places (n. 1238); and when this church was there, memory-knowledges [scientiae] flourished there more than anything else; hence by Egypt has been signified memory-knowledge. But after the people desired to enter by means of memory-knowledges into the mysteries of faith, and thus from their own power to investigate the truth of Divine arcana, Egypt became addicted to magic, and signified things of memory-knowledge which pervert, whence come falsities, and from these evils, as is evident in Isaiah 19:11.
sRef Isa@19 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @20 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @19 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @22 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @21 S2′ [2] That useful memory-knowledges are signified by “Egypt,” thus in the present passage the memory-knowledge of knowledges, which is able to serve as vessels for celestial and spiritual things, is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:
They have seduced Egypt, the cornerstone of the tribes (Isa. 19:13),
where it is called “the cornerstone of the tribes,” as it should serve for a support to the things that are of faith, which are signified by “the tribes.” Again:
In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak with the lip of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah Zebaoth; each shall be called the city of the sun. In that day there shall be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar to Jehovah at the border thereof. And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto Jehovah Zebaoth in the land of Egypt; for they shall cry unto Jehovah because of the oppressors, and He shall send them a Saviour and a Prince, and He shall deliver them; and Jehovah shall become known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know Jehovah in that day; and they shall offer sacrifice and meat-offering, and shall vow a vow to Jehovah, and shall perform it. And Jehovah shall smite Egypt in smiting and in healing, and they shall return unto Jehovah, and He shall be entreated of them, and shall heal them (Isa. 19:18-22).
Here Egypt is spoken of in a good sense, denoting those who are in memory-knowledges [scientifica], that is, in natural truths, which are the vessels of spiritual truths.
sRef Isa@19 @25 S3′ sRef Isa@19 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@19 @24 S3′ [3] Again:
In that day there shall be a path from Egypt to Assyria, and Assyria shall come into Egypt, and Egypt into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve Assyria. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the land, which Jehovah Zebaoth shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt My people, and Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance (Isa. 19:23-25).
Here by “Egypt” is signified the memory-knowledge of natural truths; by “Assyria,” reason or rational things; by “Israel,” spiritual things; all of which succeed one another; and therefore it is said that “in that day there shall be a path from Egypt to Assyria,” and that “Israel shall be the third with Egypt and with Assyria.”
sRef Ezek@27 @7 S4′ sRef Ezek@29 @14 S4′ sRef Zech@14 @18 S4′ sRef Ezek@29 @13 S4′ sRef Zech@14 @17 S4′ [4] In Ezekiel:
Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was thine expansion, that it might be to thee for an ensign (Ezek. 27:7);
concerning Tyre, by which is signified the possession of knowledges; “fine linen with broidered work” denotes the truths of memory-knowledges, that serve; for memory-knowledges, being of the external man, ought to serve the internal man. Again:
Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, At the end of forty years will I gather Egypt from the peoples whither they have been scattered, and I will bring back the captivity of Egypt (Ezek. 29:13-14);
denoting the same that is said in many places concerning Judah and Israel, in that they should be gathered from the peoples and brought back from captivity. In Zechariah:
And it shall come to pass that whoso of the families of the earth goeth not up unto Jerusalem to worship the King Jehovah Zebaoth, upon them there shall be no rain; and if the family of Egypt go not up and come not (Zech. 14:17-18);
also concerning Egypt in a good sense, and by which the like is meant.
sRef 1Ki@4 @30 S5′ [5] That memory-knowledge, or human wisdom, is signified by “Egypt,” is evident also in Daniel, where the memory-knowledges of celestial and spiritual things are called “the hidden things of gold and silver,” and also “the desirable things of Egypt” (Dan. 11:43). And it is said of Solomon that “his wisdom was multiplied above the wisdom of all the sons of the east, and above all the wisdom of the Egyptians” (1 Kings 4:30). The house built by Solomon for Pharaoh’s daughter represented nothing else (1 Kings 7:8, etc.).
sRef Matt@2 @13 S6′ sRef Matt@2 @14 S6′ sRef Matt@2 @15 S6′ sRef Hos@11 @1 S6′ [6] That the Lord when an infant was brought into Egypt, signified the same that is here signified by Abram; and it took place for the additional reason that He might fulfill all the things that had been represented concerning Him. In the inmost sense the migration of Jacob and his sons into Egypt represented the first instruction of the Lord in knowledges from the Word, as is also manifest from the following passages. It is said of the Lord in Matthew:
An angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and His mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I tell thee. And he arose and took the young child and His mother by night, and departed into Egypt, and was there until the death of Herod; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called My son (Matt. 2:13-15, 19-21);
concerning which it is said in Hosea:
When Israel was a child then I loved him, and called My son out of Egypt (Hos. 11:1);
from which it is evident that by the “child Israel,” is meant the Lord; and that His instruction when a child is meant by the words, “I called My son out of Egypt.”
sRef Ps@80 @7 S7′ sRef Hos@12 @13 S7′ sRef Hos@12 @12 S7′ sRef Ps@80 @8 S7′ [7] Again in Hosea:
By a prophet the Lord made Israel to go up out of Egypt, and by a prophet was he kept (Hos. 12:13-14);
where in like manner by “Israel” is meant the Lord; by “a prophet” is signified one who teaches, and thus the doctrine of knowledges. In David:
Turn us again, O God Zebaoth, cause Thy face to shine, and we shall be saved. Thou didst bring a vine out of Egypt, Thou didst drive out the nations, and planted it (Ps. 80:7-8);
where also the Lord is treated of, who is called “a vine out of Egypt” in regard to the knowledges in which He was being instructed.

AC (Potts) n. 1463 1463. That “to sojourn” means to be instructed, is evident from the signification of “sojourning” in the Word, as being to be instructed; and this for the reason that sojourning and migration, or proceeding from place to place, is in heaven nothing but change of state, as before shown (n. 1376, 1379); and therefore, whenever traveling, sojourning, and passing from place to place, occur in the Word, nothing else is suggested to the angels than such change of state as exists with them. There are changes of state of both the thoughts and the affections; changes of the state of the thoughts are knowledges, and in the world of spirits these changes are presented by means of instructions; which also was the reason why the men of the Most Ancient Church, having communication with the angelic heaven, by sojourning perceived nothing else. So in the passage before us, Abram’s going down into Egypt to sojourn, signifies nothing else than the instruction of the Lord.
sRef Ezek@47 @23 S2′ sRef Ezek@47 @22 S2′ sRef Ezek@47 @21 S2′ sRef Isa@52 @4 S2′ [2] Similar, too, is the signification of Jacob and his sons’ going down into Egypt; as in Isaiah:
Thus hath said the Lord Jehovih, My people went down in the beginning into Egypt to sojourn there; and Assyria oppressed them without cause (Isa. 52:4);
where “Assyria” denotes reasonings. Hence also in the Jewish Church, those who were being instructed were called “sojourners, sojourning in the midst of them,” concerning whom it was commanded that they should be treated as the homeborn (Exod. 12:48-49; Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:13-16, 26, 29; 19:10). Of them it is thus written in Ezekiel:
Ye shall divide this land unto you according to the tribes of Israel. And it shall come to pass that ye shall divide it by lot, for an inheritance unto you and to the sojourners that sojourn in the midst of you; and they shall be unto you as the homeborn among the sons of Israel; with you shall they cast the lot for an inheritance in the midst of the tribes of Israel; and it shall come to pass that in what tribe the sojourner sojourneth, there shall ye give him his inheritance (Ezek. 47:21-23).
This is concerning the New Jerusalem, or the Lord’s kingdom; by “the sojourners sojourning” are meant those who suffer themselves to be instructed, consequently the Gentiles; that those are meant who are being instructed, is evident from its being said that in the tribe with which he has sojourned, there his inheritance should be given; “tribes” denote the things that are of faith.
sRef Gen@47 @9 S3′ [3] “Sojourning” has also nearly the same signification as “journeying,” and “dwelling.” By “journeying” are signified the arrangements and order of life, and by “dwelling” is signified to live (see above, n. 1293); on which account the land of Canaan is also called the land of the sojournings of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Gen. 28:4; 36:7; 37:1; Exod. 6:4); and Jacob said unto Pharaoh:
The days of the years of my sojournings, few and evil have been the days of the years of my life, and they have not attained unto the days of the years of the life of my fathers, in the days of their sojournings (Gen. 47:9);
where “sojourning” denotes life and instructions.

AC (Potts) n. 1464 1464. Because the famine was grievous in the land. That this signifies much scarcity in His external man, is evident from the signification of “famine,” as given above in this verse. The arcana here contained are more than can be briefly told. The Lord had the power of learning above every other man; but because, unlike other men, He was to be instructed in celestial things before He was instructed in spiritual things, this is here declared; and also for the further reason that there was hereditary evil from the mother in His external man, against which He was to fight, and which He was to overcome; and also for other reasons innumerable.

AC (Potts) n. 1465 sRef Gen@12 @11 S0′ 1465. Verse 11. And it came to pass, when he drew nigh to come into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife, Behold I pray, I know that thou art a woman beautiful to look upon. “And it came to pass, when he drew nigh to come into Egypt,” signifies when He began to learn; “Egypt,” as before said, means the memory-knowledge of knowledges [scientia cognitionum]; “he said unto Sarai his wife,” signifies that He so thought concerning the truths to which celestial things were adjoined; “Sarai” as a wife is the truth adjoined to the celestial things that were in the Lord; “Behold I pray, I know that thou art a woman beautiful to look upon,” signifies that truth from a celestial origin is delightful.

AC (Potts) n. 1466 sRef Gen@12 @11 S0′ 1466. And it came to pass, when he drew nigh to come into Egypt. That this signifies when He began to learn, is evident from the signification of “Egypt,” as being the memory-knowledge of knowledges; and when the expression “to draw nigh” is used with reference to this, it can mean nothing else.

AC (Potts) n. 1467 sRef Gen@12 @11 S0′ 1467. That “Egypt” is the memory-knowledge of knowledges, is evident from what was said and shown concerning Egypt under the preceding verse.

AC (Potts) n. 1468 sRef Gen@12 @11 S0′ 1468. He said to Sarai his wife. That this signifies that He so thought concerning the truths to which celestial things were adjoined, is evident from the signification of Sarai when she is called a wife. A “wife,” in the internal sense of the Word, signifies nothing else than truth conjoined with good; for the conjunction of truth with good is circumstanced precisely as is a marriage. In the Word, when a “husband” is mentioned, the husband signifies good, and the wife signifies truth; but when he is not called the husband, but the “man,” then he signifies truth, and the wife signifies good: this is the constant usage in the Word, as before said (n. 915). In the passage before us, as Abram is named, Sarai his wife signifies truth. To say thus to Sarai his wife is, in the internal sense, to think so concerning the truths with which celestial things were conjoined. It is historically true that Abram so said to his wife, when journeying into Egypt; but as before said, all the historicals of the Word are representative, and all the words are significative. No other historicals are recorded in the Word, and in no other order, and no other words are used to express them, than such as in the internal sense may express these arcana.

AC (Potts) n. 1469 sRef Gen@12 @11 S0′ 1469. That “Sarai,” as a wife, is the truth that was adjoined to the celestial things which were in the Lord, is evident from what has just been said concerning the signification of Sarai his wife. It is said, “the truth that was adjoined to celestial things,” because the Lord possessed all truth previous to His instruction. What is celestial has truth with it, the one being inseparable from the other, as light is from flame; but this truth was stored up in the Lord’s internal man, which was Divine. The knowledges [scientifica et cognitiones] that He learned are not truths [vera seu veritates], but are only recipient vessels; just as whatever is in man’s memory is by no means truth, although it is so called; but the truth is therein, as in vessels. These vessels were to be formed, or rather to be opened, by the Lord, through instruction in knowledges from the Word; not only that celestial things might be insinuated into them, but also that the celestial things might in this way be made Divine; for the Lord conjoined the Divine Essence with the Human Essence in order that His Human things might likewise be made Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 1470 sRef Gen@12 @11 S0′ 1470. Behold I pray, I know that thou art a woman beautiful to look upon. That this signifies that truth from a celestial origin is delightful, is evident from the signification of “a woman beautiful to look upon.” All truth that is celestial, or that is produced from the celestial, is happy in the internal man, and delightful in the external, and with the celestial angels is so perceived; but it is altogether otherwise when it is not from a celestial origin. There are two kinds of happiness in the internal man, to which correspond two kinds of delight in the external man; one is of good, the other is of truth; celestial happiness and delight are of good, spiritual happiness and delight are of truth. It is also known that truth itself is attended with happiness and delight, but these are essentially such only when the truth is from what is celestial, for then the truth itself also becomes celestial, and is called celestial truth. To speak comparatively, truth is then like the light of the sun in the springtime, which has heat in its bosom, from which all things on the earth are made to vegetate, and are as it were animated. This celestial truth is the beautiful itself, or beauty itself. This is the truth which is here called “a woman beautiful to look upon.” What further arcana are involved in these words, will be manifest from what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 1471 sRef Gen@12 @12 S0′ 1471. Verse 12. And it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say, This is his wife, and they will kill me, and will make thee to live. “And it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee,” signifies the memory-knowledge of knowledges [scientia cognitionum], which is described as to what it is when they see celestial knowledges; “that they will say, This is his wife,” signifies that they will call the knowledges celestial; “and they will kill me, and will make thee to live,” signifies that they would not care for the celestial things, but only for the mere knowledges, which they would carry off.

AC (Potts) n. 1472 sRef Gen@12 @12 S0′ 1472. And it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee. That this signifies the memory-knowledge of knowledges, which is described as to what it is when they see celestial knowledges, is evident from the signification of “Egypt,” which is the memory-knowledge of knowledges, as before shown; and from this it is evident what is signified by the words “when the Egyptians see,” namely, that this memory-knowledge is such as is described in this verse. The memory-knowledge of knowledges is attended with this, and it is something natural in it, as is manifested in children when they first begin to learn, namely, that the higher things are, the more they desire them; and still more when they hear that they are celestial and Divine. But this delight is natural, and arises from a desire that is of the external man. With other men this desire causes them to feel delight in the mere memory-knowledge of knowledges, without any further end; when yet the memory-knowledge of knowledges is nothing but an instrumental agency having for its end a use, namely, that the knowledges may serve celestial and spiritual things as vessels; and when they are thus serving, they are then for the first time in their use, and receive from the use their delight. Anyone can see, if he pays attention, that in itself the memory-knowledge of knowledges is nothing but a means whereby a man may become rational, and thence spiritual, and at last celestial; and that by means of the knowledges his external man may be adjoined to his internal; and when this is done, he is in the use itself.
The internal man regards nothing but the use. For the sake of this end also, the Lord insinuates the delight that childhood and youth perceives in memory-knowledges. But when a man begins to make his delight consist in memory-knowledge alone, it is a bodily cupidity which carries him away, and in proportion as he is thus carried away (that is, makes his delight consist in mere memory-knowledge), in the same proportion he removes himself from what is celestial, and in the same proportion do the memory-knowledges close themselves toward the Lord, and become material. But in proportion as the memory-knowledges are learned with the end of use,-as for the sake of human society, for the sake of the Lord’s church on earth, for the sake of the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, and still more for the Lord’s own sake,-the more are they opened toward Him. On this account also the angels, who are in the memory-knowledge of all knowledges, and indeed to such a degree that scarcely one part in ten thousand can be presented to the full apprehension of man, yet esteem such knowledge as nothing in comparison with use.
From what has been said it may be seen what is signified by the words, “When the Egyptians shall see thee, they will say, This is his wife; and they will kill me, and will make thee to live.” These things were said because the Lord when a child knew this and thought in this way, namely, that if He should be carried away by a mere desire for the memory-knowledge of knowledges, this memory-knowledge is of such a character that it would care no more for celestial things, but only for the knowledges [cognitiones] which the desire for memory-knowledge would carry away. On these subjects more follows.

AC (Potts) n. 1473 sRef Gen@12 @12 S0′ 1473. And they will say, This is his wife. That this signifies that they will call the knowledges celestial, is evident from the signification of a “wife,” as being the truth that was adjoined to celestial things; hence “this is his wife” signifies that which is celestial.

AC (Potts) n. 1474 sRef Gen@12 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @12 S0′ 1474. And they will kill me, and will make thee to live. That this signifies that they would not care for celestial things, but only for mere knowledges, is evident from what has just been said.
Verse 13. Say, I pray, thou art my sister, that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee. “Say, I pray, thou art my sister,” signifies intellectual truth which is a “sister;” “that it may be well with me for thy sake,” signifies that so the celestial could have no violence done to it; “and that my soul may live because of thee,” signifies that so the celestial could be saved.

AC (Potts) n. 1475 sRef Gen@12 @13 S0′ 1475. Say, I pray, thou art my sister. That this signifies intellectual truth, which is a “sister,” is evident from the signification of a “sister,” as being intellectual truth when celestial truth is a “wife,” concerning which hereafter. These things stand thus: it is the nature of memory-knowledge to desire nothing more than to introduce itself into celestial things and explore them; but this is contrary to order, for it thus does violence to celestial things. Order itself is that the celestial by means of the spiritual introduces itself into the rational, and thus into the memory-knowledge [in scientificum], and adapts this to itself; and unless this order is observed, there cannot possibly be any wisdom. In the passage before us are also contained the arcana as to how the Lord was instructed by His Father according to all order; and thus how His external man was conjoined with His internal, that is, how His external man was made Divine, like the internal; thus how He became Jehovah as to each essence; which was done by means of knowledges, which are the means. Without knowledges as means, the external man cannot even become man.

AC (Potts) n. 1476 sRef Gen@12 @13 S0′ 1476. That it may be well with me for thy sake. That this signifies that so the celestial could have no violence done to it, is evident from what has been said above; for as has been repeatedly said, the order is that the celestial flows into the spiritual, the spiritual into the rational, and this into the faculty of memory-knowledge. When there is this order, then the spiritual is adapted by the celestial, the rational by the spiritual, and the memory-knowledge by the rational. The memory-knowledge in general then becomes the ultimate vessel; or what is the same, memory-knowledges, specifically and particularly, become the ultimate vessels which correspond to rational things, rational things to spiritual things, and spiritual things to celestial things. When this is the order, the celestial cannot suffer any violence; otherwise, it does so suffer. As in the internal sense the Lord’s instruction is here treated of, the method of His progress therein is here described.

AC (Potts) n. 1477 sRef Gen@12 @13 S0′ 1477. That my soul may live because of thee. That this signifies that thus the celestial could be saved, is evident from the signification of the “soul,” as being the celestial; for this is the soul itself, because the very life itself. Hence it is evident what is signified by the words “that my soul may live because of thee.” It will be evident from what follows, that celestial or Divine things were not so adjoined to the Lord that they made one essence, until He endured temptations, and thus expelled the evil heredity from the mother. Here and in the following verses it is described how meanwhile the celestial itself suffered no violence, but was saved.

AC (Potts) n. 1478 sRef Gen@12 @14 S0′ 1478. Verse 14. And it came to pass when Abram was come into Egypt, that the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful. “It came to pass when Abram was come into Egypt,” signifies when the Lord began to be instructed; “and the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful,” signifies that the memory-knowledge of knowledges is of such a nature as to be highly pleasing to itself.

AC (Potts) n. 1479 sRef Gen@12 @14 S0′ 1479. It came to pass when Abram was come into Egypt. That this signifies when the Lord began to be instructed, is evident from the representation of Abram, which in the internal sense is the Lord when a child; and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being the memory-knowledge of knowledges, as before shown, at verse 10. Hence it is evident that “to come into Egypt” is to be instructed.

AC (Potts) n. 1480 sRef Gen@12 @14 S0′ 1480. And the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful. That this signifies that the memory-knowledge of knowledges is of such a nature as to be highly pleasing to itself, is evident from what was before said, at verse 11, that such is the nature of memory-knowledge during childhood; for this is as it were innate in memory-knowledge, because it is innate in man, that at the very first it pleases for no other end than for the sake of knowing. Such is every man; his spirit is greatly delighted to know, so that there is scarcely anything it desires more; this is its food, by which it is sustained and refreshed, as the external man is by earthly food. This sustenance, which is that of his spirit, is communicated to the external man, to the end that this may be adapted to the internal man. But the various foods succeed one another in the following order: celestial food is all the good of love and charity from the Lord; spiritual food is all the truth of faith: on these foods the angels live; and from them comes forth the food, likewise celestial and spiritual, but of a lower angelic degree, on which angelic spirits live; from this again there comes a still lower celestial and spiritual food, which is that of reason and thence of memory-knowledge, on which good spirits live; and lastly comes corporeal food, which is proper to man while he lives in the body. These foods correspond to one another in a wonderful manner. From this it is also evident why and how memory-knowledge is very pleasing to itself; for the case therewith is the same as it is with appetite and taste; and therefore eating, with man, corresponds to memory-knowledges in the world of spirits; and appetite and taste themselves correspond to the desire for these knowledges; as is evident from experience, concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC (Potts) n. 1481 sRef Gen@12 @15 S0′ 1481. Verse 15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken to Pharaoh’s house. “The princes of Pharaoh saw her,” signifies the primary precepts, which are “the princes of Pharaoh;” “and they praised her to Pharaoh,” signifies that they were pleasing; “and the woman was taken to Pharaoh’s house,” signifies that they captivated the lower mind [animus].

AC (Potts) n. 1482 sRef Gen@12 @15 S0′ sRef Isa@19 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@19 @13 S0′ 1482. The princes of Pharaoh saw her. That this signifies the primary precepts, which are “the princes of Pharaoh,” is evident from the signification of “princes,” and of “Pharaoh.” In both the historical and prophetical parts of the Word, “princes” signify the things which are primary; and “Pharaoh” signifies the same as “Egypt;” and here “Egypt,” or “Pharaoh,” is used in the best sense, because predicated of the memory-knowledge of knowledges which the Lord first acquired in childhood. That they were primary precepts from the Word, is evident from the signification of these things in the internal sense. That, speaking generally, by “Pharaoh” in the Word is signified the same as by “Egypt,” may be confirmed from many passages; as also that by the kings of other kingdoms, who are named, the same is signified as by the names of the kingdoms; but by “princes” are signified their primary things, as in Isaiah:
The princes of Zoan are foolish, the wise counselors of Pharaoh; how say ye unto Pharaoh, I am the son of the wise, the son of ancient kings? The princes of Zoan are become fools, the princes of Noph are deceived (Isa. 19:11, 13).
Here “the princes of Zoan,” and “the wise counselors of Pharaoh,” denote the primary memory-knowledges; and as wisdom first flourished in Egypt, as before said, it is called “the son of the wise,” and “the son of ancient kings.” So “princes” frequently denote in the Word primary things.

AC (Potts) n. 1483 sRef Gen@12 @15 S0′ 1483. And they praised her to Pharaoh. That this signifies that they were pleasing, may be seen without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 1484 sRef Gen@12 @16 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @15 S0′ 1484. And the woman was taken to Pharaoh’s house. That this signifies that they captivated the lower mind, is evident from the signification of “woman,” and from the signification of “house.” A “woman” signifies truth, here the truth that was in the memory-knowledges with the delights of which the Lord was captivated in childhood. The delights of truth are those which come from the intellectual truth which is signified by a “sister.” A “house” signifies the things that are in man, especially those which are of his will, as before shown (n. 710); here therefore those which are of the lower mind, or of the affection of knowing and learning.
1484a. Verse 16. And he did well unto Abram for her sake; and he had flock and herd, and he-asses and menservants, and maidservants and she-asses, and camels. “He did well unto Abram for her sake,” signifies that memory-knowledges were multiplied with the Lord; “and he had flock and herd, and he-asses and menservants, and maidservants and she-asses, and camels,” signifies all the things in general that belong to memory-knowledges.

AC (Potts) n. 1485 sRef Gen@12 @16 S0′ 1485. And he did well unto Abram for her sake. That this signifies that memory-knowledges were multiplied with the Lord, is evident from the signification of “doing well unto,” as being to enrich. This is said of the memory-knowledge that is signified by “Pharaoh,” that it did well unto Abram, that is to the Lord when a child; and this for her sake, that is, for the sake of the intellectual truth that He desired. It was this desire for truth from which the enriching came.

AC (Potts) n. 1486 sRef Gen@12 @17 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @17 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @16 S0′ 1486. And he had flock and herd, and he-asses and menservants, and maidservants and she-asses, and camels. That these words signify all things in general that belong to memory knowledges, is evident from the signification of all these things in the Word. But it would be too tedious to show what is signified by each in particular, as what by the “flock and herd,” the “he-asses and menservants,” the “maidservants and she-asses,” and the “camels.” Each has its own peculiar signification. In general they signify all things that belong to the memory-knowledge of knowledges, and to memory-knowledges. Regarded in themselves, memory-knowledges are “he-asses and menservants;” their pleasures are “maidservants and she-asses;” “camels” are general things of service; “flock and herd” are possessions; and so in the Word throughout. All things whatever that are in the external man, are nothing but things of service, that is, they are for the service of the internal man. So it is with all memory-knowledges, which belong solely to the external man; for they are procured from earthly and worldly things by means of sensuous impressions, in order that they may serve the interior or rational man, and this the spiritual man, this the celestial, and this the Lord. Thus are they subordinated one to another, as are the more external things to the more internal, in their order; and thus all things whatever, both in general and in particular, are, in their order, subordinated to the Lord. Memory-knowledges are therefore the lowest and outermost things, in which are terminated in their order the things that are more interior; and because they are the lowest and outermost things, they must be pre-eminently things of service. Everyone may know for what such knowledges may be serviceable, if he reflects or inquires in himself for what use they are; and when he is thus reflecting upon their use, he can also apprehend the quality of the use. Every memory-knowledge must be for the sake of some use, and this is its service.
Verse 17. And Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues, and his house, because of the word of Sarai, Abram’s wife. “Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues,” signifies that the memory-knowledges were destroyed; “and his house,” signifies which He had collected; “because of the word of Sarai, Abram’s wife,” signifies because of the truth that was to be adjoined to the celestial.

AC (Potts) n. 1487 sRef Gen@12 @17 S0′ 1487. And Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues. That this signifies that the memory-knowledges were destroyed, is evident from the signification of “Pharaoh,” as being memory-knowledge in general, consequently the memory-knowledges that belong to such knowledge; and from the signification of being “smitten with plagues,” as being to be destroyed. As regards memory-knowledges the case is this. In childhood they are acquired for no other end than that of knowing; with the Lord, they were acquired from the delights and affection of truth. The memory-knowledges acquired in childhood are very numerous, but are disposed by the Lord into order so as to serve for use; first, to give the ability to think; then that they may be of use by means of thought; and lastly that this may take effect, that is to say that the very life may consist in use, and be a life of uses. These are the things performed by the memory-knowledges that are acquired in childhood; and without them the external man can never be conjoined with the internal, and at the same time become use. When man becomes use, that is, when he thinks all things from the end of use, and does all things for the end of use-if not by manifest reflection, still by tacit reflection from a nature acquired by so doing-then the memory-knowledges which have served the first use-that the man may become rational-being no longer of service, are destroyed; and so on. These are the things here meant by the words “Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues.”

AC (Potts) n. 1488 sRef Gen@12 @17 S0′ sRef Jer@29 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@112 @1 S1′ sRef Isa@65 @21 S1′ sRef Isa@65 @22 S1′ sRef Ps@112 @3 S1′ sRef Isa@65 @17 S1′ 1488. And his house. That this signifies which He had collected, is evident from the signification of a “house,” as being, in this place, the memory-knowledges that are collected. To collect memory-knowledges, and by their means frame the external man, and build it up, is not unlike building a house; and therefore such things are signified in many passages of the Word by “building,” and by “building houses,” as in Isaiah:
I create new heavens and a new earth; they shall build houses, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them; they shall not build and another inhabit (Isa. 65:17, 21-22);
here “houses” mean where there are wisdom and intelligence, thus where there are the knowledges of good and truth; for the Lord’s kingdom is here treated of, namely, the new heavens and the new earth. In Jeremiah:
Build ye houses and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them (Jer. 29:5);
where the meaning is similar. In David:
Blessed is the man that feareth Jehovah, that delighteth greatly in His commandments; wealth and riches are in his house, and his righteousness endureth forever (Ps. 112:1, 3);
where “wealth and riches” denote the wealth and riches of wisdom and intelligence, thus knowledges; which are “in his house,” that is, are in him.
sRef Amos@6 @12 S2′ sRef Hag@1 @8 S2′ sRef Zeph@1 @12 S2′ sRef Amos@6 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @8 S2′ sRef Hag@1 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @7 S2′ sRef Hag@1 @9 S2′ sRef Zeph@1 @13 S2′ [2] “House” is used in the opposite sense in Zephaniah:
I will visit upon them that say in their heart, Jehovah hath not done good, and hath not done evil; and their wealth shall be for a spoil, and their houses a desolation; and they shall build houses and shall not inhabit them, and they shall plant vineyards but shall not drink the wine thereof (Zeph. 1:12-13).
In Haggai:
Go up into the mountain, and bring wood, and build the house. Ye looked for much, and lo, it came to little; and ye brought it into the house, and I did blow it away. Why? saith Jehovah. Because of My house, which is deserted, while ye run everyone to his own house; therefore upon you are the heavens shut from dew (Hag. 1:8-10);
“houses” denote memory-knowledges by which, through reasoning, come falsities. In Isaiah:
Woe unto them that join house to house, that cause field to draw near to field, till there be no place, and ye dwell alone in the midst of the land. Shall not many houses be for a desolation, great and good, without an inhabitant? The vineyard of Jehovah is the house of Israel (Isa. 5:7-9);
also denoting memory-knowledges by means of which come falsities. In Amos:
Behold, Jehovah commandeth, and will smite the great house with breaches, and the little house with clefts. Shall horses run upon the rock? will one plow there with oxen? that ye have turned judgment into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into wormwood (Amos 6:11-12);
where “houses” denote in like manner falsities and the derivative evils; “horses,” reasoning; “judgment,” truths, which are “turned into gall;” and “the fruit of righteousness,” goods which are “turned into wormwood.”
[3] Thus throughout the Word, “houses” denote human minds, in which there should be intelligence and wisdom. In the passage before us, “the house of Pharaoh” denotes memory-knowledges by means of which comes intelligence, and thereby wisdom. The like is also signified by the house which Solomon built for the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kings 7:8, etc.). Because “houses” denote minds, in which are intelligence and wisdom, and in which are affections belonging to the will, the word “house” in the Word is of a wide signification; but what its specific signification is, may be seen from the things of which it is predicated. Man himself is also called “a house.”

AC (Potts) n. 1489 sRef Gen@12 @17 S0′ 1489. Because of Sarai, Abram’s wife. That this signifies because of the truth that was to be adjoined to what is celestial, is evident from the signification of a “wife,” and consequently of “Sarai the wife,” as being truth that is to be adjoined to the celestial, concerning which above, at verse 12. The case is this: unless the knowledges which in childhood have performed the use of making the man rational, are destroyed, so that they are as nothing, truth can never be conjoined with what is celestial. These first memory-knowledges are for the most part earthly, corporeal, and worldly. However Divine may be the precepts that a child learns, he still has no other idea concerning them than that which is obtainable from such knowledges; and therefore, so long as those lowest knowledges cling to him, from which are his ideas, his mind cannot be elevated. With the Lord it was the same, because He was born as are other men, and was to be instructed as are others, but according to Divine order, which is such as has been stated. In these things which are said concerning Abram in Egypt, there is described the Divine order-how in the Lord the external man was conjoined with the internal, so that the external also might become Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 1490 sRef Gen@12 @18 S0′ 1490. Verse 18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? Why didst thou not tell me that she is thy wife? “And Pharaoh called Abram,” signifies that the Lord bethought Himself; “and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me?” signifies that it grieved Him; “Why didst thou not tell me that she is thy wife?” signifies seeing that He knew that He ought not to have any other truth than that which would be conjoined with what is celestial.

AC (Potts) n. 1491 sRef Gen@12 @18 S0′ 1491. And Pharaoh called Abram. That this signifies that the Lord bethought Himself, is evident from the signification of “Pharaoh,” as being memory-knowledge. The memory-knowledge itself [scientia], that is, the matters of memory-knowledge [scientifica], which the Lord acquired when a child, are here called “Pharaoh;” thus it is that knowledge itself which thus addresses the Lord, that is, it is Jehovah who does so by means of that knowledge. Hence it is evident that these things signify that the Lord bethought Himself. Mental advertence comes by means of memory-knowledge, thus by means of Pharaoh, by whom, as before said, this knowledge is signified.

AC (Potts) n. 1492 sRef Gen@12 @18 S0′ 1492. And said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? That this signifies that it grieved Him, is also evident from the very indignation in which this is said: the grief itself is thus expressed. The internal sense is such that the affection itself that lies hidden in the words is what constitutes it; the words of the letter are not attended to, but are as if they had no existence. The affection in these words is the indignation as it were of the memory-knowledge, and the Lord’s grief; and in fact grief from this, that the memory-knowledges which He had learned with pleasure and delight should be thus destroyed. The case herein is like that of little children who when they love something their parents see to be hurtful to them, and it is taken away from them, are thereby grieved.

AC (Potts) n. 1493 sRef Gen@12 @18 S0′ 1493. That she was thy wife. That this signifies that He ought to have no other truth than that which was to be conjoined with what is celestial, is evident from the signification of a “wife,” as being the truth that was to be conjoined with what is celestial (concerning which above, at verse 12). There is here described the order in which the Lord advanced to intelligence, and thus to wisdom; so that, as He was wisdom itself as to His Divine Essence, so He should become wisdom itself as to His Human Essence.

AC (Potts) n. 1494 sRef Gen@12 @19 S0′ 1494. Verse 19. Why saidst thou, She is my sister? and I might have taken her to me for a woman. And now behold thy wife; take her and go. “Why saidst thou, She is my sister?” signifies that He then knew no otherwise than that He had intellectual truth; “and I might have taken her to me for a woman,” signifies that so He might have done violence to the truth that was to be conjoined with what is celestial; “and now behold thy wife; take her and go,” signifies that truth was to be conjoined with what is celestial.

AC (Potts) n. 1495 sRef Gen@12 @19 S0′ 1495. Why saidst thou, She is my sister? That this signifies that He then knew no otherwise than that He had intellectual truth, is evident from the signification of a “sister,” as being intellectual truth; and also from the fact that Abram had said so (as is evident from verse 13), which was done to the end that the celestial might not suffer any violence, but might be saved. From all this it is evident that when the Lord as a child learned memory knowledges, He first of all knew no otherwise than that those knowledges were solely for the sake of the intellectual man, that is, in order that He might get to know truths from them; but it was afterwards disclosed that they had existed in order that He might attain to celestial things; and this took place to prevent celestial things from suffering violence, and in order that they might be saved. When man is being instructed, there is a progression from memory-knowledges to rational truths; further, to intellectual truths; and finally, to celestial truths, which are here signified by the “wife.” If the progression is made from memory knowledges and rational truths to celestial truths without intellectual truths as media, the celestial suffers violence, because there can be no connection of rational truths-which are obtained by means of memory-knowledges-with celestial truths, except by means of intellectual truths, which are the media. What celestial truths are, and what intellectual truths are, will be seen presently.
[2] That it may be known how these things stand, something shall be said respecting order. The order is for the celestial to inflow into the spiritual and adapt it to itself; for the spiritual thus to inflow into the rational and adapt it to itself; and for the rational thus to inflow into the memory-knowledge and adapt it to itself. But when a man is being instructed in his earliest childhood, the order is indeed the same, but it appears otherwise, namely, that he advances from memory-knowledges to rational things, from these to spiritual things, and so at last to celestial things. The reason it so appears is that a way must thus be opened to celestial things, which are the inmost. All instruction is simply an opening of the way; and as the way is opened, or what is the same, as the vessels are opened, there thus flow in, as before said, in their order, rational things that are from celestial spiritual things; into these flow the celestial spiritual things; and into these, celestial things. These celestial and spiritual things are continually presenting themselves, and are also preparing and forming for themselves the vessels which are being opened; which may also be seen from the fact that in themselves the memory-knowledge and rational are dead, and that it is from the inflowing interior life that they seem to be alive. This can become manifest to anyone from the thought, and the faculty of judgment.
[3] In these lie hidden all the arcana of analytical art and science, which are so many that they can never be explored even as to the ten-thousandth part; and this not with the adult man only, but also with children, whose every thought and derivative expression of speech is most full of them (although man, even the most learned, is not aware of this), and this could not possibly be the case unless the celestial and spiritual things within were coming forth, flowing in, and producing all these things.

AC (Potts) n. 1496 sRef Gen@12 @19 S0′ 1496. I might have taken her to me for a woman. That this signifies that so the truth that was to be conjoined with what is celestial might have suffered violence, is evident from what has just been said; and also from what was said above at verse 13. As regards truth being conjoined with what is celestial, the case is this. Regarded in itself, the truth learned from childhood is nothing but a vessel adapted to the reception of what is celestial. Truth has no life from itself, but only from the celestial that flows in. The celestial is love and charity; all truth is thence, and because all truth is thence it is nothing but a kind of vessel; and so are truths themselves plainly presented in the other life; truths there are never regarded from truths, but from the life which is in them; that is, from the celestial things which are of love and charity in the truths; from these it is that truths become celestial, and are called celestial truths. We can now see what intellectual truth is, as also that with the Lord intellectual truth opened the way to celestial things. Truth in the memory [verum scientificum] is one thing; rational truth is another; and intellectual truth is another; they succeed one another. Truth in the memory is a matter of memory-knowledge; rational truth is this truth confirmed by reason; intellectual truth is conjoined with an internal perception that it is so. This intellectual truth existed with the Lord in His childhood, and with Him opened the way to celestial things.

AC (Potts) n. 1497 sRef Gen@12 @19 S0′ 1497. And now behold thy wife; take her and go. That this signifies that truth was to be conjoined with what is celestial, is evident from the signification of a “wife,” as being truth that is to be conjoined with what is celestial (as before shown, at verses 11 and 12, and also from what has just been said).

AC (Potts) n. 1498 sRef Gen@12 @20 S0′ 1498. Verse 20. And Pharaoh commanded the men concerning him; and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had. “And Pharaoh commanded the men concerning Him, [and they sent him away],” signifies that memory-knowledges left the Lord; “and his wife,” signifies that they also left the truths that were conjoined with celestial things; “and all that he had,” signifies that they left all things that belonged to celestial truths.

AC (Potts) n. 1499 sRef Gen@12 @20 S0′ 1499. And Pharaoh commanded the men concerning Him, [and they sent him away]. That this signifies that memory-knowledges left the Lord, is evident from the signification of “Pharaoh,” as being memory-knowledge; and also from the signification of “men,” as being intellectual things (as before shown, n. 158). “The men” here, because attributed to Pharaoh, or to memory-knowledge, signify intellectual things adapted thereto. As regards memory-knowledges leaving the Lord, the case is this. When celestial things are being conjoined with intellectual truths, and these are becoming celestial, then all things that are empty are dissipated of themselves; this is in the nature of the celestial.

AC (Potts) n. 1500 sRef Gen@12 @20 S0′ 1500. And his wife. That this signifies that they left the truths that were conjoined with celestial things, that is to say, that memory-knowledges left them, is evident from the signification of “wife,” as being truth conjoined with what is celestial (spoken of above), and also from what has just been said. Empty memory-knowledges leave celestial things, as vain things are wont to leave wisdom; they are as crusts and scales that separate themselves of their own accord.

AC (Potts) n. 1501 sRef Gen@12 @20 S0′ 1501. And all that he had. That this signifies that they left all things that belonged to celestial truths, follows in the series.

AC (Potts) n. 1502 sRef Matt@2 @15 S0′ sRef Gen@12 @20 S0′ sRef Hos@11 @1 S0′ 1502. From all this it is now evident that Abram’s sojourn in Egypt represents and signifies nothing else than the Lord, and in fact His instruction in childhood. This is also confirmed by what is said in Hosea:
Out of Egypt have I called My son (Hos. 11:1; Matt. 2:15);
and again from what is said in Moses:
The dwelling of the sons of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was thirty years and four hundred years; and it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, and it came to pass on the selfsame day, that all the armies of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt (Exod. 12:40-41);
which years were not reckoned from Jacob’s going down into Egypt, but from the sojourning of Abram in Egypt, counting from which the years were four hundred and thirty. Thus by the “son out of Egypt” (in Hosea 11:1) in the internal sense is signified the Lord. This is further confirmed by the fact that in the Word “Egypt” signifies memory-knowledge (as shown, n. 1164, 1165, 1462).
[2] And that these arcana are contained is also evident from the fact that the same is said of Abram during his sojourn in Philistia, namely, that he called his wife his sister (Gen. 20:1-18); and similar things are said of Isaac when he also was sojourning in Philistia, in that he too called his wife his sister (Gen. 26:6-13). These things would not have been related in the Word, and with almost the same circumstances, unless these arcana had been concealed within them. Moreover this is the Word of the Lord, which can in no wise have any life, unless there is an internal sense that has regard to Him.
[3] The arcana which lie stored up in these things, as also in those said concerning Abram and Isaac in Philistia, are-how the Lord’s Human Essence was conjoined with His Divine Essence, or what is the same, how the Lord became Jehovah as to His Human Essence also; and that His inauguration went on from childhood, which inauguration is here treated of. Moreover these things also involve more arcana than man can ever believe; but those which can be told are so few as to be almost nothing. Besides the most profound arcana concerning the Lord, they also involve arcana concerning the instruction and regeneration of man, that he may become celestial; as also concerning his instruction and regeneration, that he may become spiritual; and not only concerning the instruction of the individual man, but also concerning that of the church in general. And, further, they involve arcana concerning the instruction of little children in heaven; in a word, concerning the instruction of all who become images and likenesses of the Lord. These things do not at all appear in the sense of the letter, for the reason that the historical narrative veils them over and obscures them; but they appear in the internal sense.

AC (Potts) n. 1504 1504. CONTINUATION CONCERNING PERCEPTION; AND CONCERNING SPHERES IN THE OTHER LIFE
It has already been said that it is known in the other life what another is on his first approach, even though he does not speak. From this it may be known that a man’s interiors are in a kind of unconscious activity, and that from this the quality of the spirit is perceived. That it is so has been evidenced by the fact that this sphere of the activity not only extends itself to a distance, but that sometimes also, when the Lord permits, it is in various ways made perceptible to the senses.

AC (Potts) n. 1505 1505. I have also been informed how these spheres, which in the other life become so perceptible to the senses, are acquired. Take as an example one who has formed a high opinion of himself and of his own preeminent excellence. He at last becomes imbued with such a habit, and as it were with such a nature, that wherever he goes, though he looks at others and speaks with them, he keeps himself in view; and this at first manifestly, but afterwards not manifestly, so that he is not aware of it; but still it is regnant, both in the particulars of his affection and thought, and in those of his bearing and speech. Men can see this in others. And this is the kind of thing that in the other life makes a sphere, which is perceived, but no more frequently than the Lord permits. The same is the case with other affections; and therefore there are as many spheres as there are affections and combinations of affections, which are innumerable. The sphere is as it were the man’s image extended outside of himself, the image in fact of all things that are in him. In the world of spirits that which is presented to the view or perception is only something general; what the man is as to particulars, is known in heaven; but what as to the least particulars is known to none but the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1506 1506. In order that the nature of spheres may be known, I may adduce some things from experience. A certain spirit who had been known to me and with whom I had conversed while he lived in the body, appeared many times afterwards among the evil; and as he had a high opinion of himself, he had acquired a sphere of preeminent excellence, because of which the spirits suddenly fled away, so that none appeared but himself alone; and he filled the whole surrounding sphere, which was one of self-regard. Being deprived of companions, he presently fell into another state; for in the other life one who is deprived of the society in which he is, at first becomes as if he were half dead, for his life is then supported solely by the influx of heaven into his interiors. He then began to lament and feel torment. The other spirits afterwards said that they could not endure his presence, because he desired to be greater than others. Being at last brought into association with others, he was carried up on high, so that it seemed to him that he alone governed the universe; to such a degree does the love of self puff itself up when left to itself. He was then cast down among the infernals. Such a lot awaits those who think themselves greater than others. More than any other love is the love of self contrary to mutual love, which is the life of heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 1507 1507. A certain person during his bodily life had seemed to himself to be greater and wiser than others; in other respects he was well disposed, and not much given to despising others in comparison with himself; but as he had been born of high rank, he had contracted a sphere of supereminence and authority. In this character he came to me, and for a long time spoke not, but I noticed that he was encompassed as with a mist, which going forth from him began to cover the other spirits; at which they began to be distressed. Thereupon, addressing me, they said that they could not possibly stay there, for they were deprived of all their freedom, so that they did not dare to say anything. He also began to speak to them, calling them his sons, and at times instructing them, but with the authority that he had contracted. This showed the nature in the other life of a sphere of authority.

AC (Potts) n. 1508 1508. Many times has it been given me to observe that those who in the world had been endowed with high rank, could not help contracting thereby a sphere of authority, and therefore in the other life they could neither hide nor get rid of it. In those of them who had been endowed with faith and charity, the sphere of authority is in a wonderful way conjoined with a sphere of goodness, so that it is not troublesome to anyone; indeed a kind of corresponding subordination is shown them by well-behaved spirits; and in fact they have no sphere of commanding, but only a sphere that is natural to them from their high birth, and which after some delay they put off; for they are good, and strive to put it off.

AC (Potts) n. 1509 1509. For several days such spirits were with me as during their life in this world had cared nothing for the good of society, but only for themselves, being useless members of the commonwealth, and who had had no end but to live sumptuously, to be clothed splendidly, and to grow rich; being well practiced in simulation, and in ways of insinuating themselves by various forms of flattering assent and a display of services, but only that they might seem devoted, and be intrusted with their master’s goods, while they looked down with contempt upon all who were earnestly employed. It was perceived that they had been courtiers. The effect of their sphere was to take from me the power of close application, and to make it so irksome for me to act and to think in serious matters, true and good, that at last I scarcely knew what to do. When such as these come among spirits, they induce on them a similar torpor. In the other life they are useless members, and are rejected wherever they come.

AC (Potts) n. 1510 1510. Every spirit-and still more every society of spirits-has his own sphere from his principles and persuasions, which sphere is that of his principles and persuasions. Evil genii have a sphere of cupidities, and in their case the sphere of principles and persuasions is such that when acting upon another it makes truths to be as falsities and calls forth all things that are confirmatory, so as to induce a belief that falsities are truths, and that evils are goods.
[2] This has shown how easily a man may be confirmed in falsities and evils, if he has no belief in the truths which are from the Lord. Such spheres are dense in proportion to the nature of the falsities. These spheres can by no means agree with the spheres of spirits who are in truths. If they approach, there arises a repugnance; and if by permission the sphere of falsity prevails, the good come into temptation and into anxiety. I have also perceived the sphere of unbelief, which is such that those who are in it do not believe anything that is said, and scarcely what is presented to their sight. There is also the sphere of those who believe nothing but what they apprehend by the senses.
[3] A certain one was seen by me, clothed in something dark, sitting at a mill, as if grinding meal, and at the side were seen little mirrors, and I afterwards saw some things produced by phantasy,, but which were aerial. I wondered who he was; but he came to me and said that he was the one who sat at the mill; and that he had such ideas, as that all things whatsoever are only phantasies, and that nothing is real. For this reason he had become such as he was.

AC (Potts) n. 1511 1511. It has been made known to me by much experience, so well known that nothing can be more so, that spirits who are in falsities flow into the thought, and induce a persuasion exactly as if what is false is true, so that it cannot possibly appear otherwise, and this they do from their sphere. In like manner genii, who are in evils, inflow in the same way into the will, and produce an effect exactly as if what is evil is good, so that it cannot possibly be felt otherwise; and this also from their sphere. This influx of spirits of both kinds it has been given me to plainly perceive a thousand times; also from whom it came, and how angels from the Lord removed such things; besides many other things that cannot so well be specifically narrated; so that I have become assured, with all possible certainty, whence come the falsities and evils with man; and also that such spheres as remain after the death of the body and manifest themselves so evidently, are from principles of falsity and cupidities of evil.

AC (Potts) n. 1512 1512. The spheres of phantasies, when presented in visible form, appear like clouds, more or less dense according to the quality of the phantasy. There is a certain misty rock under the left foot, where the antediluvians are, and under which they stay. That cloudiness, by which they are kept apart from all others in the other life, arises from their phantasies. From those who have lived in hatred and revenge, there exhale such spheres as cause swooning, and excite vomiting. Such spheres are as it were poisonous; and it is usual to test how poisonous they are, and how dense, by fillets of a dull azure color: as these fade away, the sphere also is lessened.

AC (Potts) n. 1513 1513. A certain spirit came to me of those called the lukewarm, who bore himself as if he had repented; nor did I perceive the deceit, although I thought that he was concealing something within. But the spirits said that they could not endure his presence, and that they felt within themselves such an effect as men feel when moved to vomit, and that he was among those who are to be spewed out. He afterwards spoke abominable things; nor could he desist, however much he was persuaded not to speak so.

AC (Potts) n. 1514 1514. Spheres are also made susceptible to sense by odors, which spirits smell much more exquisitely than men; for, wonderful to say, odors correspond to spheres. When the sphere of those who have indulged in the practice of simulation and have thereby contracted a nature, is turned into an odor, there is a stench of vomit. When the sphere of those who have studied eloquence to the end that everything may redound to self-admiration, is made odoriferous, it is like the odor of burnt bread. With those who have indulged in mere pleasures, and have been in no charity and faith, the odor of their sphere is like that of excrement. So is the odor of those who have spent their lives in adulteries, but this is still more offensive. When the sphere of those who have lived in deep hatred and revenge, and in cruelty, is turned into odors, there is a cadaverous stench. The stench of mice is diffused around from those who have been sordidly avaricious; the stench of bedbugs* from those who persecute the innocent. These odors cannot be smelled by any man, except by one whose interior sensations are opened, so that he may be in company with spirits.
* Pediculi domestici, a literal translation into Latin of the Swedish name for the common cimex. [Reviser.]

AC (Potts) n. 1515 1515. The sphere of the stench of a certain woman was perceived, who was afterwards associated with sirens; and that stench exhaled for some days wherever she went. The spirits said that the stench seemed deadly; yet she perceived nothing of it. The stench of sirens is similar, because their interiors are filthy, while their exteriors are for the most part becoming and fair (see n. 831). It is wonderful how quickly the sirens in the other life learn all things there, and know better than others how things are, even matters of doctrine; but all to the end that they may turn them into magic, and arrogate to themselves command over others. They enter into the affections of the good by the simulation of good and truth; but still their quality remains, which shows that what is doctrinal is nothing, unless the man becomes as it teaches, that is, unless he has the life as the end in view; and besides, there are many among the infernals who had been preeminently skilled in doctrinal things. But they who have lived a life of charity are all in heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 1516 1516. I have spoken with spirits about the sense of taste, which they said that they do not possess, but a something from which they know what taste is, and which they likened to an odor, but which they could not describe. It was brought to my recollection that taste and smell meet in a kind of third sense, as is evident also from animals which examine their food by the smell, from which they know whether it is wholesome and suitable for them.

AC (Potts) n. 1517 1517. A vinous odor was perceived, and I was informed that it came from those who compliment one another from friendship and rightful love, so that there is also truth in the compliments. This odor exists with much variety, and comes from the sphere of the beautiful in forms.

AC (Potts) n. 1518 1518. When the celestial angels are with the body of a deceased person who is to be raised up, the smell of the body is turned into an aromatic odor; on perceiving which, evil spirits cannot approach.

AC (Potts) n. 1519 1519. The spheres of charity and faith, when perceived as odors, are most delightful; the odors are pleasant, as of flowers, lilies, and spices of various kinds, with indefinite variety. Moreover, the spheres of the angels also are sometimes made visible as atmospheres or auras, which are so beautiful, so pleasant, and so various, that they cannot possibly be described.

AC (Potts) n. 1520 1520. But in regard to what has been said of the possibility of perceiving the interiors of a spirit by spheres extended and projected outside of him, as also by odors, it is to be known that these are not always perceptible; and besides, they are tempered in various ways by the Lord, in order that the quality of spirits may not always be exposed before others.

AC (Potts) n. 1521 1521. CHAPTER 13.
CONCERNING THE LIGHT IN WHICH THE ANGELS LIVE.
That spirits and angels possess every sense, except taste, far more exquisitely and perfectly than man ever does, has been made manifest to me in many ways. They not only see one another and converse together-the angels with the greatest happiness from mutual love-but in that world there is more to see than men could believe to be possible; the world of spirits and the heavens are full of representatives such as were seen by the prophets, and of so wonderful a nature that if a person’s sight were but opened so that for a few hours he might behold them, he would be astounded. The light in heaven is such as to incredibly surpass even the midday light of our solar world. They however have no light from this world, because they are above or within the sphere of this light; but their light is from the Lord, who to them is a Sun. Even the midday light of this world is dense darkness to the angels; and when they have an opportunity to see it, it is as if they were looking at mere darkness, as I have been given to know by experience. This shows what a difference there is between the light of heaven and the light of this world.

AC (Potts) n. 1522 1522. I have so frequently seen the light in which spirits and angels live, that at last I have ceased to wonder at it, because it has become familiar. But to adduce all my experience would be too tedious; let what follows suffice.

AC (Potts) n. 1523 1523. That I might know the nature of that light, I have often been conducted into the abodes of good and of angelic spirits, and have seen both the spirits and the objects there. I have also seen infants and mothers in light of so great a brightness and resplendence that there could not possibly be anything brighter.

AC (Potts) n. 1524 1524. An intense flaming irradiation unexpectedly poured down before my eyes, dazzling them greatly-not merely the light of the eye, but the interior sight also. Presently there appeared a sort of obscurity, like a thick cloud, in which there was as it were something earthy. While I wondered at this it was given me to know that such is the light with the angels in heaven in comparison with that in the world of spirits; and that although the spirits live in light, yet still there is such a difference; and that, as does the light, so also do the intelligence and the wisdom of the angels surpass those of spirits; and not their intelligence and wisdom only, but also all things that belong to these, such as their speech, thought, joys, and felicities; for these correspond to the light. This evidenced to me how great and of what nature are the perfections of angels as compared with men, who are in greater obscurity even than spirits.

AC (Potts) n. 1525 1525. The kind of light in which those live who belong to a certain internal province of the face, was shown me. It was beautifully varied by rays of golden flame for those who are in affections of good, and by rays of silver light for those who are in affections of truth. Sometimes they see the sky-not that which appears before our eyes, but one that is represented before them–beautifully studded with little stars. The reason for the difference in the light is that all good spirits who are in the first heaven, and all angelic spirits who are in the second, and all angels who are in the third, are distinguished in general into the celestial and the spiritual; the celestial being those who are in the love of good, and the spiritual those who are in the love of truth.

AC (Potts) n. 1526 1526. I was withdrawn from the ideas of particular things,* or those of the body, so that I might be kept in spiritual ideas. There then appeared a vivid glow of diamond light, and this for a considerable time. I cannot describe the light in any other way; for in its least parts it was like the sparkling of the diamond. And while I was kept in that light, I perceived the particular things, which are worldly and corporeal, as it were below me, and remote; by which I was instructed how great light those are in who are withdrawn from material ideas into those which are spiritual. Moreover, the light of spirits and of angels has been seen by me so many times, that many pages would be filled if all the experiences were recounted.
* Compare n. 3885, and see note to n. 2481. [Reviser.]

AC (Potts) n. 1527 1527. When the Lord pleases, good spirits appear before others, and also to one another, as bright stars that sparkle in accordance with the quality of their charity and faith; but evil spirits appear like little balls of coal fire.

AC (Potts) n. 1528 1528. The life of cupidities and of the derivative pleasures sometimes appears among evil spirits like a coal fire. Into such a fieriness, as it were, is the life of the Lord’s love and mercy changed that flows in with them; and the life of their phantasies appears as the light from it, which is a dim light that extends to no great distance; but at the approach of the life of mutual love, that fieriness is extinguished and turned into cold, and that dim light is turned into darkness. For evil spirits pass their lives in darkness; and, wonderful to say, some also love darkness, and hate light.

AC (Potts) n. 1529 1529. It is perfectly well known in heaven, but not so well in the world of spirits, whence comes the light that is so great, namely, from the Lord; and it is a remarkable fact that the Lord appears in the third heaven to the celestial angels as a Sun, and to the spiritual angels as a Moon. The very origin of the light is this and this alone. But the angels have light in proportion to what is celestial and spiritual with them, and the quality of this determines the quality of their light. Thus the Lord’s celestial and spiritual manifests itself before their external sight by means of light.

AC (Potts) n. 1530 sRef Ex@24 @10 S0′ sRef Isa@30 @26 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @23 S0′ sRef Rev@22 @5 S0′ 1530. That this is so the Word has shown to all; as when the Lord was made manifest to Peter, James, and John; for His face then shone as the sun, and His garments became as the light (Matt. 17:2). He so appeared to them simply because their interior sight was opened. The same is confirmed also in the Prophets; as in Isaiah, where the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens is treated of:
The light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days (Isa. 30:26).
And in John, where also the Lord’s kingdom, which is called the New Jerusalem, is spoken of:
The city hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it; for the glory of God doth lighten it, and the Lamb is the lamp thereof (Rev. 21:23).
And again:
There shall be no night there, and they have no need of a lamp, neither light of the sun, for the Lord God giveth them light (Rev. 22:5).
Besides that when the Lord appeared to Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and the seventy elders,
they saw the God of Israel, under whose feet was as it were a work of sapphire stone, and as it were the substance of heaven in clearness (Exod. 24:10).
As the Lord’s celestial and spiritual appear before the external sight of the angels as a Sun and a Moon, therefore “the sun” in the Word signifies what is celestial, and “the moon” what is spiritual.

AC (Potts) n. 1531 sRef Isa@30 @26 S0′ 1531. That I might be confirmed in the truth that the Lord appears to the celestial angels as a Sun, and to the spiritual angels as a Moon, my interior sight was of the Lord’s Divine mercy so far opened that I plainly saw the Moon shining, which was encompassed by a number of smaller moons, the light of which was almost solar, according to the words in Isaiah:
The light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun (Isa. 30:26).
But it was not granted me to see the Sun. The Moon appeared in front, to the right.

AC (Potts) n. 1532 1532. Wonderful things appear in heaven from the Lord’s light, things so beyond number that they could never be told. They are continual representatives of the Lord and of His kingdom, such as are mentioned in the Prophets, and by John in Revelation; besides other significatives. With the bodily eyes no man can possibly see them, but the moment the interior sight or that of the spirit is opened by the Lord, such things become visible. The visions of the prophets were nothing else than openings of their interior sight; as when John saw the golden lampstands (Rev. 1:12-13); and the Holy City as pure gold, with its luminary like to a stone most precious (Rev. 21:2, 10-11); besides many things mentioned in the Prophets; from which it may be known, not only that the angels live in the brightest light, but also that there are countless things there which surpass belief.

AC (Potts) n. 1533 1533. Before my sight was opened, the idea I cherished concerning the countless things that appear in the other life differed but little from that of others, that is to say, that in the other life there could be no light, and such things as exist from light, together with the things of sense; a notion derived from the phantasy entertained by the learned respecting the immateriality which they predicate so strongly of spirits and of all things pertaining to their life; from which no other conception could be had, than that, because it was immaterial, it was either so obscure that no idea of it could be grasped, or that it was nothing; for the immateriality involves such things. And yet the fact is just the reverse; for unless spirits were organized, and unless angels were organized substances, they could neither speak, nor see, nor think.

AC (Potts) n. 1534 1534. That by the aid of the light from a celestial and spiritual origin from the Lord, there are in the other life presented before the sight of spirits and angels most wonderful objects, such as paradises, cities, palaces, dwellings, the most beautiful atmospheres, and others besides, see the “Continuation concerning Light” at the end of this chapter.

GENESIS 13
1. And Abram went up out of Egypt, he and his wife, and all that he had, and Lot with him, toward the south.
2. And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold.
3. And he went according to his journeys from the south and even to Bethel, unto the place where his tent was at the first, between Bethel and Ai.
4. Unto the place of the altar which he had made there in the beginning; and there Abram called on the name of Jehovah.
5. And Lot also, who went with Abram, had flock and herd, and tents.
6. And the land was not able to bear them that they might dwell together, for their substance was great, so that they could not dwell together.
7. And there was strife between the herdmen of Abram’s cattle and the herdmen of Lot’s cattle; and the Canaanite and the Perizzite were then dwelling in the land.
8. And Abram said unto Lot, Let there be no contention, I pray, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy
herdmen, for we are men brethren.
9. Is not the whole land before thee? Separate, I pray, from me; if to the left hand, then I will go to the right; or if to the right hand, then I will go to the left.
10. And Lot lifted up his eyes, and saw all the plain of Jordan, that it was all well watered, before Jehovah destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of Jehovah, like the land of Egypt in coming to Zoar.
11. And Lot chose him all the plain of Jordan; and Lot journeyed from the east; and they were separated, a man from his brother.
12. Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain, and pitched his tent as far as Sodom.
13. And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners against Jehovah exceedingly.
14. And Jehovah said unto Abram, after that Lot was separated from him, Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art, northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward.
15. For all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed, forever.
16. And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth; so that if anyone can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered.
17. Arise, walk through the land, in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for unto thee will I give it.
18. And Abram pitched his tent, and came, and dwelt in the oak-groves of Mamre, which are in Hebron, and built there an altar unto Jehovah.

AC (Potts) n. 1535 sRef Gen@13 @0 S0′ 1535. THE CONTENTS
This chapter treats of the external man in the Lord which was to be conjoined with His internal man. The external man is the Human Essence, the internal is the Divine essence. The former is here represented by Lot, but the latter by Abram.

AC (Potts) n. 1536 sRef Gen@13 @0 S0′ 1536. There is here described the state of the external man such as it was in childhood, when first imbued with knowledges [scientifica et cognitiones]-that it thence advanced more and more to conjunction with the internal man (verses 1 to 4).

AC (Potts) n. 1537 sRef Gen@13 @0 S0′ 1537. But that there were still many things in His external man that impeded the conjunction (verses 5 to 7); from which, however, He desired to be separated (verses 8, 9).

AC (Potts) n. 1538 sRef Gen@13 @0 S0′ 1538. That the external man appeared to the Lord such as it is in its beauty when conjoined with the internal; and also such as it is when not conjoined (verses 10 to 13).

AC (Potts) n. 1539 sRef Gen@13 @0 S0′ 1539. A promise that when the external man was conjoined with the internal, that is, when the Lord’s Human Essence was conjoined with His Divine Essence, all power and authority [potestas] should be given to Him (verses 14 to 17). Concerning the Lord’s interior perception (verse 18).

AC (Potts) n. 1540 sRef Matt@2 @15 S0′ 1540. THE INTERNAL SENSE
The true historicals of the Word began, as before said, with the foregoing chapter-the twelfth. Up to that point, or rather to Eber, they were made-up historicals. In the internal sense, the historicals here continued respecting Abram are significative of the Lord, and in fact of His first life, such as it was before His external man had been conjoined with the internal so as to make one thing; that is, before His external man had been in like manner made celestial and Divine. The historicals are what represent the Lord; the words themselves are significative of the things that are represented. But being historical, the mind of the reader cannot but be held in them; especially at this day, when most persons, and indeed nearly all, do not believe that there is an internal sense, and still less that it exists in every word; and it may be that in spite of the fact that the internal sense has been so plainly shown thus far, they will not even now acknowledge its existence, and this for the reason that the internal sense appears to recede so far from the sense of the letter as to be scarcely recognized in it. And yet that these historicals cannot be the Word they might know from the mere fact that when separated from the internal sense there is no more of the Divine in them than in any other history; whereas the internal sense makes the Word to be Divine.
[2] That the internal sense is the Word itself, is evident from many things that have been revealed, as, “Out of Egypt have I called My son” (Matt. 2:15); besides many others. The Lord Himself also, after His resurrection, taught the disciples what had been written concerning Him in Moses and the Prophets (Luke 24:27); and thus that there is nothing written in the Word that does not regard Him, His kingdom, and the church. These are the spiritual and celestial things of the Word; but the things contained in the literal sense are for the most part worldly, corporeal, and earthly; which cannot possibly make the Word of the Lord. At this day men are of such a character that they perceive nothing but such things; and what spiritual and heavenly things are, they scarcely know. It was otherwise with the men of the Most Ancient and of the Ancient Church, who, had they lived at this day, and had read the Word, would not have attended at all to the sense of the letter, which they would look upon as nothing, but to the internal sense. They wonder greatly that anyone perceives the Word in any other way. All the books of the Ancients were therefore so written as to have in their interior sense a different meaning from that in the letter.

AC (Potts) n. 1541 sRef Gen@13 @1 S0′ 1541. Verse 1. And Abram went up out of Egypt, he and his wife, and all that he had, and Lot with him, toward the south. In the internal sense, the things here stated, and those which follow in this chapter, also represent the Lord; there being a continuation of His life from childhood. “Abram went up out of Egypt,” signifies from memory-knowledges, which left the Lord. In the internal sense, “Abram” is the Lord, here the Lord when still a child; “Egypt,” here as before, is memory-knowledge; “he and his wife,” signifies the celestial truths that were then with the Lord; “and all that he had” signifies all things that were of the celestial “things; “and Lot with him” signifies what is sensuous; “toward the south,” signifies into celestial light.

AC (Potts) n. 1542 sRef Gen@13 @1 S0′ 1542. That in the internal sense these things, and those that follow in this chapter, also represent the Lord, and that it is a continuation of His life from childhood, may be seen from what was said and shown in the preceding chapter, and also from what follows, but especially from the consideration that this is the Word of the Lord, and that it has come down from Him through heaven, and therefore that not even the least bit of a word has been written that does not involve heavenly arcana. That which comes from such an origin cannot possibly be of any other nature. It has been shown already that in the internal sense the Lord’s instruction when a child is treated of. There are two things with man which prevent his becoming celestial, one of which belongs to his intellectual, and the other to his will part: that which belongs to the intellectual part consists of the empty memory-knowledges he learns in childhood and youth; and that which belongs to the will part consists of pleasures from the cupidities which he favors. These are the hindrances that prevent his being able to attain to celestial things. These are first to be dispersed; and when they have been dispersed, he can then for the first time be admitted into the light of celestial things, and at last into celestial light.
[2] As the Lord was born as are other men, and was to be informed as others are, it was necessary for Him to learn memory-knowledges, which was represented and signified by Abram’s sojourn in Egypt; and that the empty memory-knowledges at last left Him, was represented by Pharaoh’s commanding his men respecting him, and by their sending him away, and his wife, and all that he had. (See the foregoing chapter, verse 20.) But that the pleasures which pertain to the things of the will, and which constitute the sensuous man, but the outermost of it, also left Him, is represented in this chapter by Lot, in that he separated himself from Abram; for Lot represents such a man.

AC (Potts) n. 1543 sRef Gen@13 @1 S0′ 1543. And Abram went up out of Egypt. That this signifies from memory-knowledges, which left the Lord, is evident from the signification of “Abram,” as representing the Lord; and also from the signification of “Egypt,” which is memory-knowledge; and also from the signification of “going up,” for this expression is used of emerging from the lower things, which are the memory-knowledges, to the higher, which are the celestial things; and therefore, in the Word, “to go up from Egypt into the land of Canaan”-an expression which often occurs-involves the like things.

AC (Potts) n. 1544 sRef Gen@13 @1 S0′ 1544. It has already been shown that here, in the internal sense, “Abram” is the Lord while still a child, and that “Egypt” is memory-knowledge.

AC (Potts) n. 1545 sRef Gen@13 @1 S0′ 1545. He and he wife. That this signifies the celestial truths then in the Lord, may be seen from the signification of “he,” that is, of Abram, as being the Lord, and consequently the celestial that was in Him. A man is a man from the things that are in him; the Lord, from the celestial things; for He alone was celestial, so as to be the celestial itself; on which account celestial things are signified by “Abram,” and still more by “Abraham.” This may be further seen from the signification of a “wife,” as being truth adjoined to the celestial (as before shown, n. 1468). That the truths are celestial truths, or truths which are from celestial things, is evident from the fact that “he” is named first, and “his wife” afterwards. For celestial truth is one thing, and truth celestial is another; celestial truth is that which derives its origin from the celestial; truth celestial is that which is from the truth which is implanted in the celestial by means of knowledges [cognitiones].

AC (Potts) n. 1546 sRef Gen@13 @1 S0′ 1546. And all that he had. That this signifies all things that were of the celestial things, is evident from what has now been said.

AC (Potts) n. 1547 sRef Gen@13 @1 S0′ 1547. And Lot with him. That this signifies what is sensuous, has already been briefly stated (n. 1428); but as Lot is here specifically treated of, it must be known what it is in the Lord that he represents. Pharaoh represented the memory-knowledges that at last sent the Lord away; but Lot represents sensuous things, by which is meant the external man and its pleasures that pertain to sensuous things, thus those things which are outermost, and which are wont to captivate man in his childhood, and draw him away from goods. For so far as a man indulges the pleasures that originate from cupidities, he is drawn away from the celestial things that are of love and charity; because in those pleasures there is love from self and from the world, with which celestial love cannot agree.
There are, however, pleasures that agree perfectly with celestial things, and that likewise appear similar in external form (concerning which see above, n. 945, 994, 995, 997). But the pleasures that originate from cupidities are to be restrained and wiped out, because they block the way to celestial things. It is these pleasures, and not the others, that are treated of in this chapter-by Lot, in that he separated himself from Abram; and here it is said that such pleasures were present, which are signified by “Lot with him.” But in general by “Lot” is signified the external man, as will be evident from what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 1548 sRef Gen@13 @1 S0′ 1548. Toward the south. That this signifies into celestial light, is evident from the signification of “the south,” as being a state of light as to the interiors (spoken of before, n. 1458). There are two states from which comes celestial light. The first is that into which man is introduced from infancy; for it is known that infants are in innocence and in the goods of love, which are the celestial things into which they are at first introduced by the Lord, and which are stored up in the child for use in later life, and for his use when he comes into the other life; these are what are called the first remains, spoken of in several places before. The other state is, that man is introduced into spiritual and celestial things by means of knowledges, which must be implanted in the celestial things given from infancy. With the Lord, these were implanted in His first celestial things, from which He had the light which is here called “the south.”

AC (Potts) n. 1549 sRef Gen@13 @2 S0′ 1549. Verse 2. And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold. “Abram was very rich in cattle,” signifies the goods with which the Lord was then enriched; “in silver,” signifies the truths; “and in gold,” signifies the goods from truths.

AC (Potts) n. 1550 sRef Gen@13 @2 S0′ 1550. Abram was very rich in cattle. That this signifies goods, is evident from the signification of “cattle,” and of “flock,” as being good (concerning which above, n. 343, 415).

AC (Potts) n. 1551 sRef Dan@2 @32 S0′ sRef Gen@13 @2 S0′ sRef Dan@2 @33 S0′ 1551. In silver. That this signifies truths, is evident from the signification of “silver,” as being truth. The most ancient people compared the goods and truths in man to metals; the inmost or the celestial goods, which are of love to the Lord, to gold; the truths which are from these, to silver; but the lower or natural goods, to copper; and the lower truths, to iron; nor did they simply compare them, but they likewise called them so. Hence periods of time were also likened to the same metals, and were called the golden, the silver, the copper, and the iron ages; for the ages followed one another in this order. The golden age was the time of the Most Ancient Church, which was a celestial man; the silver age was the time of the Ancient Church, which was a spiritual man; the copper age was the time of the succeeding church; and to this succeeded the iron age. Similar things are also signified by the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar in a dream, whose “head was of good gold, the breast and arms of silver, the belly and thighs of brass, the legs of iron” (Dan. 2:32-33). That this was to be the series, or that the periods of the church succeeded one another in this order, is evident from the same Prophet, and in the same chapter.
sRef Isa@60 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@55 @1 S2′ [2] That in the internal sense of the Word, “silver,” wherever named, signifies truth, and in the opposite sense falsity, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:
For brass I will bring gold, and for iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron; I will also make thine officers peace, and thine exactors righteousness (Isa. 60:17);
where it is evident what each metal means. The Lord’s coming, and His celestial kingdom and church, are there treated of; “gold for brass,” is celestial good instead of natural good; “silver for iron,” is spiritual truth instead of natural truth; “brass for wood,” is natural good instead of corporeal good; “iron for stones,” is natural truth instead of sensuous truth. In the same:
Ho, everyone that thirsteth, go ye to the waters; and he that hath no silver; go ye, buy and eat (Isa. 55:1);
“he that hath no silver,” is he who is in ignorance of truth, and yet in the good of charity, like many within the church, and the nations outside the church.
sRef Ezek@16 @13 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@28 @3 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @17 S3′ sRef Ezek@28 @4 S3′ [3] In the same:
The isles shall wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish in the beginning, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them, unto the name of Jehovah thy God, and to the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 60:9).
Here a new church, or that of the Gentiles, is treated of specifically, and the Lord’s kingdom universally; “the ships from Tarshish” denote knowledges; “silver,” truths; and “gold,” goods; for these are the things which they shall “bring to the name of Jehovah.” In Ezekiel:
Thou didst take the vessels of thine adorning of My gold and of My silver, which I had given thee, and madest for thee images of a male (Ezek. 16:17).
Here “gold” denotes the knowledges of celestial things; “silver,” those of spiritual things. In the same:
Thou wast adorned with gold and silver, and thy raiment was fine linen and silk, and broidered work (Ezek. 16:13).
This is said of Jerusalem, by which the Lord’s church is signified, and the adornment of which is thus described. Again:
Behold, thou art wise, there is no secret that they have hidden from thee; in thy wisdom and in thine intelligence thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures (Ezek. 28:3-4).
This is said of Tyre, and it is plain that here “gold” is the wealth of wisdom, and “silver” the wealth of intelligence.
sRef Ex@3 @22 S4′ sRef Hag@2 @7 S4′ sRef Ps@12 @6 S4′ sRef Hag@2 @9 S4′ sRef Hag@2 @8 S4′ sRef Joel@3 @5 S4′ sRef Mal@3 @3 S4′ [4] In Joel:
Ye have taken My silver and My gold, and have carried into your temples My goodly desirable things (Joel 3:5).
This is said concerning Tyre, Zidon, and Philistia; by which are signified knowledges, which are “the gold and the silver” that they have carried into their temples. In Haggai:
The choice of all nations shall come, and I will fill this house with glory; the silver is Mine and the gold is Mine; the glory of this latter house shall be greater than that of the former (Hag. 2:7-9);
where the Lord’s church is treated of, concerning which “gold” and “silver” are predicated. In Malachi:
He shall sit as a smelter and purifier of silver, and shall purify the sons of Levi (Mal. 3:3);
where the Lord’s coming is treated of. In David:
The discourses of Jehovah are pure discourses, silver smelted in a crucible of earth, smelted seven times (Ps. 12:6);
the “silver purified seven times,” denotes Divine truth. In respect to the command given to the sons of Israel, when they were to go out of Egypt:
Every woman shall borrow of her neighbor, and of her that is a guest in her house, vessels of silver and vessels of gold, and garments; and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters, and shall spoil the Egyptians (Exod. 3:22; 11:2-3; 12:35-36);
everyone can see that the sons of Israel would by no means have been told thus to steal, and to spoil the Egyptians, unless some arcana were thus to be represented; but what the arcana are may be seen from the signification of “silver,” of “gold,” and of “garments,” and of “Egypt;” and it may also be seen that much the same was there represented as is here represented by Abram, who was rich in silver and gold from Egypt.
sRef Deut@7 @26 S5′ sRef Isa@31 @7 S5′ sRef Jer@10 @9 S5′ sRef Jer@10 @8 S5′ sRef Ex@20 @26 S5′ sRef Deut@7 @25 S5′ [5] As “silver” signifies truth, so in the opposite sense it signifies falsity; for they who are in falsity think that falsity is truth; as is also evident in the Prophets. In Moses:
Thou shalt not covet the silver and the gold of the nations, nor take it unto thee, lest thou be snared therein; for it is an abomination to Jehovah thy God; detesting thou shalt detest it (Deut. 7:25-26);
“the gold of the nations” denotes evils, and their “silver” falsities. Again:
Ye shall not make with Me gods of silver, and gods of gold shall ye not make unto you (Exod. 20:23);
by which in the internal sense nothing else is signified than falsities and cupidities; “gods of silver” are falsities; and “gods of gold” are cupidities. In Isaiah:
In that day shall they cast away every man his idols of silver and his idols of gold, which your own hands have made unto you for a sin (Isa. 31:7);
“idols of silver and idols of gold,” denote similar things as before; “your own hands have made them,” means that they are from man’s Own. In Jeremiah:
They are become brutish and foolish; a teaching of vanities is that stock; silver beaten out is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of the artificer and of the hands of the founder; blue and crimson are their clothing, it is all the work of the wise (Jer. 10:8-9);
denoting the like things, as is very evident.

AC (Potts) n. 1552 sRef Gen@13 @2 S0′ 1552. And in gold. That this signifies goods from truths, is evident from the signification of “gold,” as being celestial good, or the good of wisdom and of love, as is evident from the things just shown, and also from those shown before (n. 113). That the goods here are from truths, follows from what was said in the foregoing chapter, that the Lord conjoined intellectual truths with celestial things.

AC (Potts) n. 1553 sRef Gen@13 @3 S0′ 1553. Verse 3. And he went according to his journeys, from the south and even to Bethel, unto the place where his tent was at the first, between Bethel and Ai. “He went according to his journeys,” signifies according to order; “from the south and even to Bethel,” signifies from the light of intelligence into the light of wisdom; “unto the place where his tent was before,” signifies to the holy things which there were before He was imbued with knowledges; “between Bethel and Ai,” signifies here, as before, the celestial things of knowledges, and worldly things.

AC (Potts) n. 1554 sRef Gen@13 @3 S0′ 1554. He went according to his journeys. That this signifies according to order, is evident from the signification of “journeys,” as being further progressions (concerning which, see n. 1457); and as these were made according to order, “journeys” here signify nothing else. From His earliest infancy the Lord advanced according to all Divine order to celestial things, and into celestial things; and in the internal sense, the nature of this order is described by what is said concerning Abram. According to such order also are all led who are being created anew by the Lord; but this order is various with men, according to the nature and genius of each one. But the order by which a man is led while being regenerated is known to no man, and not even to the angels, except obscurely, but to the Lord alone.

AC (Potts) n. 1555 sRef Gen@13 @3 S0′ 1555. From the south and even to Bethel. That this signifies from the light of intelligence into the light of wisdom, is evident from the signification of “the south,” as being the light of intelligence, or what is the same, a state of light as to the interiors (spoken of before, n. 1458); and from the signification of “Bethel,” as being celestial light arising from knowledges (concerning which before, n. 1453). That is called the light of intelligence which is procured by means of the knowledges of the truths and goods of faith; but the light of wisdom is that of the life which is thence acquired. The light of intelligence regards the intellectual part, or the understanding; but the light of wisdom regards the will part, or the life.
[2] Few, if any, know how man is brought to true wisdom. Intelligence is not wisdom, but leads to wisdom; for to understand what is true and good is not to be true and good, but to be wise is to be so. Wisdom is predicated only of the life-that the man is such. A man is introduced to wisdom or to life by means of knowing [scire et nosse], that is, by means of knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones]. In every man there are two parts, the will and the understanding; the will is the primary part, the understanding is the secondary one. Man’s life after death is according to his will part, not according to his intellectual part. The will is being formed in man by the Lord from infancy to childhood, which is effected by means of the innocence that is insinuated, and by means of charity toward parents, nurses, and little children of a like age; and by means of many other things that man knows nothing of, and which are celestial. Unless these celestial things were first insinuated into a man while an infant and a child, he could by no means become a man. Thus is formed the first plane.
[3] But as a man is not a man unless he is endowed also with understanding, will alone does not make the man, but understanding together with will; and understanding cannot be acquired except by means of knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones] and therefore he must, from his childhood, be gradually imbued with these. Thus is formed the second plane. When the intellectual part has been instructed in knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones], especially in the knowledges of truth and good, then first can the man be regenerated; and, when he is being regenerated, truths and goods are implanted by the Lord by means of knowledges in the celestial things with which he had been endowed by the Lord from infancy, so that his intellectual things make a one with his celestial things; and when the Lord has thus conjoined these, the man is endowed with charity, from which he begins to act, this charity being of conscience. In this way he for the first time receives new life, and this by degrees. The light of this life is called wisdom, which then takes the first place, and is set over the intelligence. Thus is formed the third plane. When a man has become like this during his bodily life, he is then in the other life being continually perfected. These considerations show what is the light of intelligence, and what the light of wisdom.

AC (Potts) n. 1556 sRef Gen@13 @3 S0′ 1556. Unto the place where his tent was before. That this signifies to the holy things which there were before He was imbued with knowledges, is evident from the signification of a “tent,” which is the holy things of faith (concerning which, n. 414, 1452, and from what has just been said); it thus signifies to the celestial things which the Lord had before He was imbued with knowledges, as is evident from what was said in the preceding chapter: “and Abram removed from thence unto the mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent” (verse 8); which was before he departed into Egypt, that is, before the Lord was imbued with knowledges.

AC (Potts) n. 1557 sRef Gen@13 @3 S0′ 1557. Between Bethel and Ai. That this signifies the celestial things of knowledges, and worldly things, is evident from the signification of “Bethel,” which is the light of wisdom by means of knowledges (see n. 1453); and from the signification of “Ai,” which is the light from worldly things (also spoken of in n. 1453). From what is there said, it may be seen what the Lord’s state then was, namely, that it was childlike; and the state of a child is such that worldly things are present; for worldly things cannot be dispersed until truth and good are implanted in celestial things by means of knowledges; for a man cannot distinguish between celestial and worldly things until he knows what the celestial is, and what the worldly. Knowledges make a general and obscure idea distinct; and the more distinct the idea is made by means of knowledges, the more can the worldly things be separated.
[2] But still that childlike state is holy, because it is innocent. Ignorance by no means precludes holiness, when there is innocence in it; for holiness dwells in ignorance that is innocent. With all men, except with the Lord, holiness can dwell solely in ignorance; and if not in ignorance, they have no holiness. With the angels themselves, who are in the highest light of intelligence and wisdom, holiness also dwells in ignorance; for they know and acknowledge that of themselves they know nothing, but that whatever they know is from the Lord. They also know and acknowledge that all their memory-knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom, is as nothing in comparison with the infinite knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom of the Lord; thus that it is ignorance. He who does not acknowledge that there are infinite things with which he is not acquainted, beyond those with which he is acquainted, cannot be in the holiness of ignorance in which are the angels.
[3] The holiness of ignorance does not consist in being more ignorant than others; but in the acknowledgment that of himself a man knows nothing, and that the things he does not know are infinite in comparison with those he does know; and especially does it consist in his regarding the things of the memory and of the understanding as being of but little moment in comparison with celestial things; that is, the things of the understanding in comparison with the things of the life. As regards the Lord, as He was conjoining things human with things Divine, He advanced according to order; and He now for the first time arrived at the celestial state such as He had had when a child; in which state worldly things also were present. By advancing from this into a state still more celestial, He at length came into the celestial state of infancy, and in this He fully conjoined the Human Essence with the Divine Essence.

AC (Potts) n. 1558 sRef Gen@13 @4 S0′ 1558. Verse 4. Unto the place of the altar which he had made there in the beginning; and there Abram called on the name of Jehovah. “Unto the place of the altar,” signifies the holy things of worship; “which he had made in the beginning,” signifies which He had when a child; “and there Abram called on the name of Jehovah,” signifies the internal worship in that state.

AC (Potts) n. 1559 sRef Gen@13 @4 S0′ 1559. Unto the place of the altar. That this signifies the holy things of worship, is evident from the signification of an “altar,” as being the principal representative of worship (concerning which, see n. 921).

AC (Potts) n. 1560 sRef Gen@13 @4 S0′ 1560. Which he had made in the beginning. That this signifies which He had when a child, is evident from what was said in the preceding chapter at verse 8. It is here said, “in the beginning,” and in the preceding verse, “at the first,” because that was before the Lord had been imbued with knowledges. All the state before a man is instructed, is “the first” [initium]; and when he begins to be instructed, it is “the beginning” [principium].

AC (Potts) n. 1561 1561. And there Abram called on the name of Jehovah. That this signifies the internal worship in that state, is evident from the signification of “calling on the name of Jehovah” (explained above, n. 440, 1455). Here too, because of the similarity of the states, mention is made of an “altar,” and it is said that he “called on the name of Jehovah,” as was the case in the preceding chapter, verse 8; but there is this difference, that as compared with the former, the state here described is a lucid one. When knowledges are implanted in the state described above, they make it lucid; and when truth and good are conjoined with the former celestial state by means of knowledges, its activity is then described as in the words now before us; for worship itself is nothing but a certain activity coming forth from the celestial which is within. The celestial itself cannot possibly exist without activity. Worship is its first activity; for it puts itself forth in this way, because it perceives joy in it. All the good of love and of charity is essential activity itself.

AC (Potts) n. 1562 sRef Gen@13 @5 S0′ 1562. Verse 5. And Lot also, who went with Abram, had flock and herd, and tents. “And Lot also, who went with Abram,” signifies the external man that was in the Lord; “had flock and herd, and tents,” signifies those things in which the external man abounds; “flock and herd” are the external man’s possessions; “tents” are his worship: these things were separating themselves from the internal man.

AC (Potts) n. 1563 sRef Gen@13 @5 S0′ 1563. And Lot also, who went with Abram. That this signifies the external man that was in the Lord, is evident from the representation of Lot, as being the sensuous man, or what is the same, the external man. That there is an internal and an external in every man, or what is the same, that man is internal and external, is known to everyone within the church (concerning which see what has been said before, n. 978, 994, 995, 1015). The external man receives its life principally from the internal man, that is, from the spirit or soul. Thence comes its very life in general; but this life cannot be received in its particulars, or distinctly, by the external man, unless its organic vessels are opened, which must be the recipients of the particulars and the singulars of the internal man. These organic vessels, which are to be the recipients, are not opened except by means of the senses, especially those of hearing and sight; and, as they are opened, the internal man can flow in with its particulars and singulars. They are opened with the senses as the media, by means of knowledges [scientifica et cognitiones], and also by means of pleasures and delights; those belonging to the understanding by means of knowledges, and those belonging to the will by means of pleasures and delights.
[2] From these things it may be seen that it must necessarily happen that such knowledges as cannot agree with spiritual truths will insinuate themselves into the external man; and that such pleasures and delights will insinuate themselves as cannot agree with celestial goods; as is the case with all those things which regard corporeal, worldly, and earthly things as the ends; which, when regarded as ends, draw the external man outward and downward, and so remove it from the internal man. Wherefore, unless such things are first dispersed, the internal man cannot possibly agree with the external; so that before the internal man can agree with the external, such things must first be removed. That with the Lord these things were removed or separated, is represented and signified by the separation of Lot from Abram.

AC (Potts) n. 1564 sRef Gen@13 @5 S0′ 1564. Had flock and herd, and tents. That this signifies the things with which the external man abounds, is evident from the signification of “flock,” “herd,” and “tents,” explained just below. They here signify the possessions of the external man; for by Lot, as before said, is represented the Lord’s external man. There are two classes of possessions in the external man, namely, such as can agree with the internal, and such as cannot agree. By “flock, herd, and tents” are here signified those things which cannot agree, as is evident from what follows-“and there was strife between the herdmen of Abram’s cattle and the herdmen of Lot’s cattle” (verse 7).

AC (Potts) n. 1565 sRef Jer@49 @28 S0′ sRef Zeph@2 @7 S0′ sRef Gen@13 @5 S0′ sRef Zeph@2 @5 S0′ sRef Jer@51 @23 S0′ sRef Zeph@2 @6 S0′ sRef Jer@49 @29 S0′ 1565. That “flock and herd” signify the possessions of the external man, is evident from the signification of “flock” and “herd,” as being goods (see n. 343 and 415); but here they signify things that are to be separated, and thus things that are not good, because they are attributed to Lot, who was being separated from Abram. That “flock” and “herd” signify also things not good, is evident from the following passages of the Word. In Zephaniah:
I will destroy thee, that there shall be no inhabitant. And the sea coast shall be habitations dug out for shepherds, and folds for a flock (Zeph. 2:5-6).
In Jeremiah:
I will disperse in thee the shepherd and the flock; and I will disperse in thee the husbandman and his yoke (Jer. 51:23).
In the same:
Go ye up to Arabia, and lay waste the sons of the east; their tents and their flocks shall they take (Jer. 49:28-29).

AC (Potts) n. 1566 sRef Jer@6 @3 S0′ sRef Hos@9 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@13 @5 S0′ sRef Hab@3 @7 S0′ sRef Hab@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@78 @51 S0′ sRef Ps@84 @10 S0′ 1566. That “tents” are the worship of that which was separating itself from the internal, is evident from the signification of “tent,” as being the holy of worship (n. 414); and also from the representation of Lot, as being the external man, of which “tents”-or worship-are predicated. That in the opposite sense “tents” signify worship not holy, is also evident from the following passages of the Word. In Hosea:
The nettle shall inherit them; thorns shall be in their tents (Hos. 9:6).
In Habakkuk:
I saw the tents of Cushan; the curtains of the land of Midian were greatly moved; Jehovah was angry against the rivers (Hab. 3:7-8).
In Jeremiah:
Shepherds with their flocks shall come unto the daughter of Zion; they shall pitch tents against her round about; they shall feed down everyone his space (Jer. 6:3).
In David:
He smote all the firstborn in Egypt, the beginning of strength in the tents of Ham (Ps. 78:51).
In the same:
I had rather stand at the threshold in the house of my God, than to dwell in the tents of wickedness (Ps. 84:10).

AC (Potts) n. 1567 sRef Gen@13 @6 S0′ 1567. Verse 6. And the land was not able to bear them that they might dwell together, because their substance was great, so that they could not dwell together. “The land was not able to bear them that they might dwell together,” signifies that the things belonging to the internal celestial things could not be together with the others; “because their substance was great, so that they could not dwell together,” signifies that the things that had been acquired by the internal man could not agree with those acquired in the external man.

AC (Potts) n. 1568 sRef Gen@13 @6 S0′ 1568. The land was not able to bear them that they might dwell together. This signifies that the things belonging to the internal celestial things could not be together with the others, that is, with those here signified by “Lot.” Abram, as before said, represents the Lord, here His internal man; but Lot represents His external man, here the things that were to be separated from the external man, with which the internal things could not dwell.
There are many things in the external man with which the internal man can dwell, such as affections of good, and the delights and pleasures thence originating; for these are the effects of the goods of the internal man, and of its joys and happiness; and when they are the effects, they altogether correspond; and they are then of the internal man and not of the external. For the effect, as is known, is not of the effect, but of the effecting cause; as, for example, the charity which shines forth from the face is not of the face, but is of the charity that is within, and which so forms the face, and presents the effect; or as the innocence of little children that shows itself in their looks, gestures, and play with each other, is not of the countenance or the gesture, but is of the innocence of the Lord that flows in through their souls; so that the manifestations of innocence are effects; and it is the same in all other cases.
[2] From this it is evident that there are many things in the external man that can dwell together and agree with the internal man. But there are also very many which do not agree, or together with which the internal man cannot dwell; this is the case with all things that spring from the love of self, and from the love of the world, for all such things regard self as the end, and the world as the end. With these the celestial things which are of love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor cannot agree; for these look to the Lord as the end, and to His kingdom and all things that are of Him and His kingdom as the ends. The ends of the love of self and the love of the world look outward or downward; but the ends of love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor look inward or upward; from all which it is evident that they disagree so much that they cannot possibly be together.
[3] That it may be known what makes the correspondence and agreement of the external man with the internal, and what makes the disagreement, one needs only to reflect upon the ends which reign; or what is the same, upon the loves which reign; for the loves are the ends; for whatever is loved is looked to as the end. It will thus be evident of what quality the life is, and what it will be after death; for, from the ends, or what is the same, from the loves which reign, the life is formed; the life of every man is nothing else. The things that disagree with eternal life-that is, with spiritual and celestial life, which is eternal life-if not removed in the life of the body, must be removed in the other life; and if they cannot be removed, the man cannot be otherwise than unhappy to eternity.
[4] These things are now said that it may be known that there are things in the external man which agree with the internal man, and things which disagree; and that those which agree cannot possibly be together with those that disagree; and further, that the things in the external man which agree, are from the internal man, that is, through the internal man from the Lord; like a face that beams from charity, or a face of charity; or like the innocence in the countenance and gestures of little children, as before said. But the things which disagree are of the man and what is his own. From what has been said it may be known what is signified by the words, “the land was not able to bear them that they might dwell together.” In the internal sense, the Lord is here treated of; and because the Lord, every likeness and image of Him is also treated of-His kingdom, the church, and every man of His kingdom or church; and it is for this reason that the things which are in men are here set forth. The things appertaining to the Lord, before He from His own power overcame evil, that is, the devil and hell, and so became celestial, Divine, and Jehovah, as to His Human essence also, are to be considered relatively to the state in which He then was.

AC (Potts) n. 1569 sRef Gen@13 @6 S0′ 1569. Because their substance was great, so that they could not dwell together. That this signifies that the things that had been acquired by the internal man could not agree with those acquired in the external may be seen from what has just been said.

AC (Potts) n. 1570 sRef Gen@13 @7 S0′ 1570. Verse 7. And there was strife between the herdmen of Abram’s cattle and the herdmen of Lot’s cattle; and the Canaanite and the Perizzite were then dwelling in the land. “There was strife between the herdmen of Abram’s cattle and the herdmen of Lot’s cattle,” signifies that the internal man and the external man did not agree; “the herdmen of Abram’s cattle,” are the celestial things; “the herdmen of Lot’s cattle,” are the sensuous things; “and the Canaanite and the Perizzite were then dwelling in the land,” signifies evils and falsities in the external man.

AC (Potts) n. 1571 sRef Gen@13 @7 S0′ 1571. There was strife between the herdmen of Abram’s cattle and the herdmen of Lot’s cattle. That this signifies that the internal man and the external did not agree, is evident from the signification of the “herdmen [or shepherds-pastores] of cattle,” as being those who teach, and thus things that are of worship, as may be known to everyone; it is therefore unnecessary to confirm this from the Word. These things relate to what were called “tents” in the preceding verse 5; and it was there pointed out that these signify worship. What is said in verse 6, that immediately precedes these words, relates to what were called “flock and herd” in verse 5; and in the consideration of that verse it was also pointed out that these denote possessions or acquisitions. As worship is here treated of, namely, that of the internal man and of the external, and as these did not yet agree, it is here said that “there was strife between the herdmen;” for Abram represents the internal man, and Lot the external. In worship the nature and quality of the disagreement between the internal man and the external are especially discernible, and this even in every single thing of worship; for when in worship the internal man desires to regard the ends that belong to the kingdom of God, and the external man desires to regard the ends that belong to the world, there thus arises a disagreement which manifests itself in the worship, and that so plainly that the smallest bit of such disagreement is noticed in heaven. This is what is signified by the “strife between the herdmen of Abram’s cattle and the herdmen of Lot’s cattle.” The cause is also subjoined, namely, that “the Canaanite and the Perizzite were then dwelling in the land.”

AC (Potts) n. 1572 sRef Gen@13 @7 S0′ 1572. That “the herdmen of Abram’s cattle” are the celestial things which are of the internal man, and that “the herdmen of Lot’s cattle” are the sensuous things which are of the external man, is evident from what has already been said. By the celestial things which are “the herdmen of Abram’s cattle,” are meant the celestial things in worship which are of the internal man. By “the herdmen of Lot’s cattle” are meant the sensuous things that are in worship, which are of the external man, and do not agree with the celestial things of the worship of the internal man. How these things stand, is evident from what has already been shown.

AC (Potts) n. 1573 sRef Gen@13 @7 S0′ 1573. And the Canaanite and the Perizzite were then dwelling in the land. That this signifies evils and falsities in the external man, is evident from the signification of “the Canaanite,” as being the hereditary evil from the mother in the external man (as before shown, n. 1444); and from the signification of “the Perizzite,” as being the derivative falsity (concerning which see below). That there was with the Lord an evil heredity from the mother in His external man, may be seen above (n. 1414, 1444); and that there was falsity from this, is a necessary consequence; for where there is hereditary evil, there is also falsity; the latter being born of the former. But the falsity that is from evil cannot be born until the man has been imbued with knowledges [scientifica et cognitiones]. Evil has nothing but these into which it may operate or flow; for in this way the evil which is of the will part is turned into falsity in the intellectual part; so that this falsity also was hereditary, because it was born of what was hereditary, and yet was not the falsity that is derived from principles of falsity; but it was in the external man, and there the internal man could see it to be false.
[2] And because there was hereditary evil from the mother before the Lord had been imbued with knowledges, or before Abram sojourned in Egypt, it is said in the preceding chapter, verse 6, that “the Canaanite was in the land,” but not the Perizzite; but here, after He had been imbued with knowledges, it is said that “the Canaanite and the Perizzite dwelled in the land;” from which it is evident that by “the Canaanite” is signified evil, and by “the Perizzite” falsity. It is also evident from this, that the mention of the Canaanite and the Perizzite is not in any historical series, for in what goes before and in what follows they are not treated of at all; and the same is true of the mention of the Canaanite in the foregoing chapter, verse 6; from all which it is evident that some arcanum lies hidden here which cannot be known except from the internal sense.
[3] Its being said that there was with the Lord hereditary evil from the mother may cause surprise, but as it is here so plainly declared, and as the Lord is treated of in the internal sense, it cannot be doubted that so it was. For no human being can possibly be born of another human being without thence deriving evil. But the hereditary evil derived from the father is one thing, and that from the mother is another. The hereditary evil from the father is more internal, and remains to eternity, for it cannot possibly be eradicated; but the Lord had not such evil, because He was born of Jehovah the Father, and thus as to internals was Divine or Jehovah. But the hereditary evil from the mother is of the external man; this did exist with the Lord, and it is called “the Canaanite in the land;” and the falsity from this is “the Perizzite.” Thus was the Lord born as are other men, and had infirmities as have other men.
sRef Luke@4 @13 S4′ sRef Luke@4 @14 S4′ sRef Luke@4 @1 S4′ sRef Luke@4 @2 S4′ [4] That He derived hereditary evil from the mother is clearly evident from the fact that He underwent temptations; no one can possibly be tempted who has no evil; it is the evil in a man which tempts, and through which he is tempted. That the Lord was tempted, and that he underwent temptations a thousandfold more grievous than any man can ever endure; and that He endured them alone, and overcame evil, or the devil and all hell, by His own power, is also evident.
Concerning these temptations we read thus in Luke:
Jesus was led in the spirit into the wilderness, being forty days tempted by the devil, so that He did not eat in those days. But after the devil had ended every temptation, he departed from Him for a season. Thence He returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee (Luke 4:1-2, 13-14).
sRef Mark@1 @13 S5′ sRef Luke@22 @44 S5′ sRef Mark@1 @12 S5′ [5] And in Mark:
The Spirit impelling Jesus made Him go forth into the wilderness. And He was in the wilderness forty days, being tempted, and He was with the wild beasts (Mark 1:12-13);
where hell is signified by “the wild beasts.” Moreover, He was tempted even unto death, so that His sweat was drops of blood:
And being in an agony, He prayed the more earnestly; and His sweat became as drops of blood falling down upon the earth (Luke 22:44).
[6] No angel can ever be tempted of the devil; because, while he is in the Lord, evil spirits cannot approach him, even distantly, without being instantly seized with horror and terror. Much less would hell have been able to approach the Lord if He had been born Divine; that is, without evil adhering from the mother.
sRef John@8 @46 S7′ [7] It is likewise a common expression with preachers, that the Lord also bore the iniquities and evils of the human race; but for Him to admit into Himself iniquities and evils, except by the hereditary way, is utterly impossible; for the Divine is not susceptible of evil. And therefore in order that He might conquer evil by His own powers-which no man has been able to do, or is able to do-and so might alone become righteousness, He was willing to be born as are other men. If it had not been for this, there would have been no need of His being born; for the Lord could have assumed the Human Essence without birth, as He did sometimes assume it, when seen by the Most Ancient Church, and likewise by the prophets, but for the additional purpose of putting on evil, against which He might fight, and which He might conquer, and might thus conjoin in Himself the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, He came into the world.
[8] But the Lord had no evil that was actual, or His own, as He also says in John:
Which of you convicted Me of sin? (John 8:46).
From what has been said it is now clearly evident what is signified by there being “strife between the herdmen of Abram’s cattle and the herdmen of Lot’s cattle,” which words immediately precede. The reason was that “the Canaanite and the Perizzite were then dwelling in the land.”

AC (Potts) n. 1574 sRef Gen@13 @7 S0′ sRef Gen@34 @30 S1′ 1574. That “the Canaanite” signifies the hereditary evil from the mother, in the external man, was before shown (n. 1444); but that “the Perizzite” signifies the falsity that is from evil, is evident from other passages in the Word where the Perizzite is named. As in the following concerning Jacob:
Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, Ye have troubled me, to make me to stink among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites; and I am mortals of number [i.e., few], and they will gather themselves together against me and smite me; and I shall be destroyed, I and my house (Gen. 34:30);
where in like manner evil is signified by “the Canaanite,” and falsity by “the Perizzite.”
sRef Josh@17 @15 S2′ [2] In Joshua:
Joshua said to the sons of Joseph, If thou be much people, get thee up to the forest, and cut down for thyself there in the land of the Perizzite and of the Rephaim, if Mount Ephraim is too narrow for thee (Josh. 17:15);
where principles of falsity are signified by “the Perizzite,” and persuasions of falsity by “the Rephaim,” which they were to extirpate; for in the spiritual sense “Mount Ephraim” is intelligence.
sRef Judg@1 @5 S3′ sRef Judg@1 @2 S3′ sRef Judg@1 @3 S3′ sRef Judg@1 @4 S3′ sRef Judg@1 @1 S3′ [3] In the book of Judges:
After the death of Joshua, the sons of Israel also asked of Jehovah, Who shall go up for us first against the Canaanite, to fight against him? And Jehovah said, Judah shall go up; behold I have given the land into his hand. And Judah said unto Simeon his brother, Come up with me into my lot, and let us fight against the Canaanite; and I likewise will go with thee into thy lot. And Simeon went with him. And Judah went up; and Jehovah gave the Canaanite and the Perizzite into their hand (Judg. 1:1-4);
where by “Judah” likewise is represented the Lord as to celestial things, and by “Simeon” as to the derivative spiritual things; “the Canaanite” is evil, and “the Perizzite” falsity, which were overcome. This was the response, or Divine oracle, which, with this explanation, is understood.

AC (Potts) n. 1575 sRef Gen@13 @8 S0′ 1575. Verse 8. And Abram said unto Lot, Let there be no contention, I pray, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen, for we are men brethren. “Abram said unto Lot,” signifies that the internal man said thus to the external. “Let there be no contention, I pray, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen,” signifies that there ought to be no disagreement between the two; “for we are men brethren,” signifies that in themselves they were united.

AC (Potts) n. 1576 sRef Gen@13 @8 S0′ 1576. Abram said unto Lot. That this signifies that the internal man said thus to the external, is evident from the representation of Abram, as being here the internal man; and from the representation of Lot, as being the external man that was to be separated. That Abram represents the internal man, is because he is spoken of relatively to Lot, who is that in the external man which was to be separated. There are in the external man, as before said, things that agree, and things that disagree. By “Lot” are here meant the things that disagree; by “Abram,” therefore, are meant those which agree, including those which are in the external man; for these together with the internal man constitute one thing, and they belong to the internal man.

AC (Potts) n. 1577 sRef Gen@13 @8 S0′ 1577. Let there be no contention, I pray, between me and thee. That this signifies that there ought to be no disagreement between the two, is evident from what has already been said. The arcana relating to the agreement or union of the internal man with the external are more than can ever be told. With no man have the internal man and the external ever been united; nor could they be united, nor can they be, but with the Lord only, for which cause also He came into the world. With men who have been regenerated, it appears as if they were united; but these belong to the Lord; for the things which agree are the Lord’s, but those which disagree are man’s.
[2] There are two things in the internal man, namely, the celestial and the spiritual, which two constitute a one when the spiritual is from the celestial; or what is the same, there are two things in the internal man, good and truth; these two constitute a one when the truth is from good; or what is also the same, there are two things in the internal man, love and faith; these two constitute a one when the faith is from love; or what is again the same, there are in the internal man two things, the will and the understanding; and these two constitute a one when the understanding is from the will. This may be apprehended still more clearly by considering the sun, from which is light. If in the light from the sun there are both heat and illuminating power, as in the springtime, all things are thereby made to vegetate and to live; but if there is not heat from the sun in the light, as in the time of winter, then all things become torpid and die.
[3] From all this it is evident what constitutes the internal man; and what constitutes the external thence appears. In the external man all is natural; for the external man itself is the same as the natural man. The internal man is said to be united to the external when the celestial spiritual of the internal man flows into the natural of the external, and makes them act as a one. As a consequence of this the natural also becomes celestial and spiritual, but a lower celestial and spiritual; or what is the same, the external man becomes celestial and spiritual, but a more external celestial and spiritual.
[4] The internal man and the external are altogether distinct, because celestial and spiritual things are what affect the internal man, but natural things are what affect the external. But though distinct, they are still united, namely, when the celestial spiritual of the internal man flows into the natural of the external, and disposes it as its own. In the Lord alone the internal man was united to the external; this is not the case in any other man, except so far as the Lord has united and does unite them. Love and charity only, or good, is what unites; and there is never any love and charity, that is, any good, except from the Lord. Such is the union that is intended in these words of Abram: “Let there be no contention between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen.”
[5] It is said, “Between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen,” for the case is thus: as there are two things in the internal man, namely, the celestial and the spiritual, which as before said make a one, so also are there in the external man, its celestial being called natural good, and its spiritual natural truth. “Let there be no contention between me and thee,” has reference to good, meaning that the good of the internal man should not disagree with the good of the external man; and “Let there be no contention between my herdmen and thy herdmen,” has reference to truth, meaning that the truth of the internal man should not disagree with the truth of the external man.

AC (Potts) n. 1578 sRef Gen@13 @8 S0′ 1578. For we are men brethren. That this signifies that they are united together, is evident from the signification of “man brother,” as being union, and in fact the union of truth and good.

AC (Potts) n. 1579 sRef Gen@13 @9 S0′ 1579. Verse 9. Is not the whole land before thee? Separate, I pray, from me; if to the left hand, then I will go to the right; and if to the right hand, then I will go to the left. “Is not the whole land before thee?” signifies all good. “Separate, I pray, from me,” signifies that the good cannot appear unless what is discordant is made none; “if to the left hand, then I will go to the right; and if to the right hand, then I will go to the left,” signifies separation.

AC (Potts) n. 1580 sRef Gen@13 @9 S0′ 1580. Is not the whole land before thee? That this signifies all good, is evident from the signification of “land” in a good sense, and here of the land of Canaan, which is the celestial, and therefore also good (concerning which see above, n. 566, 620, 636, 662). The internal man here addresses the external, but those things in the external man which disagree; as a man is wont to do when he perceives some evil in himself from which he desires to be separated, as is the case in temptations and combats. For it is known to those who have been in temptations and combats, that they perceive in themselves things which disagree; from which, so long as there is combat, they cannot be separated; but still they desire separation, and sometimes to such a degree that they are angry with the evil, and desire to expel it. These are the things that are here signified.

AC (Potts) n. 1581 sRef Gen@13 @9 S0′ 1581. Separate, I pray, from me. That this signifies that the good cannot appear unless what is discordant is made null is evident from what has just been said; namely, that the internal man desires that which disagrees, in the external man, should separate itself; for until it has been separated, the good which continually flows in from the internal man, that is, from the Lord through the internal man, cannot appear. But as regards this separation, it is to be known that it is not separation, but quiescence. With no one, except the Lord, can the evil that is in the external man be separated. Whatever a man has once acquired, remains; but it seems to be separated when it is quiescent, for thus it appears to be none. Neither does it become quiescent so as to appear as none, except from the Lord; and when it does thus become quiescent, then for the first time do goods flow in from the Lord, and affect the external man. Such is the state of the angels; nor do they know otherwise than that evil has been separated from them; whereas there is only a withholding from the evil, thus a quiescence, so that it appears as none; consequently this is an appearance, as also the angels know when they reflect.

AC (Potts) n. 1582 sRef Gen@13 @9 S0′ 1582. If to the left hand, then I will go to the right; and if to the right hand, then I will go to the left. That this signifies separation, is evident from the signification of “the right” and “the left.” Right and left are merely relative terms. They do not designate a fixed quarter, or a definite place; as is evident from the fact that the east as well as the west, the south as well as the north, may be on the right or on the left, according to the way in which one is looking. The same is true also of place. The land of Canaan could not be said to be on the right or on the left, except relatively. Wherever the Lord is, there is the center; and the right and the left are determined from that. Thus whether Abram, by whom the Lord was represented, withdrew this way or that way, still the representation was with him, and so also was the land; so that it was the same thing whether Abram was in the land of Canaan, or was elsewhere; just as it is with the one at table who is of the highest dignity, the highest place is wherever he sits, and the places to the right and the left are reckoned from that. To go to the right or the left, was therefore a form of offering the choice by which there was signified separation.

AC (Potts) n. 1583 sRef Gen@13 @10 S0′ 1583. Verse 10. And Lot lifted up his eyes, and saw all the plain of Jordan, that it was all well watered, before Jehovah destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of Jehovah, like the land of Egypt in coming to Zoar. “And Lot lifted up his eyes,” signifies that the external man was illuminated by the internal; “and saw all the plain of Jordan,” signifies the goods and truths that are in the external man; “that it was all well watered,” signifies that these can increase there; “before Jehovah destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah,” signifies the external man destroyed by the cupidities of evil and the persuasions of falsity; “like the garden of Jehovah,” signifies its rational things; “like the land of Egypt in coming to Zoar,” signifies memory-knowledges from the affections of good. These things signify that the external man appeared to the Lord such as it is in its beauty when conjoined with the internal man.

AC (Potts) n. 1584 sRef Gen@13 @10 S0′ 1584. Lot lifted up his eyes. That this signifies that the external man was illuminated by the internal, is evident from the signification of “lifting up the eyes,” as being to see, and, in the internal sense, to perceive, here, to be illuminated, because it is predicated of Lot, or the external man; for this, when it perceives what the external man is when conjoined with the internal, or what it is in its beauty, is then illuminated by the internal man, and is then in the Divine vision here treated of. Nor can it be doubted that the Lord when a child was as to His external man frequently in such Divine sight, because He alone was to conjoin the external man with the internal. The external man was His Human Essence; the internal man was the Divine Essence.

AC (Potts) n. 1585 sRef Gen@13 @10 S0′ 1585. And saw all the plain of Jordan. That this signifies those goods and truths that were in the external man, is evident from the signification of a “plain,” and of “Jordan.” In the internal sense “the plain of Jordan” signifies the external man as to all its goods and truths. That “the plain of Jordan” signifies this, is because the Jordan was a boundary of the land of Canaan. The land of Canaan, as before said and shown, signifies the Lord’s kingdom and church, and in fact the celestial and the spiritual things thereof; on which account it has also been called the Holy Land, and the Heavenly Canaan; and because it signifies the Lord’s kingdom and church, it signifies in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, who is the all in all of His kingdom and of His church.
[2] Hence all things that were in the land of Canaan were representative. Those which were in the midst of the land, or which were the inmost, represented the Lord’s internal man-as Mount Zion and Jerusalem, the former the celestial things, the latter the spiritual things. Those which were further distant from the center, represented the things more remote from the internals. Those which were the furthest off, or which were the boundaries, represented the external man. The boundaries of Canaan were several; in general, the two rivers Euphrates and Jordan, and also the sea. Hence the Euphrates and the Jordan represented the externals. Here, therefore, “the plain of Jordan,” signifies, as it represents, all things that are in the external man. The case is similar when the expression “land of Canaan” is applied to the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, or to the Lord’s church on earth, or again to the man of His kingdom or church, or, abstractly, to the celestial things of love, and so on.
sRef Jer@49 @19 S3′ sRef Jer@49 @17 S3′ sRef Ps@42 @6 S3′ [3] Hence it is that almost all the cities, and even all the mountains, hills, valleys, rivers, and other things, in the land of Canaan, were representative. It has already been shown (n. 120) that the river Euphrates, being a boundary, represented the things of sense and knowledge that belong to the external man. That the case is similar with the Jordan, and the plain of Jordan, may be seen from passages that now follow. In David:
O my God, my soul is bowed down within me; therefore will I remember Thee from the land of Jordan, and the Hermons, from the mountain of littleness (Ps. 42:6);
where “the land of Jordan” denotes that which is low, thus that which is distant from the celestial, as man’s externals are from his internals.
sRef Jer@12 @5 S4′ [4] That the sons of Israel crossed the Jordan when they entered the land of Canaan, and that it was then divided, likewise represented the access to the internal man through the external, and also man’s entrance into the Lord’s kingdom, besides other things. (See Josh. 3:14 to the end; 4:1 to the end.) And because the external man continually fights against the internal, and desires dominion, the “pride” or “swelling” of Jordan became a prophetic expression. As in Jeremiah:
How shalt thou offer thyself a match for horses? And in a land of peace thou art confident; but how wilt thou do in the swelling of Jordan? (Jer. 12:5).
“The swelling of Jordan” denotes the things that belong to the external man, which rise up and desire to dominate over the internal man, as reasonings do-which here are the “horses”- and the confidence that is from them.
sRef Zech@11 @3 S5′ sRef Zech@11 @2 S5′ [5] In the same:
Edom shall be for a desolation; behold he shall come up like a lion from the pride of Jordan to the habitation of Ethan (Jer. 49:17, 19);
“the pride of Jordan” denotes the rising of the external man against the goods and truths of the internal. In Zechariah:
Howl, O fir tree, for the cedar is fallen, because the magnificent ones are laid waste. Howl, O ye oaks of Bashan, for the defensed forest is come down. A voice of the howling of the shepherds, for their magnificence is laid waste; a voice of the roaring of young lions, for the swelling of Jordan is laid waste (Zech. 11:2-3).
That the Jordan was a boundary of the land of Canaan, is evident from Numbers 34:12; and of the land of Judah toward the east, from Joshua 15:5.

AC (Potts) n. 1586 sRef Gen@13 @10 S0′ 1586. That it was all well watered. That this signifies that goods and truths can grow there, is evident from the signification of “well watered” (see above, n. 108).

AC (Potts) n. 1587 sRef Gen@13 @10 S0′ 1587. Before Jehovah destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah. That this signifies the external man destroyed by the cupidities of evil and the persuasions of falsity, is evident from the signification of “Sodom,” as being the cupidities of evil, and from the signification of “Gomorrah,” as being the persuasions of falsity; for these two are what destroy the external man, and separate it from the internal, and these two were what destroyed the Most Ancient Church before the flood. The cupidities of evil are of the will, and the persuasions of falsity are of the understanding; and when these two reign, the whole external man is destroyed; and when it is destroyed, it is also separated from the internal man. Not that the soul or spirit is separated from the body, but that good and truth are separated from man’s soul or spirit, so as not to flow in except remotely; concerning which influx, of the Lord’s Divine mercy elsewhere. And because the external man was so destroyed in the human race, and its bond with the internal, that is, with good and truth, was broken, the Lord came into the world in order that He might conjoin and unite the external man to the internal, that is, the Human Essence to the Divine. What the external man is when conjoined with the internal, is here described, namely, that before Jehovah destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, it was “like the garden of Jehovah, like the land of Egypt in coming to Zoar.”

AC (Potts) n. 1588 sRef Ezek@28 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@13 @10 S0′ sRef Ezek@28 @13 S0′ sRef Isa@51 @3 S0′ 1588. Like the garden of Jehovah. That this signifies its rational things, is evident from the signification of “the garden of Jehovah,” as being intelligence (see n. 100), and consequently the rational, which is the medium between the internal and the external man. The rational is the intelligence of the external man. The expression “garden of Jehovah” is used when the rational is celestial, that is, from a celestial origin, as it was with the Most Ancient Church, concerning which in Isaiah:
Jehovah will comfort Zion; He will comfort all her waste places, and will make her wilderness as Eden, and her desert as the garden of Jehovah; joy and gladness shall be found in her, confession and the voice of a song (Isa. 51:3).
But the expression “garden of God” is used when the rational is spiritual, that is, from a spiritual origin, as it was in the Ancient Church, spoken of in Ezekiel:
Full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty, thou hast been in Eden the garden of God (Ezek. 28:12-13).
Man’s rational is compared to a “garden,” from the representative that is presented in heaven; it is man’s rational that appears as a garden when the celestial spiritual flows into it from the Lord; and even paradises are from this presented to the sight, which in magnificence and beauty surpass every idea of human imagination, which is the effect of the influx of celestial spiritual light from the Lord (spoken of before, n. 1042, 1043). The pleasant and the beautiful things of these paradises are not what affect the beholder, but the celestial spiritual things that live in them.

AC (Potts) n. 1589 sRef Gen@13 @10 S0′ 1589. Like the land of Egypt in coming to Zoar. That this signifies memory-knowledges from the affections of good, is evident from the signification of “Egypt” (see n. 1164, 1165; in a good sense, n. 1462) as being memory-knowledge; and from the signification of “Zoar,” as being the affection of good. Zoar was a city not far from Sodom, whither also Lot fled when rescued by the angels from the burning of Sodom (described, Gen. 19:20, 22, 30). Zoar is also named in other places (Gen. 14:2, 8; Deut. 34:3; Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:34), where also it signifies affection and as it signifies the affection of good, it also, in the opposite sense, as is common, signifies the affection of evil.
[2] There are three faculties which constitute the external man, namely, the rational, that of memory-knowledge, and the external sensuous. The rational is interior, the faculty of memory-knowledge is exterior, and this sensuous is outermost. It is the rational by means of which the internal man is conjoined with the external; and such as is the rational, such is the conjunction. The external sensuous, here, is the sight and the hearing. But in itself the rational is nothing, unless affection flows into it and makes it active, and causes it to live. It follows from this that the rational is such as is the affection. When the affection of good flows in, it becomes in the rational the affection of truth. The contrary is the case when the affection of evil flows in. As the faculty of memory-knowledge applies itself to the rational, and is an instrumentality for it, it follows that the affection inflows into this also, and disposes it; for nothing but affection ever lives in the external man. The reason of this is that the affection of good comes down from the celestial, that is, from celestial love, which vivifies everything into which it flows; it even vivifies the affections of evil, or cupidities.
[3] For the good of love from the Lord continually flows in through the internal man into the external; but the man who is in the affection of evil, or in cupidity, perverts the good; but still there remains life from it. This may be perceived by comparison with the objects which receive the rays of the sun. There are some that receive these rays most beautifully, and turn them into most beautiful colors, as do the diamond, the ruby, the jacinth, the sapphire, and other precious stones; but there are others which do not so receive them, but turn them into most disagreeable colors. The same may also be seen from the different genius of different men. There are those who receive goods from another with all affection; and there are those who turn them into evils. This shows what is that memory-knowledge from the affections of good that is signified by “the land of Egypt in coming to Zoar,” when the rational is “like the garden of Jehovah.”

AC (Potts) n. 1590 sRef Gen@13 @10 S0′ 1590. That these things signify that to the Lord there appeared the external man such as it is in its beauty when conjoined with the internal, may be seen from the internal sense, in which the Lord as to His internal man is represented by Abram, and as to the external by Lot. What the beauty of the external man is when conjoined with the internal cannot be described, because it does not exist with any man, but with the Lord alone. What exists in man and angel is from the Lord. Only in a small degree can this appear, from the image of the Lord as to His external man that is presented in the heavens (see n. 553 and 1530). The three heavens are images of the Lord’s external man; but their beauty can never be described by anything so as to present to anyone’s apprehension an idea of what it is. As in the Lord everything is infinite, so in heaven everything is indefinite (or unlimited). The indefinite of heaven is an image of the infinite of the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1591 sRef Gen@13 @11 S0′ 1591. Verse 11. And Lot chose him all the plain of Jordan; and Lot journeyed from the east; and they were separated, a man from his brother. “And Lot chose him all the plain of Jordan,” signifies the external man, that it was such; “and Lot journeyed from the east,” signifies the things in the external man that recede from celestial love; “and they were separated, a man from his brother,” signifies that those things cause the separation.

AC (Potts) n. 1592 sRef Gen@13 @11 S0′ 1592. Lot chose him all the plain of Jordan. That this signifies the external man, and that it was such, is evident from the signification of “the plain of Jordan,” explained in the preceding verse, which is the external man. In the preceding verse is described the beauty of the external man when it is conjoined with the internal, but its deformity when disjoined is described in this and the two following verses.

AC (Potts) n. 1593 sRef Gen@13 @11 S0′ 1593. And Lot journeyed from the east. That this signifies those things in the external man that recede from celestial love, is evident from the signification of “the east,” as being the Lord, and thus all that is celestial (concerning which above, n. 101); and as the Lord is signified by the east, it follows that “the east” here is the Lord’s internal man, which was Divine. Thus that the external man receded from the internal, is here signified by “Lot journeyed from the east.”

AC (Potts) n. 1594 sRef Gen@13 @11 S0′ 1594. And they were separated, a man from his brother. That this signifies that those things cause the separation, follows from what has been said. What “a man, a brother” signifies was stated above at verse 8, namely, union; and therefore “to be separated, a man from his brother,” signifies disunion. What disunites the external man from the internal man knows not, and this for many reasons. It is partly owing to his not knowing, or if told, to his not believing, that there is any internal man; and partly to his not knowing, or if told, to his not believing, that the love of self and its cupidities are what cause the disunion; and also the love of the world and its cupidities, but not so much as the love of self.
[2] The reason why man does not know, and if told, does not believe, that there is an internal man, is that he lives in corporeal and sensuous things, which cannot possibly see what is interior. Interior things can see what is exterior, but never exterior things what is interior. Take the case of sight: the internal sight can see what the external sight is; but the external sight cannot see what the internal sight is; or again, the intellectual and the rational can perceive what the faculty of memory-knowledge is, but not the reverse. A further cause is that man does not believe that there is a spirit which is separated from the body at death; and scarcely that there is an internal life which is called the soul; for when the sensuous and corporeal man thinks about the separation of the spirit from the body, it strikes him as an impossible thing, because he places life in the body, and confirms himself in this idea from the fact that brute animals also live, but still do not live after death; besides many other things. All this is a consequence of his living in corporeal and sensuous things; which kind of life, viewed in itself, scarcely differs from the life of brute animals, with the single exception that a man has ability to think and reason about the things he meets with; but upon this faculty, which brute animals have not, he does not then reflect.
[3] This cause, however, is not what most disunites the external man from the internal, for a very great part of mankind are in such unbelief, and the most learned more than the simple. But what disunites is principally the love of self; the love of the world, also, but not so much as the love of self. The reason why man does not know this is that he lives in no charity, and when he is living in no charity it cannot be apparent to him that a life of the love of self and its cupidities is so contrary to heavenly love. There is also in the love of self and its cupidities something glowing, and consequently delightful, which so affects the life that the man hardly knows otherwise than that therein consists eternal happiness itself; and therefore many place eternal happiness in becoming great after the life of the body, and in being served by others, even by angels; while they themselves desire to serve no one, except for the sake of self, with a hidden view to being served themselves. Their saying that they desire to serve the Lord alone is false, for they who are in the love of self desire to have even the Lord serve them, and so far as this is not done they fall back. Thus they carry in their heart the desire to become lords themselves, and to reign over the universe. It is easy to conceive what kind of government this would be, when many, nay, when all, were like this. Is not that government infernal in which everyone loves himself more than any other? This lies hidden in the love of self. From this we can see the nature of the love of self, and we can see it also from the fact that there is concealed within it hatred against all who do not subject themselves to it as slaves; and because there is hatred, there are also revenge, cruelties, deceits, and many other wicked things.
[4] But mutual love, which alone is heavenly, consists in a man’s not only saying of himself, but acknowledging and believing, that he is utterly unworthy, and that he is something vile and filthy, which the Lord from His infinite mercy continually withdraws and holds back from hell, into which the man continually strives, nay longs, to precipitate himself. His acknowledging and believing this, is because it is true; not that the Lord, or any angel, desires him to acknowledge and believe it for the sake of his submission; but that he may not exalt himself, seeing that he is even such; for this would be as if excrement should call itself pure gold, or a fly of the dunghill should say that it is a bird of paradise. So far therefore as a man acknowledges and believes himself to be such as he really is, he recedes from the love of self and its cupidities, and abhors himself. So far as he does this, he receives heavenly love from the Lord, that is, mutual love, which consists in the desire to serve all. These are they who are meant by “the least,” who become in the Lord’s kingdom the greatest (see Matt. 20:26-28; Luke 9:46-48).
[5] From what has been said we can see that what principally disjoins the external man from the internal is the love of self; and that what principally unites them is mutual love, which love is never possible until the love of self recedes, for these are altogether contrary to each other. The internal man is nothing else than mutual love. Man’s very spirit or soul is the interior man that lives after death; and it is organic, for it is adjoined to the body while the man is living in this world. This interior man, that is, the soul or spirit, is not the internal man; but the internal man is in it when mutual love is in it. The things that are of the internal man are the Lord’s; so that it may be said that the internal man is the Lord. But because to an angel or a man while he lives in mutual love, the Lord gives a heavenly Own, so that it appears no otherwise than that he does what is good of himself, the internal man is predicated of man, as if it were his. But he who is in mutual love acknowledges and believes that all that is good and true is not his, but the Lord’s; and his ability to love another as himself-and what is more, if he is like the angels, his ability to love another more than himself-he acknowledges and believes to be the Lord’s gift; from which gift and its happiness he recedes, so far as he recedes from the acknowledgment that it is the Lord’s.

AC (Potts) n. 1595 sRef Gen@13 @12 S0′ 1595. Verse 12. Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain, and pitched his tent as, far as Sodom. “Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan,” signifies that the internal man was in the celestial things of love; “and Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain,” signifies that the external man was in memory-knowledges; “and pitched his tent as far as Sodom,” signifies extension to cupidities.

AC (Potts) n. 1596 sRef Gen@13 @12 S0′ 1596. Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan. That this signifies that the internal man was in the celestial things of love, is evident from the signification of “the land of Canaan,” as being the celestial things of love, spoken of several times before.

AC (Potts) n. 1597 sRef Gen@13 @12 S0′ 1597. And Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain. That this signifies that the external man was in memory-knowledges, is evident from the representation of Lot, as being the external man; and from the signification of a “city,” or “cities,” as being doctrinal things, which in themselves are nothing but memory-knowledges when predicated of the external man while this is separated from the internal. (That “cities” signify doctrinal things, both true and false, was before shown, n. 402.)

AC (Potts) n. 1598 sRef Gen@13 @12 S0′ 1598. And pitched his tent as far as Sodom. That this signifies extension to cupidities, is evident from the signification of “Sodom” (explained above, at verse 10), as being cupidity. These things correspond to those in the preceding verse (10)-that “the plain of Jordan was all well watered, like the garden of Jehovah, like the land of Egypt in coming to Zoar;” where the external man when united to the internal was treated of; and by “the land of Egypt in coming to Zoar” was signified memory-knowledges from the affections of good. But here, that “Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain, and pitched his tent as far as Sodom,” signifies the external man when not united to the internal; and by these things is signified memory-knowledges from the affections of evil, or from cupidities. For there was described the beauty of the external man when united to the internal; but here, its deformity when not united; and still more is this deformity described in the verse that follows, where it is said, “and the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners against Jehovah exceedingly.”
What the deformity of the external man is when separated from the internal, may be seen by everyone from what has been said concerning the love of self and its cupidities, which are what principally disunite. As great as is the beauty of the external man when united to the internal, so great is its deformity when disunited. For considered in itself the external man is as nothing else than a servant to the internal; it is a kind of instrumentality by means of which ends may become uses, and uses be presented in effect, so that there may thus be a perfection of all things. The contrary takes place when the external man separates itself from the internal, and desires to be of service to itself alone; and still more is this the case when it desires to rule over the internal man, which is principally the case from the love of self and its cupidities, as has been shown.

AC (Potts) n. 1599 sRef Gen@13 @13 S0′ 1599. Verse 13. And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners against Jehovah exceedingly. “The men of Sodom were wicked and sinners against Jehovah exceedingly,” signifies the cupidities to which the memory-knowledges extended themselves.

AC (Potts) n. 1600 sRef Gen@13 @13 S0′ 1600. The men of Sodom were wicked and sinners against Jehovah exceedingly. That this signifies the cupidities to which the memory-knowledges extended themselves, is evident from the signification of “Sodom,” explained before, as being cupidities; and from the signification of “the men [viri],” as being intellectual and rational things, here, memory-knowledges, because they are predicated of the external man when separated from the internal. That “men” signify intellectual and rational things, was also shown above (n. 265, 749, 1007). Memory-knowledges are said to extend themselves to cupidities, when they are learned with no other end than that the man may become great; not that they may serve him for use, that he may thereby become good. All memory-knowledges are for the end that a man may become rational, and thus wise; and that thereby he may serve the internal man.

AC (Potts) n. 1601 sRef Gen@13 @14 S0′ 1601. Verse 14. And Jehovah said unto Abram, after that Lot was separated from him, Lift up, I pray, thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art, northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward. “Jehovah said unto Abram,” signifies that Jehovah spoke thus to the Lord; “after that Lot was separated from him,” signifies when the cupidities of the external man had been removed so as not to impede; “Lift up, I pray, thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art,” signifies the state in which the Lord then was, from which He could perceive things that were to come; “northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward,” signifies all men, as many as there are in the universe.

AC (Potts) n. 1602 sRef John@14 @8 S0′ sRef John@14 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@13 @14 S0′ sRef John@14 @10 S0′ sRef John@14 @11 S0′ sRef John@14 @9 S0′ 1602. Jehovah said unto Abram. That this signifies that Jehovah thus spoke to the Lord, may be seen from the internal sense of the Word, in which the Lord is meant by “Abram;” and also from the state itself in which He then was, which is also described here, namely, that the external things that impeded had been removed, which is signified by the words “after that Lot was separated from him.” In respect to the internal man, the Lord was Divine, because born from Jehovah; and therefore when nothing impeded on the part of the external man, it follows that He saw all things that were to come; and that this then appeared as if Jehovah spoke is because it appeared before the external man. In respect to His internal man the Lord was one with Jehovah, as He Himself teaches in John:
Philip said, Show us the Father. Jesus said, Have I been so long time with you, and hast thou not known Me, Philip? He that seeth Me seeth the Father; how sayest thou, then, Show us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:6, 8-11).

AC (Potts) n. 1603 sRef Gen@13 @14 S0′ 1603. After that Lot was separated from him. That this signifies when the cupidities of the external man had been removed so as not to impede, is evident from the representation of Lot, which is the external man, and from what precedes in regard to his being separated, that is, the things that would impede; and when these had been removed, the internal man, or Jehovah, acted as one with the external, or with the Lord’s Human Essence. The external things that do not agree, spoken of above, are what impede the internal man, while acting into the external, from making it a one with itself. The external man is nothing else than a kind of instrument, or something organic, having in itself no life; it receives life from the internal man, and then it appears as if the external man had life from itself.
sRef John@13 @32 S2′ sRef John@17 @1 S2′ sRef John@17 @5 S2′ sRef John@12 @28 S2′ sRef John@13 @31 S2′ [2] But with the Lord, after He had expelled the hereditary evil, and so had purified the organic things of His Human Essence, these too received life, so that the Lord, being already life in regard to His internal man, became life as to His external man also. This is what is signified by “glorification,” in John:
Jesus saith, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him. If God is glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him (John 13:31-32).
Again:
Father, the hour is come; glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee. Now therefore O Father glorify Thou Me with Thine own self, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was (John 17:1, 5).
Again:
Jesus said, Father, glorify Thy name. There came therefore a voice from heaven, I have both glorified, and will glorify it again (John 12:28).

AC (Potts) n. 1604 sRef Gen@13 @14 S0′ 1604. Lift up, I pray, thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art. That this signifies the state in which the Lord then was, is evident from the signification of “lifting up the eyes and looking,” which is to be illuminated and to perceive (as shown above, at verse 10); and from the signification of “place” in the internal sense, as being state. (That “place” is nothing else than state, was shown above, n. 1274, 1376-1379.)

AC (Potts) n. 1605 sRef Gen@13 @14 S0′ 1605. Northward, and southward, and eastward, and westward. That this signifies all men, as many as there are in the universe, is evident from the signification of these quarters. In the Word, the “north,” “south,” “east,” and “west,” has each its own signification. The “north” signifies those who are out of the church, namely, those who are in darkness as regards the truths of faith; and it also signifies the darkness in man. But the “south” signifies those who are within the church, that is, who are in the light as regards knowledges; and it likewise signifies the light itself. The “east” signifies those who lived previously; and it also signifies celestial love, as before shown. But the “west” signifies those who are to come, and in like manner those who are not in love. The special signification of these words is seen from the connection in the internal sense. But when they are all mentioned, as here, “the north, south, east, and west,” they signify all in the whole world who are now living, and also those who have been, and those who are to come; they also signify the states of the human race in regard to love and faith.

AC (Potts) n. 1606 sRef Gen@13 @15 S0′ 1606. Verse 15. For all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed forever. “For all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it,” signifies the heavenly kingdom, that it should be the Lord’s; “and to thy seed forever,” signifies those who should have faith in Him.

AC (Potts) n. 1607 sRef Dan@7 @13 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @69 S0′ sRef Gen@13 @15 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @18 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @14 S0′ sRef Matt@11 @27 S0′ sRef Luke@10 @22 S0′ sRef John@17 @3 S1′ sRef John@17 @2 S1′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S1′ 1607. For all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it. That this signifies the heavenly kingdom, that it should be the Lord’s, is evident from the signification of “the land,” and here of the land of Canaan-because it is said, “the land which thou seest”-as being the heavenly kingdom. For by the land of Canaan was represented the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, that is heaven, and the Lord’s kingdom on earth, or the church; which signification of “land” or “earth” has been several times treated of before. That the kingdom in the heavens and on earth has been given to the Lord, is evident from various passages of the Word. As in Isaiah:
Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given and the government shall be upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of eternity, Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6).
In Daniel:
I saw in the night visions, and behold one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven; and He came even to the Ancient of Days, and they brought Him near before Him. And there was given Him dominion, and glory, and a Kingdom; and all peoples, nations, and languages shall serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed (Dan 7:13, 14). The Lord Himself also says the same in Matthew:
All things are delivered unto Me of My Father (Matt. 11:27)
also in Luke (10:22). And again in Matthew:
All power [potestas] has been given unto Me in heaven and on earth (Matt. 28:18).
In John:
Thou gavest to the Son power [potestas] over all flesh, that whatsoever Thou hast given Him, to them He should give eternal life (Matt. 17:2, 3).
The same is also signified by His “sitting at the right hand,” as in Luke:
Now from henceforth shall the Son of man sit at the right hand of the power of God (Luke 22:69).
sRef John@17 @5 S2′ sRef John@8 @58 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S2′ sRef John@5 @26 S2′ [2] As regards all power being given unto the Son of man in the heavens and on earth, it is to be known that the Lord had power over all things in the heavens and on earth before He came into the world; for He was God from eternity and Jehovah, as He plainly says in John:
Now, O Father, glorify Thou Me with Thine own self, with the glow which I had with Thee before the world was (John 17:5);
and again:
Verily, verily, I say unto you, before Abraham was, I am* (John 8:58);
for He was Jehovah and God to the Most Ancient Church that was before the flood, and was seen by them. He was also Jehovah and God to the Ancient Church that was after the flood. And it was He who has represented by all the rites of the Jewish Church, and whom they worshiped. But the reason He says that all power was given unto Him in heaven and on earth, as if it were then His for the first time, is that by “the Son of man” is meant His Human Essence; and this, when united to His Divine Essence, was also Jehovah, and at the same time had power; and this could not be the case until He had been glorified, that is, until by unition with the Divine Essence His Human Essence also had life in itself, and so became in like manner Divine and Jehovah; as He says in John:
As the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:26).
[3] It is His Human Essence, or external man, that is likewise called “Son of man” in Daniel, in the passage quoted above; and of which it is said in the passage quoted from Isaiah, “A Child is born and a Son is given to us.” That the heavenly kingdom should be given to Him, and all power in the heavens and on earth, He now saw, and it was now promised Him; and this is signified by the words, “all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed after thee forever.” This was before His Human Essence had been united to His Divine Essence, which was united when He had overcome the devil and hell, that is, when by His own power and His own might He had expelled all evil, which alone disunites.
* The Latin has fui, but elsewhere sum, as in n. 9315.

AC (Potts) n. 1608 sRef Gen@13 @15 S0′ sRef John@3 @35 S1′ sRef John@3 @36 S1′ 1608. And to thy seed forever. That this signifies those who should have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of “seed,” as being faith, and indeed the faith of charity (spoken of before, n. 255, 256, 1025). That the heavenly kingdom should be given to His seed, that is, to those who have faith in Him, is clearly evident from the words of the Lord Himself in John:
The Father loveth the Son,, and hath given all things into His hand he that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life, but he that believeth not the Son shall not see life (John 3:35-36).
sRef John@1 @13 S2′ sRef John@1 @12 S2′ [2] And again:
As many as received Him, to them gave He power [potestas] to become the sons of God, to those that believe in His name, who were born not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man (John 1:12-13).
From these words it is evident what faith, or believing in Him, is, namely, that it is with those who receive Him and believe in Him, not from “the will of the flesh,” nor from “the will of man.” “The will of the flesh” is what is contrary to love and charity, for this is signified by “flesh” (n. 999); and “the will of man” is what is contrary to the faith that is from love or charity, for this is what is signified by “man.” For the will of the flesh and the will of man are what disjoin; but love and the derivative faith are what conjoin; therefore they in whom are love and the derivative faith, are they who are born of God. And because they are born of God, they are called “sons of God,” and are His “seed,” to whom is given the heavenly kingdom. These things are signified by the following words in this verse: “all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed, forever.”
[3] That the heavenly kingdom cannot be given to those who are in faith without charity, that is, to those who say that they have faith and yet hold the neighbor in hatred, may be seen by anyone who is willing to reflect; for there can be no life in such faith, when hatred, that is hell, constitutes the life. For hell consists of nothing but hatreds; not of the hatreds which a man has received hereditarily, but of those which he has acquired by actual life.

AC (Potts) n. 1609 sRef Gen@13 @16 S0′ 1609. Verse 16. And I will make thy seed as the just of the earth; so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered. “I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth,” signifies multiplication immeasurably; “so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered,” signifies asseveration.

AC (Potts) n. 1610 sRef Gen@13 @16 S0′ 1610. I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth. That this signifies multiplication immeasurably, is evident without explication. It is here said that his seed should be made “as the dust of the earth;” in other places in the Word, “as the sand of the sea,” and in others, “as the stars of the heavens.” Each expression has its own peculiar signification. “The dust of the earth” refers to things that are celestial, for “the earth,” as before shown, signifies the celestial of love. “The sand of the sea” refers to things that are spiritual; for “the sea,” as has also been shown, signifies the spiritual of love. “As the stars of the heavens” signifies both of these, in a higher degree; and as none of these things can be numbered, it became a customary form of speaking to express by them immeasurable fructification and multiplication.
[2] That his seed (that is, the faith of love, or love) should be immeasurably multiplied, in the supreme sense, signifies the Lord, and in fact His Human Essence; for the Lord as to His Human Essence was called “the Seed of the woman” (see n. 256). And when the Lord’s Human Essence is signified, by immeasurable multiplication is meant the infinite celestial and spiritual; but when the faith of charity, or charity, in the human race, is signified by “seed,” it is meant that this seed in each one who lives in charity is immeasurably multiplied; as also comes to pass in the other life, with everyone who lives in charity. With such a one, charity and the derivative faith, and, together with these, happiness, are multiplied to such a degree, that it can only be described as immeasurable, and beyond words. When by “seed” there is signified the human race, the multiplication of this in the Lord’s Kingdom is also immeasurable, not only from those who are within the church and their children, but also from those who are without the church and their children. Hence the kingdom of the Lord, or heaven, is immeasurable. Concerning its immensity, of the Lord’s Divine mercy more will be said elsewhere.

AC (Potts) n. 1611 sRef Gen@13 @17 S0′ 1611. Verse 17. Arise, walk through the land, in the length of it, and in the breadth of it; for unto thee will I give it. “Arise, walk through the land,” signifies that He should survey the heavenly kingdom; “in the length of it, and in the breadth of it,” signifies its celestial and its spiritual: “for unto thee will I give it,” signifies that it was to be His.

AC (Potts) n. 1612 sRef Gen@13 @17 S0′ 1612. Arise, walk through the land. That this signifies that He should survey the heavenly kingdom, is evident from the signification of “the land,” as being the heavenly kingdom (spoken of several times before). To “arise and walk through the land,” in the sense of the letter, is to explore and see what it is; in the spiritual sense, therefore, in which by “the land,” that is, the land of Canaan, is signified the kingdom of God in the heavens, or heaven, and the kingdom of God on the earth, or the church, it signifies to survey, and also to perceive.

AC (Potts) n. 1613 sRef Gen@13 @17 S0′ 1613. In the length of it and in the breadth of it. That this signifies the celestial and the spiritual, or what is the same, good and truth [may be seen from the signification of “length” and “breadth”]. That “length” signifies good, and “breadth” truth, may be seen explained before (n. 650). The reason is that “the land” signifies the heavenly kingdom, or the church, of which no length and breadth can be predicated, but only those things which are applicable and correspondent, which are goods and truths. The celestial, or good, being primary, is compared to length; and the spiritual or truth, being secondary, is compared to breadth.
sRef Hos@4 @16 S2′ sRef Ps@118 @5 S2′ sRef Hab@1 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@8 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@31 @8 S2′ [2] That “breadth” is truth, appears plainly enough in the prophetic Word. As in Habakkuk:
I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and swift nation, that walketh in the breadths of the land (Hab. 1:6);
“the Chaldeans” denote those who are in falsity; “to walk in the breadths of the land,” denotes to destroy truths, for this is predicated of the Chaldeans. In David:
O Jehovah, Thou hast not shut me up into the hand of the enemy; Thou hast made my feet to stand in a broad place (Ps. 31:8);
“to stand in a broad place,” denotes in truth. Again:
Out of straightness have I called upon Jah; Jah answered me in a broad place (Ps. 118:5);
“to answer in a broad place,” denotes in the truth. In Hosea:
Jehovah will feed them as a lamb, in a broad place (Hos. 4:16);
“to feed in a broad place,” signifies to teach truth.
sRef Rev@21 @16 S3′ [3] In Isaiah:
Asshur shall go through Judah, he shall overflow and pass through, he shall reach even to the neck, and the stretchings out of his wings shall be the fullness of the breadth of thy land (Isa. 8:8);
“Asshur” denotes reasoning, which will overflow the land, or the church; “the wings” denote the reasonings whence falsities arise; “the fullness of the breadth,” denotes that it is full of falsities, or things contrary to truth. Because the “length” of a land signifies good, and its “breadth” truth, the New Jerusalem is said to have been measured, and to lie foursquare, and its length to be as great as its breadth (Rev. 21:16), from which everyone can see that the length and the breadth signify nothing else, since the New Jerusalem is nothing else than the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens and on earth. From the signification of things in the internal sense, modes of speaking concerning celestial and spiritual things by means of such things as are on earth, as by length and breadth, formerly became familiar; as the terms height and depth are used in common discourse at the present day, when predicated of wisdom.

AC (Potts) n. 1614 sRef Gen@13 @17 S0′ 1614. For unto thee will I give it. That this signifies that it should be His, is evident without explication. That “the land,” or the heavenly kingdom, is the Lord’s alone, is evident from what has been shown so many times, namely, that no other is the Lord of heaven; and as He is the Lord of heaven, He is the Lord of the church also. It is also evident from the fact that all the celestial and the spiritual, or good and truth, are from the Lord alone, and from these the Lord is the all in all of His heaven, and this so completely that he who has no apperception of good and truth from the Lord, is no longer in heaven. This is the sphere that reigns in the universal heaven; this also is the soul of heaven; and this is the life that inflows into all who are in good.

AC (Potts) n. 1615 sRef Gen@13 @18 S0′ 1615. Verse 18. And Abram pitched his tent, and came and dwelt in the oak-groves of Mamre that are in Hebron, and there he built an altar to Jehovah. “Abram pitched his tent, and came and dwelt in the oak-groves of Mamre that are in Hebron,” signifies that the Lord came to a perception still more internal; this is the sixth state; “and there he built an altar to Jehovah,” signifies worship from that state.

AC (Potts) n. 1616 sRef Gen@13 @18 S0′ 1616. And Abram pitched his tent, and came and dwelt in the oak-groves of Mamre that are in Hebron. That this signifies that the Lord attained to a perception still more internal, is evident from the signification of “pitching a tent,” that is, of moving and fixing a tent, as being to be conjoined,-for a “tent” is the holy of worship (as shown before, n. 414, 1452), by which the external man is conjoined with the internal-and from the signification of an “oak-grove,” as being perception, as explained above (n. 1442, 1443), where it was “the oak-grove of Moreh,” which is the first perception; but here, “the oak-groves of Mamre,” in the plural, which signify more perception, that is, perception more internal. This perception is called “the oak-groves of Mamre that are in Hebron.” “Mamre” is also mentioned elsewhere (as in Gen. 14:13; 18:1; 23:17-19; 35:27), and Hebron likewise (as in Gen. 35:27; 37:14; Josh. 10:36, 39; 14:13-15; 15:13, 54; 20:7; 21:11, 13; Judges 1:10, 20; and in other places); but with what signification, will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be seen where these passages are explained.
[2] As to “the oak-groves of Mamre that are in Hebron” signifying a still more internal perception, the case is as follows. As the things that are of the external man are conjoined with the celestial things of the internal man, so perception increases and becomes more internal. Conjunction with celestial things gives perception; for in the celestial things that are of love to Jehovah is the very life of the internal man; or what is the same, in the celestial things that are of love, that is, in celestial love, Jehovah is present, which presence is not perceived in the external man until conjunction has been effected, all perception being from conjunction.
[3] From the internal sense it is here evident how the case was with the Lord, namely, that His external man, or the Human Essence, was conjoined with the Divine Essence by degrees, according to the multiplication and fructification of knowledges. In no way can anyone, as a man, be conjoined with Jehovah or the Lord, except by means of knowledges, for by means of knowledges a man becomes a man; and so the Lord, because born as are other men, was also instructed as they are, but into His knowledges as receptacles celestial things were constantly being insinuated, so that the knowledges continually became the recipient vessels of celestial things, and themselves also became celestial.
[4] He continually advanced in this way to the celestial things of infancy for, as before said, the celestial things that are of love are insinuated from the earliest infancy up to childhood, and also to youth, when being a man he is then and afterwards imbued with knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones]. If the man is such that he can be regenerated, these knowledges are then filled with the celestial things that are of love and charity, and are thus implanted in the celestial things with which he has been gifted from infancy up to childhood and youth; and thus his external man is conjoined with his internal man.
They are first implanted in the celestial things with which he was gifted in youth, next in those with which he was gifted in childhood, and finally in those with which he was gifted in infancy; and then he is a “little child,” of whom the Lord said that “of such is the kingdom of God.” This implantation is effected by the Lord alone; and for this reason nothing celestial is possible with man, nor can be, that is not from the Lord, and that is not the Lord’s.
[5] But the Lord from His own power conjoined His external man with His internal man, and filled His knowledges with celestial things, and implanted them in the celestial things, and this in fact according to Divine order; first in the celestial things of His childhood, next in the celestial things of the age between childhood and infancy; and finally in the celestial things of His infancy; and thus at the same time became, as to the Human Essence,, innocence itself and love itself, from which are all innocence and all love in the heavens and on earth. Such innocence is true infancy, because it is at the same time wisdom. But the innocence of infancy, unless by means of knowledges it becomes the innocence of wisdom, is of no use; and therefore in the other life infants are imbued with knowledges. As the Lord implanted knowledges in celestial things, so had He perception, for, as before said, all perception is from conjunction. He had His first perception when He implanted the memory-knowledges of childhood, which perception is signified by “the oak-grove of Moreh;” and His second, treated of here, which is more internal, when He implanted knowledges, which perception is signified by “the oak-groves of Mamre that are in Hebron.”

AC (Potts) n. 1617 sRef Gen@13 @18 S0′ 1617. That this is the sixth state, is evident from the things contained in the preceding chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 1618 sRef Gen@13 @18 S0′ 1618. And there he built an altar to Jehovah. That this signifies worship from that state, is evident from the signification of “an altar,” as being a representative of all worship in general (explained before, n. 921). By worship, in the internal sense, is meant all conjunction through love and charity. When a man is in love and charity he is continually in worship, external worship being merely the effect. The angels are in such worship; with them, therefore, there is a perpetual Sabbath; and from this the Sabbath, in the internal sense, signifies the Lord’s kingdom. But man, while in the world, ought not to be otherwise than in external worship also; for by external worship internal things are excited, and by means of external worship external things are kept in holiness, so that internal things can flow in. And besides, man is thus imbued with knowledges, and is prepared for receiving celestial things, and is also gifted with states of holiness, although he is unaware of this; which states of holiness are preserved to him by the Lord for the use of eternal life, for in the other life all the states of his life return.

AC (Potts) n. 1619 1619.CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE LIGHT IN WHICH THE ANGELS LIVE: ALSO CONCERNING THEIR PARADISAL SCENES, AND THEIR DWELLINGS.
When man’s interior sight is opened, which is the sight of his spirit, the things in the other life appear, which cannot possibly be made visible to the sight of the body. The visions of the prophets were nothing else. In heaven, as has been said, there are continual representations of the Lord and His kingdom; and there are things that are significative; and this to such an extent that nothing exists before the sight of the angels that is not representative and significative. Thence come the representatives and significatives in the Word; for the Word is from the Lord through heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 1620 1620. The things presented to view in the world of spirits and in heaven are more than can be told. In this place, as the light is treated of, it is proper to tell of the things that are immediately from the light; such as the atmospheres, the paradisal and rainbow scenes, the palaces and dwellings, which are there so bright and living before the outer sight of spirits and angels, and are at the same time perceived so fully by every sense, that they say that these are real, and those in the world comparatively not real.

AC (Potts) n. 1621 1621. As regards the atmospheres in which the blessed live, which are of the light because from that light, they are numberless, and are of beauty and pleasantness so great that they cannot be described. There are diamond-like atmospheres, which glitter in all their least parts, as if they were composed of diamond spherules. There are atmospheres resembling the sparkling of all the precious stones. There are atmospheres as of great pearls translucent from their centers, and shining with the brightest colors. There are atmospheres that flame as from gold, also from silver, and also from diamond-like gold and silver. There are atmospheres of flowers of variegated hue that are in forms most minute and scarcely discernible; such, in endless variety, fill the heaven of infants. There are even atmospheres as of sporting infants, in forms most minute, indiscernible, and perceptible only to an inmost idea; from which the infants receive the idea that all the things around them are alive, and are in the Lord’s life; which affects their inmosts with happiness. There are other kinds besides, for the varieties are innumerable, and are also unspeakable.

AC (Potts) n. 1622 1622. As regards the paradisal scenes, they are amazing. Paradisal gardens are presented to view of immense extent, consisting of trees of every kind, and of beauty and pleasantness so great as to surpass every idea of thought; and these gardens are presented with such life before the external sight that those who are there not only see them, but perceive every particular much more vividly than the sight of the eye perceives such things on earth. That I might not be in doubt respecting this, I was brought to the region where those are who live a paradisal life, and I saw it; it is in front of and a little above the corner of the right eye. Each and all things there appear in their most beautiful springtime and flower, with a magnificence and variety that are amazing; and they are living, each and all, because they are representatives; for there is nothing that does not represent and signify something celestial and spiritual. Thus they not only affect the sight with pleasantness, but also the mind with happiness.
[2] Certain souls, newcomers from the world-who from principles received while they lived, doubted the possibility of such things existing in the other life, where there is no wood and stone-being taken up thither and speaking thence with me, said in their amazement that it was beyond words, and that they could in no way represent the unutterableness of what they saw by any idea, and that joys and delights shone forth from every single thing, and this with successive varieties. The souls that are being introduced into heaven are for the most part carried first of all to the paradisal regions. But the angels look upon these things with different eyes; the paradises do not delight them, but the representatives; thus the celestial and spiritual things from which these come. It was from these representatives that the Most Ancient Church had what related to paradise.

AC (Potts) n. 1623 1623. As regards the rainbow scenes, there is as it were a rainbow heaven, where the whole atmosphere throughout appears to be made up of minute rainbows. Those who belong to the province of the interior eye are there, at the right in front, a little way up. There the whole atmosphere, or aura, is made up of such flashes of light, irradiated thus, as it were, in all its origins. Around is the encompassing form of an immense rainbow, most beautiful, composed of similar smaller ones that are the beauteous images of the larger. Every color is thus made up of innumerable rays, so that myriads enter into the constitution of one general perceptible ray; and this is as it were a modification of the origins of the light from the celestial and spiritual things that produce it; and which at the same time present before the sight the representative idea. The varieties and varyings of the rainbows are innumerable; some of them I have been permitted to see; and that some idea may be conceived of their variety, and that it may be seen of what innumerable rays one visible ray consists, one or two of the varieties may be described.

AC (Potts) n. 1624 1624. I saw the form of a certain large rainbow, in order that from it I might know what they are in their smallest forms. The light was the brightest white, encompassed with a sort of border or circumference, in the center of which there was a dimness as it were terrene, and around this it was intensely lucid, which intense lucidity was varied and intersected by another lucidity with golden points, like little stars; besides variegations induced by means of flowers of variegated hue, that entered into the intense lucidity. The colors of the flowers did not flow forth from a white, but from a flaming light. All these things were representative of things celestial and spiritual. All the colors seen in the other life represent what is celestial and spiritual; colors from flaming light, the things that are of love and of the affection of good; and colors from shining white light, those which are of faith and of the affection of truth. From these origins come all the colors in the other life; and for this reason they are so refulgent that the colors in this world cannot be compared to them. There are also colors that have never been seen in this world.

AC (Potts) n. 1625 1625. A rainbow form was also seen in the midst of which there was a green space, as of herbage; and there was perceived the semblance of a sun which was itself unseen, at one side, illuminating it, and pouring in a light of such shining whiteness as cannot be described. At the outer border or circumference, there were the most charming variations of color, on a plane of pearly light. From these and other things it has been shown what are the forms of the rainbows in their minutest parts, and that there are indefinite variations, and this in accordance with the charity, and the derivative faith, of him to whom the representations are made, and who is as a rainbow to those to whom he is presented in his comeliness and in his glory.

AC (Potts) n. 1626 sRef Rev@21 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @19 S0′ 1626. Besides these paradisal scenes, cities are also presented to view, with magnificent palaces, contiguous to one another, resplendent in their coloring, beyond all the art of the architect. Nor is this to be wondered at; cities of similar appearance were seen also by the prophets, when their interior sight was opened, and this so clearly that nothing in the world could be more distinct. Thus was the New Jerusalem seen by John, which is also described by him in these words:
And he carried me away in the spirit upon a mountain great and high, and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem; having a wall great and high, having twelve gates; and the building of the wall thereof was jasper; and the city was pure gold, like unto golden glass. The foundations of the wall there adorned with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald, the fifth sardonyx, the sixth sardius, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprasus, the eleventh jacinth, the twelfth amethyst (Rev. 21:10, 12, 18-20).
Such things were seen also by the prophets. Similar things, beyond number, are seen by angels and angelic spirits in clear day; and wonderful to say, they are perceived with all fullness of sense. These things cannot be credited by one who has extinguished spiritual ideas by the terms and definitions of human philosophy, and by reasonings; and yet they are most true. That they are true might have been apprehended from the fact that they have been seen so frequently by the saints.

AC (Potts) n. 1627 1627. Besides the cities and palaces, I have sometimes been permitted to see their decorations, such as those of the steps and of the gates and these were moving as if alive, and continually changing, with a beauty and symmetry ever new. And I have been informed that the variations may thus succeed each other perpetually, even if it were to be to eternity, with new harmony continually, the succession itself also forming a harmony. And I have been told that these were among the very little things.

AC (Potts) n. 1628 1628. All the angels have their own dwellings in the places where they are, and they are magnificent. I have been there, and have sometimes seen and marveled at them, and have there spoken with the angels. They are so distinct and clearly seen that nothing can be more so. In comparison with these, the habitations on earth amount to scarcely anything. They also call those which are on the earth dead, and not real; but their own, living and true, because from the Lord. The architecture is such that the art itself is derived from it, with a variety that knows no limit. They have said that if all the palaces in the whole world should be given them, they would not receive them in exchange for their own. What is made of stone, clay, and wood is to them dead; but what is from the Lord, and from life itself and light itself, is living; and this is the more the case that they enjoy them with all fullness of sense. For the things that are there are perfectly adapted to the senses of spirits and angels; for spirits cannot see at all by their sight the things that are in the light of the solar world; but things of stone and wood are adapted to the senses of men in the body. Spiritual things are in correspondence with those who are spiritual, and corporeal things with those who are corporeal.

AC (Potts) n. 1629 1629. The habitations of good spirits and of angelic spirits commonly have porticos or long entrance halls, arched, and sometimes doubled, where they walk. The walls of these are formed with much variety, and are also decorated with flowers and garlands of flowers wonderfully woven together, and with many other ornaments, that are varied and succeed one another, as before said; these they see, now in a clearer light, and now in one less clear, but always with inward delight. Their dwellings are also changed into more beautiful ones, as the spirits who inhabit them are perfected. When they are changed, there appears something representing a window, at one side; this is enlarged, and it becomes darker within; and there opens as it were something of heaven, with stars, also a kind of cloud; which is an indication that their dwellings are to be changed into dwellings still more pleasant.

AC (Potts) n. 1630 1630. Spirits are very indignant that men have no conception of the life of spirits and angels, and that they suppose them to be in an obscure state, which cannot but be most sad, and as it were in vacuity and emptiness; when yet they are in the greatest light, and in the enjoyment of all good things as to all the senses, and this with an inmost perception of them. There have also been souls who had lately come from the world, and who had brought with them, from the principles there accepted, the idea that there were no such things in the other life. They were therefore introduced into the homes of angels, and spoke with those who were there, and saw these things. When they returned, they said that they had perceived that it was so, and that the things were real; but that they had not at all believed this in the life of the body, and could not believe it; also that these must of necessity be among those wonderful things that are not believed because they are not comprehended. But as the experience is a thing of sense, but of the interior sense, this also was said to them-that still they are not to doubt because they do not apprehend; for if nothing were believed except that which is apprehended, nothing would be believed respecting the things of interior nature; still less concerning the things that are of eternal life. Hence comes the insanity of our age.

AC (Potts) n. 1631 1631. They who had been rich in the life of the body, and had dwelt in magnificent palaces, placing their heaven in such things, and, being destitute of conscience and charity, had despoiled others of their goods under various pretenses, when they come into the other life, are, as before said, first introduced into the very same life that they had in the world. And there also they are sometimes allowed to dwell in palaces, as they had done in the world. For in the other life all are at first received as guests and as newcomers; and as their interiors and ends of life are not yet to be disclosed, angels from the Lord treat them with favor and kindness. But the scene is changed. The palaces are gradually dissipated, and become small houses, more and more mean, and at last none at all. And then they wander about, like those who ask alms, and beg to be received. But because they are of such a character, they are expelled from the societies; and at last they become excrementitious, and exhale a sphere of the stench of teeth.

AC (Potts) n. 1632 1632. I have spoken with angels concerning representatives, to the effect that there is nothing in the vegetable kingdom on the earth that does not in some way represent the Lord’s kingdom. They said that all the beautiful and graceful things in the vegetable kingdom derive their origin from the Lord through heaven; and that when the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord inflow into nature, such things have actual existence; and that this is the source of the vegetative soul or life. Hence come representatives. And as this is not known in the world, it was called a heavenly secret.

AC (Potts) n. 1633 1633. I have likewise been fully informed concerning the nature of the influx into the lives of animals, all of which are dissipated after death; but concerning this subject, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC (Potts) n. 1634 1634. CHAPTER 14
CONCERNING THE SPEECH OF SPIRITS AND ANGELS
It is known from the Word of the Lord that many persons formerly spoke with spirits and angels, and that they heard and saw many things that are in the other life; but that afterwards heaven was as it were shut, insomuch that at the present day the existence of spirits and angels is scarcely credited, and still less that anyone can speak with them; for men regard it as impossible to speak with the unseen, and with those whose existence they in their hearts deny. But as of the Lord’s Divine mercy I have now for some years been permitted to hold converse with spirits and angels almost continually, and to be in companionship with them as one of themselves, I may now relate what it has been given me to learn concerning their speech with one another.

AC (Potts) n. 1635 1635. The speech of spirits with me has been heard and perceived as distinctly as the speech of man with man; indeed, when I have spoken with them while I have been in company with men, I observed that just in the same way as I heard the men speaking sonorously, so also did I hear the spirits; insomuch that the spirits sometimes wondered that others did not hear what they said to me; for as regards the hearing there was absolutely no difference. But as the influx into the internal organs of hearing is different from that of speech with men, it could be heard only by myself; to whom of the Lord’s Divine mercy these organs have been opened. Human speech passes in through the ear, by an external way, by means of the air; but the speech of spirits does not enter through the ear, nor by means of the air; but by an internal way, into the same organs of the head or brain. Consequently the hearing is the same.

AC (Potts) n. 1636 1636. How difficult it is for men to be brought to believe in the existence of spirits and angels, and still more that anyone can speak with them, has been evidenced to me by the following example. There were certain spirits who when they lived in the body had been among the more learned, and had then been known to me (for I have spoken with nearly all with whom I was acquainted during their bodily life, with some for several weeks, with others for a year, exactly as if they had been living in the body). These spirits were once brought into a state of thought similar to that which they had had while they lived in the world: in the other life this is easily done. The inquiry was then suggested, whether they believed that any man can speak with spirits. They then said, in that state, that it was a phantasy to believe any such thing; and this they asserted very persistently. From this it was given to know with how much difficulty a man can be brought to believe that any speaking with spirits is possible to man, for the reason that men do not believe in the existence of spirits, and still less that they are themselves to come among them after death. And at this these same spirits then wondered greatly; and yet they were among the more learned, and had spoken much in public concerning the other life, and concerning heaven and the angels; so that this might have been thought to be most fully known to them as a matter of memory-knowledge, especially from the Word, where it is frequently met with.

AC (Potts) n. 1637 1637. Among the wonderful things in the other life is the fact that the speech of spirits with a man is in his native tongue, which they speak as readily and skillfully as if they had been born in the same land, and had been brought up with the same language; and this whether they are from Europe, from Asia, or from any other part of the globe. The case is the same with those who lived thousands of years ago, before the language in question had come into existence. The spirits indeed know no otherwise than that the language in which they speak with a man is their own, and that of their native land. The case is the same with other languages in which the man is skilled; but beyond these languages, the spirits cannot utter a syllable of any language, unless to do this is given them by the Lord immediately. Even little children who had died before they had been taught any language, speak in the same way.
[2] But the reason is that the language with which spirits are familiar is not a language of words, but is a language of ideas of thought; and this language is the universal of all languages; and when they are with a man, their ideas of thought fall into the words that are in the man, and this in a manner so correspondent and fitting that the spirits know no otherwise than that the words themselves are theirs, and that they are speaking in their own language; when yet they are speaking in that of the man. I have occasionally spoken with spirits concerning these matters. All souls, as soon as they enter into the other life, are endowed with the gift of being able to understand the speech of all who are in the whole world, precisely as if it were their native tongue, for they perceive whatever a man thinks. They are endowed with other faculties also that are still more excellent. Hence it is that souls, after the death of the body, can converse and associate with all, of whatever region or language they may have been.

AC (Potts) n. 1638 1638. The words which they speak, that is, which they call up or bring forth from the man’s memory, and suppose to be their own, are well chosen and clear, full of meaning, distinctly pronounced, and applicable to the subject; and, wonderful to say, they know how to choose the words better and more promptly than the man himself; and as has been shown, they are even acquainted with the various significations of the words, and instantly apply them, without any premeditation, for the reason, as before said, that the ideas of their language flow solely into words that are fitting. The case with this is nearly like that of a man who speaks without any thought of the words he is using, being simply in the meaning of the words; then, in accordance with the meaning, his thought falls readily and spontaneously into words; the inner meaning is that which calls forth the words. In such an internal meaning, only one still more subtle and excellent, does the speech of spirits consist; and through this a man communicates with spirits, although he is unaware of it.

AC (Potts) n. 1639 1639. The speech of words, as has been said, is the speech proper to man, and in fact to his corporeal memory; but the speech of ideas of thought is the speech of spirits, and in fact of the interior memory, which is the memory of the spirit. Men are not aware that they have this memory, because the memory of particulars, or of material things, which is corporeal, is everything, and obscures the interior memory; when yet without the interior memory, which is proper to his spirit, man cannot think at all. From this memory I have often spoken with spirits, thus in their own language, that is, by ideas of thought. How universal and copious this language is, may be seen from the fact that every word contains an idea of great extension; for it is well known that the single idea of a word may be set forth by many words; and this is still more true of the idea of one whole subject, and still more so of the idea of a number of such subjects, which can be brought together into one compound idea that still appears as simple; from which may be seen what is the quality of the natural speech of spirits among themselves, and by means of which speech man is conjoined with spirits.

AC (Potts) n. 1640 1640. I have been enabled to perceive distinctly not only what was said to me by spirits, but also where they were when speaking; whether above the head, or below; whether at the right hand, or at the left; at the ear, or at some other point near or within the body; at what distance, whether greater or less. For they spoke with me from the various places or positions in which they were, according to their position in the Grand Man,, that is, according to their state.
[2] I have also been enabled to perceive when they were coming, and when they were going away, and whither, and how far; also whether they were many or few; besides other things; and also from their speech to perceive their quality, for from their speech, in like manner as from their sphere, it is plainly manifest of what genius and of what natural disposition they are; also of what persuasion and what affection; so that if they are deceitful, even if there is no deceit while they are speaking, still the generic and specific character of their deceitfulness is perceived from every word and idea; and so with all other malignities and cupidities; so that there is no need of much exploration, for there is an image of the spirit in every word and idea.
[3] It is also perceived whether the idea of their speech is closed, or is open; also what is from themselves, what from others, and what from the Lord. This is much the same as it is with a man’s countenance, from which, without a word, it is often known whether there is present dissembling, or deceit, or gladness, or cheerfulness natural or affected, whether there is friendliness from the heart, whether modesty, and also whether there is insanity; sometimes also the same is apparent from the tone of the man’s speech. Why then should not this be the case in the other life, where the perception greatly exceeds such apperception? Indeed, before a spirit speaks, it is known from the thought alone what he intends to say; for thought flows in with greater rapidity than speech.

AC (Potts) n. 1641 1641. Spirits in the other life converse among themselves as men do on earth; and they who are good, with all familiarity of friendship and love, as I have frequently heard; and this in their own speech, by which they express more in a minute than a man can in an hour. For their speech, as before said, is the universal of all languages, being by means of ideas, the primitives of words. They speak upon subjects with such acuteness and perspicuity, by so many series of reasons following one another in order, and exercising persuasion, that if a man knew of it he would be astounded. They join persuasion and affection to their discourse, and thus give it life.
[2] Sometimes also they discourse by means of simultaneous representations before the sight, and thus to the life. As for example: let the discourse be about shame, whether it can exist without reverence: among men this cannot be discussed except by means of many reasonings from evidence and examples, and still it remains in doubt; but with a spirit all would be done within a minute, by means of the states of the affection of shame varied in their order, and by means of those of reverence also; thus by perceiving the agreements and the disagreements, and at the same time beholding them in the representatives adjoined to the speech; from which they forthwith perceive the conclusion, which thus flows of itself from the disagreements thus reduced to agreement. So in all other cases. Souls come into this faculty directly after death; and good spirits then love nothing more than to instruct those who are newly arrived, and the ignorant.
[3] The spirits themselves are not aware that they speak with one another with speech of such surpassing excellence, and that they are furnished with an endowment so preeminent, unless it is given them by the Lord to reflect upon it; for this mode of speaking is natural to them, and is then inherent. The case in this respect is the same as it is with a man when he fixes his mind on the meaning of things, and not on the words and the mode of speaking, in that, without reflection, he sometimes does not know what kind of speech he is making use of.

AC (Potts) n. 1642 1642. This then is the speech of spirits; but the speech of angelic spirits is still more universal and perfect; and the speech of angels is more universal and perfect still. For there are three heavens, as before said; the first is where good spirits are, the second is where angelic spirits are, and the third is where angels are. The perfections thus ascend, as from exterior things to things more interior. To use a comparison for the sake of illustration, it is almost like hearing relatively to sight, and sight relatively to thought; for what the hearing can receive through speech in an hour, can be presented before the sight in a minute, as, for example, a view of plains, palaces, and cities and all that can be seen by the eye in many hours, can be comprehended by the thought in a minute. In such a ratio does the speech of spirits stand to the speech of angelic spirits, and the speech of angelic spirits to the speech of angels; for angelic spirits distinctly comprehend more in one idea of speech or thought, than spirits by several thousand; and so it is with angels in comparison with angelic spirits. How then must it be with the Lord, from whom is all the life of affection, thought, and speech, and who alone is the Speech, and the Word!

AC (Potts) n. 1643 1643. The speech of angelic spirits is beyond comprehension; so that it will be treated of in few words, and only that kind which is called representative. The subject of the discourse is itself presented representatively in a wonderful form, which is withdrawn from the objects of sense, and is varied by means of the most pleasant and beautiful representatives in ways innumerable, with a continual influx of affections from the happy current of mutual love inflowing through the higher heaven from the Lord; from which influx each and all things are as it were alive. Each subject is thus presented, and this through continuous series. Not one single representative in any series can possibly be described to the understanding. These are the things that flow into the ideas of spirits; but to them they are not apparent, except as something general that flows in and affects them, without their having a distinct perception of the things that are distinctly perceived by the angelic spirits.

AC (Potts) n. 1644 1644. There are very many evil spirits of an interior kind, who do not speak as spirits do, but are also in the beginnings of ideas, and are thus more subtle than other spirits. There are many such spirits; but they are completely separated from the angelic spirits, and cannot even approach them. These more subtle evil spirits likewise attach their ideas to objects and things in an abstract way, but to such as are filthy; and in them they represent to themselves various things of a filthy nature; and they involve their ideas in such things. They are as it were silly. Their speech was made known to me, and was also represented by the unclean dregs from a vessel; and the intellectual element of their speech was represented by the hinder parts of a horse, whose forward parts did not appear; for in the world of spirits the intellectual is represented by horses. But the speech of angelic spirits was represented by a maiden of graceful carriage, becomingly attired in a robe of white, that was neatly fitted to a kind of vest.

AC (Potts) n. 1645 1645. But the speech of angels is ineffable, far above the speech of spirits, for it is above that of angelic spirits, and is not intelligible in any way to man so long as he lives in the body. Nor can the spirits in the world of spirits form any idea of it, for it is above the perceptive power of their thought. This speech of angels is not of things represented by any ideas like those of spirits and angelic spirits; but it is a speech of ends and of the derivative uses, which are the primaries and the essentials of things. Into these are angelic thoughts insinuated, and are varied there with indefinite variety; and in each and all things of that speech there is an inward and happy delight from the good of mutual love from the Lord, and a beautiful and delightful one from the truth of faith from that good. Ends, and the uses from them, are as it were most delicate recipients, and are the delightful subjects of unnumbered variations; and this by means of celestial and spiritual forms that are beyond comprehension. In these they are kept by the Lord, for the Lord’s kingdom is simply a kingdom of ends and uses; and for this reason also the angels who are with a man attend to nothing else than the ends and uses, and elaborate nothing else from the man’s thought. All other things, which are ideal and material, they care nothing for; because these are far below their sphere.

AC (Potts) n. 1646 1646. The speech of angels sometimes appears in the world of spirits, thus before the interior sight, as a vibration of light, or of resplendent flame; and this with variation according to the state of the affections of their speech. It is only the general things of their speech, as regards the states of affection, and which general things originate in numberless distinct things, that are thus represented.

AC (Potts) n. 1647 1647. The speech of the celestial angels is distinct from that of the spiritual angels, and is even more ineffable and inexpressible. The celestial and good things of ends are what their thoughts are insinuated into, and they are therefore in happiness itself; and, wonderful to say, their speech is far more abounding, for they are in the very fountains and origins of the life of thought and of speech.

AC (Potts) n. 1648 1648. There is a speech of good spirits, and also of angelic spirits, which is a simultaneous speech of many, especially in circles or choirs, concerning which of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter. The speech in choirs has often been heard by me; it has a cadence [labens], as if in rhythm. They have no thought about the words or ideas, for into these their sentiments flow spontaneously. No words or ideas flow in which multiply the sense, or draw it away to something else, or to which anything artificial adheres, or that seems to them elegant from self, or from self-love, for such things would at once cause disturbance. They do not inhere in any word; they think of the sense; the words follow spontaneously from the sense itself. They come to a close in unities, for the most part simple; but when in those which are compound, they turn by an accent to the next. These things are the result of their thinking and speaking in society; hence the form of the speech has a cadence in accordance with the connection and unanimity of the society. Such was once the form of songs; and such is that of the Psalms of David.

AC (Potts) n. 1649 1649. Wonderful to say, this kind of speech, possessing the rhythmical or harmonic cadence of songs, is natural to spirits. They speak so among themselves, although they are not aware of it. Immediately after death souls come into the habit of speaking in this way. I have been initiated into the same, and it has at last become familiar. The reason their speech is of this nature, is that they speak in society, which for the most part they are not aware of: a very clear proof that they are all distinguished into societies, and that consequently all things fall into the forms of the societies.

AC (Potts) n. 1650 1650. A continuation concerning the speech of spirits, and its diversities, will be found at the end of this chapter.

GENESIS 14
1. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim,
2. That they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and with the king of Bela, this is Zoar.
3. All these were gathered together at the valley of Siddim, this is the Salt Sea.
4. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled.
5. And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shavehkiriathaim;
6. And the Horites in their Mount Seir, even to El-paran which is over in the wilderness.
7. And they returned, and came to En-mishpat, this is Kadesh, and smote all the field of the Amalekites, and also the Amorite that dwelt in Hazazon-tamar.
8. And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar; and they set the battle in array with them in the valley of Siddim;
9. With Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar: four kings with five.
10. And the valley of Siddim was pits, pits of bitumen; and the king of Sodom and of Gomorrah fled, and they fell there, and they that remained fled to the mountain.
11. And they took all the wealth of Sodom, and of Gomorrah, and all their food, and departed.
12. And they took Lot, Abram’s brother’s son, and his substance, and departed; and he was dwelling in Sodom.
13. And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; and he was dwelling in the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite, the brother of Eshcol, and the brother of Aner; and these were men of the covenant of Abram.
14. And Abram heard that his brother was made captive; and he hastened his trained men that were born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued unto Dan.
15. And he divided himself against them by night, he and his servants, and smote then, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus.
16. And he brought back all the substance, and also brought back his brother Lot and his substance, and the women also, and the people.
17. And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, this is the king’s valley.
18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine, and he was priest to GOD MOST HIGH.
19. And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram to GOD MOST HIGH, Possessor of the heavens and the earth.
20. And blessed be GOD MOST HIGH, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all.
21. And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, Give me the soul, and take the substance to thyself.
22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lifted up my hand to JEHOVAH GOD MOST HIGH, Possessor of the heavens and the earth;
23. That from a thread even to the thong of a shoe, I will not take aught that is thine; lest thou shouldest say, I have enriched Abram.
24. Save only that which the boys have eaten, and the portion of the men who went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their portion.

AC (Potts) n. 1651 sRef Gen@14 @0 S0′ 1651. THE CONTENTS
This chapter treats of the Lord’s temptation combats, which are represented and signified by the wars here described.

AC (Potts) n. 1652 sRef Gen@14 @0 S0′ 1652. The goods and truths in the external man, but which only appeared as goods and truths, were the things from which the Lord fought in His childhood against evils and falsities. The apparent goods and truths are signified by the kings named in verse 1; but the evils and falsities against which He fought are signified by the kings named in verse 2; and these were unclean (verse 3).

AC (Potts) n. 1653 sRef Gen@14 @0 S0′ 1653. These evils and falsities against which He fought did not show themselves earlier than in childhood; and then they burst forth, which is signified by their previously serving Chedorlaomer (verse 4).

AC (Potts) n. 1654 sRef Gen@14 @0 S0′ 1654. The Lord then warred against and conquered the persuasions of falsity of all kinds, which are the Rephaim, the Zuzim, the Emim, and the Horites (verses 5, 6); next, the falsities and evils themselves, which are the Amalekite and the Amorite (verse 7); afterwards the other falsities and evils, which are the kings named in verses 8 to 11.

AC (Potts) n. 1655 sRef Gen@14 @0 S0′ 1655. Apparent truths and goods, which are not in themselves truths and goods, took possession of the external man (verse 12); and the rational man which is “Abram the Hebrew,” perceiving this, laid claim to it and liberated it (verses 13 to 16).

AC (Potts) n. 1656 sRef Gen@14 @0 S0′ 1656. After these combats, evil and falsity submitted them-selves (verse 17).

AC (Potts) n. 1657 sRef Gen@14 @0 S0′ 1657. The Lord’s internal man in the interior man, or the Divine in the rational, is Melchizedek, from whom came the benediction after the combats (verses 18 to 20). The tithes are the remains, or the states of good and truth from the combats (verse 20).

AC (Potts) n. 1658 sRef Gen@14 @0 S0′ 1658. The evil and infernal spirits, being overcome, begged for life, and did not care for other things; but nothing was taken from them by the Lord, because He had no strength from their evils and falsities; but they were given into the power [potestas] of good spirits and angels (verses 21-24).

AC (Potts) n. 1659 1659. THE INTERNAL SENSE
The things contained in this chapter appear as if they were not representative, for it treats only of wars between several kings, and the rescue of Lot by Abram; and finally concerning Melchizedek; and thus it seems as if they contained no heavenly arcanum. But still these things, like all the rest, conceal in the internal sense the deepest arcana, which also follow in a continuous series from those which go before, and connect themselves in a continuous series with those which follow.
[2] In those which precede, the Lord has been treated of, and His instruction, and also His external man, which was to be conjoined with the internal by means of knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones]. But as His external man was-as before said-of such a nature that it had in it by inheritance from the mother things that hindered conjunction, and yet that were to be expelled by means of combats and temptations, before His external man could be united to His internal man, or His Human Essence to the Divine Essence, therefore these combats are treated of in this chapter; and are represented and signified in the internal sense by the wars of which it treats. It is known within the church that Melchizedek represented the Lord, and therefore that the Lord is meant in the internal sense where Melchizedek is mentioned. It may be concluded from this, that not only the things concerning Melchizedek, but all the rest also, are representative; for not a syllable can have been written in the Word which was not sent down from heaven, and consequently in which the angels do not see heavenly things.
[3] In very ancient times also, many things were represented by wars, which they called the Wars of Jehovah, and which signified nothing else than the combats of the church, and of those who were of the church, that is, their temptations, which are nothing but combats and wars with the evils in themselves, and consequently with the diabolical crew that excite the evils, and endeavor to destroy the church and the man of the church. That nothing else is meant in the Word by “wars,” may be clearly seen from the fact that nothing can be treated of in the Word except the Lord and His kingdom, and the church; because it is Divine and not human, consequently heavenly and not worldly, and therefore by “wars,” in the sense of the letter, nothing else can be meant in the internal sense. This will be more evident from what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 1660 sRef Gen@14 @1 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @1 S0′ 1660. Verses 1, 2. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, that they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar. “It came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim,” signifies so many kinds of apparent goods and truths, which in themselves are not goods and truths, in the Lord’s external man. Each of the kings and each of the nations signifies some such good and truth; “they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar,” signifies so many kinds of cupidities of evil, and of persuasions of falsity, against which the Lord combated.

AC (Potts) n. 1661 sRef Gen@14 @1 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @1 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @2 S0′ 1661. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim. That these signify so many kinds of apparent goods and truths, which in themselves are not goods and truths, that were in the Lord’s external man, may be seen from the signification of all these in the internal sense, and also from what follows. For the Lord’s combat against evils and falsities is treated of; here, His first combat, which took place in his childhood and earliest youth; which He then first engaged in and sustained when He had been imbued with knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones], on which account it is here said, “in the days of these.”
[2] No one can ever fight against evils and falsities until he has learned to know what evil and falsity are, and therefore not until he has been instructed. A man does not know what evil is, still less what falsity is, until he has the full use of his understanding and judgment, which is the reason why a man does not come into temptations until he has arrived at adult age; thus every man in his age of manhood, but the Lord in His childhood.
[3] Every man combats first of all from the goods and truths he has received through knowledges; and from them and by them he judges about evils and falsities. Every man also, when he first begins to combat, supposes that the goods and truths from which he combats are his own; that is, he attributes them to himself, and at the same time attributes to himself the power by which he resists. This also is permitted; for the man cannot then know otherwise. Until a man has been regenerated, he cannot possibly know, so as to be able to say that he knows, acknowledges, and believes, that nothing of good and truth is from himself, but that all good and truth are from the Lord; or that he cannot resist any evil and falsity from his own power; for he does not know that evil spirits excite and infuse the evils and falsities; still less that by means of evil spirits he is in communication with hell; and that hell presses upon him as the sea does upon every part of a dike, which pressure of hell no man can possibly resist by his own powers. But as until he has been regenerated a man cannot but suppose that he resists by his own powers, this also is permitted; and thus he is introduced into combats or temptations; but afterwards he is more and more enlightened.
[4] When a man is in such a state that he supposes good and truth to be from himself, and that the power of resisting is his own, then the goods and truths from which he combats against evils and falsities are not goods and truths, although they appear so; for there is what is his own in them, and he places self-merit in victory, and glories as if it were he who had overcome the evil and falsity, when yet it is the Lord alone who combats and overcomes. That this is really the case, none can know but they who are being regenerated by means of temptations.
[5] And as in his earliest childhood the Lord was introduced into most grievous combats against evils and falsities, neither could He at that time suppose otherwise; and this not only because it was according to Divine order that His Human Essence should be introduced to the Divine Essence and be united to it by means of continual combats and victories, but also because the goods and truths from which He combated against evils and falsities were of the external man; and as these goods and truths were therefore not altogether Divine, they are therefore called appearances of good and truth. His Divine Essence introduced His Human in this manner, in order that it might overcome from its own power. But there are more arcana here than can possibly be described. In a word, in the first combats, the goods and truths in the Lord, from which he combated, were imbued with things inherited from the mother, and so far as they were imbued with things inherited from the mother, they were not Divine; but by degrees, as He overcame the evil and falsity, they were purified and made Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 1662 sRef Gen@14 @1 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @1 S0′ 1662. That each of the kings, and each of the nations, signifies such good and such truth, is evident from their signification in the internal sense, as applied to the subject here treated of; for every nation, and every land, signifies some certain thing in general, and this both in the proper and in the opposite sense; but the general signification applies itself to the subject being treated of. That apparent goods and truths are signified by the names of these kings and these nations, can be confirmed by many passages; but as this has been done so many times before, and as so many names occur here, it would be too tedious thus to explain them all one by one.

AC (Potts) n. 1663 sRef Gen@14 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @1 S0′ 1663. They made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar. That these signify so many kinds of cupidities of evil and of persuasions of falsity, against which the Lord fought, may likewise be seen from the signification of the kings and nations here named, and also from what follows. What cupidity of evil and what persuasion of falsity is signified by each one, it would also be too tedious to set forth. Of the signification of Sodom and Gomorrah, of Admah and Zeboiim, and of Zoar, we have already briefly treated. They are the most general or the most universal kinds of evils and falsities; and these, being signified in the internal sense, here follow in their series.
[2] That the Lord underwent and endured the most grievous temptations-temptations more grievous than have ever been endured by anyone-is not so well known from the Word, where it is only mentioned that He was in the wilderness forty days, and was tempted by the devil. The temptations themselves which He then had, are described in a few words only; but these few involve them all; as that it is said in Mark (1:12, 13) that He was there with the beasts, by which are signified the worst of the infernal crew; and the things which are mentioned [in Matthew and in Luke], that He was taken by the devil upon the pinnacles of the temple, and upon a high mountain, are nothing but representatives of most grievous temptations which He had in the wilderness; concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC (Potts) n. 1664 sRef Gen@14 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@16 @14 S1′ 1664. That the wars here mentioned signify nothing else, in the internal sense, than spiritual wars, or temptations, was said above, at the beginning of this chapter. By the wars mentioned in the Word, especially in the Prophets, nothing else is signified. The wars of men can have no place in the internals of the Word; for such things are not spiritual and celestial, such as alone belong to the Word. That combats with the devil, or what is the same, with hell, are signified by the wars mentioned in the Word, may be seen from the passages that now follow, besides many others. In John:
They are spirits of demons, doing signs, to go forth to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them together unto the war of that great day of God Almighty (Rev. 16:14);
where everyone can see that no other war is signified, on the “great day of God Almighty.”
sRef Isa@2 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@21 @15 S2′ sRef Rev@13 @7 S2′ sRef Jer@49 @25 S2′ sRef Isa@21 @14 S2′ sRef Rev@12 @7 S2′ sRef Hos@2 @18 S2′ sRef Rev@11 @7 S2′ sRef Jer@49 @26 S2′ sRef Rev@12 @17 S2′ [2] Again:
The beast that cometh up out of the abyss shall make war (Rev. 11:7);
where “the abyss” is hell. Again:
The dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, who keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ (Rev. 12:17).
Again:
It was given unto him to make war with the saints (Rev. 13:7).
All of these “wars” are combats such as are those of temptations. The wars of the kings of the south and of the north, and the other wars mentioned in Daniel (chapters 10 and 11), also the things said of Michael (Dan. 10:13, 21; 12:1; Rev. 12:7), mean the same.
sRef Deut@1 @30 S3′ sRef Ezek@13 @5 S3′ sRef Deut@20 @4 S3′ [3] That “wars” signify nothing else is evident also from the other Prophets. As in Ezekiel:
Ye have not gone up into the breaches, neither have ye built up the fence for the house of Israel, to stand in the war in the day of Jehovah (Ezek. 13:5);
where this is said concerning the Prophets. In Isaiah:
They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more (Isa. 2:4);
where it is plain that no other wars are meant; and consequently that by the weapons of war, as by swords, spears, shields, and others, nothing else is meant in the Word than the things that pertain to such wars.
sRef Josh@5 @14 S4′ sRef Jer@6 @5 S4′ sRef Jer@6 @3 S4′ sRef Josh@5 @13 S4′ sRef Jer@6 @4 S4′ sRef Num@21 @14 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @13 S4′ sRef Isa@31 @4 S4′ [4] Again in Isaiah:
Bring ye water to him that is thirsty; ye inhabitants of the land of Tema, meet with his bread him that is wandering; for they shall wander before the swords, before the drawn sword, and before the bent bow, and before the grievousness of war (Isa. 21:14-15).
In Jeremiah:
Shepherds and their flocks shall come unto the daughter of Zion; they shall pitch their tents against her round about; they shall feed down everyone his space; sanctify a war against her; arise, and let us go up at noon (Jer. 6:3-5);
where no other war is meant, for it is against the daughter of Zion, that is, the church.
[5] Again:
How is the city of praise not forsaken, the city of my joy; therefore her young men shall fall in her streets, and all the men of war shall be cut off in that day (Jer. 49:25-26);
“the city of praise and of joy” denotes the things which are of the church; “the men of war,” those who combat.
[6] In Hosea:
In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, and with the fowl of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the ground; and I will break the bow, and the sword, and war out of the land, and will make them to lie down in confidence (Hos. 2:18);
where in like manner “war” denotes combats, and the various arms of war those things which pertain to spiritual combat; these are “broken” when, yearnings and falsities ceasing, the man comes into the tranquillity of peace.
sRef Ps@76 @3 S7′ sRef Ps@46 @9 S7′ sRef Ps@76 @2 S7′ sRef Ps@46 @8 S7′ [7] In David:
Behold the works of Jehovah, who hath made solitudes in the earth, making wars to cease unto the end of the earth; He breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder; He burneth the chariots in the fire (Ps. 46:8-9);
where the meaning is similar. Again:
In Salem is the habitation of God, and his dwelling place in Zion. There He brake the fiery shafts of the bow, the shield, and the sword, and the war (Ps. 76:2-3).
As the priests represented the Lord, who alone combats for man, their service is called “warfare” (Num. 4:23, 35, 39, 43, 47).
[8] That Jehovah alone, that is, the Lord, combats and overcomes the devil that is with man when he is in the combats of temptations, although it does not so appear to the man, is a constant truth; for not even the smallest thing can be brought upon a man by evil spirits that is not by permission; and nothing, however small, can be averted by angels, except from the Lord; so that it is the Lord alone who sustains all the combat, and who overcomes; which also is everywhere represented by the wars waged by the sons of Israel against the nations. That it is the Lord alone, is also declared in Moses:
Jehovah your God who walketh before you, He shall fight for you (Deut. 1:30).
Again:
Jehovah your God is He that walketh with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you (Deut. 20:4; so too in Joshua, as chapter 23:3, 5).
[9] For the wars there that were carried on against the idolatrous inhabitants of the land of Canaan, all represented the Lord’s combats with hell; and consequently those of His church, and those of the men of His church. This also accords with the following words in Isaiah:
As the lion roareth, and the young lion, over his prey, when a multitude of shepherds come running against him, he will not be dismayed at their voice, nor afflicted by their tumult; so Jehovah Zebaoth shall come down to fight upon Mount Zion, and upon the hill thereof (Isa. 31:1).
sRef Ex@15 @3 S10′ [10] For this reason, also, Jehovah or the Lord is also called a “Man of War.” As in Moses:
Jehovah is a Man of War, Jehovah is His name (Exod. 15:9). And in Isaiah:
Jehovah shall go forth as a Hero, He shall stir up zeal like a Man of wars; He shall cry, yea, He shall shout aloud, He shall prevail against His enemies (Isa. 42:13).
This also is why many things that pertain to war are attributed to the Lord; as here to “cry” and “shout aloud.”
[11] Spirits and angels also appear as men of war when a representation is made. As in Joshua:
Joshua lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold there stood a man over against him, and his sword drawn in his hand. And he said unto Joshua, I am the prince of Jehovah’s army. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth (Josh. 5:13-14).
These things were so seen because they were representative; and for the same reason the posterity of Jacob called their wars the Wars of Jehovah.
[12] The same also was the case in the Ancient Churches; and among them were books which also were called The Wars of Jehovah; as is evident in Moses:
It is said in the Book of the Wars of Jehovah (Num. 21:14-15).
This was written in a manner not unlike that in which wars are treated of in this chapter; but the wars of the church were signified. Such a mode of writing was familiar in those times; for then there were interior men, and they thought of exalted things.

AC (Potts) n. 1665 sRef Gen@14 @3 S0′ 1665. Verse 3. All these were gathered together at the valley of Siddim, this is the Salt Sea. “All these were gathered together at the valley of Siddim,” signifies that they were in the unclean things of cupidities; “this is the Salt Sea,” signifies the filthy things of the derivative falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 1666 sRef Gen@14 @4 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @3 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @10 S1′ 1666. All these were gathered together at the valley of Siddim. That this signifies that they were in the unclean things of cupidities, may be seen from the signification of “the valley of Siddim,” concerning which see below (at verse 10), where it is said that “the valley of Siddim was pits, pits, of bitumen,” that is, that it was full of pits of bitumen, by which are signified the foul and unclean things of cupidities (see n. 1999). The same may be seen from the fact that by Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim were signified the cupidities of evil and the persuasions of falsity, which in themselves are unclean. That they are unclean may be seen by everyone within the church; and it also is actually seen in the other life. Such spirits desire nothing better than to pass their time in marshy, boggy, and excrementitious places, so that their nature carries such things with it. Such unclean things sensibly exhale from them when they approach the sphere of good spirits; especially when they desire to infest the good, that is, to gather together to attack them. From this it is evident what “the valley of Siddim” is. [2] That “this is the Salt Sea,” signifies the filthy things of the derivative falsities, may be seen from the signification of “the Salt Sea,” which is as it were the same as that of the valley of
Siddim; for it is said, “the valley of Siddim, this is the Salt Sea;” but these words are added for the reason that “the Salt Sea” signifies the falsities which burst forth from the cupidities; for there cannot possibly be any cupidity that does not produce falsities. The life of cupidities may be likened to a coal fire, and the falsities to the obscure light from it. As there cannot be fire without light, so neither can there be cupidity without falsity. All cupidity is of some foul love; for that which is loved is desired [cupitur], and hence is called cupidity and in cupidity itself there is the love in question in its continuity. Whatever favors or dissents to this love or cupidity is called falsity. Hence it is evident why the words “the Salt Sea” are here added to the words “the valley of Siddim.”
sRef Jer@17 @5 S3′ sRef Jer@17 @6 S3′ sRef Zeph@2 @9 S3′ sRef Ps@107 @33 S3′ sRef Ps@107 @34 S3′ sRef Deut@29 @23 S3′ sRef Ezek@47 @11 S3′ [3] As cupidities and falsities are what vastate or lay waste man, that is, deprive him of all the life of the love of good, and of the affection of truth, vastation is described in many passages by “saltiness.” As in Jeremiah:
He that maketh flesh his arm shall be like a bare shrub in the desert, and shall not see when good cometh, and shall inhabit the parched places In the wilderness, a salt land, and not inhabited (Jer. 17:5, 6).
In Ezekiel:
The miry places thereof and the marshes thereof shall not be healed; they shall be given up to salt (Ezek. 47:11). In David:
Jehovah turneth rivers into a wilderness, and water-springs into drought, a fruitful land into one of saltiness, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein (Ps. 107:33, 34). In Zephaniah:
Moab shall he as Sodom, and the sons of Ammon as Gomorrah, a place left to the nettle, and a pit of salt, and a desolation forever (Zeph. 2:9).
[4] In Moses:
The whole land is brimstone and salt, a burning; it shall not be sown and shall not sprout, neither shall any herb spring up in it as in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, of Admah and Zeboiim (Deut. 29:23). “The whole land brimstone and salt, a burning,” denotes vastated goods and truths; “brimstone,” the vastation of good; “salt,” the vastation of truth; for parching and saltiness destroy the land and the products of the land just as cupidity destroys goods and as falsity destroys truths. As “salt” was significative of devastation, it was also customary to sow with salt the cities which were destroyed, that they might not be rebuilt (see Judges 9:45). “Salt” is used also in the opposite sense, signifying that which gives fertility, and as it were relish. Verse 4. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled. “Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer,” signifies that the evils and falsities did not appear in childhood, but that they served the apparent goods and truths; “and in the thirteenth year they rebelled,” signifies the beginning of temptations in childhood.

AC (Potts) n. 1667 sRef Gen@14 @4 S0′ 1667. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer. That this signifies that the evils and falsities did not appear in childhood, but that they served the apparent goods and truths, is evident from the representation and signification of “Chedorlaomer,” and also of those who served (as explained above, verse 1); and also from the signification of “twelve.” “Chedorlaomer,” together with those named above (verse 2), signifies the apparent goods and truths in the Lord, thus His external man in respect to these things. “Chedorlaomer” here denotes all that are named above (verse 2) in the complex, as is evident also from what follows, as also from the circumstance that he was king of Elam, the signification of which has been given already, as being faith from charity; here therefore truth and good; for faith and the things of faith are nothing but truths, and charity and the things of charity are goods.
[2] But here the goods of infancy, which, although they appear good, are not good so long as hereditary evil contaminates them. That which is inherent and which adheres is from the love of self and the love of the world. Whatever is of the love of self and of the love of the world then appears as good, but is not good; but still it is to be called good so long as it is in an infant or a child who does not yet know what is truly good. The ignorance excuses, and the innocence makes it appear as good. But the case is different when the man has been instructed, and knows what good and evil are. Such good and truth as are in a child before he has been instructed, are signified by “Chedorlaomer.”
[3] By their “serving twelve years” is signified all the time that there are such good and truth; for in the internal sense “twelve” signifies all things that pertain to the faith of charity, or to faith from charity, much the same as “Elam” (Gen. 10:22). And so long as such good and truth are in a man, whether it be in his childhood or at any other age, evils and falsities can effect nothing; that is, evil spirits do not venture to do anything, or to introduce any evil; as is evident with infants, well disposed children, and the simple in heart; with whom, even though evil spirits, or the worst of the diabolic crew, were present, they could effect nothing at all, but are in subjection; which is here signified by their serving Chedorlaomer twelve years.
aRef Matt@24 @28 S4′ [4] The reason of their being then in subjection and serving is that the man has not yet acquired to himself a sphere of cupidities and falsities. For evil spirits and genii are not allowed to operate except into those things which a man has procured to himself by his acts, and not into those which are from inheritance; and therefore before the man procures such spheres to himself, the evil spirits serve; but as soon as he procures them, they pour themselves in upon him, and endeavor to rule; for they are then in his very sphere, and find there a certain delight, or their very life. Where the carcass is, there are the eagles [Matt. 24:28].

AC (Potts) n. 1668 sRef Gen@14 @4 S0′ 1668. And in the thirteenth year they rebelled. That this signified the beginning of temptations in childhood, is evident from the signification of “the thirteenth year,” and from the signification of “rebelling.” The thirteenth year is intermediate between the twelfth and the fourteenth. What is signified by “twelve” has been stated; and what by “fourteen” will be stated presently. The intermediate between no temptation and temptation is “thirteen.” What “rebelling” signifies may be seen when it is predicated of the evils in a man, or of evil spirits, when they have been in subjection or are serving, and begin to rise up and infest.
[2] Evils or evil spirits rebel in proportion as the man who desires to be in good and truth confirms in himself any evils and falsities, that is, in proportion as cupidities and falsities insinuate themselves into his goods and truths. In cupidities and falsities is the life of evil spirits, and in goods and truths is the life of angels; and hence come infestation and combat. This is so with all who have conscience; and much more was it the case with the Lord when a child, who had perception. With those who have conscience there arises therefrom a dull pain; but with those who have perception, a sharp one, and the more interior the perception is, the sharper is the pain. From this we may see what was the nature of the Lord’s temptation in comparison with that of men, for He had interior and inmost perception.

AC (Potts) n. 1669 sRef Gen@14 @5 S0′ 1669. Verse 5. And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim. “In the fourteenth year,” signifies the first temptation; “came Chedorlaomer,” signifies the apparent good in the external man; “and the kings that were with him” signifies the apparent truth which is of that good; “and smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim,” signifies the persuasions of falsity, or the hells of such, which the Lord conquered.

AC (Potts) n. 1670 sRef Gen@14 @5 S0′ 1670. In the fourteenth year. That this signifies the first temptation, may be seen from the signification of “fourteen,” or the end of the second week, concerning which, see above (n. 728), where the time of seven days or of one week signifies the beginning of temptation. “Fourteen,” or the term of two weeks, signifies the same. It is here said “in the fourteenth year,” in reference to the twelve years which precede; by which, as before said, is signified the time of childhood.

AC (Potts) n. 1671 sRef Gen@14 @5 S0′ 1671. Came Chedorlaomer. That this signifies the apparent good in the external man, is evident from the signification of “Chedorlaomer,” explained in the preceding verse, as being apparent good and truth, here good only, because it is said also, “and the kings that were with him,” and by “the kings” is signified the truth.

AC (Potts) n. 1672 sRef Gen@14 @5 S0′ 1672. And the kings that were with him. That this signifies the apparent truth which is of that good, is evident from the signification of “kings” in the Word. “Kings,” “kingdoms,” and “peoples,” in the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word, signify truths and the things which are of truths, as may be abundantly confirmed. In the Word an accurate distinction is made between a “people” and a “nation;” by a “people” are signified truths, and by a “nation” goods, as before shown (n. 1259, 1260). “Kings” are predicated of peoples, but not so much of nations. Before the sons of Israel sought for kings, they were a nation, and represented good, or the celestial; but after they desired a king, and received one, they became a people, and did not represent good or the celestial, but truth or the spiritual; which was the reason why this was imputed to them as a fault (see 1 Sam. 8:7-22, concerning which subject, of the Lord’s Divine mercy elsewhere). As Chedorlaomer is named here, and it is added, “the kings that were with him,” both good and truth are signified; by “Chedorlaomer,” good, and by “the kings,” truth. But what was the quality of the good and truth at the beginning of the Lord’s temptations has already been stated.

AC (Potts) n. 1673 sRef Gen@14 @5 S0′ 1673. And smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim. That this signifies the persuasions of falsity, or the hells of such, which the Lord conquered, is evident from the signification of “the Rephaim,” “the Zuzim,” and “the Emim,” as being of similar kind with “the Nephilim,” who are mentioned in Genesis 6:4; and in the exposition of that passage (see n. 581) it was sufficiently and abundantly shown that by “the Nephilim” are signified persuasions of falsity, or those who from a persuasion of their own exaltation and preeminence have made nothing of all holy and true things, and who have infused falsities into their cupidities; as is also plain from the passages there adduced (Num. 13:33; Deut. 2:10-11; Isa. 14:9; 26:14, 19; Ps. 88:10). The different kinds of persuasions of falsity are what are here signified by these three and by “the Horites in Mount Seir;” for there are many kinds of persuasions of falsity, not only according to the falsities, but also according to the cupidities to which they are adjoined, or into which they are infused, or from which they flow forth and are produced. The nature of these persuasions of falsity can never appear to any man, who scarcely knows more than that there is such a thing as persuasion of falsity and cupidity of evil; but in the other life they are most distinctly arranged into their genera and into their species.
sRef Isa@26 @14 S2′ [2] The most direful persuasions of falsity existed with those who lived before the flood, especially with those who were called “Nephilim.” These Nephilim are of such a character that in the other life they by their persuasions take away from the spirits to whom they come all faculty of thinking, so that these spirits seem to themselves scarcely to live, much less to be able to think anything true. For, as before shown, there is in the other life a communication of the thoughts of all, and therefore when such a persuasiveness flows in, it cannot do otherwise than as it were murder all power of thought in others. Such were the wicked tribes against whom the Lord combated in His earliest childhood, and whom He conquered; and unless the Lord had conquered them by His coming into the world, not a man would have been left at this day upon the earth; for every man is governed by the Lord through spirits. These same Nephilim are at this day enclosed by their phantasies by what seems like a misty rock, out of which they are continually striving, but in vain, to rise up (concerning whom see n. 1265- 1272, and in many other places above). These, and others like them, were also meant in Isaiah:
The dead shall not live, the Rephaim shall not rise, because Thou hast visited and hast destroyed them, and hast made all their memory to perish (Isa. 26:14).
sRef Ps@88 @10 S3′ [3] Also in David:
Wilt Thou show a wonder to the dead? shall the Rephaim arise and praise Thee? (Ps. 88:10),
where by “the dead” are not meant the dead, but the damned. There are also those at this day, especially from the Christian world, who likewise have persuasions, but not so direful as the antediluvians had. There are certain persuasions of falsity which take possession of both the will part and the intellectual part of man; such were those of the antediluvians, and of those who are here signified by the Rephaim, the Zuzim, and the Emim. But there are other persuasions of falsity which take possession of the intellectual part only, and which arise from the principles of falsity that are confirmed in one’s self. These are not so powerful, nor so deadly, as the former; but still they cause much annoyance to spirits in the other life, and take away in part their ability to think. Spirits of this kind excite in a man nothing but confirmations of what is false, so that the man sees no otherwise than that falsity is truth, and evil good. It is their sphere which is of such a character. As soon as anything of truth is called forth by angels, they suffocate and extinguish it.
[4] A man can perceive whether he is governed by such as these simply by observing whether he thinks the truths of the Word to be false, and confirms himself so that he cannot see otherwise; if such be the case, he may be pretty sure that such spirits are with him, and that they have the dominion. In like manner they who persuade themselves that their private advantage is the common good, and who regard nothing as being for the common good but what is also to their own advantage; in this case also the evil spirits who are present suggest so many things in confirmation that they see no otherwise. They who are such that they regard every advantage to themselves as the common good, or who veil it over with the appearance of being the common good, do much the same in the other life in regard to the common good there. That such is the nature of the influx of spirits with man, it has been given me to know by continual experience to the life.

AC (Potts) n. 1674 sRef Gen@14 @6 S0′ 1674. Verse 6. And the Horites in their Mount Seir, even to El-paran, which is over in the wilderness. “The Horites in their Mount Seir,” signifies the persuasions of falsity that are from the love of self; “even to El-paran, which is over in the wilderness,” signifies their extension.

AC (Potts) n. 1675 sRef Gen@14 @6 S0′ 1675. The Horites in their Mount Seir. That this signifies the persuasions of falsity that are from the love of self, is evident from the signification of “the Horites,” and from the signification of “Seir.” As regards the Horites, they were those who dwelt in Mount Seir, as is evident from Genesis 36:8, 20, etc., where Esau is spoken of, who is called Edom. By “Esau” or “Edom,” in the genuine sense, is signified the Lord as to His Human Essence; and He is also represented by Esau or Edom, as may be seen from many passages of the Word both historical and prophetical; concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter. And as they who are in persuasions of falsity were represented by the Horites, and as at that time representatives came forth into actual realization, therefore the driving out of the Horites from Mount Seir by the descendants of Esau had a similar representation.
sRef Deut@33 @2 S2′ sRef Deut@33 @3 S2′ sRef Deut@2 @21 S2′ sRef Deut@2 @22 S2′ sRef Deut@2 @20 S2′ [2] Of this it is said in Moses:
That also is accounted a land of Rephaim; Rephaim dwelt therein aforetime; and the Ammonites call them Zamzummim, a people great and many, and tall as the Anakim; and Jehovah destroyed them from before them, and they had them in possession, and dwelt in their place. As He did for the sons of Esau, that dwelt in Seir, in that He destroyed the Horites from before them; and they had them in possession, and dwelt in their place (Deut. 2:20-22).
These things represent and signify the same as what is here related concerning Chedorlaomer, namely, that Chedorlaomer and the kings with him smote the Horites in Mount Seir; for by Chedorlaomer, as before said, are represented the Lord’s good and truth in His childhood, thus the Lord’s Human Essence in respect to good and truth at that time, by which He destroyed the persuasions of falsity, that is, the hells filled with such a crew of the devil, that attempted to destroy the world of spirits, and consequently the human race, by persuasions of falsity.
sRef Num@24 @18 S3′ sRef Num@24 @17 S3′ [3] And as Esau or Edom represented the Lord in respect to His Human Essence, Mount Seir also, and Paran represented the things that belonged to His Human Essence, namely, the celestial things of love. This is evident from the blessing of Moses:
Jehovah came from Sinai, and arose to them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, and He came from the ten thousands of holiness; from His right hand was a fire of law unto them, yea, He loveth the peoples (Deut. 33:2-3);
that “Jehovah arose from Mount Seir, and shone forth from Mount Paran,” signifies nothing else than the Lord’s Human Essence. Everyone may know that to rise from Mount Seir, and to shine forth from Mount Paran, signifies neither mountains nor their inhabitants, but Divine realities, thus the celestial things of the Lord’s Human Essence, of which it is predicated that Jehovah arose and shone forth from it.
sRef Judg@5 @5 S4′ sRef Judg@5 @4 S4′ [4] That “Seir” has this signification is evident from the Song of Deborah and Barak, in the book of Judges:
O Jehovah, when Thou wentest forth out of Seir, when Thou departedst out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also dropped drops, the clouds also dropped waters, the mountains flowed down, this Sinai before Jehovah the God of Israel (5:4-5);
where to “go forth out of Seir,” and to “depart out of the field of Edom,” have no other signification.
[5] This is even more manifest in the prophecy of Balaam (who was one of the sons of the east, or from Syria, where there was a remnant of the Ancient Church), as given in Moses:
I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not nigh; there shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise up out of Israel, and Edom shall be an inheritance, Seir also shall be an inheritance, belonging to His enemies (Num. 24:17-18);
where “to see Him, but not now,” to “behold Him, but not nigh,” is the Lord’s coming into the world; whose Human Essence is called “a star out of Jacob,” which is to arise, and also “Edom,” and “Seir”; that Edom and Seir were not to be the inheritance, is plain to everyone. That “Seir, belonging to His enemies,” or the mountain of His enemies, should be an inheritance, means the same as in many other places, where it is said that the enemies were to be expelled, and their land possessed.
sRef Hab@3 @3 S6′ [6] That Mount Paran also, or El-paran, named in this verse, signifies the same, is evident likewise in Habakkuk:
God will come from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His honor covered the heavens, and the earth was filled with His praise (Hab. 3:3).
But it is to be known that mountains and lands have and take a signification from those who inhabit them; from the Horites when the Horites dwelt there; and when these were expelled, from those who expelled them, as from Esau or Edom, and also from other sources; and therefore the signification exists in two senses, the genuine and the opposite; in the genuine the places in question denote the Lord’s Human Essence; in the opposite, the love of self. The Lord’s Human Essence is celestial love itself, and the opposite to celestial love is the love of self. So the Horites here signify the persuasions of falsity from the love of self.
[7] There are persuasions of falsity from the love of self, and there are persuasions of falsity from the love of the world; the persuasions that are from the love of self are most foul; but the persuasions from the love of the world are not so foul. The persuasions of falsity from the love of self are opposite to the celestial things of love; but the persuasions of falsity from the love of the world are opposite to the spiritual things of love. Persuasions from the love of self carry with them a desire to exercise command over all things; and so far as restraints are relaxed to them, they rush on, even to desire to exercise command over the universe, and even over Jehovah Himself, as has been shown. Therefore persuasions of this kind are not tolerated in the other life. But persuasions from the love of the world do not rush on so far; but only to the insanity of not being contented with one’s lot. They vainly affect a heavenly joy, and desire to appropriate the goods of others, but not so much with the disposition to exercise command. But the differences that exist among these persuasions are innumerable.

AC (Potts) n. 1676 sRef Gen@14 @6 S0′ 1676. Even to El-paran which is in the wilderness. That this signifies their extension, may be seen from the fact that the Horites were smitten and were compelled to flee thus far. The wilderness of Paran is mentioned in Gen. 21:21; Num. 10:12; 12:16; 13:3, 26; Deut. 1:1. What is here signified by “El-paran which is in the wilderness,” cannot so well be explained, except insofar as to say that the Lord’s first victory over the hells signified by those nations did not as yet extend any further, but how far it did extend is signified by “El-paran in the wilderness.”
[2] He to whom it has not been given to know heavenly arcana, may suppose that there was no need of the Lord’s coming into the world to fight against the hells, and by means of temptations admitted into Himself to vanquish and conquer them, when they might have been subjugated at any time by the Divine Omnipotence, and shut up in their hells; but that still the fact is really so, is a certain truth. To unfold the arcana themselves merely as to the most general things would fill a whole work; and it would also give occasion for reasonings about such Divine mysteries as human minds would not comprehend, however fully they might be unfolded; and most people would not desire to comprehend them.
[3] Therefore it is sufficient for men to know, and, because it is so, to believe, that it is an eternal truth that unless the Lord had come into the world and subjugated and conquered the hells by means of temptations admitted into Himself, the human race would have perished; and that otherwise those who have been on this earth even from the time of the Most Ancient Church could not possibly have been saved.

AC (Potts) n. 1677 sRef Gen@14 @7 S0′ 1677. Verse 7. And they returned and came to En-mishpat, this is Kadesh, and smote all the field of the Amalekites, and also the Amorite that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar. “They returned and came to En-mishpat, this is Kadesh,” signifies a continuation; “and smote all the field of the Amalekites,” signifies the kinds of falsities; “and also the Amorite that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar,” signifies the kinds of evils that were derived from them.

AC (Potts) n. 1678 sRef Gen@14 @7 S0′ 1678. They returned and came to En-mishpat, this is Kadesh. That this signifies a continuation, is evident from what goes before, and from what follows. Here now the falsities and the evils derived from them are treated of. The falsities are signified by “the Amalekite,” and the evils that were derived from them are signified by “the Amorite in Hazezon-tamar.” By “Kadesh” are signified truths, and also contentions about truths. Because the falsities, and the evils derived from them which the Lord conquered in His first combat, are here treated of, it is here said, “En-mishpat, this is Kadesh,” because there was contention about truths.
sRef Ezek@47 @19 S2′ [2] That “Kadesh” signifies truths concerning which there is contention, is evident in Ezekiel, where the boundaries of the Holy Land are described:
The corner of the south southward from Tamar as far as the waters of Meriboth (contentions) Kadesh, an inheritance to the great sea, and the corner of the south southward (Ezek. 47:19; 48:28)
where “the south” denotes the light of truth; its boundary, by which is signified contention about truths, is called “Kadesh.”
[3] Kadesh also was where Moses smote the rock, out of which waters came forth, which waters were called Meribah, from contention (Num. 20:1-2, 11, 13). By a “rock,” as is known, the Lord is signified; by “waters,” in the internal sense of the Word, are signified spiritual things, which are truths; they were called “the waters of Meribah” because there was contention about them. That they were also called “the waters of the contention of Kadesh,” is evident in Moses:
Ye rebelled against My mouth in the wilderness of Zin, in the contention of the assembly, to sanctify Me by the waters in their eyes. These are the waters of contention of Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin (Num. 27:14; Deut. 32:51).
So too it was to Kadesh that the spies returned from the land of Canaan, and Kadesh was the place where the Israelites murmured and contended, not being willing to enter into the land (Num. 13:26).
[4] It is evident from these things that “En-mishpat,” or “the Fountain of Judgment,” or “the Fountain of Mishpat-Kadesh,” signifies contention about truths, and thus a continuation. As these are true historicals, and this occurred just as is here stated, it may appear as if such things were not represented and signified by the places to which Chedorlaomer came, and by the nations that he smote; but all the historicals in the Word are representative and significative, both those relating to places and nations, and also those relating to things done; as may be clearly seen from all things in both the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word.

AC (Potts) n. 1679 sRef Gen@14 @7 S0′ 1679. And smote all the field of the Amalekites. That this signifies the kinds of falsities, is evident from the representation and signification of the Amalekite nation. By all the nations that were in the land of Canaan there were represented different kinds of evils and falsities, as will be evident, of the Lord’s Divine mercy, from what follows. Falsities were signified by “the Amalekites,” and evils derived from the falsities, by “the Amorites in Hazezon-tamar.” That falsities by which truths are attacked are signified by the Amalekites, may be seen from the things that are related concerning them (see Exod. 17:13-16; Num. 13:29; 24:20; Deut. 25:17-19; Judges 5:13-14; 1 Sam. 15:1-35; 27:8; Ps. 83:7-8).
[2] By the Rephaim, Zuzim, Emim, and Horites, spoken of in verses 5 and 6, were signified the persuasions of falsity that arise from cupidities of evil, that is, from evils; but by the Amalekites and the Amorite in Hazezon-tamar, are signified the falsities from which come evils. Falsity from evil is one thing, and falsity and the evil derived from it is another. Falsities spring either from cupidities, which are of the will, or from received principles, which are of the understanding. Falsities that are from the cupidities of the will are foul, nor do they suffer themselves, like others, to be easily rooted out, for they cohere with the man’s very life. The very life of man is that which desires, that is, loves. While a man is confirming in himself this life, or cupidity, or love, all the things which confirm are falsities, and are implanted in his life. Such were the antediluvians.
[3] But the falsities from received principles, which are of the understanding, cannot be thus rooted in the will part of man. False or heretical doctrines, for instance, have their origin outside of the will, from the man’s being imbued with such things from infancy, and afterwards from confirmation in adult age. But as they are false, they cannot but produce evils of life; as for instance in the case of a man who believes in meriting salvation by works, and confirms himself in this belief,-the merit itself, self-justification, and confidence, are the evils that come from it; or on the other hand one who believes that it is impossible to have piety of life without placing merit in works,-the evil from this is that he extinguishes in himself all piety of life, and gives himself up to cupidities and pleasures. So in many other cases. Such are the falsities and the evils derived from them that are treated of in this verse.

AC (Potts) n. 1680 sRef Gen@14 @7 S0′ 1680. And also the Amorite that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar. That this signifies the kinds of evils derived from those falsities, is evident from what has just been said, and also from the representation and signification of the Amorites, spoken of in the next chapter, verse 16. As regards the evils and falsities against which the Lord combated, it is to be known that what He fought against was the infernal spirits who were in the evils and falsities, that is, it was the hells filled with such spirits, which continually infested the human race. The infernals desire nothing else than to destroy everyone; and they perceive no greater pleasure than in torturing others.
[2] All spirits in the other life are distinguished in the following manner: those who desire evil against others are infernal or diabolical spirits; but those who desire good to others are good and angelic spirits. A man can know among which he is, whether among the infernal or among the angelic: if he intends evil to his neighbor, thinks nothing but evil concerning him, and actually does it when he can, and takes delight therein, he is among the infernals, and also becomes infernal in the other life; whereas the man who intends good to his neighbor, and thinks nothing but good respecting him, and actually does it when he can, is among the angelic spirits, and also becomes an angel in the other life. This is the distinctive characteristic. Let everyone examine himself by this, in order to learn what he is.
[3] That a man does no evil when he is unable or afraid to do it, amounts to nothing; or that he does good for the sake of self; for these are external things that are removed in the other life. A man there is such as he thinks and intends. There are many who can speak well from a habit formed in the world; but it is instantly perceived whether the mind or intention agrees therewith; if not, they are rejected among the infernals of their own genus and species.

AC (Potts) n. 1681 sRef Gen@14 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @9 S0′ 1681. Verses 8, 9. And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar; and they set the battle in array with them in the valley of Siddim; with Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings with five. “There went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar,” signifies, as before, the evils and falsities that reign generally; “and they set the battle in array with them,” signifies that they began the attack; “in the valley of Siddim,” signifies here as before, uncleanness; “with Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar,” signifies the truths and goods in the external man; “Chedorlaomer king of Elam,” signifies the truth; “Tidal king of Goiim,” the good; and the others the things derived from these; “four kings with five,” signifies the union of the last named, and the disunion of the others.

AC (Potts) n. 1682 sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ 1682. There went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar. That these signify the evils and falsities that reign generally, is evident from what was said above, at verse 2, concerning these kings, namely, that they are cupidities of evil and persuasions of falsity. In that verse by the same kings are signified all evils and all falsities in general, or what is the same, cupidities of evil and persuasions of falsity, and therefore it is said that war was made with them. Afterwards the war with the Rephaim, Zuzim, Emim, and Horites, was treated of; also the war with the Amalekite and the Amorite; and finally with these kings who were named in the beginning. Here therefore by the same kings are signified only the reigning evils and falsities that are of a less degree.

AC (Potts) n. 1683 sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @9 S0′ 1683. They set the battle in array with them. That this signifies that they began the attack, is evident from the signification of “setting the battle in array,” as meaning to fight against; for it is said above (verse 3) that they rebelled. The same is evident also from the fact that evil spirits are those who make the assault. For it is the case that the Lord never began the combat with any hell, but the hells assaulted Him; as is also the case with every man who is in temptation, or In combat with evil spirits. In man’s case the angels never make the assault, but always and continually the evil or infernal spirits do so; the angels only ward off and defend. This comes from the Lord, who never desires to bring evil upon anyone, or to thrust him down into hell, even if he were the worst and the most bitter enemy of all; but it is he who brings the evil upon himself, and precipitates himself into hell. This also follows from the nature of evil, and from the nature of good. It is the nature of evil to desire to maltreat everyone; but that of good to desire to maltreat no one. The evil are in their very life when they are assaulting; for they continually desire to destroy. The good are in their very life when they are assaulting no one, and when they can be of use in defending others from evils.

AC (Potts) n. 1684 sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ 1684. In the valley of Siddim. That this signifies uncleanness, is evident from what was before said (verse 3) concerning the valley of Siddim and the Salt Sea.

AC (Potts) n. 1685 sRef Gen@14 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ 1685. With Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar. That this signifies the truths and goods in the external man, is evident from the signification of the same in verse 1 of this chapter.
That “Chedorlaomer king of Elam” signifies truths, and “Tidal king of Goiim” goods, and the others the things derived from these, is evident from the fact that the same kings are here enumerated in a different order from that of verse 1 above. There “Chedorlaomer king of Elam” stands in the third place, but here in the first; and there “Tidal king of Goiim” is in the fourth place, but here in the second. It is truth that is first in combat, for combat is from truth; for from truth it is known what falsity is and what evil is; on which account such combats never arise until the man has been imbued with knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones] of truth and good. Hence by “Chedorlaomer,” who is here named in the first place, is signified the truth that was in the Lord; which is also evident from the signification of “Elam,” as being faith from charity, which is the same thing as truth (as has been shown before, Gen. 10:22). It follows from this that “Tidal king of Goiim” or “of nations” signifies good; and that the other kings signify the truths and goods that are derived from these.

AC (Potts) n. 1686 sRef Gen@14 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @8 S0′ 1686. Four kings with five. That this signifies the union of the last named, and the disunion of the first named, may be seen from the signification of “four,” and of “five.” “Four” signifies union, because it is made up of pairs, as also does two when it has relation to marriages of things (as was also observed, n. 720). But “five” signifies disunion, because it means but little (as shown n. 649). The signification of all things is in accordance with the subject of which they are predicated.

AC (Potts) n. 1687 sRef Gen@14 @10 S0′ 1687. Verse 10. And the valley of Siddim was pits, pits [or, full of pits] of bitumen; and the king of Sodom and of Gomorrah fled, and fell there, and they that remained fled to the mountain. “The valley of Siddim was pits, pits, of bitumen,” signifies the uncleanness of the falsities and cupidities; “and the king of Sodom and of Gomorrah fled, and fell there,” signifies that those evils and falsities were overcome; “and they that remained fled to the mountain,” signifies but not all of them; “the mountain” is the love of self and of the world.

AC (Potts) n. 1688 sRef Gen@14 @10 S0′ 1688. The valley of Siddim was pits, pits [or, full of pits] of bitumen. That this signifies the uncleanness of the falsities and cupidities, is evident from the signification of “Siddim,” which is uncleanness (as stated above at verse 3); also from the signification of “pits,” as being falsities and of “bitumen,” as being cupidities. Falsities are called “pits,” from the unclean water in them; and cupidities are called “bitumen,” from the foul sulphurous smell in such water.

AC (Potts) n. 1689 sRef Gen@14 @10 S0′ 1689. The king of Sodom and of Gomorrah fled, and fell there. That this signifies that these evils and falsities were overcome, is evident from the signification of “Sodom” and of “Gomorrah,” as being the evils of cupidities and the falsities of persuasions spoken of above. Here “the king of Sodom and of Gomorrah” denotes all the evils and falsities, even those signified by the other kings; and also from the signification of “fleeing and falling,” as being to be overcome.

AC (Potts) n. 1690 sRef Luke@4 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @10 S0′ 1690. They that remained fled to the mountain. That this signifies that not all were overcome, is evident without explication, from the fact that there was a residue that fled away. In the internal sense the temptations are treated of that the Lord sustained in His childhood, concerning which nothing is related in the Word of the New Testament, except concerning His temptation in the wilderness, or soon after He came out of the wilderness, and finally concerning His last temptation in Gethsemane and what then followed. That the Lord’s life, from His earliest childhood even to the last hour of His life in the world, was continual temptation and continual victory, is evident from many things in the Word of the Old Testament; and that it did not cease with the temptation in the wilderness is evident from what is said in Luke:
And when the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from Him for a season (Luke 4:13);
as also from the fact that He was tempted even to the death on the cross, and thus to the last hour of His life in the world. Hence it is evident that the whole of the Lord’s life in the world, from His earliest childhood, was continual temptation and continual victory. The last was when He prayed on the cross for His enemies, and thus for all in the whole world.
[2] In the Word of the Lord’s life, in the Gospels, none but the last is mentioned, except His temptation in the wilderness. More were not disclosed to the disciples. The things that were disclosed appear in the sense of the letter so slight as to be scarcely anything; for to speak and to answer in this manner is no temptation, when yet His temptation was more grievous than can ever be comprehended and believed by any human mind. No one can know what temptation is except the one who has been in it. The temptation that is related in Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12-13; Luke 4:1-13, contains all temptations in a summary; namely, that from love toward the whole human race, the Lord fought against the loves of self and of the world, with which the hells were filled.
sRef Luke@4 @4 S3′ sRef Matt@4 @3 S3′ sRef Matt@4 @2 S3′ sRef Luke@4 @3 S3′ sRef Matt@4 @4 S3′ sRef Luke@4 @2 S3′ [3] All temptation is an assault upon the love in which the man is, and the temptation is in the same degree as is the love. If the love is not assaulted, there is no temptation. To destroy anyone’s love is to destroy his very life; for the love is the life. The Lord’s life was love toward the whole human race, and was indeed so great, and of such a quality, as to be nothing but pure love. Against this His life, continual temptations were admitted, as before said, from His earliest childhood to His last hour in the world. The love which was the Lord’s veriest life is signified by His “hungering,” and by the devil’s saying,
If Thou art the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread and by Jesus answering that man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God (Luke 4:2-4; Matt. 4:2-4).
sRef Luke@4 @6 S4′ sRef Luke@4 @7 S4′ sRef Luke@4 @8 S4′ sRef Luke@4 @5 S4′ [4] That He fought against the love of the world, or all things that are of the love of the world, is signified by:
The devil took Him up into a high mountain, and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time, and said unto Him, All this power will I give Thee and the glory of them, for it hath been delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will, I give it; if Thou therefore wilt worship before me, all shall be Thine. But Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind Me, Satan; for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve (Luke 4:5-8; Matt 4:8-10).
sRef Matt@4 @6 S5′ sRef Matt@4 @7 S5′ sRef Matt@4 @11 S5′ sRef Matt@4 @5 S5′ [5] That He fought against the love of self, and all things that are of the love of self, is signified by this:
The devil took Him into the holy city, and set Him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said unto Him, If Thou art the Son of God, cast Thyself down for it is written, He shall give His angels charge concerning Thee, and upon their hands they shall bear Thee up, lest Thou dash Thy foot against a stone. Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God (Matt. 4:5-7; Luke 4:9-12).
Continual victory is signified by its being said that after the temptations, “angels came and ministered unto Him” (Matt. 4:11; Mark 1:13).
[6] In brief, the Lord from His earliest childhood up to the last hour of His life in the world, was assaulted by all the hells, against which He continually fought, and subjugated and overcame them, and this solely from love toward the whole human race. And because this love was not human but Divine, and because such as is the greatness of the love, such is that of the temptation, it may be seen how grievous the combats were, and how great the ferocity on the part of the hells. That all this was so, I know of a certainty.

AC (Potts) n. 1691 sRef Gen@14 @10 S0′ 1691. That “the mountain” means the love of self and the love of the world, may be seen from the signification of a “mountain,” concerning which presently. All evil and falsity come forth from the love of self and the love of the world; they have no other origin; for the love of self and the love of the world are the opposites of celestial love and spiritual love; and because they are the opposites, they are what are continually endeavoring to destroy the celestial and spiritual things of the kingdom of God. From the love of self and of the world come forth all hatreds; from hatreds, all revenges and cruelties; and from these, all deceits; in short, all the hells.
sRef Isa@42 @15 S2′ sRef Isa@2 @15 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @22 S2′ sRef Isa@2 @14 S2′ sRef Isa@2 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@2 @12 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @4 S2′ [2] That in the Word by “mountains” there is signified the love of self and the love of the world, may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:
The proud eyes of man shall be humbled and the loftiness of men shall be brought low. The day of Jehovah Zebaoth is upon all that is proud and lofty, upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up, and upon every lofty tower (Isa. 2:11-12, 14-15);
the “high mountains” plainly denote the love of self; and the “hills that are lifted up,” the love of the world.
sRef Ezek@38 @20 S3′ [3] Again:
Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low (Isa. 40:4);
here also “mountain and hill” manifestly denote the love of self and the love of the world. Again:
I will lay waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herbage (Isa. 42:15);
where also “mountains” denote the love of self, and “hills” the love of the world. In Ezekiel:
The mountains shall be thrown down, and the steep places shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the earth (Ezek. 38:20).
sRef Jer@51 @25 S4′ [4] In Jeremiah:
Behold I am against thee, O destroying mountain, which destroyest all the earth; and I will stretch out mine hand against thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a mountain of burning (Jer. 51:25);
where Babel and Chaldea are spoken of, by which is signified the love of self and of the world, as before shown. In the Song of Moses:
A fire is kindled in Mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall devour the earth and her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains (Deut. 32:22);
“the foundations of the mountains” mean the hells, as is plainly said; these are called the foundations of the mountains, because the love of self and the love of the world reign in them, and are from them.
sRef Jonah@2 @5 S5′ sRef Jonah@2 @6 S5′ [5] In Jonah:
The waters compassed me about, even to the soul; the deep was round about me; the seaweed was wrapped about my head; I went down to the cuttings-off of the mountains; the bars of the earth were upon me forever; yet hast Thou brought up my lives from the pit, O Jehovah my God (Jonah 2:5-6);
the Lord’s temptations against the hells are thus prophetically described by Jonah, when he was in the belly of the great fish. So likewise in other passages of the Word, especially in David. He who is in temptations is in the hells; place has nothing to do with being in the hells, but state.
[6] As “mountains” and “towers” signify the love of self and of the world, it may be seen what is signified by the Lord’s being taken by the devil “upon a high mountain,” and “upon a pinnacle of the temple,” namely, that He was led into temptation combats, the most extreme of all, against the loves of self and of the world, that is, against the hells. “Mountains” also, in the opposite sense, signify celestial and spiritual love, as before shown (n. 795, 796).

AC (Potts) n. 1692 sRef Gen@14 @10 S0′ 1692. Scarcely anyone can know what temptations, or combats of temptations, effect. They are the means by which evils and falsities are broken up and dispersed, and by which horror of them is induced; and not only is conscience given, but it is also strengthened thereby, and so the man is regenerated, which is the reason why they who are being regenerated are let into combats, and undergo temptations; and they who do not undergo them in the life of the body, do so in the other life, if they are capable of being regenerated, on which account the Lord’s church is called militant. But the Lord alone sustained the most cruel combats of temptations by His own strength or His own power; for He was surrounded by all the hells, and continually conquered them.
[2] It is the Lord alone also who fights in the men who are in the combats of temptations, and who overcomes. Man from his own power can effect nothing at all against evil or infernal spirits; for they are so connected with the hells that if one were overcome, another would rush in, and so on forever. They are like the sea which presses upon every part of a dike; and if the dike should be broken through by a cleft or a crack, the sea would never cease to burst through and overflow, until nothing was left standing. So would it be with man unless the Lord alone sustained in him the combats of temptations.

AC (Potts) n. 1693 sRef Gen@14 @11 S0′ 1693. Verse 11. And they took all the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their food, and departed. “They took all the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah,” signifies that these were deprived of the power of doing evil; “and all their food,” signifies that they were deprived of the power of thinking falsity; “and departed,” signifies that so they were left.

AC (Potts) n. 1694 sRef Gen@14 @11 S0′ 1694. They took all the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah. That this signifies that these were deprived of the power of doing evil, is evident from the signification of taking away anyone’s wealth. By the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah nothing else is meant in the internal sense but evil and falsity. Evil is here signified by “the wealth,” and falsity by “the food.” Relatively to the good, spiritual wealth and riches are nothing but the goods and truths with which they are gifted and enriched by the Lord; and therefore relatively to the evil, wealth and riches are nothing but the evils and falsities they have acquired to themselves. Such things are also signified in the Word by “riches.” From this it is evident that to take the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah is to deprive them of the power of doing evil.

AC (Potts) n. 1695 sRef Gen@14 @11 S0′ 1695. And all their food. That this signifies that they were deprived of the power of thinking falsity, is evident from the signification of “food.” What the celestial, spiritual, and natural food are that are enjoyed in the other life, has been shown before (n. 56-58, 680, 681). These also correspond to the food of the body; and therefore are represented in the Word by food, and are called “food.” But the food of evil and infernal spirits is that which is contrary to wisdom, intelligence, and true knowledge, which is all falsity; and wonderful to say, evil spirits are sustained by this food. The reason that it sustains them is that it is their life. Unless there is given them the means of vilifying the truth, and indeed of blaspheming it, they cannot live. But still license is given them to think and speak only that falsity which is from their evil, and not that which is contrary to their evil, for this would be deceit for insofar as they speak falsity from their evil, it is from their life; and then it is forgiven them, because their nature is such that otherwise they could not live.
[2] As to their being deprived of the power of doing evil and of thinking falsity, the case is this: In the combats of temptations the evil spirits are permitted to draw forth all the evil and falsity that are in the man, and to battle from the evil and falsity of the man; but when they have been overcome, they are no longer permitted to do so, for they instantly perceive in the man that good and truth have been confirmed. Spirits, more than men, are gifted with such perception; from the very sphere of a man who has been confirmed in truth and good, they know at once how the case is, what answer they will get, and more besides. This is plainly evident with the spiritual regenerate man, with whom there are evil spirits equally as well as with the non-regenerate, but they are subjugated and serve. This is what is meant by their being deprived of the power of doing evil and of thinking falsity.

AC (Potts) n. 1696 sRef Gen@14 @11 S0′ 1696. And departed. That this signifies that they were left, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 1697 sRef Gen@14 @12 S0′ 1697. Verse 12. And they took Lot, Abram’s brother’s son, and his substance, and departed; and he was dwelling in Sodom. “They took Lot, Abram’s brother’s son, and his substance, and departed,” signifies that the apparent goods and truths, which in themselves are not goods and truths, took possession of the external man, and of all things therein; “and he was dwelling in Sodom,” signifies the state of the external man.

AC (Potts) n. 1698 sRef Gen@14 @12 S0′ 1698. And they took Lot, Abram’s brother’s son, and his substance, and departed. That this signifies that the apparent goods and truths, which in themselves are not goods and truths, took possession of the external man, and of all things therein, is evident from the signification of “Lot.” That “Lot” signifies the sensuous or external man in the Lord, has already been frequently stated and shown; but here by “Lot” is signified the external man in respect to the apparent goods and truths, which are Lot’s “substance.” That in the Lord’s earliest childhood these goods and truths appeared to be goods and truths, but in themselves were not so, has been already explained; but that they were by degrees purified, and this in fact by means of the combats of temptations, may be seen from what has been said concerning temptations.

AC (Potts) n. 1699 sRef Gen@14 @12 S0′ 1699. And he was dwelling in Sodom. That this signifies the state of the external man, is evident from the signification of “Sodom.”

AC (Potts) n. 1700 sRef Gen@14 @13 S0′ 1700. Verse 13. And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew, and he was dwelling in the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite, the brother of Eshcol, and the brother of Aner; and these were men of the covenant of Abram. “There came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew,” signifies that the Lord perceived from His interior man; “Abram the Hebrew” is the interior man to which the internal or Divine man is adjoined; “and he was dwelling in the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite,” signifies the state of perception from the rational man; “the brother of Eshcol, and the brother of Aner, and these were men of the covenant of Abram,” signifies the state of the rational man in respect to the external man as regards the quality of its goods and truths.

AC (Potts) n. 1701 sRef Gen@14 @13 S0′ 1701. And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew. That this signifies that the Lord perceived from His interior man, is evident from the signification of “Abram the Hebrew,” as being the interior man conjoined with the internal, explained just below. And as in the internal sense these things are predicated of the Lord, and the historicals are representative, it is evident that the coming of one who had escaped, and his telling, signifies nothing else than that the Lord perceived. The interior man perceives what is going on in the external man just as if one were to tell it. The Lord, who had a perception of all things that were taking place, knew very clearly the quality and the source of all that took place in connection with Himself, as for example if anything of evil were taking possession of the affections of His external man, or anything of falsity of its thoughts, He could not but know what it was, and whence; and also what evil spirits were exciting the evil and the falsity; and how they were exciting them, besides other things; for such things, and others beyond number, are not concealed from the angels, and scarcely from men who have celestial perception, still less from the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1702 sRef Gen@14 @13 S0′ 1702. That “Abram the Hebrew” is the interior man to which the internal or Divine man was adjoined, may be seen from the signification of “Abram the Hebrew,” or from the surnaming of Abram, in that he is here called “the Hebrew.” In what goes before, and in what follows, where Abram is spoken of, he is not called the Hebrew; he is so called in this passage only; and therefore some distinct thing in the Lord is represented and signified by “Abram the Hebrew.” What is represented and signified may be seen from the internal sense, namely, that it is the interior man adjoined to the internal or Divine man, as may likewise be seen from the series of things in the internal sense. The Hebrews are named in the Word when anything of servitude is signified, whatever it may be; as may be seen from what follows. The interior man is such that it serves the internal or Divine man; and for this reason the interior man is here called “Abram the Hebrew.”
[2] What the interior man is, scarcely anyone knows, and it must therefore be briefly stated. The interior man is intermediate between the internal and the external man. By the interior man the internal man communicates with the external; without this medium, no communication at all is possible. The celestial is distinct from the natural, and still more from the corporeal, and unless there is a medium by which there is communication, the celestial cannot operate at all into the natural, and still less into the corporeal. It is the interior man which is called the rational man; and this man, because it is intermediate, communicates with the internal man, where there is good itself and truth itself; and it also communicates with the exterior man, where there are evil and falsity. By means of the communication with the internal man, a man can think of celestial and spiritual things, or can look upward, which beasts cannot do. By means of the communication with the exterior man, a man can think of worldly and corporeal things, or can look downward; in this differing little from the beasts, which have in like manner an idea of earthly things. In a word, the interior or middle man is the rational man himself, who is spiritual or celestial when he looks upward, but animal when he looks downward.
[3] It is well known that a man can know that he speaks in one way while thinking in another, and that he does one thing while willing another; and that there exist simulation and deceit; also that there is reason, or the rational; and that this is something interior, because it can dissent; and also that with one who is to be regenerated there is something interior which combats with that which is exterior. This that is interior, and that thinks and wills differently from the exterior, and that combats, is the interior man. In this interior man there is conscience with the spiritual man, and perception with the celestial. This interior man, conjoined with the Divine internal man that was in the Lord, is what is here called “Abram the Hebrew.”

AC (Potts) n. 1703 sRef Gen@14 @13 S0′ sRef 1Sam@4 @9 S1′ sRef Deut@15 @12 S1′ 1703. That the term “Hebrew” is predicated in the Word of some form of servitude, is evident from the following passages. In Moses:
When thy brother, a Hebrew, or a Hebrewess, shall be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years, then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee (Deut. 15:12);
where it is said “a Hebrew” and “a Hebrewess,” because servitude is treated of. In Jeremiah:
At the end of seven years ye shall let go every man his brother that is a Hebrew, who hath been sold unto thee, and hath served thee six years (Jer. 34:9, 14);
where in like manner the term “Hebrew” is used, because servitude is treated of; otherwise the sons of Jacob are not in the Prophets called “Hebrews.” In Samuel:
The Philistines said, Be strong, and be men, that ye be not servants unto the Hebrews as they have been to you (1 Sam. 4:9);
where the word is used for the same reason.
sRef Ex@9 @13 S2′ sRef Gen@41 @12 S2′ sRef Gen@39 @14 S2′ sRef Ex@9 @1 S2′ [2] In Moses:
Jehovah said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and say to him, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of the Hebrews, Let My people go, that they may serve Me (Exod. 9:1, 13; 10:3);
where they are called “Hebrews” from serving. The wife of Potiphar, speaking of Joseph:
Called unto the men of her house, and said unto them, See, he hath brought in a Hebrew unto us to mock us (Gen. 39:14).
Joseph is here called “a Hebrew” because he was a servant there. The chief of the butlers said unto Pharaoh:
There was with us a young man, a Hebrew, servant to the captain of the guard, and he interpreted to us our dreams (Gen.
Moreover, the Egyptians called the sons of Israel “Hebrews,” because they were servants, or in servitude, as is known (see Exod. 1:15-16, 19, and other places).

AC (Potts) n. 1704 sRef Gen@14 @13 S0′ 1704. And he was dwelling in the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite. That this signifies the state of perception from the rational man, is evident from the signification of an “oak-grove,” and of “the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite,” spoken of before (n. 1442, 1443, 1616).

AC (Potts) n. 1705 sRef Gen@14 @13 S0′ 1705. The brother of Eshcol, and the brother of Aner, and these were men of the covenant of Abram. That by these is signified the state of the rational man in respect to the external man, as regards the quality of its goods and truths, may be seen from their signification as explained below at verse 24, where also they are named. In brief, by Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner, are represented and signified the angels who were with the Lord when He fought in His earliest childhood, and who were adapted to the goods and truths then with the Lord. They are named from these goods and truths. In no case does an angel in heaven have any name; it is goods and truths from which names are predicated of them; for instance, “Michael” and the other angels named in the Word are not angels with such names; but they bear these names from the office they fill, whatever it may be. It is the same here with Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner; but representatively.

AC (Potts) n. 1706 sRef Gen@14 @14 S0′ 1706. Verse 14. And Abram heard that his brother was taken captive; and he hastened his trained men that were born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued unto Dan. “Abram heard that his brother was taken captive,” signifies that the interior man perceived in what state was the external man; “and he hastened his trained men that were born in his house,” signifies those goods in the external man that were now delivered from the yoke of servitude; “three hundred and eighteen,” signifies their quality; “and pursued unto Dan,” signifies the commencement of purification.

AC (Potts) n. 1707 sRef Gen@14 @14 S0′ 1707. Abram heard that his brother was taken captive. That this signifies that the interior man perceived in what state the external was, is evident from the signification of “Abram” in the verse that immediately precedes this, as being the interior man to which the internal or Divine man was adjoined; and from the signification of “Lot,” as being the external man, as has been shown before; also from the signification of “hearing that his brother was captive,” as being to perceive in what state the external man was, namely, as was said in verse 12, that apparent goods and truths had possession of it.
[2] The case is this: When the interior man (meant by “Abram the Hebrew”) perceived that the goods and truths from which the combat was waged were not goods and truths except apparently, and that they had possession of the whole of the external man (signified by “Lot, his brother’s son”), then the interior man, or the Divine internal man through the interior, purified them. How this is done, no one can possibly know but he to whom it has been revealed; for the influx of the internal man, through the interior or middle man, into the external man, is an arcanum, especially at the present time, when few, if any, know what the interior man is, and still less what the internal man is. What the internal man is, and what the interior man, may be seen just above, at verse 13. But here it shall be briefly stated what is the nature of the influx.
[3] The internal man in everyone belongs to the Lord alone; for there the Lord stores up the goods and truths with which He gifts man from infancy. Thence through these He flows into the interior or rational man, and through this into the exterior; in this way it is given to the man to think, and to be a man. But the influx from the internal man into the interior or middle man, and so into the exterior man, is twofold; it is either by celestial things, or by spiritual things or what is the same, it is either by goods, or by truths. By celestial things, or goods, it flows in only with regenerate men, who have been gifted either with perception or with conscience; thus it flows in by perception or by conscience; for which reason the influx by celestial things has no existence except with those who are in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor. But by spiritual things, or truths, the Lord flows in with every man; and unless there were this influx the man could not think, and therefore could not speak. When a man is such that he perverts the goods and truths, and when he cares nothing for celestial and spiritual things, there is then no influx of celestial things, or goods, but the way for these is closed; and yet there is an influx of spiritual things, or truths, for a way for them is continually kept open. Hence may be seen what is the nature of the interior or middle, that is, of the rational man.
[4] The internal man in the interior or middle man is here signified by “Abram.” When the celestial things, or goods, flow in from the internal man into the interior man, the internal man then appropriates to itself the interior or middle man, and makes it its own; but the interior or middle man is still distinct from the internal man. The case is similar when the internal man flows in through the interior or middle man into the exterior man, for then it likewise appropriates the exterior man to itself, and makes it its own; but yet the exterior man is distinct from the interior man. So now, when the internal man perceived in the interior or middle man that the state of the external man was such, namely, that the external man was made captive, that is, that not genuine but apparent goods and truths had taken possession of it, from which it had fought against so many enemies, it then flowed in, and reduced all things to order, and liberated it from the things which infested it, and thus purified it, that is to say, so that its goods and truths were not apparent but genuine goods and truths, and were thus conjoined with the internal or Divine man; and this, as before said, by means of the interior or middle man.
[5] In this the Lord was not like any man for His interior man as to celestial things or goods was Divine, and was adjoined to His internal man even from birth. His internal man, together with this interior man, was Jehovah Himself, His Father. But He was similar to other men in this, that His interior man as to spiritual things or truths had been adjoined to His external man, and thus was Human; but this also was made Divine, that is, Jehovah, by means of combats of temptations and continual victories from its own power. The external man is what is called “Lot;” in the former state however this is called “Abram’s brothers son,” but in this “Abram’s brother;” for it was called his brother’s son when possessed by apparent goods and truths, but his brother when possessed by genuine goods and truths.

AC (Potts) n. 1708 sRef Gen@14 @14 S0′ 1708. And he hastened his trained men that were born in his house. That this signifies these goods and truths in the external man which were now delivered from the yoke of servitude, is evident from the signification of the “trained men,” as also of those “born in Abram’s house.” Abram’s “men in training,” or novitiates, in the internal sense, are those goods in the external man which can be conjoined with the interior man; those “born in the house,” in the internal sense, are the same goods and also truths, as being proper to that man. But these things contain more arcana that can be told; in the first place these-how, after the combats of temptations, apparent goods become genuine goods, and that they can then be conjoined with the interior or middle man, and through this with the internal man, and be made in like manner Divine. For the Lord adjoined His Human Essence to His Divine Essence by degrees, and this by means of combats of temptations and victories, as before said. These goods that were made genuine are what are called Abram’s “men in training,” or novitiates; for these goods were in training, and were novitiates; and as they were procured by His own power, they are called “born in his house.”

AC (Potts) n. 1709 sRef Gen@14 @14 S0′ 1709. Three hundred and eighteen men. That this signifies their quality, namely, that they are the holy things of combat, is involved in the number “eighteen,” and also in the number “three hundred;” for these numbers are composed of three and six. “Three” signifies what is holy (as shown n. 720, 901); and “six” combat (as shown n. 737, 900). That Abram hastened so many, is an historical truth but still it was representative, as is all the history in the Word in the five books of Moses, in Joshua, in Judges, in Samuel, in the Kings, in Daniel, and in Jonah, where the numbers in like manner involve arcana; for nothing has been written in the Word which was not of this nature, otherwise it would not be the Word, and otherwise it would not have been related that Abram hastened three hundred and eighteen; and also that these were in training, and born in his house; besides many other things which are said in this chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 1710 sRef Gen@14 @14 S0′ sRef 1Ki@4 @25 S0′ sRef 2Sam@24 @15 S0′ sRef 2Sam@17 @11 S0′ sRef 2Sam@24 @2 S0′ sRef 2Sam@3 @10 S0′ 1710. And pursued even to Dan. That this signifies a state of purification, is evident from the connection of the things in the internal sense. To “pursue the enemies” is here to expel the evils and falsities which were with the goods and truths, and that caused them to merely appear to be goods and truths, and thus to liberate and purify them. “Even to Dan,” signifies to the farthest limit of Canaan, thus to the uttermost boundaries whither they had fled. That “Dan” signifies the farthest limits, or the extreme boundaries of Canaan, is evident in many places in the Word. As in Samuel:
To transfer the kingdom from the house of Saul, and to set up the throne of David over Israel and over Judah, from Dan even to Beersheba (2 Sam. 3:10).
Again:
In gathering, all Israel shall be gathered together, from Dan even to Beersheba (2 Sam. 17:11).
Again:
David said to Joab, Go now to and fro through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan even to Beersheba (2 Sam. 24:2, 15).
In the book of Kings:
Judah and Israel dwelt in safety, every man under his vine and under his fig tree, from Dan even to Beersheba (1 Kings 4:25).
From these passages it is evident that Dan was the farthest boundary of Canaan, whither the enemies were pursued which infested the goods and truths of the external man. But as Dan was a boundary of Canaan, and therefore within Canaan, lest they should stay there, they were driven further, namely, “to Hobah on the left of Damascus,” as is evident from the things stated in the verse next following, and in this way purification was effected. By the land of Canaan, in a holy sense, as before said, is signified the Lord’s kingdom, thus the celestial of love, or good; primarily, the good with the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1711 sRef Gen@14 @15 S0′ 1711. Verse 15. And he divided himself against them by night, he and his servants, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus. “He divided himself against them by night,” signifies the shade in which the apparent goods and truths were; “he and his servants,” signifies the rational man, and the things in the external man which obeyed; “and smote them,” signifies vindication; “and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus,” signifies as far as this extended.

AC (Potts) n. 1712 sRef Gen@14 @15 S0′ 1712. He divided himself against them by night. That this signifies the shade in which the apparent goods and truths were, is evident from the signification of “night,” as being a state of shade. There is said to be a state of shade when it is not known whether the good and truth are apparent or are genuine. When anyone is in apparent good and truth, he supposes them to be genuine good and truth; the evil and falsity that are in apparent good and truth are what cause the shade, and make them appear genuine. They who are in ignorance can know no otherwise than that the good which they do is their own, and that the truth which they think is their own, and it is the same with those who attribute to themselves the goods they do, and place merit in them, not knowing that in this case they are not good, although they appear so; and that the Own and self-merit which they place in them are the evils and falsities which obscure and darken. So in many other cases.
[2] The kind and the measure of the evil and falsity which lie concealed in them, cannot possibly be so well seen in the life of the body as in the other life, where they are presented to view as in clear light. But the case is different if this is done from ignorance that is not confirmed, for in this case those evils and falsities are easily dispersed. But if men confirm themselves in the belief that they can do good and resist evil by their own powers, and that they thus merit salvation, in this case this idea remains attached, and causes the good to be evil, and the truth to be falsity. But still it is according to order for a man to do good as of himself; and therefore he ought not to slacken his hand, with the thought, “If I can do nothing of good from myself, I ought to wait for immediate influx,” and thus remain in a passive state, for this would be contrary to order; but he must do good as of himself; yet, when he reflects upon the good which he does or has done, let him think, acknowledge, and believe that the Lord has done the work in him.
[3] If he slackens his effort, thinking as has been said, he is then not a subject into which the Lord can operate. The Lord cannot flow into anyone who deprives himself of everything into which power can be infused. It is as if one were not willing to learn anything without a revelation to himself; or as if one would teach nothing unless the words were put into him; or as if one would attempt nothing unless he were put into action as one without will. But if these things were done, he would be still more indignant at being like an inanimate thing; when yet that which is animated by the Lord in a man is that which appears as if it were from himself. It is thus an eternal truth that a man does not live from himself, but that if he did not appear to live from himself he could not live at all.

AC (Potts) n. 1713 sRef Gen@14 @15 S0′ 1713. He and his servants. That this signifies the rational man, and the things in the external man which obeyed, is evident from the signification of “he,” that is, of Abram, as being the interior man (explained above); and from the signification of “servants,” as being the things which obey. All the things that are in the external man before it has been liberated and vindicated, are called “servants,” for they do nothing but render obedience to the interior man. For example: in the exterior man there are affections and there are memory-knowledges; the former are from the goods of the interior man, and the latter are from the truths of the same. When these are made to act so that they accord with the interior man, they are said to serve and obey; and therefore by “servants” nothing else is here signified than those things in the external man which obeyed.

AC (Potts) n. 1714 sRef Gen@14 @15 S0′ 1714. And smote them. That this signifies vindication, is evident from the connection, and without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 1715 sRef Gen@14 @15 S0′ sRef Amos@5 @27 S0′ sRef Amos@5 @26 S0′ 1715. And pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus. That this signifies as far as this extended, is evident from the signification of “Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus.” It is not known where Hobah was situated, as there is no further mention of it in the Word. But Damascus was the principal city of Syria (as is evident from 2 Sam. 8:5, 6; Isa. 7:8); and by it is signified almost the same as by Syria (spoken of before, Gen. 10:22). The farthest boundary of the land of Canaan, beyond Dan, is described as being Damascus, as in Amos:
Ye have taken up Siccuth your king, and Chiun your images; the star of your gods which ye made to yourselves, and I will cause you to go away beyond Damascus (Amos 5:26-27).
The boundary of the holy land, or of the Lord’s kingdom, toward the north, is also called the “boundary of Damascus” (Ezek. 47:16-18, 48:1). Here, where it is said that they were smitten and driven as far as Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus, there is signified the extent to which the apparent goods and truths were purified. But unless it is known what was the character of the apparent goods and truths, and by what means they were purified so as to be made genuine, it cannot be explained what is properly meant here by Hobah, on the left of Damascus; except in a general way, that they were purified.

AC (Potts) n. 1716 sRef Gen@14 @16 S0′ 1716. Verse 16. And he brought back all the substance, and also brought back his brother Lot and his substance, and the women also, and the people. “He brought back all the substance,” signifies that the interior man reduced all things in the external man into a conforming state; “and also brought back his brother Lot and his substance,” signifies the external man and all the things belonging to it; “the women and the people,” signifies both the goods and the truths.

AC (Potts) n. 1717 sRef Gen@14 @16 S0′ 1717. And he brought back all the substance. That this signifies that the interior man reduced all things in the external man into a conforming state, may be seen from the signification of “bringing back all the substance.” The “substance” here is the things which Chedorlaomer and the kings with him took from their enemies; as told in what goes before. By Chedorlaomer and the kings with him, are signified the goods and truths of the exterior man. The substance they took from their enemies was nothing else than their being deprived of the power of doing evil and thinking falsity, which was signified by the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah, and by all the food which they took (treated of above, at verse 11).
[2] This matter is of such a nature that it cannot be set forth in few words; but what here follows may be sufficient to give some notion of it. He who is in the combats of temptations, and overcomes, acquires to himself more and more a power [potestas] over the evil spirits, or over the diabolical crew, till at last they do not dare to tempt at all. But as often as a victory is gained, so often does the Lord reduce into order the goods and truths from which the combat was waged; and so often are they thus purified; and so far as they are purified, so far are the celestial things of love insinuated into the exterior man, and a correspondence effected. These are the things that are signified by bringing back all the substance.
[3] He who supposes that the external man can be reduced into correspondence without combats of temptations is mistaken; for temptations are the means of dissipating evils and falsities, as also of introducing goods and truths, and of reducing the things which are of the external man into obedience, so that it may serve the interior or rational man, and through this the internal, that is, the Lord operating through the internal man. That these things are effected by temptations, no one can know but he who has been regenerated through temptations. But how this is done can scarcely be described even in the most general manner, since it is done without the man’s knowing whence and how; for it is the Lord’s Divine operation.

AC (Potts) n. 1718 sRef Gen@14 @16 S0′ 1718. And also brought back his brother Lot and his substance. That this signifies the external man and all that belongs to it, is evident from the signification of “Lot,” which is the external man, as has been stated several times before. What the external man is, is scarcely known at this day; for it is thought that only that which belongs to the body constitutes the external man; as the faculties of sense, namely, the touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight; and also the appetites and pleasures. But these constitute the outermost man, which is merely corporeal. The knowledges that belong to the memory, and the affections that are of the love, with which the man has been imbued, properly constitute the external man; also those faculties of sense which properly belong to the spirit, together with the pleasures that the spirit enjoys. That these properly constitute the external or exterior man, is evident from men in the other life, that is, spirits. These in like manner possess an external man, and in like manner an interior man, and consequently an internal man. The body is only as it were a covering, a crust, which is dissolved in order that the man may truly live, and that all things belonging to him may become more excellent.

AC (Potts) n. 1719 sRef Gen@14 @16 S0′ 1719. The women and the people. That this signifies both the goods and the truths, may be seen from the signification of “wives” and of “daughters,” as being what is good (spoken of before, n. 489-491, 568, 915)-here the word “women” is used instead of wives and daughters; and from the signification of “people,” as being truth (also explained before, n. 1259, 1260).

AC (Potts) n. 1720 sRef Gen@14 @17 S0′ 1720. Verse 17. And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, this is the king’s valley. “The king of Sodom went out to meet him,” signifies that the evil and falsity submitted themselves; “after his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him,” signifies the liberation and vindication of the apparent goods and truths; “at the valley of Shaveh, this is the king’s valley,” signifies the state of the external man as to goods and truths at that time.

AC (Potts) n. 1721 sRef Gen@14 @17 S0′ 1721. The king of Sodom went out to meet him. That this signifies that the evil and falsity submitted themselves, is evident from the signification of “the king of Sodom,” as being the evil and falsity against which was the combat; and from the signification of “going out to meet,” as being to submit one’s self. The king of Sodom is here spoken of, because the fact that evil and falsity submitted themselves occurs here in the series; but he is [specially] treated of in verse 21, which follows.

AC (Potts) n. 1722 sRef Gen@14 @17 S0′ 1722. After his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him. That this signifies the liberation and vindication of the apparent goods and truths, is evident from the things which precede, and from what was said above concerning Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him.

AC (Potts) n. 1723 sRef Gen@14 @17 S0′ 1723. At the valley of Shaveh, this is the king’s valley. That this signifies the state of the external man as to goods and truths at that time, may be seen from the signification of “the valley of Shaveh,” and also of “the king’s valley.” “The valley of Shaveh” signifies the goods of the external man; and “the king’s valley” signifies the truths of the same. The external man is called a “valley” from the fact that it is below. That which is more external is also lower, as that which is more internal is also higher. That a “king” signifies truth, has been said before (n. 1672).

AC (Potts) n. 1724 sRef Gen@14 @18 S0′ 1724. Verse 18. And Melchizedek king of Salem bought forth bread and wine; and he was priest to God Most High. “Melchizedek” signifies the celestial things of the interior man in the Lord; “king of Salem,” signifies a state of peace as to interior or rational things; “brought forth bread,” signifies celestial things and the refreshment from them; “and wine,” signifies spiritual things and the refreshment from them; “and he was priest,” signifies the holy of love; “to God Most High,” signifies the internal man, which is Jehovah.

AC (Potts) n. 1725 sRef Gen@14 @18 S0′ 1725. Melchizedek. That this signifies the celestial things of the interior man in the Lord, may be seen from the signification of the name “Melchizedek,” to be explained presently; and also from the things that precede and from those which follow. What the internal man is, and what the interior man, and what the external, has been sufficiently shown above; also that the internal man flows in through the interior man into the external; as also that the internal man flows into the interior man either by celestial things or by spiritual things; by celestial things with every regenerate man, that is, with those who live in love to the Lord and in love toward the neighbor; but by spiritual things with every man, whatever his quality may be; thence is his light from heaven, that is, his ability to think and speak, and to be a man. On this subject see what was said before (n. 1707).
[2] The celestial things of the interior man are all those which are of celestial love, as has often been said before. These celestial things in the Lord’s interior man, or the Lord’s interior man as to these celestial things, is called “Melchizedek.” The internal man in the Lord was Jehovah Himself. The interior man, when purified after the combats of temptations, was also made Divine and Jehovah; in like manner also the external; but now, when the interior man was in the state of the combats of temptation, and was not yet much purified by the combats of the temptations, it is called as to the celestial things “Melchizedek,” that is, “King of holiness and righteousness.”
sRef Ps@110 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@110 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@110 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@110 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@110 @2 S3′ [3] That this is really so, may also be seen in David, where the Lord’s combats of temptations are in like manner treated of, and at last His interior man as to celestial things is called “Melchizedek.” Thus in David:
Jehovah said unto my Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. Jehovah shall send forth the scepter of Thy strength out of Zion; rule Thou in the midst of Thine enemies. Thy people are willing offerings in the day of Thy might; in honors of holiness; from the womb of the morning Thou hast the dew of Thy birth.* Jehovah hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever, after My word** Melchizedek. The Lord at Thy right hand smote through kings in the day of His anger (Ps. 110:1-5).
Here the Lord’s combats of temptations with the hells are treated of, as in the chapter before us, as may be seen from every word. That the Lord is here treated of He Himself teaches (see Matt. 22:41-43; Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42-44); to “make His enemies His footstool,” to “rule in the midst of His enemies,” the “day of might,” to “smite kings in the day of His anger,” signify the combats of temptations, and victories.
* Nativitatis; but elsewhere juventutis, as T.C.R. 764 [Rotch ed.]
* Juxta verbum meum; but elsewhere juxta modum, as n. 6148. [Idem.]

AC (Potts) n. 1726 sRef Ps@76 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @18 S0′ sRef Ps@76 @1 S0′ 1726. King of Salem. That this signifies a state of peace as to interior or rational things, is evident from the signification of “Salem.” In the original language “Salem” means “peace,” and also “perfection;” thus it signifies a state of peace, and a state of perfection. A state of peace is the state of the Lord’s kingdom; in that state the Lord’s celestial and spiritual things are as in their morning, and in their spring; for peace is like the dawn in the early morning, and like the spring in the springtime. The dawn and the spring cause all things that then meet the senses to be full of joy and gladness; every object draws an affection from the general one of the dawn and of the springtime. So is it with the state of peace in the Lord’s kingdom: in the state of peace all celestial and spiritual things are as it were in their morning or springtide flower and smile, that is, in their happiness itself. So does the state of peace affect everything, for the Lord is peace itself. This is signified by Salem also in David:
In Judah is God known, His name is great in Israel, in Salem also is His tabernacle, and His dwelling place in Zion (Ps. 76:1, 2).
When a man is in the combats of temptations, he is by turns gifted by the Lord with a state of peace, and is thus refreshed. A state of peace is here signified by “Salem;” and presently also by the “bread and wine,” by which celestial and spiritual things are signified; thus a state of celestial and spiritual things in peace, which state is refreshment itself.

AC (Potts) n. 1727 sRef Gen@14 @18 S0′ 1727. Brought forth bread and wine. That to “bring forth bread” signifies celestial things and refreshment from them, and to “bring forth wine” signifies spiritual things and refreshment from them, is evident from the signification of “bread,” as being what is celestial (spoken of n. 276, 680); and from the signification of “wine,” as also of the “vine” and the “vineyard,” as being what is spiritual (explained n. 1069, 1071). And because “bread” signifies celestial things, and “wine” spiritual things, they were made symbols also in the Holy Supper. That Melchizedek brought forth bread and wine, has here a similar signification; for bread in the Ancient Church was the representative of all celestial things, and wine the representative of all spiritual things; thus here of the Lord Himself, from whom is all that is celestial and all that is spiritual.

AC (Potts) n. 1728 sRef Gen@14 @18 S0′ 1728. And he was priest. That this signifies the holy of love, is evident from the signification of “priest” in the Word. There are two things which are predicated of the Lord, namely, that He is King, and that He is Priest. A king, or the royalty, signifies the holy which is true; and a priest, or the priesthood, signifies the holy which is good; the former is the Divine spiritual, the latter the Divine celestial. The Lord as King governs each and all things in the universe from Divine truth; and as Priest, from Divine good. Divine truth is the very order of His universal kingdom, all the laws of which are truths, or eternal verities; Divine good is the very essential of order, all things of which are of mercy. Both of these are predicated of the Lord. If Divine truth alone were His, no mortal could be saved, for truths condemn everyone to hell; but Divine good, which is of mercy, uplifts from hell to heaven. These are what the kings and priests in the Jewish Church represented and these likewise Melchizedek represented, as king of Salem, and priest to God Most High.

AC (Potts) n. 1729 sRef Gen@14 @18 S0′ sRef John@14 @6 S0′ sRef John@14 @9 S0′ sRef John@14 @11 S0′ sRef John@14 @8 S0′ sRef John@14 @10 S0′ 1729. To God Most High. That this signifies the internal man, which is Jehovah, is evident from what has been said already several times concerning the Lord’s internal man, that it is Jehovah Himself, and thus that the Lord is the same as Jehovah the Father; as He Himself says in John:
I am the way, and the truth, and the life. Philip saith, Show us the Father. Jesus saith unto him, Am I so long time with you, and dost thou not know Me, Philip? He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father; how sayest thou then, Show us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father and the Father in Me? Believe Me, that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:6, 8-11).
sRef Luke@24 @38 S2′ sRef Luke@24 @39 S2′ sRef Luke@24 @40 S2′ [2] It is the Lord’s Human Essence which is called the “Son of man;” which also, after the combats of the temptations, was united to His Divine Essence, so that it was itself also made Jehovah; wherefore in heaven they know no other Jehovah the Father than the Lord (see above, n. 15). With the Lord all is Jehovah; not only His internal and His interior man, but also the external man, and the very body; and therefore He alone rose into heaven with the body also; as is sufficiently evident in the Gospels, where His resurrection is treated of; as also from the words of the Lord Himself:
Wherefore do thoughts arise in your hearts? See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; handle Me and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see Me have. And when He had said this, He showed them His hands and His feet (Luke 24:38-40).

AC (Potts) n. 1730 sRef Gen@14 @19 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @19 S0′ 1730. Verse 19. And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram to God Most High, Possessor of the heavens and the earth. “And he blessed him,” signifies the enjoyment of celestial and spiritual things; “and said, Blessed be Abram to God Most High,” signifies the Lord’s interior man, that it came into the enjoyment of goods from His internal man; “Possessor of the heavens and the earth,” signifies the conjunction of the internal man, or Jehovah, with the interior and the exterior man.

AC (Potts) n. 1731 sRef Gen@14 @19 S0′ 1731. He blessed him. That this signifies the enjoyment of celestial and spiritual things, may be seen from the signification of “blessing,” as being to enjoy all goods (see n. 981, 1096). They are in the enjoyment of all goods who enjoy celestial and spiritual goods; for all goods, of whatever name, are from these. The things which are contained in this verse declare and proclaim the conjunction of the Lord’s Human Essence with His Divine Essence the blessing itself involves this.

AC (Potts) n. 1732 sRef Gen@14 @19 S0′ 1732. Blessed be Abram to God Most High. That this signifies the Lord’s interior man, that it came into the enjoyment of goods from His internal man, is in like manner evident from the signification of “blessing” as being the enjoyment of goods, as before said; also from the signification of “Abram” here, as being the interior or rational man, treated of above (at verse 13); and also from the signification of “God Most High,” as being the Lord’s internal, which subject also has been treated of before. By “Abram,” as before said, is signified the interior or rational man which is to be united to the internal man or Jehovah, and this by the combats of temptations and victories. For with the interior man the case is as follows. The interior man, as before said, is intermediate between the internal and the external man, and enables the internal man to flow into the external; for without the interior man there is no communication. There is thus effected a communication of celestial things, and of spiritual. When the communication was of celestial things, the interior man was called “Melchizedek;” but when there is a communication of spiritual things, it is called “Abram the Hebrew.”

AC (Potts) n. 1733 sRef Gen@14 @19 S0′ 1733. Possessor of the heavens and the earth. This signifies the conjunction of the internal man or Jehovah with the interior and the exterior man, as appears from the signification of “heaven and earth.” That which is interior in man is called “heaven;” and that which is exterior is called “earth.” The reason why “heaven” signifies that which is interior in man, is that a man as to his interiors is an image of heaven, and so is a kind of little heaven. Primarily the Lord’s interior man is heaven, because the Lord is the all in all of heaven, and thus is heaven itself. It follows from this that the exterior man is called the earth. For the same reason also, by the “new heavens” and the “new earth,” spoken of in the Prophets and in Revelation, nothing else is meant than the Lord’s kingdom, and everyone who is a kingdom of the Lord, or in whom the Lord’s kingdom is. That “heaven and earth” signify these things may be seen, as to “heaven,” n. 82, 911; and as to “earth,” n. 82, 620, 636, 913.
[2] That here “God Most High, Possessor of the heavens and earth,” signifies the conjunction in the Lord of the internal man with the interior and exterior man, may be seen from the fact that as to His internal man the Lord was Jehovah Himself; and because the internal man or Jehovah led and instructed the external, as a father his son, therefore relatively to Jehovah He is called, as to the external man, the “Son of God;” but relatively to the mother, He is called the “Son of Man.” The Lord’s internal man, which is Jehovah Himself, is what is here called “God Most High;” and before plenary conjunction or union was effected, it is called “Possessor of the heavens and earth,” that is, Possessor of all things which are in the interior and the exterior man; for these, as before said, are here meant by “the heavens and the earth.”

AC (Potts) n. 1734 sRef Gen@14 @20 S0′ 1734. Verse 20. And blessed be God Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all. “Blessed be God Most High,” signifies the Lord’s internal man; “who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand,” signifies victory. “And he gave him tithes of all,” signifies remains derived from victory.

AC (Potts) n. 1735 sRef Gen@14 @20 S0′ 1735. Blessed be God Most High. That this signifies the Lord’s internal man, is evident from the things which were said just above concerning the internal man. In the Ancient Church, Jehovah was called “God Most High” for the reason that “height” represented and therefore signified what is internal, and thus “the Most High” signified what is inmost. Hence the worship of the Ancient Church was upon high places, mountains, and hills. The inmost also has the same relation to the exterior and the outermost, as the highest bears to the lower and the lowest. The Most High or the Inmost is the Celestial of Love, or Love, itself. Jehovah, or the Lord’s internal man, was the very Celestial of Love, that is, Love itself, to which no other attributes are fitting than those of pure Love, thus of pure Mercy toward the whole human race which is such that it wills to save all and make them happy to eternity, and to bestow on them all that it has; thus out of pure mercy to draw all who are willing to follow, to heaven, that is, to itself, by the strong force of love. This Love itself is Jehovah.
[2] Of nothing can Am or Is be predicated except of Love. From this Love-because in Love, or of Love itself-is the very Being [Esse] of all life, that is, Life itself; and because Jehovah alone is Being of life, or Life itself, as He alone is Love, each and all things have thence their being and their life; nor can anyone be and live of himself except Jehovah alone, that is, the Lord alone; and as no one can be and live of himself except the Lord alone, it is a fallacy of sense that men seem to themselves to live of themselves. The angels plainly perceive that they do not live of themselves, but from the Lord, since they live in the very being of the Lord’s life, because in His love. But yet to them above all others there is given the appearance as of living from themselves, together with ineffable happiness. This therefore is to live in the Lord, which is never possible unless we live in His love, that is, in charity toward the neighbor.

AC (Potts) n. 1736 sRef Gen@14 @20 S0′ sRef Isa@48 @17 S1′ sRef Ex@24 @10 S1′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@41 @14 S1′ 1736. That the Lord is Jehovah, who is here called “God Most High,” is plainly evident from the Word. In Isaiah:
Jehovah Zebaoth is His name, and thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; the God of the whole earth is He called (Isa. 54:5);
where it is plain that the Redeemer and the Holy One of Israel, who is the Lord alone, is “Jehovah Zebaoth” and “the God of the whole earth.” Again:
Thus said Jehovah thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am Jehovah thy God (Isa. 48:17).
Again:
I do help thee, saith Jehovah, thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 41:14).
The expressions “the Holy One of Israel,” and “the God of Israel” occur many times. That the Lord is the Holy One of Israel and the God of Israel is clearly evident in that:
They saw the God of Israel, and there was under His feet as it were a work of sapphire stone, and as it were the substance of heaven for clearness (Exod. 24:10).
sRef Isa@40 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@25 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@25 @9 S2′ [2] No other was acknowledged and called Jehovah by the Jewish Church, for it worshiped the one God Jehovah, and this was the more fully the case for the reason-which was unknown to most of them-that all the rites of that church represented the Lord, and all the things of the Word in the internal sense were significative of Him. In Isaiah:
He will swallow up death forever; and the Lord Jehovih will wipe away the tear from off all faces. And it shall be said in that day, Lo, this is our God; we have waited for Him, and He will save us; this is Jehovah, we have waited for Him; let us exult and be glad in his salvation (Isa. 25:8-9);
treating of the coming of the Lord.
sRef Isa@45 @21 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @18 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @15 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @22 S3′ [3] In the same:
Behold the Lord Jehovih will come in strength, and His arm shall rule for Him. He shall feed His flock like a shepherd, He shall gather the little lambs in His arm, He shall carry them in His bosom, He shall lead the sucklings (Isa. 40:10-11).
Here the Lord is plainly spoken of, who is “the Lord Jehovih.” That He “shall come in strength,” and “His arm rule for Him,” signifies that He would conquer the hells by His own power; to “feed His flock, gather the little lambs in His arm, carry them in His bosom, and lead the sucklings,” are predicated of His love or mercy.
sRef Isa@9 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@9 @7 S4′ [4] Again:
Thus said Jehovah that created the heavens, God Himself that formed the earth and made it, He established it, He created it not an emptiness, He formed it to be inhabited: I am Jehovah, and there is none else. Am not I Jehovah, and there is no God else besides Me? a just God, and a Saviour, there is none besides Me. Look unto Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is none else (Isa. 45:18, 21-22).
Here the Lord is manifestly spoken of as being alone Jehovah and God. That to “create the heavens and form the earth” is to regenerate, thus that the Creator of heaven and earth is the Regenerator, may be seen above at n. 16, 88, 472, and elsewhere; and therefore the Lord is often called the Creator, Former, and Maker.
sRef Ex@23 @21 S5′ [5] Again:
Thou art our Father, for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us. Thou, O Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer, Thy name is from everlasting (Isa. 63:16).
Here the Lord is plainly meant, who alone is the “Redeemer.” In Moses:
Take heed of His face, and hear His voice, provoke Him not, for He will not bear your transgression, for My name is in the midst of Him (Exod. 23:21). That “name” means essence, see above (n. 144, 145); and “in the midst” means the inmost (n. 1074).
sRef Zech@14 @9 S6′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S6′ sRef Jer@23 @5 S6′ [6] In Isaiah:
Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6),
plainly said of the Lord. In Jeremiah:
Behold the days come that I will raise unto David a righteous offshoot, and He shall reign a King, and shall act intelligently, and shall do judgment and justice in the earth; in His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell in confidence; and this is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our Righteousness (Jer. 23:5-6),
plainly meaning the Lord. In Zechariah:
Jehovah shall be King over all the earth; in that day there shall be one Jehovah, and His name one (Zech. 14:9),
plainly speaking of the Lord. The “name” denotes the essence.

AC (Potts) n. 1737 sRef Gen@14 @20 S0′ 1737. Who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. That this signifies victory, may be seen without explication. The conjunction of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence was procured and effected by the Lord by continual combats of temptations and victories, and this from His own power. He who apprehends the mode of the conjunction and union in any other way is much mistaken. By this He became righteousness. The conjunction or union was effected with the Celestial of Love, that is, with Love itself, which, as before said, is Jehovah. The conjunction of men with the Lord is also effected by temptations, and by the implanting of faith in love. Unless faith is implanted in love, that is, unless a man by the things that are of faith receives the life of faith, that is, charity, there is no conjunction. This alone is to follow Him, namely, to be conjoined with the Lord just as the Lord as to His Human Essence was conjoined with Jehovah. Hence also all such are called “sons of God,” from the Lord who was the only Son of God, and hence they become images of Him.

AC (Potts) n. 1738 sRef Gen@14 @20 S0′ 1738. And he gave him tithes of all. That this signifies remains derived from victory, is evident from the signification of “tithes” as being remains (spoken of before, n. 576). But what remains are may be seen above (n. 468, 530, 560, 561, 661, 1050), namely, that they are all the states of love and charity, and consequently all the states of innocence and peace, with which a man is gifted. These states are given to man from infancy, but less by degrees as the man advances into adult age. But when a man is being regenerated, he then receives new remains also, besides the former, thus new life. For it is from remains, or by remains, that a man is a man; for without the state of love and charity, and without the state of innocence-which states insinuate themselves into the other states of his life-a man is not a man, but is worse than any wild beast. The remains acquired in the combats of temptations are those which are here meant. These remains are what are signified by the tithes given to Melchizedek by Abram; and they are all the celestial things of love which the Lord procured to Himself by the continual combats and victories by which He was continually being united to His Divine Essence, until His Human Essence in like manner became Love, or the Being of life, that is, Jehovah.

AC (Potts) n. 1739 sRef Gen@14 @21 S0′ 1739. Verse 21. And the king of Sodom said to Abram, Give me the soul, and take the substance to thyself. “The king of Sodom said,” signifies the evil and falsity which were overcome; “unto Abram” signifies the Lord’s rational; “Give me the soul, and take the substance to thyself,” signifies that He should give them life, and they would not care for other things.

AC (Potts) n. 1740 sRef Gen@14 @21 S0′ 1740. The king of Sodom said. That this signifies the evil and falsity which were overcome, is evident from the signification of “Sodom,” which is evil and falsity, as was shown above in this chapter. It is said above (in verse 17), that the king of Sodom went out to meet Abram, by which is signified that evil and falsity submitted themselves; it is now added that they are suppliants.
[2] That evil and falsity were conquered, or that evils and falsities are conquered by the combats of temptations, and that goods and truths are thereby put on, comes from the fact that evils and falsities are thus dissipated; and when these have been dissipated, goods and truths succeed in their place; and these are afterwards confirmed more and more, and are thus strengthened. For it is by evil spirits that evils and falsities are excited; and unless they are excited, the man scarcely knows that they are evils and falsities; but when excited they are manifest. And the longer the combats of temptations last, the more manifest do the evils and falsities become, until at last they are held in abhorrence.
[3] And as evils and falsities are dissipated, goods and truths take their place; and the greater the horror that is conceived for evils and falsities, the more of love for goods and truths is insinuated by the Lord. And further, the greater the horror for evils and falsities, the less do evil spirits dare to approach, for they cannot endure aversion and horror for the evils and falsities in which their life consists, and are sometimes seized with terror on their first approach. And the more of love there is for goods and truths, the more do the angels love to be with the man, and together with the angels, heaven; for they are in their own life when in the goods of love and truths of faith.

AC (Potts) n. 1741 sRef Gen@14 @21 S0′ 1741. To Abram. That this signifies the Lord’s rational, is evident from the representation of Abram. In the two chapters which precede, Abram represented the Lord or His state in childhood; here in this chapter, he represents the Lord’s rational, and is then called “Abram the Hebrew;” as is evident from what has been said and shown above at verse 13; and here the representation is the same; for in this chapter no other Abram is meant than Abram the Hebrew. The Lord’s spiritual which is adjoined to His internal man is Abram the Hebrew but the celestial which is adjoined to His internal man is represented and signified by Melchizedek, as before said.

AC (Potts) n. 1742 sRef Gen@14 @21 S0′ 1742. Give me the soul, and take the substance to thyself. That this signifies that He should give them life, and they would not care for other things, is evident from the signification of “soul,” as being life (treated of before, n. 1000, 1005, 1040); and from the signification of the “substance,” as being the other things that are not so properly of life, of which more will be said presently.
[2] The life which evil spirits have, and which they love extremely, is the life of the cupidities of the love of self and of the world, hence a life of hatreds, revenge, and cruelties; and they suppose that there can be no delight in any other life. They are like men-for they have been men, and they retain this belief from their life when they were men-who place all life in the delights of such cupidities, not knowing but that such life is the only life, and that when they lose it they will utterly die. But of what nature is that life which they love, is plain from those of this character in the other life, where it is turned into a fetid and excrementitious life, and wonderful to say, they perceive the stench as most enjoyable; as may be seen from what is related from experience in n. 820, 954.
[3] It was the same with the demons, who, when the Lord cast them out of the maniac, fearing for their life, asked that they might be sent into the swine (Mark 5:7-13). That these demons were those who in the life of the body had been given up to filthy avarice, may be seen from the fact that such seem to themselves in the other life to pass their time among swine, for the reason that the life of swine corresponds to avarice, and is therefore delightful to them; as is evident from what is related from experience in n. 939.

AC (Potts) n. 1743 sRef Gen@14 @22 S0′ 1743. Verse 22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lifted up my hand to Jehovah God Most High, Possessor of the heavens and the earth. “Abram said to the king of Sodom,” signifies the reply; “I have lifted up my hand to Jehovah,” signifies the state of mind in the Lord; “Possessor of the heavens and the earth,” signifies conjunction.

AC (Potts) n. 1744 sRef Gen@14 @22 S0′ 1744. Abram said to the king of Sodom. That this signifies the reply, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 1745 sRef Gen@14 @22 S0′ 1745. I have lifted up my hand to Jehovah. That this signifies the state of mind in the Lord, is evident from the signification of “lifting up the hands.” The lifting up of the hand to Jehovah is a gesture of the body corresponding to an affection of the mind, as is well known. In the sense of the letter, those things which are interior, or of the mind, are expressed by external things which correspond; but in the internal sense it is internal things that are meant; here therefore the lifting up of the hand means the mind, or an affection of the mind.
[2] So long as the Lord was in a state of temptations, He spoke with Jehovah as with another; but so far as His Human Essence was united to, He spoke with Jehovah as with Himself; which is evident from many passages in the Gospels, as also from many in the Prophets and in David. The cause is clearly evident from what has been said before concerning the inheritance from the mother. So far as this remained, He was as it were absent from Jehovah; but so far as this was extirpated, He was present, and was Jehovah Himself.
[3] This may be illustrated by the conjunction of the Lord with the angels. Sometimes an angel does not speak from himself, but from the Lord, and he then does not know but that he is the Lord; but then his externals are quiescent. It is otherwise when his externals are active. The reason is, that the internal man of the angels is the Lord’s possession; and so far then as there are no obstructions on the part of what is their own, it is the Lord’s, and even is the Lord. But in the Lord, a plenary conjunction or an eternal union with Jehovah was wrought, so that His very Human Essence also is Jehovah.

AC (Potts) n. 1746 sRef Gen@14 @22 S0′ 1746. Possessor of the heavens and the earth. This signifies conjunction, as appears from what was said above, at verse 19; where the same words occur, with the same signification.

AC (Potts) n. 1747 sRef Gen@14 @23 S0′ 1747. Verse 23. That from a thread even to the thong of a shoe, I will not take aught that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have enriched Abram. “That from a thread even to the thong of a shoe,” signifies all natural and corporeal things that were unclean; “I will not take aught that is thine,” signifies that in celestial love here was nothing of the kind; “lest thou shouldest say, I have enriched Abram,” signifies that the Lord derived no strength whatever from such things.

AC (Potts) n. 1748 sRef Gen@14 @23 S0′ 1748. That from a thread even to the thong [or latchet] of a shoe. That this signifies all natural and corporeal things that were unclean, is evident from the signification of “the thong of a shoe.” In the Word the sole of the foot and the heel signify the ultimate natural (as before shown, n. 259). A shoe is that which covers the sole of the foot and the heel; a “shoe” therefore signifies what is natural still further, thus the corporeal itself. The signification of a “shoe” is according to the subject. When predicated of goods it is taken in a good sense; and when of evil, in a bad sense; as here in treating of the substance of the king of Sodom, by whom evil and falsity are signified, the “thong of a shoe” signifies unclean natural and corporeal things. By the “thread of a shoe” falsity is signified, and by the “thong of a shoe” evil, and this the most worthless of all, because the word is a diminutive.
sRef Ex@3 @5 S2′ [2] That such things are signified by a “shoe,” is evident also from other passages in the Word; as when Jehovah appeared to Moses out of the midst of the bush, and said to Moses:
Draw not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground (Exod. 3:5).
The prince of the army of Jehovah said in like manner to Joshua:
Put off thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest is holiness (Josh. 5:15).
Here everyone can see that the shoe would take away nothing from the holiness, provided the man were holy in himself; but that it was said for the reason that the shoe represented the ultimate natural and corporeal which was to be put off.
sRef Ps@60 @8 S3′ sRef Matt@10 @14 S3′ [3] That it is the unclean natural and corporeal, is also plain in David:
Moab is my washpot, upon Edom will I cast My shoe (Ps. 60:8).
The command to the disciples involves what is similar:

Whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, as ye go out of that house or that city, shake off the dust of your feet (Matt. 10:14; Mark 6:11; Luke 9:5);
where the “dust of the feet” has a signification like that of a “shoe,” namely, uncleanness from evil and falsity, because the sole of the foot is the ultimate natural. They were commanded to do this because they were at that time in representatives, and thought that heavenly arcana were stored up in these alone, and not in naked truths.
sRef Deut@25 @6 S4′ sRef Deut@25 @7 S4′ sRef Deut@25 @5 S4′ sRef Deut@25 @10 S4′ sRef Deut@25 @9 S4′ sRef Deut@25 @8 S4′ [4] Because a “shoe” signified the ultimate natural, the putting off of the shoe, or the shoe-loosing, signified that one should be divested of the ultimate things of nature; as in the case of him who was not willing to fulfill the duty of brother-in-law, spoken of in Moses:
If the man is not willing to fulfill the duties of a husband’s brother, then his brother’s wife shall come unto him in the eyes of the elders, and draw his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face; and she shall answer and say, So shall it be done to the man that doth not build up his brother’s house. And his name shall be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe taken off (Deut. 25:5-10);
meaning that which is devoid of all natural charity.
sRef Luke@3 @16 S5′ sRef Deut@33 @24 S5′ sRef Deut@33 @25 S5′ [5] That a “shoe” signifies the ultimate natural, in a good sense also, is likewise evident from the Word; as in Moses, concerning Asher:
Blessed be Asher above the sons; let him be acceptable unto his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil; iron and brass shall thy shoe be (Deut. 33:24, 25);
where the “shoe” denotes the ultimate natural; a “shoe of iron” natural truth, a “shoe of brass” natural good, as is evident from the signification of iron and brass (see n. 425, 426). And because a “shoe” signified the ultimate natural and corporeal, it became a symbol of what is least and most worthless; for the ultimate natural and corporeal is the most worthless of all things in man. This was meant by John the Baptist, when he said,
There cometh One that is mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose (Luke 3:16; Mark 1:7; John 1:27).

AC (Potts) n. 1749 sRef Gen@14 @23 S0′ 1749. I will not take aught that is thine. That this signifies that in celestial love there was nothing of the kind, may be seen from the fact that it was Abram who said that he would not take aught from the king of Sodom. Abram represented the Lord, now victorious, and thus the things which were of celestial love, which He procured to Himself by the victories; and the king of Sodom represented evil and falsity, from which there was nothing in the Lord as a victor, or in celestial love.
[2] What is meant by these things in the internal sense cannot be made evident unless it be known how the case is in the other life. With evil and infernal spirits there reigns the love of self and of the world. Hence they think that they are the gods of the universe, and that they can do much. When they are vanquished, although they perceive that they can do nothing at all, there still remains the notion of power and dominion; and they think that they can contribute much to the Lord’s power and dominion, and therefore in order that they may reign together with the good spirits, they offer them their services. But as the things by which they think that they can effect anything are nothing but evil and falsity; and in the Lord, or in celestial love, there is nothing but good and truth, the king of Sodom, by whom such are represented, is here told in reply that there was nothing of the kind in the Lord, or that the Lord had no power from evil and falsity.
[3] Dominion from evil and falsity is altogether contrary to dominion from good and truth. Dominion from evil and falsity consists in desiring to make all slaves; dominion from good and truth in desiring to make all free. Dominion from evil and falsity consists in destroying all; but dominion from good and truth in saving all. From which it is evident that dominion from evil and falsity is of the devil, and that dominion from good and truth is of the Lord. That the two kinds of dominion are altogether contrary to each other may be seen from the Lord’s words in Matthew 12:24-30; also from His saying that no one can serve two masters (Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13).

AC (Potts) n. 1750 sRef Gen@14 @23 S0′ 1750. Lest thou shouldest say, I have enriched Abram. That this signifies that the Lord derived no strength whatever from such things, may be seen from the signification of “being enriched,” which is to acquire power and strength. How these things are, is evident from what has just been said.

AC (Potts) n. 1751 sRef Gen@14 @24 S0′ 1751. Verse 24. Save only that which the lads have eaten, and the portion of the men who went with me; Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, let them take their portion. “Save only that which the lads have eaten,” signifies the good spirits; “and the portion of the men who went with me,” signifies the angels; “Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre,” signifies the things that appertained to them; “let them take their portion,” signifies that they have been given into their power [potestas].

AC (Potts) n. 1752 sRef Gen@14 @24 S0′ 1752. Save only that which the lads have eaten. That this signifies the good spirits, is evident from what precedes, and from what follows. It is evident from what precedes, for Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner are mentioned above (verse 13) as being allies of the covenant of Abram, by whom was signified the state of the Lord’s rational man as to His external man, in respect to the quality of its goods and truths; and thus it is evident that by them were signified the angels who were with the Lord when He was combating, as is plain from the explication there given. The same is evident from what follows, as will presently appear. Those who went with Abram are here called “the lads” or “children,” by whom no others are meant than good spirits; but by “the men,” who are spoken of immediately afterwards, are meant angels. That there were angels with the Lord when He fought against the hells, is evident from the Word; as also from the consideration that when He was in the combats of temptations, it could not be otherwise than that angels should be present, to whom the Lord from His own power gave strength, and as it were power, to fight together with Him, for all the power that the angels have is from the Lord.
[2] That angels fight against the evil, may be seen from what has occasionally been said before concerning the angels with man-that they protect man, and avert the evils which are threatened by infernal spirits (see above, n. 50, 227, 228, 697, 968) but all their power is from the Lord. The good spirits also are angels, but lower ones, for they are in the first heaven; the angelic spirits are in the second; and the angels, properly so called, are in the third (see n. 459, 684). Such is the form of government in the other life that the good spirits are subordinate to the angelic spirits, and the angelic spirits to the real angels; so that they constitute one angelic society. The good spirits and the angelic spirits are those who are here called “the lads;” but the real angels, “the men.”

AC (Potts) n. 1753 sRef Gen@14 @24 S0′ 1753. And the portion of the men who went with me. That this signifies the angels, is evident from what has just been said; and also from the fact that angels, when they have appeared to men, are in the Word called “men.”

AC (Potts) n. 1754 sRef Jer@23 @5 S0′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@14 @24 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S1′ sRef Isa@9 @7 S1′ 1754. Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre. That these signify the things appertaining to them, is evident from what is said above in this chapter (at verse 13) concerning the same, namely, that by their names are signified the goods and truths from which the combat was waged, and not so much the angels themselves, for the angels are meant by “the lads,” and “the men,” as has been said. For the angels never have any name given them, but are distinguished in respect to their quality by goods and truths; and on this account nothing else is signified in the Word by a name but the essence and its quality (as before shown, n. 144, 145, 340). This may be seen also in Isaiah, where the Lord is spoken of:
His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of eternity, Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6),
where by the “name” is meant of what quality He is, that is, that He is Wonderful, Counselor, God, a Hero, Father of eternity, Prince of Peace.
sRef Ex@23 @21 S2′ [2] In Jeremiah, where also the Lord is spoken of:
This is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our Righteousness (Jer. 23:5, 6)
where it is plainly evident that the name is “Righteousness.” So too in Moses, where likewise the Lord is spoken of:
He will not bear your transgression, for My name is in the midst of Him (Exod. 23:21),
where also the “name” denotes the essence, as being Divine. So also in many other passages of the Word, where it is said that “they called on the name of Jehovah;” that “they should not take the name of Jehovah in vain;” and in the Lord’s Prayer, “Hallowed be Thy name.” The case is similar with the names of angels; and is so here with the names of Eshcol, Aner, and Mamre, who represent angels, in that these names signify the things appertaining to the angels.

AC (Potts) n. 1755 sRef Gen@14 @24 S0′ 1755. Let them take their portion. That this signifies that they had been given into their power, is evident from what was said above (at verses 21-33), namely, that it was the Lord’s will to receive nothing from them, because He derived no strength from any such thing. That they had been given into the power of the angels stands thus: It is the angels who rule over evil and infernal spirits, as has been made evident to me from much experience. But the Lord foresees and sees all things in both general and particular, and provides and disposes for them; but some things from permission, some from sufferance, some from leave, some from good pleasure, some from will. The desire to rule is itself something of man’s own which differs from anything that the angels receive from the Lord; but still all their dominion is of love and mercy, apart from any desire to rule. But these things, being deeper arcana, cannot be stated to the understanding in a few words. It is sufficient to know that the evil and infernal spirits have been delivered into the power [potestas] of the angels, and that the Lord governs all things, both in general and in particular, down to the veriest singulars, concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter, where Providence and Permissions are treated of.

AC (Potts) n. 1756 sRef Gen@14 @24 S0′ 1756. The foregoing are the things that are in general involved in the internal sense of this chapter; but the series or connection itself of the things, and its beauty, cannot appear when each separate thing is explained in detail according to the signification of the words, as they would if they were embraced in a single idea, for when they are all apprehended under a single idea the things that had been scattered appear beautifully coherent and connected. The case herein is like that of one who hears another speaking, and gives his attention to the words; in which case he does not so well apprehend the idea of the speaker as he would if he paid no attention to the words or their signification. For the internal sense of the Word holds nearly the same relation to the external or literal sense as speech does to its words when these are scarcely heard, still less attended to, and when the mind is kept exclusively in the sense of the things signified by the words of the speaker.
[2] The most ancient mode of writing represented subjects by using persons and words which were understood as meaning things that were quite different. Profane writers then composed their historicals in this way, even those matters which pertained to civic and moral life; and in fact so that nothing was exactly the same as it was written in the letter, but under this something else was meant; they even presented affections of every kind as gods and goddesses, to whom the heathen afterwards instituted Divine worship, as may be known to every man of letters, for such ancient books are still extant. They derived this mode of writing from the most ancient people who existed before the flood, who represented heavenly and Divine things to themselves by such as were visible on the earth and in the world, and so filled their minds and souls with joys and delights while beholding the objects of the universe, especially such as were beautiful in their form and order; and therefore all the books of the church of those times were written in this way. Such is the book of Job; and, in imitation of those books, such is Solomon’s Song of Songs. Such were the two books mentioned by Moses in Num. 21:14, 27; besides many that have perished.
[3] At a later period this style of writing was venerated on account of its antiquity, both among the Gentiles and the posterity of Jacob, to such a degree that whatever was not written in this style they did not venerate as Divine, and therefore when they were moved by the prophetic Spirit, they spoke in a similar manner; and this for many hidden reasons. This was the case with Jacob (Gen. 49:3-17); with Moses (Exod. 15:1-21; Deut. 33:2-29); with Balaam, who was of the sons of the East, from Syria where the Ancient Church still existed (Num. 23:7-10, 19-24; 24:5-9, 17-24); with Deborah and Barak (Judges 5:2-31); with Hannah (1 Sam. 2:2-10); and with many others. And though very few understood or knew that their words signified the heavenly things of the Lord’s kingdom and church, still, being touched and penetrated with the awe of admiration, they felt that what was Divine and holy was in them.
[4] But that the historicals of the Word are similar-that is, that in respect to every name and every word they are representative and significative of the celestial and the spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom-has not yet become known to the learned world, except in that the Word is inspired as to the smallest iota, and that there are heavenly arcana in all things of it in both general and particular.

AC (Potts) n. 1757 1757. CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE SPEECH OF SPIRITS, AND ITS DIVERSITIES.
The speech of spirits with man, as before said, is effected by words; but the speech of spirits among themselves, by ideas-the origins of words-such as are the ideas of thought; these however are not so obscure as are man’s ideas while he lives in the body, but are distinct, like those of speech. Human thought, after the decease of the body, becomes more distinct and clear; and the ideas of thought become discrete, so as to serve for distinct forms of speech; for obscurity has been dissipated together with the body; and so the thought-being liberated from the shackles in which it was as it were entangled, and consequently from the shade in which it was involved-becomes more instantaneous; and hence the mental view, perception, and utterance of each thing is more prompt.

AC (Potts) n. 1758 1758. The speech of spirits is diverse: each society or family of spirits, and even every spirit, can be distinguished from others by their speech (much as is the case with men), not only by the affections which make the life of the speech and which fill or give impulse to the words, and by the accents, but also by the tones, and by other characteristics not so easily described.

AC (Potts) n. 1759 1759. The speech of celestial spirits cannot easily flow into the articulate sounds or words that appertain to man; for it cannot be suited to a word in which there is anything that sounds harshly, or in which there is a rough doubling of consonants, or in which there is an idea that is derived from memory-knowledge; on which account they rarely flow into the speech otherwise than by affections which, like a flowing stream or a gentle breeze, soften the words. The speech of spirits who are intermediate between the celestial and the spiritual is sweet, flowing like the gentlest atmosphere, soothing the recipient organs, and softening the words themselves; it is also rapid and sure. The flow and the pleasantness of the speech come from the fact that the celestial good in their ideas is of this character, and there is nothing in the speech that dissents from the thought. All the sweet harmoniousness in the other life comes from goodness and charity. The speech of the spiritual also is flowing, but is not so soft and gentle. It is chiefly these who speak.

AC (Potts) n. 1760 1760. There is also a flowing speech of evil genii; yet it is so only to the outward hearing; but inwardly it is grating, because from a pretense of good, and no affection of it. There is also a speech of these genii that is devoid of the flowing character, in which the dissent of the thoughts is perceived as something that silently creeps along.

AC (Potts) n. 1761 1761. There are spirits who do not inflow in a stream-like manner, but by vibrations and movements to and fro, as it were in lines, and more or less sharp. The same inflow not only with the speech, but also with the reply. They are those who from many causes reject the interior things of the Word; looking upon man as their tool, and as of little account; and caring for themselves alone.

AC (Potts) n. 1762 1762. There are spirits who do not speak, but who have expressed the sentiments of their mind by changes induced on my face, and have presented their ideas so vividly that their thought was thus made manifest as it were in a form. This was done by changes about the region of the lips, passing thence to the face; also about the eyes, while they were communicating the interior sentiments of their mind; around the left eye when they were communicating truth and affections of truth, and around the right eye when communicating good and affections of good.

AC (Potts) n. 1763 1763. I have also heard a simultaneous speech of many spirits speaking together, that undulated like a roll, and flowed into the brain in varying directions. Also a speech of certain spirits that terminated in a quadruple movement, as if to the tone and sound of men threshing. These spirits are separated from others. They induce a pain in the head, as if from the suction of an air-pump. Some have been heard who spoke with a sonorous voice, but as if within, in themselves but still it came to the hearing as speech.
[2] Others who spake by a belching forth of the words as from the belly; these are such as wish to give no attention to the sense of a thing, but are forced to speak by others. I have heard some who spoke with a rough or cracked sound; these apply themselves to the left side, under the elbow; also to the left external ear. Some I heard who could not speak aloud, but as if they had a cold; these belong to the class of those who by insinuations into the delights of others worm out their secrets for the purpose of doing harm.
[3] There are spirits of low stature, who, although few, speak like a great multitude, with a sound like thunder; they were heard above the head, and I thought that there was a multitude; but one of them came to me at the left side beneath the arm, and spoke in the same way with a thundering voice; he also moved away, and did the same. Whence such spirits come, will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told elsewhere. But these kinds of speech are comparatively rare. It is a remarkable fact that what is said in these various ways is heard as loudly and sonorously by one whose interior organs of hearing are opened, and also by spirits, as are sounds and the speech of men on earth; but they are not heard at all by one in whom these organs are not opened.

AC (Potts) n. 1764 1764. Once also spirits conversed with me simply by representatives shown before the sight, by representing flames of various colors; lights clouds rising and falling;, small houses and platforms for speaking of different kinds; vessels; persons variously dressed, and many other things, which were all significative; and merely from these it could be known what they desired to convey.

AC (Potts) n. 1767 1767. CHAPTER 15

CONCERNING THE HOLY SCRIPTURE OR WORD, IN WHICH ARE STORED UP DIVINE THINGS, WHICH ARE OPEN BEFORE GOOD SPIRITS AND ANGELS
When the Word of the Lord is being read by a man who loves the Word and lives in charity, or by a man who from simplicity of heart believes what is written and has not formed principles contrary to the truth of faith which is in the internal sense, it is presented by the Lord before the angels in such beauty and in such pleasantness, with representatives also, and this with inexpressible variety in accordance with all their state at the time, that every particular is perceived as if it had life, which life is that which is in the Word, and from which the Word had birth when it was sent down from heaven. From this cause the Word of the Lord is such, that although in the letter it appears crude, there are stored up in it spiritual and celestial things which lie open before good spirits, and before angels, when the Word is being read by man.

AC (Potts) n. 1768 1768. That the Word of the Lord is so presented before good spirits and before angels, it has been given me to hear and to see; and I am therefore permitted to relate the experiences themselves.

AC (Potts) n. 1769 1769. A certain spirit came to me not long after his departure from the body, as I was able to infer from the fact that he did not yet know that he was in the other life, but supposed that he was living in the world. It was perceived that he had been devoted to studies, concerning which I spoke with him. But he was suddenly taken up on high; and, surprised at this, I imagined that he was one of those who aspire to high things, for such are wont to be taken up on high; or else that he placed heaven at a great height, for such likewise are often carried up on high, that they may know from experience that heaven is not in what is high, but in what is internal.
[2] But I soon perceived that he was taken up to the angelic spirits, who were in front, a little to the right, at the entrance to heaven. He then spoke with me from thence, saying that he saw things more sublime than human minds could at all comprehend. While this was taking place, I was reading the first chapter of Deuteronomy, about the Jewish people, in that men were sent to explore the land of Canaan and what was in it. While I was reading this, he said that he perceived nothing of the sense of the letter, but the things in the spiritual sense, and that these were wonders which he could not describe. This was in the first entrance to the heaven of angelic spirits; what wonders then would be perceived in that heaven itself! and what in the angelic heaven!
[3] Certain spirits who were with me, and who before had not believed that the Word of the Lord is of such a nature, then began to repent of their unbelief; they said, in that state, that they believed because they heard the spirit say that he heard, saw, and perceived that it was so.
[4] But other spirits still persisted in their unbelief, and said that it was not so, but that these things were fancies; and therefore they too were suddenly taken up, and spoke with me from thence; and they confessed that it was anything but fancy, because they really perceived that it was so; and by a more exquisite perception indeed than can ever be given to any sense during the life of the body.
[5] Soon others also were taken up into the same heaven, and among them one whom I had known in the life of the body, who testified to the same effect, saying also, among other things, that he was too much amazed to be able to describe the glory of the Word in its internal sense. Then, speaking from a kind of pity, he said that it was strange that men knew nothing at all of such things. He said further that from where he then was he could look most deeply into my thoughts and my affections, and perceived in them more things than he could tell; such as causes, influxes, whence they came, and from whom; the ideas, and how they were mixed with earthly things, and that these were to be wholly separated; besides other things.

AC (Potts) n. 1770 1770. On two occasions afterwards I saw others taken up into the second heaven, among the angelic spirits; and they spoke with me thence while I was reading the third chapter of Deuteronomy from beginning to end. They said that they were solely in the interior sense of the Word; at the same time asserting that there was not a tittle in which there was not a spiritual sense that coheres most beautifully with all the rest, and further that the names signify real things. Thus they too were confirmed; because they had not believed before that each and all things in the Word have been inspired by the Lord; and this they wished to confirm before others by an oath, but it was not permitted.

AC (Potts) n. 1771 1771. Certain spirits also were in unbelief concerning the Word of the Lord, as to there being such things stored up in its bosom, or within it; for in the other life spirits are in unbelief like that in which they had been in the life of the body; and this is not dissipated except by means provided by the Lord, and by living experiences. On this account, while I was reading some of the Psalms of David, the deeper insight or mind of these spirits was opened. These were not taken up among angelic spirits. They then perceived the interior things of the Word in those Psalms; and being amazed at them said that they had never believed such things.
[2] The same portion of the Word was then heard by many other spirits; but they all apprehended it in different ways. With some it filled the ideas of their thought with many pleasant and delightful things, thus with a kind of life in accordance with the capacity of each one, and at the same time with an efficacy that penetrated to their inmosts, and this to such a degree with some that they seemed to be uplifted toward the interiors of heaven, and nearer and nearer to the Lord, according to the degree in which they were affected by the truths and the goods therewith injoined.
[3] The Word was then at the same time brought to some who had no apprehension of its internal sense, but only of the external or literal sense; and to them the letter appeared to have no life. From all this it was manifest what the Word is when the Lord fills it with life-that it is of such efficacy that it penetrates to the inmosts; also what it is when He does not fill it with life-that it is then the letter only, with scarcely any life.

AC (Potts) n. 1772 1772. Of the Lord’s Divine mercy I too have been permitted in the same way to see the Lord’s Word in its beauty in the internal sense, and this many times; not as it is while the words are being explained as to the internal sense in detail, but with all things both in general and particular brought together into a single series or connection, which may be said to be the seeing of a heavenly paradise from an earthly one.

AC (Potts) n. 1773 1773. Spirits who had found delight and joy in the Word of the Lord during their life in the body, have in the other life a kind of joyous heavenly warmth which it has also been permitted me to feel. The warmth of those who had some measure of this delight was communicated to me. It was like a vernal heat, beginning in the region of the lips, and diffusing itself about the cheeks, and thence as far as the ears, ascending also to the eyes, and descending toward the middle region of the breast.
[2] The warmth of those who had been still more affected by delight in the Word of the Lord, and by the interior things of it which the Lord Himself had taught, was also communicated to me; beginning at the breast it ascended thence toward the chin, and descended toward the loins. The warmth of those who had been even more delighted and affected, was still more interiorly joyous and vernal, extending indeed from the loins upward toward the breast, and thence through the left arm to the hands. I was instructed by the angels that this is really the case, and that the approach of those spirits brings such warmths, although they themselves do not feel them, because they are in them, just as infants, children, and youths are not commonly sensible of their own warmth which they have in greater measure than adults and old people, because they are in it.
[3] I was also made sensible of the warmth of some, who had indeed been delighted with the Word, but had not been solicitous about the understanding of it; their warmth was felt in the right arm only. As regards the warmth: evil spirits also can by their artifices produce a warmth which counterfeits delight, and can communicate it to others; but it is only an external warmth, without an origin from internals. Such warmth is that which putrefies and converts food into excrement, like the heat of adulterers, and that of those who have been immersed in filthy pleasures.

AC (Potts) n. 1774 1774. There are spirits who do not desire to hear anything about the interior things of the Word; and even should they understand them, they are still unwilling. They are chiefly those who have placed merit in works, and who therefore have done goods from the love of self and of the world, or for the sake of the rank or wealth to be gained for themselves, and the consequent reputation, thus not for the sake of the Lord’s kingdom. In the other life such desire more than others to enter heaven; but they remain outside of it; for they are unwilling to be imbued with the knowledges of truth, and thereby to be affected with good. They interpret the meaning of the Word from the letter according to their fancies, and by advancing whatever favors their cupidities with its approval. Such were represented by an old woman who had a face not comely, but of even snowy paleness, with irregular features [cui inerant inordinata], which made her ugly. But those who admit and love the interior things of the Word, were represented by a girl in early maidenhood, or in the flower of youth, handsomely dressed, and adorned with garlands and heavenly ornaments.

AC (Potts) n. 1775 1775. I have conversed with certain spirits concerning the Word, saying that it has been necessary that of the Lord’s Divine Providence some revelation should come into existence, for a revelation or Word is the general recipient vessel of spiritual and celestial things, thus conjoining heaven and earth; and that without it they would have been disjoined, and the human race would have perished. And besides it is necessary that there should be heavenly truths somewhere, by which man may be instructed, because he was born for heavenly things, and, after the life of the body, ought to come among those who are heavenly; for the truths of faith are the laws of order in the kingdom in which he is to live forever.

AC (Potts) n. 1776 1776. It may seem a paradox, but still it is most true, that the angels understand the internal sense of the Word better and more fully when little boys and girls are reading it, than when it is read by adult persons who are not in the faith of charity. The cause has been told me, and is that little boys and girls are in a state of mutual love and innocence, and thus their most tender vessels are almost heavenly, and are simply capacities for receiving, which therefore can be disposed by the Lord; although this does not come to their perception, except by a certain delight suited to their genius. It was said by the angels that the Word of the Lord is a dead letter; but that in him that reads it is vivified by the Lord according to the capacity of each one; and that it becomes living according to the life of his charity and his state of innocence, and this with inexpressible variety.

AC (Potts) n. 1777 1777. A continuation follows at the end of this chapter.
GENESIS 15
1. After these words, the word of Jehovah came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram; I am a shield to thee, thy exceeding great reward.
2. And Abram said, Lord Jehovih, what wilt Thou give me, and I am walking childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer the Damascene?
3. And Abram said, Lo to me Thou hast not given seed, and behold a son of my house is mine heir.
4. And behold the word of Jehovah came unto him, saying, This one shall not be thine heir; but he that shall go forth out of thy bowels shall be thine heir.
5. And He led him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and number the stars, if thou be able to number them; and He said unto him, So shall thy seed be.
6. And he believed in Jehovah, and He imputed it to him for righteousness.
7. And He said unto him, I am Jehovah who led thee forth out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land, to inherit it.
8. And he said, Lord Jehovih, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?
9. And He said unto him, Take thee a heifer of three years, and a she-goat of three years, and a ram of three years, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon.
10. And he took unto him all these and divided them in the midst, and laid each part over against the other; and the birds he did not divide.
11. And the fowls came down upon the bodies, and Abram drove them away.
12. And it came to pass when the sun was going down that a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and behold a terror of great darkness falling upon him.
13. And He said unto Abram, Knowing thou shalt know that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years.
14. And also that nation whom they shall serve will I judge; and after that shall they go out with great substance.
15. And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age.
16. And in the fourth generation they shall return hither, for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet consummated.
17. And it came to pass that the sun went down, and there was thick darkness; and behold a furnace of smoke, and a torch of fire that passed between those pieces.
18. In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:
19. The Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite;
20. And the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim;
21. And the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Girgashite, and the Jebusite.

AC (Potts) n. 1778 sRef Gen@15 @0 S0′ 1778. THE CONTENTS
Here in the internal sense are continued the things concerning the Lord after He had endured in childhood the most severe combats of temptations, which were directed against the love which He cherished toward the whole human race, and in particular toward the church; and therefore being anxious concerning their future state a promise was made Him; but it was shown at the same time what the state of the church would become toward its end when it would begin to expire; but that still a new church should revive, which would take the place of the former, and the heavenly kingdom would be immensely increased.

AC (Potts) n. 1779 sRef Gen@15 @0 S0′ 1779. The Lord’s consolation after the combats of temptations described in the foregoing chapter (verse 1).

AC (Potts) n. 1780 sRef Gen@15 @0 S0′ 1780. The Lord’s complaint respecting the church, that it was in externals only (verses 2, 3). A promise concerning an internal church (verse 4). Concerning its multiplication (verse 5). That the Lord is righteousness (verse 6). And unto Him alone belongs the kingdom in the heavens and on earth (verse 7).

AC (Potts) n. 1781 sRef Gen@15 @0 S0′ 1781. And as He desired to be assured that the human race would be saved (verse 8), it was shown Him how the case is with the church, in general, specifically, and in particular (verses 9 to 17).

AC (Potts) n. 1782 sRef Gen@15 @0 S0′ 1782. The “heifer,” “she-goat,” and “ram,” are the representatives of the celestial things of the church; the “turtledove” and the “young pigeon” are the representatives of its spiritual things (verse 9). The church was on one side, and the Lord on the other (verse 10). The Lord would dissipate evils and falsities (verse 11). But the falsities would still infest it (verses 12, 13). From these there should be deliverance (verse 14). Thus the Lord received consolation (verse 15). But that evils would take possession (verse 16). And at last nothing but falsities and cupidities would reign (verse 17). Then would come the Lord’s kingdom, and a new church, the extension of which is described (verse 18). The falsities and evils to be expelled from it are the nations named (verses 19-21).

AC (Potts) n. 1783 1783. THE INTERNAL SENSE
The things which are here contained, are as before said true historicals, namely, that Jehovah spoke thus with Abram, and that the land of Canaan was promised him as an inheritance; that he was commanded so to place the heifer, the she-goat, ram, turtledove, and young pigeon; that the fowls came down upon the bodies; that a deep sleep fell upon him, and in the sleep a terror of darkness; and that when the sun had set, there was seen by him as it were a furnace of smoke with a torch of fire between the parts; besides the other historicals. These are true historicals, but still each and all of them, even to the least of what was done, are representative; and the words themselves by which they are described, are, as to the smallest iota, significative. That is to say, in each and all of these things there is an internal sense; for each and all of the things contained in the Word are inspired, and being inspired they cannot but be from a heavenly origin; that is, they must necessarily store up within them celestial and spiritual things, for otherwise it could not possibly be the Word of the Lord.
[2] These are the things contained in the internal sense; and when this sense lies open, the sense of the letter is obliterated, as if there were none; and on the other hand, when attention is given solely to the historical sense or that of the letter, the internal sense is obliterated, as if there were none. These two are related as is heavenly light to the light of the world; and, conversely, as is the light of the world to heavenly light. When heavenly light appears, then the light of the world is as thick darkness; as has been made known to me by experience; but when anyone is in the light of the world, then heavenly light, if it appeared, would be as thick darkness; the same as with human minds: to him who places everything in human wisdom, or in memory-knowledges, heavenly wisdom appears as an obscure nothing; but to him who is in heavenly wisdom, human wisdom is as a kind of obscure general affair, which, if there were not heavenly rays in it, would be as thick darkness.

AC (Potts) n. 1784 sRef Gen@15 @1 S0′ 1784. Verse 1. After these words, the word of Jehovah came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram, I am a shield to thee, thy exceeding great reward. “After these words, the word of Jehovah came unto Abram in a vision,” signifies that after the combats in childhood there was revelation; “a vision” denotes inmost revelation, which is that of perception; “Fear not, Abram, I am a shield to thee,” signifies protection against evils and falsities, which is to be trusted; “thy great reward,” signifies the end or purpose of the victories.

AC (Potts) n. 1785 sRef Gen@15 @1 S0′ 1785. After these words, the word of Jehovah came to Abram in a vision. That this signifies that after the combats in childhood there was revelation, is evident from the signification of “words,” also of “the word of Jehovah to Abram,” and also from the signification of “a vision.” By “words,” in the Hebrew language, are signified actual things; here the things accomplished, which are the Lord’s combats of temptations, treated of in the preceding chapter. “The word of Jehovah to Abram” is nothing else than the Lord’s word with Himself but in childhood, and in the combats of temptations, when the Essences were not yet united as a one, it could not appear otherwise than as a revelation. What is internal, when it acts into what is external, in a state and at moments when this is far away, is presented in no other manner. This is the state which is called the Lord’s state of humiliation.

AC (Potts) n. 1786 sRef Gen@15 @1 S0′ 1786. That “a vision” denotes inmost revelation, which is that of perception, may be seen from the nature of visions, which take place in accordance with the man’s state. To those whose interiors are closed, a vision is very different from what it is to those whose interiors are open. For example: when the Lord appeared to the whole congregation in Mount Sinai, the appearing was a vision that was different to the people from what it was to Aaron, and that was different to Aaron from what it was to Moses; and again, visions were different to the prophets from what they were to Moses. There are many kinds of visions, concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter. The more interior the visions, the more perfect they are. With the Lord they were the most perfect of all; because He then had perception of all things in the world of spirits and in the heavens, and also had immediate communication with Jehovah. This communication is represented, and in the internal sense is signified, by the vision in which Jehovah appeared to Abram.

AC (Potts) n. 1787 sRef Gen@15 @1 S0′ 1787. Fear not, Abram, I am a shield to thee. That this signifies protection against evils and falsities, which is to be trusted, is evident from the signification of “a shield,” to be explained presently. These words, namely, that Jehovah is a shield, and that He is an exceeding great reward, are words of consolation after temptations. Every temptation is attended with some kind of despair (otherwise it is not a temptation), and therefore consolation follows. He who is tempted is brought into anxieties, which induce a state of despair as to what the end is to be. The very combat of temptation is nothing else. He who is sure of victory is not in anxiety, and therefore is not in temptation.
sRef Matt@26 @44 S2′ sRef Luke@22 @40 S2′ sRef Mark@14 @41 S2′ sRef Mark@14 @40 S2′ sRef Mark@14 @39 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @41 S2′ sRef Mark@14 @33 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @42 S2′ sRef Luke@22 @45 S2′ sRef Mark@14 @34 S2′ sRef Luke@22 @43 S2′ sRef Mark@14 @35 S2′ sRef Luke@22 @42 S2′ sRef Mark@14 @37 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @43 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @40 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @38 S2′ sRef Mark@14 @38 S2′ sRef Luke@22 @41 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @39 S2′ sRef Luke@22 @44 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @37 S2′ sRef Mark@14 @36 S2′ [2] The Lord also, as He endured the most dire and cruel temptations of all, could not but be driven into states of despair, and these He dispelled and overcame by His own power; as may be clearly seen from His temptation in Gethsemane, thus recorded in Luke:
When Jesus was at the place, He said unto the disciples, Pray that ye enter not into temptation. But He was parted from them about a stone’s cast; and kneeling down He prayed, saying, Father, if Thou be willing let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not My will, but Thine, be done. And there appeared unto Him an angel from heaven, strengthening Him; and being in an agony, He prayed more earnestly; and His sweat became as drops of blood falling down upon the ground (Luke 22:40-45).
In Matthew:
He began to be sorrowful and sore troubled. Then saith He unto the disciples, My whole soul is sorrowful even unto death. And going forward a little, He fell on His face, praying, and saying, My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as Thou wilt. Again a second time He went away, and prayed, saying, My Father, if this cup cannot pass except I drink it, Thy will be done. And He prayed a third time, saying the same word (Matt. 26:37-44).
In Mark:
He began to be terrified, and sore troubled, and said to the disciples, My soul is encompassed with sorrow even unto death. He went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass away from Him. He said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee; remove this cup from Me; howbeit, not as I will, but as Thou wilt: and He spake thus a second time and a third (Mark 14:33-41).
[3] From these passages we may see what was the nature of the Lord’s temptations-that they were the most terrible of all; and that He felt anguish from the very inmosts, even to the sweating of blood; and that He was then in a state of despair concerning the end and the event; and also that He had consolations. The words now under consideration, “I, Jehovah, am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward,” involve in like manner consolation after the combats of temptations treated of in the foregoing chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 1788 sRef Gen@15 @1 S0′ 1788. That a “shield” means protection against evils and falsities, which is trusted in, is evident without explication; for from common usage the expression has become familiar that Jehovah is a shield and a buckler. But what is specifically signified by “a shield,” may be seen from the Word, in that as regards the Lord it signifies protection, and as regards man, trust in the Lord’s protection. As “war” signifies temptations (as before shown, n. 1664), so all the weapons of war signify some specific thing belonging to temptation, and to defend against evils and falsities, that is, against the diabolical crew that induce the temptation, and that tempt. Therefore a “shield” signifies one thing, a “buckler” signifies another, and a “target” another, a “helmet” another, a “spear” and a “lance” another, a “sword” another, a “bow and arrows” another, a “coat of mail” another; concerning each of which of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.
sRef Ps@144 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@144 @2 S2′ [2] The reason why a “shield” in relation to the Lord signifies protection against evils and falsities, and in relation to man trust in the Lord; is that it was a protection to the breast; and by the breast good and truth are signified-good because the heart is there, and truth because the lungs are there. That this is the signification of a “shield,” is evident in David:
Blessed be Jehovah my rock, who teacheth my hands combat, my fingers war; my mercy and my fortress, my fortified citadel and my deliverer, my shield, and He in whom I trust (Ps. 144:1-2),
where the “combat” and “war” are those of temptations, and in the internal sense, the Lord’s temptations; the “shield,” with reference to Jehovah, is protection; and with reference to man is trust, as is plainly evident.
sRef Deut@33 @29 S3′ sRef Ps@115 @11 S3′ sRef Ps@115 @10 S3′ sRef Ps@91 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@91 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@115 @9 S3′ [3] In the same:
O Israel, trust thou in Jehovah; He is their help and their shield. O house of Aaron, trust ye in Jehovah; He is their help and their shield. Ye that fear Jehovah, trust in Jehovah; He is their help and their shield (Ps. 115:9-11),
where the meaning is similar. Again:
Jehovah is my fortress, my God in whom I trust. He shall cover thee with His wing; and under His wings shalt thou trust; His truth is a shield and a buckler (Ps. 91:2, 4),
where “a shield” and “a buckler” denote protection against falsities.
sRef Ps@18 @30 S4′ sRef Ps@7 @10 S4′ sRef Ps@7 @9 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @35 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @2 S4′ sRef Ps@47 @9 S4′ [4] Again:
Jehovah is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer, my God, my strong rock in whom I trust, my shield, and the horn of my salvation. Jehovah is a shield unto all that trust in Him (Ps. 18:2, 30),
where the meaning is similar. Again:
Thou that provest the hearts and reins, a just God; my shield is upon God who saveth the upright in heart (Ps. 7:9-10),
meaning trust. Again:
Thou hast given me the shield of Thy salvation, and Thy right hand will hold me up (Ps. 18:35),
also signifying trust. Again:
The shields of the earth belong unto God; He is greatly exalted (Ps. 47:9),
where trust is again meant.
sRef Ps@84 @11 S5′ [5] Again:
Jehovah God is a sun and a shield; Jehovah will give grace and glory; good shall not be withheld from them that walk in integrity (Ps. 84:11),
signifying protection. In Moses:
Thy blessings, O Israel; who is like unto thee, a people saved in Jehovah, the shield of thy help, and who is the sword of thy excellency, and thine enemies shall be mistaken in regard to thee (Deut. 33:29);
“the shield” denoting protection.
sRef Jer@46 @3 S6′ sRef Jer@46 @4 S6′ [6] As weapons of war are spoken of with reference to those who are in the combats of temptations, so also the same weapons of war are attributed to the enemies who assail and tempt, and then they signify the contrary things; thus a “shield” signifies the evils and falsities from which they fight, and which they defend, and in which they trust. As in Jeremiah:
Make ye ready the shield and buckler, and draw near to battle. Harness the horses, and go up, ye horsemen, and stand forth in helmets, furbish the lances, put on the coats of mail (Jer. 46:3-4).
Besides many other passages.

AC (Potts) n. 1789 sRef Gen@15 @1 S0′ 1789. Thy great reward. That this signifies the end and purpose of the victories, is evident from the signification of “reward,” as being the prize after the combats of temptations; here the end and purpose of the victories, because the Lord never looked for any prize of victory for Himself. His prize of victories was the salvation of the whole human race; and it was from love toward the entire human race that He fought. He who fights from this love demands for himself no prize, because this love is such that it wills to give and transfer all its own to others, and to have nothing for itself; so that it is the salvation of the whole human race that is here signified by the “reward.”

AC (Potts) n. 1790 sRef Gen@15 @2 S0′ 1790. Verse 2. And Abram said, Lord Jehovih, what wilt Thou give me, and I am walking childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer the Damascene? “Abram said, Lord Jehovih,” signifies the Lord’s perception; “Abram” is the interior man; the “Lord Jehovih” is the internal man relatively to the interior; “what wilt Thou give me, and I am walking childless?” signifies that there was no internal church; “and the steward of my house,” signifies an external church; “is this Eliezer the Damascene” denotes the external church.

AC (Potts) n. 1791 sRef Gen@15 @2 S0′ 1791. Abram said, Lord Jehovih. That this signifies the Lord’s perception, may be seen from the fact that the Lord had the most interior and perfect perception of all things. This perception, as before said, was a perceptive sensation and knowledge of all things that were taking place in heaven, and was a continual communication and internal conversation with Jehovah, which the Lord alone had. This is meant in the internal sense by the words “Abram said to Jehovah;” this was represented by Abram when he spoke with Jehovah; and the like is signified in what follows wherever the expression “Abram said to Jehovah” occurs.

AC (Potts) n. 1792 sRef Gen@15 @2 S0′ 1792. That “Abram” denotes the interior man, or that Abram represented the Lord’s interior or rational man, has been stated before. What the Lord’s interior man is, was shown in the foregoing chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 1793 sRef Gen@15 @2 S0′ 1793. That the “Lord Jehovih” is the internal man relatively to the interior, is evident from what has been said concerning the Lord’s internal man, namely, that it was Jehovah Himself, from whom He was conceived, and whose only Son He was, and to whom the Lord’s Human became united after He had by the combats of temptation purified the maternal human, that is, that which He derived from the mother. The appellation “Lord Jehovih” occurs very often in the Word; indeed, as often as Jehovah is called “Lord” He is not called “Lord Jehovah,” but “Lord Jehovih,” and this especially where temptations are treated of.
sRef Isa@40 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @10 S2′ [2] As in Isaiah:
Behold, the Lord Jehovih cometh in strength, and His arm shall rule for Him; behold, His reward is with Him, and His work before Him. He shall feed His flock like a shepherd, He shall gather the lambs in His arm, and carry them in His bosom, and shall lead those that give suck (Isa. 40:10-11),
where “the Lord Jehovih cometh in strength,” relates to His victory in the combats of temptations; “His arm shall rule for Him,” means that it is from His own power. What the reward is that is mentioned in the first verse of this chapter is here declared, namely, that it is the salvation of the whole human race, that is to say, “He feeds His flock like a shepherd, gathers the lambs in His arm, carries them in His bosom, and leads those that give suck;” all of which things pertain to inmost or Divine love.
sRef Isa@50 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@50 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@50 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@50 @7 S3′ [3] Again in the same Prophet:
The Lord Jehovih hath opened Mine ear, and I was not rebellious; I have not turned away backward. I gave My body to the smiters, and My cheeks to them that plucked off the hair; I hid not My face from shame and spitting; and the Lord Jehovih will help Me; behold the Lord Jehovih will help Me (Isa. 50:5-7, 9),
where temptations are manifestly treated of. Besides other passages.

AC (Potts) n. 1794 sRef Gen@15 @2 S0′ 1794. What wilt Thou give me, and I am walking childless? That this signifies that there is no internal church, may be seen from the signification of “walking childless.” To “walk,” in the internal sense, is to live (as before shown, n. 519); but one who is childless is one who has no seed, or no posterity of his own. This is treated of in the following verses (3-5), where it is explained what is meant by one who is childless, or one who has no seed.

AC (Potts) n. 1795 sRef Gen@15 @2 S0′ 1795. And the steward of my house. That this signifies an external church, is evident from the signification of the “steward of a house,” in the internal sense, that is, in respect to the church. The external church is called “the steward of a house,” when the internal church itself is the house, and the father of the family is the Lord. The external church is circumstanced no otherwise, for all stewardship belongs to the external of the church; as the administration of rituals, and of many things that pertain to the place of worship and to the church itself, that is, to the House of Jehovah or of the Lord.
[2] The externals of the church without the internals are things of naught; they have their being from the internals, and are such as the internals are. The case herein is the same as it is with man: his external or corporeal is in itself a thing of no account unless there is an internal which gives it soul and life. Such therefore as is the internal, such is the external; or such as is the mind [animus et mens], such is the worth of all things which come forth by means of the external or corporeal. The things which are of the heart make the man; not those which are of the mouth and the gestures; and such is the case with the internals of the church. But still the externals of the church are like the externals of a man, in that they take charge of and administer; or what is the same, the external or corporeal man may in like manner be called the steward or administrator of the house, when the house means the interiors. From this it is evident what “childless” means, namely, the state in which there is no internal of the church, but only an external; as was the case at the time of which the Lord complained.

AC (Potts) n. 1796 sRef Gen@15 @2 S0′ 1796. Is this Eliezer the Damascene. From what has just been said it is now evident that these words denote the external church; and the same appears from the signification of a “Damascene.” Damascus was the principal city of Syria, where there were remains of the worship of the Ancient Church, and whence came Eber, or the Hebrew nation, with which there was nothing but the external of the church (as before said, n. 1238, 1241), thus nothing but the stewardship of the house. That there is in these words something of despair, and consequently of the Lord’s temptation, is evident from the words themselves, and also from the consolation that follows respecting the internal church.

AC (Potts) n. 1797 sRef Gen@15 @3 S0′ 1797. Verse 3. And Abram said, Lo to me Thou hast not given seed, and behold a son of my house is mine heir. “Abram said, Lo to me Thou hast not given seed,” signifies that there was no internal of the church, which is love and faith; “behold a son of my house is mine heir,” signifies that there would be in the Lord’s kingdom only what is external.

AC (Potts) n. 1798 sRef Gen@15 @3 S0′ 1798. Abram said, Lo to me Thou hast not given seed. That this signifies that there was no internal of the church, is evident from the signification of “seed,” which is love and faith, spoken of above (n. 255, 256, 1025), and from the signification of an heir, as explained in what follows. That love and the faith derived from it are the internal of the church, has already been several times said and shown. No other faith is meant as being the internal of the church than that which is of love or charity, that is, which is from love or charity.
[2] Faith, in a general sense, is all the doctrinal teaching of the church. But doctrine [doctrinale] separated from love or charity, by no means makes the internal of the church, for doctrine is only knowledge which is of the memory, and this exists also with the worst men, and even with infernals. But the doctrine that is from charity, or that is of charity, does make the internal of the church, for this is of the life. The life itself is the internal of all worship; and so is all doctrine that flows from the life of charity and it is this doctrine that is of faith which is here meant. That it is this faith which is the internal of the church, may be seen from this consideration alone, that he who has the life of charity is acquainted with all things of faith. If you will, just examine all doctrinal things, and see what and of what quality they are; do they not all pertain to charity, and consequently to the faith that is from charity?
[3] Take only the Precepts of the Decalogue. The first of these is to worship the Lord God. He who has the life of love or of charity worships the Lord God, because this is his life. Another precept is to keep the Sabbath. He who is in the life of love, or in charity, keeps the Sabbath holy, for nothing is more sweet to him than to worship the Lord, and to glorify Him every day. The precept, “Thou shalt not kill,” is altogether of charity. He who loves his neighbor as himself, shudders at doing anything that injures him, still more at killing him. So too the precept, “Thou shalt not steal;” for he who has the life of charity would rather give of his own to his neighbor, than take anything away from him. And so with the precept, “Thou shalt not commit adultery;” he who is in the life of charity the rather guards his neighbor’s wife, lest anyone should offer her such injury, and regards adultery as a crime against conscience, and such as destroys conjugial love and its duties. To covet the things that are the neighbor’s is also contrary to those who are in the life of charity; for it is of charity to desire good to others from one’s self and one’s own; such therefore by no means covet the things which are another’s.
[4] These are the precepts of the Decalogue which are more external doctrinal things of faith; and these are not only known in the memory by him who is in charity and its life, but are in his heart; and he has them inscribed upon himself, because they are in his charity, and thus in his very life; besides other things of a dogmatic nature which he in like manner knows from charity alone; for he lives according to a conscience of what is right. The right and the truth which he cannot thus understand and explore, he believes simply or from simplicity of heart to be so because the Lord has said so; and he who so believes does not do wrong, even though what he thus accepts is not true in itself, but apparent truth.
[5] As for example, if anyone believes that the Lord is angry, punishes, tempts, and the like. Or if he holds that the bread and wine in the Holy Supper are significative, or that the flesh and blood are present in some way in which they explain it-it is of no consequence whether they say the one thing or the other, although there are few who think about this matter, or even if they do think about it, provided this is done from a simple heart, because they have been so instructed, and nevertheless live in charity: these, when they hear that the bread and wine in the internal sense signify the Lord’s love toward the whole human race, and the things which are of this love, and man’s reciprocal love to the Lord and the neighbor, they forthwith believe, and rejoice that it is so. Not so they who are in doctrinal things and not in charity; these contend about everything, and condemn all whoever they may be that do not say (they call it “believe”) as they do. From all this everyone can see that love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor are the internal of the church.

AC (Potts) n. 1799 sRef Gen@15 @3 S0′ 1799. Behold a son of my house is mine heir. That this signifies that there would be only what is external in the Lord’s kingdom, is evident from the signification in the internal sense of an “heir” and of “inheriting.” To become an heir, or to inherit, signifies eternal life in the Lord’s kingdom. All who are in the Lord’s kingdom are heirs; for they live from the Lord’s life, which is the life of mutual love; and from this they are called sons. The Lord’s sons or heirs are all who are in His life, because their life is from Him, and they are born of Him, that is, are regenerate. They who are born of anyone are heirs; and so are all who are being regenerated by the Lord, for in this case they receive His life.
[2] In the Lord’s kingdom there are those who are external, those who are interior, and those who are internal. Good spirits, who are in the first heaven, are external; angelic spirits, who are in the second heaven, are interior; and angels, who are in the third, are internal. They who are external are not so closely related or so near to the Lord, as they who are interior; nor are these so closely related or so near to the Lord, as they who are internal. The Lord, from the Divine love or mercy, wills to have all near to Himself; so that they do not stand at the doors, that is, in the first heaven; but He wills that they should be in the third; and, if it were possible, not only with Himself, but in Himself. Such is the Divine love, or the Lord’s love; and as the church was then only in externals, He in these words complained, saying, “Behold, a son of my house is mine heir,” by which is signified that there would thus be only what is external in His kingdom. But consolation follows, and a promise concerning what is internal, in the verses that follow.
[3] What the external of the church is, has been stated before (see n. 1083, 1098, 1100, 1151, 1153). What pertains to doctrine does not itself make the external, still less the internal, as before said; nor with the Lord does it distinguish churches from each other, but that which does this is a life according to doctrinals, all of which, provided they are true, look to charity as their fundamental. What is doctrine but that which teaches how a man must live?
[4] In the Christian world it is doctrinal matters that distinguish churches; and from them men call themselves Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists, or the Reformed and the Evangelical, and by other names. It is from what is doctrinal alone that they are so called; which would never be if they would make love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor the principal of faith. Doctrinal matters would then be only varieties of opinion concerning the mysteries of faith, which truly Christian men would leave to everyone to hold in accordance with his conscience, and would say in their hearts that a man is truly a Christian when he lives as a Christian, that is, as the Lord teaches. Thus from all the differing churches there would be made one church; and all the dissensions that come forth from doctrine alone would vanish; yea, all hatreds of one against another would be dissipated in a moment, and the Lord’s kingdom would come upon the earth.
sRef Gen@11 @1 S5′ [5] The Ancient Church just after the flood, although spread through many kingdoms, was yet of this character, that is, men differed much among themselves as to doctrinal matters, but still made charity the principal; and they looked upon worship, not from doctrinal matters which pertain to faith, but from charity which pertains to life. This is meant where it is said (Gen. 11:1), that they all had one lip, and their words were one; concerning whom see above (n. 1285).

AC (Potts) n. 1800 sRef Gen@15 @4 S0′ 1800. Verse 4. And behold the word of Jehovah came unto him, saying, This one shall not be thine heir; but he that shall go forth out of thy bowels shall be thine heir. “Behold the word of Jehovah came unto him,” signifies an answer: “saying, This one shall not be thine heir” signifies that what is external shall not be the heir of His kingdom; “but he that shall go forth out of thy bowels,” signifies those who are in love to Him and in love toward the neighbor; “he shall be thine heir,” signifies that they shall be made heirs.

AC (Potts) n. 1801 sRef Gen@15 @4 S0′ 1801. Behold the word of Jehovah came unto him. That this signifies an answer, namely that there should not be what is external of the church, but that there should be what is internal, is evident from what follows. “The word of Jehovah,” or this answer, is the consolation.

AC (Potts) n. 1802 sRef Gen@15 @4 S0′ 1802. Saying, This one shall not be thine heir. That this signifies that what is external shall not be the heir of His kingdom, is evident from the signification of becoming an heir, or inheriting, explained just above. The heir of the Lord’s kingdom is not what is external, but what is internal. What is external is so too, but through what is internal, for they then act as a one. That it may be known how the case herein is, it is to be kept in mind that all who are in the heavens-as well those who are in the first and in the second, as those who are in the third,-that is, as well those who are external and those who are interior, as those who are internal-are heirs of the Lord’s kingdom; for they all make one heaven. In the Lord’s heavens, the internals and the externals are circumstanced exactly as they are in man. The angels in the first heaven are subordinate to those in the second, and these are subordinate to the angels in the third heaven. The subordination, however, is not that of command, but is, as in a man, the influx of things internal into things more external; that is, the Lord’s life inflows through the third heaven into the second, and through this into the first, in the order of their succession, besides that it inflows immediately into all the heavens. The inferior or subordinate angels do not know that this is so unless reflection is given them by the Lord; thus there is no subordination of command.
[2] In proportion to the existence of what is internal in an angel of the third heaven is he an heir of the Lord’s kingdom; and in proportion to the same in an angel of the second heaven is he an heir; and in like manner, in proportion to the existence of what is internal in an angel of the first heaven, is he too an heir. It is that which is internal that causes anyone to be an heir. With the interior angels there is more of what is internal than there is with the more external angels, and therefore the former are nearer to the Lord, and are more fully heirs. That which is internal is love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor; in proportion therefore to the love and the charity which they have, in the same proportion are they sons and heirs, for in the same proportion are they partakers of the Lord’s life.
[3] But no one can possibly be taken up from the first or external heaven into the second or interior heaven until he has been instructed in the goods of love and the truths of faith. So far as he has been instructed, so far he can be taken up, and can come among angelic spirits. It is the same with angelic spirits before they can be taken up or come into the third heaven, or among angels. By instruction the interiors are formed, and thereby the internals, and are adapted to receiving the goods of love and the truths of faith, and thereby the perception of what is good and true. No one can perceive what he does not know and believe, consequently he cannot be gifted with the faculty of perceiving the good of love and the truth of faith except by means of knowledges, so as to know what they are and of what nature. It is so with all, even with infants, who are all instructed in the Lord’s kingdom. But these are easily instructed, because they are imbued with no principles of falsity; they are however instructed in general truths only; and when they receive these they perceive things without number or limit.
[4] The case in this respect is the same as it is with one who has been persuaded respecting any truth in general: the particulars of the general truths, and the singulars of the particulars, which are confirmatory, he easily learns, as it were of himself, or spontaneously; for he is affected by the truth in general, and thence also by the particulars and singulars of the same truth, which confirm; for these enter into the general affection with delight and pleasantness, and thus constantly perfect it. These are the internal things on account of which they are called “heirs,” or by means of which they can inherit the Lord’s kingdom. But they first begin to be heirs, or to have a heritage, when they are in the affection of good, that is, in mutual love, into which they are introduced by the knowledges of good and truth, and by the affections of them; and in proportion as they are in the affection of good, or in mutual love, in the same proportion are they “heirs,” or have an inheritance. For mutual love is the veriest life [vitale] which they receive from the Lord’s essence, as from their Father. These things may be seen from what follows in the next verse.

AC (Potts) n. 1803 sRef Gen@15 @4 S0′ 1803. But he that shall go forth out of thy bowels. That this signifies those who are in love to the Lord and in love toward the neighbor, is evident from the signification of “bowels,” and of “going forth out of the bowels,” which is to be born; and here it means those who are being born of the Lord. They who are being born of the Lord, that is, who are being regenerated, receive the Lord’s life. The Lord’s life, as before said, is the Divine love, that is, love toward the whole human race; or His will to eternally save, if possible, the whole of it, or all men. They who have not the Lord’s love, that is, who do not love the neighbor as themselves, never have the Lord’s life, and therefore are never born of Him, that is, have not “come forth out of His bowels;” and therefore they cannot be heirs of His kingdom.
sRef Isa@63 @15 S2′ sRef Isa@48 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@48 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@48 @19 S2′ sRef Jer@31 @20 S2′ [2] From which it is evident that by “to go forth out of the bowels,” in the internal sense, are here signified those that are in love to Him and in love toward the neighbor. So in Isaiah:
Thus said Jehovah thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; I am Jehovah thy God, who teacheth thee to profit, who leadeth thee in the way that thou shouldest walk. Oh that thou hadst hearkened to My commandments, and thy peace had been as a river, and thy righteousness as the billows of the sea, and thy seed had been as the sand, and those who go forth out of thy bowels as the gravel thereof (Isa. 48:17-19).
The “seed as the sand,” denotes good; and “those who go forth out of the bowels as the gravel,” truth; thus those who have love, for these alone are in the love of good and truth.
[3] Moreover, in the Word “bowels” signify love or mercy for the reason that the bowels of generation, especially the mother’s womb, represent and thus signify chaste conjugial love, and the love for children that is derived from it. As in Isaiah:
The stirring of Thy bowels and of Thy compassions toward me have restrained themselves (Isa. 63:15).
In Jeremiah:
Is not Ephraim a dear son onto Me? Is he not a child of delights? Therefore My bowels are troubled for him; in mercy I will have mercy upon him (Jer. 31:20).
[4] It is evident from this that the Lord’s love itself, or mercy itself, and compassion toward the human race, are what are signified in the internal sense by “bowels,” and by “going forth out of the bowels;” consequently by “them that go forth out of the bowels” are signified those who have love. (That the Lord’s kingdom is mutual love, may be seen above, n. 548, 549, 684, 693, 694.)

AC (Potts) n. 1804 sRef Gen@15 @4 S0′ 1804. He shall be thine heir. That this signifies that they shall become heirs, is evident from the signification of an “heir,” already treated of.

AC (Potts) n. 1805 sRef Gen@15 @5 S0′ 1805. Verse 5. And He led him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and number the stars, if thou be able to number them; and He said unto him, So shall thy seed be. “He led him forth abroad,” signifies the sight of the interior man which from external things sees internal; “and said, Look now toward heaven,” signifies a representation of the Lord’s kingdom in a mental view of the universe; “and number the stars,” signifies a representation of things good and true in a mental view of the constellations; “if thou canst number them,” signifies the fruitfulness of love and the multiplication of faith; “and He said unto him, So shall thy seed be,” signifies the heirs of the Lord’s kingdom.

AC (Potts) n. 1806 sRef Gen@15 @5 S0′ 1806. He led him forth abroad. That this signifies the sight of the interior man which from things external sees things internal, may be seen from the signification of “leading forth abroad,” in connection with what follows. Things internal are led forth, when with the eyes of the body a man contemplates the starry heaven, and thence thinks of the Lord’s kingdom. Whenever a man sees anything with his eyes, and sees the things that he looks upon as if he saw them not, but from them sees or thinks of the things which are of the church or of heaven, then his interior sight, or that of his spirit or soul, is “led forth abroad.” The eye itself is properly nothing but the sight of his spirit led forth abroad, and this especially to the end that he may see internal things from external; that is, that he may, from the objects in the world, reflect continually upon those which are in the other life; for this is the life for the sake of which he lives in the world. Such was the sight in the Most Ancient Church; such is the sight of the angels who are with man; and such was the Lord’s sight.

AC (Potts) n. 1807 sRef Gen@15 @5 S0′ 1807. And said, Look now toward heaven. That this signifies a representation of the Lord’s kingdom in a mental view of the universe, may be seen from the signification of “heaven.” “Heaven” in the Word, in the internal sense, does not signify the heavens which appear to the eyes; but the Lord’s kingdom, universally and particularly. When a man who is looking at internal things from external sees the heavens, he does not think at all of the starry heaven, but of the angelic heaven; and when he sees the sun, he does not think of the sun, but of the Lord, as being the Sun of heaven. So too when he sees the moon, and the stars also; and when he sees the immensity of the heavens, he does not think of their immensity, but of the immeasurable and infinite power of the Lord. It is the same when he sees all other things, for there is nothing that is not representative.
[2] In like manner as regards the things on the earth; as when he beholds the dawning of the day he does not think of the dawn, but of the arising of all things from the Lord, and of progression into the day of wisdom. So when he sees gardens, groves, and flower-beds, his eye remains not fixed on any tree, its blossom, leaf, and fruit; but on the heavenly things which these represent; nor on any flower, and its beauty and pleasantness; but on what they represent in the other life. For there is nothing beautiful and delightful in the skies or on the earth, which is not in some way representative of the Lord’s kingdom (concerning which see what is said, n. 1632). This is the “looking toward heaven” which signifies a representation of the Lord’s kingdom in a mental view of the universe.
[3] The reason why all things in the sky and on earth are representative, is that they have come forth and do continually come forth, that is, subsist, from the influx of the Lord through heaven. It is with these things as it is with the human body, which comes forth and subsists by means of the soul; on which account all things in the body both in general and in particular are representative of the soul. The soul is in the use and the end; but the body is in the performance of them. All effects, whatever they may be, are in like manner representatives of the uses which are the causes; and the uses are representative of the ends which belong to the first principles.
[4] They who are in Divine ideas never come to a stand in the objects of the external sight; but from them and in them constantly see internal things. The veriest internal things themselves are those which are of the Lord’s kingdom, thus those which are in the veriest end itself. It is the same with the Word of the Lord; he who is in Divine things never regards the Lord’s Word from the letter; but regards the letter and the literal sense as being representative and significative of the celestial and spiritual things of the church and of the Lord’s kingdom. To him the literal sense is merely an instrumental means for thinking of these. Such was the Lord’s sight.

AC (Potts) n. 1808 sRef Gen@15 @5 S0′ 1808. And number the stars. That this signifies a representation of what is good and true in a mental view of the constellations, is evident from what has just been said; and also from the representation and signification of “the stars,” as being things good and true. The “stars” are frequently mentioned in the Word, and everywhere they signify things good and true, and also, in the contrary sense, things evil and false; or what is the same, they signify angels or societies of angels, and also in the contrary sense evil spirits and their associations. When they signify angels or societies of angels, they are then fixed stars; but when evil spirits and their associations, they are wandering stars, as I have very frequently seen.
[2] That all things in the skies and on the earth are representative of celestial and spiritual things, has been evidenced by this plain indication, that things similar to those which appear before the eyes in the sky and on the earth, are also presented to view in the world of spirits, and this as plainly as in clear day; and there they are nothing but representatives. For instance, when the starry heaven appears, and the stars therein are fixed, it is instantly known that they signify things good and true; and when the stars appear wandering, it is instantly known that they signify things evil and false. From the very glow and sparkle of the stars it may also be known of what kind they are; besides numberless other things. Hence, if one is willing to think wisely, he may know what is the origin of all things on the earth, namely, that it is the Lord; and the reason why they come forth on the earth not ideally but actually, is that all things, both celestial and spiritual, which are from the Lord, are living and essential, or as they are called substantial, and therefore they come forth into actual existence in ultimate nature (see n. 1632).
sRef Isa@13 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@13 @10 S3′ [3] That the stars represent and signify things good and true, may be seen from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:
The stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shine not with their light; the sun has been darkened in his going forth, and the moon doth not cause her light to shine; and I will visit evil upon the world, and their iniquity upon the wicked (Isa. 13:10-11);
where the day of visitation is treated of. Everyone can see that by “the stars” and “constellations” here are not meant the stars and constellations, but things true and good; and by “the sun,” love; and by “the moon,” faith; for the evils and falsities which cause darkness are treated of.
sRef Ezek@32 @8 S4′ sRef Ezek@32 @7 S4′ sRef Ps@148 @3 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @10 S4′ sRef Ps@148 @4 S4′ [4] In Ezekiel:
When I shall extinguish thee I will cover the heavens, and make the stars thereof black; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not make her light to shine; all the luminaries of light I will make black over thee, and will set darkness upon thy land (Ezek. 32:7-8),
where the meaning is similar. In Joel:
The earth quaked before Him, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon were blackened, and the stars withdrew their shining (Joel 2:10; 3:15),
where the meaning is similar. In David:
Praise Jehovah, sun and moon; praise Him, all ye stars of light; praise Him, ye heavens of heavens (Ps. 148:3-4),
meaning the same.
sRef Rev@1 @20 S5′ sRef Rev@1 @16 S5′ [5] That by the “stars” are not meant the stars, but things good and true, or what is the same, those who are in things good and true, as the angels are, is plainly said in John:
I saw the Son of man; and He had in His right hand seven stars. The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest upon My right hand, and the seven candlesticks: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches (Rev. 1:13, 16, 20).
sRef Dan@8 @9 S6′ sRef Dan@8 @10 S6′ sRef Rev@8 @12 S6′ [6] Again:
The fourth angel sounded, so that the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; that the third part of them should be darkened, and the day shone not for the third part of it, and the night in like manner (Rev. 8:12),
where it is clearly evident that what is good and true was darkened. In Daniel:
There came forth a little horn, which grew exceedingly toward the south and toward the east and toward adornment [decus] and it grew even to the army of the heavens; and some of the army and of the stars it cast down to the earth, and trampled upon them (Dan. 8:9-10),
which words plainly show that “the army of the heavens” and “the stars” are things good and true, which were trampled upon.
sRef Luke@21 @25 S7′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S7′ [7] From these passages may be seen what is meant by the words of the Lord in Matthew:
In the consummation of the age, immediately after the affliction of those days, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken (Matt. 24:29).
And in Luke:
There shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations in despair, the sea and the waves roaring (Luke 21:25);
where by “the sun” the sun is not meant at all, nor by “the moon” the moon, nor by “the stars” the stars, nor by “the sea” the sea; but the things which they represent, namely, by “the sun” the celestial things of love, by “the moon” the spiritual things, by “the stars” things good and true, that is, the knowledges of what is good and true, which are thus darkened near the consummation of the age, when there is no faith, that is, no charity.

AC (Potts) n. 1809 sRef Gen@15 @5 S0′ 1809. If thou canst number them. That this signifies the fruitfulness of love and the multiplication of faith, or what is the same, the fruitfulness of good and the multiplication of truth, may be seen without explication; for the words plainly mean that they cannot be numbered.

AC (Potts) n. 1810 sRef Gen@15 @5 S0′ 1810. So shall thy seed be. That this signifies the heirs of the Lord’s kingdom, is evident from the signification of “seed,” as being love and the faith derived from it, or what is the same, those who are in love and faith, both angels and men. That “seed” has this signification has already in various places been stated and shown. These words signify in general the Lord’s kingdom, which is so vast and numerous that no one can ever credit it; so that it can only be expressed by IMMENSE. Its immensity will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be treated of elsewhere; it is what is here signified by the words of this verse, “Look now toward heaven, and number the stars, if thou canst number them; and He said unto him, so shall thy seed be.” These words also signify the innumerable goods and truths of wisdom and intelligence, together with their attendant happiness, in every angel.

AC (Potts) n. 1811 sRef Gen@15 @6 S0′ 1811. Verse 6. And he believed in Jehovah, and He imputed it to him for righteousness. “He believed in Jehovah,” signifies the Lord’s faith at that time; “and He imputed it to him for righteousness,” signifies that herein the Lord first became righteousness.

AC (Potts) n. 1812 sRef Gen@15 @6 S0′ 1812. He believed in Jehovah. That this signifies the Lord’s faith at that time, is evident from the very words, and also from the connection of things in the internal sense; which is that while He lived in the world the Lord was in continual combats of temptations, and in continual victories, from a constant inmost confidence and faith that because He was fighting for the salvation of the whole human race from pure love, He could not but conquer; which is here meant by “believing in Jehovah.” From the love from which anyone fights it is known what his faith is. He who fights from any other love than love toward the neighbor and toward the Lord’s kingdom, does not fight from faith, that is, does not “believe in Jehovah,” but in that which he loves, for the love itself for which he fights is his faith. For example: he who fights from the love of becoming the greatest in heaven, does not believe in Jehovah, but rather in himself; for to desire to become the greatest is to desire to command others; thus he fights for command; and so in all other cases. And thus from the love itself from which anyone fights, it may be known what his faith is.
sRef Mark@10 @44 S2′ sRef Mark@10 @42 S2′ sRef Mark@10 @43 S2′ sRef Mark@10 @35 S2′ sRef Mark@10 @37 S2′ sRef Mark@10 @45 S2′ [2] But in all His combats of temptations the Lord never fought from the love of self, or for Himself, but for all in the universe, consequently, not that He might become the greatest in heaven, for this is contrary to the Divine Love, and scarcely even that He might be the least; but only that all others might become something, and be saved. As He also says in Mark:
The two sons of Zebedee said, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on Thy right hand, and the other on Thy left, in Thy glory. Jesus said, Whoever would be great among you shall be your minister; and whoever would be first among you, shall be servant of all. For the Son of man also came not to be ministered onto, but to minister, and to give His soul a ransom for many (Mark 10:37, 43-45).
This is the love, or this is the faith, from which the Lord fought, and which is here meant by “believing in Jehovah.”

AC (Potts) n. 1813 sRef Gen@15 @6 S0′ 1813. He imputed it to him for righteousness. That this signifies that herein the Lord first became righteousness, may also be seen from the connection of things in the internal sense, in which the Lord is treated of. That the Lord alone became righteousness for the whole human race, may be seen from the fact that He alone fought from Divine love, namely, from love toward the whole human race, whose salvation was what in His combats He solely desired and burned for. In regard to His Human Essence the Lord was not born righteousness, but became righteousness through combats of temptations and victories, and this from His own power. As often as He fought and overcame, this was imputed to Him for righteousness, that is, it was added to the righteousness that He was becoming, as a continual increase, until He became pure righteousness.
[2] A man who is born of a human father, or of the seed of a human father, when fighting from himself cannot fight from any other love than the love of self and of the world, thus not from heavenly love, but from infernal love, for such is the character of his Own from his father, in addition to the Own acquired by his own conduct. Therefore he who supposes that he fights from himself against the devil is hugely mistaken. In like manner he who desires to make himself righteous by his own powers-that is, to believe that the goods of charity and the truths of faith are from himself, consequently that he merits heaven by them-acts and thinks against the good and truth of faith; for it is a truth of faith, that is, it is the truth itself, that the Lord fights. And therefore because he then acts and thinks against the truth of faith, he takes away from the Lord what is His, and makes what is the Lord’s to be his own, or what is the same, he puts himself in the Lord’s place, and thereby puts that which is infernal in himself. Hence it is that such men desire to become great, or the greatest, in heaven; and hence it is that they falsely believe that the Lord fought against the hells in order that He might be the greatest. What is man’s own is attended with such phantasies,, which appear as if they were truths, but are just the reverse.
sRef Jer@23 @6 S3′ sRef Jer@31 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@59 @16 S3′ sRef Isa@59 @17 S3′ [3] That the Lord came into the world in order to become righteousness, and that He alone is righteousness, was also foretold by the prophets; and therefore this could have been known before His coming; and also that He could not become righteousness except through temptations, and victories over all evils and all the hells. As in Jeremiah:
In His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell in confidence, and this is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our righteousness (Jer. 23:6).
In the same:
In those days and in that time will I cause an Offshoot of righteousness to grow onto David, and He shall do judgment and righteousness in the land. In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell in confidence; and this is what they shall call Him, Jehovah our righteousness (Jer. 33:15-16).
In Isaiah:
He saw, and there was no man; and He wondered that there was none to intercede; and His arm brought salvation unto Him, and His righteousness it upheld Him. And He put on righteousness as a coat of mail, and a helmet of salvation upon His head (Isa. 59:16-17; see especially Isa. 63:3, 5).
“His arm” means His own power. Because the Lord alone is righteousness, the “habitation of righteousness” also is mentioned in Jeremiah 31:23; 50:7.

AC (Potts) n. 1814 sRef Gen@15 @7 S0′ 1814. Verse 7. And He said unto him, I am Jehovah, who led thee forth out of Ur of the Chaldees to give thee this land to inherit it. “He said unto him, I am Jehovah,” signifies the Lord’s internal man, which was Jehovah, and from which He had perception; “who led thee forth out of Ur of the Chaldees,” signifies the first state of the external man; “to give thee this land to inherit it,” signifies the Lord’s kingdom, of which He alone is the possessor.

AC (Potts) n. 1815 sRef Gen@15 @7 S0′ 1815. He said unto him, I am Jehovah. That this signifies the Lord’s internal man, which is Jehovah, and from which He had perception, is evident from what has been already said, namely, that the Lord’s Internal, that is, whatever the Lord received from the Father, was Jehovah in Him, for He was conceived from Jehovah. What a man receives from his father is one thing, and what he receives from his mother is another. From his father a man receives all that is internal, his soul itself or life being from the father; but he receives from his mother all that is external. In a word, the interior man, or spirit itself, is from the father; but the outer man, or body itself, is from the mother; which everyone can comprehend merely from the fact that the soul itself is implanted by the father, and this begins to clothe itself in a little bodily form in the ovum. Whatever is afterwards added, whether in the ovum or in the womb, is of the mother, for it has no increase from anywhere else.
[2] It may be seen from this that as to His internals the Lord was Jehovah. But because the external, which the Lord received from the mother, was to be united to the Divine or Jehovah, and this through temptations and victories, as before said, it could not appear otherwise to Him in those states, than that when He spoke with Jehovah it was as it were with another; when yet He spoke with Himself, that is, so far as He was in a state of conjunction. The Lord’s perception, which He had in the highest perfection above all who have been born, was from His Internal, that is, from Jehovah Himself, which is here signified in the internal sense by the words, “Jehovah said unto him.”

AC (Potts) n. 1816 sRef Gen@15 @7 S0′ 1816. Who led thee forth out of Ur of the Chaldees. That this signifies the first state of His external man, may be seen from the signification of “Ur of the Chaldees.” The maternal which the Lord received from birth, or the inheritance from the mother, is what is here signified by “Ur of the Chaldees.” The nature of this has been described before. It was out of this maternal, or inheritance from the mother, that He was led forth whenever He conquered evils and falsities, that is, the hells.

AC (Potts) n. 1817 sRef Gen@15 @7 S0′ 1817. To give thee this land, to inherit it. That this signifies the Lord’s kingdom, of which He alone is the possessor, is evident from the signification of the “land,” here the Holy Land or Land of Canaan, as being the heavenly kingdom; and also from the signification of “inheriting,” spoken of several times before. To “inherit the land,” signifying to possess the heavenly kingdom, is here predicated of the Lord’s Human Essence; for as to the Divine Essence He was the Possessor of the universe, consequently of the heavenly kingdom, from eternity.

AC (Potts) n. 1818 sRef Gen@15 @8 S0′ 1818. Verse 8. And he said, Lord Jehovih, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it? “He said, Lord Jehovih,” signifies a conversation, as it were, of the Interior man with the Internal; “whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?” signifies a temptation against the Lord’s love, which desired to be fully assured.

AC (Potts) n. 1819 sRef Gen@15 @8 S0′ 1819. He said, Lord Jehovih. That this signifies a conversation, as it were, of the Interior man with the Internal, is evident from what was said in the preceding verse in connection with the words, “Jehovah said unto him;” and also from what was said (at verse 2 of this chapter) concerning the Lord Jehovih, as denoting the conversation of the Interior man with the Internal, or Jehovah, especially when He was in temptation.

AC (Potts) n. 1820 sRef Gen@15 @8 S0′ 1820. Whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it? That this signifies a temptation against the Lord’s love, which desired to be fully assured, may be seen from the doubt that is implied in the words themselves. He who is in temptation is in doubt concerning the end in view. The end in view is the love, against which the evil spirits and evil genii fight, and thereby put the end in doubt; and the greater the love is, the more do they put it in doubt. If the end which is loved were not put in doubt, and indeed in despair, there would be no temptation. Assurance respecting the result precedes the victory, and belongs to the victory.
[2] As few know how the case is with temptations, it may here be briefly explained. Evil spirits never fight against other things than those which the man loves; the more ardently he loves them, the more fiercely do they wage the combat. It is evil genii who fight against the things that pertain to the affection of good, and evil spirits that fight against those which pertain to the affection of truth. As soon as they notice even the smallest thing which a man loves, or perceive as it were by scent what is delightful and dear to him, they forthwith assault it and endeavor to destroy it, and thereby the whole man, for man’s life consists in his loves. Nothing is more delightful to them than to destroy a man in this way, nor would they desist, even to eternity, unless they were driven away by the Lord. They who are malignant and crafty insinuate themselves into man’s very loves by flattering them, and thus bring the man among themselves; and presently, when they have brought him in, they attempt to destroy his loves, and thereby murder the man, and this in a thousand ways that cannot be comprehended.
[3] Nor do they wage the combat simply by reasoning against things good and true, because such combats are of no account, for if they were vanquished a thousand times they would still persist, since reasonings against goods and truths can never be wanting. But they pervert the goods and truths, and inflame with a certain fire of cupidity and of persuasion, so that the man does not know otherwise than that he is in the like cupidity and persuasion; and at the same time they enkindle these with delight that they snatch from the man’s delight in something else, and in this way they most deceitfully infect and infest him; and this they do with so much skill, by leading him on from one thing to another, that if the Lord did not aid him, the man would never know but that the case was really so.
[4] They act in a similar way against the affections of truth that make the conscience: as soon as they perceive anything of conscience, of whatever kind, then from the falsities and failings in the man they form to themselves an affection; and by means of this they cast a shade over the light of truth, and so pervert it; or they induce anxiety and torture him. They also hold the thought persistently in one thing, and thus fill it with phantasies; and at the same time they clandestinely clothe the cupidities with the phantasies; besides innumerable other arts, which cannot possibly be described to the apprehension. These are a few of the means, and only the most general, by which they can make their way to man’s conscience, for this above all else they take the greatest delight in destroying.
[5] From these few statements, and they are very few, it may be seen what temptations are, and that they are, in general, such as the loves are, and from this we may see what was the nature of the Lord’s temptations, that they were the most terrible of all, for such as is the greatness of the love, such is the fearful character of the temptation. The Lord’s love was the salvation of the whole human race, and was most ardent; consequently it was the whole sum of the affection of good and affection of truth in the highest degree. Against these, with the most malignant wiles and venom, all the hells waged the combat; but still the Lord conquered them all by His own power. Victories are attended with the result that the malignant genii and spirits afterwards dare not do anything; for their life consists in their being able to destroy, and when they perceive that a man is of such a character that he can resist, then at the first onset they flee away, as they are wont to do when they draw near to the first entrance to heaven, for they are at once seized with horror and terror, and hurl themselves backward.

AC (Potts) n. 1821 sRef Gen@15 @9 S0′ 1821. Verse 9. And He said unto him, Take thee a heifer of three years, and a she-goat of three years, and a ram of three years, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon. “He said unto him,” signifies perception; “take a heifer of three years, and a she-goat of three years, and a ram of three years,” signifies the representatives of the celestial things of the church; a “heifer” being representative of exterior celestial things, a “she-goat” of interior celestial things, and a “ram” of spiritual celestial things; they were to be “three years” old, because they were to involve all things of the church as to times and states; “and a turtledove and a young pigeon,” signifies the representatives of the spiritual things of the church; a “turtledove” those which are exterior, and a “young pigeon” those which are interior.

AC (Potts) n. 1822 sRef Gen@15 @9 S0′ 1822. He said unto him. That this signifies perception, is evident from what was said above at verses 2 and 7. Perception itself is nothing else than a kind of internal speech, which internal speech manifests itself by being perceived. All interior dictate, and even conscience, is nothing else; but perception is a higher or more interior degree of it.

AC (Potts) n. 1823 sRef Gen@15 @9 S0′ sRef Lev@1 @14 S0′ sRef Lev@1 @17 S0′ 1823. Take a heifer of three years, and a she-goat of three years, and a ram of three years. That this signifies the representatives of the celestial things of the church, is evident from the signification of the same animals in the sacrifices. No one who thinks sanely can believe that the various animals which were sacrificed signified nothing but sacrifices; or that an ox and a bullock or a calf signified the same as a sheep, a kid, and a she-goat, and these the same as a lamb; and that a turtledove signified the same as young pigeons; the fact being that every animal had its own special signification. This may be sufficiently evident from the fact that in no case was one offered instead of another; and that those are expressly named which were to be used in the daily burnt-offerings and sacrifices, those on the Sabbaths and festivals, those used in free-will offerings, vows, and peace-offerings, those in expiation of guilt and sin, and those in purifications; which would never have been so unless something special had been represented and signified by each animal.
[2] But what was signified by each particular kind would be too tedious to explain here; it is sufficient to know now that celestial things were signified by the animals, and spiritual things by the birds; and by each kind, some special celestial or spiritual thing. The Jewish Church itself, and all things relating to it, were representative of such things as are of the Lord’s kingdom, where there is nothing but what is celestial and spiritual, that is, nothing but what is of love and of faith; as may also be sufficiently evident from the signification of the clean and useful beasts, explained above (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 776). As in the Most Ancient Churches these were significative of heavenly goods, they afterwards became representative in the church, when worship merely external, which was also representative, was valued and acknowledged.
[3] As the state of the church is here treated of, and it is foretold what that state is to be, this was shown to Abram by similar representatives, exactly as is here related; but still such things are signified in the internal sense, as indeed everyone may know and think; for what would be the need of taking a heifer three years old, a she-goat three years old, a ram three years old, a turtledove, and a young pigeon, of dividing them into two parts, and placing them so, unless everything had been significative? But what these things signified may be seen from what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 1824 sRef Gen@15 @9 S0′ 1824. That “a heifer” signifies the representatives of exterior celestial things, “a she-goat” the representatives of interior celestial things, and “a ram” those of spiritual celestial things, may be seen from the sacrifices, concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter, where the sacrifices are treated of. There are exterior celestial things, and interior celestial things, as well as spiritual celestial things. Exterior celestial things are those which are of the external man, interior celestial things are those which are of the internal man, and spiritual celestial things are those which are derived from these. The celestial itself is love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor. This celestial flows in from the Lord, and in fact through the internal man into the external. In the interior man this is called the interior celestial; in the external man the exterior celestial. The exterior celestial is all affection of good; nay, it is also all the pleasure which comes from the affection of good. So far as the good of love and of charity is in these, that is, in the affection of good and in the pleasure derived from it, so far the celestial is in them, and also happiness. But the spiritual celestial is all the affection of truth in which there is the affection of good, or the affection of truth which is begotten by the affection of good; thus it is faith in which is charity, or faith which is begotten by charity.

AC (Potts) n. 1825 sRef Gen@15 @9 S0′ 1825. That “three years old” involves all things of the church as to times and states, is evident from the signification of “three” in the Word. By “three” is signified the full time of the church, from its origin even to its end, and thus all its state. The last time of the church is therefore signified by the third day, the third week, the third month, the third year and the third age, which are all the same. As the state of the church is signified by the number three, so also is the state of everyone who is a church, and everything which is of the church, as may be seen from the signification of this number in the passages adduced from the Word (n. 720, 901).
sRef Isa@15 @5 S2′ sRef Jer@48 @34 S2′ sRef Jer@48 @33 S2′ [2] That “a heifer of three years” thus signifies the time or state of the church even to the last, that is, when it has been vastated or made desolate, may also be seen in Isaiah:
My heart crieth out upon Moab; her fugitives are unto Zoar, a heifer of three years old; for by the ascent of Luhith, with weeping he shall go up in it; for in the way of Horonaim they shall raise up a cry of breaking to pieces (Isa. 15:5).
Also in Jeremiah:
Gladness and exultation are gathered from Carmel, and from the land of Moab; and I will make* wine to cease from the winepresses; none shall tread with shouting; the shouting shall be no shouting. From the cry of Heshbon even unto Elealeh, even unto Jahaz have they uttered their voice, from Zoar even unto** Horonaim, a heifer of three years old; for the waters of Nimrim also shall become desolations (Jer. 48:33-34).
No one could possibly perceive what these things mean unless he knew what is signified by “Moab,” by “Zoar,” “the ascent of Luhith,” “the cry of Heshbon unto Elealeh,” by “Jahaz,” by “Horonaim,” “the waters of Nimrim,” and by “a heifer three years old.” That this is an uttermost vastation is plain.
* Cessare faciam; but elsewhere feci, as Apocalypse Explained 376. [Rotch ed.]
** Latin here has a, doubtless a misprint for ad, as in n. 9391. [Ibid.]

AC (Potts) n. 1826 sRef Gen@15 @9 S0′ 1826. And a turtle-dove and a young pigeon. That this signifies the representatives of the spiritual things of the church, is evident from the signification of birds in general and of turtle-doves and pigeons in particular. That “birds” signify spiritual things, which are those of faith or of truth, and therefore are intellectual and rational things, was shown above (n. 40, 745, 776, 991); also that “doves” signify the goods and truths of faith (n. 870). What they signified in the sacrifices shall of the Lord’s Divine mercy be stated in what follows, where the sacrifices are treated of. In the Word, especially in the prophetic part, when celestial things are spoken of, spiritual things also are spoken of, and in this way they are conjoined; because the one is from the other, so that the one is the other’s (as before said, n. 639, 680, 683, 707, 793, 801).

AC (Potts) n. 1827 sRef Gen@15 @9 S0′ 1827. That “a turtle-dove” signifies the representatives of exterior spiritual things, and “a young pigeon” the representatives of interior spiritual things, may be seen from what has been said respecting celestial things, of which the exterior were signified by the “heifer,” the interior by the “she-goat,” and the intermediate by the “ram.”

AC (Potts) n. 1828 sRef Gen@15 @10 S0′ 1828. Verse 10. And he took unto him all these and divided them in the midst, and laid each part over against the other; and the birds he did not divide. “He took unto him all these,” signifies that it was so done; “and divided them in the midst,” signifies the church and the Lord; “and laid each part over against the other,” signifies a parallelism and correspondence as to celestial things; “and the birds he did not divide,” signifies spiritual things, wherein there was not such parallelism and correspondence.

AC (Potts) n. 1829 sRef Gen@15 @10 S0′ 1829. He took unto him all these. That this signifies that it was so done, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 1830 sRef Gen@15 @10 S0′ 1830. And divided them in the midst. That this signifies the church and the Lord, is evident from what follows; for celestial things were signified by the heifer, the she-goat, and the ram, and spiritual things by the turtle-dove and the young pigeon; and these, when divided and placed opposite to each other, can have no other signification.

AC (Potts) n. 1831 sRef Gen@15 @10 S0′ 1831. And laid each part over against the other. That this signifies a parallelism and correspondence as to the celestial things, may be seen from the consideration that the parts on one side signify the church, and the parts on the other the Lord; and when these are placed opposite to each other, this is nothing else than a parallelism and correspondence; and as the heifer, the she-goat, and the ram were so divided and placed, and by these celestial things are signified (as said just above at verse 9), it is evident that there is a parallelism and correspondence as to celestial things. It is otherwise with spiritual things, concerning which presently. Celestial things, as has often been said, are all that pertain to love to the Lord and to love toward the neighbor. It is the Lord who gives love and charity; it is the church that receives. What unites is conscience, in which the love and charity are implanted; and therefore the middle space between the parts signifies that in man which is called perception, internal dictate, and conscience. The things which are above the perception, dictate, and conscience, are the Lord’s; those which are below, are in man. Because they thereby mutually regard each other, there is said to be a parallelism; and because they correspond to each other, as the active and the passive, there is said to be correspondence.

AC (Potts) n. 1832 sRef Gen@15 @10 S0′ 1832. And the birds he did not divide. That this signifies spiritual things, and that in them there is not such a parallelism and correspondence, is evident from the signification of “birds,” as being what is spiritual [as distinguished from what is celestial], and as treated of in verse 9, just above; and from the statement that he did not divide the birds in the midst; consequently that there is not such a parallelism and correspondence. By spiritual things are signified, as often said before, all the things of faith, consequently all doctrinal things, for these are called things of faith, although they are not of faith until they have been conjoined with charity. Between these and the Lord there is not a parallelism and correspondence, for they are such things as do not flow in by internal dictate and conscience, as do those which are of love and charity, but they flow in by instruction, and so by hearing, thus not from the interior, but from the exterior, and in this way they form their vessels or recipients in man.
[2] The greater part of them appear as if they were truths, but are not truths, such as those things which are of the literal sense of the Word, and are representatives of truth and significatives of truth, and thus are not in themselves truths; some of them even being falsities, which however can serve as vessels and recipients. But in the Lord there are none but truths that are essentially such; and therefore with these there is no parallelism and correspondence on the part of those apparent truths, but still they may be so adapted as to serve as vessels for the celestial things which are of love and charity. These apparent truths are what constitute the cloud of the intellectual part, before spoken of, into which the Lord insinuates charity, and so makes conscience.
[3] For example: with those who remain in the sense of the letter of the Word, and suppose that it is the Lord who leads into temptation and who then torments man’s conscience, and who suppose that because He permits evil He is the cause of evil, and that He thrusts the evil down into hell, with other similar things: these are apparent truths, but are not truths; and because they are not truths that are such in themselves, there is no parallelism and correspondence. Still the Lord leaves them intact in man, and miraculously adapts them by means of charity so that they can serve celestial things as vessels. So also with the worship, the religious teachings and morals, and even with the idols, of the well-disposed Gentiles; these likewise the Lord leaves intact, and yet adapts them by means of charity so that they also serve as vessels. The case was the same in regard to the very numerous rites in the Ancient Church, and afterwards in the Jewish Church; which in themselves were nothing but rituals in which there was not truth, but which were tolerated and permitted, and indeed commanded, because they were held as sacred by parents, and so were implanted in the minds of children and impressed upon them from infancy as truths.
[4] These and other such things are what are signified by the statement that the birds were not divided. For the things that are once implanted in a man’s opinion, and are accounted as holy, the Lord leaves intact, provided they are not contrary to Divine order; and although there is no parallelism and correspondence, still He adapts them. These same things are what was signified in the Jewish Church by the birds not being divided in the sacrifices; for to divide is to place the parts opposite to each other in such a manner that they may adequately correspond; and because the things which have been spoken of are not adequately in correspondence, they are obliterated in the other life with those who suffer themselves to be instructed, and truths themselves are implanted in their affections of good. That in the Jewish Church for the sake of this representation and signification the birds were not divided, is evident in Moses:
If his offering to Jehovah be a burnt-offering of birds, then he shall bring his offering of turtle-doves or of the sons of the pigeon. And he shall cleave it with its wings, he shall not divide it (Lev. 1:14, 17).
And the same in the case of the sacrifices for sin (Lev. 5:7-8).

AC (Potts) n. 1833 sRef Gen@15 @11 S0′ 1833. Verse 11. And the fowls came down upon the bodies, and Abram drove them away. “The fowls came down upon the bodies,” signifies evils and the falsities thence derived, that were desirous to destroy; “and Abram drove them away,” signifies that the Lord put them to flight.

AC (Potts) n. 1834 sRef Gen@15 @11 S0′ 1834. The fowls came down upon the bodies. That this signifies evils and the falsities thence derived that were desirous to destroy, is evident from the signification of “fowls,” as being falsities. “Fowls” in the Word signify truth-as shown above-and also in the opposite sense falsity (for almost all such things in the Word are thus used in both senses); that “fowls” signify falsity also has been shown before (n. 778, 866, 988). Everyone can see that this signifies arcana; otherwise it would not have been worthy of mention. What the arcanum is has also been already stated, and is evident from the series or connection of things in the internal sense, namely, that it is concerning the state of the church.
[2] When a church is raised up by the Lord, it is in the beginning blameless, and the one then loves the other as his brother, as is known from the case of the primitive church after the Lord’s coming. All the church’s children then lived together as brethren, and likewise called one another brethren, and loved one another; but in process of time charity grew cold and vanished away and as it vanished, evils succeeded, and together with these falsities insinuated themselves. Hence came schisms and heresies, which would never be the case if charity were regnant and alive, for then they would not even call schism schism, nor heresy heresy, but a doctrinal matter in accordance with each person’s opinion; and this they would leave to each person’s conscience, provided such doctrinal matter did not deny first principles, that is, the Lord, eternal life, and the Word; and provided it was not contrary to the Divine order, that is, to the precepts of the Decalogue.
sRef Isa@63 @16 S3′ [3] The evils and the falsities thence derived which succeed in the church when charity vanishes, are what are here meant by the fowls which Abram drove away, that is, which the Lord, who is here represented by Abram, put to flight. Abram drove away nothing but the fowls, and nothing at all of evil and falsity; nor is Abraham known in heaven except as is any other man, who can do nothing at all of himself; but the Lord alone; as also is said by Isaiah:
Thou art our Father, for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us; Thou O Jehovah art our Father, our Redeemer; Thy name is from everlasting (Isa. 63:16).

AC (Potts) n. 1835 sRef Gen@15 @11 S0′ 1835. And Abram drove them away. That this signifies that the Lord put them to flight, is evident from what has been said. And such also is the case with a church when it is beginning to recede from charity. Evils and the falsities thence derived are then more easily put to flight, for as yet the church is in a state that is not so far removed from charity, and thus men’s minds are more easily bent. But in process of time evils and the falsities derived from them increase, and so are confirmed and strengthened; and this is treated of in what follows.
[2] So far as possible the Lord is continually putting evils and falsities to flight, but through conscience. When conscience is relaxed, there is no medium through which the Lord can flow in, for the Lord’s influx with man is by means of charity into his conscience. But in place of this charity a new medium succeeds and is formed, which is external, namely, the fear of the law, fear for life, for honors and wealth, and the reputation from these. But these are not of conscience; they are only external bonds which enable a man to live in society with others, and to appear as a friend, whatsoever he may be inwardly.
[3] But this medium, or these bonds, are of no account in the other life, for there externals are removed, and everyone remains as he is internally. There are very many who have lived a moral and a civic life, have injured no one, have performed acts of friendship and civility, nay, have done good to many, but only for the sake of self, with a view to honors, gain, and the like. In the other life these are among the infernals, because they have nothing of good and truth within, but only evil and falsity, nay, hatred, revenge, cruelty, adulteries, which do not appear before man, that is to say insofar as the fears just referred to, which are external bonds, prevail.

AC (Potts) n. 1836 sRef Gen@15 @12 S0′ 1836. Verse 12. And it came to pass when the sun was going down, that a deep sleep fell upon Abram, and behold a terror of great darkness falling upon him. “The sun was going down,” signifies the time and the state before the consummation; “that a deep sleep fell upon Abram,” signifies that the church was then in darkness; “and behold a terror of great darkness falling upon him,” signifies that the darkness was terrible; “darkness” means falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 1837 sRef Gen@15 @12 S0′ 1837. The sun was going down. That this signifies the time and the state before the consummation, is evident from the signification of “the sun.” In the internal sense “the sun” signifies the Lord, and thence it signifies the celestial things which are of love and charity, consequently love itself and charity (spoken of above, n. 30-38, and n. 1053). From this it is evident that the “going down of the sun” denotes the last time of the church, which is called the consummation, when there is no longer any charity. The Lord’s church is also compared to the times of the day; its first period to the rising of the sun, or to the dawn and the morning; its last to the setting of the sun, or to the evening and the shades then prevailing, for the two things are similarly circumstanced. The church is also compared to the times of the year; its first period to the spring, when all things are in bloom; that which is before the last to the autumn, when they begin to become inactive. It is even compared to the metals; its first period is called golden; its last, iron and clay; as in Daniel (2:31-33). From all this it is evident what is signified by “the going down of the sun,” namely, that it signifies the time and the state before the consummation, seeing that the sun had not yet set. In what follows, the state of the church when the sun has set is treated of, in that there was then thick darkness and the smoke of a furnace, and that a torch of fire passed between the pieces.

AC (Potts) n. 1838 sRef Gen@15 @12 S0′ 1838. A deep sleep fell upon Abram. That this signifies that the church was then in darkness, is evident from the signification of “a deep sleep.” A “deep sleep,” relatively to one of wakefulness, denotes a dark state; and this state is here attributed to the Lord, who is represented by Abram; not that there was ever with Him a deep sleep or a state of darkness, but that there was with the church. The case herein is the same as it is in the other life, where the Lord is always the Sun, and Light, itself; but where before the evil He appears as darkness; for the Lord appears according to the state of each person. So here this is said of the church when it is in a state of darkness.
[2] Also take as an example, vastation, punishment, and condemnation, which are attributed to the Lord in many passages of the Word; when nevertheless they belong to the man of the church, who vastates, punishes, and condemns himself. It appears before man as if the Lord vastated, punished, and condemned; and because it appears so, it is so expressed according to the appearances; for if man were not instructed by appearances, he would not suffer himself to be instructed at all. What is contrary to the appearance he does not believe or comprehend, except at a later period, when he possesses judgment and has been gifted with the faith of charity.
[3] So with the church; when it is in a state of darkness, the Lord is then obscured before its people, so that He does not appear, that is, is not acknowledged; although the Lord is not at all obscured, but man, in whom and with whom the Lord should be; but still the obscuration is predicated of the Lord. So is it here with the “deep sleep,” by which there is signified a dark state of the church.

AC (Potts) n. 1839 sRef Gen@15 @12 S0′ 1839. Behold a terror of great darkness falling upon him. That this signifies that the darkness was terrible, and that “darkness” means falsities, is evident from the signification of “darkness,” as being falsities, to be explained presently. The state of the church before its consummation, when the sun was “going down,” is described by the “terror of great darkness;” but its state when the sun had gone down is described by the “thick darkness” and the other things mentioned in verse 17.
sRef Matt@24 @29 S2′ sRef Isa@60 @2 S2′ [2] The same is thus described by the Lord in Matthew:
The sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken (Matt. 24:29).
This does not mean that the sun of the world will be darkened, but the celestial which is of love and charity; nor the moon, but the spiritual which is of faith; nor that the stars will fall from heaven, but that the knowledges of good and truth with the man of the church will do so, for these are “the powers of the heavens;” nor will these things take place in heaven, but on earth; for heaven is never darkened.
[3] That “a terror of great darkness fell upon him,” means that the Lord was horrified at so great a vastation. So far as anyone is in the celestial things of love, so far does he feel horror when he perceives a consummation. So it was with the Lord, above all others; for He was in love itself, both celestial and Divine.
[4] That “darkness” signifies falsities is evident from very many passages in the Word; as in Isaiah:
Woe unto them that put darkness for light, and light for darkness (Isa. 5:20);
“darkness” denotes falsities, and “light” truths. In the same:
He shall look onto the land, and behold darkness, distress, and the light is darkened (Isa. 5:30);
“darkness” denoting falsities, and “the light darkened” the truth not appearing.
sRef Zeph@1 @14 S5′ sRef Zeph@1 @15 S5′ sRef Amos@5 @20 S5′ sRef Amos@5 @18 S5′ [5] In the same:
Behold, darkness covereth the earth, and thick darkness the peoples (Isa. 60:2).
In Amos:
The day of Jehovah, it is darkness, and not light. Shall not the day of Jehovah be darkness, and not light? and thick darkness and no brightness in it? (Amos 5:18, 20).
In Zephaniah:
The great day of Jehovah is near; that day is a day of wrath, a day of straitness and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and thick darkness, a day of cloud and shade (Zeph. 1:14-15).
In these passages, the “day of Jehovah” denotes the last time and state of the church; “darkness and thick darkness” falsities and evils.
sRef Matt@6 @23 S6′ [6] The Lord likewise calls falsities “darkness” in Matthew:
If thine eye be evil, thy whole body is* darkened. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness (Matt. 6:33).
“Darkness” here denotes the falsities which take possession of those who are in knowledges; and the meaning is, how great is this darkness above that of others, or of the Gentiles,, who have not knowledges.
sRef John@1 @5 S7′ sRef John@1 @4 S7′ sRef Matt@8 @12 S7′ [7] Again in Matthew:
The sons of the kingdom shall be cast out into the outer darkness (Matt. 8:12; 22:13).
“The outer darkness” denotes the more direful falsities of those who are in the church; for they darken the light, and bring up falsities against truths, which Gentiles cannot do. In John:
In Him was life, and the life was the light of men; and the light appeareth in the darkness, but the darkness comprehended it not (John 1:4-5).
“The darkness” here denotes falsities within the church.
sRef Matt@4 @16 S8′ [8] Falsities outside of the church are also called “darkness,” but such as can be illuminated. Such are spoken of in Matthew:
The people that sat in darkness saw a great light, and to them that sat in the region and shadow of death, did light spring up (Matt. 4:16);
“darkness” here denoting the falsities of ignorance, such as are those of the Gentiles. sRef John@3 @19 S9′ [9] In John:
And this is the judgment, that the Light is come into the world, but men loved the darkness rather than the Light, for their works were evil (John 3:19);
“the Light” denotes truths, and “the darkness” falsities; and “the Light” denotes the Lord, because all truth is from Him; and “the darkness” the hells, because all falsity is from them.
sRef John@12 @35 S10′ sRef John@12 @36 S10′ sRef John@8 @12 S10′ sRef John@12 @46 S10′ sRef John@12 @35 S10′ [10] Again:
Jesus said, I am the Light of the world; he that followeth Me shall not walk in the darkness (John 8:12).
And again:
Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness seize upon you, for he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth in Me may not abide in the darkness (John 12:35, 46).
“The light” denotes the Lord, from whom are all good and truth; “the darkness” falsities, which are dispersed by the Lord alone.
[11] The falsities of the last times, which are called “darkness” in the verse before us, or of which the “terror of great darkness” is predicated, were represented and signified by the darkness that came upon the whole earth, from the sixth hour to the ninth [at the crucifixion], and also by the sun being then darkened, by which was represented and signified that there was then no longer either love or faith (Matt. 27:45; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44-45).
* Est: but elsewhere erit, as n. 9051.

AC (Potts) n. 1840 sRef Gen@15 @13 S0′ 1840. Verse 13. And He said unto Abram, Knowing thou shall know that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them, and they shall afflict them four hundred years. “He said unto Abram,” signifies a perception; “knowing thou shalt know,” signifies that it is certain; “thy seed shall be a stranger,” signifies that charity and faith shall be rare; in a land that is not theirs,” signifies where there is a church that is as it were not composed of those who are in charity and faith; “and they shall serve them,” signifies oppression; “and they shall afflict them,” signifies their severe temptations; “four hundred years,” signifies the duration and state.

AC (Potts) n. 1841 sRef Gen@15 @13 S0′ 1841. He said unto Abram. That this signifies a perception, is evident from what has been already said (at verse 9 and elsewhere), where the same words have the same signification.

AC (Potts) n. 1842 sRef Gen@15 @13 S0′ 1842. Knowing thou shalt know. That this signifies that it is certain, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 1843 sRef Gen@15 @13 S0′ 1843. Thy seed shall be a stranger. That this signifies that charity and faith shall be rare, is evident from the signification of “a stranger,” and of “seed.” A “stranger” or “sojourner” signifies one that is not born in the land, so that he is not acknowledged as a native, and thus is looked upon as an alien. But “seed” signifies charity and its faith (as before shown, n. 255, 1025; and just above at verse 3). Because that is called “strange” which is looked upon as alien, and alien is that which is not in the land or of the land, it follows that it is that which is rare; and consequently it here means that charity and the faith of charity, which are the “seed,” will be rare. It is the time before the consummation that is here treated of, when there shall be “great darkness,” that is, falsities; the seed shall then be a stranger, that is, charity and faith will then be rare.
[2] That faith would be rare in the last times was foretold by the Lord when He spoke of the consummation of the age (Matt. 24:4-51; Mark 13:3-37; Luke 21:7-38), where everything that is said implies that charity and faith will be rare at those times, and that at last there will be none. The like is said by John in Revelation, and also in many passages of the Prophets, besides what is said in the historical parts of the Word.
[3] But by the faith that will perish in the last times there is meant nothing but charity, for there cannot possibly be any faith but the faith of charity. He who has not charity cannot have any faith at all, for charity is the very soil in which faith is implanted; it is its heart, from which it exists and lives. The ancients therefore compared love and charity to the heart, and faith to the lungs, both of which are in the breast. This comparison involves a real likeness, seeing that if a man should pretend to a life of faith without charity, it would be like having life from the lungs alone without the heart, which is manifestly impossible; and therefore the ancients called all things that pertain to charity things of the heart, and all things that pertain to faith without charity they said were of the mouth only, or of the lungs by the influx of the breathing into the speech. Thence came the ancient forms of speech concerning good and truth; that they must go forth from the heart.

AC (Potts) n. 1844 sRef Gen@15 @13 S0′ 1844. In a land which is not theirs. That this signifies where there is a church that is as it were not composed of those who are in charity and faith, is evident from the signification of “a land,” as being the church (see n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067). At this day men speak of the church as existing from the mere doctrinals of faith, and thereby distinguish the churches of the Lord, not caring what life men live-whether they cherish inward hatreds, and tear one another like wild beasts, rob one another, and deprive others of reputation, honor, and wealth, and at heart deny whatever is holy. And yet with such there is no church at all; but the church is with those who love the Lord, and who love the neighbor as themselves, who have conscience, and are averse to such hatreds as have been mentioned. But among those previously described these men are like strangers, and are treated with the utmost possible abuse and persecution, or else are regarded as being simple, mean, and of no account. This then is what is meant by “thy seed shall be a stranger in the land.”

AC (Potts) n. 1845 sRef Ex@12 @9 S0′ sRef Ex@12 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@12 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@12 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @13 S0′ sRef Ex@12 @7 S0′ 1845. And they shall serve them. That this signifies oppression, may be seen from what has just been said.

AC (Potts) n. 1846 sRef Gen@15 @13 S0′ sRef Deut@8 @2 S1′ sRef Isa@48 @10 S1′ sRef Deut@8 @16 S1′ 1846. And they shall afflict them. That this signifies their severe temptations, may be seen from the signification of “afflicting,” or of “affliction,” as being persecution, consequently temptation. In the Word of the Lord nothing else is signified by “affliction.” As in Isaiah:
I will purge thee, and not with silver; I will choose thee in the furnace of affliction (Isa. 48:10),
“affliction” denoting temptation. In Moses:
Thou shalt remember all the way by which Jehovah thy God hath led thee these forty years in the wilderness, that He might afflict thee, to tempt thee. Jehovah, who fed thee in the wilderness with manna which thy fathers knew not, that He might afflict thee, and that He might tempt thee, to do thee good at thy latter end (Deut. 8:2, 16);
to “afflict” manifestly denotes to tempt.
sRef Isa@53 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@53 @3 S2′ sRef Deut@26 @7 S2′ sRef Deut@26 @6 S2′ [2] In the same:
When the Egyptians did evil unto us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard servitude; and we cried unto Jehovah, the God of our fathers, and Jehovah heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression (Deut. 26:6-7).
Here we find the same things as in the present verse: that they “served” and were “afflicted,” by which in like manner are signified the temptations of the faithful, as likewise by their afflictions in the wilderness, by which also there were represented the temptations of the Lord.
[3] As in Isaiah:
He was despised, a man of sorrows, and we hid as it were our faces from Him; He was despised, and we esteemed Him not. But truly He hath borne our diseases, and carried our sorrows; yet we did esteem Him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted (Isa. 53:3-4).
By these words are signified the Lord’s temptations; by His “bearing our sicknesses, and carrying our sorrows,” is not meant that the faithful are to undergo no temptations, nor is it meant that He took their sins upon Himself, and so bore them; but it means that by the combats and victories of temptations He overcame the hells, and in this way would alone, even as to His Human Essence, endure the temptations of the faithful.
sRef Mark@4 @16 S4′ sRef John@16 @33 S4′ sRef Mark@4 @17 S4′ [4] Temptations are also called by the Lord “afflictions;” as in Mark:
They that are sown upon stony places, when they have heard the Word have no root in themselves, but endure for a while; afterwards, when affliction and persecution arise because of the Word, straightway they are offended (Mark 4:16-17).
“Affliction” here manifestly denotes temptation; to “have no root in themselves” is to have no charity, for in this is faith rooted, and they who have not the support of this root yield in temptations. In John:
In the world ye have affliction; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world (John 16:33).
“Affliction” here denotes temptation.
sRef Matt@24 @8 S5′ sRef Matt@24 @9 S5′ sRef Matt@24 @7 S5′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S5′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S5′ [5] In Matthew:
Nation shall be stirred up against nation and kingdom against kingdom; all these things are the beginning of sorrows. Then shall they deliver you up unto affliction. Then shall be great affliction, such as hath not been from the beginning of the world. Immediately after the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened (Matt. 24:7-9, 21, 29).
Here the consummation of the age, or the last times of the church, are treated of; “affliction” denotes temptations, both external and internal, the external being persecutions from the world, and the internal being persecutions from the devil. That there will be no charity, is signified by “nation being stirred against nation, and kingdom against kingdom;” also by “the sun,” that is, the Lord and love and charity, being “darkened.”

AC (Potts) n. 1847 sRef Gen@15 @13 S0′ 1847. Four hundred years. That this signifies the duration and state, namely, of the temptations, is evident from the signification of “four hundred,” which number signifies the same as “forty,” namely, the durations and states of temptations (see n. 730, 862). The durations of temptations, both the shorter and the more lasting, are described in the Word by “forty.” In the literal sense the words before us relate to the stay of the sons of Jacob in Egypt; and that this was four hundred and thirty years is evident from Exodus 12:40; though the time was not so great as reckoned from Jacob’s coming into Egypt, but it was reckoned from Abram’s sojourn there, as has been observed before. The number four hundred and thirty is mentioned, from Abram’s sojourn, for the reason that this number involves the temptations which they represented by their servitude in Egypt, and afterwards also by the forty years’ afflictions in the wilderness.

AC (Potts) n. 1848 sRef Gen@15 @14 S0′ 1848. Verse 14. And also that nation whom they shall serve will I judge, and after that shall they go out with great substance. “And also that nation whom they shall serve,” signifies the evil who oppress; “will I judge” signifies visitation and judgment; “and after that shall they go out with great substance,” signifies deliverance, and that they will have celestial and spiritual goods.

AC (Potts) n. 1849 sRef Gen@15 @14 S0′ 1849. And also that nation whom they shall serve. That this signifies the evil who oppress, is evident from the signification of a “nation” and of “serving.” In the genuine sense a “nation” signifies goods, or what is the same, good persons; for when goods are spoken of in the abstract, they are in a subject; and this is a man, a spirit, or an angel. But in the opposite sense a “nation” signifies evils, or what is the same, the evil (see n. 1159, 1258-1260). But to “serve,” or “servitude,” signifies oppression, as in the preceding verse.

AC (Potts) n. 1850 sRef Gen@15 @14 S0′ 1850. Will I judge. That this signifies visitation and judgment, may be seen without explication. By “judging,” or “judgment,” there is not signified any last judgment, as people in general suppose, that is, that the heaven and the earth are to perish, and that so a new heaven and a new earth will be created, as spoken of in the Prophets and in Revelation; and thus that all things are to perish, which opinion has spread itself so widely that it has even taken possession of the minds of those who are best instructed; and this to such a degree that they do not believe that the dead are to rise except at that time. And therefore because this time was foretold, and still, after so many centuries have since passed by, they see that it has not come and is not at hand, feeling safe they confirm themselves in their assurance that there is no such thing, and therefore that they will not rise again. But it is to be known that by the last judgment, or by the destruction of heaven and earth, no such thing is meant. According to the sense of the letter it is so; but not at all according to the internal sense: in this sense the last judgment means the last time of the church; the heaven and earth that will perish, mean the church as to internal and external worship, which becomes no church when there is no charity.
[2] There was a last judgment of the Most Ancient Church when all charity and faith had failed, and when there was no perception, as was the case just before the flood. The flood itself, treated of above, was the last judgment of that church; heaven and earth, that is, the church, then perished; and a new heaven and a new earth, that is, a new church, were created, which was called the Ancient Church, and which also has been treated of. This church likewise had its last time, namely, when all charity grew cold and all faith was darkened, which was about the time of Eber. This time was the last judgment of that church; which was the heaven and earth that had perished.
[3] The Hebrew Church was a new heaven and a new earth, and this too had its last time, or last judgment, when it became idolatrous; and then a new church was raised up among the descendants of Jacob, which was called the Jewish Church, and which was a church that was merely representative of charity and faith. In this church, that is, among the descendants of Jacob, there was neither charity nor faith, and therefore no church, but only the representative of a church, for the reason that it had become impossible for there to be immediate communication of the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens with any true church on earth, and therefore a mediate communication was effected by means of representatives. The last time of this so-called church, or its last judgment, was when the Lord came into the world; for the representatives then ceased, that is, the sacrifices and similar rites; and in order that these might cease, the Jews were cast out of the land of Canaan.
[4] After this a new heaven and a new earth were created, that is, a new church, which is to be called the Primitive Church, which was commenced by the Lord, and afterwards gradually became stronger, and which at first was in charity and faith. The destruction of this church is foretold by the Lord in the Gospels, and by John in Revelation; and this destruction is what is called the Last Judgment. Not that heaven and earth are now to perish, but that in some quarter of the globe a new church will be raised up, the present one remaining in its external worship, as the Jews do in theirs, in whose worship it is well known that there is nothing of charity and faith, that is, nothing of the church. So far as regards the last judgment in general.
[5] In particular, there is a last judgment for everyone immediately after he dies; for he then passes into the other life, in which, when he comes into the life that he had had in the body, he is adjudged either to death or to life. There is also a last judgment in the singular, for with a man who is adjudged to death, every single thing condemns him, for there is nothing in his thought and will, not even the least thing, that does not resemble his last judgment, and that does not drag him to death. In like manner with the man who is adjudged to life: in him every single thing of his thought and of his will presents an image of his last judgment, and all carry him on to life. For such as is man in general, such is he in the singulars of his thought and of his affection. These are the things that are signified by the last judgment.

AC (Potts) n. 1851 sRef Gen@15 @14 S0′ 1851. And after that shall they go out with great substance. That this signifies deliverance, and that they will have celestial and spiritual goods, is evident from the signification of “going out,” which is to be liberated, and from the signification of “substance,” which is celestial and spiritual goods, for this is the substance of those who suffer the persecutions, and undergo the temptations, oppressions, afflictions, or servitudes, that are treated of in this and the preceding verses. These goods are also represented and signified by the substance of the sons of Jacob when they went out of Egypt (Exod. 11:2; 12:36); and also by their substance in the land of Canaan when the nations had been driven out; and in the Prophets, whenever the spoils taken from their enemies are treated of, by which they were enriched.

AC (Potts) n. 1852 sRef Gen@15 @15 S0′ 1852. Verse 15. And thou shall go to thy fathers in peace, thou shall be buried in a good old age. “Thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace,” signifies that nothing of the goods and truths shall be harmed; “thou shalt be buried in a good old age,” signifies the enjoyment of all goods by those who are the Lord’s.

AC (Potts) n. 1853 sRef Gen@15 @15 S0′ 1853. Thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace. That this signifies that nothing of the goods and truths shall be harmed, may be seen from the signification of “fathers,” also of “going to one’s fathers,” and of “peace.” In the internal sense, “fathers” here signify the same as “daughters” and “sons” taken together. That “daughters” signify goods, and “sons” truths, has been shown before (n. 489-491, 533, 1147); hence “fathers” signify the things which belong to daughters and sons together. To “go to one’s fathers” is to pass from the life of the body into the life of the spirit, or from the world into the other life. “In peace,” signifies that he shall lose nothing, and thus that nothing shall be harmed, for he who passes into the other life loses nothing of the things that belong to him as a man; he retains and has with him everything except the body, which had been an impediment to the interior exercise of his faculties. That no death, or passing to the fathers by death, is here meant, will be evident from what next follows.

AC (Potts) n. 1854 sRef Gen@15 @15 S0′ 1854. Thou shalt be buried in a good old age. That this signifies the enjoyment of all goods by those who are the Lord’s, is evident from the fact that those who die and are buried do not die, but pass from an obscure life into a clear one. For the death of the body is merely the continuation and also the perfection of the life, and they who are the Lord’s then first come into the enjoyment of all goods, which enjoyment is signified by “a good old age.” The expressions that they “died,” were “buried,” and were “gathered to their fathers,” are often met with, but in the internal sense these do not signify the same as in the sense of the letter. In the internal sense are such things as are of the life after death and are eternal; but in the sense of the letter are such as are of the life in the world and belong to time.
[2] Consequently they who are in the internal sense (as the angels are) when such expressions are met with never abide in ideas of death and burial, but in such as relate to the continuance of life, for they regard death as nothing but the putting off of those things which are of grossest nature and of time, and as being a continuation of the real life; in fact they do not know what death is, for they think nothing about it. And the like is the case with the ages of man, so that when it is here said “in a good old age,” the angels have no perception at all of old age, indeed they do not know what old age is, for they are constantly verging toward the life of early manhood and of youth. Such life, and consequently the celestial and spiritual things of it, are what are meant when “a good old age” and similar expressions occur in the Word.

AC (Potts) n. 1855 sRef Gen@15 @16 S0′ 1855. Verse 16. And in the fourth generation they shall return hither, for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet consummated. “In the fourth generation they shall return hither,” signifies the time and state of restoration; “for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet consummated,” signifies the last time, when there is no longer any good.

AC (Potts) n. 1856 sRef Gen@15 @16 S0′ 1856. In the fourth generation they shall return hither. That this signifies the time and state of restoration, is evident from the signification of “the fourth generation.” “The fourth generation” signifies the same as “forty” and as “four hundred;” namely, the duration and the state of temptation, spoken of at verse 13; it is a sort of diminutive from these. Whether a number be larger or smaller, provided it be of the same stock, it involves the same; as has already been stated several times. That “the fourth generation” does not signify any generation from Abram, or from Isaac, or from Jacob, is evident from the historicals of the Word; for there were more generations, and these people were very different from their fathers when they returned. “The fourth generation” is an expression that occurs likewise in other places, yet in the internal sense it never signifies any generation; and here it signifies the time and state of restoration, because it signifies the end of those things which are signified by “forty” or by “four hundred” (see n. 862, 1847).

AC (Potts) n. 1857 sRef Gen@15 @16 S0′ 1857. For the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet consummated. That this signifies the last time, when there is no longer any good, is evident from the signification of “the Amorite,” and also from the signification of “consummation.” By “the Amorite” in the Word, is signified evil in general, for the reason that the land of Canaan was called the land of the Amorites (as is evident in Ezek. 16:3, 4; Amos 2:9, 10). And therefore by “the Amorite” in this passage are signified all the nations of the land of Canaan; and by these, as before said, were signified evils and falsities specifically; and consequently by “the Amorite” are signified all evils in general. By “consummation” is signified the last time, when there is no longer any good.
[2] But what is meant in the internal sense by the fact that the iniquity of the Amorites was not yet consummated, is an arcanum. For the state of the case with the evil in the other life is that they are not punished until their evils have reached their height, and this both in general and in particular. For such is the equilibrium in the other life that evil punishes itself, that is to say those who are evil run into the punishment of their evil, but only when it has reached its height. Every evil has its limit that varies in each individual case, beyond which it is not allowable to pass. When an evil person passes beyond this limit he precipitates himself into the penalty, and this is so in every particular.
[3] It is the same in general, the wicked thrust themselves down into hell, not in a moment, but successively. This has its origin in the universal law of order established by the Lord, that the Lord never casts anyone down into hell; but that evil casts itself down, or that the evil person casts himself down, and this successively, until the evil has been consummated, and nothing of good any longer appears. So long as there is any good, he is uplifted above hell; but when there is nothing but evil, of himself he is thrust down into it. Good and evil must first be separated from each other, for they are opposites; and no one is allowed to incline both ways. This is what is signified by the iniquity of the Amorites having to be consummated. But with the good the case is otherwise; they are continually uplifted by the Lord toward heaven, and their evil is successively wiped away.
sRef Isa@28 @22 S4′ sRef Jer@51 @13 S4′ sRef Dan@9 @24 S4′ sRef Dan@9 @27 S4′ [4] The same is the case with the state of a church. The visitation does not come until its evil has been consummated, that is, until there is no longer any good of charity and truth of faith. This consummation is very often spoken of in the Prophets. As in Isaiah:
A consummation and a decree have I heard from the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth upon the whole earth (Isa. 28:22).
In Jeremiah:
O Babel, that dwellest upon many waters, great in treasures, thine end is come, the measure of thy gain (Jer. 51:13).
In Daniel:
Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon the city of thy holiness, to consummate the transgression, and to seal up sins, and to expiate iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up vision and prophet, and to anoint the holy of holies (Dan. 9:24).
At length upon the bird of abominations shall be desolation, and even unto the consummation and the decree shall it pour itself out upon the devastation (Dan. 9:27).
sRef Luke@21 @24 S5′ [5] The consummation is also foretold by the Lord Himself in these words of Luke:
They shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led captive among all the nations; and at length Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the nations, until the times of the nations shall be fulfilled (Luke 21:24).
To “fall by the edge of the sword,” signifies by falsities, for “a sword” in the Word is the punishment of what is false; “Jerusalem” denotes the Lord’s kingdom and the church (see n. 402); “nations” evils (see n. 1260). Thus the signification is that there would be a consummation when the church should be possessed by evils and falsities, and so be destroyed of itself.

AC (Potts) n. 1858 sRef Gen@15 @17 S0′ 1858. Verse 17. And it came to pass that the sun went down, and there was thick darkness; and behold a furnace of smoke, and a torch of fire, which passed between those pieces. “And it came to pass that the sun went down,” signifies the last time, when the consummation came; “and there was thick darkness,” signifies when hatred was in the place of charity; “and behold a furnace of smoke,” signifies the densest falsity; “and a torch of fire,” signifies the burning heat of cupidities; “which passed between those pieces,” signifies that it separated those who were of the church from the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1859 sRef Gen@15 @17 S0′ 1859. And it came to pass that the sun went down. That this signifies the last time, when the consummation came, is evident from what was said above (at verse 12) concerning the setting of the sun and its signification, namely, that it is the last time of the church.

AC (Potts) n. 1860 sRef Gen@15 @17 S0′ 1860. And there was thick darkness. That this signifies when hatred was in the place of charity, is evident from the signification of “thick darkness.” In the Word “darkness” signifies falsities, and “thick darkness” evils (as shown just below). There is “darkness” when falsity is in the place of truth; and there is “thick darkness” when evil is in the place of good, or what is precisely the same, when hatred is in the place of charity. When hatred is in the place of charity, the thick darkness is so great that the man is quite unaware that it is evil, still less that it is so great an evil as in the other life to thrust him down to hell, for they who are in hatred perceive a kind of delight and as it were a kind of life in it, and this delight and life themselves cause him scarcely to know but that it is good, for whatever favors a man’s pleasure and cupidity, because it favors his love, he feels as good, and this to such a degree that when he is told that it is infernal he can scarcely believe it, still less when he is told that such delight and life are in the other life turned the stench of excrement and cadavers. And still less does he believe that he is becoming a devil and a horrible image of hell; for hell consists of nothing but hatreds and such diabolical forms.
[2] Yet anyone might know this who possesses any faculty for thinking, for if he should describe or represent, or if he could in any manner picture, hatred, he would do it no otherwise than by diabolical forms, such as those who are in hatred also become after death, and, wonderful to say, such men are capable of declaring that in the other life they shall come into heaven; some merely for saying that they have faith, when yet there are in heaven none but forms of charity, and what these are may be seen from experience (n. 553). Let all such therefore consider how these two forms, of hatred and of charity, can agree together in one place.
sRef Joel@2 @2 S3′ sRef Joel@2 @1 S3′ sRef Zeph@1 @15 S3′ sRef Amos@5 @20 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @2 S3′ [3] That “darkness” signifies falsity, and “thick darkness” evil, may be seen from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:
Behold, darkness covereth the earth, and thick darkness the peoples (Isa. 60:2).
In Joel:
Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble, for the day of Jehovah cometh, a day of darkness and thick darkness (Joel 2:1-2).
In Zephaniah:
That day is a day of wrath, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and thick darkness (Zeph. 1:15).
In Amos:
Shall not the day of Jehovah be darkness and not light, and thick darkness and no brightness in it? (Amos 5:20).
In these passages “the day of Jehovah” denotes the last time of the church, which is here treated of; “darkness” denotes falsities, “thick darkness” evils; both therefore are mentioned; otherwise it would be a repetition of the same thing, or an unmeaning amplification. But the word in the original language that in this verse is rendered “thick darkness” involves falsity as well as evil, that is, dense falsity from which is evil, and also dense evil from which is falsity.

AC (Potts) n. 1861 sRef Gen@15 @17 S0′ 1861. And behold a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire. That “a furnace of smoke” signifies the densest falsity, and “a torch of fire” the burning heat of cupidities, is evident from the signification of “a furnace of smoke” as being dense falsity, and from the signification of “a torch of fire” as being the burning heat of cupidities. It is said “a furnace of smoke,” because a man, especially a man of the church, who has a knowledge of the truth and still does not acknowledge, but in heart denies it, and indeed passes his life in things contrary to the truth, appears no otherwise than as a furnace of smoke-himself as the furnace, and the falsity from his hatreds as the smoke. The cupidities from which are the falsities appear as torches of fire from such a furnace, as is evident also from the representatives in the other life (described from experience, n. 814, 1528). It is cupidities of hatred, revenge, cruelties, adulteries-and still more when these are mingled with deceits-that appear and become such things.
sRef Isa@9 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @19 S2′ [2] That by a “furnace,” “smoke,” and “fire” such things are signified in the Word may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:
Everyone is a hypocrite and a wicked one, and every mouth speaketh folly. For wickedness burneth as the fire, it devoureth the briars and thorns, and kindleth in the thickets of the forest, and they mount up as the rising of smoke. In the wrath of Jehovah Zebaoth is the land darkened, and the people is become like food for fire; a man shall not spare his brother (Isa. 9:17-19).
Here “fire” denotes hatreds and “the rising of smoke” from it such falsities; hatred is described by “no man sparing his brother;” for when such men are looked upon by the angels they appear no otherwise than as here described.
sRef Isa@34 @10 S3′ sRef Joel@2 @31 S3′ sRef Isa@34 @9 S3′ sRef Joel@2 @30 S3′ [3] In Joel:
I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day of Jehovah come (Joel 2:30-31).
Here “fire” denotes hatred; “pillars of smoke” falsities; “the sun” charity; and “the moon” faith.
sRef Isa@1 @31 S4′ [4] In Isaiah:
The land shall become burning pitch; it shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up to eternity (Isa. 34:9-10).
“Burning pitch” denotes direful cupidities; and “smoke” falsities.
sRef Mal@4 @1 S5′ [5] In Malachi:
Behold the day cometh burning as a furnace, and all the proud and everyone that worketh wickedness shall be stubble, and the day that cometh shall set them on fire, it shall leave them neither root nor branch (Mal. 4:1).
A “burning furnace” here denotes the same as before; the “root” denotes charity; the “branch” truth, which shall not be left.
sRef Hos@13 @1 S6′ sRef Hos@13 @3 S6′ [6] In Hosea:
Ephraim became guilty in Baal, he shall be as the chaff that is driven with the whirlwind out of the threshing-floor, and as the smoke out of the chimney (Hos. 13:1, 3).
“Ephraim” denotes an intelligent man who becomes such.
sRef Rev@18 @18 S7′ sRef Rev@18 @2 S7′ [7] In Isaiah:
The strong shall be as tow, and his work as a spark; and they shall both burn together, and none shall quench them (Isa. 1:31);
meaning those who are in the love of self, or what is the same, in hatred against the neighbor, in that they shall be thus kindled by their own cupidities. In John:
Babylon is become a habitation of demons. They cried out when they saw the smoke of her burning. Her smoke goeth up for ever and ever (Rev. 18:2, 18; 19:3).
sRef Jer@21 @12 S8′ sRef Rev@9 @17 S8′ sRef Rev@9 @18 S8′ sRef Rev@14 @9 S8′ sRef Rev@16 @9 S8′ sRef Rev@16 @8 S8′ sRef Rev@19 @20 S8′ sRef Rev@14 @10 S8′ sRef Rev@9 @2 S8′ [8] In the same:
He opened the pit of the abyss, and there went up a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun was darkened, and the air, from the smoke of the pit (Rev. 9:2).
In the same:
Out of the mouths of the horses went forth fire and smoke and brimstone. By these was the third part of men killed, by the fire and the smoke and the brimstone, that went forth out of their mouth (Rev. 9:17-18).
In the same:
He that worshipeth the beast shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, poured out unmixed in the cup of His anger, and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone (Rev. 14:9-10).
In the same:
The fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun, and it was given to him to scorch men with fire; and men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the name of God (Rev. 16:8-9).
In like manner it is said that
They were cast into the lake of fire burning with brimstone (Rev. 19:20; 20:14-15; 21:8).
sRef Deut@32 @22 S9′ [9] In these passages “fire” denotes the cupidities, and “smoke” the falsities that will reign in the last times. These things were seen by John when his interior sight was opened, just as they appear in the other life. Similar things are also seen by spirits, and by souls after death. Hence it may be seen what hell fire is, that it is nothing but hatred, revenge, and cruelty, or what is the same, the love of self; for such do these become. During his life in the body, any man of such a quality, however he might appear outwardly, if inspected closely by the angels would appear no otherwise in their eyes, that is, his hatreds would appear as torches of fire, and the falsities derived from them as furnaces of smoke.
sRef Deut@5 @25 S10′ sRef Matt@13 @50 S10′ sRef Matt@13 @42 S10′ sRef Matt@3 @10 S10′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S10′ sRef Deut@5 @23 S10′ sRef Deut@4 @12 S10′ sRef Deut@4 @11 S10′ sRef Deut@5 @24 S10′ sRef Matt@13 @41 S10′ [10] Concerning this fire the Lord thus speaks in Matthew:
Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire (Matt. 3:10; Luke 3:9);
by “good fruit” is meant charity: he who deprives himself of this cuts himself down, and casts himself into such fire. Again:
The Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and them that do iniquity, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire (Matt. 13:41-42, 50),
with a like meaning. And again:
The king saith unto those on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire, prepared for the devil and his angels (Matt. 25:41).
sRef Luke@16 @24 S11′ [11] That they should be “sent into the eternal fire,” “the Gehenna of fire,” and that “their worm should not die, and their fire should not be quenched” (Matt. 18:8-9; Mark 9:43-49), have a like meaning. In Luke:
Send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame (Luke 16:24),
with a like meaning.
[12] They who are not acquainted with the arcana of the Lord’s kingdom suppose that the Lord casts the wicked into hell, or into such fire, which, as before said, is that of hatreds; but the case is very different, for it is the man himself, or the diabolical spirit himself, who casts himself down. But because it so appears it has been expressed in the Word according to the appearance, and indeed according to the fallacies of the senses; and especially was this necessary in the case of the Jews, who were unwilling to accept anything at all unless it were in accordance with the senses, whatever might be the fallacies thus involved. On this account the sense of the letter, especially in the prophecies, is full of such things.
[13] As in Jeremiah:
Thus said Jehovah, Judge judgment in the morning, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor, lest My fury go forth like fire, and burn, and there be none to quench it, because of the wickedness of their works (Jer. 21:12).
To “judge judgment” is to speak truth; to “deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor,” is to do the good of charity; “fire” denotes the infernal punishment of those who do not do these things, that is, who pass their lives in the falsity of hatred. In the sense of the letter such “fire” and “fury” are attributed to Jehovah, but in the internal sense it is quite the contrary.
sRef Ps@18 @8 S14′ sRef Joel@2 @1 S14′ sRef Joel@2 @3 S14′ sRef Ps@18 @9 S14′ [14] In like manner in Joel:
The day of Jehovah: a fire devoureth before Him, and behind Him a flame burneth (Joel 2:1, 3).
In David:
There went up a smoke out of His nostrils, and fire out of His mouth devoured, coals did burn from Him, and thick darkness was under His feet (Ps. 18:8-9).
In Moses:
A fire is kindled in Mine anger, and it shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall devour the earth and her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains (Deut. 32:22),
where “fire” denotes the hatreds, and “smoke” the falsities which are in men, which are attributed to Jehovah or the Lord for the reasons that have been given. In the hells also the appearance is that Jehovah or the Lord does this, but it is quite the contrary; they do it to themselves, because they are in the fires of hatred. Hence it is manifest how easily a man may fall into phantasies if the internal sense of the Word is not known.
[15] It was similar with the “smoke” and “fire” that were seen by the people on Mount Sinai when the law was promulgated. For Jehovah, or the Lord, appears to everyone according to his quality-to celestial angels as a Sun, to spiritual angels as a Moon, to all the good as a Light of varied delight and pleasantness but to the evil as a smoke and as a consuming fire. And as when the Law was promulgated, the Jews had nothing of charity, but the love of self and of the world prevailed in them, and thus nothing but evils and falsities, He therefore appeared to them as a smoke and fire, when at the same instant He appeared to the angels as the Sun and Light of heaven.
sRef Ex@24 @17 S16′ sRef Ex@19 @18 S16′ sRef Ex@19 @18 S16′ sRef Ex@24 @16 S16′ [16] That He so appeared to the Jews because they were of such a character, is evident in Moses:
The glory of Jehovah abode upon Mount Sinai, and the appearance of the glory of Jehovah was like devouring fire on the top of the mount, in the eyes of the sons of Israel (Exod. 24:16-17).
Again:
And Mount Sinai was all of it smoking, because Jehovah descended upon it in fire, and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly (Exod. 19:18).
And elsewhere:
Ye came near and stood under the mountain, and the mountain burned with fire, even to the heart of heaven; darkness, cloud, and thick darkness and Jehovah spake unto you out of the midst of the fire (Deut. 4:11-12; 5:22).
Also:
It came to pass when ye heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain did burn with fire, that ye came near unto me, and ye said, Now therefore why should we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of Jehovah our God any more, then we shall die (Deut. 5:23-25).
[17] Just so would it be with anyone else who should see the Lord, and who has passed his life in hatred and in the foul things of hatreds, for he could see Him no otherwise than from his hatred and its foulnesses, these being the recipients of the rays of good and truth from the Lord, and they would turn these rays into such fire, smoke, and thick darkness. From the same passages it is also plain what the “smoke of the furnace” is, and what the “torch of fire,” namely, the most dense falsity and most filthy evil, that would in the last times take possession of the church.

AC (Potts) n. 1862 sRef Jer@34 @20 S0′ sRef Jer@34 @19 S0′ sRef Jer@34 @18 S0′ sRef Jer@34 @14 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @17 S0′ 1862. That passed between those pieces. That this signifies that it separated those who were of the church from the Lord, may be seen from what was said above (at verse 10) concerning the partition of the animals in the midst, as signifying a parallelism and correspondence in respect to celestial things; and that one part being placed opposite the other signified the church and the Lord; and that the intermediate space or interspace signified that which comes in between the Lord and the church, or between the Lord and the man of the church, which is conscience, in which goods and truths have been implanted by means of charity. When hatreds succeed in place of charity, and evils and falsities in place of goods and truths, there is then no conscience of what is good and true; but this middle space or interspace appears to be filled with a furnace of smoke and with torches of fire, that is, with persuasions of falsity and with hatreds, which are what altogether separate the Lord from the church.
[2] These are the things signified by the passing between the pieces; chiefly that of the torch of fire, for this is the love of self, or what is the same, the evil of hatred. This may also be seen in Jeremiah, where we find nearly the same words:
I will give the men who have transgressed My covenant, who have not established the words of the covenant which they made before Me, the calf which they cut in twain and passed between the parts thereof; the princes of Judah, and the princes of Jerusalem, the eunuchs, and the priests, and all the people of the land, that passed between the parts of the calf; I will even give them into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of them that seek their souls; and their carcass shall be for food to the fowl of the heavens and to the beast of the earth (Jer. 34:14, 18-20).

AC (Potts) n. 1863 sRef Gen@15 @18 S0′ 1863. Verse 18. In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land, from the river of Egypt, even to the great river, the river Euphrates. “In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abram,” signifies the conjunction of the Lord’s interior man with His Internal or Jehovah; “saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land,” signifies the consolations after these temptations and horrors, in that they who are in charity and in faith in Him will become heirs; “from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates,” signifies the extension of spiritual and celestial things; “to the river of Egypt,” is the extension of spiritual things; “to the river Euphrates,” is the extension of celestial things.

AC (Potts) n. 1864 sRef Gen@15 @18 S0′ 1864. In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abram. That this signifies the conjunction of the Lord’s interior man with His Internal, is evident from the signification of a “covenant,” as being conjunction (explained before, n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038). And as the Lord is here treated of in the internal sense, it signifies interior conjunction. For the Lord advanced more and more to conjunction and union with Jehovah His Father, until He became One, that is, the Human Essence itself also became Jehovah, who was the Lord’s Internal itself. These things were represented by the covenant which Jehovah made with Abram. Everyone can see that Jehovah never makes a covenant with a man, for this would be contrary to the Divine. What is a man but something vile and filthy, which of itself thinks and does nothing but evil? All the good that he does is from Jehovah; from which it may be seen that this covenant, like other covenants with Abram’s posterity, was nothing but a representative of the Divine, and of the celestial things of the kingdom of God; in the present case that the covenant was representative of the conjunction of the Lord’s Human Essence with His Divine Essence, that is, with Jehovah. That it was representative of the conjunction of the Lord’s interior man with His Internal, that is, Jehovah, is evident from what has been said before, namely, that by the combats and victories of temptations the Lord conjoined and united Himself more and more. What His interior man was, has been told before, namely, that it was intermediate between the internal man and the external.

AC (Potts) n. 1865 sRef Gen@15 @18 S0′ 1865. Saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land. That this signifies the consolation after these temptations and horrors, in that they who are in charity and faith in Him should become heirs, is evident from the signification of “seed,” and from the signification of the “land.” By the “seed of Abram” are signified love and the faith derived therefrom, as has been shown before (n. 255, 256, 1025), consequently all those who are in charity and in faith in the Lord. But by the land of Canaan is signified the Lord’s kingdom; therefore to “give the land unto thy seed” signifies that the heavenly kingdom should be given as an inheritance to those who from charity have faith in Him.
[2] That these things were a consolation to the Lord after His temptations and horrors, may be seen without explication. For after those hard and adverse eventualities which the Lord had seen, that is to say, after he had put to flight evils and falsities-which were signified by the fowls that came down upon the bodies and that Abram drove away (mentioned in verse 11)-and yet after all dense falsities infused themselves, at which He shuddered (which were signified by the “terror of great darkness” that fell upon Abram in the deep sleep, spoken of in verse 12), and yet at last mere falsities and evils took possession of the human race (which are signified by “the furnace of smoke” and “the torch of fire” which passed between the pieces, mentioned in verse 17, that precedes this), the Lord could not but be in distress and grief; and therefore consolation now follows, such as was given above (verses 4 and 5); namely, that His seed should inherit the land, that is, that they who are in charity and in faith in Him should become heirs of His kingdom. To Him the salvation of the human race was the only consolation, for He was in Divine and celestial love, and became, even as to His Human Essence, the Divine and celestial Love itself, in which the love of all is alone regarded and is at heart.
[3] That the Divine love is such may be seen from the love of parents toward their children, which increases according to the degree in which it descends, that is, it becomes greater toward the more remote descendants than it is toward the immediate children. Nothing ever exists without a cause and an origin, consequently neither does this love in the human race that is characterized by a constant increase toward the descendants in succession. The cause and origin of this cannot but be from the Lord, from whom inflows all conjugial love, and that of parents toward their children, and the source of which is that His love for all is like that of a father for his sons, who desires to make all His heirs, and provides an inheritance for those who are to be born, as He does for those already born.

AC (Potts) n. 1866 sRef Gen@15 @18 S0′ 1866. From the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates. That this signifies the extension of spiritual and celestial things-to “the river of Egypt” being the extension of spiritual things, and “to the river Euphrates” being the extension of celestial things-is evident from the signification of “the river of Egypt,” and from the signification of “the great river,” or “the Euphrates.” That these “rivers” signify the extension of spiritual and celestial things, may be seen from the signification of the land of Canaan, as being the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens and on the earth, in which there is nothing but the spiritual things which are of faith and the celestial things which are of mutual love; and therefore nothing but the extension of these can be meant by the boundaries of the land of Canaan. For what the land of Canaan is, what the river of Egypt is, and what the great river Euphrates is, and indeed what the boundaries of any land are, they who are in the heavens do not know at all; but they well know what the extension of spiritual and celestial things is, and also the determinations and the limitations of the states of these things. These things they have in mind while the others are being read by man; and so the letter vanishes and together with it that historical sense which has served as an objective form for the heavenly ideas.
[2] That “the river of Egypt” signifies the extension of spiritual things, is because “Egypt” signifies memory-knowledges [scientifica], which, together with a man’s rational and intellectual things, constitute spiritual things (as before said, n. 1443 and in other places; and that “Egypt” in the internal sense signifies memory-knowledges may be seen n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462). That “the river Euphrates” signifies the extension of celestial things, may be seen from a consideration of the lands which that river bounds and separates from the land of Canaan, and by which likewise in many passages are signified the knowledges [scientifica et cognitiones] of celestial things but here, because it is called “the river” and “the great river,” celestial things and the knowledges [cognitiones] of them are what alone are signified; for a “great river” and “greatness” are predicated of these.

AC (Potts) n. 1867 sRef Gen@15 @19 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @19 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @21 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @20 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @21 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @20 S0′ 1867. Verses 19, 20, 21. The Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim, and the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Girgashite, and the Jebusite. “The Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite,” signify falsities which are to be expelled from the Lord’s kingdom; “the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim,” signify persuasions of falsity; “the Amorite and the Canaanite,” signify evils; “the Girgashite and the Jebusite,” signify falsities from evils.

AC (Potts) n. 1868 sRef Gen@15 @20 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @21 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @21 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @20 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @19 S0′ sRef Gen@15 @19 S0′ 1868. That these things are signified by these nations it would be too tedious to confirm from the Word; and there is no need to do so here, because they are merely named. Some of them have been treated of above; the “Rephaim” as signifying the persuasions of falsity (n. 567, 581, 1673); the “Amorite” as signifying evils (n. 1680); the “Canaanite” as signifying evils (above at verse 16); the “Perizzite” as signifying falsities (n. 1574). What is the specific signification of the other nations, shall of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told in what follows, as they occur.
[2] As regards the nations which are to be expelled from the Lord’s kingdom, the case is this. In the other life the evil and diabolical spirits desire nothing more than to come up into the world of spirits and infest the good spirits, but as often as they do so they are cast out, in like manner as in a man who is being regenerated the falsities and evils which have taken possession of him are subjugated and dissipated, and the goods and truths of the Lord’s kingdom are implanted in their place.
[3] These were represented by the nations that were expelled from the land of Canaan by the sons of Jacob; and the same were represented by the Jews themselves, who were afterwards expelled from the land. The same occurred with many nations of old that represented similar things, as the Horites who were driven from Mount Seir by the descendants of Esau (spoken of in Deut. 2:12, 22); and the Avvim who were expelled by the Caphtorim (mentioned in Deut. 2:23); also the Emim or Rephaim who were driven out by the Moabites (spoken of in Deut. 2:9-11); and also the Zamzummim who were expelled by the Ammonites (mentioned in Deut. 2:19-21); besides many others spoken of in the Prophets.

AC (Potts) n. 1869 1869. CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE HOLY SCRIPTURE OR WORD
How many things there are in a single word of the Word has been shown me by the opening of the ideas of thought. It is a remarkable fact that in the other life this can be done so to the very life that the ideas themselves appear visible in form, and thus like pictured images. One who during his life in this world had lived in charity or mutual love, and had taken great delight in the Word, had his ideas thus opened. There then appeared beautiful things beyond number, together with delicious and delightful things of an affecting nature, and it was said that the things which thus appear visible can be opened again as to their interiors, and that when these have been opened things still more beautiful and delightful are presented that are attended with happiness itself. Such are all angelic ideas, for they are open from the Lord Himself. [2] To spirits who wondered that ideas of thought could be so opened in the other life, this was illustrated by taking the case of the sight of the eye, the rays of vision of which are so dull and obscure that the smaller things in nature (which contain things innumerable) they see only as something opaque, black, and shapeless; but when the same objects are viewed through a microscope, things more interior are presented to view, connected in beautiful series and flowing in delightful order; and it is seen that these might in like manner be opened still more by a more powerful microscope. In this way such spirits have been shown how the case is with the internal sight, the rays of which are nothing but ideas, in that in themselves these ideas are so gross that anything more gross can scarcely exist in that sphere, although men think differently. But concerning ideas, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC (Potts) n. 1870 1870. The case is similar with the Word of the Lord; each of its words presents in form its own idea, for a word is nothing but an idea so presented in form that the sense may be perceived; and in the ideas are things so innumerable, and which cannot come to man’s perception, but only to that of angels, that it can never be believed. And when these are opened by the Lord, more internal forms are presented to the perception by delightful and happy things, and to the sight by representative and paradisal things; the former from the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s love or mercy, and the latter from the rays of light thence derived.
[2] It has been shown me by wonderful experience that the Word has been inspired not only as to each of its words, but also as to the little letters of each word, and thus exactly as is said, as to the smallest jot; for in every jot there is something from that affection and life which is common to the whole expression, and which therefore has been insinuated in a correspondent manner into its smallest particulars. But this can by no means be explained to the understanding without a previous knowledge of many other things.

AC (Potts) n. 1871 1871. How the Word of the Lord appears before the angels cannot be described, but some idea can be formed by those who have seen in museums the optical cylinders in which beautiful images are represented from things roughly projected. Although the things which are round about in the projection appear to have no form, series, or order, and to be merely confused projections, still when they are concentrated toward the cylinder, they there present a lovely image. So it is with the Word of the Lord, especially with the prophetic Word of the Old Testament. In the literal sense there is scarcely anything that does not appear destitute of order, but when it is being read by a man, and especially by a little boy or girl, it becomes more beautiful and delightful by degrees as it ascends, and at last it is presented before the Lord as the image of a human being, in which and by which heaven is represented in its whole complex, not as it is, but as the Lord wills it to be, namely, a likeness of Himself.

AC (Potts) n. 1872 1872. There appeared to me a beautiful girl with a radiant face, passing quickly upward toward the right, and making some haste. In age she seemed to be in the first bloom-not a child nor yet a young woman-becomingly clothed with a dress of shining black; so she was hastening on with gladness from light to light. It was said that the interiors of the Word are such in their first ascent; the black dress was the Word in the letter. Afterwards the young girl flew to my right cheek, but was perceivable only by the interior sight. It was said that such are the things from the internal sense of the Word which do not come to the comprehension.

AC (Potts) n. 1873 1873. Spirits spoke respecting the internal sense of the Word; and in order that the nature of it might be presented to the understanding, it was illustrated by the example, What is the fruit of faith? And it was said that good works are the fruit of faith in the external sense or that of the letter, but that these good works have no life unless they proceed from charity; and that thus the fruit of faith in the proximate interior sense is charity. But as charity or love toward the neighbor ought to proceed from love to the Lord, this love is the fruit of faith in the internal sense; and as all love is from the Lord, it is the Lord Himself. For thus in the good work is charity; in charity is love to the Lord; and in love to the Lord is the Lord Himself.

AC (Potts) n. 1874 1874. In conversation with good spirits, I said that in the Word many things, even more than one can believe, are said according to appearances and according to the fallacies of the senses, as that Jehovah is in anger, wrath, and fury against the wicked; that He takes pleasure in bringing them to ruin and destruction, and even that He kills them. But these things have been said in order that persuasions and cupidities might not be broken, but that they might be bent; for to speak otherwise than as man apprehends (that is, from appearances, fallacies, and persuasions) would have been to sow seed in the waters, and to say that which would be at once rejected. Nevertheless such forms of speech are able to serve as general vessels in which spiritual and celestial things may be contained, for into them it may be insinuated that all things are from the Lord; then that the Lord permits, but that evil is wholly from diabolical spirits; afterwards that the Lord provides and disposes that evils should be turned into goods; and at last that nothing but good is from the Lord. Thus the sense of the letter perishes as it ascends and becomes spiritual, then celestial, and at last Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 1875 sRef Matt@6 @13 S0′ 1875. It was granted me to have a perception of angelic ideas about these words in the Lord’s Prayer: “Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.” Temptation and evil were rejected by the nearest good spirits, by a certain idea perceptible within me, and this even until what is purely angelic, namely, Good,, remained, without any idea of temptation and evil; the literal sense thus perishing altogether. In the first rejection innumerable ideas were being formed respecting this Good-how good may come from man’s affliction while the affliction still is from the man and his evil, in which there is punishment, and this with a kind of indignation joined with it that it should be thought that temptation and its evil come from any other source, and that anyone should have any thought of evil in thinking of the Lord. These ideas were purified in the degree of their ascent. The ascents were represented by rejections (spoken of also n. 1393), which were made with a rapidity and in a manner that were inexpressible, until they passed into the shade of my thought. They were then in heaven, where there are only ineffable angelic ideas concerning the Lord’s good.

AC (Potts) n. 1876 1876. The names of men, of kingdoms, and of cities, that occur in the Word, like the words of human speech, perish at the very threshold of the ascent; for these are earthly, corporeal, and material; and the souls that come into the other life successively put these things off, and those who come into heaven do so altogether. The angels retain not even the least of an idea of any person, nor consequently of his name. What Abram is, what Isaac, and Jacob, they no longer know. They form an idea for themselves from the things which are represented and signified by them in the Word. Names and words are to them like dust, or like scales, which fall off when they enter heaven. Hence it may be seen that by the names in the Word nothing is signified except actual things. I have frequently spoken with angels about these matters, and have been fully instructed by them concerning the truth. The speech of spirits with one another is not a speech of words, but of ideas, such as are those of human thought without words, on which account it is the universal of all languages. But when they speak with a man, their speech falls into the words of the man’s language (as before said, n. 1635, 1637, 1639).
[2] When I have spoken with spirits about this, it has been given me to say that when they are conversing with one another, they cannot utter even one single word of human language, still less any name. Some of them, wondering at this, retired and tried; but returning they said that they were not able to pronounce them because the words were so grossly material that they were below their sphere, as they were formed from the sound of air, made articulate by the bodily organs, or by influx into such organs by an internal way leading to the organ of hearing. From this it may likewise be clearly seen that no part of a word that is in the Word can pass to spirits, still less to angelic spirits, whose speech is still more universal (see n. 1642), and least of all to the angels (see n. 1643), with whom remains nothing of the first ideas of spirits, but in place of them spiritual truths and celestial goods, which are varied in an ineffable manner in the least forms, continued and connected in a unanimous series, with the originaries of representatives that are most pleasant and beautiful from the happiness of mutual love, and that are happy from pleasantnesses and beauties, because they are inspired with the life of the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 1877 1877. The souls or spirits who are in the world of spirits, especially the wicked, retain at first the things which they had in their life of the body, that is, things earthly, corporeal, and worldly, and with them the principles which they had taken up. Among these spirits are those who are not willing to hear anything concerning the internal sense of the Word, but only concerning the literal sense, which they carry so far as to believe that the twelve apostles are to sit upon twelve thrones and to judge the twelve tribes of Israel; and also that none but the poor, the miserable, and they that have suffered persecutions can enter into heaven; when yet both the rich and the powerful who have lived in charity and in faith in the Lord are there. As such persons claim heaven for themselves on account of their merits, I have seen them running hither and thither, and wherever they went they derided the things which are of the internal sense of the Word, for the reason that these are contrary to their persuasions and cupidities, in that they desire to merit heaven and to be preferred before all others. But they are like the corrupt and noxious things that flow into the blood, and pervade the veins and arteries, and pollute the mass of the blood.

AC (Potts) n. 1878 1878. There are also those who in the life of the body had despised the Word; and there are those who had abused the things that are in the Word to give point to a joke. There are those who had supposed that the Word was of no account, but that it might serve to keep the common people in some restraint. There are those who had blasphemed the Word; and there are those who had profaned it. The lot in the other life of all these persons is miserable, in accordance with the quality and degree of their contempt, derision, blasphemy, and profanation. For, as before said, the Word is so holy in the heavens that it is itself as it were heaven to those who are there; and as there exists there a communion of the thoughts of all, such spirits cannot possibly be with them, but are separated.

AC (Potts) n. 1879 1879. On one occasion while in bed I was told that evil spirits were conspiring against me with the intention of suffocating me, but as I was safe and felt secure under the Lord’s keeping, I disregarded the threats and went to sleep. But awaking in the middle of the night, I felt that I was not breathing of myself, but from heaven, for there was nothing of my own respiration, as I plainly perceived. It was then said that the band of conspirators was present, and that it was composed of those who hold in hatred the interior things of the Word (that is, the very truths of faith, for these are the interiors of the Word), and who thus hate them because they are contrary to their fallacies, persuasions, and cupidities, which the sense of the letter might be brought to support.
[2] After their attempt had failed, their leaders tried to enter into the viscera of my body, and to penetrate even to the heart, and to this also they were admitted. This was all the time perceived by manifest sensation, for one to whom the interiors of the spirit are opened, gets at the same time a sensible perception of such things. But I was then introduced into a kind of celestial state, which was that I made no effort to repel these visitors, still less to avenge the injury. They then said that there was peace; but soon they were as if deprived of rationality, breathing out vengeance, and striving to carry out their purpose, but in vain. They afterwards dispersed of themselves.

AC (Potts) n. 1880 1880. As regards spirits and angels in general, who all are human souls living after the death of the body, I may say here that they have much more exquisite senses than men-that is, sight, hearing, smell, and touch-but not taste. Spirits however are not able, and angels are still less able, to see anything that is in the world by their own sight, that is, by the sight of the spirit; for the light of the world or of the sun is to them as thick darkness; just in the same way as man by his sight, that is, by the sight of the body, cannot see anything that is in the other life; for the light of heaven, or the Lord’s heavenly light, is to man as thick darkness.
[2] But still when the Lord pleases, spirits and angels can see the things in this world through the eyes of a man. But the Lord does not grant this except in the case of one whom He enables to speak with spirits and angels, and to be together with them. Spirits and angels have been permitted to see the things in this world through my eyes as plainly as I could see them myself, and also to hear men talking with me. It has sometimes happened that to their great astonishment, some through me have seen their friends whom they had had in the life of the body, just as they had seen them before. Some have also seen their married partners, and their children, and have desired me to tell them that they were close by and saw them, and to give an account of their state in the other life, but I had been forbidden to tell them or reveal to them that they were seen in this way, and this partly for the reason that they would have called me insane, or would have thought such things to be delirious fancies of the mind; for I was well aware that although they would acknowledge it with the lips, they did not believe in heart in the existence of spirits, or that the dead are risen.
[3] When my interior sight was first opened, and through my eyes spirits and angels saw the world and the things that are in it, they were so amazed that they called it the miracle of miracles; and they were affected with a new joy, in that in this way communication was opened of earth with heaven, and of heaven with earth. This delight lasted for months, but afterwards it became familiar, and now they do not wonder at all. I have been instructed that the spirits and angels who are present with other men do not in the slightest degree see the things of this world, but only perceive the thoughts and affections of those with whom they are.
[4] These things have shown that man was so created that while living on earth among men, he might at the same time also live in heaven among angels, and the converse; so that heaven and earth might be together, and might act as a one, and that men might know what is going on in heaven, and angels what in the world; and therefore that when men depart this life they would pass from the Lord’s kingdom on earth into the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, not as into another kingdom, but as into the same as that in which they had been when living in the body. But in consequence of man’s becoming so corporeal, he has closed heaven against himself.

AC (Potts) n. 1881 1881. Spirits are exceedingly indignant, indeed are angry, when told that men do not believe that they see, that they hear, that they feel by the touch. They have said that surely men ought to know that without sense there is no life, and that the more exquisite the sense the more excellent the life; also that the objects of their sense are suited to the excellence of their senses, and that the representatives which are from the Lord are real, for all the things that are in nature and the world are derived from them (see n. 1632). The words in which they express their indignation are that they perceive by the senses much better and more excellently than men do.

AC (Potts) n. 1882 1882. There are two kinds of visions that are not of the ordinary kind, into which I have been let solely that I might know their nature, and what is meant by its being said in the Word that men were “withdrawn from the body,” and that they were “carried by the spirit into another place.”

AC (Potts) n. 1883 1883. As regards the first, namely, being withdrawn from the body, the case is this. The man is brought into a certain state that is midway between sleep and wakefulness, and when he is in this state he cannot know but that he is wholly awake. All his senses are as fully awake as in the highest wakefulness of the body; the sight, the hearing, and, wonderful to say, the touch, which is then more exquisite than it can ever be in the wakefulness of the body. In this state also spirits and angels have been seen to the very life, and also heard, and, wonderful to say, have been touched, and almost nothing of the body then intervened. This is the state of which it is said that they are “withdrawn from the body,” and that they “do not know whether they are in the body or out of it.”* I have been let into this state only three or four times, merely that I might know how the case is with it, and that spirits and angels are in the enjoyment of every sense, even touch in a form more delicate and more exquisite than that of the body.
* See 2 Cor. 12:3.

AC (Potts) n. 1884 aRef Luke@2 @27 S0′ aRef 1Ki@18 @12 S0′ aRef Ezek@3 @12 S0′ 1884. As regards the other kind of vision-being carried away by the spirit into another place-it has been shown me by living experience what it is, and how it is done, but only two or three times. One single experience I may mention. Walking through the streets of a city and through the country, and being at the same time also in conversation with spirits, I did not know but that I was wide awake and saw as at other times, so that I walked on without mistake, and all the time being in vision, seeing groves, rivers, palaces, houses, men, and many other things. But after I had thus walked for hours, suddenly I was in the sight of the body, and became aware that I was in another place. Greatly amazed at this, I perceived that I had been in such a state as they were in of whom it is said that they were “led away by the spirit into another place;”* for while this state lasts there is no reflection concerning the way, even if it be many miles; nor is there reflection concerning the time, even if it be many hours or days; nor is there any feeling of fatigue. Moreover the person is led through ways of which he has no knowledge, even to the appointed place. This took place that I might know that a man can be led by the Lord without his knowing whence and whither.
* See 1 Kings 18:12; 19:8; Ezek. 3:12, 14; Acts 8:39.

AC (Potts) n. 1885 1885. These two kinds of visions, however, are extraordinary, and were shown me merely to the end that I might know their nature. But the things I have habitually “seen” [as mentioned in the title to this work] are all those which of the Lord’s Divine mercy you may see related in this First Part, and which are placed at the beginning and end of the several chapters. These are not visions, but things seen in the highest wakefulness of the body, and this for several years.*

Preface
[to Volume 2 of the Original Latin]

In the First Part of this work fifteen chapters of Genesis have been explained, and the things contained in the internal sense have been stated; and to each chapter there have been added things that of the Lord’s Divine mercy I have been permitted to see and hear in the world of spirits and in the heaven of angels. The Second Part** now follows, and in this likewise similar things will be added to the several chapters. To this sixteenth chapter will be appended such as relate to Visions and Dreams, including those of a prophetical character found in the Word. I know that few will believe that anyone can see things that exist in the other life, and bring therefrom any report respecting the state of souls after death, for few believe in the resurrection, and fewer of the learned do so than of the simple. With the lips indeed they say that they will rise again, because so to speak is according to the doctrine of their faith, but still they deny it in heart.
[2] Some go so far as to say openly that if anyone were to rise from the dead and they were to see, hear, and touch him, then they would believe. But if this were done, it would have to be done for each individual, and still no such person as denies in heart would be persuaded by it, for thousands of objections would flow in that would harden his heart in denial. Some however say that they believe that they will rise, but on the day of the last judgment; and respecting this they have formed the opinion that all things in the visible world will then perish, and because that day has been expected in vain for so many centuries they too are in doubt. But what is meant by the last judgment spoken of in the Word shall of the Lord’s Divine mercy be briefly told at the end of the seventeenth chapter.
[3] From this we may see what kind of people there are in the Christian world at this day. The Sadducees (of whom we read in Matt. 22:23, etc.) openly denied the resurrection, but did better than those at the present day who say they do not deny it because it is according to the doctrine of faith, as said above, and yet do deny in heart; so that they say what is contrary to what they believe, and believe what is contrary to what they say. But lest they should confirm themselves further in this false opinion, of the Lord’s Divine mercy I have been permitted, while still in the body in this world, to be in the spirit in the other life (for a man is a spirit clothed with a body), and to speak there with souls who had risen not long after their death, in fact with nearly all with whom I have been acquainted in the life of the body, and who have died. For some years also I have been permitted to speak with spirits and angels every day, and to see amazing things there, which have never come into anyone’s idea, and this without any fallacious appearance.
[4] As very many say that they will believe if anyone comes to them from the other life, it will now be seen whether they will be persuaded against the hardness of their hearts. This I can aver, that they who come into the other life from the Christian world are the worst of all, hating the neighbor, hating faith, and denying the Lord (for in the other life hearts speak, not mouths), besides the fact that above all others are they addicted to adultery. And because heaven is thus beginning to be removed from those who are within the church, we can see that its last time is at hand; the truth of which I have been permitted to know with certainty.
Concerning the internal sense of the Word, what it is, and what is its nature, see what has been said and shown in Part First n. 1-5, 64-66, 167, 605, 920, 937, 1143, 1224, 1404, 1405, 1408, 1409, 1502 at the end, 1540, 1659, 1756, especially 1767-1777 and 1869-1879, 1783, 1807; and in this Part, n. 1886-1889 inclusive.
* The first “Part” or volume of the original Latin work, in quarto, published in London in 1749, ends here, and the second “Part” follows.
** Published in London in 1750.

AC (Potts) n. 1886 1886. CHAPTER 16
This chapter treats of Hagar and Ishmael. But what is represented and signified in the internal sense by Hagar and Ishmael has not hitherto been known to anyone, nor could be, because the world, even the learned world, has hitherto supposed the histories of the Word to be nothing but histories, and to involve nothing deeper. And although they have said that every iota is Divinely inspired, they have meant nothing further than that the historical facts have been disclosed, and that something of a doctrinal nature that could be applied to the doctrine of faith may be deduced from them and be of use to both teachers and learners; and that because these have been Divinely inspired they have Divine power in the mind, and work for good above all other history. Regarded in themselves, however, historical matters effect but little toward man’s amendment, and nothing at all for his eternal life, since in the other life they are forgotten. For what would it amount to there to know respecting the maid Hagar that she was given by Sarai to Abram? Or to know about Ishmael, or even about Abram? Nothing but what belongs to the Lord and is from the Lord is necessary to souls in order that they may enter into heaven and enjoy its happiness, that is, eternal life. It is for the sake of these things that the Word exists, and these are the things that are contained in its interiors.

AC (Potts) n. 1887 1887. Inspiration implies that in every particular of the Word (as well in the historicals as in the other parts) there are celestial things which are of love or good, and spiritual things which are of faith or truth, thus Divine things. For that which is inspired by the Lord descends from Him, and does so through the angelic heaven, and so through the world of spirits down to man, with whom it is presented such as it is in the letter; but in its first origin it is altogether different. In heaven there is never any worldly history, but all is representative of Divine things, and there is no perception there of anything else, as may also be known from the fact that the things which are there are unutterable. Unless therefore the historicals were representative of Divine things, and in this way were heavenly, they could not possibly be Divinely inspired. The Word as it exists in the heavens can be known solely from the internal sense, for the internal sense is the Word of the Lord in the heavens.

AC (Potts) n. 1888 sRef Ezek@37 @25 S0′ sRef Hos@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ezek@37 @24 S0′ 1888. That the sense of the letter of the Word is representative of Divine arcana, and that it is the receptacle and thus the repository of the Lord’s celestial and spiritual things, may be illustrated by two examples: first, that by “David” is not meant David, but the Lord; second, that the names signify nothing but actual things, and therefore it must be the same with all the rest of the Word. Concerning David it is said in Ezekiel:
My servant David shall be king over them, and they shall all have one shepherd; they shall dwell upon the land, they and their sons and their sons’ sons, even to eternity; and David my servant shall be their prince to eternity (Ezek. 37:24-25).
And in Hosea:
The sons of Israel shall return, and shall seek Jehovah their God, and David their king (Hos. 3:5).
These things were written by the prophets after the time of David, and yet it is plainly said that he shall be their king and prince, from which all may see that in the internal sense it is the Lord who is meant by “David.” And the case is the same in all other passages, even those which are historical, where David is named.
sRef Isa@10 @28 S2′ sRef Isa@10 @29 S2′ sRef Isa@10 @27 S2′ sRef Isa@10 @26 S2′ sRef Isa@10 @24 S2′ sRef Isa@10 @34 S2′ sRef Isa@10 @33 S2′ sRef Isa@10 @32 S2′ sRef Isa@10 @30 S2′ sRef Isa@10 @31 S2′ [2] That the names of kingdoms, regions, cities, and men, signify actual things, may be clearly seen in the Prophets. Take merely this example in Isaiah:
Thus said the Lord, Jehovih Zebaoth, O My people, thou inhabitant of Zion, be not afraid of Asshur; he shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff upon thee in the way of Egypt. Jehovah of Armies shall stir up a scourge for him according to the plague of Midian at the rock of Horeb; and as His rod was upon the sea, so shall He lift it up in the way of Egypt. He shall come against Aiath, He shall pass over to Migron, at Michmash shall He command His arms; they* shall pass over Mabarah; Geba* is a lodging-place for us; Ramah* shall tremble; Gibeah of Saul shall flee; cry aloud with thy voice, O daughter of Gallim; hearken, O Laish; O thou poor Anathoth; Madmenah shall wander; the inhabitants of Gebim shall gather themselves together; as yet there is a day for a stand at Nob; the mountain of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem, shall shake her hand; He shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon shall fall by a magnificent one (Isa. 10:24, 26-34).
[3] Here there is almost nothing but names, from which no sense would appear unless all the names signified actual things; and if the mind were to abide in the names, this would never be acknowledged to be the Word of the Lord. But who will believe that in the internal sense they all contain arcana of heaven? and that by them is described the state of those who are endeavoring to enter into the mysteries of faith by reasonings from memory-knowledges? Some special thing belonging to that state are described by each name; and that the meaning is that these reasonings are dispersed by the Lord by means of the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith. That the reasoning here treated of is signified by “Asshur,” may be clearly seen from what has been already shown concerning Asshur (n. 119, 1186); also that memory-knowledges are signified by “Egypt” (n. 1164, 1165, 1462); which see and examine. The case is the same with all other names, and also with all the several words.
* The Latin had transibit, Gibea, Chormah: but in the Doctrine of the Holy Scripture, n. 15, we find transibunt, Geba, and Ramah, like the Hebrew. [Rotch. ed.]

AC (Potts) n. 1889 1889. In this chapter it is the same with the names Abram, Sarai, Hagar, and Ishmael; and what they involve may be seen from the CONTENTS, and further on from the explication of each name in its place. But these matters are of a nature that does not admit of easy explication, for the subject treated of in connection with these names is the Lord’s rational, and how it was conceived and born, and what its quality was before it was united to the Lord’s Internal, which was Jehovah. The reason why this subject is not of easy explication, is that at this day it is not known what the internal man is, what the interior, and what the exterior. When the rational is spoken of, or the rational man, some idea can be formed of it; but when it is said that the rational is the intermediate between the internal and the external, few if any comprehend it. Yet as the subject here treated of in the internal sense is the Lord’s Rational Man, and how it was conceived and born by the influx of the internal man into the external, and as it is these very matters that are involved in the historical facts stated concerning Abram, Hagar, and Ishmael, therefore in order to prevent what we have to say in the following explication from being utterly unintelligible, be it known that in every man there is an internal man, a rational man which is intermediate, and an external man, and that these are most distinct from one another. (Concerning this subject see what was said above, n. 978.)

GENESIS 16
1. And Sarai, Abram’s wife, did not bear unto him; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, and her name was Hagar.
2. And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold I pray, Jehovah hath shut me up from bearing; go in I pray unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall be built up by her. And Abram harkened to the voice of Sarai.
3. And Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, after ten years of Abram’s dwelling in the land of Canaan, and gave her to Abram, her man, for a woman to him.
4. And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived; and she saw that she had conceived, and her mistress was despised in her eyes.
5. And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee; I gave my handmaid unto thy bosom; and she saw that she conceived, and I am despised in her eyes; Jehovah judge between me and thee.
6. And Abram said unto Sarai, Behold thy handmaid is in thy hand, do to her that which is good in thine eyes; and Sarai humbled her, and she fled from her face.
7. And the Angel of Jehovah found her by a fountain of waters in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.
8. And he said, Hagar, Sarai’s handmaid, whence comest thou? and whither goest thou? And she said, From the face of Sarai, my mistress, am I fleeing.
9. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and humble thyself under her hands.
10. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto her, In multiplying I will multiply thy seed, and it shall not be numbered for multitude.
11. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and thou shalt call his name Ishmael; because Jehovah hath heard thine affliction.
12. And he will be a wild-ass man; his hand against all, and the hand of all against him and he shall dwell against the faces of all his brethren.
13. And she called the name of Jehovah that was speaking unto her, Thou God seest me; for she said, Have I also here seen after Him that seeth me?
14. Therefore she called the fountain, The fountain of the Living One who seeth me; behold it is between Kadesh and Bared.
15. And Hagar bare Abram a son; and Abram called the name of his son that Hagar bare, Ishmael.
16. And Abram was a son of eighty years and six years, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram.

AC (Potts) n. 1890 sRef Gen@16 @0 S0′ 1890. THE CONTENTS
The subject treated of in this chapter is the Lord’s first rational, which was conceived by the influx of the internal man into the affection of memory-knowledges [scientiae] of the external. The internal man is “Abram;” the affection of memory-knowledges in the external is “Hagar the Egyptian handmaid;” the rational thence derived is “Ishmael.” The nature of this rational is here described; and it is afterwards said (chapter 21) that it was expelled from the house, after the Lord’s Divine rational, represented by Isaac, had been born.

AC (Potts) n. 1891 sRef Gen@16 @0 S0′ 1891. The Lord’s first rational was conceived according to order by the influx or conjunction of the internal man with the life of the affection of memory-knowledges belonging to the external (verses 1-3). But as this affection was of the external man, its nature was such that it held intellectual truth in low esteem (verse 4). On which account the Lord thought concerning the subjugation of it (verses 5-9), and that when subjugated, it would become spiritual and celestial (verses 10, 11). What it would be if not subjugated, is described (verse 12); the Lord’s insight into the cause from His interior man (verses 13, 14). The rational is thus described in respect to its quality; also the Lord’s state when it originated (verses 15, 16).

AC (Potts) n. 1892 sRef Gen@16 @1 S0′ 1892. THE INTERNAL SENSE
Verse 1. And Sarai, Abram’s wife, did not bear unto him; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, and her name was Hagar. “Sarai, Abram’s wife, did not bear unto him,” signifies that as yet there was no rational man; “Sarai” is truth adjoined to good; “Abram” is the Lord’s internal man, which was Jehovah. “And she had a handmaid, an Egyptian,” signifies the affection of memory-knowledges; “and her name was Hagar,” signifies the life of the exterior or natural man.

AC (Potts) n. 1893 sRef Gen@16 @1 S0′ 1893. Sarai, Abram’s wife, did not bear unto him. That this signifies that the rational man was not yet, will be evident from what follows, where Isaac is treated of. For, as has been said, there are in every man an internal man, a rational man that is intermediate, and an external, which is properly called the natural man. With the Lord these were represented by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; the internal man by Abraham, the rational by Isaac, and the natural by Jacob. The internal man in the Lord was Jehovah Himself, for He was conceived of Jehovah; on this account He so often called Him His “Father,” and in the Word He is called the “Only-begotten of God,” and the only “Son of God.” The rational man is not born with man, but only the capacity for becoming rational, as all may see from the fact that new-born infants are not endowed with any reason, but become rational in process of time by means of things of sense external and internal, as they are imbued with knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones]. In children indeed there is an appearance of rationality, yet it is not rationality, but is only a kind of rudiment of it, which is known from the fact that reason belongs to adults and men of years.
[2] The rational man in the Lord is treated of in this chapter. The Divine Rational itself is represented by Isaac; but the first rational before it was made Divine, by Ishmael; and therefore that “Sarai, Abram’s wife, did not bear unto him” here signifies that hitherto there was no Divine rational. As before said, the Lord was born as are other men, and as regards all that He drew from Mary the mother He was like other men; and as the rational is formed by means of knowledges [scientifica et cognitiones], which enter through things of the external senses, or those of the external man, therefore His first rational was born as with any other man; but as by His own power He made Divine all the human things that appertained to Him, so did He also make the rational Divine. His first rational is described in this chapter, and also in chapter 21, where Hagar and Ishmael are likewise treated of (from verses 9 to 21), and it is said that Ishmael was expelled when Isaac grew up, by whom is represented the Divine rational.

AC (Potts) n. 1894 sRef Gen@16 @1 S0′ 1894. That Sarai is truth adjoined to good, has been said and shown before (n. 1468 and elsewhere), as also that Abram is the Lord’s internal man, which is Jehovah. The Lord’s internal man, which is Jehovah, is called Man, because no one is man except Jehovah alone; for man, in the genuine sense, signifies that Esse from which man is. The Esse itself from which man is, is the Divine, consequently the celestial and the spiritual. Without the Divine celestial and spiritual, there is nothing human in man, but only a sort of animal nature, such as there is in beasts. It is from the Esse of Jehovah, or of the Lord, that every man is man; and from this also he is called man. The celestial which makes the man is that he loves the Lord and loves the neighbor; in this way is he man, because he is an image of the Lord, and because he has this from the Lord; otherwise he is a wild beast.
[2] That Jehovah or the Lord is the only Man, and that men have it from Him that they are called men, also that one is more man than another, may be seen above (n. 49, 288, 477, 565); and the same may also be seen from the fact that Jehovah, or the Lord, appeared as Man to the fathers of the Most Ancient Church, and afterwards also to Abraham and to the prophets; and on this account also the Lord, after there was no man any longer on the earth, or no longer anything celestial and spiritual among men, deigned to assume the human nature by being born as are other men, and to make that nature Divine; and in this way also He is the only Man. Besides, the universal heaven presents before the Lord the image of a man, because it presents Himself. From this, heaven is called the Grand Man, and this especially from the fact that the Lord there is all in all.

AC (Potts) n. 1895 sRef Gen@16 @1 S0′ 1895. And she had a handmaid, an Egyptian. That this signifies the affection of memory-knowledges [scientiae], is evident from the signification of a “handmaid,” and from the signification of “Egypt.” Sarai, who was the mistress or lady, represents and signifies truth adjoined to good, as already said. Truth adjoined to good is intellectual truth in the genuine sense, but rational truth is beneath this and therefore is lower; and this rational truth is born from knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones] vivified by the affection that corresponds to them, and this affection, being of the exterior man, ought to serve the intellectual truth that appertains to the inmost man, as a handmaid serves her lady, or a household servant her mistress; and therefore this affection is what is represented and signified by the “handmaid Hagar.”
[2] How these things stand cannot well be stated to the apprehension, for it must first be known what intellectual truth in the genuine sense is, and also how the rational is born, namely, from the internal man as a father, and from the exterior or natural man as a mother, for without the conjunction of these two nothing rational can possibly come forth. The rational is not born (as is supposed) of knowledges [scientiae et cognitiones], but of the affection of these knowledges, as may be seen from the mere fact that no one can ever become rational unless some delight or affection of these knowledges aspires thereto. The affection is the maternal life itself; and the celestial and spiritual itself, in the affection, is the paternal life; therefore in proportion to the affection, and in accordance with the quality of the affection, in the same proportion, and in the same quality, does the man become rational. In themselves these knowledges are nothing but dead things, or instrumental causes, which are vivified by the life of affection; and such is the conception of the rational man in everyone. The reason why the handmaid was an Egyptian, and the reason why this fact is stated, is that “Egypt” signifies memory-knowledges [scientiae], as before shown (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462).

AC (Potts) n. 1896 sRef Gen@16 @1 S0′ 1896. And her name was Hagar. That this signifies the life of the exterior or natural man, may be seen from what has been said, and also from the meaning of “Hagar,” which is “a stranger” or “sojourner.” Strangers represented those who were to be instructed, and sojourning represented instruction and also principles of life [vitae instituta], as shown above (n. 1463). When anyone’s name is stated in the Word, as here that “her name was Hagar,” it signifies that something is involved in the name to which attention should be given, for to “call by name” means to know a person’s quality (as before shown, n. 144, 145, 340). No syllable in the Word is there without a cause, or without a signification in the internal sense of some actual thing.

AC (Potts) n. 1897 sRef Gen@16 @2 S0′ 1897. Verse 2. And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold I pray, Jehovah hath shut me up from bearing; go in I pray unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall be built up by her; and Abram harkened to the voice of Sarai. “Sarai said unto Abram,” signifies that it was so perceived; “Behold I pray, Jehovah hath shut me up from bearing,” signifies the state before the interior or Divine rational man was born; “go in I pray unto my handmaid,” signifies conjunction with the exterior man; “it may be that I shall be built up by her,” signifies that in this way the rational could be born. “And Abram harkened to the voice of Sarai,” signifies that it could not be done in any other way.

AC (Potts) n. 1898 sRef Gen@16 @2 S0′ 1898. Sarai said unto Abram. That this signifies that it was so perceived, is evident from the signification of “Sarai” and of “Abram,” namely, that “Sarai” is truth adjoined to good, and “Abram” is the internal man; and therefore that “Sarai said to Abram,” in the internal sense cannot signify any conversation, but perception. The Lord’s perception at that time was from truth adjoined to good, which dictated to Him how the case was. There is something similar with a celestial man who receives perception; for there is something of truth adjoined to good which dictates; afterwards there is good from which or through which the truth is perceived. (That “to say,” in the internal sense, signifies to perceive, may be seen above, n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822.)

AC (Potts) n. 1899 sRef Gen@16 @2 S0′ 1899. Behold I pray, Jehovah hath shut me up from bearing. That this signifies the state before the interior or Divine rational man was born, is evident from what has been already said about the conception and birth of the rational man, namely, that the Lord’s Divine rational man is represented by Isaac, but His first rational man, which was to become Divine, by Ishmael. In order that these things might be represented, Sarai remained so long barren, even until Ishmael had become a lad (spoken of in Genesis 21); on which account it is here said that “Jehova