The Sacred Scripture, or the Word, is the Divine Truth itself
It is generally agreed that the Word is from God, is divinely inspired, and therefore holy; but hitherto it has remained unknown wherein its divinity resides; for the Word in the Letter appears like common writing in a strange style, lacking the sublimity and brilliance which are apparently features of the literature of the world. For this reason the man who worships nature instead of God, or in preference to God, and who consequently thinks from* himself and his proprium** and not from* heaven from* the Lord, may easily fall into error respecting the Word and into contempt for it, and say within himself as he reads it, What does this mean? What does that mean? Is this Divine? Can God, to whom belongs infinite wisdom, speak in this way? Where is its sanctity, or whence derived but from man’s religious credulity?
* The prepositions ex and a, both translated “from”, are here used in contrast, a indicating the responsible agent or originating source, and ex an instrumental agent, or intermediary, contributing to the performance of an action, but not itself the source.
** The Latin word proprium means “what is one’s own”. Swedenborg uses it in a special sense involving “what is of the self”.
sRef Rev@22 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@7 @17 S2′ sRef John@6 @63 S2′  That Jehovah Himself spoke the Word by the Prophets has been shown in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD, Nos. 52, 53. That the words which the Lord Himself spoke in the Evangelists are life, is declared in John:
The words that I speak unto you are spirit, and they are life. John vi 63.
In the same Evangelist:
Jesus said to the woman at Jacob’s well, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldst have asked of Him, and He would have given thee living water.
Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him, shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of
water springing up into everlasting life. John iv 6, 10, 14.
By Jacob’s well is signified the Word,
as also in Deut. xxxiii 28;
and for this reason also the Lord sat there, and spoke with the woman; and by water is signified the truth of the Word.
In the same Evangelist:
If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. He that believeth on me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. John vii 37, 38.
In the same:
Peter said to Jesus, Thou hast the words of eternal life. John vi 68.
For this reason the Lord says in Mark,
Heaven and earth shall pass away; but my words shall not pass away. Mark xiii 31.
The words of the Lord are life, because He Himself is the Life and the Truth, as He teaches in John:
I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life. John xiv 6;
and in the same:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. In Him was life; and the life was the light of men. John i 1, 4.
By the Word here is meant the Lord as to Divine Truth, in which alone there is life and light. For this reason the Word, which is from the Lord, and which is the Lord, is called
a fountain of living waters Jer. ii 13; xvii 13; xxxi 9;
a fountain of salvation. Isa. xii 3;
a fountain. Zech. xiii 1;
and a river of water of life. Rev. xxii 1;
and it is said that
The Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters. Rev. vii 17;
besides other passages, where the Word is also called the Sanctuary and the Tabernacle, in which the Lord dwells with man.
 There are two things which proceed from the Lord, Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, or what is the same, Divine Good and Divine Truth; for Divine Good is of His Divine Love, and Divine Truth is of His Divine Wisdom. The Word in its essence is both of these; and since it conjoins man with the Lord and opens heaven, as has just been said, therefore the Word fills the man who reads it from the Lord, and not from himself alone, with the good of love and the truths of wisdom-his will with the good of love and his understanding with the truths of wisdom; thus man has life through the Word.
In the Word there is a spiritual sense, hitherto unknown
The following points will be explained in this order:
1. What the spiritual sense is.
2. This sense is in the whole of the Word, and in every part of it.
3. Because of this sense the Word is Divinely inspired, and holy in every word.
4. This sense has hitherto been unknown.
5. Henceforth it will be made known only to those who are in genuine truths from the Lord.
1. WHAT THE SPIRITUAL SENSE IS. The spiritual sense is not that which shines forth from the sense of the Letter of the Word when one searches the Word and explains it to confirm some dogma of the Church: this sense is the literal sense of the Word. The spiritual sense, however, does not appear in the sense of the Letter: it is within it, as the soul is in the body, as the thought is in the eyes, and as affection is in the countenance; and these act together as cause and effect. It is this sense especially that makes the Word spiritual, not only for men but also for angels; and therefore the Word by means of this sense communicates with the heavens.
*Author’s Note. The heavens consist of two Kingdoms, one of which is called the celestial kingdom, and the other the spiritual kingdom. This may be seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL Nos. 20-28.
I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and He that sat upon him was called Faithful and True; and in righteousness He doth judge and make war.
His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on His head were many crowns; and He had a name written that no man knew but He Himself;
And He was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and His name is called, The Word of God.
His armies which were in heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean …
He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords.
And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice …
Come and gather yourselves together unto the great supper …
That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great. Rev. xix 11-18.
No one can see what these things signify except from the spiritual sense of the Word, and no one can see the spiritual sense except from a knowledge of correspondences; for all the words are correspondences and not one word is without meaning. The science of correspondences teaches the signification of the white horse, of Him that sat upon it, of His eyes which were like a flame of fire, of the crowns which were on His head, of His vesture dipped in blood, of the white linen with which they who were of His army in heaven were clothed, of the angel standing in the sun, of the great supper to which they should come and gather themselves, and also of the flesh of kings, captains and many others which they were to eat.
What each of these particulars signifies in the spiritual sense may be seen in the little work on THE WHITE HORSE, where they are explained. It is therefore unnecessary to explain them further here. In that treatise it is shown that the Lord is here described as to the Word; by His eyes, which were as a flame of fire, by the crowns which were upon His head, and by the name which no one knoweth but Himself, is meant the spiritual sense of the Word, which no one knows but the Lord Himself and he to whom He wills to reveal it. Further, that by His vesture dipped in blood is meant the natural sense of the Word, which is the sense of the Letter, to which violence has been done.
That it is the Word which is thus described is clearly manifest, for it is said, His name is called the Word of God; and that it is the Lord who is meant is also clearly manifest, for it is said the name of Him who sat on the white horse was written, King of kings and Lord of lords. That the spiritual sense of the Word is to be opened at the end of the Church is signified not only by what is said of the white horse and of Him who sat thereon, but also by the great supper to which the angel standing in the sun invited all to come, and to eat the flesh of kings, and of captains, of mighty men, of horses and of those that sat upon them, and of all, both free and bond. All these expressions would be empty words and without life and spirit unless there were something spiritual within them, as the soul is in the body.
In her was a light like a stone most precious, like a jasper stone, clear as crystal; And had a wall great and high, and had twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon which are the names of the twelve tribes of the Children of Israel. The wall was a hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of the angel. And the building of the wall of it was of jasper; and its foundations of all manner of precious stones, of jasper, sapphire, chalcedony, emerald, sardonyx, sardius, chrysolyte, beryl, topaz, chrysoprasus, jacinth and amethyst. The gates were twelve pearls. The city itself was pure gold, like clear glass; and it was four-square, the length, the breadth and the height being equal, twelve thousand furlongs [Rev. xxi 11, 12, 16-21 with many other particulars].
That all these things are to be understood spiritually may be evident from this, that by the Holy Jerusalem is signified a new Church which is to be established by the Lord, as is shown in THE DOCTRINE OF THE LORD Nos. 62-65. Since the Church is here signified by Jerusalem it follows that all things said of it as a city, of its gates, its wall, the foundations of its wall, as well as of their measures, contain a spiritual sense; for the things which relate to the Church are spiritual.
What the particulars signify is explained in the work on THE NEW JERUSALEM, published in London in the year 1758, No. 1; and I therefore refrain from any further explanation of them here. It is sufficient to know from that work that there is a spiritual sense within all the particulars of the description, like a soul in the body; and that without this sense nothing relating to the Church would be understood in the things there written; as, that the city was of pure gold, its gates were of pearls, its wall of jasper, the foundations of its wall of precious stones, that its wall was a hundred and forty and four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel; that the city was in length, breadth and height, twelve thousand furlongs, and so on. Anyone, however, who has a knowledge of the spiritual sense from the science of correspondences understands those things, as for instance that the wall and its foundations signify doctrine from the literal sense of the Word, and that the numbers twelve, one hundred and forty and four, and twelve thousand have a like signification, namely, the sum total of all the truths and goods of the Church.
That there were sealed one hundred and forty and four thousand, twelve thousand of each tribe of Israel; the same number of the tribe of Judah, of Reuben, of Gad, of Asher, of Naphtali, the tribe of Manasses, of Simeon, of Levi, of Issachar, of Zebulon, of Joseph and of Benjamin.
The spiritual sense of these words is, that all are saved with whom there is the Church from the Lord, For in the spiritual sense, to be marked in the forehead, or sealed, signifies to be acknowledged by the Lord and saved. By the twelve tribes of Israel are signified all of that Church; by twelve, twelve thousand, and one hundred and forty and four thousand, are signified all; by Israel is signified the Church; and by each tribe something specific of the Church. Anyone who does not know this spiritual meaning of these words may suppose that only a certain number are to be saved, and these only from the Israelitish and Jewish nation.
When the Lamb opened the first seal of the book, there went forth a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow, and a crown was given to him …
When he had opened the second seal, there went forth a red horse: and to him that sat thereon a great sword was given.
When he had opened the third seal, there went forth a black horse: and he that sat on him had a pair of balances (statera) in his hand.
And when he had opened the fourth seal, there went forth a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death. [Rev. vi 1-5, 7, 8.]
What these things signify can only be unfolded by means of the spiritual sense; and it is fully unfolded when it is known what is signified by the opening of the seals, by a horse, and by the other particulars. By these things are described the successive states of the Church from the beginning to its end as to the understanding of the Word. The opening of the seals of the book by the Lamb signifies the manifestation of those states of the Church by the Lord. A horse signifies the understanding of the Word; the white horse the understanding of truth from the Word in the first state of the Church; the bow of him that sat upon that horse signifies the doctrine of charity and faith combating against falsities; the crown, eternal life, the reward of victory.
 The red horse signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed as to good in the second state of the Church; the great sword signifying falsity combating against truth. The black horse signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed as to truth in the third state of the Church; the pair of balances (statera) signifying the estimation of truth so small as to be hardly appreciable. The pale horse signifies the understanding of the Word nullified from evils of life and consequent falsities in the fourth or last state of the Church; and death signifies eternal damnation.
That such is the signification of these things in the spiritual sense does not appear in the sense of the Letter or the natural sense. Therefore, unless the spiritual sense were at some time opened, the Word as to this passage, and as to the rest of Revelation, would be closed so completely that at length no one would know where its Divine sanctity lay concealed. It is equally so in respect to what is signified by the four horses and by the four chariots going forth from between the two mountains of brass, in Zechariah vi 1-8.
The fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit.
And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit.
And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power …
The shapes of the locusts were like unto horses prepared unto battle; and on their heads were as it were crowns like gold, and their faces were as the faces of men.
And they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as the teeth of lions.
And they had … breastplates of iron; and the sound of their wings was as the sound of chariots of many [horses] running to battle.
And they had tails like unto scorpions, and there were stings in their tails: and their power was to hurt men five months.
And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon. Rev. ix 1-3, 7-11.
These things also no one would understand unless the spiritual sense were revealed to him; for nothing here is said without meaning: everything, even to each particular, has a signification. The subject here treated of is the state of the Church when all cognitions* of truth from the Word have been destroyed, and consequently man, having become sensual, persuades himself that falsities are truths.
 By the star fallen from heaven is signified the cognitions of truth destroyed; by the sun and the air being darkened is signified the light of truth become thick darkness; by the locusts which went forth out of the smoke of that pit are signified falsities in ultimates (extremis) such as are with those who have become sensual, and who see and judge all things from fallacies; by a scorpion is signified their persuasive power. The locusts appearing as horses prepared for battle signifies their reasonings as from the understanding of truth; that the locusts had crowns like gold upon their heads, and faces like the faces of men, signifies that they appeared to themselves as conquerors and wise; their having hair as the hair of women signifies that they appeared to themselves as if they were in the affection of truth; and their having teeth as the teeth of lions signifies that sensual things, which are the lowest things of the natural man, appeared to them as if they had power over all things.
 That they had breastplates as breastplates of iron signifies argumentations from fallacies, by which they fight and prevail. The sound of their wings being as the sound of chariots running to battle signifies reasons as from truths of doctrine from the Word, for which truths they were to combat; their having tails as scorpions signifies persuasions; their having stings in their tails signifies craftiness in deceiving by means of their persuasions. Their having power to hurt men five months signifies that they bring into a kind of stupor those who are in the understanding of truth and in the perception of good. That they have over them a king, the angel of the bottomless pit whose name is Abaddon or Apollyon, signifies that their falsities were from hell, where those are who are merely natural and in self-intelligence.
sRef Rev@22 @19 S4′  This is the spiritual sense of these words of which nothing appears in the sense of the Letter; and it is the same throughout the Revelation. It should be known that in the spiritual sense all things cohere in a continuous sequence, to the perfect arrangement of which each word contributes in the sense of the Letter, or natural sense. Thus, if the smallest word were taken away the sequence would be broken and the connection would be destroyed. Lest this should happen, therefore, at the end of this prophetical Book is it added,
That not a word should be taken away. Rev. xxii 19.
It is the same with the Books of the Prophets of the Old Testament. Lest anything should be taken away from these, it was brought about by the Divine Providence of the Lord that each particular in them was counted, even to the letters. This was done by the Masoretes.**
* The term cognitiones, here used in the Latin, is translated “cognitions” to distinguish these knowledges from those that are meant by the Latin scientifica also used in the Writings of Swedenborg.
Two of the meanings most commonly associated with cognitiones are, (i) a particular species of knowledge, as knowledges of the Word, of good and truth, or of spiritual things (A.C. 24, 3665, 9945; N.J.H.D. 51; H.H. 111, 351, 469, 474, 517, 518); and (ii) a higher type of knowledge which is from understanding and perception (A.C. 1486-7; H.H. 353).
** These were Jewish Rabbis whose object was to preserve the integrity of the text of the Hebrew Scriptures.
Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:
And then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And He shall send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other. Matt. xxiv 29-31.
 By these words in the spiritual sense it is not meant that the sun and the moon would be darkened, that the stars would fall from heaven, that the sign of the Lord would appear in heaven, and that He would be seen in the clouds, and also that angels with trumpets would be seen; but by all the expressions in this passage are meant spiritual things relating to the Church, concerning the state of which at its end these things are said. For in the spiritual sense, by the sun which shall be darkened is meant the Lord as to love; by the moon which shall not give her light (lumen) is meant the Lord as to faith; by the stars which shall fall from heaven, the cognitions of good and truth which will perish; by the sign of the Son of Man in heaven, the appearing of Divine Truth; and by the tribes of the earth that shall mourn, the want of all truth which is of faith, and of all good which is of love. By the Coming of the Son of Man in the clouds of heaven with power and glory is meant the presence of the Lord in the Word, and revelation; by the clouds is signified the sense of the Letter of the Word, and by glory, the spiritual sense of the Word. By the angels with a great sound of a trumpet is signified heaven, whence comes Divine Truth; by gathering together the elect from the four winds from one end of the heavens to the other, is signified that which is new (novum) in the Church as to love and faith.
sRef Isa@13 @10 S3′ sRef Isa@13 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@13 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @7 S3′ sRef Joel@3 @15 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @8 S3′ sRef Joel@2 @10 S3′ sRef Joel@2 @31 S3′ sRef Joel@2 @1 S3′ sRef Joel@2 @2 S3′  That the darkening of the sun and moon, and the falling of the stars to the earth, are not here meant, clearly appears from the Prophets, for in them similar things are said concerning the state of the Church when the Lord was about to come into the world. Thus, in Isaiah:
Behold, the day of Jehovah cometh, cruel…with fierce anger…
For the stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.
And I will punish the world for their evil. [Isa. xiii 9-11]; xiv 21, 23.
The day of Jehovah cometh …
A day of darkness and of thick darkness …
The sun and the moon shall be dark.
And the stars shall withdraw their shining. Joel ii 1, 2, 10; iii 15.
I will cover the heavens, and make the stars thereof dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light.
All the bright lights … will I make dark… and set darkness
upon thy land. Ezek. xxxii 7, 8.
By the day of Jehovah is meant the Coming of the Lord, which took place when there was no longer any good and truth left in the Church nor any rational conception of the Lord.
Then shall Jehovah stir up a scourge against Assyria, according to the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb: and as His rod was upon the sea so shall He lift it up after the manner of Egypt.
And it shall come to pass in that day, that his burden shall be taken away from off thy shoulder, and his yoke from off thy neck …
He shall come to Aiath, he shall pass to Migron; at Michmash he shall give orders to his arms (A.V. he hath laid up his carriages).
They shall pass over Mebarah; Gibeah shall be a lodging for us; Ramah shall be afraid; Gibeah of Saul shall flee.
Lift up thy voice, O daughter of Gallim; give ear, O Laish, O poor Anathoth.
Madmenah is removed; the inhabitants of Gebim shall gather themselves together …
As yet shall he remain at Nob that day? He shall shake his hand, the mountain of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem …
Jehovah shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and
Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one. Isa. x 26-34.
In this passage only names occur from which nothing can be drawn but by the aid of the spiritual sense; and in this sense all names in the Word signify things of heaven and the Church. From this sense it is gathered that by these things is signified that the whole Church was devastated by natural knowledge (scientifica) perverting all truth and confirming falsity.
sRef Isa@11 @16 S2′ sRef Isa@11 @15 S2′ sRef Isa@11 @14 S2′ sRef Isa@11 @13 S2′  Elsewhere in the same Prophet:
In that day … the envy also of Ephraim shall depart, and the adversaries of Judah shall be cut off: Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim.
But they shall fly upon the shoulder of the Philistines towards the sea (A.V. the west): they shall spoil the children of the east together: Edom and Moab shall be the laying on (emissio) of their hand. Jehovah shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with the vehemence of His spirit shall He shake His hand over the river; and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make it a way for men to go over dry-shod.
And there shall be an highway for the remnant of His people,
which shall be left, from Assyria. Isa. xi , 13-16.
Here also no one would see anything Divine unless he knows what is signified by each of the names mentioned; although the subject treated of is the Coming of the Lord and what shall then come to pass, as is clearly manifest from verses 1-10 of the same chapter. Who then, without the aid of the spiritual sense, would see that by these in their order is signified that they who are in falsities from ignorance, and have not suffered themselves to be led astray by evils, will approach the Lord; and that the Church will then understand the Word; and that falsities will then no longer harm them?
sRef Ezek@39 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @20 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @21 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @22 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @17 S3′  The case is similar in those passages where names do not occur, as in Ezekiel:
Thus saith the Lord Jehovih; Thou son of man, Speak unto the fowl of every wing, and to every beast of the field. Assemble yourselves and come; gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice that I do sacrifice for you, even a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh, and drink blood.
Ye shall eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink the blood of the princes of the earth …
Ye shall eat fat till ye be full, and drink blood till ye be drunken, of my sacrifice which I sacrifice for you. Thus ye shall be filled at my table with horse and chariot, with the mighty man and with every man of war …
Thus I will set my glory among the nations. Ezek. xxxix 17-21.
He who does not know from the spiritual sense what is signified by a sacrifice, by flesh, and blood, and what by a horse, a chariot, a mighty man, and a man of war, would not know otherwise than that such things were to be eaten and drunk. The spiritual sense, however, teaches that eating the flesh and drinking the blood of the sacrifice which the Lord Jehovih will give upon the mountains of Israel, signifies appropriating to oneself Divine good and Divine truth from the Word. For the subject treated of here is the calling together of all to the Lord’s kingdom, and in particular, the establishment by the Lord of the Church among the nations. Who cannot see that flesh is not meant by flesh, nor blood by blood? as where it is said that they should drink blood till they should be drunken, and that they should be filled with horse and chariot, the mighty man and every man of war? So likewise in a thousand other places in the Prophets.
To buy himself a girdle, and put it upon his loins, and not to draw it through water, and to hide it in a hole of the rock by the Euphrates. Jer. xiii 1-7;
why the prophet Isaiah was commanded
To loose the sackcloth from off his loins, to put off the shoe
from his foot, and to go naked and barefoot three years. Isa. xx 2, 3;
why the prophet Ezekiel was commanded
To pass a razor over his head and over his beard, and then to divide the hairs, to burn a third part in the midst of the city, to smite a third part with the sword, and to scatter a third part to the wind; but to bind a little of them in his skirts, and finally to cast them into the midst of the fire. Ezek. v 1-4;
why the same prophet was commanded
To lie upon his left side three hundred and ninety days, and upon his right side forty days; to make himself a cake of wheat, and barley, and millet, and fitches, with cow’s dung, and eat it; and in the meantime to cast a trench and mound against Jerusalem, and lay siege to it. Ezek. iv 1-15;
why the Prophet Hosea was commanded twice
To take himself a harlot to be his wife. Hosea i 2-9; iii 2, 3;
and many more things of a like nature.
Moreover, without the spiritual sense, who would know what is signified by all the things of the tabernacle, as by the ark, the mercy-seat, the cherubim, the candlestick, the altar of incense, the shewbread on the table, the veils and its curtains? Without the spiritual sense who would know what is signified by the holy garment of Aaron, by his vest, his robe, the ephod, the urim and thummim, the mitre, and the many other things associated with him? Who also, without the spiritual sense, would know what is signified by all those things commanded relating to burnt-offerings, sacrifices, meat offerings, and drink offerings? and also by those relating to sabbaths and feasts? The truth is that not the least of these things was commanded which did not signify something relating to the Lord, to heaven and to the Church. From these few examples it may be clearly seen that there is a spiritual sense in all things of the Word in general and in particular.
The kingdom of the heavens is like unto ten virgins, who took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were wise, and five were foolish. They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them: but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said unto the wise. Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. But the wise answered, saying (A.V. Not so;) lest there be not enough for us and you; but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came: and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage; and the door was shut. Afterwards came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But he answered and said; Verily I say unto you, I know you not. Matt. xxv 1-12.
 That in every part of this parable there is a spiritual sense, and consequently a Divine holiness, none can see but those who know that there is a spiritual sense, and are acquainted with the nature of it. In the spiritual sense by the kingdom of God is meant heaven and the Church; by the bridegroom, the Lord; by the wedding, the marriage of the Lord with heaven and the Church by means of the good of love and of faith. By the virgins are meant those who belong to the Church; by ten are meant all, and by five a certain part; by lamps are meant the truths of faith, and by oil, the good of love. By sleeping and waking are meant the natural life of man in the world, and his spiritual life after death. By buying is meant to procure for themselves; and by going to those that sell, and buying oil, is meant to procure for themselves after death the good of love from others. Because this can no longer be acquired after death, therefore, although they came to the marriage door with their lamps and the oil they had purchased, still the bridegroom said to them, “I know you not”. This is because man, after his life in the world, remains such as he had been in the world. sRef John@6 @63 S3′  From these things it is evident that the Lord spoke by pure correspondences, and this because He spoke from the Divine that was in Him and was His own. That the bridegroom signifies the Lord, and the kingdom of the heavens, the Church; that the wedding signifies the marriage of the Lord with the Church by means of the good of love and of faith; that virgins signify those who belong to the Church; that by ten are meant all, and by five a certain part; that sleeping means a natural state, and buying, procuring for themselves; that the door means entrance into heaven, and not to know, when spoken by the Lord, not to be in His love; all this may appear from many passages in the prophetic Word, where these expressions have a similar signification.
Because virgins signify those who belong to the Church, therefore, in the prophetic Word is there such frequent mention of virgin, and daughter of Zion, of Jerusalem and of Israel, and because oil signifies the good of love, that all the holy things of the Israelitish Church were anointed with oil. The case is the same with the other parables, and with all the words spoken by the Lord and recorded in the Evangelists. For this reason the Lord declares that
His words are spirit and life. John vi 63.
sRef Matt@11 @3 S4′ sRef Matt@11 @4 S4′ sRef Matt@11 @5 S4′  It is the same with all the Lord’s miracles These were Divine because they signified the various states of those with whom the Church was to be established by the Lord. Thus, when the blind received sight, it signified that those who were in ignorance of truth should receive understanding; when the deaf received hearing, it signified that those who had previously heard nothing concerning the Lord and the Word, should hear and obey; when the dead were raised, it signified that those who otherwise would have spiritually perished, should become alive; and so on. This is meant by the Lord’s reply to the disciples of John when he sent them to inquire whether it was He who should come:
Go and tell John those things which ye do hear and see:
The blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the Gospel preached to them. Matt. xi 3-5.
Moreover, all the miracles recorded in the Word contain within them such things as relate to the Lord, to heaven and to the Church. On this account these miracles are Divine, and are distinguished from miracles not Divine. These few examples may serve to illustrate what the spiritual sense of the Word is, and to show that it is present in the whole of the Word, in general and in particular.
 The Word sometimes treats of Egypt, sometimes of Assyria, sometimes of Edom, of Moab, the children of Ammon, Tyre and Sidon, and Gog. He who does not know that by those names things relating to heaven and the Church are signified, may be led into the error that the Word treats much of nations and peoples, and but little of heaven and the Church; thus much of earthly and little of heavenly things. When, however, he knows what is signified by these nations and peoples, or by their names, he may come out of his error into the truth.  In like manner, when it is observed that in the Word frequent mention is made of gardens, groves and woods; and also of their trees, as the olive, the vine, the cedar, the poplar and the oak; and also of the lamb, the sheep, the goat, the calf and the ox; and also of mountains, hills, valleys, and the fountains, rivers and waters in them; and much more of a similar nature; he who knows nothing of the spiritual sense of the Word cannot believe otherwise than that only these things are meant. For he does not know that by a garden, a grove and a wood are meant wisdom, intelligence, and knowledge; by the olive, the vine, the cedar, the poplar and the oak are meant the good and truth of the Church, celestial, spiritual, rational, natural and sensual; by the lamb, the sheep, the goat, the calf and the ox are meant innocence, charity and natural affection; by mountains, hills and valleys are meant the higher, the lower and the lowest things of the Church. Moreover, he does not know that by Egypt is signified knowledge; by Assyria, reason; by Edom, the natural; by Moab, the adulteration of good; by the children of Ammon, the adulteration of truth; by Tyre and Sidon, cognitions of truth and good; and by Gog, external worship without the internal. When, however, a man knows these things, he is then able to consider that the Word treats only of heavenly things, and that those earthly things are only the subjects (subjecta) in which are heavenly things.
sRef Ps@29 @5 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @8 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @4 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @7 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @3 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @6 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @9 S4′  An example from the Word may illustrate this also. We read in the Psalms:
The voice of Jehovah is upon the waters: the God of glory maketh it to thunder: Jehovah is upon great waters.
The voice of Jehovah breaketh the cedars; yea, Jehovah breaketh in pieces the cedars of Lebanon. He maketh them also to skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young unicorn.
The voice of Jehovah divideth as a flame of fire.
The voice of Jehovah shaketh the wilderness; the Lord shaketh the wilderness of Kadesh.
The voice of Jehovah maketh the hinds to calve, and discovereth the forests: and in His temple doth everyone speak of His glory. Ps. xxix 3-9.
He who does not know that the particulars in this passage, even to every single word, are Divine and holy, may say within himself, if he is a merely natural man, What is this-that Jehovah sits upon the waters, by His voice breaks the cedars and makes them to skip like a calf, and Lebanon like a young unicorn, and makes the hinds to calve? and much more. He does not know that the power of Divine Truth, or of the Word, is described by these things in the spiritual sense. For in that sense by the voice of Jehovah, which is here called thunder, is meant Divine Truth, or the Word, in its power; by the great waters upon which Jehovah sits are meant the truths of the Word. By the cedars and by Lebanon which He breaks, and breaks in pieces, are meant the falsities of the rational man; by the calf, and the young unicorn, the falsities of the natural and of the sensual man. By the flame of fire is meant the affection of falsity; by the wilderness and the wilderness of Kadesh, the Church where there is not any truth and good. By the hinds which the voice of Jehovah makes to calve are meant the Gentiles who are in natural good; and by the forests which He discovers are meant the knowledges of natural and spiritual things which the Word opens up to him. The passage therefore continues, that in His temple everyone speaks of His glory. By this is meant that in all the particulars of the Word there are Divine truths; for the temple signifies the Lord, and consequently the Word, and also heaven and the Church; and glory signifies Divine Truth. Hence it is manifest that there is not a word in this passage which is not descriptive of the Divine power of the Word against falsities of every kind among natural men, and of the Divine power in reforming the Gentiles.
 The hieroglyphics of the Egyptians and the myths of antiquity were of a like nature. All the ancient Churches were representative of heavenly things; and their ceremonies and also the statutes on which their worship was founded, consisted of pure correspondences. Of a like nature were all the things of the Church established among the Children of Jacob; their burnt offerings and sacrifices with all the things connected with them were correspondences. So also was the tabernacle with every thing in it; and likewise their feasts, as the feast of unleavened bread, the feast of tabernacles, and the feast of the first fruits; and also the priesthood of Aaron and the Levites, and the holy garments of Aaron and his sons; and, moreover, all the statutes and judgments relating to their worship and life.
 Now because Divine things manifest themselves in the world in correspondences, therefore, the Word was written by pure correspondences. Therefore, also the Lord, since He spoke from His Divine, spoke by correspondences. For whatever proceeds from the Divine manifests itself in nature in such things as correspond to what is Divine; and these things then have stored up within them Divine things called celestial and spiritual.
sRef 1Sam@5 @1 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @12 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @4 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @3 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @2 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @10 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @5 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @7 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @6 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @8 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @11 S2′ sRef 1Sam@5 @9 S2′  So, too, with other nations; as with the Philistines in Ashdod, where Dagon was worshipped, concerning which see 1 Samuel v 1 to the end. This image in the upper part was like a man, and in the lower part like a fish, and was so devised because a man signifies intelligence and a fish knowledge; and these make one. On account of their knowledge of correspondences also the ancients worshipped in gardens and groves, according to the different kinds of trees growing in them, and also on mountains and hills; because gardens and groves signified wisdom and intelligence, and every tree something that had relation to these. Thus, the olive signified the good of love; the vine, truth from that good; the cedar, rational good and truth; while a mountain signified the highest heaven, and a hill, the heaven beneath it.
sRef Matt@2 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@2 @10 S3′ sRef Matt@2 @2 S3′ sRef Matt@2 @1 S3′ sRef Matt@2 @11 S3′  The knowledge of correspondences remained among many eastern nations even until the Coming of the Lord. This may be seen from the story of the wise men from the East, who came to the Lord at His nativity.
A star went before them, and they brought with them gifts; gold, frankincense and myrrh. Matt. ii 1, 2, 9-11.
For the star which went before them signified knowledge from heaven; gold, celestial good; frankincense, spiritual good; and myrrh, natural good; and from these three all worship proceeds.
 Still there was no knowledge whatever of correspondences among the Israelitish and Jewish nation, although all the particulars of their worship, all the judgments and statutes given to them through Moses, and everything contained in the Word were pure correspondences. The reason of this was that they were at heart idolaters and of such a nature that they were not even willing to know that any part of their worship had a celestial and spiritual meaning; for they desired that all those things and things connected with them should be holy of themselves. If, therefore, the celestial and spiritual things had been revealed to them, they would not only have rejected, but would even have profaned them. For this reason heaven was so closed to them that they hardly knew that there was a life eternal. That such was the case is very evident from the fact that they did not acknowledge the Lord, although the whole Sacred Scripture prophesied concerning Him, and foretold Him. They rejected Him for the sole reason that He taught them about a heavenly and not about an earthly kingdom; for they desired a Messiah who should exalt them above all the nations in the whole world, and not one who should make their eternal salvation His chief regard. Moreover, they declare that the Word contains within itself many arcana,* which they term mystic; but they have no desire to know that these relate to the Lord. They are, however, willing to know when it is said that they relate to gold.
* Arcanum (plur. arcana), what is shut up, enclosed, from arceo to shut up, and arca, an ark, chest, or box. Usual connotation, hidden things.
 This is also because the Lord teaches everyone by means of the Word. Moreover, He teaches from those truths which a man already possesses: He does not directly impart new truths. Therefore, if a man is not principled in Divine truths, or if he has only acquired a few truths as well as falsities he may by their means falsify the truths. This is done by every heretic with regard to the sense of the Letter of the Word, as is well known. Lest therefore anyone should enter into the spiritual sense of the Word, and pervert genuine truth which belongs to that sense, guards are placed over it by the Lord, and guards in the Word are meant by the cherubim.
 That guards were so placed was represented to me in the following manner:
“It was granted me to see large money-bags, in appearance like sacks, in which silver was stored up in great abundance; and as these were open, it seemed as if anyone might take out, or even steal, the silver deposited there; but near those bags sat two angels as guards. The place where the bags were laid looked like a manger in a stable. In an adjoining room were seen some modest maidens, in the company of a chaste married woman. Near the room were standing two children, who, I was told, were not to be played with as children but as wise persons.  Then there appeared a harlot, and a horse lying dead. When I had seen these things, I was informed that they represented the sense of the Letter of the Word, within which is the spiritual sense. The large money-bags full of silver signified cognitions of truth in great abundance. The fact that they were open and yet guarded by angels, signified that everyone might take from them cognitions of truth, but that care must be taken lest anyone should violate the spiritual sense, in which are pure truths. The manger in the stable in which the purses lay signified spiritual instruction for the understanding. This is the signification of a manger, for a horse which eats from its signifies the understanding. The modest maidens who were seen in the adjoining room signified affections of truth; the chaste married woman, the conjunction of good and truth; and the children signified the innocence of wisdom therein. They were angels from the third heaven, who all appear like little children. The harlot, with the dead horse, represented the falsification of the Word by many at the present day, by which all understanding of truth perishes; a harlot signified falsification, and a dead horse, an understanding dead to all truth.”*
*This passage is in quotation marks in the Original, and repeated elsewhere. (See T.C.R. 277; A.R. 255; and S.D. 3605a.)
The sense of the Letter of the Word is the basis, the containant and the support of the spiritual and celestial senses
In every Divine work there is a first, a middle and a last; the first passes through the middle to the last, and so exists and subsists; consequently, the last is the basis. Again, the first is in the middle, and by means of the middle in the last, and thus the last is the containant; and because the last is the containant and the basis, it is also the support.
Isaiah walked naked and barefoot three years. Isa. xx 3.
Jehovah called Samuel three times, and Samuel ran three times to Eli, and Eli understood the third time. 1 Sam. iii 1-8.
Jonathan told David to hide himself in the field three days. Jonathan then shot three arrows at the side of the stone, and finally David bowed himself three times before Jonathan. 1 Sam. xx 5, 12-41.
Elijah stretched himself three times on the widow’s son. 1 Kings xvii 2l.
Elijah commanded them to pour water on the burnt offering three times. 1 Kings xviii 34.
Jesus said, The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened. Matt. xiii 33.
Jesus said to Peter that he would deny Him thrice. Matt. xxvi 34.
Jesus said three times to Peter, Lovest thou me? John xxi 15-17.
Jonah was in the whale’s belly three days and three nights. Jonah i 17.
Jesus said that they should destroy the temple, and that He Himself would build it in three days. Matt. xxvi 61.
Jesus prayed three times in Gethsemane. Matt. xxvi 39-44.
Jesus rose again on the third day. Matt. xxviii 1.
There are many other passages where the number three is mentioned; and it is used where a work finished and perfect is treated of because this is the meaning of that number.
Jehovah will create upon all the glory a covering. Isa. iv 5.
The prophet Isaiah was commanded to put off the sackcloth from his loins and his shoes from his feet, and to go naked and barefoot three years. Isa. xx 2, 3.
The prophet Ezekiel was commanded to draw a barber’s razor upon his head and upon his beard, to burn a third part [of the hair] in the midst of the city, to smite a third part with the sword and to scatter a third part to the wind; and to bind a little from these in his skirts, and finally to cast it into the midst of the fire and burn it. Ezek. v 1-4.
 Because the prophets represented the Word, and consequently signified the doctrine of the Church from the Word, as was said above, and because by the head is signified wisdom from the Word, therefore, by the hair of the head and by the beard is signified the ultimate of truth. In consequence of this signification it was a mark of deep mourning, and also a great disgrace, for anyone to make himself bald, and also to appear bald. For this reason and no other the prophet was directed to shave off the hair of his head and his beard, that he might thereby represent the state of the Jewish Church as to the Word. For this reason and no other,
The forty-two children who called Elisha bald head were torn in pieces by two she-bears. 2 Kings ii 23, 24;
for the prophet represented the Word, as was observed before, and baldness signified the Word without its ultimate sense.
sRef Lev@21 @10 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @5 S3′  The Nazirites represented the Lord as to the Word in its ultimates, as will be seen below, No. 49; and, therefore, it was a statute for them that they should let their hair grow and shave off none of it. Moreover, the term Nazirite in the Hebrew tongue signifies the hair of the head.
It was also a statute for the high priest that he should not shave his head. Lev. xxi 10.
Similarly for the head of a family. Lev. xxi 5.
sRef Ezek@7 @18 S4′ sRef Ezek@29 @18 S4′ sRef Jer@48 @37 S4′ sRef Amos@8 @10 S4′ sRef Isa@15 @2 S4′ sRef Micah@1 @16 S4′  Hence it was that for them baldness was a great disgrace, as may be evident from the following passages:
On all their heads shall there be baldness, and every beard cut off. Isa. xv 2; Jer. xlviii 37.
Shame shall be upon all faces and baldness upon all their heads. Ezek. vii 18.
Every head was made bald, and every shoulder was peeled. Ezek. xxix 18.
I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head. Amos viii 10.
Make thee bald, and poll thee for thy delicate children; enlarge thy baldness … for they are gone into captivity from thee. Micah i 16.
Here by putting on and enlarging baldness is signified falsifying the truths of the Word in its ultimates; and when these are falsified, as was done by the Jews, the whole Word is destroyed. For the ultimates of the Word are its stays and supports; indeed, every word is a stay and support of its celestial and spiritual truths. As the hair signifies truth in its ultimates, therefore, in the spiritual world all who despise the Word and falsify the sense of its Letter appear bald; but those who honour and love it appear with becoming heads of hair. On this subject see also below, No. 49.
Divine Truth, in the sense of the Letter of the Word, is in its fulness, its sanctity, and its power
The Word, in its sense of the Letter, is in its fulness, its sanctity, and its power, because the two prior or interior senses, called the spiritual and the celestial, are simultaneously in the natural sense, which is the sense of the Letter, as was said above, No. 31 ; but how they are present simultaneously will now be told in a few words.
Apply this now to the Word. The celestial, the spiritual and the natural proceed from the Lord in successive order, and in the ultimate or last form they are in simultaneous order; thus, then, the celestial and the spiritual senses of the Word are simultaneously in its natural sense. When this is understood it may be seen how the natural sense of the word, which is the sense of the Letter, is the basis, the containant and the support of its spiritual and celestial senses; and also how the Divine Good and the Divine Truth are, in the sense of the Letter of the Word, in their fulness, their sanctity and their power.
The words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life. John vi 63.
The Lord spoke His words before the world, and in the natural sense. The spiritual and celestial senses are not the Word, without the natural sense, which is the sense of the Letter; for they are like spirit and life without a body; and they are, as has been said above in No. 33, like a palace which has no foundation.
Jesus said: Woe unto you Scribes and Pharisees … for ye. make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.
Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first the inside of the cup and the
platter that the outside of them may be clean also. Matt. xxiii 25, 26.
In this passage the Lord spoke by ultimate things which are containants, and used the words “cup and platter”. By the cup is meant wine, and by wine, the truth of the Word; by the platter is meant food, and by food the good of the Word. To cleanse the inside of the cup and of the platter signifies to purify the interiors, which relate to the will and thought, and thus to love and faith, by means of the Word. That the outside may be clean also, signifies that the exteriors may be purified; and the exteriors are deeds and words, for these derive their essence from the interiors. sRef Luke@16 @19 S3′ sRef Luke@16 @20 S3′  Again,
Jesus said: There was a certain rich man, who was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day:
And there was a certain beggar, named Lazarus, who was laid at his gate, full of sores. Luke xvi 19, 20.
In this passage also the Lord spoke by natural things, which were correspondences, and contained spiritual things. By the rich man is meant the Jewish nation, called rich because they possessed the Word, which contains spiritual riches. By the purple and fine linen with which the rich man was clothed are signified the good and truth of the Word, by the purple its good, and by the fine linen its truth. By faring sumptuously every day is signified the delight of the Jewish nation in having the Word and reading it. By the beggar Lazarus are meant the Gentiles, who do not possess the Word. By Lazarus lying at the gate of the rich man, full of sores, is meant that the Gentiles were despised and rejected by the Jews.
 The Gentiles are meant by Lazarus, because the Lord loved the Gentiles as He loved Lazarus, whom He raised from the dead, John xi 3, 5, 36; who is called His friend, John xi 11; and who reclined at table with Him, John xii 2.
From these two passages it is evident that the truths and goods of the sense of the Letter of the Word are like vessels, and like the clothing of unveiled truth and good, which lie concealed in the spiritual and celestial senses of the Word.
(1) The foundations of the wall of Jerusalem.
(2) The Urim and Thummim on Aaron’s ephod.
(3) The Garden of Eden, in which the king of Tyre had been.
(4) Also the curtains and veils of the Tabernacle.
(5) And the external things of the Temple at Jerusalem.
(6) But in its glory, the Lord when He was transfigured.
The angel measured the wall of the city Jerusalem, an hundred and forty-four cubits, which was the measure of a man, that is, of the angel … And the wall had twelve foundations, garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst. Rev. xxi , 17-20.
By the number one hundred and forty-four are signified all the truths and goods of the Church from doctrine derived from the sense of the Letter of the Word. The same is signified by twelve. By a man is signified intelligence; by an angel, Divine truth from which this is derived; by measurement is signified their quality; by the wall, and by its foundations, the sense of the Letter of the Word; and by the precious stones, the truths and goods of the Word in their order, from which is doctrine, and by means of doctrine, the Church.
They shall make the ephod … of blue, and of purple, of scarlet doubledyed and fine twined linen … And they shall make the breastplate of judgment … after the work of the ephod … and thou shalt set it in settings of stone, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a ruby, a topaz and an emerald: the second row shall be a chrysoprasus, a sapphire and a diamond; the third row a lapis-lazuli, an agate and an amethyst; and the fourth row a beryl, a sardius and a jasper…. The stones shall be according to the names of the sons (A.V. Children) of Israel; the engravings of the signet shall be according to the name of every one for the twelve tribes…. And Aaron shall bear on the breastplate of judgment the Urim and Thummim … and they shall be upon Aaron’s heart, when he goeth in before Jehovah. Exod. xxviii 6, 15-21, , 30.
 What the garments of Aaron, his ephod, robe, coat, mitre and girdle represented is explained in the ARCANA CAELESTIA on this chapter of Exodus; where it is shown that by the ephod was represented Divine Truth in its ultimate. By the precious stones upon it were represented truths transparent from good; by the twelve precious stones, all ultimate truths transparent from the good of love, in their order. By the twelve tribes of Israel, all things of the Church; by the breastplate, Divine Truth from Divine Good; and by the Urim and Thummim, the brilliancy of Divine Truth from Divine Good in ultimates: for Urim is a shining fire, and Thummim brilliancy in the angelic language, and integrity in the Hebrew. It is also shown that responses were given by the variegations of light, and at the same time by tacit perception, or by a living voice; with many other particulars.  From this it may be evident that by these precious stones were also signified truths from good in the ultimate sense of the Word; and that by no other means are responses given from heaven, because in that sense is the Divine proceeding in its fulness.
That precious stones and diadems signify Divine truths in their ultimates, such as are the truths of the sense of the Letter of the Word, has been made clearly manifest to me from the precious stones and diadems in the spiritual world with angels and spirits there, whom I have seen wearing them; and I have also seen them in their caskets. It was granted me to know that these corresponded to truths in ultimates; indeed, that hence also they have their origin and appearance. Because of this signification of diamonds and precious stones they were also seen by John
Upon the head of the dragon. Rev. xii 3;
Upon the horns of the beast. Rev. xiii 1;
And there were precious stones on the harlot who sat on the scarlet beast. Rev. xvii 4.
These precious stones were seen upon them because by them are signified those in the Christian world with whom is the Word.
It is written in Ezekiel,
King of Tyre, thou sealest up thy sum, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. Thou hast been in Eden, the Garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the ruby, the topaz and the diamond; the beryl, the sardonyx and the jasper; the sapphire, the chrysoprasus and the emerald, and gold. Ezek. xxviii 12, 13.
By Tyre in the Word are signified the cognitions of truth and good; by the king is signified the truth of the Church; by the Garden of Eden are signified wisdom and intelligence from the Word; and by precious stones are signified truths translucent from good, such as are in the sense of the Letter of the Word. Because this is the signification of those stones therefore they are called his covering; and it may be seen in a preceding article that the sense of the Letter covers the interior things of the Word.
Now, because external things derive their essence from internal things, and both of these derive theirs from what is inmost, which in the tabernacle was the Law, therefore, the holy things of the Word were represented and signified by all things belonging to the tabernacle. It follows, therefore, that the ultimates of the tabernacle, namely, its curtains and its veils, thus its coverings and its containants, signified the ultimates of the Word, which are the truths and goods of the sense of the Letter. Because such things were signified, therefore,
All the curtains and veils were made of fine twined linen of blue and purple, and scarlet double-dyed with cherubim. Exod. xxvi 1, 31, 36.
What was represented and signified, in general and in particular, by the tabernacle and everything in it, is explained in the ARCANA CAELESTIA on this chapter of Exodus. It is there shown that the curtains and veils represented the external things of heaven and the Church, thus also the external things of the Word. Further, that fine linen signified truth from a spiritual origin; blue, truth from a celestial origin; purple, celestial good; scarlet double-dyed, spiritual good; and cherubim, the guards of the interiors of the Word.
Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up … But He spake of the temple of His body. John ii 19, 21;
and where the Lord is meant, the Word also is meant, because He is the Word. Now, since the interior things of the temple represented the interior things of heaven and the Church, thus also of the Word, therefore its exterior things represented and signified the exterior things of heaven and the Church, thus also the exterior things of the Word, which belong to the sense of the Letter. Concerning the exterior things of the temple it is written:
That they were built of stone, whole and unhewn, and of cedar within; and that all its walls within were carved with cherubim, palm trees and open flowers; and that the floor was overlaid with gold. 1 Kings vi 7, 29, 30.
By all these things are also signified the externals of the Word, which are the holy things of the sense of its Letter.
That His face did shine as the sun, and His raiment became like light;
And … there appeared Moses and Elias talking with Him …
A bright cloud overshadowed the disciples; and a voice was heard out of the cloud, saying This is my beloved Son … hear ye Him. Matt. xvii 1-5.
I have been informed that the Lord on this occasion represented the Word. His face, which shone as the sun, represented His Divine Good; His raiment, which became like light, His Divine Truth. Moses and Elias represented the historical and the prophetical Word-Moses, the Word written by him, and in general the historical Word; and Elias, the prophetical Word. The bright cloud, which overshadowed the disciples, represented the Word in the sense of the Letter. Therefore, out of this cloud a voice was heard, saying, This is my beloved Son … hear ye Him, as all declarations and responses are only made by means of ultimates such as are in the sense of the Letter of the Word; for they are made in fulness from the Lord.
Hereafter shall ye see the Son of Man sitting on the right hand of power and coming in the clouds of heaven. Matt. xxvi 64; Mark xiv 62.
The Son of Man, is the Lord as to the Word; the clouds of heaven are the Word in the sense of the Letter; and sitting at the right hand of God means omnipotence through the Word; as also in Mark xvi 19.
In the Jewish Church the Nazirites represented the power of the Lord from the ultimates of truth. So also did Samson, of whom it is said that he was a Nazirite from his mother’s womb; and that his power lay in his hair. Moreover, by Nazirite and Naziriteship is signified hair. sRef Judg@16 @17 S3′  He himself made it clear that his strength lay in his hair when he said:
There hath not come a razor upon mine head: for I have been a Nazirite from my mother’s womb: if I be shaven then my strength will go from me, and I shall become weak, and be like any other man. Judges xvi 17.
No one can know why the Naziriteship, by which is signified the hair, was instituted, and why Samson’s strength was from his hair, unless he knows what is signified in the Word by the head. The head signifies heavenly wisdom which angels and men have from the Lord by means of Divine Truth. Consequently, the hair of the head signifies heavenly wisdom in ultimates, and also Divine Truth in ultimates. sRef Rev@1 @14 S4′ sRef Num@6 @6 S4′ sRef Num@6 @20 S4′ sRef Num@6 @12 S4′ sRef Num@6 @4 S4′ sRef Num@6 @5 S4′ sRef Num@6 @10 S4′ sRef Num@6 @19 S4′ sRef Num@6 @18 S4′ sRef Num@6 @11 S4′ sRef Num@6 @9 S4′ sRef Num@6 @7 S4′ sRef Num@6 @21 S4′ sRef Num@6 @8 S4′ sRef Num@6 @3 S4′ sRef Num@6 @14 S4′ sRef Num@6 @16 S4′ sRef Num@6 @15 S4′ sRef Num@6 @1 S4′ sRef Num@6 @2 S4′ sRef Lev@10 @6 S4′ sRef Num@6 @13 S4′ sRef Num@6 @17 S4′  Because this was signified by hair from correspondence with the heavens, it was therefore ordained as a law for the Nazirites,
That they should not shave the hair of their head, because it was the Naziriteship of God upon their head. Num. vi 1-21.
For the same reason it was also ordained
That the high priest and his son should not shave their head, lest they should die, and wrath should come upon the whole house of Israel. Lev. x 6.
 Since the hair, on account of this signification grounded in correspondence, was so holy, therefore the Son of Man, who is the Lord as to the Word, is described even to His hairs,
Which were white like wool, as white as snow. Rev. i 14.
So also the Ancient of Days is described in Daniel, vii 9.
On this subject something may also be seen above, No. 35. In short the power of Divine Truth, or the Word, is in the sense of the Letter, because the Word in that sense is in its fulness; and because the angels of the Lord’s two kingdoms and men are simultaneously in that sense.
The Doctrine of the Church must be taken from the sense of the Letter of the Word, and be confirmed by it
It was shown in the previous article that the Word in the sense of the Letter is in its fulness, its sanctity and its power; and since the Lord is the Word, for He is the All of the Word, it follows that the Lord is eminently present in that sense, teaching and enlightening man from it. Proof of this will be given in due order as follows:
1. Without doctrine, the Word is unintelligible.
2. Doctrine must be taken from the sense of the Letter of the Word.
3. But Divine Truth, which is to be the source of doctrine, is manifest only to those who are enlightened by the Lord.
That Jehovah repents. Exod. xxxii 12, 14; Jonah iii 9, iv 2;
It is also said
That Jehovah does not repent. Num. xxiii 19; 1 Sam. xv 29.
These passages cannot be reconciled without doctrine. It is said
That Jehovah visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation. Num. xiv 18;
and it is said
That a father shall not die for a son, neither a son for a father, but every one shall die in his own sin. Deut. xxiv 16.
In the light of doctrine these passages are not contradictory, but are in perfect agreement.
sRef Matt@7 @7 S3′ sRef John@15 @7 S3′ sRef Matt@7 @8 S3′  Jesus says:
Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you; for everyone that asketh shall receive, and he that seeketh shall find, and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. Matt. vii 7, 8; xxi 21, 22.
Without doctrine it might be believed that everyone will receive what he asks; but from doctrine it is believed that what is given is whatever a man asks not of himself but from the Lord; for this also the Lord teaches:
If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you. John xv 7.
sRef Matt@5 @3 S4′ sRef Luke@6 @20 S4′  The Lord says:
Blessed are the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of God. Luke vi 20.
Without doctrine it might be supposed that heaven is for the poor, and not for the rich; but doctrine teaches that the poor in spirit are meant, for the Lord says:
Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Matt. v 3.
sRef Matt@7 @1 S5′ sRef Matt@7 @2 S5′ sRef John@7 @24 S5′  The Lord says:
Judge not, that ye be not judged.
For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged. Matt. vii 1, 2; Luke vi 37.
Without doctrine this might be quoted to prove that it ought not to be said of evil that it is evil, thus that judgment must not be passed that a wicked man is wicked; whereas according to doctrine one may pass judgment, provided it is just, for the Lord says:
Judge righteous judgment. John vii 24.
sRef Matt@23 @10 S6′ sRef Matt@23 @8 S6′ sRef Matt@23 @9 S6′  Jesus says:
Be not ye called teacher (A.V. Rabbi): for one is your teacher (A.V. Master), even Christ.
And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.
Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ. Matt. xxiii 8, 9, 10.
Without doctrine it might appear that we may not call anyone teacher, father, or master; but from doctrine it is known that we may do so in the natural sense, but not in the spiritual.
sRef Matt@19 @28 S7′  Jesus said to the disciples:
When the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. Matt. xix 28.
From these words it might be concluded that the disciples were also to judge, whereas they cannot judge anyone. Doctrine therefore will explain this mystery (arcanum) by teaching that the Lord alone, who is omniscient and who knows the hearts of all, will judge and can judge; and that by His twelve disciples is meant the Church as to all the truths and goods which it possesses from the Lord by means of the Word; therefore doctrine concludes that it is these which will judge everyone, according to the Lord’s words in John iii 17, 18, xii 47- 48.
sRef Zech@10 @6 S8′ sRef Zech@2 @10 S8′ sRef Zech@10 @7 S8′ sRef Zech@2 @11 S8′ sRef Jer@31 @33 S8′ sRef Zech@10 @4 S8′ sRef Zech@10 @3 S8′ sRef Joel@3 @20 S8′ sRef Joel@3 @19 S8′ sRef Zech@2 @12 S8′ sRef Joel@3 @18 S8′ sRef Jer@31 @27 S8′ sRef Zech@8 @23 S8′ sRef Jer@31 @31 S8′  He who reads the Word without doctrine does not know how those things are consistent which are said in the Prophets concerning the Jewish nation and concerning Jerusalem. It is said that the Church is to remain with that nation, with its seat in that city, for ever; as in the following passages;
Jehovah will visit His flock, the house of Judah, and shall make them as His goodly horse in the battle.
Out of Him came forth the corner [stone], out of Him the nail, and out of Him the battle-bow. Zech. x 3, 4, 6, 7.
Lo, I come, that I may dwell in the midst of thee.
And Jehovah shall inherit Judah … and shall choose Jerusalem again. Zech. ii 10, 12.
It shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk …
But Judah shall dwell for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation. Joel iii 18, 20.
Behold, the days come … that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man.
That I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah. . .
And this shall be the covenant … I will put my law in their inward parts and write it in their heart; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. Jer. xxxi 27, 31, 33.
In that day … ten men, out of all the languages of the nations, shall take hold of the skirt of a man that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you; for we have heard that God is with you. Zech. viii 23.
So also elsewhere, as in Isaiah xliv 24, 26; xlix 22, 23; lxv 9;
lxvi 20, 22; Jeremiah iii 18; xxiii 5; 1, 19, 20; Nahum i 15; Malachi iii 4.
These passages treat of the Coming of the Lord, and what would then come to pass.
sRef Deut@32 @33 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @34 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @35 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @29 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @30 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @32 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @31 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @28 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @26 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @23 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @22 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @25 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @24 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @20 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @27 S9′ sRef Deut@32 @21 S9′  But the contrary is said in many other places of which this passage only will be quoted:
I will hide my face from them, I will see what their end shall be: for they are a very forward generation, children in whom is no faith.
I said, I would scatter them into the uttermost corners, I would make the remembrance of them to cease from among men:
For they are a nation void of counsel, neither is there any understanding in them …
Their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah: their grapes are grapes of gall, their clusters are bitter:
Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps.
Is not this laid up in store with me, sealed up among my treasures?
To me belongeth vengeance and recompence. Deut. xxxii 20-5.
Such are the things said of that nation; and similar things are said elsewhere; as in Isa. iii 1, 2, 8; v 3, 6; Deut. ix 5, 6; Matt. xii 39.; xxiii 27, 28; John viii 44; and in Jeremiah and Ezekiel throughout.
These passages however, which seem to be contradictory, will appear to be in perfect accord from doctrine. For doctrine teaches that by Israel and by Judah in the Word are not meant Israel and Judah but the Church in two senses; in one sense, that it is devastated, and in another, that it is to be established by the Lord. There are other passages in the Word similar to these, and from them it is clearly manifest that the Word without doctrine is unintelligible.
Doctrine, however, must not only be taken from the sense of the Letter of the Word, but it must also be confirmed by that sense. For if not confirmed by it, the truth of doctrine appears as if it were only man’s intelligence in it and not the Lord’s Divine Wisdom; and thus doctrine would be like a house in the air, and not on the ground, and consequently without a foundation.
At that day ye shall know … that ye are in me, and I in you.
He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he is it that loveth me … and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him …
And I will come to him and make my abode with him. John xiv 20, 21, 23;
And in Matthew:
Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Matt. v 8.
These are they who are enlightened when they read the Word, and with whom the Word is lucid and transparent.
That they have eyes, and see not, and ears, and do not understand. Matt. xiii 14, 15.
For nothing blinds man but his proprium and the confirmation of falsity. The proprium of man is self-love and consequent pride of self-intelligence; and the confirmation of falsity is thick darkness counterfeiting light. The light of such persons is merely natural, and their vision like that of one who sees spectres in the dark.
 Several of these were examined as to the love from which they had studied the Word; and it was found that some had done so from self-love, that they might appear great in the world, and that they might be held in reverence as leaders of the Church; and others from love of the world, that they might acquire wealth. When these were examined as to what they knew from the Word, it was discovered that they did not know a single genuine truth, but only what may be called truth falsified, which in itself is falsity. They were informed that this was because they themselves and the world were the ends in view, or what is the same, their loves and not the Lord and heaven. For when themselves and the world are the ends in view, while they read the Word the mind is immersed in the things of self and the world, and therefore men constantly think from their proprium, which is in thick darkness respecting everything relating to heaven. In this state man cannot be withdrawn by the Lord from his proprium and so be raised into the light of heaven; and consequently he cannot receive any influx from the Lord through heaven.
 I have also seen such persons admitted into heaven; when, however, they were discovered there to be without truths, they were cast out; but there still remained with them the conceit that they merited heaven. It is different with those who have studied the Word from the affection of knowing the truth because it is truth, and because it is serviceable to the uses not only of their own life but also the life of their neighbour. I have seen these persons raised up into heaven and thus into the light in which Divine Truth is there, and then at the same time exalted into angelic wisdom and its happiness which is life eternal.
By the sense of the Letter of the Word there is conjunction with the Lord, and association with the angels
There is conjunction with the Lord by means of the Word because the Word treats of Him alone; and by it the Lord is the All in all things of the Word, and He is called the Word, as was shown in THE DOCTRINE OF THE LORD. There is conjunction in the sense of the Letter because the Word in that sense is in its fulness, its sanctity and its power, as was shown above in its own chapter. The conjunction is not apparent to man; but it is in the affection of truth and in the perception of it, and thus in the love and faith of Divine Truth with him.
From the animal kingdom: When food has been converted into chyle, the blood-vessels extract from it their blood, the nervous fibres their juices, and the substances which are the origins of fibres, their animal spirit.
From the vegetable kingdom: A tree with trunk, branches, leaves and fruit is supported by its root, by which it draws from the ground a grosser sap for the trunk, branches and leaves, a purer for the fleshy part of the fruit, and the purest for the seeds within the fruit.
From the mineral kingdom: In certain places in the bowels of the earth, there are mineral ores, impregnated with gold, silver and iron; and from exhalations hidden in the earth gold, silver and iron derives each its own element.
 “Thou shalt honour thy father and thy mother.” By father and mother a man understands the father and mother on earth, as also all who are in the place of father and mother; and by honouring, he understands holding them in honour and obeying them. But a spiritual angel by father understands the Lord, and by mother the Church; and by honouring he understands loving. A celestial angel, however, understands by father the Lord’s Divine Love, by mother His Divine Wisdom, and by honouring, doing good from Him.
 “Thou shalt not steal.” By stealing, a man understands stealing, defrauding, and depriving a neighbour of his property under any pretext whatever. A spiritual angel understands by stealing depriving others of the truths of their faith and the goods of charity, by means of falsity and evil. A celestial angel, however, by stealing understands attributing to oneself what belongs to the Lord, and claiming for oneself His righteousness and merit.
 “Thou shalt not commit adultery.” By committing adultery a man understands committing adultery, commiting whoredom, indulging in obscene practices, lascivious conversation, and filthy thoughts. A spiritual angel understands by committing adultery, the adulteration of the good of the Word and the falsification of its truth. A celestial angel, however, understands by committing adultery the denial of the Lord’s Divinity and the profanation of the Word.
 “Thou shalt not kill.” By killing, a man understands also cherishing hatred and thirsting for revenge even to death. A spiritual angel understands for killing, acting like a devil, and destroying the soul of a man. A celestial angel, however, understands for killing, hating the Lord and those things which are the Lord’s.
 “Thou shalt not bear false witness.” By bearing false witness, a man understands lying, and defamation. A spiritual angel under stands, for bearing false witness, declaring and persuading that falsity is truth, and evil good, and the reverse. A celestial angel, however, understands, for bearing false witness, blaspheming the Lord and the Word.
 From these examples it may be seen how the spiritual and the celestial are unfolded and drawn from the natural sense of the Word which contains them. And what is wonderful, the angels draw out their own senses without knowing what the man’s thoughts are. Still, the thoughts of angels and men make one by correspondence, like end, cause and effect; for ends actually exist in the celestial kingdom, causes in the spiritual kingdom and effects in the natural kingdom. Conjunction itself by correspondences is such from creation. In this way, then, association with angels results through the instrumentality of the Word.
The words that I speak unto you, they are spirit and they are life. John vi 63.
The water that I shall give you (A.V. him) shall be a well of water springing up into everlasting life. John iv 14.
Man doth (A.V. shall) not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God. Matt. iv 4.
Labour for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of Man shall give unto you. John vi 27.
The Word is in all the heavens, and is the source of angelic wisdom
That the Word exists in the heavens has hitherto been unknown. Indeed, it could not be known as long as the Church was ignorant of the fact that angels and spirits are men, like men in the world, and that they have things similar in all respects to those which men have. The only difference is that angels, are spiritual and all things with them have a spiritual origin, while men in this world are natural, and all things with them have a natural origin. As long as men did not know this they could not know that the Word exists also in the heavens, and is read by angels there, as well as by spirits beneath the heavens. Lest this should remain unknown for ever, it has been granted me to be in the company of angels and spirits, to converse with them and to see their surroundings, and afterwards to relate the many things which I heard and saw. This I have done in the work HEAVEN AND HELL, published in London in the year 1758. In that work it may be seen that angels and spirits are men, and that they are surrounded by all things in abundance which surround men in this world. That angels and spirits are men may be seen in that work, Nos. 73-77, and Nos. 453-456; and that they are surrounded by things similar to those which surround men in this world, Nos. 170-190. Also that they have Divine worship, and preaching in their temples. Nos. 221-227; with writings and books, Nos. 258-264; as well as the Word, No. 259.
 Since the writing of angels is of this nature, there are therefore no names of persons and places in their Word as in ours; but instead of the names there are the things which these signify. Thus instead of Moses there is the historic Word and instead of Elias the prophetic Word; instead of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, there is the Lord as to the Divine and the Divine Human; instead of Aaron, the priesthood and instead of David, the kingship, both of the Lord; instead of the names of the twelve sons of Jacob, or of the tribes of Israel, there are the various things pertaining to heaven and the Church; and there are similar things instead of the names of the twelve disciples.
Instead of Zion and Jerusalem there is the Church as to the Word and as to doctrine from the Word; instead of the Land of Canaan there is the Church; and instead of the cities there on this side and beyond Jordan there are various things pertaining to the Church and its doctrine; and so with all the other names. It is the same with numbers; these are not found in the copies of the Word in heaven, but instead of them, the things to which the numbers in our Word correspond. From this it may be evident that the Word in heaven is a Word corresponding to our Word, and therefore that they are one; for correspondences make one.
The Church exists from the Word, and it is such as is its understanding of the Word
There is no doubt that the Church exists from the Word; for the Word is Divine Truth itself Nos. 1-4; the doctrine of the Church is from the Word Nos. 50-61; and conjunction with the Lord is effected by means of the Word. It may, however, be doubted that it is the understanding of the Word which constitutes the Church, as there are some who believe that they belong to the Church because they have the Word, read it or hear it read by a preacher and know something of the sense of the Letter, although they do not know how certain passages in it are to be understood; while some regard this of no importance. It will be necessary, then, to prove that it is not the Word, but the understanding of it, which constitutes the Church, and that the quality of the Church is according to the understanding of the Word with those who are in the Church. This is proved by the following considerations.
The kingdom of God is within you. Luke xvii 21.
By the kingdom of God is here meant the Lord, and the Church from Him.
sRef Hos@0 @0 S2′  The understanding of the Word, both true and false, is described in the Prophets, particularly in Hosea, by Ephraim; for the understanding of the Word is signified in the Word by Ephraim. Since the understanding of the Word constitutes the Church, therefore Ephraim is called
A dear son, and a pleasant child. Jer. xxxi 20;
The first born. Jer. xxxi 9;
The strength of the head of Jehovah. Ps. lx 7; cviii 8;
A mighty man. Zech. x 7
Filled with the bow. Zech. ix 13
And the sons of Ephraim are called
Armed, and shooters with the bow. Ps. lxxviii 9;
for a bow signifies doctrine from the Word fighting against falsities. For the same reason also
Ephraim was transferred to Israel’s right hand and blessed; and accepted in place of Reuben. Gen. xlviii 5, 11-15.
For the same reason also
Ephraim with his brother Manasseh, under the name of their father Joseph, was exalted above all the rest by Moses in his blessing of the sons of Israel. Deut. xxxiii 13-17.
sRef Deut@33 @17 S3′ sRef Hos@5 @13 S3′ sRef Deut@33 @16 S3′ sRef Hos@5 @11 S3′ sRef Hos@6 @4 S3′ sRef Hos@5 @12 S3′ sRef Hos@5 @5 S3′ sRef Hos@5 @9 S3′ sRef Hos@5 @14 S3′ sRef Hos@0 @0 S3′ sRef Hos@9 @3 S3′ sRef Deut@33 @14 S3′ sRef Deut@33 @15 S3′ sRef Deut@33 @13 S3′  The nature of the Church when the understanding of the Word is destroyed is also described in the Prophets by Ephraim, particularly in Hosea; as is clear from the following passages:
Israel and Ephraim shall fall together … Ephraim shall be desolate …
Ephraim is oppressed and broken in judgment. I will be unto Ephraim as a lion … I will tear and go away; I will take away, and none shall rescue him. Hosea v 5, 9, 11-14.
O Ephraim, what shall I do unto thee? for your holiness (A.V. goodness) is as a morning cloud, and as the early dew it goeth away. Hosea vi 4.
They shall not dwell in the land of Jehovah; but Ephraim shall return to Egypt, and shall eat an unclean thing in Assyria. Hosea ix 3.
 The land of Jehovah is the Church; Egypt is the scientific principle of the natural man, and Assyria is reasoning therefrom; by these two the Word as to the understanding of it is falsified; and therefore it is said that Ephraim shall return to Egypt, and shall eat an unclean thing in Assyria.
sRef Hos@12 @1 S5′
 Ephraim feedeth on wind, and followeth after the east wind: he daily increaseth lies and desolation; and he maketh (A.V. they do make) a covenant with the Assyrians, and oil is carried into Egypt. Hosea xii 1.
To feed on wind, to follow after the east wind and to increase lies and desolation, is to falsify truths and so destroy the Church. sRef Hos@6 @10 S6′ sRef Hos@5 @3 S6′  The same is also signified by the whoredom. of Ephraim; for whoredom. signifies the falsification of the understanding of the Word, that is, of its genuine truth, as in these passages:
I know Ephraim … he has altogether committed whoredom, and Israel is defiled. Hosea v 3.
I have seen an horrible thing in the house of Israel: there is the whoredom of Ephraim, and Israel is defiled. Hosea vi 10.
Israel is the Church itself, and Ephraim, the understanding of the Word from which and according to which the Church exists; therefore it is said that Ephraim commits whoredom and Israel is defiled.
sRef Hos@0 @0 S7′ sRef Hos@11 @8 S7′  As the Church among the Jews was totally destroyed by falsifications of the Word, therefore it is thus said of Ephraim:
I will give thee up, Ephraim, I will deliver thee up, Israel, I will make thee as Admah, I will set thee as Zeboim. Hosea xi 8.
Now since the Prophet Hosea, from the first chapter to the last, treats of the falsification of the Word and the consequent destruction of the Church, and since by whoredom is signified the falsification of truth in the Word, therefore he was commanded to represent this state of the Church.
By taking a harlot for his wife, and begetting children by her. Hosea i;
and again, by taking a woman who was an adulteress. Hosea iii.
 These passages are quoted that it may be known and proved from the Word that the nature of the Church is according to its understanding of the Word-excellent and precious if its understanding is founded on genuine truths from the Word, but ruined and indeed defiled if founded on truths falsified. In confirmation that by Ephraim is signified the understanding of the Word, and in the opposite sense that understanding falsified from which results the destruction of the Church, the other passages where Ephraim is treated of may be consulted:
As Hosea iv 17, 18; vii 1, 11; viii 9, 11; ix 11-13, 16; x 11; xi 3; xii 1, 8, 14; xiii 1, 12;
Isa. xvii 3; xxviii 1;
Jer. iv 15; xxxi 6, 18;
Ezek. xxxvii 16; xlviii 5;
Zech. ix 10.
In every detail of the Word there is the marriage of the Lord and the Church, and consequently the marriage of good and truth
Hitherto it has been not recognised that there is in every detail of the Word the marriage of the Lord and the Church, and consequently the marriage of good and truth; nor could it be seen, because the spiritual sense of the Word had not been revealed till now, and this sense alone can make this marriage evident. For there are two senses in the Word, called the spiritual and the celestial, concealed within the sense of the Letter; what belongs to the spiritual sense has special reference to the Church, and what belongs to the celestial sense, to the Lord. The content also of the spiritual sense has reference to Divine Truth, and the content of the celestial sense to Divine Good; and consequently there is in the sense of the Letter of the Word this marriage. However, this is apparent only to those who, from the spiritual and celestial senses of the Word, know the signification of words and names, some words and names being predicated of good, some of truth, and some including both references. Therefore without a knowledge of this signification, this marriage in every detail of the Word cannot be seen, and consequently this arcanum has not hitherto been discovered.
In the Word also many other things are closely associated, as fire and flame, gold and silver, brass and iron, wood and stone, bread and water, bread and wine, purple and fine linen, and so on. This is because fire, gold, brass, wood, bread and purple signify good, while flame, silver, iron, stone, water, wine and fine linen signify truth. In like manner it is said that men should love God with all the heart and with all the soul; and also that God will create in man a new heart and a new spirit, for heart is used with reference to the good of love, and soul, of truth from that good. There are moreover some expressions which, because they partake of both good and truth, are used by themselves without the addition of others; but these and many other things are evident only to the angels, and to those who, while they perceive the natural sense, understand also the spiritual sense.
* Justice, righteousness: Both these words are used, as in the A.V., to render the Latin word Justitia.
The city … was full of judgment, and righteousness lodged in her. Isa. i 21.
Zion shall be redeemed in righteousness, and they that return of her in judgment. Isa. i 27.
Jehovah of hosts shall be exalted in judgment, and the holy God shall be sanctified in righteousness. Isa. v 16.
He shall sit upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom … to establish it in judgment and in righteousness. Isa. ix 7.
Jehovah shall be exalted; for He dwelleth on high: He hath filled the earth (AN. Zion) with judgment and righteousness. Isa. xxxiii 5.
Thus saith Jehovah, Keep ye judgment, and do justice: for my salvation is near, that my righteousness may be revealed. Isa. lvi 1.
As a nation that did righteousness and forsook not the judgment
of their God: they ask … the judgments of justice. Isa. lviii 2.
Swear by the living Jehovah … in judgment and in righteousness. Jer. iv 2.
Let him that glorieth glory in this …that Jehovah doeth judgment and righteousness in the earth. Jer. ix 24
Execute ye judgment and righteousness …
Woe unto him that buildeth his house without righteousness, and his chambers without judgment. Did not thy father … do judgment and justice, and then it was well with him? Jer. xxii 3, 13, 15.
I will raise unto David a righteous branch, and He shall reign as King… and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. Jer. xxiii 5; xxxiii 15.
If a man be just, and do judgment and justice. Ezek. xviii 5.
If the wicked man turn from his sin, and do judgment and justice … It shall not be mentioned unto him: he hath done judgment and justice; he shall surely live. Ezek. xxxiii 14, 16, 19.
I will betroth thee unto me for ever … in righteousness and in judgment, and in loving-kindness, and in mercies. Hosea ii 19.
Let judgment run down as water, and righteousness as a mighty stream. Amos v 24.
Ye have turned judgment into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into hemlock. Amos A 12.
Jehovah will plead my cause, and execute judgment for me: He will bring me forth to the light, and I shall behold His righteousness. Micah vii 9.
O Jehovah, thy righteousness is like the mountains of God; thy judgments are a great deep. Ps. xxxvi 6.
Jehovah shall bring forth thy righteousness as the light; and thy
judgment as the noon-day. Ps. xxxvii 6.
Jehovah shall judge His (AN. thy) people in righteousness and His (A.V. thy) poor in judgment. Ps. lxxii 2.
Justice and judgment are the support (A.V. habitation) of thy throne. Ps. lxxxix 14.
When I shall have learned the judgments of thy righteousness… Seven times a day do I praise thee because of the judgments of thy righteousness. Ps. cxix 7, 164.
Gad executes the justice of Jehovah, and His judgment with Israel. Deut. xxxiii 21.
The spirit of truth will reprove the world . . . of righteousness and of judgment. John xvi 8, 10, 11; and elsewhere.
Judgment and justice are so often mentioned because judgment is predicated of truths, and justice of good. Therefore by executing judgment and justice is also meant to act from truth and from good. The reason why judgment is predicated of truth and justice of good is, that the Lord’s government in the spiritual kingdom is called judgment, and the Lord’s government in the celestial kingdom is called justice. On this subject see the work HEAVEN AND HELL, Nos. 214, 215. As judgment is predicated of truth, therefore in certain passages we read,
Truth (veritas) and righteousness (justitia). Isa. xi 5; Ps. lxxxv 11; and elsewhere.
Woe to the sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity! Isa. i 4.
The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light … Thou hast multiplied the nation. Isa. ix 2, 3.
O Assyrian, the rod of mine anger . . . I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge. Isa. x 5, 6.
And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the nations (A.V. Gentiles) seek. Isa. xi 10.
Jehovah smote the people … with a continual stroke, He that ruled the nations in anger. Isa. xiv 6.
In that time shall the present be brought unto Jehovah Zebaoth of a people scattered and peeled … a nation meted out and trodden underfoot. Isa. xviii 7.
Therefore shall the strong people glorify thee, the city of the terrible nations shall fear thee. Isa. xxv 3.
Jehovah will destroy … the face of the covering over all people, and the veil that is spread over all nations. Isa. xxv 7.
Come near … ye nations: and hearken, ye people. Isa. xxxiv 1.
I … have called thee … for a covenant to the people, for a light of the nations (A.V. Gentiles). Isa. xlii 6.
Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the people be assembled. Isa. xliii 9.
Behold, I will lift up mine hand to the nations (AN. Gentiles), and set up my standard to the people. Isa. xlix 22.
Behold, I have given Him for a witness to the people, a Leader and Lawgiver to the nations. Isa. lv 4.
Behold, a people cometh from the north country, and a great nation … from the sides of the earth. Jer. vi 22.
Neither will I cause thee to hear (AN. men to hear in thee) the shame of the nations (A.V. the heathen) any more, neither shalt thou bear the reproach of the people any more. Ezek. xxxvi 15.
All people and nations … should serve Him. Dan. vii 14.
Let not the nations (A.V. heathen) use a byword against them, and say among the people, Where is their God? Joel ii 17.
The residue of my people shall spoil them, and the remnant of my nation (A.V. people) shall possess them. Zeph. ii 9.
Many people and numerous (A.V. strong) nations shall come to seek Jehovah Zebaoth in Jerusalem. Zech. viii 22.
Mine eyes have seen thy salvation, Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; A light to lighten the nations (A.V. Gentiles). Luke ii 30, 32.
Thou hast redeemed us… by the blood out of every people and nation. Rev. v 9.
Thou must prophesy again before…peoples and nations. Rev. x 11.
Thou hast made me the head of the nations (A.V. the heathen): a people whom I have not known shall serve me. Ps. xviii 43.
Jehovah bringeth the counsel of the nations (A.V. heathen) to nought; He maketh the devices of the people of none effect. Ps. xxxiii 10.
Thou makest us a byword among the nations (A.V.. the heathen), a shaking of the head among the people. Ps xliv 14.
Jehovah shall subdue the people under us, and the nations under our feet…. God reigneth over the nations (A.V. the heathen): the willing ones (A.V. princes) of the people are called together. Ps. xlvii 3, 8, 9.
Let the people praise thee … and let the nations be glad and sing for joy: for thou shalt judge the people righteously, and lead the nations upon earth. Ps. lxvii 3, 4, 5.
Remember me, Jehovah, with the favour that thou barest unto my people … that I may rejoice in the gladness of thy nations. Ps. cvi 4, 5;
and in other places.
Nations and peoples are mentioned together, because by nations are meant those who are in good, and in the opposite sense, those who are in evil; and by peoples those who are in truths, and in the opposite sense, those who are in falsities. For this reason those who belong to the Lord’s spiritual kingdom are called peoples, and those who belong to His celestial kingdom are called nations; for all in the spiritual kingdom are in truths and consequently in wisdom, while all in the celestial kingdom are in good, and consequently in love.
Behold joy and gladness, slaying the ox. Isa. xxii 13.
They shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away. Isa. xxxv 10; li 11.
Is not … gladness and joy cut off from the house of our God? Joel i 16.
The voice of joy shall cease and the voice of gladness. Jer. vii 34; xxv 10.
The fast of the tenth month shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladness. Zech. viii 19.
That we may rejoice … all our days. Make us glad. Ps. xc 14, 15.
Be glad in Jerusalem, and rejoice in her. Isa. lxvi 10.
Rejoice and be glad, O daugher of Edom. Lam. iv 21.
Let the heavens be glad (A.V. rejoice), and let the earth rejoice (A.V. be glad). Ps. xcvi 11.
Make me to hear joy and gladness. Ps. li 8.
Joy and gladness shall be found in Zion, confession (A.V. thanksgiving) and the voice of melody. Isa. li 3.
There shall be gladness, and many shall rejoice at His birth. Luke i 14.
I will cause to cease … the voice of joy (A.V. mirth), and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom, and the voice of the bride. Jer. vii 34; xvi 9; xxv 10.
Again there shall be heard in this place … the voice of joy, and the voice of gladness; the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride. Jer. xxxiii 10, 11.
sRef Jer@33 @11 S2′ sRef John@3 @29 S2′ sRef Jer@33 @10 S2′  Both joy and gladness are mentioned in these passages because joy relates to good and gladness to truth; or, joy relates to love and gladness to wisdom. For joy pertains to the heart and gladness to the soul; that is, joy pertains to the will and gladness to the understanding. It is evident that the marriage of the Lord and the Church is also involved in these dual expressions, as mention is made of
The voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride. Jer. vii 34; xvi 9; xxv 10; xxxiii 10, 11;
for the Lord is the bridegroom and the Church is the bride.
That the Lord is the bridegroom, may be seen in Matt. ix 15; Mark ii 19, 20; Luke v 35;
and that the Church is the bride, may be seen in Rev. xxi 2, 9; and xxii 17.
Therefore John the Baptist says of Jesus:
He that hath the bride is the bridegroom. John iii 29.
sRef Luke@16 @17 S2′ sRef Matt@5 @18 S2′  They informed me that writing in the third heaven consisted of letters inflected and variously curved each of which contained a certain meaning; that the vowels there indicated sound, which corresponds to affection; that in that heaven they cannot pronounce the vowels i and e, but employ instead of them y and eu; and that the vowels a, o, and u are in use among them, because these have a full sound. They also said that they did not sound any consonants hard, but soft; and for this reason certain Hebrew letters had dots within them, as a sign that they should have a soft pronunciation.
They added that a hardness in sounding letters was in use in the spiritual heaven, because there the angels are in truths, and truth admits of hardness; but good does not, in which are the angels of the celestial or third heaven. They said, moreover, that they had the Word among them written in letters inflected with the upturned flourishes (tittles) which have a meaning of their own. From this it was plain what is signified by these words of the Lord:
One jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the Law, till all be
fulfilled. Matt. v 18;
It is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the Law to fail. Luke xvi 17.
Heresies may be formulated from the sense of the Letter of the Word, but it is harmful to confirm them
It was shown above that the Word cannot be understood without doctrine, and that doctrine is like a lamp to make genuine truths visible. This is because the Word is written by pure correspondences; and consequently many things in it are appearances of truth, and not unveiled truths. Many of these are adapted to the comprehension of the natural, and indeed of the sensual man, yet in such a way that the simple can understand it in simplicity, the intelligent intelligently, and the wise in wisdom. Now since the Word is of this nature, appearances of truth, which are truths veiled, may be taken for unveiled truths; and when these are confirmed, they become falsities. This is done, however, by those who consider themselves to be wise above others, when yet they are not wise; for being wise consists in seeing whether a thing is true before it is confirmed, but not in confirming whatever one pleases. The latter is the practice with those who are by nature strongly inclined to confirming, and who take pride in their own intelligence; but the former obtains with those who love truths and are affected by them because they are truths, and who apply them to the uses of life; for they are enlightened by the Lord and see truths from the light of truth, whereas the others are enlightened by themselves and see falsities from the light of falsities.
 That the sun moves, is an apparent truth; that it does not move, is a genuine truth. Everyone may speak according to the apparent truth, and indeed does so speak; but to think according to it from confirmation (that is it true) blunts and obscures the rational understanding. It is similar with the stars of the starry heaven. The apparent truth is that they also, like the sun, make a daily revolution; and therefore it is said also of the stars that they rise and set. But the genuine truth is that the stars are fixed, and that their firmament is immovable. Nevertheless everyone may speak according to the appearance.
96 [a] The Word is like a garden, a heavenly paradise, in which are delicacies and delights of every kind, delicacies in its fruits and delights in its flowers. In the midst of it there are trees of life, and near by, fountains of living water with forest trees round about the garden. The man who is principled in Divine Truths from doctrine abides in the centre of the garden where are the trees of life, and is in the actual enjoyment of its delicacies and delights. He, however, who is principled in truths, not from doctrine but only from the sense of the Letter, lives in the outskirts of the garden, and sees only the forest; but he who is in the doctrine of a false religion and has confirmed its falsity in his own mind, dwells not even in the forest, but in a sandy plain beyond it, where there is not even grass. That such are the respective states of those men after death will be confirmed in its proper place.
sRef Gen@3 @23 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @24 S2′  This guard is signified by the cherubim, and is also described by them in the Word. This is signified by the cherubim which, after the expulsion of Adam and his wife from the Garden of Eden, were placed at the entrance. Of these we read:
When Jehovah God drove out the man, He placed at (ab) the east of the Garden of Eden cherubim and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. Gen. iii 23, 24.
By the cherubim is signified a guard; by the way of the tree of life is signified access to the Lord, which men obtain through the Word; and by the flaming sword turning every way is signified Divine Truth in ultimates which, like the Word in the sense of the Letter, can be so turned.
sRef Ex@25 @19 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @18 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @29 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @21 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @32 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @35 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @20 S3′  The same is meant by
The cherubim of gold placed over the extremities of the mercy-seat which was above the ark in the tabernacle. Exod. xxv 18-21.
Because this was signified by the cherubim therefore
The Lord talked with Moses between the cherubim. Exod. xxv 22; xxxvii 9; Num. vii 89.
It may be seen above in Nos. 37-49 that the Lord does not speak with men except in fulness, and the Word in the sense of the Letter is Divine Truth in fulness; and consequently the Lord talked with Moses between the cherubim. Nothing else was signified by
The cherubim upon the curtains of the tabernacle and upon the veils there. Exod. xxvi 1, 31.
for the curtains and the veils of the tabernacle signified the ultimates of heaven and the Church, and consequently of the Word, as may be seen above No. 46. Nothing else was signified by
The cherubim in the midst of the temple at Jerusalem. 1 Kings vi 23, 28;
Also by the cherubim carved on the walls and doors of the temple. 1 Kings vi 29, 32, 35;
And also by the cherubim in the new temple. Ezek. xli 18-20.
See also above No. 47.
sRef Ezek@28 @13 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @9 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @12 S4′ sRef Ps@99 @1 S4′ sRef Ps@80 @1 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @10 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @14 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @16 S4′  Since cherubim signified a guard lest the Lord, heaven and Divine Truth as it is interiorly within the Word, should be approached immediately instead of mediately through ultimates, therefore it is said of the King of Tyre:
Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.
Thou hast been in Eden, the Garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering …
Thou, O cherub, art the spreading forth of the covering (A.V. art the anointed cherub that covereth) …
I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the
stones of fire. Ezek. xxviii 12, 13, 14, 16.
Tyre signifies the Church as to the cognitions of truth and good; and hence its king signifies the Word which is the source of cognitions. It is evident that the king here signifies the Word in its ultimate, that is, the sense of the Letter, and the cherubim a guard, for it is said: “Thou sealest up the sum, every precious stone was thy covering; thou, O cherub, art the spreading forth of the covering”; and “O covering cherub”. By the precious stones also mentioned here are signified the truths of the sense of the Letter of the Word, as may be seen above No. 45.
Since by the cherubim is signified the ultimate of Divine Truth, and also a guard, therefore it is said in the Psalms:
Jehovah bowed the heavens, and came down … And he rode upon a cherub. Ps. xviii 9, 10.
O Shepherd of Israel … thou that dwellest upon the cherubim, shine forth. Ps. lxxxi 1.
Jehovah sitteth on the cherubim. Ps. xcix 1.
To ride upon the cherubim, to dwell upon them and to sit on them, means on the ultimate sense of the Word.
 Divine Truth in the Word and the nature of that Truth are described by the cherubim in Ezekiel i, ix, and x. But as no one can know what is signified by the particulars of their description except one to whom the spiritual sense has been opened, therefore it has been revealed to me what is signified in brief by all those things which are said of the cherubim in the first chapter of Ezekiel, as:
The external Divine sphere of the Word is described. v 4.
This is represented as a man. v 5.
As conjoined with spiritual and celestial things. v 6.
The nature of the natural of the Word. v 7.
The nature of the spiritual and the celestial of the Word conjoined with its natural. v 8, 9.
The Divine Love of celestial, spiritual and natural good and truth therein, separately and together. v 10, 11.
They look to one end. v 12.
The sphere of the Word from the Lord’s Divine Good and Divine Truth, from which the Word lives. v 13, 14.
The doctrine of good and truth in the Word and from the Word. v 15-21.
The Divine of the Lord above it and in it, v 22, 23;
And from it. v 24, 25.
The Lord is above the heavens. v 26.
And to Him belong Divine Love and Divine Wisdom. v 27, 28.
These summaries have been compared with the Word in heaven, and are in conformity with it.
The Lord came into the world that He might fulfil all things of the Word, and thereby become Divine Truth, or the Word, even in ultimates
The Lord came into the World that He might fulfil all things of the Word. This may be seen in THE DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE LORD, No. 8-11. That He thus became Divine Truth, or the Word, even in ultimates, is meant by the following passage in John:
The Word was made flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. John i 14.
To be made flesh is to become the Word in ultimates; and what the Lord was, as the Word in ultimates, He showed to His disciples when He was transfigured,
Matt. xvii 2-9; Mark ix 2-9; and Luke ix 28-36.
It is there said that Moses and Elias appeared in glory; and by Moses and Elias is meant the Word, as may be seen above No. 48. The Lord as the Word in ultimates is also described by John in the Revelation i 13-16, where all the details in the description of Him signify the ultimates of Divine Truth, or of the Word. Before this the Lord was indeed the Word, but in first principles; for it is said:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. This was in the beginning with God. John i 1, 2.
When, however, the Word was made flesh, then the Lord became the Word in ultimates also; and from this fact He is called
The First and the Last. Rev. i 8, 11, 17; ii 8; xxi 6; xxii 12, 13.
Previous to the Word which is now in the world, there was a Word which is lost
Previous to the Word which was given by Moses and the Prophets to the Israelitish nation worship by sacrifices was known, and men prophesied from the mouth of Jehovah. This is evident from what is recorded in the Books of Moses. That worship by sacrifices was known may be seen from the following references:
The Children of Israel were commanded to destroy the altars of the nations, break their images and cut down their groves. Exod. xxxiv 13; Deut. vii 5; and xii 3.
Israel in Shittim began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab;
And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods, and the people ate with them, and bowed themselves down to their gods.
And especially joined themselves to Baal-peor; and on that account the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Israel. Num. xxv 1-3.
And Balaam, who was from Syria, caused altars to be built, and sacrificed oxen and sheep. Num. xxii 40; xxiii 1, 2, 14, 29, 30.
sRef Num@24 @17 S2′ sRef Num@22 @40 S2′  That men also prophesied from the mouth of Jehovah is evident from the prophecies of Balaam. Num. xxiii 7-10, 18-24; xxiv 3-9, 16-24.
He also prophesied concerning the Lord, that a Star should rise out of Jacob, and a Sceptre out of Israel. Num. xxiv 17.
And he prophesied from the mouth of Jehovah. Num. xxii 13, 18; xxiii 3, 5, 8, 16, 26; xxiv i 13.
From these passages it is clear that among the nations there was Divine worship similar to that instituted by Moses among the Israelitish nation.
sRef Gen@14 @19 S3′ sRef Ps@110 @4 S3′ sRef Gen@14 @18 S3′ sRef Gen@14 @20 S3′  That such worship existed before the time of Abram is in some measure evident from the words of Moses in Deut. xxxii 7, 8; but it is more evident from what is said of Melchizedek, king of Salem:
He brought out bread and wine, and blessed Abram; and Abram gave him tithes of all. Gen. xiv 18-20;
and from the fact that Melchizedek represented the Lord, for he is called.
The priest of the most high God. Gen. xiv 18;
and it is said of the Lord in the Psalms:
Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. Ps. cx 4.
This was why Melchizedek brought forth bread and wine, as holy things of the Church, even as they are holy in the sacrament of the Holy Supper; and why he was able to bless Abram, and why Abram gave him tithes of all.
 But because that Word was full of such correspondences as remotely signified celestial and spiritual things and consequently began to be falsified by many, therefore of the Lord’s Divine Providence it gradually disappeared in course of time, and at length was lost; and another Word was given, written by correspondences not so remote; and this was given through the Prophets among the Children of Israel. In this Word, however, there were retained many names of places in the land of Canaan and in parts of Asia round about; and in this Word they signify the same things as in the Ancient Word. It was for this reason that Abram was commanded to go to that land, and that his posterity from Jacob were introduced into it.
Wherefore it is said in the Book of The Wars of Jehovah, Vaheb in Supha, to the brooks of Arnon, And to the water-course of brooks which turned away where Ar is inhabited, and which halted at the border of Moab.
(A.V. What he did in the Red Sea-margin, Vaheb in Suphah-and in the brooks of Arnon,
And at the stream of the brooks that goeth down to the dwelling
of Ar, and lieth upon the border of Moab.) Num. xxi 14,15.
By the wars of Jehovah mentioned in that Word, as in ours, are meant and described the Lord’s combats with hell and His victories over it, when He should come into the world. The same combats are also understood and described in many passages in the historical parts of our Word, as in the wars of Joshua with the nations of the land of Canaan, and in the wars of the Judges and kings of Israel.
sRef Gen@4 @0 S2′ sRef Gen@6 @0 S2′ sRef Num@23 @7 S2′ sRef Num@23 @18 S2′ sRef Num@24 @15 S2′ sRef Num@21 @30 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @0 S2′ sRef Num@21 @29 S2′ sRef Num@24 @3 S2′ sRef Josh@10 @13 S2′ sRef Num@21 @27 S2′ sRef Jer@48 @45 S2′ sRef Jer@48 @46 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @17 S2′ sRef Num@21 @28 S2′ sRef Josh@10 @12 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @18 S2′  From the prophetical parts of that Word Moses has quoted the following:
Wherefore the Enunciators say (A.V. they that speak in proverbs), Come into Heshbon, let the city of Sihon be built and prepared:
For there is a fire gone out of Heshbon, a flame from the city of Sihon; it hath consumed Ar of Moab, and the lords of the high places of Arnon.
Woe to thee, Moab! thou art undone. O people of Chemosh! he hath given his sons that escaped, and his daughters, into captivity unto Sihon, king of the Amorites.
We have slain them with darts (A.V. We have shot at them): Heshbon is perished even unto Dibon, and we have laid them waste even unto Nophah, which reacheth unto Medeba. Num. xxi 27-30.
The translators render Enunciatores “composers of proverbs”, but they should be called Enunciators, and their compositions “prophetical enunciations”, as is evident from the signification of the word Moshalim in the Hebrew tongue, which means not only proverbs, but also prophetical enunciations; as in Numbers xxiii 7, 18; and xxiv 3, 15. It is there said that Balaam uttered “his enunciation”, (A.V. parable), which was also prophetical, concerning the Lord. His enunciation is called Mashal in the singular; moreover, what Moses quotes are not proverbs, but prophecies.
That Word like ours, was Divinely inspired, as is evident from a passage in Jeremiah, where almost the same language is used:
A fire has gone (A.V. shall come) forth out of Heshbon … and a flame from the midst of Sihon, and has devoured the corner of Moab, and the crown of the head of the sons of uproar.
Woe be unto thee, 0 Moab! the people of Chemosh hath perished: for thy sons are taken away into captivity, and thy daughters into captivity. Jer. xlviii 45-46.
In addition to these Books, mention is made by David and by Joshua of the prophetical Book of the Ancient Word, called the BOOK OF JASHER, or the BOOK OF THE UPRIGHT. David refers to it in the following passage:
David lamented … over Saul and over Jonathan … Also he bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow: behold, it is written in the Book of Jasher. 2 Sam. i 17, 18.
In Joshua it is mentioned in this passage:
Joshua said, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon: and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon!
Is not this written in the Book of Jasher? Joshua x 12, 13.
Moreover, I was informed that the first seven chapters of Genesis, are extant in that Ancient Word, and that not the least word is wanting.
By means of the Word those also have light who are outside the Church, and do not possess the Word
There cannot be conjunction with heaven unless there exists somewhere on the earth a Church in possession of the Word by means of which the Lord is known; for the Lord is the God of heaven and earth, and without Him there is no salvation. it is enough that there is a Church in possession of the Word, even although it should consist of comparatively few persons; nevertheless, by means of the Word the Lord is present throughout the whole world, for it is the means by which conjunction is effected between heaven and the human race. Conjunction is by means of the Word, as may be seen above in Nos. 62-69.
That it was with God, and was God;
That it lighteth every man that cometh into the world. John i 1, 9;
And that this light shineth also in darkness. John i 5.
as it is in the Church of the Reformed, enlightens all nations and peoples by spiritual communication; and further, that the Lord provides that there should always be on earth a Church where the Word is read, and the Lord thereby made known. When therefore the Word was almost totally rejected by the Romish Church, through the Divine Providence of the Lord the Reformation took place, in consequence of which the Word was again received. It was also provided that the Word should be regarded as holy by an eminent nation among the Roman Catholics.
The people which sat in darkness saw a great light (lumen); and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light (lux) is sprung up. Matt. iv 16; Isa. ix 2.
Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:
And then … they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with glory and power. Matt. xxiv 29, 30.
The sun there means the Lord as to love; the moon, the Lord as to faith; the stars, the Lord as to the cognitions of good and truth; the Son of Man, the Lord as to the Word; a cloud, the sense of the Letter of the Word; glory, the spiritual sense and its transparence in the sense of the Letter.
Without the Word no one would have any knowledge of God, of heaven and hell, of a life after death, and still less of the Lord
This follows as a general conclusion from all that has thus far been said and shown; as that
The Word is Divine Truth itself, Nos. 1- 4;
The Word is the medium of conjunction with the angels of heaven. Nos. 62-69;
Everywhere in the Word there is the marriage of the Lord and the Church, and consequently the marriage of good and truth, Nos. 80-89;
The nature of the Church is according to its understanding of the Word. Nos. 76-79;
The Word is also in the heavens, and from it the angels derive their wisdom, Nos. 70-75;
Through the Word also the nations and peoples outside the Church derive their spiritual light, Nos. 104-113;
besides much more that might be mentioned.
From these considerations it may be concluded that without the Word no one has spiritual intelligence, which consists in the knowledge of God, of heaven and hell and a life after death; nor has he any knowledge at all of the Lord, of faith and love to Him, and consequently of redemption, although this is the means of salvation. The Lord also says to His disciples:
Without me ye can do nothing. John xv 5;
and John said:
A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven. John iii 27.
Inquire further and you will find that man’s will is his proprium, and this when regarded in itself is entirely evil, and in consequence of this, that falsity arises in the understanding.  Having learned these things, you will perceive that a man of himself does not desire to understand anything but what comes from the proprium of his will; and that there is no possibility of doing this unless there were some other source of knowledge. Man from the proprium of his own will does not desire to understand anything but what relates to himself and the world; anything beyond this is in thick darkness to him. For instance, if, when looking at the sun, moon and stars, he should reflect on their origin, he could not but think that they are self-originated. He could not think any more profoundly that many of the learned men in the world who, although they know from the Word that God created all things, yet acknowledge nature [as creator]. Still more would they do so had they known nothing from the Word. Is it credible that Aristotle, Cicero, Seneca and other ancient sages who have written about God and the immortality of the soul first derived their knowledge from their proprium? No; they obtained it by tradition from others who first learned it from the [Ancient] Word. Nor do writers on natural religion derive their knowledge from themselves; they only confirm by rational deduction what they learn from the Church which has the Word; and it is possible that some of those who confirm truths do not believe them.
If man of himself could have known that there is a God and a life after death, why has he not discovered that a man is a man after death? Why does he imagine that his soul or spirit is like wind or ether, which neither sees with eyes, nor hears with ears, nor speaks with a mouth, until it is reunited with its own dead body and skeleton?  Imagine therefore, doctrine for worship derived from the light of reason alone; would it not teach that self should be worshipped, as has been done for ages, and is still done to-day by some who know from the Word that God alone is to be worshipped? No other worship can be derived from man’s proprium, not even that of the sun and moon.