8240 – 9552

AC (Potts) n. 8240 sRef Ex@14 @31 S0′ 8240. And they believed. That this signifies faith and trust, is evident from the signification of “believing,” as being to have faith, and also to have trust; for he who has faith has trust also. Trust belongs to love through faith, consequently trust in Jehovah, that is, in the Lord, is possible with those only who are in love to the Lord and toward the neighbor, because with others there is no faith.

AC (Potts) n. 8241 sRef Matt@20 @26 S0′ sRef Matt@20 @27 S0′ sRef Matt@20 @28 S0′ sRef Ex@14 @31 S0′ 8241. In Jehovah, and in His servant Moses. That this signifies the Lord as to the Divine good, and as to the Divine truth proceeding from Him and ministering, is evident from the fact that by “Jehovah” in the Word is meant the Lord (see n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6281, 6303, 6945, 6956); and indeed the Lord as to the Divine good (see n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 4402, 6905); from the representation of Moses, as being the Divine truth proceeding from Him (see n. 6752, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382). It is said “the Lord as to the Divine good and as to the Divine truth,” because Divine good is in the Lord, and Divine truth is from the Lord; Divine good is to Divine truth as the fire of the sun is to the light from it; the light not being in the sun, but from the sun. And from the signification of “servant,” as being one who ministers. That he is called a “servant” who is of service, thus who ministers, see n. 7143; and that on this account the Lord as to the Divine Human, when He was in the world, is called in the Word a “servant,” n. 3441; for He then ministered, as He Himself also says: “Whosoever would become great among you must be your minister; and whosoever would be first must be your servant; even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister” (Matt. 20:26-28; Mark 10:43-45).

AC (Potts) n. 8242 8242. CONTINUATION ABOUT THE SPIRITS AND THE INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH JUPITER.
I have also been shown what kind of faces the inhabitants of the earth Jupiter have; not that I have seen the inhabitants themselves, but that the spirits were seen with faces like those which they had while on their earth. But before this was shown, one of their angels appeared behind a bright cloud, who gave leave, and then two faces were shown. They were like the faces of the men of our earth, fair, but more beautiful; sincerity and modesty shone forth from them.

AC (Potts) n. 8243 8243. When the spirits of Jupiter were with me, the faces of the inhabitants of our earth appeared smaller to me than usual, the source of which was that there inflowed from those spirits the idea which they had about their own faces-that they were larger. For while they live as men on their own earth, they believe that after their decease their faces will be larger, and round in form; and because this idea has been impressed on them, it consequently remains, and when they become spirits, they appear to themselves to have larger faces. The reason why they believe that their faces will be larger is that they say that the face is not the body, because by its means they speak and present their thoughts, and because the mind is thus as it were transparent through it; consequently they have an idea of the face as of the mind in form; and as they know that they will be wiser after their life in the world, they believe that the form of their mind, that is, their face, will become larger.

AC (Potts) n. 8244 8244. When they are in the world, they also believe that after their decease they will perceive a fire which will warm their faces. They infer this from the fact that the wiser of them know that fire in the spiritual world is love, and that this fire is the fire of life, and that from this fire the angels have heat. Moreover those of them who have lived in celestial love obtain their wish, and perceive their faces to be warmed as by a fire; and then the interiors of their minds are kindled, not with heat, but with love.

AC (Potts) n. 8245 8245. For this reason they also frequently wash and cleanse their faces, and also carefully preserve them from the heat of the sun. They have a covering made of bluish bark or rind, which they bind about their heads, and thus preserve the face. But they do not care much about the body.

AC (Potts) n. 8246 8246. They said that the faces of the men of our earth are not beautiful; and they wondered that the faces of some of them are full of warts and pimples, and are in other respects disfigured; and they said that none such ever appear among them. Still, they were pleased with some of the faces, namely, those which were cheerful and smiling, and those which were a little prominent about the lips.

AC (Potts) n. 8247 8247. The reason why they were pleased with the cheerful and smiling faces, was that in their earth the faces of almost all are such, and this for the reason that they have no solicitude about future things, nor have they worldly cares, for these are things which bring sadness and anxiety into the lower mind, and from this into the face; and if with those who are not good there is cheerfulness and a smile in the face, it is in the outer skin, and not in the fibers from within. It is otherwise with the inhabitants of Jupiter. The reason why they were pleased with the faces that were prominent about the lips, was that most of their speech is effected by means of the face, and especially by means of the region of it that is around the lips; and also because they never dissemble, that is, speak otherwise than they think. For this reason they do not control their faces, but let them have free play. It is otherwise with those who from childhood have learned to dissemble. Their face is consequently contracted from within, lest anything of the thought should shine out therefrom. Neither has it free play outwardly, but is kept ready for letting out, or for drawing in, just as cunning dictates. The truth of this can be seen from an examination of the fibers round about the lips; for there are manifold series of fibers there, folded together and united together, that were not created for chewing and verbal speech only, but also for expressing the ideas of the lower mind.

AC (Potts) n. 8248 8248. It was also shown how the thoughts are set forth by means of the face. The affections of love are exhibited by the features and their changes, and the thoughts in these affections by means of variations in respect to the forms of the interiors, which cannot be further described. The inhabitants of the earth Jupiter have also the speech of words; but it is not so sonorous as with us. The one kind of speech is an aid to the other, and life is insinuated into the speech of words by means of the speech of the face.

AC (Potts) n. 8249 8249. I have been informed by the angels that the first speech of all in every earth was a speech by means of the face, and this from two origins in the face-from the lips, and from the eyes. The reason why such speech was the first, is that the face was formed just to effigy the things which a man thinks and which he wills; from this the face has also been called the effigy and index of the mind; and also because in the most ancient or first times there was sincerity (see n. 8118), and man thought nothing, and wished to think nothing, but what he was willing should shine forth from his face; so that the affections of the lower mind and the ideas of the thought could be presented to the life, and fully. In this way they appeared to the eye also, as in a form, and very many together. This speech therefore surpassed the speech of words as much as the sense of sight surpasses that of hearing; that is, as the sight of a country surpasses hearing a description of it. They added that such speech was in agreement with the speech of the angels, with whom, furthermore, men in those times had communication. Moreover when the face speaks, or the mind through the face, it is the angelic speech with man in an ultimate natural form; and there is a presence of the internal sight or thought of one in that of another, but not when the mouth speaks by means of words. (That the most ancient people on this earth spoke in a similar way, see n. 607, 608, 1118, 1120, 7361.) Everyone also can know that the speech of words was not possible to the most ancient people, because the words of language were not imparted immediately, but had to be invented and applied to the things, which could not be done except in course of time.

AC (Potts) n. 8250 8250. So long as there were sincerity and uprightness with man, so long also such speech remained; but as soon as the mind began to think one thing and speak another, which took place when man loved himself and not the neighbor, then the speech of words began to grow, the face being either silent or likewise counterfeiting. From this the internal form of the face was changed; it contracted itself, grew hard, and began to be nearly devoid of life; whereas the external form, inflamed from the fire of the love of self, seemed to be alive; but the absence of life, which is beneath, and is as a plane inwardly, does not appear before the eyes of men, but before the eyes of the angels, for these see the things within. Such are the faces of those who think one thing and speak another; for pretense, hypocrisy, cunning and deceit, which at this day are sagacity, lead to such things. But the case is otherwise in the other life, where it is not allowable to speak in one way and think in another. The dissidence is also clearly perceived in every word, and in every tone of the voice; and when it is perceived, the spirit in whom there is such dissidence is cast out of fellowship, and is fined. Afterward he is brought by various methods to speak as he thinks, and to think as he wills, until his mind is one and not divided-if he is good, to will good and to think and speak what is true from good; and if evil, to will evil, and to think and speak what is false from evil. The good one is not previously raised into heaven, and the evil one is not previously cast into hell; and this to the end that in hell there may be nothing but evil, and that the falsity there may be the falsity of evil; and that in heaven there may be nothing but good, and that the truth may be the truth of good.

AC (Potts) n. 8251 8251. A continuation concerning the spirits and inhabitants of the earth Jupiter will be found at the end of the following chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 8252 8252. Exodus 15

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

With the man of the church there must be the life of piety, and there must be the life of charity: they must be joined together. The life of piety without the life of charity is profitable for nothing; but the former together with the latter is profitable for all things.

AC (Potts) n. 8253 8253. The life of piety is to think piously and to speak piously, to devote oneself much to prayers, to behave humbly at such times, to frequent places of worship, and while there to listen devoutly to the preachings, to engage in the sacrament of the Supper frequently every year, and in like manner in all other things of worship, according to the ordinances of the church. But the life of charity is to wish well and to do well to the neighbor, to act from what is just and fair, and from what is good and true, in every work, in like manner in everything we do; in a word, the life of charity consists in performing uses.

AC (Potts) n. 8254 8254. The veriest worship of the Lord consists in the life of charity, but not in the life of piety without this. The life of piety without the life of charity is to wish to have regard for oneself alone, not for the neighbor; but the life of piety with the life of charity is to wish to have regard for oneself for the sake of the neighbor. The former life is from love toward self, but the latter is from love toward the neighbor.

AC (Potts) n. 8255 sRef Matt@7 @24 S0′ sRef Matt@7 @26 S0′ 8255. That to do what is good is to worship the Lord, is evident from the Lord’s words in Matthew: “Everyone who heareth My words, and doeth them, I will compare to a prudent man; but everyone that heareth My words, and doeth them not, shall be compared to a foolish man” (7:24, 26).

AC (Potts) n. 8256 sRef John@5 @29 S0′ sRef Matt@16 @27 S0′ 8256. Moreover a man is such as is the life of his charity; but not such as is the life of his piety without this. Consequently, the life of charity remains with the man to eternity; but not the life of piety, except insofar as the latter is in agreement with the former. That the life of charity remains with the man to eternity, is also evident from the Lord’s words in these passages:
The Son of man will come in the glory of His Father with His angels; and then He will render to everyone according to his deeds (Matt. 16:27).
They shall go forth; they who have done goods, into the resurrection of life; but they who have done evils, into the resurrection of judgment (John 5:29);
and also from what is said in Matt. 25:31-46.

AC (Potts) n. 8257 8257. By the life through which the Lord is chiefly worshiped, is meant a life according to His injunctions in the Word, for by these man is acquainted with what faith is and what charity is: this life is the Christian life, and is called spiritual life. But a life according to the laws of what is just and honorable, without that life, is a civil and a moral life: this life makes a man to be a citizen of the world; but the other to be a citizen of heaven.

EXODUS 15

1. Then sang Moses and the sons of Israel this song to Jehovah, and they said, saying, I will sing to Jehovah because exalting He hath exalted; the horse and his rider hath He cast into the sea.
2. My strength and song is Jah, and He hath been my salvation; this is my God, and I will prepare Him a habitation; my father’s God, and I will exalt Him.
3. Jehovah is a man of war; Jehovah is His name.
4. Pharaoh’s chariots and his army He hath cast into the sea: and the choice of the tertian captains are sunk in the sea Suph.
5. The abysses have covered them; they went down into the depths like a stone.
6. Thy right hand, O Jehovah, is magnified in strength; with Thy right hand, O Jehovah, Thou breakest in pieces the enemy.
7. And in the multitude of Thine excellency Thou destroyest those who are rising up against Thee; Thou sendest forth Thy wrath, it devoureth them as stubble.
8. And with the wind of Thy nostrils the waters were heaped up, the floods stood as a heap; the abysses were congealed in the heart of the sea.
9. The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my soul shall be filled with them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall drive them out.
10. Thou didst blow with Thy wind, the sea covered them; they sought the deep like lead in the vast waters.
11. Who is like Thee, O Jehovah, among the gods? Who is like Thee, magnificent in holiness, to be revered with praises, doing what is wonderful?
12. Thou stretchedst out Thy right hand, the earth swallowed them.
13. In Thy mercy Thou hast led the people that Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast conducted them in Thy strength to the habitation of Thy holiness.
14. The peoples have heard, they have trembled; pain hath laid hold of the inhabitants of Philistia.
15. Then were the chiefs of Edom dismayed; the mighty ones of Moab, terror hath laid hold of them; all the inhabitants of Canaan are melted.
16. Fright and dread are fallen upon them; in the greatness of Thine arm they shall be destroyed as a stone, until Thy people shall pass over, O Jehovah, until shall pass over this people which Thou hast taken possession of.
17. Thou shalt bring them in, Thou shalt plant them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, in the place Thou hast wrought for Thee to dwell, O Jehovah, the sanctuary, O Lord, Thy hands have prepared.
18. Jehovah shall reign forever and to eternity.
19. Because the horse of Pharaoh came with his chariot and with his horsemen into the sea, and Jehovah brought back the waters of the sea upon them; and the sons of Israel went on the dry through the midst of the sea.
20. And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances.
21. And Miriam answered to them, Sing ye to Jehovah, because exalting He hath exalted; the horse and his rider hath He cast into the sea.
22. And Moses made Israel set out from the sea Suph, and they went out to the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no waters.
23. And they came to Marah, and they could not drink the waters for bitterness, because they were bitter; therefore he called the name thereof Marah.
24. And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we drink?
25. And he cried unto Jehovah, and Jehovah showed him a piece of wood, and he cast it to the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There He set for him a statute and a judgment, and there He tempted him;
26. And He said, If hearing thou wilt hear the voice of Jehovah thy God, and wilt do what is right in His eyes, and wilt hearken to His commandments, and wilt keep all His statutes, all the diseases that I have put on the Egyptians, I will not put upon thee, because I am Jehovah thy healer.
27. And they came to Elim, and there were twelve springs of waters there, and seventy palm trees; and they encamped there by the waters.

AC (Potts) n. 8258 sRef Ex@15 @0 S0′ 8258. THE CONTENTS.

In the internal sense of this chapter the Lord is celebrated, in that after He had glorified His Human, He cast down into the hells the evil who were infesting the good in the other life; and raised into heaven the good who had been infested. These are the things which are contained in this prophetic song in the internal sense.

AC (Potts) n. 8259 sRef Ex@15 @0 S0′ 8259. Afterward the second temptation of those who were of the spiritual church is treated of in the internal sense, which is described by the murmuring of the people at Marah, where the waters were bitter; and after this, consolation is treated of, which is signified by the encampment at Elim, where were twelve springs and seventy palm trees.

AC (Potts) n. 8260 sRef Ex@15 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @2 S0′ 8260. THE INTERNAL SENSE
Verses 1, 2. Then sang Moses and the sons of Israel this song to Jehovah, and they said, saying, I will sing to Jehovah, because exalting He hath exalted; the horse and his rider hath He cast into the sea. My strength and song is Jah, and He hath been my salvation; this is my God, and I will prepare Him a habitation; my father’s God, and I will exalt Him. “Then sang Moses and the sons of Israel this song to Jehovah,” signifies a glorification of the Lord by those who are of the spiritual church, on account of liberation; “and they said, saying,” signifies in this manner from influx; “I will sing to Jehovah,” signifies that to the Lord alone is the glory; “because exalting He hath exalted,” signifies that He has manifested His Divine in the Human; “the horse and his rider hath He cast into the sea,” signifies in the fact that by His mere presence the falsities from evil were damned and cast into hell; “My strength,” signifies that everything of power is from Him; “and song is Jah,” signifies that everything of faith and of the consequent glory is from the Divine truth which is from Him; “and He hath been my salvation,” signifies that salvation is from thence; “and I will prepare Him a habitation,” signifies that in the good which is from Him, He shall be as in His heaven; “my father’s God,” signifies that there was no other Divine in the Ancient Churches; “and I will exalt Him,” signifies that now also He has Divine worship.

AC (Potts) n. 8261 sRef Ex@15 @1 S0′ 8261. Then sang Moses and the sons of Israel this song to Jehovah. That this signifies the glorification of the Lord by those who are of the spiritual church on account of liberation, is evident from the signification of “singing a song,” as being a glorification (of which below); that it denotes the glorification of the Lord is because by “Jehovah” in the Word is meant the Lord (see n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5041, 5663, 6280, 6281, 6905, 6945, 6956); and from the representation of Moses and the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church; for Moses together with the people represent that church, Moses its head, because he also represents the Divine truth, and the people or the sons of Israel the church itself. (That “the sons of Israel” denote those who are of the spiritual church, see n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223.) That this glorification of the Lord is on account of liberation, is evident from what was shown in the preceding chapter; namely, that they who were of the spiritual church were saved solely by the coming of the Lord into the world, and that until then they had been detained in the lower earth, and there had been infested by spirits who were in falsities from evil, and were liberated by the Lord after He made the Human in Himself Divine. (That they who were of the spiritual church were saved solely by the coming of the Lord into the world, see n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834, 6372; and that until then they had been detained in the lower earth, and were liberated by the Lord when He made the Human in Himself Divine, n. 6854, 6914, 7035, 7091, 7828, 7932, 8018, 8054.)
[2] That “to sing a song” denotes to glorify, and that thus a “song” denotes a glorification, is because in the Ancient Church and afterward in the Jewish Church the songs were prophetic and treated of the Lord, especially that He would come into the world, and would overthrow the diabolical crew, then raging more than ever, and would liberate the faithful from their assaults. And because the prophetic utterances of the songs contained such things in the internal sense, therefore by these is signified a glorification of the Lord, that is, a celebration of Him from gladness of heart; for gladness of heart is especially expressed by a song, because in a song gladness breaks forth as it were of itself into sound. Hence it is that Jehovah-that is, the Lord-is called in songs “Hero,” a “Man of war,” the “God of armies,” “Conqueror,” “Strength,” “Bulwark,” “Shield,” “Salvation;” and the diabolical crew that is overthrown, “the enemy” that is “smitten,” “swallowed up,” “overwhelmed,” “cast into hell.”
[3] They who knew nothing of the internal sense also believed in time past that such things as were in the world were meant, as worldly enemies, battles, victories, defeats, submersions, of which the songs treated in the external sense; but they who knew that all prophetic utterances involved things heavenly and Divine, and that these were represented in them, knew that the subject there treated of is the damnation of the unfaithful, and the salvation of the faithful by the Lord, when He would come into the world. And then those who knew this, and meditated upon it, and were affected thereby, had internal gladness; but others only external. The angels also who were with the men were at the same time in the glorification of the Lord; consequently they who sang, and they who heard the songs, had heavenly gladness from the holy and blessed influx which flowed in from heaven, in which they seemed to themselves to be as it were taken up into heaven. Such an effect had the songs of the church among the ancients. Such an effect also they would have at this day; for the spiritual angels are especially affected by songs which are about the Lord, His kingdom, and the church. That the songs of the church had this effect, was not only because by them gladness of heart became active, and burst forth from within even to the utmost fibers of the body, and set these in motion with a glad and at the same time a holy tremor; but also because there is a glorification of the Lord in the heavens by means of choirs, and thus by the harmonious music of many. From this also angelic speech is harmonious, falling into rhythmic measures. (Concerning choirs see n. 2595, 2596, 3350, 5182, 8115; and concerning angelic speech, that it falls into rhythmic measures, n. 1648, 1649, 7191e.) From this it is that the glorifications of the Lord among the ancients who were of the church were performed by means of songs, psalms, and musical instruments of various kinds; for the ancients who were of the church had a joy that surpassed all other joys from calling to mind the Lord’s coming, and the salvation of the human race through Him.
sRef Isa@42 @11 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @8 S4′ sRef Isa@49 @9 S4′ sRef Isa@49 @8 S4′ sRef Isa@49 @13 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @12 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @13 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @10 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S4′ [4] That in the internal sense the prophetic songs contained a glorification of the Lord, is evident from the songs in the Word, as in Isaiah:
I Jehovah have called thee in righteousness, and I will take hold of thy hand, I will guard thee, and give thee for a covenant to the people, for a light to the nations, to open the blind eyes, to bring out the bound one from the prison, him that sitteth in darkness out of the house of confinement: sing ye to Jehovah a new song, His praise, extremity of the earth; let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up a voice, let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them give glory to Jehovah; Jehovah shall go forth as a hero, as a man of wars; He shall stir up the zeal, He shall prevail over His enemies (Isa. 42:6, 7, 10-13);
it is evident that this treats of the Lord, in that He would come to liberate those who were in spiritual captivity; wherefore it is said, “sing to Jehovah a new song,” and “let the inhabitants of the rock sing.” In like manner in the same:
I have given thee for a covenant of the people, to restore the land, to divide the wasted heritages; to say to them that are bound, Go forth; to them that are in darkness, Be ye revealed: they shall feed upon the ways, and on all hillsides shall be their pasture. Sing, O ye heavens; and exult, O earth; and resound, ye mountains, with song, because Jehovah hath comforted His people, and will have mercy on his afflicted ones (Isa. 49:8, 9, 13);
here also the coming of the Lord and the liberation of the bound are treated of.
sRef Ps@96 @3 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @12 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @1 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @2 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @6 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @5 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @4 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @13 S5′ sRef Ps@40 @3 S5′ sRef Ps@40 @2 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @8 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @11 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @9 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @7 S5′ sRef Ps@96 @10 S5′ [5] In David:
Sing ye to Jehovah a new song, bless His name, recount His glory among the nations: all the gods of the peoples are vanities; but Jehovah made the heavens, glory and honor are before Him; strength and comeliness are in His sanctuary; give ye to Jehovah glory and strength, give ye to Jehovah the glory of His name; say ye among the nations, Jehovah reigneth, the world also is established, and it shall not be removed; Jehovah cometh, He cometh to judge the earth (Ps. 96).
Jehovah hath made me come up out of the pit of vastation, out of the mire of clay; and hath set my feet upon a rock; and He hath put a new song into my mouth, even praise to our God; many shall see, and shall trust (Ps. 40:2, 3).
From these words also it is evident that a “song” denotes a glorification of the Lord on account of liberation; for the songs involved gladness of heart, and the exaltation of the Lord-gladness of heart, on account of the Lord’s coming and salvation then; and exaltation, on account of victory over spiritual enemies. Gladness of heart with exaltation of the Lord is what is meant by glorification.
sRef Ps@18 @1 S6′ sRef Ps@33 @3 S6′ sRef Ps@69 @30 S6′ sRef Ps@33 @4 S6′ sRef Ps@18 @3 S6′ sRef Ps@33 @2 S6′ sRef Ps@18 @2 S6′ sRef Ps@33 @7 S6′ sRef Ps@69 @29 S6′ sRef Ps@33 @5 S6′ sRef Ps@33 @6 S6′ sRef Isa@24 @8 S6′ sRef Isa@24 @9 S6′ sRef Ps@28 @8 S6′ sRef Amos@8 @10 S6′ sRef Ps@28 @7 S6′ [6] That gladness of heart was signified by “songs,” is evident in these passages:
Confess ye to Jehovah on the harp, on a psaltery of ten strings, sing psalms to Him, sing ye to Him a new song; beat surpassingly with a loud noise, because He gathereth the waters of the sea together as a heap, He putteth the deeps in treasuries (Ps. 33:2, 3, 7).
The joy of timbrels shall cease, the tumult of them that are merry shall cease, the joy of the harp shall cease. They shall not drink wine with a song (Isa. 24:8, 9).
I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation (Amos 8:10).
That the exaltation of Jehovah, that is, of the Lord, was performed by means of songs, is plain in David:
David the servant of Jehovah, who spake unto Jehovah the words of this song: Jehovah, my strength, Jehovah is my rock, and my fortress, and my rescuer; my God, my rock in whom I trust; my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my refuge; I will call upon Jehovah, who is to be praised; then shall I be saved from mine enemies (Ps. 18:1-3).
Jehovah is my strength and my shield; whence in a song I will confess Him; Jehovah is their strength, and the strength of salvations of His anointed (Ps. 28:7, 8).
Thy salvation O God will bring me on high; I will praise the name of God with a song, and will magnify Him with confession (Ps. 69:29, 30).
sRef Rev@5 @10 S7′ sRef Rev@15 @4 S7′ sRef Rev@15 @1 S7′ sRef Rev@15 @3 S7′ sRef Rev@5 @9 S7′ [7] That the songs treated of the Lord, is evident also in John:
The twenty-four elders sang a new song, saying, Worthy art Thou who takest the book, and openest the seals thereof; because Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us unto God with Thy blood (Rev. 5:8, 9).
I saw seven angels who sang the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvelous are Thy works, O Lord, God the Almighty; just and true are Thy ways, O King of saints; who would not fear Thee, O Lord, and glorify Thy name? (Rev. 15:1, 2, 4);
“the song of Moses and of the Lamb” is the song which is in this chapter: it is called “the song of the Lamb,” because the glorification of the Lord is treated of therein.

AC (Potts) n. 8262 sRef Ex@15 @1 S0′ 8262. And they said, saying. That this signifies in this manner from influx, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when the subject treated of is the glorification of the Lord by a song, as being influx (that “to say” also denotes influx, see n. 5743, 6152, 6291, 7291, 7381, 8221).

AC (Potts) n. 8263 sRef Ex@15 @1 S0′ 8263. I will sing to Jehovah. That this signifies that to the Lord alone is the glory, is evident from the signification of “to sing to Jehovah,” as being to glorify the Lord (of which just above, n. 8261); thus that to Him is the glory. That it is to Him alone, is because the Lord is “Jehovah” in the Word (n. 8261), thus is the only God. It is said in the Word throughout that to God alone shall be glory and honor. He who knows not the interior things of the Word may believe that the Lord desires and loves glory like a man in the world; and also for the reason that it is due to Him in preference to all in the universe; but the Lord does not desire glory for the sake of Himself, but for the sake of the man who glorifies Him. The man who glorifies Him does it from a holy reverence for Him in that He is the Supreme One, and from a humbling of himself as being relatively nothing; and because in the glorification of the Lord by the man there is thus both holy reverence and humiliation, the man is then in a state to receive the influx of good from the Lord, thus also to receive love to Him. It is from this that the Lord desires man to glorify Him (see n. 4347, 4593, 5957). (That the influx of good from the Lord is into a humble heart, see n. 3994, 7478.)

AC (Potts) n. 8264 sRef Ex@15 @1 S0′ 8264. Because exalting He hath exalted. That this signifies that He has manifested His Divine in the Human, is evident from the signification of “exalting oneself,” when said of the Lord, as being to manifest the Divine in the Human. The reason why this is signified by “exalting He hath exalted Himself,” is that the Divine is the Highest or Supreme; and the Lord, when He was in the world, made the Human in Himself Divine, and thus “exalting He exalted.” (That by what is “high” in the Word is signified what is Divine, see n. 8153.) It is here said that “exalting He hath exalted,” and that thereby is signified the manifestation of the Divine in the Human, because in this song the subject treated of is the Lord, in that after He made His Human Divine, He cast the evil into the hells and raised the good into heaven (n. 8258), and this by His mere presence (n. 7989); for to cast the evil into the hells, and to raise the good into heaven, by mere presence, is Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 8265 sRef Ex@15 @1 S0′ 8265. The horse and his rider hath He cast into the sea. That this signifies that by His mere presence the falsities from evil were damned and cast into hell, is evident from the signification of a “horse,” as being falsities from a perverted understanding (that a “horse” denotes the understanding, see n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321; and in the opposite sense a perverted understanding, and as this is no understanding, in this sense by a “horse” is signified falsity, and by “the horse of Pharaoh,” false memory-knowledge, n. 6125, 8146, 8148); from the signification of a “rider” or “horseman,” as being the consequent reasonings (n. 8146, 8148); and from the signification of “casting into the sea,” as being to damn and cast into hell. That “the sea,” here the sea Suph, denotes the hell where are the falsities from evil of those who being of the church have been in faith separate and in a life of evil, see n. 8099, 8137, 8148; hence it is that they are called falsities “from evil.” That these falsities were damned and cast into hell by the mere presence of the Lord, was shown in the preceding chapter. For the evil can by no means endure and support the Divine presence, because by the Divine presence they are tortured, tormented, and as it were deprived of life, and comport themselves like those who are in the death agony. The reason is that in the Divine there is omnipotence, which destroys and extinguishes that which is opposed, thus what is false and evil; consequently the life of those who are in falsity and evil is distressed by the Divine presence, and hence feels hell in itself according to the degree of the presence. But lest they who are in falsities and evils should be tortured until they are utterly destroyed, they are veiled over by their falsities and evils as by thick mists, which are of such a nature as to mitigate the influx of the Divine, or to repel or to stifle it, as earthly mists or clouds do the rays of the sun.
sRef Rev@6 @17 S2′ sRef Ex@15 @11 S2′ sRef Ex@15 @10 S2′ sRef Ex@15 @8 S2′ sRef Rev@6 @16 S2′ sRef Ex@15 @7 S2′ sRef Ex@15 @12 S2′ [2] These things are meant by the words in John:
They shall say to the mountains and to the rocks, Fall upon us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne, and from the anger of the Lamb; because the great day of His anger is come; who therefore shall be able to stand? (6:16, 17);
by “the mountains and rocks to which they shall say, Fall upon us and hide us” are signified evils and falsities; by “the anger of the Lamb” is signified torment, for it appears as if the Divine tormented from anger, when yet it is the falsities and evils themselves. In like manner in Isa. 2:10; and in Hosea 10:8; and in Luke 23:30. That damnation is from the mere presence of the Lord, is also signified by what follows in this Song:
Thou sendest forth Thy wrath, it devoureth them as stubble; and with the wind of Thy nostrils the waters were heaped up, the floods stood together like a heap; Thou didst blow with Thy wind, the sea covered them; they sought the deep; Thou stretchedst out Thy right hand, the earth swallowed them (verses 7, 8, 10, 12).
In like manner in many other passages in the Word.

AC (Potts) n. 8266 sRef Ex@15 @2 S0′ 8266. My strength. That this signifies that everything of power is from Him, is evident from the signification of “strength,” as being force and power; and because it is said “my strength” when treating of Jehovah or the Lord, it denotes that everything of power is from Him.

AC (Potts) n. 8267 sRef Ex@15 @2 S0′ 8267. And song is Jah. That this signifies that everything of faith and of the consequent glory is from the Divine truth which is from Him, is evident from the signification of a “song” when said concerning Jehovah, as being a glorification of the Lord (see above, n. 8261); but when concerning man, as here, as being the glory which is from faith, thus faith from which is glory; for everything of glory that pertains to man is from faith in the Lord, because faith which is faith is from the Lord, and thus the Lord is in the faith, consequently so is the glory itself. That the glory of man is from faith is also because the Divine truth, from which and through which is faith, appears before the eyes of the angels as light, and also as brightness and a beam of light. This beam of light, together with the magnificences of heaven that are from the light, is called “glory,” which accordingly is nothing else than Divine truth, thus faith.
sRef Ps@118 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@118 @14 S2′ sRef Ps@118 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@118 @19 S2′ sRef Ps@118 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @4 S2′ [2] That “Jah” denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Divine Human of the Lord, is because “Jah” is from “Jehovah” and is called “Jah” because it is not being, but coming-forth from being; for Divine truth is coming-forth, but Divine good is being (n. 6880); and consequently it is said “Jah is my song,” because by “song” is signified the faith which is of Divine truth. By “Jah” is signified Divine truth in David also:
Sing ye to God, praise ye His name; extol Him that rideth upon the clouds by His name Jah, and exult ye before Him (Ps. 68:4);
where “to praise and extol God by His name Jah” denotes by means of Divine truth. Again in the same:
In distress I called on Jah; Jah answered me in breadth; Jehovah helped me; Jah is my strength and song; I shall not die, but live, and declare the works of Jah; I will enter through the gates of righteousness, and I will confess Jah (Ps. 118:5, 13, 14, 17, 19);
here “Jah” denotes the Lord as to Divine truth; in like manner “Jah” in “Hallelu-Jah” (Ps. 105:45; 106:1, 48; 111:1; 112:1; 113:1, 9; 115:17, 18; 116:29).

AC (Potts) n. 8268 sRef Ex@15 @2 S0′ 8268. And He hath been my salvation. That this signifies that salvation is from thence, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 8269 sRef Ex@15 @2 S0′ sRef John@14 @23 S0′ 8269. And I will prepare Him a habitation. That this signifies that in the good which is from Him, He shall be as in His heaven, is evident from the signification of “a habitation,” when said of Jehovah or the Lord, as being good. That “the habitation of the Lord” denotes good, is because all good is from the Lord, thus good is the Lord’s, insomuch that it may be said that the Lord is good, and when the Lord dwells in this, He dwells in His Divine, nor can He dwell anywhere else, according to His own words in John:
Jesus said, If anyone love me, he keepeth My word; and My Father loveth him, and We will come unto him, and make an abode with him (14:23);
good from the Divine is here described by “loving the Lord and keeping His word,” for good is of love; it is said that “they will make an abode with him,” that is, in the good with him. It is said “as in His heaven,” because heaven is called “the habitation of God” from the fact that good, which is from the Lord, is there and constitutes heaven. Moreover the Lord is in every man as in His heaven when He is in good there; for man’s heaven is good, and through good man is with the angels in heaven. From this it is now evident that by “I will prepare Him a habitation” is signified that in the good which is from Him, He will be as in His heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 8270 sRef Ex@15 @2 S0′ 8270. My father’s God. That this signifies that there was no other Divine in the Ancient Churches, is evident from the signification of “father,” as being the Ancient Church (see n. 6050, 6075, 7649, 8055), consequently “father’s God” denotes the Divine in the Ancient Churches (that the Divine in those churches was the Lord, see n. 6846, 6876, 6884; and that by “Jehovah” they understood no other than the Lord, n. 1343, 5663).

AC (Potts) n. 8271 sRef Ex@15 @2 S0′ 8271. And I will exalt Him. That this signifies that now also He has Divine worship, is evident from the signification of “to exalt,” when it is said of man that he “will exalt Jehovah,” as being worship; for Divine worship consists in the exaltation of the Lord relatively to oneself, which is done according to the degree of the self-humiliation before the Lord. Humiliation is the essential of Divine worship. When man is in this essential he is hence in a state of receiving from the Lord the truth which is of faith and the good which is of charity, consequently in a state of worshiping Him. But if man exalts himself before the Lord, he hence closes the interiors of his mind for the reception of good and truth from the Lord. (What is meant by “exalting oneself,” when it is said of the Lord that He “exalts Himself,” see above, n. 8264.)

AC (Potts) n. 8272 8272. Verses 3-5. Jehovah is a man of war; Jehovah is His name. Pharaoh’s chariots and his army He hath cast into the sea; and the choice of the tertian captains are sunk in the sea Suph. The abysses have covered them; they went down into the depths like a stone. “Jehovah is a man of war,” signifies that the Lord protects against all evils and falsities that are from the hells; “Jehovah is His name,” signifies that it is He alone from whom all things are; “Pharaoh’s chariots and his army He hath cast into the sea,” signifies that the falsities from evil, in particular and in general, of those who were of the church and in a life of evil there, at His presence cast themselves into the hells; “and the choice of the tertian captains,” signifies all with each; “are sunk in the sea Suph,” signifies that they have shut themselves up in falsities from evil; “the abysses have covered them,” signifies that falsities from cupidities have enveloped them; “they went down into the depths like a stone,” signifies that they fell down toward lower things as if by reason of weight.

AC (Potts) n. 8273 sRef Ex@15 @3 S0′ 8273. Jehovah is a man of war. That this signifies that the Lord protects against all evils and falsities that are from the hells, is evident from the signification of “a man of war,” as being one who fights against falsities and evils, that is, against the hells, and conquers them, here who protects man against them; for, as before shown, the Lord alone fights for man and protects him when he is assaulted by the hells, and this continually, especially in temptations, which are spiritual combats. The Lord is called “a man of war” primarily from the fact that when He was in the world, He alone, that is, from Himself, fought against the hells, which were then for the most part open, and attacked and endeavored to subjugate all who came into the other life. The reason why the diabolical crew-that is, the hells-were at that time so rampant, was that the Divine passing through heaven, which before the coming of the Lord was the Divine Human, did not avail against evils and falsities, then so immensely increased. Therefore it pleased the Divine Itself to assume the Human and to make this Divine, and then at the same time through combats admitted into Himself to cast that diabolical crew into the hells, and shut them in there, and to make them subject to the heavens; and at the same time also to reduce the heavens themselves into order. From these combats the Lord is first called “a man of war,” and also afterward, because when He had thus conquered the hells and had become righteousness, He protects men by His Divine power, and this continually, and especially in the combats of temptations.
sRef Isa@59 @14 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@59 @16 S2′ sRef Isa@59 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@59 @15 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @4 S2′ [2] That the Lord alone and from Himself fought against the hells and overcame them, see in Isaiah:
Judgment hath been cast backward, and righteousness stood afar off; for truth hath stumbled in the street, and uprightness cannot approach; while truth hath been taken away; and he that departeth from evil is insane: Jehovah saw, and it was evil in His eyes that there was no judgment; and He saw that there was no man, and He was amazed that there was no one interceding; therefore His arm wrought salvation for Him; and His righteousness stirred Him up; hence He put on righteousness as a breast-plate, and a helmet of salvation upon His head (59:14-17);
there is here described the state of that time in both worlds, and that the Lord from Himself alone restored the fallen estate. In like manner elsewhere in the same:
Who is this that cometh from Edom, with sprinkled garments from Bozrah? this that is honorable in his apparel, marching in the multitude of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, great for salvation; I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the peoples not a man with Me, whence their victory hath been sprinkled upon My garments; for the day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed had come; I looked around, but there was no one helping; and I was amazed, but there was no one supporting; therefore Mine arm wrought salvation for Me (Isa. 63:1, 3-5);
from these words it can be seen that in the world the Lord fought alone against the hells, and overcame them.
sRef Ps@24 @8 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @13 S3′ sRef Ps@24 @10 S3′ [3] As regards combats and victories over the hells, the case is this. He who once overcomes them overcomes them perpetually; because through victory he procures for himself power over them, for in the same proportion he confirms in himself, and appropriates to himself, the good which is of love and the truth which is of faith, against which the hells afterward dare nothing. When the Lord was in the world He admitted combats of temptations into Himself from all the hells, and through these He made the Human in Himself Divine, and at the same time He forever reduced the hells to obedience (see n. 1663, 1668, 1690, 1692, 1737, 1813, 1820, 2776, 2786, 2795, 2803, 2814, 2816, 4287). From this it is that the Lord alone has power over the hells eternally; and from Divine power fights for man. From this then it is that the Lord is called “a man of war,” and also a “Hero,” as also in these passages:
Jehovah shall go forth like a Hero, He shall stir up zeal like a man of wars, He shall prevail over His enemies (Isa. 42:13).
Who is this King of glory? Jehovah strong and a Hero, Jehovah a Hero of war. Who is this King of glory? Jehovah Zebaoth [of armies] (Ps. 24:8, 10).
[4] In the Word, where mention is made of “war,” in the internal sense there is meant spiritual war, which is against falsities and evils; or what is the same, which is against the devil, that is, the hells (n. 1664, 2686). The wars or combats of the Lord against the hells are treated of in the internal sense in both the historicals and the propheticals of the Word; in like manner the wars and combats of the Lord for man. Among the ancients with whom was the Lord’s church, there was also a Word both historic and prophetic, which at this day is not extant. The historic Word was called “The Book of the Wars of Jehovah,” and the prophetic Word, “The Enunciations.” This Word is mentioned in Moses (Num. 21:14, 27). That by this word [“Enunciations”], used in the 27th verse, are signified prophetical things, is evident from the meaning of this word [here “parable”] in Num. 23:7, 18; 24:3, 15. By “the wars of Jehovah” were there meant the Lord’s combats and victories against the hells when He was in the world, and also His subsequent perpetual combats and victories for man, for the church, and for His kingdom. For the hells continually wish to raise themselves up, because they breathe nothing but domination; but they are repressed by the Lord alone. Their attempts to force their way out appear like bubblings up, and like the dorsal ejections from man; but as often as they attempt this, so often many of them are cast down more deeply there.

AC (Potts) n. 8274 sRef Ex@15 @3 S0′ 8274. Jehovah is His name. That this signifies that it is He alone from whom all things are, is evident from the signification of the name “Jehovah,” as being all things of faith and love, or all things of truth and good, in the complex, by which the Lord is worshiped (see n. 2724, 3006, 6674); and as being in the supreme sense the Divine Human of the Lord (n. 2628, 6887), from which all these things are. From this cause and also from the fact that Jehovah is Being itself, thus the being of all things, it is evident that, by “Jehovah is His name,” is signified that the Lord alone is He from whom all things are.

AC (Potts) n. 8275 sRef Ex@15 @4 S0′ 8275. Pharaoh’s chariots and his army He hath cast into the sea. That this signifies that the falsities from evil, in particular and in general, of those who had been of the church and in a life of evil there, at His presence cast themselves into the hells, is evident from the signification of “chariots,” as being falsities (see n. 8146, 8148, 8215), here falsities in particular, because the “army” also is mentioned, by which are signified falsities in general (that “armies” denote falsities, see n. 3448, 8138, 8146, 8148); from the representation of Pharaoh and of the Egyptians, as being those of the church who are in faith separate and in a life of evil, and consequently are in mere falsities from evil (n. 7926, 8132, 8135, 8138, 8148); and from the signification of “the sea,” here the sea Suph, as being the hell where they are who are in these falsities (n. 8099, 8137, 8148). Consequently, “He cast into the sea,” denotes that He cast into hell; in the internal sense, that at the mere presence of the Lord they cast themselves there (n. 8265). From all this it is evident that by “Pharaoh’s chariots and his army He hath cast into the sea” is signified that the falsities from evil, in particular and in general, of those who had been of the church and in a life of evil there, at the presence of the Lord cast themselves into the hells.

AC (Potts) n. 8276 sRef Ex@15 @4 S0′ 8276. And the choice of the tertian captains.* That this signifies all with each, is evident from the signification of “the tertian captains,” as being the generals under which are particulars in a series (see n. 8150); thus all and each. For when mention is made of generals, the particulars which are under them and in them are also meant, and likewise the singulars which are under the particulars and in them; for a general without particulars and singulars is not anything, since it is called a “general” from these, because it is a complex of many. Hence it is that by “tertian captains” are signified all with each. It is said “the choice,” and by this are signified the chief falsities, under which the rest are.
* See 1 Kings 22:32. [Reviser.]

AC (Potts) n. 8277 sRef Ex@15 @4 S0′ 8277. Are sunk in the sea Suph. That this signifies that they have shut themselves up in falsities from evil, is evident from the signification of “to be sunk,” here in the waters of the sea Suph, as being to shut themselves up in falsities from evil, for by the waters of that sea are signified falsities (n. 8137, 8138), and by “to be sunk” is signified to be shut up; for they who are in the hells are shut up and encompassed with falsities, like those who are sunk in waters. (That they immerse or shut up themselves in them, see n. 7926, 8227, 8228.)

AC (Potts) n. 8278 sRef Ezek@31 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@78 @15 S1′ sRef Deut@8 @7 S1′ sRef Ps@78 @16 S1′ 8278. The abysses have covered them. That this signifies that falsities from cupidities have enveloped them, is evident from the signification of “the abysses,” as being falsities which are from cupidities. By “abysses” in the Word are meant waters and abundance of waters in the deeps; and by “waters” in a good sense are signified truths, and in the opposite sense falsities (see n. 739, 790, 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668), and by “deeps” are signified the hells. Hence it is that “abysses” denote falsities from cupidities; also that they denote the hells. That by “abysses” in the Word are meant waters in the deeps and abundance of waters, is evident in these passages:
The waters made the cedar to grow, the abyss made it high; so that with its rivers it went round thy plant, and it sent out water-channels unto all the trees of the field (Ezek. 31:4).
He clave the rocks in the wilderness, and made them drink the great abysses; He brought forth streams out of the rock, and made the waters to come down like streams (Ps. 78:15, 16).
A good land, a land of rivers of water, of fountains and abysses, going forth from valley and from mountain (Deut. 8:7).
In these passages “abysses” denote waters in abundance; and waters in abundance, or “abysses,” denote truths of faith in abundance. “He made them to drink great abysses out of the rock” denotes that He made them receive truths of faith without lack, for “rock” denotes faith from the Lord, thus the Lord as to faith; “the abysses going forth from valley and from mountain” denote truths of faith from love. Consequently also among the blessings of Joseph were “blessings of the abyss that lieth beneath” (Gen. 49:25; Deut. 33:13).
sRef Isa@51 @9 S2′ sRef Ezek@26 @19 S2′ sRef Rev@9 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@51 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @13 S2′ sRef Rev@9 @2 S2′ sRef Rev@11 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@9 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@17 @8 S2′ [2] That “abysses” denote falsities from cupidities, consequently also the hells, is evident in the following passages:
Awake, as in the days of old, the generations of eternity; dost Thou not dry up the sea, the waters of the great abyss, and make the depths of the sea for a way, that the redeemed may pass over? (Isa. 51:9, 10).
Jehovah who cleft asunder the waters before them, who led them through the abysses, like a horse in the wilderness; they stumbled not (Isa. 63:12, 13).
Thus said the Lord Jehovih, When I shall make thee a desolate city, like the cities that are not inhabited; when I shall make the abyss to come up against thee, and many waters shall cover thee (Ezek. 26:19).
I saw a star from heaven fallen to the earth, to which was given the key of the pit of the abyss, and he opened the pit of the abyss (Rev. 9:1, 2, 11).
The beast that cometh up out of the abyss made war with them (Rev. 11:7).
The beast that thou sawest was, and is not, and is about to come up out of the abyss, and go into perdition (Rev. 17:8).
In these passages the “abyss” denotes the hells, thus also falsities from cupidities, for these are in the hells and make them.
sRef Jonah@2 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@71 @20 S3′ sRef Ps@42 @7 S3′ [3] As these things are signified by “abysses,” by them are also signified temptations, for temptations are effected by means of falsities and evils that are injected by the hells. In this sense “abyss” is used in these passages:
The waters compassed me about, even to the soul; the abyss was round about me (Jonah 2:5).
Abyss crieth unto abyss at the voice of thy water-channels; all thy breakers and thy waves have passed over me (Ps. 42:7).
Who hast shown me many and evil straitnesses, return and quicken me, and make me return and come up from the abysses of the earth (Ps. 71:20).

AC (Potts) n. 8279 sRef Ex@15 @5 S0′ 8279. They went down into the depths like a stone. That this signifies that they fell down to lower things as if by reason of weight, is evident from the signification of “to go down,” when to lower things as if by reason of weight, as being to fall; from the signification of “depths,” as being the lower places where the hells are, of which below; and from the signification of “like a stone,” as being as if by reason of weight. It is said “like a stone,” because by “a stone” in the genuine sense is signified truth (see n. 643, 1298, 3720, 3769, 3771, 3773, 3789, 3798, 6426), consequently in the opposite sense falsity. Moreover falsity from evil is of such a nature that it sinks down toward lower things, as does a heavy body in the world. But truth from good is of such a nature that it ascends to higher things, as does something light in the world. Hence it is that so long as the evil have not been as yet devastated as to truths, they are in a region above the hells, but as soon as they have been devastated, that is, deprived of truths, it is as if their wings were cut off, and then they sink down like weights, and the deeper in proportion as their falsities from evil are worse. From this it is that by “depths,” equally as by “abysses,” are signified the hells; but by “depths,” the hells relatively to evils, and by “abysses,” the hells relatively to the falsities that are from evils; as in these passages:
Flee ye, they have turned away, they have let themselves down into the depth to dwell (Jer. 49:8, 30).
The waters have come even unto the soul, I have been sunk in the mire of depth, there is no standing; I have come into the depths of the waters, and the billow overflows me: rescue me out of the mire, lest I be sunk, I shall be rescued from those who hate me, and out of the depths of the waters, lest a billow of waters overflow me, and lest the depth swallow me up; let not the pit shut its mouth upon me (Ps. 69:1, 2, 14, 15).
He shall cast into the depths of the sea all their sins (Micah 7:19).
The reason why “depth” denotes hell relatively to evil, is that it is opposite to “high,” by which is signified heaven, and which is predicated of good (n. 8153). Moreover evil corresponds to what is heavy on earth, which sinks by its own weight; thus also to the heaviness of a stone, when by a “stone” is signified falsity.

AC (Potts) n. 8280 8280. Verses 6-10. The right hand, O Jehovah, is magnified in strength; with Thy right hand, O Jehovah, Thou breakest in pieces the enemy. And in the multitude of Thine excellency Thou destroyest those who are rising up against Thee; Thou sendest forth Thy wrath, it devoureth them as stubble. And with the wind of Thy nostrils the waters were heaped up, the floods stood as a heap; the abysses were congealed in the heart of the sea. The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my soul shall be filled with them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall drive them out. Thou didst blow with Thy wind, the sea covered them; they sought the deep like lead in the vast waters. “Thy right hand, O Jehovah, is magnified in strength,” signifies the Lord’s omnipotence shown; “with Thy right hand, O Jehovah, Thou breakest in pieces the enemy,” signifies the effect of omnipotence on evils and the derivative falsities, the power of which is being annihilated; “and in the multitude of Thine excellency Thou destroyest those who rise up against Thee,” signifies that by virtue of the Divine, things opposed are rejected as nothing; “Thou sendest forth Thy wrath,” signifies the fury of cupidities, and the endeavor to inflict violence, with the evil; “it devoureth them as stubble,” signifies the consequent devastation and damnation from themselves; “and with the wind of Thy nostrils the waters were heaped up,” signifies that falsities were gathered together into a one through the presence of heaven; “the floods stood as a heap,” signifies that those who are continually attempting evil could not in the least infest; “the abysses were congealed in the heart of the sea,” signifies that mere falsities from the evil of the cupidities of the love of self could not possibly emerge; “the enemy said,” signifies the thought of those who were in evils and the derivative falsities before the coming of the Lord; “I will pursue,” signifies infestation; “I will overtake,” signifies subjugation; “I will divide the spoil,” signifies servitude; “my soul shall be filled with them,” signifies delight; “I will draw my sword,” signifies the continual combat of falsity from evil; “my hand shall drive them out,” signifies that by virtue of power, heaven shall be destroyed; “Thou didst blow with Thy wind,” signifies the presence of the Lord with the angels; “the sea covered them,” signifies that all falsity enveloped them; “they sought the deep like lead,” signifies that evils dragged them down to lower things, like weights in the world; “in the vast waters” signifies an environment by a boundless abundance of falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 8281 sRef Ex@15 @6 S0′ 8281. Thy right hand, O Jehovah, is magnified in strength. That this signifies that the Lord’s omnipotence has been shown, is evident from the signification of the “right hand of Jehovah,” as being omnipotence, of which below; and from the signification of “is magnified in strength,” as being shown, for Divine power is shown by the strength by which it is magnified. That the “right hand of Jehovah” denotes omnipotence, is because by “hand” in the Word is signified power, and thus by “right hand” eminent power; consequently when the “hand” or “right hand” is said of Jehovah, it denotes Divine power, or omnipotence. (That “hand” and “right hand” denote power, see n. 878, 4931- 4937, 6292, 6947, 7188, 7189, 7518; and when predicated of Jehovah, omnipotence, n. 3387, 7518, 7673, 8050, 8069, 8153.)
sRef Ps@110 @5 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @64 S2′ sRef Luke@22 @69 S2′ sRef Ps@110 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@110 @4 S2′ [2] That the “right hand of Jehovah” denotes Divine power, or omnipotence, is also evident from the following passages in the Word:
Jesus said, Henceforth ye shall see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming upon the clouds of heaven (Matt. 26:64; Mark 14:62).
From henceforth shall the Son of man be sitting at the right hand of the power of God (Luke 22:69).
The saying of Jehovah unto my Lord, Sit at my right hand, until I make thine enemies a footstool for thy feet; thou art a priest forever after the manner of Melchizedek, the Lord at thy right hand hath smitten kings in the day of anger (Ps. 110:1, 4, 5; Matt. 22:44).
He who does not know that the “right hand,” when said of Jehovah, signifies omnipotence, cannot receive any other idea from these words of the Lord, than that the Lord will sit at the right hand of His Father, and have dominion like one who sits at the right hand of a king on earth. But the internal sense teaches what is meant in these passages by “sitting at the right hand,” namely, the Divine omnipotence; consequently it is also said, “to sit at the right hand of power,” and “at the right hand of the power of God.”
[3] That it is the Lord who has omnipotence, is manifest; for this is said of the Lord, and by “the Lord” in David is meant the Lord in respect to Divine truth, and also by the “Son of man” in the Evangelists; for Divine truth is that which has omnipotence from Divine good. (That Divine truth has omnipotence, see n. 6948, 8200; in general that power belongs to truth from good, n. 3091, 3563, 4231, 6344, 6493; and that consequently “hand” is predicated of truth, n. 3091, 4931; and that the “Son of man” denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, n. 2159, 2803, 2813, 3704.)
sRef Ps@80 @17 S4′ sRef Ps@80 @15 S4′ sRef Ps@89 @13 S4′ sRef Ps@20 @6 S4′ sRef Ps@80 @14 S4′ sRef Ps@118 @14 S4′ sRef Ps@118 @15 S4′ sRef Ps@118 @16 S4′ [4] Divine power or omnipotence is also signified by the “right hand” in the following passages in David:
Now know I that Jehovah saveth His anointed; they will answer Him in heaven through the powers of the salvation of His right hand (Ps. 20:6).
O Jehovah, look from the heavens, and see, and visit this vine; and the shoot which Thy right hand hath planted, upon the son Thou hadst made strong for Thyself (Ps. 80:14, 15, 17).
Thou hast an arm with might; strong is Thy hand, exalted shall be Thy right hand (Ps. 89:13).
My strength and song is Jah, He is become my salvation; the voice of shouting and of salvation is in the tents of the righteous, the right hand of Jehovah hath done valiantly, the right hand of Jehovah is exalted, the right hand of Jehovah hath done valiantly (Ps.
sRef Isa@62 @8 S5′ sRef Ps@44 @2 S5′ sRef Ps@44 @3 S5′ sRef Ps@80 @17 S5′ [5] In these passages the “right hand of Jehovah” denotes omnipotence; and in the supreme sense the Lord as to Divine truth. This is more evident elsewhere in David:
Let Thy hand, O Jehovah, be for the man of Thy right hand, for the son of man Thou hast made strong for Thyself (Ps. 80:17);
where “the man of the right hand of Jehovah,” and “the son of man,” denote the Lord as to Divine truth. In the same:
Thou hast driven out the nations with Thy hand, not by their sword have they possessed the land, and their arm hath not saved them, but Thy right hand, and Thine arm, and the light of Thy faces (Ps. 44:2, 3);
where “the light of the faces of Jehovah” denotes Divine truth from Divine good; so also “the right hand,” and “the arm.” And in Isaiah:
God hath sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength (62:8);
here also the “right hand of God,” and the “arm of His strength” denote the Lord as to Divine truth; for Jehovah or the Lord does not swear by any other than Himself (n. 2842), thus by the Divine truth, for this is Himself, because from Himself.
[6] Hence it is that in the Word throughout the Lord is called not only the “right hand” and “arm” of Jehovah, but also “the strength by which He breaks in pieces enemies,” and likewise “the hammer,” as in Jer. 51:20, 21, seq. Moreover the Lord came into the world, and there became Divine truth, and afterward Divine good from which is Divine truth, in order that He might shut up all evils and falsities in the hells, and gather together goods and truths into the heavens, and there dispose them into Divine order. From all this it is now evident that by “the right hand of Jehovah” in the Word is signified the omnipotence which the Divine has by means of Divine truth. That “the right hand” denotes eminent power, derives its origin from the fact that they who in the Grand Man or heaven have relation to the shoulders, the arms, and the hands, are they who are powerful from the truth which is from good; that is, from the faith which is from love (n. 4931-4937, 7518).

AC (Potts) n. 8282 sRef Ex@15 @6 S0′ 8282. With Thy right hand, O Jehovah, Thou breakest in pieces the enemy. That this signifies the effect of omnipotence on evils and the derivative falsities, the power of which is being annihilated, is evident from the signification of “the right hand of Jehovah,” as being the Lord’s omnipotence (of which just above, n. 8281); from the signification of “to break in pieces,” as being to annihilate, and from the signification of “the enemy,” as being evils and falsities, for nothing else is meant in the spiritual sense by the “enemies,” “foes,” and “haters” mentioned in the Word. They are not called “enemies,” “foes,” and “haters,” because the Lord is an enemy, or bears hatred to them, but because they are haters and enemies against the Divine; yet when they devastate themselves, and cast themselves into damnation and into hell, it appears as if this comes from the Divine. This appearance, or fallacy, is circumstanced like one who sees the sun making every day a revolution round our earth, and consequently believes that this motion is of the sun, when yet it is of the earth; and it is circumstanced like one who sins against the laws, and on this account is judged by a king or judge, and punished, and who believes that the punishment comes from the king or judge; when yet it comes from himself, who acts contrary to the laws; also it is like one who casts himself into the water, or into the fire, or against a drawn sword, or against a troop of enemies, and should believe that his perdition comes therefrom; when yet it comes from himself. Such is the case with those who are in evil, who rise against the Divine, and cast themselves into the midst of perdition.

AC (Potts) n. 8283 sRef Ex@15 @7 S0′ 8283. And in the multitude of Thine excellency Thou destroyest those who rise up against Thee. That this signifies that by virtue of the Divine, things opposed are rejected as nothing, is evident from the signification of “the multitude of excellency,” as being the Divine as to power over those things which oppose themselves to Him; from the signification of “to destroy,” as being to reject as nothing; and from the signification of “those who rise up against,” as being those who oppose themselves, thus things opposed.

AC (Potts) n. 8284 sRef Ex@15 @7 S0′ 8284. Thou sendest forth Thy wrath. That this signifies the fury of cupidities, and the endeavor to inflict violence, with the evil, is evident from the signification of “wrath,” when it is attributed to Jehovah or the Lord, as being the destruction and punishment of their endeavors, in the case of those who oppose themselves to the Divine and wish to inflict violence on those whom the Divine protects. (That it appears as if anger and wrath were from the Divine, and yet they are in those who set themselves in opposition, see n. 5798, 6071, 6997; and that not only anger and wrath, but also all the evils that happen, are attributed to the Divine, when yet they are from the evil themselves, see n. 2447, 6071, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7632, 7643, 7679, 7710, 7877, 7926, 8223, 8227, 8228.) The sphere of endeavors to do evil is perpetual from the hells, but the sphere of endeavors to do good is perpetual from the heavens (see n. 8209).

AC (Potts) n. 8285 sRef Ex@15 @7 S0′ 8285. It devoureth them as stubble. That this signifies the consequent devastation and damnation from themselves, is evident from the signification of “devouring,” as being to consume, and in the spiritual sense to devastate and damn, for the consumption of those who are in evil is devastation and damnation, because they are then not in any truth, but in mere falsities from evil, consequently they are no longer in any spiritual life. It is said “as stubble,” because a complete vastation, that is, devastation, is signified.

AC (Potts) n. 8286 sRef Ex@15 @8 S0′ 8286. And with the wind of Thy nostrils the waters were heaped up. That this signifies that falsities were gathered together into a one through the presence of heaven, is evident from the signification of “the wind of Thy nostrils,” as being heaven (of which in what follows); from the signification of “to be heaped up,” as being to be gathered together into a one; and from the signification of “waters,” as being falsities (see n. 7307, 8137, 8138). (That damnation and casting into hell is a gathering together of all falsities derived from evil and an environment by them, see n. 8146, 8210, 8232; and that this is effected by the mere presence of the Lord, n. 8265.) That “the wind of the nostrils of Jehovah,” or of the Lord, denotes heaven, is because by it is meant the breath of life, thus the Divine life, and as this makes the life of heaven, by “the wind of the nostrils of Jehovah” is signified heaven; hence also it is that the same word in the original tongue means both “wind” and “spirit.”
sRef Job@33 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@33 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@104 @29 S2′ sRef Ps@104 @30 S2′ sRef Ezek@37 @3 S2′ sRef Ezek@37 @10 S2′ sRef Ezek@37 @9 S2′ sRef Rev@7 @1 S2′ [2] That by “the wind of Jehovah,” or “His breath,” is signified the life that belongs to heaven, and that belongs to the man who is in heaven, that is, to one who is regenerate, is evident in these passages:
By the Word of Jehovah were the heavens made, and all the army of them by the breath [wind] of His mouth (Ps. 33:6).
Thou gatherest their breath, they expire, and return to their dust; Thou sendest forth Thy spirit [wind], they are created (Ps. 104:29, 30).
Jehovah said unto me, Will these bones live? Then said He, Prophesy upon the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the wind, Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe into these slain, that they may live; and the breath came into them, and they revived (Ezek. 37:3, 9, 10).
I saw four angels standing upon the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow upon the earth, nor upon the sea, nor upon any tree (Rev. 7:1);
“the wind” here denotes the life of heaven, that is, Divine life, as also in Job:
The spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of Shaddai hath vivified me (33:4).
sRef Lam@4 @20 S3′ sRef John@3 @8 S3′ sRef Gen@2 @7 S3′ sRef Job@27 @3 S3′ sRef Isa@2 @22 S3′ [3] As “wind” signifies life, therefore, when the Lord teaches; about the regeneration of man, He also says:
The spirit (or wind) bloweth where it willeth, and thou hearest the voice thereof, yet knowest not whence it cometh, or whither it goeth; so is everyone that is begotten of the spirit (John 3:8).
And because by the “wind of Jehovah,” or “His breath,” was signified life from the Divine, therefore where the new life of Adam is treated of, it is said:
Jehovah breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives, and man became a living soul (Gen. 2:7);
it is said “through the nostrils,” because through them respiration is effected, and through respiration, life, as in these passages:
Cease ye from man, in whose nose is breath (Isa. 2:22).
The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of Jehovah, was taken in their pits; of whom we had said, In his shadow we shall live among the nations (Lam. 4:20);
“the anointed of Jehovah” denotes the Lord; “the breath of our nostrils,” life from Him. In Job:
As long as my breath (anima) is in me, and the wind of God is in my nose (27:3).
sRef Ps@147 @17 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @8 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @15 S4′ sRef Ps@147 @18 S4′ sRef Isa@30 @33 S4′ sRef Isa@40 @24 S4′ [4] As, then, by “the wind of the nostrils of Jehovah” is signified the life which is from the Lord, and thus in the universal sense, heaven; and as by the presence of the Lord, or by the presence of heaven where the Lord is, evils and falsities are cast into hell (n. 8265); therefore also this effect is signified by “the wind of the nostrils of Jehovah” in these passages:
The channels of the sea appeared, the foundations of the world were revealed, at the rebuke of Jehovah, at the blast of the breath of His nose (Ps. 18:8, 15; 2 Sam. 22:16).
The blast of Jehovah, like a stream of sulphur, doth kindle it (Isa. 30:33).
Nay, they are not planted; nay, they are not sown; nay, their trunk is not rooted in the earth; and He even bloweth on them, and they wither, that the whirlwind may take them away like stubble (Isa. 40:24).
He sendeth His word, and melteth them; He causeth His wind to blow, the waters flow (Ps. 147:18).
Hence also it is, that by “the nose,” when predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, is also signified wrath, thus the punishment, vastation, and damnation of those who are in evils and falsities (as in Num. 25:4; Deut. 7:4; Judges 2:14; Isa. 9:21; Jer. 4:8; Hosea 14:4; Ps. 6:1; 86:15; 103:8; 145:8; and in many other passages); and also by “blowing with the nostrils,” or “breathing,” is signified to be angry (Deut. 4:21; Isa. 12:1; Ps. 2:12; 6:1; 60:3; 79:5; 85:5).

AC (Potts) n. 8287 sRef Ex@15 @8 S0′ 8287. The floods stood as a heap. That this signifies that those who are continually attempting evil could not in the least infest, is evident from the signification of “standing as a heap,” when said of falsities from evil, as being to continually attempt evil, for when floods stand as a heap, they are a menace, and are in the effort to flow in, but are withheld by a stronger force; and from the signification of “the floods,” as being falsities from evil, in like manner as “waters” (n. 7307, 8137, 8138); but they are called “floods” on account of their effort to flow in, that is, to infest.

AC (Potts) n. 8288 sRef Ex@15 @8 S0′ 8288. The abysses were congealed in the heart of the sea. That this signifies that mere falsities from the evil of the cupidities of the love of self could not possibly emerge, is evident from the signification of “being congealed,” when said of those who are in the hells, as not being able to emerge; from the signification of “the abysses,” as being falsities from cupidities and as being the hells (see n. 8278, 8279); and from the signification of “the heart of the sea,” as being the evil of the love of self and the derivative falsities. For in the genuine sense “the heart” signifies celestial good, which is of love to the Lord (n. 3635, 3883-3895, 7542), consequently in the opposite sense it signifies the evil of the love of self, for this evil is opposite to the good of love to the Lord, and the evil of the love of the world is opposite to spiritual good, which is of love toward the neighbor. From this it is plain that by “the abysses were congealed in the heart of the sea,” is signified that mere falsities from the evil of the cupidities of the love of self could not possibly emerge. It is said that they could not emerge, because by “abysses,” and by “the heart of the sea,” are signified the hells where are falsities from cupidities, or where are falsities from evil; consequently, as they are there surrounded by their falsities from evil, they cannot any longer climb up, because the Divine of the Lord withstands the falsities there.

AC (Potts) n. 8289 sRef Ex@15 @9 S0′ 8289. The enemy said. That this signifies the thought of those who were in evils and the derivative falsities before the coming of the Lord, is evident from the signification of “he said,” as being thought (see n. 3395, 7244, 7937); and from the signification of “the enemy,” as being those who are in evils and falsities, for in the spiritual sense no others are “the enemy” (n. 8282). Their thought before the Lord’s coming is signified, because the infernal crew at that time raged almost freely, and infested and endeavored to subjugate all there. Their thought at that time is described in this verse by, “I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil, my soul shall be filled, I will draw my sword, my hand shall drive them out.” But this glorying of theirs was changed into lamentation when the Lord came into the world. This is described in the verse which next follows: “Thou didst blow with Thy wind, the sea covered them; they sought the deep like lead in the vast waters.” (Concerning the change of state among them through the coming of the Lord, see n. 6854, 6914, 7091, 7828, 7932, 8018, 8054.)

AC (Potts) n. 8290 sRef Ex@15 @9 S0′ 8290. I will pursue. That this signifies infestation, is evident from the signification of “pursuing,” when it is said by those who are in evil concerning those who are in good, as being to infest, and to endeavor to subjugate.

AC (Potts) n. 8291 sRef Ex@15 @9 S0′ 8291. I will overtake. That this signifies subjugation, is evident from the signification of “overtaking,” when it is said by those who are in evil concerning those who are in good, as being to subjugate.

AC (Potts) n. 8292 sRef Ex@15 @9 S0′ 8292. I will divide the spoil. That this signifies servitude, is evident from the signification of “the spoil,” as being those who have been subjugated; consequently “to divide the spoil” denotes to distribute among themselves those who have been reduced into slavery, thus it denotes servitude.

AC (Potts) n. 8293 sRef Ex@15 @9 S0′ 8293. My soul shall be filled with them. That this signifies delight, is evident without explication. It is said, “my soul shall be filled,” because the very delight of those who are in hell is to inflict evil on others; with some, for no other end than for the sake of the delight; with some, to the end that they may be reduced to slavery, and whom they desire to treat cruelly afterward. That they who are in evil of life have such a delight in the other life, scarcely any can believe, not even themselves; for so long as they are in the world they are restrained by fears of legal penalties, also of the loss of honors, wealth, reputation, and even of life. These fears cause them at that time to abstain from evils in externals; and from this they suppose that they are not of such a character; but when reflections upon the loss of life, of wealth, of honors, and of reputation are taken away from them, as is the case in the other life, and they are left to their evil, then the delight of doing evil, which had lain hidden in the will and had put itself forth whenever they could remove these fears, shows itself clearly. This delight then makes their life, which life is infernal life.

AC (Potts) n. 8294 sRef Lev@26 @33 S0′ sRef Ezek@12 @14 S0′ sRef Ezek@21 @5 S0′ sRef Ezek@21 @3 S0′ sRef Ezek@21 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @9 S0′ sRef Josh@5 @13 S0′ 8294. I will draw my sword. That this signifies the continual combat of falsity from evil, is evident from the signification of a “sword,” as being truth fighting against falsity and evil, and in the opposite sense falsity fighting against truth and good (see n. 2799, 4499); and from the signification of “drawing” or “baring it,” as being continual combat, even until the enemy has been laid prostrate. Continual combat is also signified by an “unsheathed” or “drawn sword” in these passages:
I will scatter you among the nations, and I will draw the sword after you (Lev. 26:33).
I will scatter all his troop into every wind, and I will draw the sword after them (Ezek. 12:14).
Thus said Jehovah, Behold Me against thee, I will draw forth My sword out of its sheath, and I will cut off from thee the righteous and the wicked, My sword shall go forth out of its sheath against all flesh from the south to the north, that all flesh may know that I Jehovah have drawn forth My sword out of its sheath, neither shall it return any more (Ezek. 21:3-5);
here “to unsheathe” or “draw the sword” denotes not to cease from fighting until the enemies are laid prostrate; thus continual combat. Continual combat against evils and falsities is also signified by “the unsheathed sword of the prince of the army of Jehovah,” who was seen by Joshua when he came into the land of Canaan (Josh. 5:13, 14), by which was signified that they would fight against the nations there and destroy them. By the nations which at that time possessed the land of Canaan are signified those who before the coming of the Lord occupied the region of heaven which was afterward given to those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 6914, 8054).

AC (Potts) n. 8295 sRef Ex@15 @9 S0′ 8295. My hand shall drive them out. That this signifies that by virtue of power, heaven shall be destroyed, is evident from the signification of “driving out,” as being to cast down, and thus to destroy; and from the signification of “hand,” as being power (see n. 878, 4931-4937, 6292, 6947, 7188, 7189, 7518). That heaven is signified, is because it is said that “he will drive them out,” thus from heaven; for when the reins are loosened, the evil are of such audacity and impudence as to suppose themselves able to destroy heaven itself. For all who are in the hells are in opposition against heaven, because against good and truth, and consequently are in the continual cupidity of destroying it, and insofar as this is permitted them, they continually endeavor to do it (n. 8273).
sRef Rev@12 @8 S2′ sRef Rev@12 @7 S2′ [2] The will to destroy heaven, or the will to cast down those who are there, is not accomplished by hostile invasion, as on earth, for such invasion or such combat is not possible in the other life; but it is accomplished through the destruction of the truth which is of faith, and of the good which is of love, for the truth of faith and the good of love are heaven. Herein consist combats and wars in the other life, and how direful and frightful these combats and wars are, will be told at the end of the chapters, where of the Lord’s Divine mercy I will speak about the hells. The war described by John: “there was war in heaven, Michael and his angels fought against the dragon, and the dragon fought and his angels, but prevailed not” (Rev. 12:7, 8), is to be understood in no other way.

AC (Potts) n. 8296 sRef Ex@15 @10 S0′ 8296. Thou didst blow with Thy wind. That this signifies the presence of the Lord with the angels, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8286).

AC (Potts) n. 8297 sRef Ex@15 @10 S0′ 8297. The sea covered them. That this signifies that all falsity enveloped them, is evident from the signification of “covering,” as being to envelop; and from the signification of “the sea,” here the waters of the sea Suph, as being falsities from evils, and because this sea denotes hell (see n. 8099, 8137, 8138, 8148); (that they were enveloped by falsities from evil, see n. 8210, 8232).

AC (Potts) n. 8298 sRef Ex@15 @10 S0′ 8298. They sought the deep like lead. That this signifies that evils dragged them down to lower things, like weights in the world, is evident from the signification of “the deep,” as being lower things, and the hells in respect to evils (see n. 8279), consequently “to seek the deep” denotes to be dragged down by evils to these lower things. (That the evil sink down by their evils to the hells, like weights in the world, see n. 8279.) It is said “like lead,” because by “lead” is signified evil; above, however, it was said “they went down into the depths of the sea like a stone” (verse 5), because by “a stone” is there signified falsity. Both falsity and evil are heavy, consequently both sink down; but still it is evil which makes heaviness in the spiritual sense, and thus sinks down just as from a weight; but not falsity by itself except from the evil which is in it; for from itself falsity has no weight; but from evil it has its tendency to sink.
sRef Ezek@22 @18 S2′ sRef Jer@6 @28 S2′ sRef Jer@6 @29 S2′ sRef Jer@6 @30 S2′ [2] Be it known that all metals signify good or truth, and in the opposite sense, evil or falsity. “Lead,” being more ignoble than the rest of the metals, signifies the evil which is lowest, such as is the evil of the exterior natural; but in the good sense it signifies good of the same degree, as in these passages:
They are all stubborn ones of stubborn ones, detractors, brass and iron; they are all destroyers. The bellows grew hot; the lead is consumed by the fire; in vain fusing he hath fused; for the evil have not been pulled away. They shall call them rejected silver, because Jehovah hath rejected them (Jer. 6:28-30).
Son of man, the house of Israel is become scoria to Me; all of them are brass, and tin, and iron, and lead, in the midst of the furnace; they have become scoriae of silver (Ezek. 22:18).

AC (Potts) n. 8299 sRef Ex@15 @10 S0′ 8299. In the vast waters. That this signifies an environment by a boundless abundance of falsities, is evident from the signification of “waters,” as being falsities from evil (of which just above, n. 8297), consequently “vast waters” denote falsities in boundless abundance; that they were environed or surrounded by these, see n. 8210, 8232.

AC (Potts) n. 8300 sRef Ex@15 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @13 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @12 S0′ 8300. Verses 11-13. Who is like Thee, O Jehovah, among the gods? Who is like Thee, magnificent in holiness, to be revered with praises, doing what is wonderful? Thou stretchedst out Thy right hand, and the earth swallowed them. In Thy mercy Thou hast led this people that Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast conducted them in Thy strength to the habitation of Thy holiness. “Who is like Thee, O Jehovah, among the gods,” signifies that all the truth of good proceeds from the Divine Human; “who is like Thee, magnificent in holiness,” signifies that from Him is all that is holy; “to be revered with praises,” signifies that to Him alone belong glory and thanksgiving; “doing what is wonderful,” signifies that from Him are all the means by which is power; “Thou stretchedst out Thy right hand,” signifies that the rule of power over all things thence appeared; “the earth swallowed them,” signifies that by virtue of mere presence they had damnation and hell; “in Thy mercy Thou hast led this people,” signifies the Divine influx with those who had abstained from evils, and so had received good; “that Thou hast redeemed,” signifies whom He liberated from hell; “Thou hast conducted them in Thy strength to the habitation of Thy holiness,” signifies that the Divine power of the Lord raised them to heaven into the Divine there.

AC (Potts) n. 8301 sRef Ex@15 @11 S0′ 8301. Who is like Thee, O Jehovah, among the gods. That this signifies that all truth of good proceeds from the Divine Human of the Lord, is evident from the signification of “gods,” as being truths (see n. 4402, 7268, 7873), here truths from good, because comparison is made with Jehovah, for it is said “who is like Thee, O Jehovah, among the gods?” (That “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, see n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5041, 5663, 6280, 6281, 6303, 6905, 6945, 6956.) That the Divine Human is here meant by “Jehovah,” is because in this song the subject treated of is the salvation of those who had been of the spiritual church, by the coming of the Lord into the world, and by His Divine Human then (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834, 6372, 6854, 6914, 7035, 7091, 7828, 7932 1/2, 8018, 8054). That by these words is signified that all the truth of good proceeds from the Divine Human of the Lord, is because truths can proceed from everybody; but the truths of good only from the Lord, consequently from those who are in good from the Lord. Truths separate from good are indeed thought and spoken by those who are in persuasive faith and nevertheless in a life of evil, and likewise by many others within the church; but these truths are not of good, thus do not proceed from the Lord, but from themselves.
[2] That truths from good proceed from the Lord can be seen from the fact that the Lord is good itself, because He is love itself; from this proceeds truth, like light from the flame of the sun; and this truth is like the light in the time of spring and summer, which has heat in its bosom, and causes all things of the earth as it were to receive life; whereas the truth which is not from good is like the light in the time of winter, when all things of the earth die. That “gods” denote the truths of good, is because by “gods” in a good sense are meant the angels, who are called “gods” because they are substances or forms recipient of truth in which is good from the Lord.
sRef Ps@82 @6 S3′ sRef Ps@82 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@135 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@86 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@95 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@97 @9 S3′ sRef Ps@138 @1 S3′ [3] Angels, and consequently the truths of good which are from the Lord, are also meant by “gods” in the following passages:
God standeth in the assembly of God, He shall judge in the midst of the gods, I said, Ye are gods, and all of you sons of the Most High (Ps. 82:1, 6);
that the truths which proceed from the Lord are what are here meant by “gods,” is evident from the fact that it is first said “the assembly of God,” in the singular number; and afterward, “in the midst of the gods.” (That “God” is mentioned in the Word where truth is treated of, see n. 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4287, 4402, 7010; and that “God” in the supreme sense denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, n. 7268.) In the same:
I will confess to Thee in my whole heart, before the gods will I sing psalms to Thee (Ps. 138:1).
There is none like Thee among the gods, O Lord (Ps. 86:8).
Jehovah is a great God, and a great King above all gods (Ps. 95:3).
Thou, Jehovah, art high above all the earth; Thou art exalted exceedingly above all gods (Ps. 97:9).
I know that Jehovah is great, and that our Lord is above all gods (Ps. 135:5).
Therefore also Jehovah is called “Lord of lords and God of gods” (Deut. 10:17; Josh. 22:22; Ps. 136:2, 3).
[4] That it is so often said that “Jehovah is above all gods,” and that He is “God of gods,” is because at that time many gods were worshiped, and the nations were distinguished by the gods whom they worshiped, and each nation believed that its own god was the supreme of all, and because from this the idea of a plurality of gods was seated in all minds, and it was disputed which of them was the greater, as can be sufficiently evident from the historicals of the Word in many passages; and this opinion was seated in the minds of the Jews above others, for which reason it is so often said in the Word that “Jehovah is greater than all gods,” and that “He is King,” and “God of gods.” That this opinion concerning many gods was seated in the minds of the Jews above other nations, can be sufficiently evident from their frequent apostasy to the worship of other gods, of which frequently in the historic books of the Word (see Judges 2:10-13, 17, 19; 3:5-7, 8:27, 33; 10:6, 10, 13; 18:14, 17, 18, 20, 24, 31; 1 Sam. 7:3, 4; 8:8; 1 Kings 14:23, 24; 16:31-33; 18:20; 21:26; 22:53; 2 Kings 16:1, 10; 17:7, 15-17; 21:3-7, 21; 23:4, 5, 7, 8, 10-13; and elsewhere).
sRef Jer@2 @28 S5′ sRef Jer@2 @11 S5′ sRef Jer@2 @12 S5′ [5] That nation was so demented that they confessed Jehovah solely with the mouth; but nevertheless at heart they acknowledged other gods, as can be clearly seen from the fact that after they had seen so many miracles in Egypt, and so many also afterward: the sea divided before them, and the army of Pharaoh immersed therein; the pillar of cloud and of fire continually appearing; the manna raining down daily from heaven; and the very presence of Jehovah with majesty and with terror so great upon Mount Sinai; and after they had uttered a confession that Jehovah alone is God, nevertheless after some weeks, merely because Moses delayed, they demanded for themselves molten gods to worship, and when these gods were made by Aaron, paid them divine worship by a feast, by burnt-offerings and sacrifices, and by dances. From this it can be seen that the worship of many gods clung to their hearts. That this nation was of such a character above every other nation in the whole earth, is also evident in Jeremiah:
Hath a nation changed gods? and My people hath changed its glory for that which doth not profit. Be ye amazed, O heavens, at this, and shudder ye, be ye in exceeding trepidation: according to the number of thy cities were thy gods, O Judah (2:11, 12, 28).
Moreover the native quality of that nation is such that above all other nations they adore external things, thus idols, and are unwilling to know anything whatever about internal things. For they are the most avaricious of all nations; and avarice such as theirs, which loves gold and silver for the sake of gold and silver, and not for the sake of any use, is an affection in the highest degree earthly, which drags down the mind wholly to the body, and immerses it therein, and so completely closes the interiors that it is utterly impossible for anything of faith and love from heaven to enter. From this it is evident how greatly those err who believe that that nation will be again chosen, or that the church of the Lord will again pass to them, all others being rejected; when yet it would be more easy to convert stones, rather than them, to faith in the Lord. It is believed that the church will again pass to them, because in the prophetics of the Word it is said in many passages that they are to return. But it is not known that in these passages, by “Judah,” by “Jacob,” and by “Israel,” is not meant that nation, but those with whom is the church.

AC (Potts) n. 8302 sRef John@16 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @11 S0′ 8302. Who is like Thee, magnificent in holiness. That this signifies that from Him is all that is holy, is evident from the signification of “Who is like Thee in holiness?” as being that no one is so holy; but in the internal sense, that from Him is all that is holy, because He is holiness itself. By “holy” is meant the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord; this is called “holy,” and is also meant by the “Holy Spirit,” which is for this reason called “the Spirit of truth” (John 14:16, 17; 15:26, 27; 16:13), and is said “to be sent by the Lord” (John 15:26, 27); and it is said that “He shall receive from the Lord that which He will proclaim” (John 16:15). As “holiness” is predicated of the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord, therefore the angels are called “holy,” because they receive it (Matt. 25:31; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26), and also the prophets, especially the Word, which is truth Divine itself. Moreover from the Divine truth which is Himself, because from Himself, the Lord is called “the Holy One of Israel,” “the Holy One of Jacob,” and “the Holy thing of God.”

AC (Potts) n. 8303 sRef Ex@15 @11 S0′ 8303. To be revered with praises. That this signifies that to Him alone belong glory and thanksgiving, is evident from the signification of “to be revered with praises,” when said of Jehovah, as being that He is to be celebrated and worshiped, thus that to Him alone belong glory and thanksgiving.

AC (Potts) n. 8304 sRef Ps@105 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @11 S0′ sRef Ps@105 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@105 @4 S0′ sRef Matt@16 @18 S0′ sRef Ps@105 @2 S0′ sRef Ps@105 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@16 @19 S0′ 8304. Doing what is wonderful. That this signifies that from Him are all the means by which is power, is evident from the signification of “wonders” and “miracles,” as being means of Divine power (see n. 6910). That “wonders” denote means of Divine power, is because by them men were brought to believe that Jehovah was the supreme of the gods, nay, that there was no God besides Him, consequently that He alone was to be worshiped; and they who were in this truth were afterward introduced into the truths of the worship of Him, which truths are means of power; for in the spiritual sense all power is in truths from the Divine (see n. 3091, 6344, 6423, 6948, 8200). Power in the spiritual sense is to put to flight and cast out from oneself the infernal crew, which is effected solely by means of truths. From this then it is that by “doing what is wonderful” is signified that from the Lord are all the means through which is power. The means of Divine power are also signified by “wonders” in David:
Sing ye to Jehovah, sing psalms to Him, meditate ye in all His wonders, glory ye in the name of His holiness, seek ye Jehovah, and His strength, seek ye His faces continually, make mention of His wonders, His prodigies, and the judgments of His mouth (Ps. 105:2-5).
That all power is in the truths which are of faith from the Lord, is clear from the Lord’s words to Peter:
I say to thee, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it; and I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens (Matt. 16:18, 19);
where by Peter is represented faith; and by “rock” in the Word is signified faith; and by “key” is meant power (see the preface to Gen. 22, and also n. 4738e, 6344e).

AC (Potts) n. 8305 sRef Ex@15 @12 S0′ 8305. Thou stretchedst out Thy right hand. That this signifies that the rule of power over all things thence appeared, is evident from the signification of “stretching out,” as being predicated of the rule of power, and when said of Jehovah, as being predicated of omnipotence (on which see n. 7673); and from the signification of the “right hand,” as being Divine power (of which above n. 8281). That it denotes which thence appeared, namely, the rule of power over all things, is evident from what now follows, that “the earth swallowed them,” by which is signified that from the mere presence of the Lord they had damnation, or hell.

AC (Potts) n. 8306 sRef Num@16 @32 S0′ sRef Num@16 @30 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @12 S0′ sRef Num@16 @31 S0′ sRef Num@16 @33 S0′ 8306. The earth swallowed them. That this signifies that by virtue of mere presence they had damnation and hell, is evident from the signification of “to be swallowed by the earth,” as being damnation and hell; for by this swallowing is signified a falling down, or casting down, into hell; moreover hell is deep down below, because it is very far from the sun of heaven, which is the Lord, and there is what is Most High. Removals from thence are according to the qualities and quantities of evils and the derivative falsities. Hence it is that heaven appears above, and hell beneath. Moreover the place where they are who are in falsities from evil, consequently in damnation, appears like a desert land, which is called “the damned land,” under which are cast down those who are cast into hell (n. 7418). That this takes place by virtue of the mere presence of the Lord, see n. 8265. From this then it is that by “the earth swallowed them,” is signified damnation and hell, as is clear in Moses:
Moses said unto the assembly of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, If Jehovah create a creation, and the earth open its mouth, and swallow them, and all that appertains to them, that they go down alive into hell, ye shall know that these men have provoked Jehovah. And the earth that was under them was sundered, and the earth opened its mouth, and swallowed them, and they, and all that appertained to them, went down alive into hell (Num. 16:30-33).

AC (Potts) n. 8307 sRef Ex@15 @13 S0′ 8307. In Thy mercy Thou hast led this people. That this signifies the Divine influx with those who had abstained from evils, and so had received good, is evident from the signification of “to lead in mercy,” as being to receive the Divine; and because those receive the Divine who abstain from evils, the Divine influx with them is signified. With regard to mercy from the Lord the case is this. The mercy of the Lord is perpetual with every man, for the Lord wills to save all men, whoever they are; but this mercy cannot flow in until evils have been removed, for evils and the derivative falsities stand opposed, and prevent it. But as soon as evils are removed, mercy flows in, that is, good from mercy from the Lord, which good is charity and faith. From this it can be seen that the mercy of the Lord is universal, that is, toward all, and that it is also special toward those who abstain from evils. Man can abstain from evils from himself; but he cannot receive good from himself. That man can abstain from evils from himself is because the Lord continually inflows into the will of man with this endeavor, and thereby puts in his freedom to desist from evils, as also to apply himself to good. The Lord also gives him the faculty of understanding truth, but that he does not understand is because he does not wish to understand, and this on account of the evil that is of the life; for falsity defends evil, and truth condemns it. Hence it is that a man cannot be presented with spiritual good by the Lord, thus cannot be led through mercy, unless he desists from evils.

AC (Potts) n. 8308 sRef Ex@15 @13 S0′ 8308. That Thou hast redeemed. That this signifies whom He liberated from hell, is evident from the signification of “to redeem,” as being to liberate from hell (see n. 7205, 7445).

AC (Potts) n. 8309 sRef Ex@15 @13 S0′ 8309. Thou hast conducted them in Thy strength to the habitation of Thy holiness. That this signifies that the Divine power of the Lord raised them to heaven into the Divine there, is evident from the signification of “to conduct in strength,” when said of elevation into heaven by the Lord, as being to raise by virtue of Divine power (that “strength” denotes power, is evident); and from the signification of “the habitation of holiness,” as being heaven where the Divine is; for “holiness” is predicated of the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord (n. 8302), and this Divine truth makes heaven.
sRef Ps@132 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@132 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@132 @4 S2′ sRef Deut@26 @15 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @15 S2′ sRef Ps@132 @7 S2′ [2] That “the habitation of Jehovah,” or of the Lord, denotes heaven, and also good-because in good there is heaven-is evident from the following passages:
Look Thou from the habitation of Thy holiness out of heaven, and bless Thy people Israel (Deut. 26:15).
Look Thou forth from heaven, and see, from the habitation of Thy holiness and of Thy comeliness (Isa. 63:15).
Shall I give sleep to mine eyes, until I find a place for Jehovah, habitations for the Strong One of Jacob? Lo, we heard of Him in Ephratah, we found Him in the fields of the forest, we will enter into His habitations (Ps. 132:4-7).
sRef Zech@2 @10 S3′ sRef Zech@2 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@37 @27 S3′ sRef Ezek@37 @26 S3′ [3] That the habitation of Jehovah, that is, of the Lord, is in good, is evident in these passages:
Shout for joy, and be glad, O daughter of Zion; lo, I come, that I may dwell in the midst of thee. Many nations shall cleave to Jehovah in that day, and they shall be to Me for a people; for I will dwell in thee (Zech. 2:10, 11).
I will set My sanctuary in the midst of them eternally, thus My habitation shall be with them (Ezek. 37:20, 27);
“the sanctuary” denotes where is Divine truth in which is Divine good.

AC (Potts) n. 8310 sRef Ex@15 @14 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @15 S0′ 8310. Verses 14-16. The peoples have heard, they have trembled, pain hath laid hold of the inhabitants of Philistia. Then were the chiefs of Edom dismayed, the mighty ones of Moab, terror hath laid hold of them, all the inhabitants of Canaan are melted. Fright and dread are fallen upon them; in the greatness of Thine arm they shall be destroyed as a stone, until Thy people shall pass over, O Jehovah, until shall pass over this people which Thou hast taken possession of. “The peoples have heard,” signifies all who are in falsity from evil everywhere; “they have trembled,” signifies terror; “pain hath laid hold of the inhabitants of Philistia,” signifies despair of enlarging their dominion on the part of those who are in faith separate from good; “then were the chiefs of Edom dismayed,” signifies the like with those who are in a life of evil from the love of self; “the mighty ones of Moab,” signifies those who are in a life of falsity from this love; “terror hath laid hold of them,” signifies that they have dared nothing; “all the inhabitants of Canaan are melted,” signifies the like with those who had been of the church, and have adulterated goods, and falsified truths; “fright and dread are fallen upon them,” signifies that they are without any hope of domination; “in the greatness of Thine arm,” signifies by virtue of omnipotence; “they shall be destroyed as a stone,” signifies a falling down like a weight; “until Thy people shall pass over,” signifies that thus without danger of infestation all shall be saved who are capable of receiving the truth of good and the good of truth; “until shall pass over this people,” signifies that thus shall be saved those of the church who are in truth and good; “which Thou hast taken possession of,” signifies who have thus become the Lord’s.

AC (Potts) n. 8311 sRef Ex@15 @14 S0′ 8311. The peoples have heard. That this signifies all who are in falsity from evil everywhere, is evident from the signification of “peoples,” as being those who are in truths from good, and in the opposite sense those who are in falsities from evil (see n. 1259, 1260, 3295, 3581, 4619). It is said “in falsities from evil,” to distinguish them from those who are in falsities and yet in good. In falsities and at the same time in good are, within the church, those who are in heresies and in a life of good; and, without the church, all who are in good. But with these, falsities do not condemn, unless they are such falsities as are opposed to good, and destroy the very life of good. But the falsities which are not opposed to good are indeed in themselves falsities, but relatively to the good of life, to which they are not opposed, they almost put off the quality of falsity, which is done through application to good. For such falsities can be applied to good, and they can be applied to evil. If they are applied to good, they become mild; but if to evil, they become hard; for falsities can be applied to good equally as truths can be applied to evil, for all truths whatever are falsified through applications to evil. Take as an example that faith alone saves. In itself this is a falsity, especially with the evil, who thus shut out the good of charity as contributing nothing at all to salvation. But this falsity becomes mild with those who are in the good of life, for they apply it to good, saying that faith alone saves, but that it is not faith except together with its fruit, consequently except where good is. So in all other cases.
[2] In what now follows, all those are treated of who had been in falsities from evil, and in evil from falsities, and who were cast into hell when the Lord came into the world. For there are very many kinds of evil, and consequently also of falsity, because every kind of evil has its falsity adjoined to it. For falsity is produced from evil, and is evil in form, just as the understanding with man is the form of his will; because the will shows itself in the light through what is of the understanding, and effigies and forms itself, and presents itself by means of images, and these by means of ideas, and these again by means of words. These things have been said that it may be known that there are many kinds of evil and of the derivative falsity. These were first described under the name of “the Egyptians;” and now in these verses under the name of “the inhabitants of Philistia,” under the name of “the leaders of Edom,” “the mighty ones of Moab,” and “the inhabitants of Canaan,” of all of whom it is said that consternation and terror had taken possession of them, because they had heard that those who were in faith separate from charity and in a life of evil, who were signified by “the Egyptians,” had been cast into hell, and that they in like manner were to be cast down into hell, in order that those who were in truth and good might pass through safe and unhurt, and be brought to heaven. This last is signified by the words of the following verses (16, 17): “fright and dread are fallen upon them, in the greatness of Thine arm they shall be destroyed as a stone, until Thy people shall pass over, O Jehovah, until shall pass over this people which Thou hast taken possession of; Thou shall bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, the place of Thy dwelling.”

AC (Potts) n. 8312 sRef Ex@15 @14 S0′ 8312. They have trembled. That this signifies terror, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 8313 sRef Ex@15 @14 S0′ 8313. Pain hath laid hold of the inhabitants of Philistia. That this signifies despair of enlarging their dominion on the part of those who are in faith separate from good, is evident from the signification of “pain,” as being despair on account of their being no longer able to enlarge their dominion (of which below); and from the signification of “the inhabitants of Philistia,” as being those who are in faith alone separate from the good of charity (n. 1197, 1198, 3412, 3413, 8093, 8096, 8099). They are distinguished from the Egyptians in the fact that they shut out the goods of charity, believing that man is saved through faith without these goods. From this foremost of their doctrine many errors are born; as that salvation is of mercy howsoever the man has lived; that through faith all sins and evils are washed away; and that thus the man marches along justified; also that salvation can be effected in a moment, even in the last hour of death, through the trust of faith; consequently that it is not the affection of celestial love that makes heaven with a man. These are “Philistines,” and they were called “the uncircumcised” by reason of the evils of the love of self and of the world, in which is their life.
sRef Isa@13 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@48 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@13 @7 S2′ sRef Jer@22 @23 S2′ sRef Isa@13 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@48 @4 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @43 S2′ [2] That “pain” here denotes despair, is because utmost pain is meant, such as is that of women in travail. Moreover in the original tongue the word signifies such pain. Despair or utmost pain is also described in the Word by “the pain of a woman in travail,” as in these passages:
The kings gathered themselves together, terror seized them, pain as of a woman in travail (Ps. 48:4, 6).
O dweller in Lebanon, having a nest in the cedars, how much of grace shalt thou find when pains come to thee, the pain as of a woman in travail? (Jer. 22:23).
The king of Babylon hath heard the fame of them, and his hands became slack, distress took hold of him, pain as of a woman in travail (Jer. 50:43).
The day of Jehovah is near, as a devastation from Shaddai, therefore all hands are slackened, and every heart of man melteth, and they are terrified, the gripes and pains take hold of them, they are in travail as a woman bringing forth (Isa. 13:6-8).
sRef Jer@6 @23 S3′ sRef Jer@6 @24 S3′ sRef Jer@6 @22 S3′ [3] Behold a people cometh forth from the land of the north, and a great nation shall be stirred up from the sides of the earth, they lay hold on bow and spear, he is cruel and shall not have compassion, their voice resoundeth like the sea, and they ride upon horses; he is prepared as a man for war, against thee O daughter of Zion, we have heard the fame thereof, our hands have slackened, distress hath taken hold of us, pain as of a woman in travail (Jer. 6:22-24);
the vastation of truth with those who are in evil is here treated of; “a people from the land of the north” denotes those who are in falsities from evil; “a great nation from the sides of the earth” denotes those who are in evils utterly opposed to good; “they lay hold on bow and spear” denotes that they fight from false doctrine; “their voice resoundeth like the sea” denotes the derivative reasoning; “they ride upon horses” denotes argumentation as if from what is of the understanding; “he is prepared as a man for war” denotes the cupidity of assaulting truth; “the daughter of Zion” denotes the church where good is; “distress hath taken hold” denotes pain because truths are being infested; “pain as of a woman in travail” denotes despair because good is being injured. From this it is evident that by “pain” is here signified despair on account of the injuring of good.
sRef Dan@12 @3 S4′ [4] That “pain hath laid hold of the inhabitants of Philistia” denotes despair, or no hope of enlarging their dominion, is because the Philistines, that is, those who establish salvation by faith alone without the goods of charity, in the other life continually aspire to dominion, by fighting against others; and this so long as they are not yet devastated as to the memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith. For in the other life everyone retains the principles of his faith which he had in the life of the body, and no others change them into truths than those who have been in the good of life; for good longs for truth, and receives it willingly, because it is homogeneous. But they who have been in evil of life do not change them (they are as it were hard), and they even reject truths and are also in obscurity, so that they cannot even see them: they see only such things as confirm their own principles, and not the least of what is opposed to these. Such also believe that they are the most intelligent of all; but they know nothing except how to reason from an assumed principle; and therefore it is these who most assault charity, consequently who desire to have dominion. For they who are in charity are humble, and desire to serve all, as being the lowest; whereas they who are in faith without charity are lofty, and desire to be served by all, as being the highest ones; and therefore they make heaven consist in the glory of having dominion, and because they believe themselves to be more intelligent than all others, they suppose that they will be archangels, and thus that many others will serve them; and also, according to the words in Daniel, that “the intelligent shall shine as the brightness of the expanse, and they that turn many to righteousness, as the stars forever and to eternity” (12:3). But instead of brightness these have darkness.

AC (Potts) n. 8314 sRef Ex@15 @15 S0′ 8314. Then were the chiefs of Edom dismayed. That this signifies the like with those who are in a life of evil from the love of self, is evident from the signification of “the chiefs,” as being the principal ones, thus all and each (of which below); and from the representation of Edom, as being those who from the evil of the love of self readily learn falsities and reject truths, and in the sense abstracted from person, as being the evil of the love of self to which falsity is adjoined and from which truth is rejected, thus also those who are in a life of evil from this love, namely, from the love of self. As regards these “chiefs,” by them are signified the principal ones; in the sense abstracted from person, the principal things, thus all things and each; for when “the chiefs” are mentioned, general things are signified, under which are the rest, or the principal things; as for instance the “tertian captains” (n. 8150, 8276); and they are predicated of good, and in the opposite sense of evil; while by “princes” are also signified general things under which are the rest, or primary things (n. 1482, 2089, 5044), but these are predicated of truth.
[2] Be it known that in the Word there are words that belong to the class of spiritual things, and words that belong to the class of celestial things; that is, there are those which express such things as belong to truth or faith, and those which express such things as belong to good or love. There are also words which are predicated of both. He who knows these things can know from the first view or reading of the Word, especially in its original tongue, where in the internal sense it treats of such things as are of truth, or of such things as are of good. The case is so with the signification of “princes,” and of “chiefs;” “princes” signify primary things, and are predicated of the truths of faith; but “chiefs” signify principal things, and are predicated of the good of love. In the opposite sense, “princes” are predicated of the falsities of faith, and “chiefs” of the evils of love.
sRef Zech@12 @6 S3′ sRef Zech@12 @5 S3′ sRef Zech@9 @7 S3′ [3] From this it is that those who reigned in Edom were called “chiefs” (Gen. 36:15-21, 29, 30, 40-43). The reason is that by “Edom” was signified the good of celestial love, and in the opposite sense the evil of the love of self; but with the sons of Ishmael, those who presided over the rest were not called “chiefs,” but “princes” (Gen. 25:16), because by “Ishmael” were signified those who are in truth (n. 3263, 3268, 4747). For this reason also those were called “princes” who presided in Israel (Num. 7:2, 10, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54), for by Israel were represented those who are in the truth and good of faith. But those who presided over Judah were called “chiefs,” because by Judah were represented those who are in the good of love, as in Zechariah:
Let him be as a chief in Judah (9:7).
The chiefs of Judah shall say in their heart, I will confirm to me the inhabitants of Jerusalem in Jehovah Zebaoth their God; in that day I will make the chiefs of Judah like a furnace of fire in pieces of wood (12:5, 6).

AC (Potts) n. 8315 sRef Ex@15 @15 S0′ 8315. The mighty ones of Moab. That this signifies those who are in the life of falsity from this love, is evident from the signification of “mighty ones,” as being things that reign and prevail; and from the representation of Moab, as being those who are in natural good and suffer themselves to be easily led astray (see n. 2468), thus who are in a consequent life of falsity; for they who are in natural good, and not in good from the truth of faith, thus not in spiritual good, suffer themselves to be led away to believe any falsities whatever, thus to live according to them. They are led away from truths to falsities especially by those things which favor their loves. These are they who are meant by “Moab.” (That they who are in natural good, and not in spiritual good, cannot possibly be led by any influx from heaven, see n. 3470, 3471, 3518, 4988, 4992, 5032, 6208, 7197, 8002.) The word by which “the mighty ones” are expressed in the original tongue, is predicated of those who are in truth from good, and in the opposite sense, of those who are in falsity from evil; in this latter sense is this word in Ezek. 31:11, and 2 Kings 24:15.

AC (Potts) n. 8316 sRef Ex@15 @15 S0′ 8316. Terror hath laid hold of them. That this signifies that they have dared nothing, is evident from the signification of “to be laid hold of by terror,” as being to dare nothing, for with those who are in terror the blood grows cold and rushes into the veins; the circulation stops; thence the sinews become flaccid; and the strength fails, so that they dare nothing.

AC (Potts) n. 8317 sRef Ex@15 @15 S0′ 8317. All the inhabitants of Canaan are melted. That this signifies the like with those who are of the church and have adulterated goods, and falsified truths, is evident from the signification of “the inhabitants of Canaan,” as being those who are of the church, and as being those there who have adulterated goods, and falsified truths. That by “the inhabitants of Canaan” are signified those who are of the church, is because the church of the Lord had been in the land of Canaan from the most ancient times (see n. 3686, 4447, 4454, 4516, 4517, 5136, 6516). Moreover that they are signified who have adulterated goods and falsified truths, is because by the nations there, whom the sons of Israel were to drive out, are represented evils, and likewise falsities, of faith (see n. 8054), and this because these nations had previously been of the church.

AC (Potts) n. 8318 sRef Ex@15 @16 S0′ 8318. Fright and dread have fallen upon them. That this signifies that they are without any hope of domination, is evident from the signification of “fright and dread,” when said of those who are in the love of self and in the consequent falsities and evils, who are signified by “the chiefs of Edom and the mighty ones of Moab,” as being that they are without hope of domination; for they who are in the evil of the love of self continually desire to domineer, but when terror falls upon them on account of a victorious enemy, then the hope of domineering falls.
[2] Be it known that evils are from a double origin; namely, from the love of self, and from the love of the world. They who are in evils from the love of self, love themselves only, and despise all others except those who make one with themselves, in loving whom they do not love them, but themselves, because they see themselves in them. The evils from this origin are the worst of all; for they who are in them not only despise all others in comparison with themselves, but also pursue them with invectives, and bear hatred toward them for slight cause, and then breathe their destruction. In this way revenge and cruelty become the delight of their life. They who are in the evil of this love are at a depth in hell according to the quality and amount of this love.
[3] But they who are in evil from the love of the world also hold their neighbor in slight estimation, and esteem him solely by reason of his wealth; thus they esteem his riches, not him. These desire to possess all that belongs to their neighbor, and when they are in this cupidity, they are then devoid of all charity and mercy; for to deprive their neighbor of his goods is the delight of their life, especially of those who are sordidly avaricious, that is, who love gold and silver for the sake of gold and silver, but not for the sake of any use from them. Those with whom the evil of this love has dominion are also in the hells, but not in hells so deep as are they who are in the evil of the love of self. Besides these two origins of evil there is also a third, which is to do evil from the principles of a false religion; but this evil has a bad character with those who are in the love of self and of the world; but not with those who are in love toward the neighbor and to their God; for the end is good, and the end qualifies all the rest (see n. 8311).

AC (Potts) n. 8319 sRef Ex@15 @16 S0′ 8319. In the greatness of Thine arm. That this signifies by virtue of omnipotence, is evident from the signification of “arm,” as being power (see n. 878, 4931-4937), and when said of the Divine, as being omnipotence.

AC (Potts) n. 8320 sRef Ex@15 @16 S0′ 8320. They shall be destroyed as a stone. That this signifies a falling down like a weight, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8279, 8298).

AC (Potts) n. 8321 sRef Ex@15 @16 S0′ 8321. Until Thy people shall pass over. That this signifies that thus without danger of infestation all shall be saved who are capable of receiving the truth of good and the good of truth, is evident from the signification of “passing over,” as being to be saved without danger of infestation; for when they who are in falsities from evil, and have infested, are cast into hell, and are removed, then there are none who obstruct by injecting falsities and evils, and who thus prevent the reception of good and truth from the Lord. This is what is here signified by “passing over.” For so long as the evil were not cast into hell, scarcely any could “pass over,” that is, be saved; for the evil then continually excited evils and falsities with those who were coming into the other life, and thus withheld them from good and truth. In order therefore that those who were in good and truth might be liberated from such infesters, the Lord came into the world; and when He was in the world, then by means of continual temptations admitted into Himself, and by means of continual victories therein, He subjugated all such spirits, and afterward by His presence caused them to be cast into hell, where being taken possession of by their own evils and falsities, they might be kept bound to eternity.
[2] By “people” are here meant those who are in the capacity of receiving the truth of good and the good of truth, for “people” in general signifies those who are in the truth and good of faith (n. 1259, 1260, 3295, 3581, 4619); here, it signifies Israel, that is, those who are of the spiritual church, or what is the same, who are in the truth of good and the good of truth (n. 7957, 8234). It is said “in the capacity of receiving the truth of good and the good of truth,” because no others are in this capacity than those who have lived a life of charity. This life gives this capacity. Hugely do those err who believe that faith without charity can confer this quality; for faith without charity is hard and resistant, and rejects all the influx from the Lord; but charity with faith is yielding and gentle and receives the influx. From this it is that charity gives this capacity, but not faith without charity; and as charity gives this capacity, it is this also which saves; for they who are saved are not saved through charity from themselves, but through charity from the Lord, consequently through the capacity of receiving it.

AC (Potts) n. 8322 sRef Ex@15 @16 S0′ 8322. Until shall pass over this people. That this signifies that thus shall be saved those of the church who are in truth and good, is evident from what has been unfolded just above.

AC (Potts) n. 8323 sRef Isa@51 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@51 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @16 S0′ 8323. Which Thou hast taken possession of. That this signifies who have thus become the Lord’s, is evident from the signification of “to take possession of,” as being to be His. Here, because it treats of those who are in truth and good, to save whom the Lord came into the world, it is they who are signified, as being the Lord’s. Elsewhere they are called “the redeemed,” as in Isaiah:
Art thou not it that hath dried up the sea, the waters of the great abyss, that made the depths of the sea a way for the redeemed to pass over? thus the redeemed of Jehovah shall return (51:10, 11).

AC (Potts) n. 8324 8324. Verses 17-19. Thou shalt bring them in, Thou shalt plant them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, in the place Thou hast wrought for Thee to dwell, O Jehovah, the sanctuary, O Lord, Thy hands have prepared. Jehovah shall reign forever and to eternity. Because Pharaoh came with his chariot and with his horsemen into the sea, and Jehovah brought back the waters of the sea upon them; and the sons of Israel went on the dry through the midst of the sea. “Thou shalt bring them in,” signifies elevation; “and plant them,” signifies regeneration continually; “in the mountain of Thine inheritance” signifies heaven where is the good of charity; “the place for Thee to dwell in” signifies where the Lord is; “which Thou hast wrought, O Jehovah” signifies that it was from the Lord alone; “the sanctuary, O Lord, Thy hands have prepared, “signifies heaven where are they who are in the truth of faith from the Lord; “Jehovah shall reign forever and to eternity,” signifies that the Lord alone is Lord of heaven and earth; “because the horse of Pharaoh came with his chariot and with his horsemen,” signifies all falsities from a perverted intellectual with those who had been in faith separate and in a life of evil; “into the sea,” signifies damnation; “and Jehovah brought back the waters of the sea upon them,” signifies that the falsities from evils, which they intended for the good, returned upon themselves, by reason of the presence of the Lord with those who were in good; “and the sons of Israel went on the dry through the midst of the sea,” signifies that they who were in the good of truth and in the truth of good passed safely through the region of that hell.

AC (Potts) n. 8325 sRef Ex@15 @17 S0′ 8325. Thou shalt bring them in. That this signifies elevation, is evident from the signification of “bringing in,” when to heaven, as being elevation. It is said “elevation,” because before the outward sight of spirits heaven is on high, and before the inner sight, such as is that of the angels, heaven is within; for everything internal in the other life is presented representatively as above, and everything external as beneath, consequently heaven appears above, and hell beneath (n. 2148, 3084, 4599, 5146); for it is states of truth and of good, and in the opposite sense, states of falsity and of evil, which are represented in the other life by means of heights and depths; in a word, which are represented by means of distances and places (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381).
[2] From this experience alone it can be concluded with what difficulty the natural man apprehends spiritual things, consequently those things which are of heaven. What natural man can comprehend that there are no spaces and times in heaven; but instead thereof states; namely, states of good, or states of being, instead of spaces; and states of truth, or states of coming-forth, instead of times? Will not the merely natural man believe that there is absolute emptiness and nothingness where there are no time and space? From this it is evident that if the natural man concludes in himself that nothing is to be believed except what he apprehends, he then casts himself into enormous errors. As the case is with spaces and times, so also it is with many other things; as for example, the natural man must needs fall into phantasy about the Divine, when he thinks from time about what the Divine was doing before the creation of the world, that is, what It had done from eternity till then; nor can he be extricated from this knot until the ideas of time and of space are removed. When the angels think about this eternity, they never think about it from time, but from state.
[3] In the other life there appear two statues, partly of flesh and partly of stone, placed at the boundary of the created universe, in front toward the left; and it is said of them that they swallow those who think about what the Divine was doing from eternity until It created the world. This swallowing represents that as the man cannot think except from space and time, he cannot from himself extricate himself therefrom; but he can do so from the Divine, which is effected either by the dispersal of this thought, or by the removal of the ideas of time.

AC (Potts) n. 8326 sRef Ex@15 @17 S0′ 8326. And plant them. That this signifies regeneration continually, is evident from the signification of “planting,” as being to regenerate, for regeneration is circumstanced like planting. For when a tree is planted, it grows into branches, leaves, and fruits, and from the seeds of the fruits it grows into new trees; and so on. Similar is the case with regeneration in man, and therefore in the Word a man is also compared to a tree, and a regenerate man to a garden or paradise; the truths of faith with him are compared to the leaves, and the goods of charity to the fruits, the seeds from which come new trees to the truths which are from good, or what is the same, to the faith which is from charity. It is said “regeneration continually,” because regeneration begins in a man, but never ceases, being continually perfected, not only while he lives in the world, but also in the other life to eternity; and yet it can never arrive at any such perfection that it can be compared to the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 8327 sRef Ex@15 @17 S0′ 8327. In the mountain of Thine inheritance. That this signifies heaven where is the good of charity, is evident from the signification of “the mountain of Thine inheritance,” as being heaven; for by “mountain” is signified the good of love (see n. 795, 796, 2722, 4210, 6435), and by “inheritance” the life of another, here of the Lord, thus the life of good and truth which is from the Lord, for they who are in this life are called “heirs of the kingdom” and “sons” (n. 2658, 2851, 3672, 7212). As these things are signified by “the mountain of inheritance,” heaven also is signified; for heaven is heaven from the good of love, and is an inheritance to those who are the Lord’s.

AC (Potts) n. 8328 sRef Matt@7 @21 S0′ sRef Matt@5 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @9 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @17 S0′ sRef Matt@5 @48 S0′ 8328. The place for Thee to dwell in. That this signifies where the Lord is, is evident from the signification of “place,” as being state (of which just above, n. 8325), here a state of good from the Divine, because heaven is meant; and from the signification of “the habitation of Jehovah,” or “the place for Thee to dwell in,” as being where the Lord is. (That “to dwell” is predicated of good, see n. 2712, 3613; and that “the habitation of Jehovah” denotes good, and consequently heaven, n. 8269, 8309; that the Lord is “Jehovah” in the Word, see above, n. 8261.) Frequent mention is made of the Father who is in the heavens, and there is then meant the Divine in heaven, thus the Good from which is heaven. Regarded in Itself the Divine is above the heavens; but the Divine in the heavens is the Good that is in the Truth that proceeds from the Divine. This is meant by “the Father in the heavens,” as in Matthew:
That ye may be sons of the Father who is in the heavens: that ye may be perfect, as your Father who is in the heavens is perfect
Our Father who art in the heavens, hallowed be Thy name (6:9).
He that doeth the will of the Father who is in the heavens (7:21).
(And also 10:32, 33; 16:17; 18:10, 14, 19.)
The Divine that is in the heavens is the Good which is in the Divine Truth that proceeds from the Lord; but the Divine above the heavens is the Divine Good Itself. By “a place for Thee to dwell in” is signified heaven where is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord, for this makes heaven. How the case is with the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord, that it is in heaven good, may be illustrated by comparison with the sun, and with the light that is from the sun. In the sun is fire, but from the sun proceeds light, which light has within itself heat, from which gardens sprout forth, and become like paradises. The very fire of the sun does not pass to the earth (for it would burn up and consume all things), but the light wherein is heat from the fire of the sun. In the spiritual sense this light is the Divine Truth; the heat is the good in the Truth from the Divine Good; and the resultant paradise is heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 8329 sRef Ex@15 @17 S0′ 8329. Which Thou hast wrought, O Jehovah. That this signifies that it was from the Lord alone, is evident from the signification of “working” when said of regeneration and heaven, as being that it is from the Lord alone; for everything of regeneration, and everything of heaven are from the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 8330 sRef Ex@15 @17 S0′ 8330. The sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hands have prepared. That this signifies heaven where are they who are in the truth of faith from the Lord, is evident from the signification of “the sanctuary,” as being heaven where is the truth of faith (of which below); and from the signification of “Thy hands have prepared,” as being that which is from the Lord. It is said of the sanctuary that “Thy hands have prepared it,” because the “hands” are predicated of truth, and signify power. (That the “hands” are predicated of truth, see n. 3091, 8281; and also that they denote power, n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 6292, 6947, 7011, 7188, 7189, 7518, 7673, 8050, 8069, 8153, 8281; in like manner that “sanctuary” is predicated of truth, n. 8302.) But the words which precede, as “the place for Thee to dwell in,” and “which Thou hast wrought O Jehovah,” are predicated of good, because they relate to “the mountain of inheritance,” by which is signified heaven wherein is the good of charity (n. 8327). (That there are words which in the Word are predicated of good, and words which are predicated of truth, see n. 8314.)
[2] What is meant by the heaven in which is the good of charity, which is signified by “the mountain of inheritance,” and what by the heaven in which is the truth of faith, which is “the sanctuary,” shall be briefly told. The heaven in which is the good of charity is that in which are the interior ones who belong to the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; and the heaven in which is the truth of faith is that in which are the exterior ones who belong to this kingdom. They who are interior are in charity itself and in the derivative faith; but they who are exterior are those who are in faith, but not yet in charity. These latter do good from obedience, but the former from affection. From all this it is evident what is meant by the heaven in which is the good of charity, and what by the heaven in which is the truth of faith.
sRef Ps@20 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@20 @2 S3′ [3] As regards the “sanctuary,” it denotes in the supreme sense the truth of faith which is from the Lord, and consequently in the representative sense it denotes the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, also the spiritual church, and from this a regenerated man who is a church, and thus in a sense abstracted from these it denotes the truth of faith, thus faith itself. (What “holy” denotes see above, n. 8302.)
sRef Ps@68 @35 S4′ sRef Ps@68 @24 S4′ [4] From this then it is that heaven is called “the sanctuary” from the truth of faith which is from the Lord, as in David:
Jehovah answer thee in the day of trouble, send thee help from the sanctuary, and sustain thee out of Zion (Ps. 20:1, 2);
here “the sanctuary” denotes the heaven where is the truth of faith; “Zion” denotes the heaven where is the good of love.
They have seen Thy goings, O God, the goings of my God, of my King, in the sanctuary; to be feared is God, out of Thy sanctuaries the God of Israel (Ps. 68:24, 35);
“the sanctuary” denotes the heaven where is the truth of faith, consequently it is said “God,” and not “Jehovah,” and also “King;” because “God” is said where truth is treated of, and “Jehovah” where good is treated of (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4402, 7010, 7268), and because “King” denotes truth (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148).
sRef Ps@150 @1 S5′ [5] In the same:
A people shall praise Jah, because He hath looked forth from the height of His sanctuary; from the heavens did Jehovah look upon the earth, to hear the groaning of the bound one, to open to the sons of death (Ps. 102:18-20);
here also “sanctuary” denotes heaven as to the truth of faith. In the same:
Praise ye God in His sanctuary; praise ye Him in the expanse of His strength (Ps. 150:1);
“to praise in the sanctuary” denotes to do so from the truth of faith which is from the Lord; and “to praise in the expanse of His strength,” denotes by virtue of the good of charity which is from the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 8331 sRef Rev@19 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@11 @15 S0′ aRef Ps@99 @1 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@52 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@146 @10 S0′ 8331. Jehovah shall reign forever and to eternity. That this signifies that the Lord alone is the Lord of heaven and earth, is evident from the fact that of Jehovah, that is, of the Lord, it can be said that “He shall reign forever and to eternity;” and of the angels, that they shall indeed reign, but from the Lord; thus it is still the Lord alone who reigns through them. It was customary with the ancients who were of the church to say, “God reigns,” also “God shall reign eternally,” by which was signified that it is well with the church, because then good and truth from the Divine are there; in general by this was signified that Jehovah is the only God; and they who were instructed about the advent of the Lord, signified by it that the Lord is the only Lord of heaven and earth. As in the church among the ancients it was customary to say “God shall reign,” therefore in David some Psalms are inscribed with the words “Jehovah shall reign” (see Ps. 93:1; 97:1; 99:1). And in these passages:
Jehovah shall reign eternally, thy God, O Zion, unto generation and generation. Hallelujah! (Ps. 146:10).
How delightful upon the mountains are the feet of Him that bringeth good tidings! that saith to Zion, Thy God shall reign! (Isa. 52:7);
speaking of the Lord. In John:
The kingdoms of the world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of His Christ, and He shall reign for ages of ages (Rev. 11:15).
I heard the voice of one saying, Hallelujah! for the Lord God reigneth (Rev. 19:6).
From these passages also it is evident that these words were words of joy, whence the exclamation, “Hallelujah!” and therefore it is said, “How delightful are the feet of Him that bringeth good tidings, that saith, Thy God reigneth!” That the Lord is the Lord of heaven and earth is evident in Matthew:
Jesus said unto the disciples, All power hath been given unto Me in heaven and on earth (28:18).

AC (Potts) n. 8332 sRef Ex@15 @19 S0′ 8332. Because the horse of Pharaoh came with his chariot and with his horsemen. That this signifies all falsities from a perverted intellectual with those who had been in faith separate and in a life of evil, is evident from the signification of “the horse of Pharaoh,” and also of “his chariot,” and of “his horsemen,” as being all falsities from a perverted intellectual (see n. 8146, 8148); and from the representation of Pharaoh and of the Egyptians, as being those who are in faith separate from charity and in a life of evil (n. 7926, 8148).

AC (Potts) n. 8333 sRef Ex@15 @19 S0′ 8333. Into the sea. That this signifies damnation, is evident from the signification of “the sea Suph,” as being hell (n. 8099, 8137, 8138); here damnation, because it is said that they “came into the sea,” and afterward that “Jehovah brought back the waters of the sea upon them,” by which is signified that they sank down into hell, for they come into damnation before they come into hell.

AC (Potts) n. 8334 sRef Ex@15 @19 S0′ 8334. And Jehovah brought back the waters of the sea upon them. That this signifies that the falsities from evils which they intended for the good returned upon themselves, by reason of the presence of the Lord with those who were in good, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah brought back the waters of the sea upon them,” as being that the falsities of evil which they intended for the good returned upon themselves. That falsities from evil are gathered together into a one, and are poured into those who are in evil, and that they are surrounded by them, see n. 8146: That the falsities from evil which the evil intend for others, by virtue of a law of order return upon themselves, n. 8214, 8223, 8226; that environment by the falsities of evil is casting into hell, n. 8210, 8232; and that this is effected by the mere presence of the Lord with the good, when He is protecting them and is bestowing on them heaven and the joy of heaven, n. 8137, 8265.

AC (Potts) n. 8335 sRef Ex@15 @19 S0′ 8335. And the sons of Israel went on the dry through the midst of the sea. That this signifies that they who were in the good of truth and in the truth of good passed safely through the region of that hell, is evident from what has been unfolded above (n. 8099, 8185).

AC (Potts) n. 8336 8336. Verses 20, 21. And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand, and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered to them, Sing ye to Jehovah, because exalting He hath exalted; the horse and his rider hath He cast into the sea. “And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand,” signifies glorification of the Lord from the good of faith; “and all the women went out after her,” signifies all the goods of truth; “with timbrels and with dances,” signifies celebration from joy and gladness; “and Miriam answered to them,” signifies what is reciprocal; “Sing ye to Jehovah,” signifies that to the Lord alone belongs glory, “because exalting He hath exalted,” signifies that He has manifested His Divine in the Human; “the horse and his rider hath He cast into the sea,” signifies from the fact that by reason of His mere presence falsities of faith and evils of life have cast themselves into hell.

AC (Potts) n. 8337 sRef Ex@15 @20 S0′ 8337. And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand. That this signifies glorification of the Lord from the good of faith, is evident from the representation of Miriam, as being the good of faith; for Moses represents the truth of faith which proceeds immediately from the Lord, thus internal truth; while Aaron represents the truth of faith which proceeds mediately from the Lord, thus external truth (see n. 7009, 7089, 7382); consequently “Miriam” denotes the good of faith which proceeds mediately from the Lord; for when men represent truth, their women represent good (n. 6014). As Miriam with the women represent external good, therefore it is added “the sister of Aaron,” and it is not said “the sister of Moses.” Moreover good and truth are circumstanced like sister and brother (n. 3160). But be it known that women represent good, and men truth, when the spiritual church is treated of; whereas women represent truth, and men good, when the celestial church is treated of (n. 4823). From the signification of “the prophetess,” as being one who teaches (n. 2534, 7269), here who praises the Lord, or what is the same, glorifies Him from the good of faith, because she sang to Jehovah, as Moses and the men of Israel had done (that “to sing” denotes to glorify, see n. 8261, 8263, 8267); and from the signification of “taking a timbrel in the hand,” as being to glorify from the good of faith, for a “timbrel” is predicated of spiritual good, or what is the same, of the good of faith (n. 4138).
[2] Formerly in Divine worship many kinds of musical instruments were employed, but with much distinction. In general, by wind instruments were expressed affections of good, and by stringed instruments affections of truth, and this from the correspondence of every sounding thing with the affections. It is known that some natural affections are expressed by certain kinds of musical instruments, and others by certain other ones, and that when a fitting harmony joins in accord, they actually excite these affections. They who are skilled in music are aware of these things, and make an accordant use of them. The cause of this fact arises from the very nature of sound and of its accord with the affections. Men learned this at first, not from science and art, but from the hearing and its exquisite sense: from this it is clear that it does not come from any origin in the natural world, but from an origin in the spiritual world, and accordingly from the correspondence with things in the spiritual world of those things in the natural world which flow from order. Harmonious sound and its varieties correspond to states of joy and gladness in the spiritual world; and states of joy and gladness there arise from the affections, which in that world are affections of good and truth. From this then it can be seen that musical instruments correspond to the delights and pleasantnesses of spiritual and celestial affections, and that some instruments correspond to celestial affections, and some to spiritual affections (see what has been said and shown before on this subject, n. 418-420, 4138).
sRef Jer@31 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@24 @8 S3′ [3] As regards the timbrel specifically, it corresponds to spiritual good, that is, to the good of truth. The reason is that the timbrel is not a stringed instrument, neither is it a wind instrument, but as it is made with a skin, it is as it were a continuous stringed instrument, and moreover its sound is graver and deeper than is the sound of stringed instruments. This can also be seen from the Word, where the “timbrel” is mentioned, as in Isaiah:
The joy of the timbrels shall cease, the tumult of the joyous shall cease, the joy of the harp shall cease (24:8);
“the joy of the timbrels” denotes the delights of the affections of the good of faith; “the joy of the harp,” the delight of the affection of the truth of faith. In Jeremiah:
Anew I will build thee, that thou shalt be built, O virgin of Israel; anew shalt thou adorn thy timbrels, and shalt go forth into the dance of them that play (31:4);
“to adorn the timbrels” denotes to glorify God from spiritual good, for it treats of the spiritual church, which is the “virgin of Israel.”
sRef Ps@68 @24 S4′ sRef Ps@81 @1 S4′ sRef Ps@81 @2 S4′ sRef Ps@149 @3 S4′ sRef Ps@149 @1 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @13 S4′ sRef Ps@68 @25 S4′ [4] In like manner in Ezekiel:
Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God, the work of thy timbrels and of thy pipes was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared (28:13);
speaking of Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of good and of truth, and by “timbrels and pipes” the affections of the former, and the joys of the latter. In David:
They have seen Thy goings, O God, the goings of my God in the sanctuary. The singers went before, after them the players, in the midst of the virgins playing on timbrels (Ps. 68:24, 25).
Shout to the God of Jacob, lift up a song, and give a timbrel, a pleasant harp with a psaltery (Ps. 81:1, 2).
Sing to Jehovah a new song, let them praise His name in the dance, let them sing psalms to Him with timbrel and harp (Ps. 149:1, 3);
here “to praise with timbrel” denotes to glorify from the delight of the affection of the good of faith; and “to praise with harp” denotes the pleasantness of the affection of the truth of faith.
sRef Ps@150 @3 S5′ sRef Ps@150 @5 S5′ sRef Ps@150 @4 S5′ [5] In the same:
Praise ye God with timbrel and dance, praise ye Him with stringed instruments and organ, praise Him with cymbals of sound, praise Him with cymbals of noise (Ps. 150:4, 5);
“to praise with timbrel and dance” denotes from the good and truth of faith; “with stringed instruments and organ” denotes from truths and the good thence derived. As by correspondence all instruments signified the delights and pleasantnesses of spiritual and celestial affections, many of the Psalms of David have an inscription, and it is told how they are to be sung, as “upon Neginoth,” “upon Nechiloth,” “upon the Octave,” “Shigajon,” “Gitthith,” “Muth-labben,” “Sheminith,” “Shoshannim,” “Machalath.”

AC (Potts) n. 8338 sRef Ex@15 @20 S0′ 8338. And all the women went out after her. That this signifies all the goods of truth, is evident from the signification of “women,” as being affections of good, when “men” denote affections of truth (of which just above, n. 8337).

AC (Potts) n. 8339 sRef Jer@31 @13 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @12 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @20 S0′ sRef Lam@5 @15 S0′ sRef Ps@30 @11 S1′ sRef Ps@149 @3 S1′ 8339. With timbrels and with dances. That this signifies celebration from joy and gladness, is evident from the signification of “timbrel,” as being predicated of the affection of spiritual good, or of the good of truth, and as signifying its delight or joy (of which just above, n. 8337); and from the signification of “dance,” as being predicated of the affection of spiritual truth, and as signifying its pleasantness or gladness (of which below). In ancient times gladness of heart was attested not only by musical instruments and songs, but also by dances. For joys of the heart, or interior joys, burst forth in the body into various acts, as into songs, and also into dances. And as in ancient times the gladnesses which excelled all others were spiritual gladnesses, that is, were from the affections of spiritual loves, which were those of good and truth, therefore also it was then allowed to add dances to the songs and musical harmonies, and in these ways also to testify joy. It is from this that “dances” are mentioned in the Word, and by them are signified gladnesses of the affections of truth or of faith, from good or charity, as in these passages:
Anew thou shalt adorn thy timbrels, and shalt go forth into the dance of the players. Their soul shall become as a watered garden, and they shall not grieve any more at all; then shall the virgin rejoice in the dance, and the young men and the old together (Jer. 31:4, 12, 13).
The joy of our heart shall cease, our dance is turned into mourning (Lam. 5:15).
Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing (Ps. 30:11).
Let them praise His name in the dance, let them sing psalms to Him with timbrel and harp (Ps. 149:3; 150:4).
That the Gentiles also in their divine worship played and danced, is evident in Exod. 32:6, 19.
sRef Zech@8 @19 S2′ sRef Isa@51 @11 S2′ sRef Jer@33 @11 S2′ sRef Ps@51 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@35 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@22 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@51 @3 S2′ [2] Both “joy” and “gladness” are mentioned, because in the Word “joy” is predicated of good, and “gladness” of truth, consequently it is very often said in the Word “joy and gladness,” both together, as in these passages:
Behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen (Isa. 22:13).
They shall obtain joy and gladness, and sadness and sighing shall flee away (Isa. 35:10).
Joy and gladness shall be found in Zion, confession and the voice of singing (Isa. 51:3, 11).
The voice of joy and the voice of gladness, and the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride (Jer. 33:11).
The fast of the tenth month shall be to the house of Judah for joy and gladness (Zech. 8:19).
Thou shalt make me to hear joy and gladness (Ps. 51:8).
As in these passages “joy” is predicated of good, and “gladness” of truth, both are mentioned, otherwise one word would have sufficed. Such is the holy way of speaking that is in the Word, to the end that in every detail there may be the heavenly marriage, that is, the marriage of good and truth (n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 4138, 5138, 5502, 7945).

AC (Potts) n. 8340 sRef Hos@14 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @21 S0′ 8340. And Miriam answered to them. That this signifies what is reciprocal, is evident from the signification of “answering,” when the glorification of the Lord by means of a song is treated of, as being what is reciprocal. In holy worship among the ancients it was also customary to sing by means of choirs, that there might be one or more to answer; by which was represented reciprocation and response, such as is that of the church from heaven, and of heaven from the Lord. Such is the signification in these passages:
I will answer and I will sing to Him (Hos. 14:8);
Then sang Israel this song; Rise up, O spring, answer ye upon it (Num. 21:17).

AC (Potts) n. 8341 sRef Ex@15 @21 S0′ 8341. Sing ye to Jehovah. That this signifies that to the Lord alone belongs glory, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8263), where are the same words.

AC (Potts) n. 8342 sRef Ex@15 @21 S0′ 8342. For exalting He hath exalted. That this signifies that He has manifested His Divine in the Human, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8264), where are the same words.

AC (Potts) n. 8343 sRef Ex@15 @21 S0′ 8343. The horse and his rider hath He cast into the sea. That this signifies that by virtue of His mere presence the falsities of faith and evils of life cast themselves into hell, is evident from the signification of “horse” and of “rider,” as being falsities from evil (see n. 8146, 8148); and from the signification of “casting into the sea,” as being into hell (see n. 8099, 8137, 8138); that this was effected by virtue of the mere presence of the Lord, see n. 8137, 8265. It is said that falsities and evils “cast themselves” into hell, for the reason that it is the very falsities and evils that are cast into hell, and these draw with them those to whom they adhere. For through evil of life men become forms of falsities from evil, and therefore when the evils themselves with their falsities are cast down, the forms also to which they adhere are dragged down together with them; for falsities and evils are exhalations from the hells, and flow in with those who through evils of life have made their interiors forms of reception. (That everything of thought and of will flows in, good from heaven, and evil from hell, see n. 2886-2888, 4151, 4249, 5846, 6189, 6191, 6193, 6203, 6206, 6213, 6324, 6325, 7147, 7343.) Hence then it is that it is said that falsities of faith and evils of life cast themselves into hell; and therefore when the angels are thinking and speaking about the hells they think and speak of falsities and evils abstractedly from those who are there; for the angels always remove ideas of person, and remain in ideas of things (see n. 5225, 5287, 5434).

AC (Potts) n. 8344 8344. Verses 22-26. And Moses made Israel set out from the sea Suph, and they went out to the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no waters. And they came to Marah, and they could not drink the waters for bitterness, because they were bitter; therefore he called the name thereof Marah. And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we drink? And he cried unto Jehovah, and Jehovah showed him a piece of wood, and he cast it to the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There He set for him a statute and a judgment, and there He tempted him. And He said, If hearing thou wilt hear the voice of Jehovah thy God, and wilt do what is right in His eyes, and wilt hearken to His commandments, and wilt keep all His statutes, all the disease that I have put on the Egyptians, I will not put upon thee, because I am Jehovah thy healer. “And Moses made Israel set out from the sea Suph,” signifies what is successive according to the order of truth Divine after they had passed through a region of hell; “and they went out to the wilderness of Shur,” signifies the state of temptation into which they were next brought; “and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no waters,” signifies that truths failed, and at last wholly; “and they came to Marah,” signifies a state of temptation; “and they could not drink the waters for bitterness, because they were bitter,” signifies that truths appeared to them undelightful, because devoid of the affection of good; “therefore he called the name thereof Marah,” signifies the state and quality of this temptation; “and the people murmured against Moses,” signifies grief from the bitterness of the temptation; “saying, What shall we drink?” signifies that they could not endure truths, because they were undelightful by reason of no affection of them; “and he cried unto Jehovah,” signifies supplication to the Lord from grief; “and Jehovah showed him a piece of wood,” signifies that the Lord inspired good; “and he cast it into the waters,” signifies with which He affected the truths; “and the waters were made sweet,” signifies that from this truths were made delightful; “there He set for him a statute and a judgment,” signifies the truth of order then revealed; “and there He tempted him,” signifies in respect to temptations in general; “and He said,” signifies instruction; “If hearing thou wilt hear the voice of Jehovah thy God,” signifies faith in the Lord’s commandments; “and wilt do what is right in His eyes,” signifies a life according to them; “and wilt hearken to His commandments,” signifies obedience, and a life according to the goods of faith, which are the interior things of the church; “and wilt keep all His statutes,” signifies a life according to the truths of faith, which are the exterior things of the church; “all the disease that I have put on the Egyptians, I will not put upon thee,” signifies that they are to be withheld from the evils that pertain to those who are in faith separate and in a life of evil; “because I am Jehovah thy healer,” signifies that the Lord alone preserves from evils.

AC (Potts) n. 8345 sRef Ex@15 @22 S0′ 8345. And Moses made Israel set out from the sea Suph. That this signifies what is successive according to the order of truth Divine after they had passed through a region of hell, is evident from the signification of “to set out,” as being what is successive and continuous in respect to life and its order (see n. 4375, 4554, 4585, 5996, 8181); and from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (n. 7010, 7014, 7382); consequently “Moses made them set out,” signifies what is successive according to the order of truth Divine; from the representation of Israel, as being those of the spiritual church who had been detained in the lower earth until the advent of the Lord, and were then liberated (n. 6854, 6914, 7728, 7932, 8018, 8321); and from the signification of “the sea Suph,” as being the hell where were those of the church who had been in faith separate from charity and in a life of evil (n. 8099, 8137, 8138). (That these when liberated, were brought through the hell which is signified by “the sea Suph,” see n. 8099.)

AC (Potts) n. 8346 sRef Ex@15 @22 S0′ 8346. And they went out to the wilderness of Shur. That this signifies the state of temptation into which they were next brought, is evident from the signification of “to go out,” as being to be brought; and from the signification of “the wilderness of Shur,” as being a state of temptation. That a “wilderness” denotes a state of undergoing temptation, see n. 6828, 8098; and that “Shur” denotes the memory-knowledges of the church which have not yet attained to life (n. 1928), thus such things as must attain to life through temptations, for spiritual life is acquired through temptations (which are spiritual combats, or combats against evils and falsities), and through victories in these combats. (That they who were of the spiritual church underwent temptations after the Lord’s coming into the world, and that they could not do so before, see n. 8159.)

AC (Potts) n. 8347 sRef Ex@15 @22 S0′ 8347. And they went three days in the wilderness, and found no waters. That this signifies that truths failed, and at last wholly, is evident from the signification of “three days,” as being what is full (see n. 2788, 4495, 7715); from the signification of “wilderness,” as being a state of undergoing temptations (of which just above, n. 8346); and from the signification of “waters,” as being the truths of faith (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668); consequently “not to find waters” denotes that truths failed; that they failed wholly, is signified by “they went three days.” It is said “in the wilderness,” because they were tempted there, as now follows.

AC (Potts) n. 8348 8348. And they came to Marah. That this signifies a state of temptation, is evident from the fact that they were tempted there, as is also said below, in these words, “there He set for him a statute and a judgment, and there He tempted him” (verse 25).

AC (Potts) n. 8349 8349. And they could not drink the waters for bitterness, because they were bitter. That this signifies that truths appeared to them undelightful, because devoid of the affection of good, is evident from the signification of “to drink the waters,” as being to receive truths and apply them under good (of which n. 3069, 5709); from the signification of “waters,” as being truths (of which just above, n. 8347); and from the signification of “bitter,” as being what is undelightful (n. 7854). Hence it is evident that by “they could not drink the waters for bitterness, because they were bitter,” is signified that truths appeared to them undelightful: that it denotes because devoid of the affection of good, is because all the delight of truth comes forth from good. That the affection of truth derives its origin from good is because good loves truth, and truth loves good, for these two are conjoined as in a marriage. It is known that everyone desires to be instructed in those things which he loves and has as the end. He who loves good, that is, who wills from the heart to worship God and to benefit his neighbor, loves to be instructed in those things which lead thereto, consequently in truths; from which it can be seen that all the affection of truth is from good.
[2] There are indeed some who live in an evil manner, and yet desire to be instructed in truths; but with these there is no affection of truth, but only the affection of confirming the doctrinal things of the church for the sake of self-glory, that is, for the sake of reputation, honors, or gain. The genuine affection of truth is to wish to know what is true for the sake of the life in the world, and for the sake of life eternal. These come into temptation when truths begin to fail them, and more when the truths which they know appear undelightful. This temptation derives its origin from the fact that the communication with good has been intercepted. This communication is intercepted as soon as the man comes into his own, for he thus sinks down into the evil of the love of self, or of the world. When he emerges from this state, truths become delightful. This is meant in what follows by the bitter waters being healed by means of the wood cast into them, for by “wood” is signified good.

AC (Potts) n. 8350 8350. Therefore he called the name thereof Marah. That this signifies the state and quality of this temptation, is evident from the fact that the names which are given to things treated of in the Word comprehend the quality and state of the thing that is being treated of (see n. 2643, 3422, 4298, 4442). Here therefore “Marah” signifies the quality and state of the temptation which is treated of in these verses. Moreover “Marah” means “bitter.”

AC (Potts) n. 8351 sRef Ex@15 @24 S0′ 8351. And the people murmured against Moses. That this signifies grief from the bitterness of the temptation, is evident from the signification of “murmuring,” as being complaint such as there is in temptations, thus grief from the bitterness of the temptation. The temptations which those underwent who were of the Lord’s spiritual church after they had been liberated from infestations; and also the temptations which those will undergo who will be of this church, are described by the murmurings of the sons of Israel in the wilderness. And as spiritual temptations are usually carried to despair (n. 1787, 2694, 5279, 5280, 7147, 7166, 8165), therefore by “murmuring” is signified complaint from grief in the temptations (see Exod. 16:2, 3; 27:3; Num. 14:27, 29, 36; 16:11). It is said “against Moses,” because it was against the Divine, for by Moses is represented Divine truth (see n. 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382).
[2] As regards the temptations which those underwent who were of the spiritual church, and which those will undergo who will be of this church, be it known that faith cannot possibly be implanted in those who are of the spiritual church except through temptations, thus neither can charity; for in temptations the man is in combat against falsity and evil. These-falsity and evil-flow into the external man from the hells, while good and truth flow in through the internal man from the Lord; thus by virtue of the combat of the internal man with the external, which is called “temptation.” And insofar, then, as the external man is reduced to obedience under the internal, so far faith and charity are implanted; for the external or natural of man is the receptacle of truth and good from the internal man. If the receptacle is not accommodated, it does not receive anything which flows in from within; but either rejects, or extinguishes, or stifles it, whence there is no regeneration. Hence it is that there must be temptation in order that the man may be regenerated, which is effected through the implanting of faith and charity, and thus through the formation of a new will and a new understanding. Therefore also the church of the Lord is called “militant” (see what has been said and shown before on this subject, n. 3928, 4249, 4341, 4572, 5356, 6574, 6611, 6657, 7090, 7122, 8159, 8168, 8179, 8273).

AC (Potts) n. 8352 sRef Ex@15 @24 S0′ 8352. Saying, What shall we drink? That this signifies that they could not endure truths because they were undelightful by reason of no affection of them, is evident from the signification of “drinking,” as being to be instructed in truths and to receive them, and also to be affected with them, and consequently to appropriate them to oneself (see n. 3069, 3168, 3772, 4017, 4018); here, not to endure them, for the reason that they were undelightful on account of there being no affection of good, which is signified by “the waters being bitter,” according to what has been unfolded above (n. 8349). This temptation consists in the fact that they complain and grieve because the truths which had previously been delightful to them, and which thus had made their spiritual life or life of heaven, now seem undelightful to them, insomuch that they can scarcely endure them.
[2] The merely natural man would not believe that such a thing could cause any grief, for he thinks, “What is it to me whether truths are delightful or not? If they are undelightful let them be rejected.” But the spiritual man has very different sentiments. It is the delight of his life to be instructed in truths, and to be enlightened in such things as belong to his soul, thus to his spiritual life; and therefore when these fail, his spiritual life labors and suffers, and grief and anxiety ensue. The reason is that the affection of good is continually flowing in through the internal man from the Lord, and calling forth the accordant things in the external man which had previously caused the delight of the affection of truth; and when these things are assaulted by the evils of the love of self and of the world, which the man had also previously perceived as delightful, there arises a conflict of delights or of affections, from which springs anxiety, and from this grief and complaint.
[3] It shall be briefly told how the case is with the temptation that arises through a failing of truth. The nourishment of the spiritual life is good and truth, as the nourishment of the natural life is food and drink. If good fails, it is as if food fails; and if truth fails, it is as if drink fails. The consequent grief is circumstanced like the grief from hunger and thirst. This comparison is from correspondence, for food corresponds to good, and drink to truth; and as there is a correspondence, food and drink also nourish the body better and more suitably when a man at dinner or at breakfast is at the same time in the delight of conversation with others about such things as he loves, than when he sits at table alone without company. When a man is in this state, the vessels in him that receive the food are constricted; but when he is in the first mentioned state, they are open. Such things are effected by the correspondence of spiritual food and natural food. It is said “the delight of conversation with others about such things as he loves,” because everything of this kind has relation to good and truth; for there is nothing in the world which has not relation to both. What a man loves, has relation to the good with him; and what instructs him about good, and thus conjoins itself with it, has relation to the truth.

AC (Potts) n. 8353 sRef Ex@15 @25 S0′ 8353. And he cried unto Jehovah. That this signifies supplication to the Lord from grief, is evident from the signification of “crying,” as being imploration (see n. 6801), and also interior lamentation (n. 7782); consequently it also denotes supplication from grief. (That “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, see n. 8261.)

AC (Potts) n. 8354 sRef Ex@15 @25 S0′ 8354. And Jehovah showed him a piece of wood. That this signifies that the Lord inspired good, is evident from the signification of “showing,” when by Jehovah, that is, the Lord, as being to give perception, and as this is effected by means of influx, it denotes to inspire; and from the signification of “wood,” as being good (n. 643, 2784, 2812, 3720).

AC (Potts) n. 8355 sRef Ex@15 @25 S0′ 8355. And he cast it into the waters. That this signifies with which He affected the truths, is evident from the signification of “casting wood into the waters,” when “wood” denotes good, and “waters” denote truths, as being to affect truths with good. (That “wood” denotes good, see just above, n. 8354; and that “waters” denote truths, n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8349.)

AC (Potts) n. 8356 sRef Ex@15 @25 S0′ 8356. And the waters were made sweet. That this signifies that from this truths were made delightful, is evident from the signification of “sweet,” as being what is delightful, for in the spiritual sense “sweet” denotes the sweetness of life, which is one with delight; and from the signification of “waters,” as being truths (of which just above, n. 8355). The case herein is thus. That a man is affected with truth, is from good; for good and truth have been conjoined as in a marriage, consequently the one loves the other as consort loves consort. From this also the conjunction of good and of truth is compared in the Word to a “marriage,” and the truths and goods which are born from it are called “sons and daughters.” From all this it can be seen that the delight of the affection of truth has its cause in no other source than good. This is also evident from experience, for they who are in the good of life, that is, who love God and the neighbor, these also love the truths of faith. Hence it is that so long as good flows in and is received, so long truth appears to be delightful; but as soon as good does not flow in, that is, as soon as evil begins to predominate, and to hold off the influx of good, there is at once felt a want of delight in truth; for truth and evil mutually reject and are averse to each other. From all this it can now be seen why it was commanded that a piece of wood should be cast into the bitter waters; and also why those waters were made sweet by virtue of the piece of wood that was cast into them. These things would never have been commanded by the Divine unless they had signified such things; for the Divine could have rendered those waters sweet without a piece of wood as the means.

AC (Potts) n. 8357 sRef Ex@15 @25 S0′ 8357. There He set for him a statute and a judgment. That this signifies the truth of order then revealed, is evident from the signification of “a statute,” as being the external truth of the church; and from the signification of “a judgment,” as being the internal truth of the church; consequently “to set for some one a statute and a judgment” denotes to set in order according to truths, consequently to reveal them. That “a statute” denotes the external truth of order, is because every external thing of the church was called “a statute,” and every internal truth of order was called “a judgment.”

AC (Potts) n. 8358 sRef Ex@15 @25 S0′ 8358. And there He tempted him. That this signifies in respect to temptations in general, is evident from what precedes and what follows. In what precedes, the first temptation in the wilderness was treated of; in what follows, instruction how they must live in order that they may not yield in temptations is treated of.

AC (Potts) n. 8359 sRef Ex@15 @26 S0′ 8359. And He said. That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by Jehovah concerning the truth of order in respect to temptations, as being instruction (see also n. 6879, 6881, 6883, 6891, 7186, 7267, 7304, 7380, 7517, 8127).

AC (Potts) n. 8360 sRef Ex@15 @26 S0′ 8360. If hearing thou wilt hear the voice of Jehovah thy God. That this signifies faith in the Lord’s commandments, is evident from the signification of “to hear,” as being a noticing, and faith (see n. 3921, 5017, 7216); and from the signification of “the voice of Jehovah,” as being that which is declared from the Word, thus the commandment of the Lord (n. 6971).

AC (Potts) n. 8361 sRef Ex@15 @26 S0′ 8361. And wilt do what is right in His eyes. That this signifies a life according to them, is evident from the signification of “doing what is right,” as being to live according to the dictate of truth; and from the signification of “in the eyes of Jehovah,” as being before the Lord, thus according to His commandments, for the Lord is in His commandments when a man lives according to them; he also is said to be “in the eyes of the Lord” who is in faith in Him. As regards “hearing a voice,” this properly signifies obedience (n. 2542, 3869, 5017); but when as here mention is also made of “doing,” then “to hear” signifies faith, and “to do” signifies life, as can be seen from the Lord’s words in these passages:
Everyone that heareth My words, and doeth them, I will compare him to a prudent man; but everyone that heareth My words, but doeth them not, shall be compared to a foolish man (Matt. 7:24, 26).
Everyone that cometh unto Me, and heareth My discourses, and doeth them, I will show you to whom he is like (Luke 6:47).
The seed that is in the good ground, these are they who in a simple and good heart, hear the word, hold it fast, and bear fruit in patience (Luke 8:15).
Jesus said, My mother and My brethren are these, who hear the word of God and do it (Luke 8:21).
In these passages “to hear” signifies to perceive, to understand, and to have faith; and “to do” signifies to live according to these. But where “hearing” is spoken of, and not at the same time “doing,” then “hearing” signifies faith in will and act, thus obedience. The reason is that what is heard passes into the internal sight, which is the understanding, and is there laid hold of by the will, and passes as by a circuit into act. Consequently in the word “hear,” there is naturally the signification of obedience, as we speak of “hearing” or “hearkening to” anyone (see n. 4652-4660).

AC (Potts) n. 8362 sRef Ex@15 @26 S0′ 8362. And wilt hearken to His commandments. That this signifies obedience and a life according to the goods of faith, which are the interior things of the church, is evident from the signification of “to hearken,” as being obedience and life; and from the signification of “commandments,” as being the internal truths of the Word (see n. 3382); thus the truths of faith, which are the interior things of the church; these are called the “goods of faith,” for they are wills.

AC (Potts) n. 8363 sRef Ex@15 @26 S0′ 8363. And wilt keep all His statutes. That this signifies a life according to the truths of faith, which are the exterior things of the church, is evident from the signification of “keeping,” as also being to live; and from the signification of “statutes,” as being the external truths of the Word (of which, n. 3382, 8357); thus the truths of faith which are the exterior things of the church. In many passages in the Word mention is made of “statutes” and “commandments,” and when one is mentioned together with the other, then “statute” signifies what is external of the church, and “commandment” what is internal of it.

AC (Potts) n. 8364 sRef Ex@15 @26 S0′ 8364. All the disease that I have put on the Egyptians, I will not put upon thee. That this signifies that they are to be withheld from the evils that pertain to those who are in faith separate and in a life of evil, is evident from the signification of “disease,” as being evil (of which below); from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who are in faith separate and in a life of evil (see n. 7097, 7317, 7926, 8148); and from the signification of “not to put upon thee,” when said of disease, by which evil is signified, as being that they are to be withheld from evil; for Jehovah, that is, the Lord, does not take away evil; but withholds man from it, and keeps him in good (n. 929, 1581, 2256, 2406, 4564, 8206). From this it is that by “not to put disease upon them” is signified that they are to be withheld from evils.
[2] That “disease” denotes evil, is because in the internal sense are signified such things as affect the spiritual life. The diseases which affect this life are evils, and are called cupidities and concupiscences. Faith and charity make the spiritual life. This life sickens when falsity takes the place of the truth which is of faith, and evil takes the place of the good which is of charity; for these bring this life unto death, which is called spiritual death, and is damnation, as diseases bring the natural life unto its death. Hence it is that by “disease” is signified in the internal sense evil; and by “the diseases of the Egyptians,” the evils into which those cast themselves who had been in faith separate and in a life of evil, whereby they had infested the upright, which evils have been treated of in what precedes, where the plagues in Egypt were treated of.
sRef Deut@28 @35 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @34 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @65 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @15 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @20 S3′ sRef Deut@7 @11 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @60 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @61 S3′ sRef Deut@7 @15 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @27 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @28 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @21 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @22 S3′ [3] Evils are also meant by “diseases” in other passages in the Word, as in Moses:
If thou wilt keep the commandments, and the statutes, and the judgments, which I command thee this day, Jehovah will remove from thee all sickness, and will not put upon thee all the evil weaknesses of Egypt, which thou hast known; but will give them upon thy haters (Deut. 7:11, 15).
If thou wilt not obey the voice of Jehovah thy God, by keeping to do all His commandments and His statutes, Jehovah will send on thee the curse, the disquiet, and the rebuke, in every putting forth of thy hand which thou doest, until thou be destroyed, because of the wickedness of thy works, whereby thou hast forsaken Me. Jehovah shall make the pestilence cleave unto thee, until He has consumed thee from upon the land; Jehovah shall smite thee with consumption, and with a hot fever, and with a burning fever, and with a raging fever, and with drought, and with blasting, and with jaundice, which shall pursue thee until thou perish: Jehovah shall smite thee with the ulcer of Egypt, and with the hemorrhoids, and with the scab, and with the itch, that thou canst not be healed. Jehovah shall smite thee with fury, and with blindness, and with amazement of heart. Thou shalt become mad from the look of thine eyes. Jehovah shall smite thee with a sore ulcer, upon the knees, and upon the thighs, whereof thou canst not be healed, from the sole of the foot unto the crown of thy head. He will throw back on thee all the weakness of Egypt, also every disease, and every plague, which is not written in the book of this law. Jehovah shall give thee a trembling heart, consumption of eyes, and grief of soul (Deut. 28:15, 20-22, 27, 28, 34, 35, 60, 61, 65).
By all the diseases here named are signified spiritual diseases, which are evils destroying the life of the will of good, and falsities destroying the life of the understanding of truth; in a word, destroying the spiritual life which is of faith and charity. Moreover natural diseases correspond to such things, for every disease in the human race is from this source, because from sin (n. 5712, 5726). Moreover every disease corresponds to its own evil; the reason is that everything of man’s life is from the spiritual world; and therefore if his spiritual life sickens, evil is derived therefrom into the natural life also, and becomes a disease there. (See what has been said from experience about the correspondence of diseases with evils, n. 5711-5727.)
sRef Lev@26 @15 S4′ sRef Ex@23 @25 S4′ sRef Isa@1 @5 S4′ sRef Isa@1 @6 S4′ sRef Ps@38 @6 S4′ sRef Ps@38 @5 S4′ sRef Ps@38 @4 S4′ sRef Ps@38 @7 S4′ sRef Ezek@34 @4 S4′ sRef Lev@26 @16 S4′ sRef Ezek@34 @2 S4′ [4] Like things are signified by “diseases” in other passages, as in Moses:
Ye shall worship Jehovah your God, that He may bless thy bread, and thy waters; and I will take disease away from the midst of thee (Exod. 23:25).
If ye shall reject My statutes, and if your soul loathe My judgments, so that ye will not do all My commandments, while ye make My covenant vain, I will enjoin terror upon you, with consumption, and with burning fever, that shall consume the eyes, and torment the soul (Lev. 26:15, 16);
signifying the decrease of truth, and the increase of falsity; “burning fever” denotes the cupidity of evil. Further in these passages:
Wherefore will ye add a going back? the whole head is diseased, and the whole heart faint. From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it; but wound, and scar, and flesh blow, not pressed out, and not bandaged, and not mollified with oil (Isa. 1:5, 6);
that here by “disease,” “wound,” “scar,” and “blow,” are meant sins, is hidden from no one.
Woe to the shepherds of Israel, the feeble sheep have ye not strengthened, the sick one have ye not healed, and the broken one have ye not bandaged (Ezek. 34:2, 4).
Mine iniquities are gone over my head, my wounds have putrefied, they have consumed away, because of my foolishness, for my bowels are filled with burning, and there is no soundness in my flesh (Ps. 38:4, 5, 7).
sRef Isa@53 @5 S5′ sRef Isa@53 @4 S5′ sRef Isa@53 @3 S5′ [5] As by “diseases” are signified the corruptions and evils of spiritual life, therefore by the various kinds of diseases are signified also the various kinds of corruptions and evils of that life. (That by “pestilence” is signified the vastation of good and truth, see n. 7102, 7505; and by “leprosy,” the profanation of truth, n. 6963.) That in general by “diseases” are signified sins, can also be seen in Isaiah:
A man of sorrows, and known of disease; whence is as it were a hiding of faces from Him. He was despised, and we esteemed Him not: nevertheless He hath borne our diseases, and hath carried our griefs, and through His wounds health hath been given us (53:3-5);
speaking of the Lord.
sRef Matt@11 @5 S6′ sRef Matt@11 @4 S6′ sRef Matt@4 @23 S6′ [6] As diseases represented the hurtful and evil things of the spiritual life, therefore by the diseases which the Lord healed is signified liberation from various kinds of evil and falsity which infested the church and the human race, and which would have led to spiritual death. For Divine miracles are distinguished from other miracles by the fact that they involve and have regard to states of the church and of the heavenly kingdom. Therefore the Lord’s miracles consisted chiefly in the healing of diseases. This is meant by the Lord’s words to the disciples sent by John:
Tell John the things which ye hear and see: the blind see, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead rise again, and the poor hear the gospel (Matt. 11:4, 5).
Hence it is that it is so often said that the Lord “healed all disease and weakness” (Matt. 4:23; 9:35; 14:14, 35, 36; Luke 4:40; 5:15; 6:17; 7:21; Mark 1:32-34; 3:10).

AC (Potts) n. 8365 sRef Ps@41 @4 S0′ sRef Jer@17 @14 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @39 S0′ sRef Jer@30 @17 S0′ sRef Matt@9 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@9 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@41 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@15 @26 S0′ 8365. For I am Jehovah thy healer. That this signifies that the Lord alone preserves from evils, is evident from the signification of “to heal,” as being to cure, and also to preserve from evils, for when “diseases” signify evils, “to heal” signifies a remedy and preservation from them, as also frequently in the Word, thus:
I kill, and I make alive; I smite and I heal (Deut. 32:39).
Heal me, O Jehovah, that I may be healed; save me that I may be saved (Jer. 17:14).
I will make healing to go up unto thee, and I will heal thee of thy plagues (Jer. 30:17).
Thou hast turned all his bed in his disease; I said, O Jehovah, have compassion on me: heal my soul because I have sinned to Thee (Ps. 41:3, 4).
Besides in many other passages, as Isa. 6:10; 53:5; 57:18, 19; Jer. 3:22; 17:14; Hosea 6:1; 7:1; 11:3; 14:4; Zech. 11:16; Ps. 30:2; and elsewhere. And as “healing” has this signification, the Lord also calls Himself a “physician”:
Those who are strong have no need of a physician, but those who are ill; I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance (Matt. 9:12, 13; Mark 2:17; Luke 5:31, 32).

AC (Potts) n. 8366 sRef Ex@15 @27 S0′ 8366. Verse 27. And they came to Elim, and there were twelve springs of waters there, and seventy palm trees; and they encamped there by the waters. “And they came to Elim,” signifies a state of enlightenment and of affection, thus of consolation after temptation; “and there were twelve springs of waters there,” signifies that they had truths there in all abundance; “and seventy palm-trees,” signifies the goods of truth in like manner; “and they encamped there by the waters,” signifies that after temptation the truths of faith were set in order by means of the good of love.

AC (Potts) n. 8367 sRef Ex@15 @27 S0′ 8367. And they came to Elim. That this signifies a state of enlightenment and of affection, thus of consolation after temptation, is evident from the signification of “Elim,” as involving and signifying the state and the quality of the thing that is treated of; like all the other places to which the sons of Israel came (see n. 2643, 3422, 4298, 4442); here the state after temptation, namely, a state of enlightenment and of affection, thus of consolation. For after all spiritual temptation there come enlightenment and affection, thus pleasantness and delight; pleasantness from enlightenment through truth, and delight from the affection of good.
[2] That consolation follows after temptations, see n. 4572, 5246, 5628, 6829; the reason is that by means of temptations truths and goods are implanted and are conjoined, consequently the man as to his spirit is introduced interiorly into heaven, and to the heavenly societies with which he had previously been associated. When the temptation is ended, communication with heaven is opened, which had previously been partly closed, consequently enlightenment and affection, and consequently pleasantness and delight; for then the angels with whom communication is given, flow in by means of truth, and by means of good. Enlightenment by means of truth, and the consequent pleasantness, are signified by the “twelve springs of waters,” for “springs” signify truths; the affection of truth from good, and the consequent delight, are signified by the “seventy palm-trees” (of which below).

AC (Potts) n. 8368 sRef Ex@15 @27 S0′ 8368. And there were twelve springs of waters there. That this signifies that they had truths there in all abundance, is evident from the signification of “twelve,” as being all things in the complex (see n. 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272, 3858, 3913, 7973), thus all abundance; and from the signification of “springs,” as being truths of faith (of which, n. 2702, 3096, 3424, 4861). Hence it is evident that by “twelve springs of waters” are signified truths in all abundance; from which it follows that by these words are also signified enlightenment and the consequent pleasantness; for he who has truths in all abundance has also enlightenment, and he who has enlightenment, provided he longs for truth from affection, has pleasantness.

AC (Potts) n. 8369 sRef Ex@15 @27 S0′ sRef Lev@23 @40 S1′ 8369. And seventy palm-trees. That this signifies the goods of truth in like manner, that is, in all abundance, is evident from the signification of “seventy,” as being all things in the complex, in like manner as “twelve” (see n. 7973); and from the signification of “palm-trees,” as being the goods of the spiritual church, which are the goods of truth; and because by “palm-trees” are signified goods, by them is also signified the affection of good, and the consequent delight, for all delight is from the affection of good. As this was signified by “palm-trees,” therefore also palm-trees were employed in holy festivities, as in the feast of tabernacles, according to these words in Moses:
Ye shall take for you in the first day the fruit of a tree of honor, spathes of palm-trees, and a branch of a dense tree, and willows of the torrent; and ye shall be glad before Jehovah your God seven days (Lev. 23:40);
by “the fruit of a tree of honor,” is signified celestial good; by “palm-trees,” spiritual good, or the good of truth; by “a branch of a dense tree,” the truth of memory-knowledge; and by “willows of the torrent,” the lowest truths of the natural; thus by these four are signified all goods and truths in their order.
sRef John@12 @13 S2′ sRef John@12 @12 S2′ sRef Ps@92 @12 S2′ sRef Joel@1 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@7 @9 S2′ [2] That “palm-trees” signified a holy festivity which is from good, is evident also from these words in the following passages:
A great crowd that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming into Jerusalem, took boughs of palm trees, and went forth to meet Him, and cried out, Hosanna: Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel (John 12:12, 13).
I saw, when behold a great crowd standing before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palms in their hands (Rev. 7:9).
The vine hath dried up, and the fig-tree languisheth, the pomegranate, and also the palm-tree, all joy hath dried up from the sons of man (Joel 1:12).
The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree; he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon (Ps. 92:12);
here “palm-tree” denotes good; and “cedar” truth.
sRef Ezek@41 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@41 @25 S3′ sRef Ezek@41 @26 S3′ sRef Ezek@41 @20 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @29 S3′ sRef Ezek@41 @17 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @32 S3′ [3] As a “palm-tree” signifies good, it also signifies wisdom, for wisdom is of good. This was signified by the palm-trees which together with the cherubs and flowers were carved upon the walls of the temple; for “the temple” signified the Lord Himself, and in the representative sense, heaven (n. 2777, 3720). The “cherubs,” the “palm-trees,” and the “flowers upon the walls” signified Providence, wisdom, and intelligence, which are from the Lord, thus all things which are of heaven. That these were carved on the walls of the temple, is evident in the first book of Kings:
Solomon carved all the walls of the house round about with openings of carvings of cherubs and palm-trees, and openings of flowers; and upon the two doors of woods of oil he carved carvings of cherubs and of palm-trees, and of openings of flowers, and overlaid them with gold, so that he overspread the gold upon the cherubs, and upon the palm-trees (6:29, 32);
by these carvings was represented the state of heaven; by the “cherubs,” the Providence of the Lord, thus that from Him are all things (that cherubs denote Providence, see n. 308); by “palm-trees,” wisdom, which is of good from the Lord; and by “flowers,” intelligence, which is of truth from Him; by the “gold” with which the cherubs and palm-trees were overlaid, was signified the good of love which reigns universally in the heavens. (That “gold” denotes the good of love, see n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658.) Therefore also where the new temple is treated of in Ezekiel, by which is signified the heaven of the Lord, it is said that cherubs and palm-trees were upon the walls everywhere (41:17, 18, 20, 25, 26).

AC (Potts) n. 8370 sRef Ex@15 @27 S0′ 8370. And they encamped there by the waters. That this signifies that after temptation the truths of faith were set in order by means of the good of love, is evident from the signification of “encamping,” as being the setting in order of truth and good (n. 8103, 8130, 8131, 8155); and from the signification of “waters,” as being truths of faith (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668). That by the “encamping there by the waters” is signified that the truths of faith were set in order by means of the good of love, is because by a “camp” are signified truths and goods (n. 8193, 8196); and by “encamping” is signified the setting in order of them; and by “by the waters,” is signified according to the truths which are from the Divine. It is said “by means of the good of love,” because all setting in order of truths is effected by means of the good of love; for it is under and according to good that truths apply themselves, and make with good as it were one body. It is said “according to the image of the man in whom they are,” because the image of a man’s spirit-which is the man himself, for it is the inward man-is precisely according to the setting in order of the truths from good with him. Hence it is that when angels are made present, a sphere of the good of love pours out from them, and affects those who are present, and truths of faith shine forth from their faces. In the spiritual world such things appear, and are openly perceived. It is said that this setting in order is effected after temptation, because goods and truths are implanted in man by means of temptations, but are not set in order until afterward; for the state of temptation is turbulent, but the state after temptation is tranquil. The setting in order is effected in tranquility. On this account also temptations are followed by what is pleasant by reason of enlightenment from truth, and by what is delightful by reason of the affection of good (of which fact see just above, n. 8367).

AC (Potts) n. 8371 8371. CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE SPIRITS AND INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH JUPITER.
I have been further informed by the spirits who are from that earth about various things that concern its inhabitants, such as their walk, their food, their homes, and the like. As regards their walk, they do not walk erect like the inhabitants of this and of many other earths, nor do they creep in the manner of animals, but when they are walking they assist themselves with the palms of their hands, and alternately half raise themselves on their feet, and also at every third step turn the face to the side and behind them, and also at the same time bend the body a little, which is done rapidly. For among them it is unbecoming to be looked at by others except in the face.

AC (Potts) n. 8372 8372. When they are walking in this way they always keep the face forward, and thus look before them; and never downward, or to the earth. To look downward they call damnable. Only the lowest among them do this, who, unless they accustom themselves to look forward, are banished from society.

AC (Potts) n. 8373 8373. But when they sit, they appear like the men of our earth, erect as to the upper part of the body; but they sit with their feet crossed. They are extremely careful, not only when they walk, but also when they sit, not to be looked at behind, but in the face. Moreover they are very willing for their faces to be seen, because from this appears their mind; for they never show a face at variance with their mind; this being impossible. From this also those who are present know clearly what mind they have toward them, which they do not hide; and especially whether a seeming friendship is sincere, or pretended.

AC (Potts) n. 8374 8374. These things have been shown me by their spirits, and have been confirmed by their angels. Consequently also their spirits are not seen walking erect like others; but almost like persons swimming in water, helping themselves forward with their hands, and by turns looking around them.

AC (Potts) n. 8375 8375. They who live in their warm zones go naked, but with a covering round the loins; nor are they ashamed of their nakedness, for their minds are chaste; and they love none except their consorts, and abhor adulteries. They were very much surprised that when the spirits of our earth saw them walking in this way, and likewise naked, they ridiculed them, and also had lascivious thoughts; and that they paid no attention whatever to their celestial life; but only to such things. They said that this is a sign that they care more for bodily and earthly things than for heavenly ones; and that indecencies possess their minds. They were told that nakedness does not cause either shame or scandal to those who live in chastity, and in a state of innocence; but only to those who live in lasciviousness and shamelessness.

AC (Potts) n. 8376 8376. When the inhabitants of that earth are lying in bed, they turn their face forward, or into the chamber; but not backward, or to the wall. Their spirits told me this, and stated the reason: that they believe that in this way they turn their face to the Lord, but if backward, that they would turn it away. A similar thing had sometimes happened to me, when I was in bed, but I had not previously known the source of it.

AC (Potts) n. 8377 8377. They take delight in prolonged eating, not so much for the enjoyment of the food, as for that of conversation at that time. When they sit at table, they do not sit upon chairs or benches, nor upon raised couches of grass, nor upon the grassy turf; but upon the leaves of a certain tree. They were not willing to tell of what tree the leaves were, but when I mentioned several by guess, and at last mentioned the leaves of the fig-tree, they assented.

AC (Potts) n. 8378 8378. They said moreover that they do not prepare their food with reference to the taste, but chiefly with reference to use; adding that the food which is useful is to them savory. There was a discourse among the spirits on this subject, and it was said that this is advantageous for man, because in this way he has at heart a sound mind in a sound body; otherwise than with those with whom the taste rules, for then the body sickens, at the least is inwardly languid, and consequently also the mind, because this behaves according to the state of the recipient parts that belong to the body, just as the sight is according to the state of the eye. Hence the insanity of placing all the delight of life, and what they call the summum bonum, in luxury and pleasure. From this also comes corpulence in matters of thought and judgment; and quickness in the things of the body and the world. This results in the man having a likeness to a brute animal, with which also such persons do not unsuitably compare themselves.

AC (Potts) n. 8379 8379. Their dwellings were also shown me. They are low, and of wood; but within they are lined with bark or rind of a pale azure, and around and above dotted as with little stars, in the image of the sky; for they desire to give to the interior of their houses the likeness of the visible sky with its stars. The reason is that they believe the abodes of the angels to be there. Besides this, they have tents, which are rounded at the top, and stretched out long, also dotted within with little stars on an azure ground. Into these they betake themselves in the daytime, to prevent their faces from being injured by the heat of the sun, for they take very great care of the face, because they do not consider it to be the body. They bestow great care in forming and cleaning these tents; and they also have their meals in them.

AC (Potts) n. 8380 8380. They care little about worldly things, for the families live together, nor do they seek for more than to be fed and housed. What is beyond these, not being for the necessaries of life, they do not class among the utilities. Their greatest care is the education of their little children, whom they love most tenderly.

AC (Potts) n. 8381 8381. When the spirits of Jupiter saw the horses of this earth, these horses appeared to me smaller than usual, although they were quite stout and high. This was from the idea of the spirits of that earth about their own horses. They said that they also have similar horses, but much larger, and that they are wild, or in the forests; and that when they are seen, they terrify them, although they are harmless. They added that a fear of horses is innate, or natural to them. This led to reflection on the cause of this fear. For in the spiritual world a horse represents the understanding formed from memory-knowledges (n. 2760-2762, 6534); and as they fear to cultivate the understanding by means of the sciences, it causes an influx of fear. That they do not care for the memory-knowledges that pertain to human erudition, will be seen in what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 8382 8382. The spirits of Jupiter sometimes had emissaries or subjects with me, for the sake of communication, and this for a rather long time. From this it was given me to know their native quality, and that they are wholly different from the spirits of our earth. When they were with me, they were often infested by the spirits of our earth, but they did not care about it. They merely told it to the society of their spirits by whom they had been sent out; and while they were telling it, they withdrew a little from me.

AC (Potts) n. 8383 8383. Once also it was permitted evil spirits of our earth to act by their evil arts, and to infest the spirits of Jupiter who were with me. The latter endured them for a considerable time, but finally confessed that they could do so no longer; and that they believed that there could not possibly be worse spirits, for they perverted their imagination and also their thought in such a manner that they seemed to themselves to be as it were bound, and not to be extricated from this except by Divine aid. While I was reading in the Word something concerning our Savior’s Passion, certain European spirits injected direful objections, with intent to mislead the spirits of Jupiter. Inquiry was made who these spirits were, and what they had been in the world, and it was found that some of them had been preachers, not unlike those who call themselves of the Society of the Lord, or Jesuits, and that then by preaching about the Lord’s Passion they could move the common people to tears. The cause was told them, namely, that in the world they thought in one way and spoke in another; thus that they entertained one opinion in their hearts, and expressed another with their mouth; but that now they are not allowed to speak in this fraudulent manner, for when they become spirits they are compelled to speak exactly as they think. The spirits of Jupiter were utterly astounded that there could be with man such variance of the interiors and exteriors, namely that he can speak in one way, and think in a wholly different way, which to them is impossible.

AC (Potts) n. 8384 8384. The spirits of Jupiter have a sweet approach, and a prudent discourse. They ponder what they say. They derive this from their life in the world; for there, if they do or say anything contrary to order, they are reduced by others in various ways to repentance; and those who are stubborn, by chastisement.

AC (Potts) n. 8385 8385. They observed in my thoughts a desire to publish these things in our earth. This they did not wish, because they are forbidden to publish what is said to them by their spirits. They wondered that such things could be published merely by means of writings; but they were then informed about printing, and also about the Word, and likewise about the teachings of the church in our earth; and they were told that the Word and the teachings so stand forth in a published form, and in this way are learned.

AC (Potts) n. 8386 8386. A continuation concerning the spirits and inhabitants of the earth Jupiter will be found at the end of the following chapter.

[END OF THE SIXTH PART OF THE ORIGINAL LATIN WORK]

AC (Potts) n. 8387 8387. CHAPTER 16.
THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY.

He who wishes to be saved must confess his sins and do repentance.

AC (Potts) n. 8388 8388. To confess sins is to become thoroughly acquainted with evils, to see them in oneself, to acknowledge them, to regard oneself as guilty, and to condemn oneself on account of them. When this is done before God, it is to confess sins.

AC (Potts) n. 8389 8389. To do repentance is after one has thus confessed his sins and from a humble heart has made supplication for their forgiveness, to desist from them and to lead a new life according to the commands of faith.

AC (Potts) n. 8390 8390. He who merely acknowledges that he is a sinner like all others, and who regards himself as guilty of all evils, and does not examine himself-that is, see his sins-does indeed make confession, but not the confession of repentance, for he lives afterward as he had done before.

AC (Potts) n. 8391 8391. He who leads a life of faith does repentance daily; for he reflects upon the evils that are in him, acknowledges them, guards himself against them, and supplicates the Lord for aid. For from himself man is continually falling, but is continually being raised up by the Lord. He falls from himself when he thinks what is evil with desire; and he is raised up by the Lord when he resists evil, and consequently does not do it. Such is the state with all who are in good; but they who are in evil are continually falling, and also are continually being uplifted by the Lord; but this to prevent them from falling into the most grievous hell of all, whither from themselves they incline with all their might: thus in truth uplifting them into a milder hell.

AC (Potts) n. 8392 8392. The repentance that is done in a state of freedom avails; but that which is done in a state of compulsion avails not. A state of compulsion is a state of sickness, a state of dejection of mind from misfortune, a state of imminent death; in a word, every state of fear which takes away the use of sound reason. When an evil man who in a state of compulsion promises repentance and also does what is good, comes into a state of freedom, he returns into his former life of evil. The case is otherwise with a good man, such states being to him states of temptation in which he conquers.

AC (Potts) n. 8393 8393. Repentance of the mouth and not of the life is not repentance. Sins are not forgiven through repentance of the mouth, but through repentance of the life. Sins are continually being forgiven man by the Lord, for He is mercy itself; but sins adhere to the man, however much he may suppose that they have been forgiven, nor are they removed from him except through a life according to the commands of faith. So far as he lives according to these commands, so far his sins are removed; and so far as they are removed, so far they have been forgiven. For by the Lord man is withheld from evil, and is held in good; and he is so far able to be withheld from evil in the other life, as in the life of the body he has resisted evil; and he is so far able to be held in good then, as in the life of the body he has done what is good from affection. This shows what the forgiveness of sins is, and whence it is. He who believes that sins are forgiven in any other way, is much mistaken.

AC (Potts) n. 8394 sRef Matt@12 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@12 @43 S0′ sRef Matt@12 @44 S0′ 8394. After a man has examined himself, and has acknowledged his sins, and has done repentance, he must remain constant in good up to the end of life. If however he afterward falls back into his former life of evil, and embraces it, he commits profanation, for he then conjoins evil with good, and consequently his latter state becomes worse than his former one, according to the Lord’s words:
When the unclean spirit goeth out of a man he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, but findeth none; then he saith, I will return into my house whence I came out; and when he is come, and findeth it empty, and swept, and garnished for him, then goeth he, and joineth to himself seven other spirits worse than himself, and having entered in they dwell there; and the last things of the man become worse than the first (Matt. 12:43-45).

EXODUS 16

1. And they journeyed from Elim, and all the assemblage of the sons of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, in the fifteenth day of the second month of their going out of the land of Egypt.
2. And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron in the wilderness.
3. And the sons of Israel said unto them, Oh that we had died by the hand of Jehovah in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh-pot, when we did eat bread to satiety! for ye have brought us forth unto this wilderness, to kill this whole congregation with hunger.
4. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Behold I am making it rain bread for you from heaven, and the people shall go out, and they shall gather the word of a day in its day, in order that I may try them, whether they will walk in My law, or not.
5. And it shall be in the sixth day, that they shall prepare that which they have brought, and there shall be double over what they shall gather day by day.
6. And Moses and Aaron said unto all the sons of Israel, In the evening, then ye shall know that Jehovah hath brought you out from the land of Egypt.
7. And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of Jehovah, in that He heareth your murmurings against Jehovah; and what are we, that ye murmur against us?
8. And Moses said, In that Jehovah shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to satiety; in that Jehovah heareth your murmurings with which ye murmur against Him: what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against Jehovah.
9. And Moses said unto Aaron, Say unto all the assemblage of the sons of Israel, Come ye near before Jehovah, for He hath heard your murmurings.
10. And it was, as Aaron spake unto the whole assemblage of the sons of Israel, that they looked back unto the wilderness, and behold the glory of Jehovah was seen in the cloud.
11. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,
12. I have heard the murmurings of the sons of Israel; speak unto them, saying, Between the evenings ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be sated with bread; and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God.
13. And it was in the evening that the quail came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning there was a deposit of dew round about the camp.
14. And the deposit of dew went up, and behold upon the faces of the wilderness a small round thing, small as the hoar frost upon the earth.
15. And the sons of Israel saw, and they said a man to his brother, What is this [Man hoc]? for they knew not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which Jehovah hath given you to eat.
16. This is the word that Jehovah hath commanded, Gather ye of it everyone according to the mouth of his eating, an omer a head, according to the number of your souls, take ye everyone for him who is in his tent.
17. And the sons of Israel did so, and they gathered, collecting for the numerous and the few.
18. And they measured it with the omer, and it made nothing over for the numerous; and for the few there was no lack; they gathered everyone according to his eating.
19. And Moses said unto them, Let no one make a residue of it till the morning.
20. And they heard not unto Moses; and men made a residue of it until the morning, and it bred worms and stank, and Moses was angry with them.
21. And they gathered it morning by morning, everyone according to the mouth of his eating; and the sun grew hot, and it melted.
22. And it was that on the sixth day they gathered bread double, two omers for each one; and all the princes of the assemblage came and told Moses.
23. And he said unto them, This is what Jehovah spake, A rest, a Sabbath holy to Jehovah, is the morrow; what ye will bake, bake ye; and what ye will boil, boil ye; and all that is left over, this lay ye by for you to keep until the morning.
24. And they laid it by till the morning, as Moses commanded, and it did not stink, and the worm was not in it.
25. And Moses said, Eat ye this today, because today is a Sabbath to Jehovah, today ye shall not find it in the field.
26. Six days ye shall gather it, and on the seventh day is the Sabbath, it shall not be in it.
27. And it was on the seventh day there went out some of the people for to gather, and they found none.
28. And Jehovah said unto Moses, How long do ye refuse to keep My commandments and My laws?
29. See ye, because Jehovah hath given you the Sabbath, therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; rest ye everyone in his place, let no one go forth from his place on the seventh day.
30. And the people rested on the seventh day.
31. And the house of Israel called the name of it Manna; and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like that of a cake in honey.
32. And Moses said, This is the word which Jehovah hath commanded, Fill an omer with it to be kept for your generations, to the end that they may see the bread wherewith I fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt.
33. And Moses said unto Aaron, Take an urn, and put the omerful of manna therein, and lay it up before Jehovah, to be kept for your generations.
34. As Jehovah commanded Moses, and Aaron laid it up before the Testimony to be kept.
35. And the sons of Israel did eat the manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat the manna until they came unto the border of the land of Canaan.
36. And an omer is the tenth part of an ephah.

AC (Potts) n. 8395 sRef Ex@16 @0 S0′ 8395. THE CONTENTS.
The preceding chapter treated of the second temptation of those who were of the spiritual church, which was from truth being perceived as undelightful. In this chapter in the internal sense a third temptation is treated of, which is from the lack of good. By the lack of bread and of flesh, at which the sons of Israel murmured, is signified a lack of good. Consolation after temptation is signified and described by the manna which they received, and by the quail. Manna denotes spiritual good. That this was given to them by the Lord continually, and without any care and aid of theirs, is signified by their receiving the manna daily, and by the worm breeding in it if they gathered more.

AC (Potts) n. 8396 sRef Ex@16 @1 S0′ 8396. THE INTERNAL SENSE
Verse 1. And they journeyed from Elim, and all the assemblage of the sons of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, in the fifteenth day of the second month of their going out of the land of Egypt. “And they journeyed from Elim,” signifies what is successive; “and all the assemblage of the sons of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin,” signifies unto another state of temptation; “which is between Elim and Sinai,” signifies what is continuous and its quality; “In the fifteenth day of the second month,” signifies the state relatively; “of their going out of the land of Egypt,” signifies to their state when they were first liberated from infestations.

AC (Potts) n. 8397 sRef Ex@16 @1 S0′ 8397. And they journeyed from Elim. That this signifies what is successive, is evident from the signification of “journeying,” as being what is successive and continuous (see n. 4375, 4554, 4585, 5996, 8181, 8345); and from the signification of “Elim,” as being a state of consolation after temptation (n. 8367), consequently by “they journeyed from Elim,” is signified what is successive of life in respect to states of temptations. For when those who are of the spiritual church are undergoing temptations, they are brought from one temptation into another. This is the successive that is here signified by “journeying.” That “journeying” signifies what is successive of life, is because there are no spaces, as there are no times, in the other life; but states instead of them (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381). Consequently movements do not signify movements, nor journeyings, journeyings; but changes and successions of states.

AC (Potts) n. 8398 sRef Ezek@30 @18 S0′ sRef Ezek@30 @16 S0′ sRef Ezek@30 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @1 S0′ sRef Ezek@30 @15 S0′ 8398. And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin. That this signifies unto another state of temptation, is evident from the signification of “coming,” as being the abode of the successive that is signified by “journeying” (see n. 8397); from the signification of “the assemblage of the sons of Israel,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 7843); from the signification of “the wilderness,” as being a state of undergoing temptations (see n. 8098); and from the signification of “Sin,” as being the quality of this state; for names include the whole quality of the state of the thing treated of, as has been abundantly shown above. From the temptation which is signified by the murmuring on account of the lack of bread and flesh, and from the consolation afterward which is signified by the manna and the quail, it is evident what “Sin” signifies, namely, the good which is from truth. Consequently “Sin,” which was a city of Egypt, and from which the wilderness of Sin took its name, in the opposite sense signifies the evil which is from falsity, in Ezekiel:
I will pour out My wrath upon Sin, the strength of Egypt; and I will cut off the multitude of No; and I will set a fire in Egypt, grieving Sin shall grieve, and No shall be for a breaking through, and Noph for the enemies daily; the young men of Aven and of Pi-beseth shall fall by the sword, and these shall go into captivity; and in Tehaphnehes the day shall be darkened, when I shall break there the yokes of Egypt (30:15-18);
[2] here are treated of those who are in memory-knowledges, and hatch therefrom falsities from which are evils; “Egypt” here denotes memory-knowledge; “Sin,” the evil which is from falsity; and “No,” the falsity from which is evil. That a deeper sense lies concealed here than that which stands forth in the letter, can be seen by everyone from this consideration alone-that the Word is Divine, and that, unless a deeper sense were in it, there would be scarcely any sense that can be apprehended, still less a sense containing what is holy. Hence it is very manifest that the names in the Word denote things, and that from them there results a general sense that is worthy of the Word which is from Jehovah. He who acknowledges the Word to be Divine cannot possibly deny this, provided he is willing to think from reason, or to form conclusions from an understanding that is for a while enlightened.

AC (Potts) n. 8399 sRef Ex@16 @1 S0′ 8399. Which is between Elim and Sinai. That this signifies what is continuous and its quality, is evident from the signification of “Elim,” and from the signification of “Sinai,” from which it is clear what that which is “between” signifies. For “Elim,” from the fountains and palm-trees which were there, signifies the truth and good that belong to consolation after temptation (see the last verse of the preceding chapter); and “Sinai,” from the law which was there promulgated, signifies good and the derivative truth; consequently what is continuous and the quality that is signified by “Sin,” are the good that is from truth. The good that is from truth is the good that is in the spiritual man before regeneration, for he then does good from truth, that is, because it has been so commanded, consequently from obedience; whereas the good from which is truth is the good which is in the spiritual man after regeneration, for he then does good from affection. The former good is signified by “Sin,” the latter by “Sinai.”

AC (Potts) n. 8400 sRef Ex@16 @1 S0′ 8400. In the fifteenth day of the second month. That this signifies the state relatively, is evident from the signification of the number “fifteen,” from the signification of “day,” and from the signification of “month.” By “month” is signified the end of a former state and the beginning of the following state, thus a new state (see n. 3814); by “day” is signified state in general (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 7680); and by “fifteenth” is signified what is new, for by “fourteen days,” or “two weeks,” is signified an entire period, or a state from its beginning to its end (n. 728, 2044, 3845); consequently by “fifteen” is signified what is new, here what is new in life, which is signified by the manna that they received from heaven; for “manna” denotes the good of truth, which is the life of the spiritual man. For the like is signified by “fifteen” as by “eight,” because the eighth day is the first day of the following week. (That “eighth” denotes any beginning, thus what is new as distinguished from what was before, see n. 2044, 2866; and that all numbers in the Word signify things, n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 4495, 4670, 5265, 6175.)

AC (Potts) n. 8401 sRef Ex@16 @1 S0′ 8401. Of their going out of the land of Egypt. That this signifies to their state when they were first liberated from infestations, is evident from the signification of “going out” and “being brought out,” as being to be liberated (of which frequently above); and from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being infestations on the part of those who are in evil and the derivative falsities (n. 7278).

AC (Potts) n. 8402 8402. Verses 2, 3. And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron in the wilderness. And the sons of Israel said unto them, Oh that we had died by the hand of Jehovah in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh-pot, when we did eat bread to satiety! for ye have brought us forth unto this wilderness, to kill this whole congregation with hunger. “And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel murmured,” signifies the suffering and the consequent complaint on account of the grievousness of the temptation; “against Moses and against Aaron,” signifies against truth Divine; “in the wilderness,” signifies a state of temptation; “and the sons of Israel said unto them,” signifies thought from anxiety; “Oh that we had died by the hand of Jehovah in the land of Egypt,” signifies that it would have been better for them to have been left by the Lord when they were in a state of infestations; “when we sat by the flesh-pot,” signifies a life according to what they like, and as they had desired; “when we did eat bread to satiety,” signifies that thus they had enjoyed the good of pleasures as much as they wished; “for ye have brought us out,” signifies after they were liberated; “unto this wilderness,” signifies a state of temptations; “to kill this whole congregation with hunger,” signifies that they were expiring from a lack of delight and of good.

AC (Potts) n. 8403 sRef Ex@16 @2 S0′ 8403. And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel murmured. That this signifies the suffering and the consequent complaint on account of the grievousness of the temptation, is evident from the signification of “to murmur,” as being the suffering from the bitterness of the temptation, and the complaint (see n. 8351); “the assemblage of the sons of Israel” denotes those who are of the spiritual church (see n. 8398). Here a third temptation is treated of, which is on account of the lack of delight and of good. This temptation follows, in a series, the former one, which was on account of the lack of truth.
[2] They who have not been instructed about man’s regeneration suppose that a man can be regenerated without temptation; and some that he has been regenerated when he has undergone one temptation. But be it known that without temptation no one is regenerated, and that many temptations follow on, one after another. The reason is that regeneration takes place to the end that the life of the old man may die, and the new heavenly life be insinuated, which shows that there must needs be a fight, for the life of the old man resists, and is not willing to be extinguished, and the life of the new man cannot enter except where the life of the old man has been extinguished. Hence it is evident that there is a fight on both sides, and this fight is a fiery one, because it is for life.
[3] He who thinks from enlightened reason can see and perceive from this that no man can be regenerated without a fight, that is, without spiritual temptation; and also that he is not regenerated by one temptation, but by many. For very many kinds of evil have made the delight of his former life, that is, have made his old life; and it is impossible for all these evils to be suddenly and simultaneously mastered, because they cling to the man very firmly, having been rooted in parents from time immemorial, and consequently are innate in him, besides having been confirmed in him from his infancy through his own actual evils. All these evils are diametrically opposite to the heavenly good that is to be insinuated, and that is to make the new life.

AC (Potts) n. 8404 sRef Ex@16 @2 S0′ 8404. Against Moses and against Aaron. That this signifies against truth Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine proceeding immediately from the Lord, thus internal truth; and from the representation of Aaron, as being truth proceeding mediately from the Lord, thus external truth (see n. 7009, 7089, 7382).

AC (Potts) n. 8405 sRef Ex@16 @2 S0′ 8405. In the wilderness. That this signifies a state of temptation, is evident from the signification of “wilderness,” as being a state of undergoing temptations (see n. 6828, 8098).

AC (Potts) n. 8406 sRef Ex@16 @3 S0′ 8406. And the sons of Israel said unto them. That this signifies thought from anxiety, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when it relates to such things as affect the mind, as being thought (see also n. 3395, 7097, 7244, 7937). That it is from anxiety is evident, because this is said in temptation.

AC (Potts) n. 8407 sRef Ex@16 @3 S0′ 8407. Oh that we had died by the hand of Jehovah in the land of Egypt. That this signifies that it would have been better for them to have been left by the Lord when they were in a state of infestations, is evident from the signification of “oh that,” as being that it would have been better, or would have been preferable; from the signification of “to have died by the hand of Jehovah,” as being for them to have been left by the Lord (in the spiritual sense “to have died” signifies to be in evils and the derivative falsities, consequently to be in damnation, see n. 5407, 6119, 7494; and when it is said “to have died by the hand of Jehovah,” it denotes to be left by the Lord, for they who are left by Him, that is, who leave Him, rush into evils and the derivative falsities, and thus into damnation; that “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord has often been shown above); and from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being a state of infestations (see above, n. 8401). (That those who were of the spiritual church, who are represented by the sons of Israel, before they were liberated by the Lord, were infested by those who were in falsities from evil, who are represented by Pharaoh and the Egyptians, see n. 6854, 6914, 7474, 7828, 7932, 8018, 8099, 8159, 8321.)

AC (Potts) n. 8408 sRef Ezek@11 @7 S0′ sRef Ezek@11 @2 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @3 S0′ sRef Ezek@11 @3 S0′ 8408. When we sat by the flesh-pot. That this signifies a life according to what they like, and as they had desired, is evident from the signification of a “pot,” as being a containant of good, and in the opposite sense a containant of evil (of which below); and from the signification of “flesh,” as being the heavenly own, thus good, and in the opposite sense man’s own, thus evil (of which also below); and as by “flesh” is signified one’s own, so by “sitting by the flesh-pot” is signified a life according to what they like, and as they desire, for this life is the life of one’s own. A “pot” denotes a containant of good, and in the opposite sense a containant of evil, for the reason that by the flesh which is boiled in it is signified good, and in the opposite sense evil. As a “pot” has this signification, therefore by it is also signified the corporeal or natural of man, because these are the containants of good or of evil. Therefore in the universal sense by a “pot” is signified a man, and in a still more universal sense a people or a city, and then “flesh” signifies the good or the evil therein; as in Ezekiel:
The men that devise iniquity, and that give wicked counsel in this city, saying, It is not near, itself is the pot, We are the flesh; therefore thus said the Lord Jehovih, Your slain whom ye have put in the midst of it, these are the flesh, but itself is the pot (40:2, 3, 7);
here “the pot” denotes the city, or the people there; and “the flesh” denotes evil; for “the slain,” who are called “the flesh,” denote those with whom good and truth have been extinguished (see n. 4503).
sRef Ezek@24 @4 S2′ sRef Ezek@24 @3 S2′ sRef Ezek@24 @6 S2′ sRef Ezek@24 @5 S2′ [2] Again:
Utter a parable against the house of rebellion, and say unto them, Thus said the Lord Jehovah, Set on the pot, set it on, and also pour the pieces into it, every good piece, the thigh, and the shoulder; fill it with the choice of the bones; said the Lord Jehovih, Woe to the city of bloods, to the pot whose scum is therein, and whose scum is not gone out of it (Ezek. 24:3, 4, 6);
here “the pot’ denotes a city, or the people there, in whom is the evil of the profanation of good; the good which is “the flesh” there, is “the thigh and the shoulder,” the evil is “the scum” therefrom; the profanation of good is the remaining “scum;” therefore also it is called “the city of bloods.”
sRef Jer@1 @12 S3′ sRef Jer@1 @13 S3′ sRef Jer@1 @14 S3′ [3] In Jeremiah:
Jehovah said unto Jeremiah, What seest thou? I said, I see a pot that is boiling, whose face is toward the north; then Jehovah said, From the north evil shall be opened upon all the inhabitants of the land (1:13-14);
here a “boiling pot” denotes a people whom falsities have taken possession of; “the north” denotes the sensuous and corporeal of man from which evil springs. The end of the church is here treated of, when the external, consequently the sensuous and corporeal, and with these falsity and evil, rule; for the Lord’s church goes successively from internal to external, and then expires.
sRef Zech@14 @21 S4′ sRef Zech@14 @20 S4′ [4] In Zechariah:
In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, Holiness to Jehovah; and the pots in the house of Jehovah shall be like the bowls before the altar; and every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness to Jehovah Zebaoth, and all they that sacrifice shall come and take of them and shall boil in them (14:20, 21);
the salvation of the faithful is here treated of; the faithful are “the pots,” so called from the reception of good from the Lord, and from this the pot is called “Holiness to Jehovah;” “the bells of the horses upon which is Holiness” denote truths corresponding to good. As “pots” denote recipients and containants of good, therefore also these together with the rest of the vessels of the altar were made of brass (Exod. 38:3); for “brass” signifies the good of the natural (see n. 425, 1551).
sRef 2Ki@4 @38 S5′ sRef 2Ki@4 @39 S5′ sRef 2Ki@4 @40 S5′ sRef 2Ki@4 @41 S5′ [5] Moreover by “a pot” is signified doctrine, because of its containing the good and truth of the church. Doctrine is signified by “the pot” in which by command of Elisha pottage was boiled for the sons of the prophets of which we read in the second book of Kings:
Elisha returned to Gilgal when there was a famine in the land, when the sons of the prophets were sitting before him: he said to his lad, Set on the great pot, and boil pottage for the sons of the prophets: one went out into the field to gather vegetables, and found a vine of the field, and gathered from it wild gourds of the field, and shred them into the pot of pottage: while they were eating of the pottage they cried, death in the pot, O man of God! but he said that they should take meal, which he threw into the pot; and he said, Pour out for the people, and let them eat; then there was no evil thing in the pot (4:38-41);
be it known that all Divine miracles involve such things as are of the Lord’s kingdom and church (n. 7337, 8364), and that Elisha represents the Word of the Lord (n. 2762), and the prophets the doctrines therefrom (n. 2534, 7269); whence it is evident what of the church was represented by this miracle, namely, that the good of the church which has been falsified becomes good by means of truth from the Word; “famine” denotes a lack of the knowledges of truth and of good; “the pot,” doctrine; “pottage,” the good of the external rituals of the Jewish church; “wild gourds from the vine of the field,” falsification; “meal,” truth from the Word (n. 2177), whereby that which has been falsified, and which is “death in the pot,” becomes good. That “pots” signify containants of good, is because they were among the useful vessels in which food was prepared, and by food and all kinds of it are signified such things as nourish the soul, thus affections of good and of truth (n. 681, 1480, 3114, 4792, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5576, 5915).

AC (Potts) n. 8409 sRef Ex@16 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@49 @26 S1′ 8409. As “flesh” signifies one’s own in both senses, in the supreme sense the Lord’s Divine own, which is His Divine Human, thus the good of His love toward the universal human race; therefore “flesh” in the sense which has reference to man denotes one’s own made alive by the Lord’s own, that is, it denotes the Lord’s own with man, thus the good of love to Him. (On the signification of “flesh” in this sense, see n. 3813, 7850.) But in the opposite sense, “flesh” denotes man’s own, thus the evil of the love of self, and from this the cupidities or concupiscences of this love (n. 999, 3813). (That man’s own is nothing but evil, see n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876, 987, 1023, 1044, 1047, 3812, 5660, 5786.) That “flesh” denotes man’s own, thus evil of every kind, is further evident from the following passages in Isaiah:
I will feed thine oppressors with their flesh, and they shall be drunken with their blood, as with new wine (49:26);
“to feed with flesh” denotes to be gorged with their own evil.
sRef Jer@17 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @20 S2′ sRef Isa@31 @3 S2′ [2] In Jeremiah:
Cursed is the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, but his heart departeth from Jehovah (17:5);
“to make flesh his arm” denotes to trust in his own power; and therefore in Isaiah 9:20, “to eat the flesh of his arm” denotes to trust in himself. Again in Isaiah:
Egypt is a man, and not God; and his horses flesh, and not spirit (31:3);
“the horses of Egypt” denote memory-knowledges from a perverted understanding (n. 6125); “flesh” denotes what is dead; “spirit,” what is alive; therefore the sons of Egypt are said to be “great in flesh” (Ezek. 16:26). What is “dead” is so called from evil, for spiritual death is from evil; and what is alive is so called from good, for spiritual life is from good.
sRef John@6 @63 S3′ sRef John@1 @13 S3′ sRef Matt@16 @17 S3′ sRef Gen@6 @3 S3′ sRef John@1 @12 S3′ sRef John@3 @6 S3′ [3] Hence it is that “flesh” and “spirit” in the Word are opposed to each other, as in the following passages:
That which is born from the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the spirit is spirit (John 3:6).
It is the spirit that maketh alive, the flesh profiteth nothing; the words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life (John 6:63).
Jehovah said, My Spirit shall not reprove man forever, for that he is flesh (Gen. 6:3);
here “flesh” denotes man’s own. In like manner in the following:
Jesus said, Blessed art thou, Simon son of Jonah, for flesh and blood hath not revealed it, but My Father who is in the heavens (Matt. 16:17).
As many as received, to them gave He power to be sons of God, to them that believe on His name; who were born, not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God (1:12, 13);
“the will of the flesh” denotes one’s own of the will; “the will of man,” one’s own of the understanding; “sons of God” denote the regenerate, and they who are being regenerated are all made alive from the Lord’s own, which is “the flesh and body of the Lord,” and is the Divine good itself.
sRef Num@11 @4 S4′ sRef Num@11 @33 S4′ sRef Num@11 @16 S4′ sRef Num@11 @34 S4′ sRef Num@11 @18 S4′ sRef Num@11 @6 S4′ sRef Num@11 @20 S4′ [4] As “flesh” in the opposite sense denotes man’s own, thus evil, it also denotes concupiscence, for the life of the flesh, which is the body’s own life, is nothing but the pleasure of the senses, the delight of the appetites, and concupiscence. That “flesh” denotes concupiscence, is evident from these words in Moses:
The rabble that was in the midst of the people lusted a lust, whence the sons of Israel wept again, and said, Who shall feed us with flesh? our soul is now dry, our eyes have nothing to turn to but the manna: and Jehovah said unto Moses, Say thou unto the people, Sanctify yourselves for the morrow, that ye may eat flesh, for ye have wept in the ears of Jehovah, saying, who shall feed us with flesh? for it was better with us in Egypt; Jehovah will give you flesh to eat, for a month of days, even until it come out from your nose, and it shall be a loathing to you. The flesh was yet between their teeth, before it was swallowed, when the anger of Jehovah was kindled against the people, and Jehovah smote the people with a very great plague, whence he called the name of that place “the graves of lust,” because there they buried the people that lusted (Num. 11:4, 6, 16, 18, 20, 33, 34).
From all this it is now evident what is signified by “sitting by the flesh-pot in the land of Egypt,” namely, a life according to what they like and as they had desired, thus a life of their own.

AC (Potts) n. 8410 sRef Ex@16 @3 S0′ 8410. When we did eat bread to satiety. That this signifies that thus they had enjoyed the good of pleasures as much as they wished, is evident from the signification of “eating,” as being appropriation (see n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745), and also enjoyment (n. 7849); and from the signification of “bread,” as being the good of heavenly life, and in the opposite sense the good of natural life separate from heavenly life, thus the good of pleasures. For by “bread” in the spiritual sense is meant the primary thing that nourishes the soul and preserves its spiritual life. That this is the good of love, is evident from the life of heaven, which consists solely of this good. But in the opposite sense by “bread” is meant the primary thing that nourishes those who are in hell, and sustains their life. That this is the evil of the love of self and of the world, is evident from the life of hell, which consists solely in this. Evil is to them good, for nothing is more delightful and sweet to them. This is here meant by “the good of pleasures.” And from the signification of “to satiety,” as being as much as they wished (or willed), for with the good it is the will that is sated with good, and with the evil it is the will that is sated with evil.

AC (Potts) n. 8411 sRef Ex@16 @3 S0′ 8411. For ye have brought us forth. That this signifies after they were liberated, is evident from the signification of “bringing forth,” in this case from the land of Egypt, as being to liberate, namely, from a state of infestations.

AC (Potts) n. 8412 sRef Ex@16 @3 S0′ 8412. Unto this wilderness. That this signifies a state of temptations, is evident from the signification of a “wilderness,” as being a state of undergoing temptations (see n. 8098).

AC (Potts) n. 8413 sRef Ex@16 @3 S0′ 8413. To kill this whole congregation with hunger. That this signifies that they were expiring from a lack of delight and of good, is evident from the signification of “killing,” as being to deprive of life, here, of that which is from delight and good, for in these the life of man consists (see n. 3607, 6767); from the signification of “the congregation,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 7843); and from the signification of “hunger,” as being a lack of good (see n. 5893), here of the good of pleasures, which is signified by “bread” (n. 8410); for when that which nourishes the spiritual life, or the life of the spirit, is taken away, hunger results. How the case herein is shall be briefly told.
[2] When the good of charity, which makes the spiritual life, is to be insinuated, the delight of the pleasures which had made the natural life is removed. When this delight is removed, the man comes into temptation, for he believes that if he is deprived of the delight of pleasures, he is deprived of all life, because his natural life consists in this delight, or good, as he calls it. But he does not know that when this delight of life is removed, spiritual delight, or good, is insinuated by the Lord in its place. It is this good that is signified by the “manna;” the former good or delight being meant by the “flesh and bread in the land of Egypt,” and the privation of this being meant by “hunger.”
[3] But it is to be carefully observed that the man who is being regenerated is not deprived of the delight of the pleasures of the body and lower mind, for he fully enjoys this delight after regeneration, and more fully than before, but in inverse ratio. Before regeneration, the delight of pleasures was everything of his life; but after regeneration, the good of charity becomes everything of his life; and then the delight of pleasures serves as a means, and as an ultimate plane, in which spiritual good with its happiness and blessedness terminates. When therefore the order is to be inverted, the former delight of pleasures expires and becomes no delight, and a new delight from a spiritual origin is insinuated in its place.

AC (Potts) n. 8414 sRef Ex@16 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @4 S0′ 8414. Verses 4, 5. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Behold, I am making it rain bread for you from heaven, and the people shall go out, and they shall gather the word of a day in its day, in order that I may try them, whether they walk in My law, or not. And it shall be in the sixth day, that they shall prepare that which they have brought, and there shall be double over what they shall gather day by day. “And Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies consolation from the Lord; “Behold, I am making it rain bread for you from heaven,” signifies that heavenly good shall flow in; “and the people shall go out,” signifies life therefrom; “and they shall gather the word of a day in its day,” signifies continually according to need; “in order that I may try them,” signifies that thereby they will be examined; “whether they will walk in My law, or not,” signifies whether they can live a life of truth and good; “and it shall be in the sixth day,” signifies in the end of every state; “that they shall prepare that which they have brought,” signifies the disposal of the appropriated goods; “and there shall be double over what they gather day by day,” signifies that the goods are to be conjoined.

AC (Potts) n. 8415 sRef Ex@16 @4 S0′ 8415. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies consolation from the Lord, is evident from what follows, for the things which Jehovah said belong to consolation after temptation (that after temptations there is consolation, see n. 8367, 8370).

AC (Potts) n. 8416 sRef Ex@16 @4 S0′ 8416. Behold, I am making it rain bread for you from heaven. That this signifies that heavenly good shall flow in, is evident from the signification of “raining,” as being a blessing (n. 2445); that “to rain” denotes a blessing is because rain comes down from heaven and causes the fertility of the earth, just as Divine good and truth descend from heaven into man and cause a blessing, whence it can be seen that in the proximate sense “to rain” signifies to flow in, for all good from the Divine flows in; and from the signification of “bread,” as being heavenly good (of which in what follows).

AC (Potts) n. 8417 sRef Ex@16 @4 S0′ 8417. And the people shall go out. That this signifies life therefrom, is evident from the signification of “going,” as being life (see n. 1293, 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605), in like manner here “going out,” that is, going to gather the manna. (On the signification of “going,” as being life, see also n. 8420.)

AC (Potts) n. 8418 sRef Ex@16 @4 S0′ 8418. And they shall gather the word of a day in its day. That this signifies continually according to need, is evident from the signification of “gathering,” as being to receive, for when “raining” signifies the influx of good from the Divine, “gathering” signifies reception, because they correspond to each other; from the signification of “the word,” as being the thing spoken of, here the bread or manna from heaven; and from the signification of “a day in its day,” as being continually according to need. That it denotes continually is because they received it daily (that “daily” denotes continually, see n. 2838). And that it denotes according to need, is because they were to gather as much as they needed daily, and no more, namely, for everyone an omer.

AC (Potts) n. 8419 sRef Ex@16 @4 S0′ 8419. In order that I may try them. That this signifies that thereby they will be examined, is evident from the signification of “trying,” as here being to examine, for it follows, “whether they will walk in My law, or not.”

AC (Potts) n. 8420 sRef Ex@16 @4 S0′ 8420. Whether they will walk in My law, or not. That this signifies whether they can live a life of truth and good, is evident from the signification of “walking,” as being to live (see n. 519, 1794); and from the signification of the “law,” as being the Word (n. 2606, 3382, 6752); and because it denotes the Word, it denotes Divine truth (n. 7463), thus also the doctrine of good and of truth. Therefore “to walk in the law of Jehovah” denotes to live a life of truth and good according to doctrine. That “to walk in the law” denotes to live according to the law, is known to everyone, because the phrase is used in common speech. From this it is evident that “to walk” denotes to live, and also that in the very word “walk,” there is the signification of the spiritual sense; in like manner as in very many other expressions. This comes from no other source than the influx of the spiritual world into the ideas of thought, and thus into words; for without this influx who would ever say “walking” to express living? as “walking in the law,” “in the statutes,” “in the commandments,” “in the fear of God.” The case is very similar with “going,” as denoting to live (of which just above, n. 8417), and also with “journeying,” “advancing,” “sojourning.” That these expressions denote living, is because in the spiritual world there are no spaces, but instead thereof states of life (see n. 2625, 2684, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381).

AC (Potts) n. 8421 sRef Ex@16 @5 S0′ 8421. And it shall be in the sixth day. That this signifies in the end of every state, is evident from the signification of “day,” as being state (see n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 7680); and from the signification of “the sixth,” as being the end of a state. The reason why “the sixth day” denotes the end of a state is that “seven days” or “a week” signify an entire period, or a full state (n. 2044, 3845, 6508); whence the day preceding the seventh, that is, the sixth day, signifies the end of this state; and the day following, or the eighth day, signifies the beginning of the same state (n. 2044, 8400).

AC (Potts) n. 8422 sRef Ex@16 @5 S0′ 8422. That they shall prepare that which they have brought. That this signifies the disposal of the appropriated goods, is evident from the signification of “preparing,” when said of goods that have been appropriated, as being disposal; and from the signification of “that which they have brought,” when the manna is meant by which good is signified, as being the goods which have been appropriated. The gathering of the manna every day signifies the reception of good, and the eating of it signifies appropriation, consequently “to prepare that which they have brought” signifies the disposal of the goods which have been appropriated. This disposal is effected by the Lord at the end of every state, which is signified by “the sixth day.” Conjunction follows this disposal, and this conjunction is signified by “the seventh day.”

AC (Potts) n. 8423 sRef Ex@16 @5 S0′ 8423. And there shall be double over what they gather day by day. That this signifies that the goods are to be conjoined, is evident from the signification of “there being double,” as being to be conjoined (that to be conjoined is signified by “double,” is because “two” denotes conjunction, see n. 1686, 3519, 5194); from the signification of “gathering,” as being to receive (n. 8418); and from the signification of “day by day,” that is, on each day, as being continually (also n. 8418). That “two” denotes conjunction, is because there are two things to which all things in the universe bear relation, namely, good and truth, or what is the same, love and faith; for good is of love, and truth is of faith. Hence also there are two things with man which make his life, namely the will and understanding. The will with man has been formed to receive good or love, and the understanding to receive truth or faith. The conjunction of these two is called a “marriage,” for these two when conjoined are circumstanced in like manner as are a married pair: they love each other; they conceive and bring forth; and the consequent offspring is called “fruit.” From this it is now plain why “two” or “double” signifies conjunction, for without the conjunction of these two nothing is ever born or produced. It may be added that from all this it can be plainly seen that without love or charity faith can produce no fruit; but that fruit must be from the two conjoined.

AC (Potts) n. 8424 8424. Verses 6-8. And Moses and Aaron said unto all the sons of Israel, In the evening, then ye shall know that Jehovah hath brought you out from the land of Egypt. And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of Jehovah, in that He heareth your murmurings against Jehovah; and what are we, that ye murmur against us? And Moses said, In that Jehovah shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to satiety; in that Jehovah heareth your murmurings with which ye murmur against Him: what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against Jehovah. “And Moses and Aaron said unto all the sons of Israel,” signifies information from truth Divine; “In the evening, then ye shall know that Jehovah hath brought you out from the land of Egypt,” signifies that in the end of the former state there shall be a revelation that they are liberated; “and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of Jehovah,” signifies that in the beginning of a new state there will be the advent of the Lord; “in that He heareth your murmurings,” signifies that complaints will cease; “against Jehovah, and what are we, that ye murmur against us?” signifies that the complaints were against the Divine, and not against those who represented it; “and Moses said,” signifies information; “In that Jehovah shall give you in the evening flesh to eat,” signifies that in the end of the state good will be appropriated by means of delight; “and in the morning bread to satiety,” signifies that in the beginning of a new state they shall have as much good as they can receive; “In that Jehovah heareth your murmurings,” signifies that thus complaints will cease; “with which ye murmur against Him,” signifies that these were against the Divine; “what are we? your murmurings are not against us,” signifies that they were not against those who represented the Divine; “but against Jehovah,” signifies that hereafter they must beware.

AC (Potts) n. 8425 sRef Ex@16 @6 S0′ 8425. And Moses and Aaron said unto all the sons of Israel. That this signifies information from truth Divine, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when concerning those things which were commanded by Jehovah to those who were of the spiritual church, as being information (n. 7769, 7793, 7825, 8041); from the representation of Moses and Aaron, as being truth Divine, Moses what is internal and Aaron what is external (n. 7009, 7089, 7382); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223).

AC (Potts) n. 8426 sRef Ex@16 @6 S0′ 8426. In the evening, then ye shall know that Jehovah hath brought you out from the land of Egypt. That this signifies that in the end of the former state there shall be a revelation that they are liberated, is evident from the signification of “evening,” as being the end of the former state (of which below); from the signification of “knowing,” as being to be revealed, for that which Jehovah gives to know is called “revelation;” and from the signification of “bringing out,” as being to liberate (as frequently above), here from the infestations which are signified by “the land of Egypt” (n. 7278).
[2] That “in the evening” denotes the end of a former state, is because the changes of state in the other life are circumstanced as are the times of day in the world, namely, morning, noon, evening, and night, or twilight, and again morning. Be it known that in the spiritual world there are perpetual changes of states, and that all who are there pass through them. The reason is that they may be continually perfected, for without changes of states or without variations continually succeeding one another in order, they who are in the spiritual world are not perfected. The changes of states which succeed each other in order like the times of the day and the times of the year, never return quite the same, but are varied. The beginning of every state corresponds to morning on the earth, and also in the Word is sometimes meant by “morning;” but the end of every state corresponds to evening, and is likewise sometimes called “evening” in the Word. When it is morning they are in love; when it is noon, they are in light or in truth; but when it is evening they are in obscurity as to truths, and are in the delight of natural love. This delight is what is signified by the quail which they received in the evening, and the good is what is signified by the manna which they received every morning.
[3] From all this it is evident what “the evening” signifies, namely, the end of the state of the thing treated of, consequently also the end of the state of the church. But see what has previously been shown about the signification of “evening:” That in the other life there are alternations of states, as in the world there are alternations of times (n. 5672, 5962, 6110); that “evening” denotes the end of a former church, and “morning” the beginning of a new church (n. 2323, 7844); consequently that “the evening and the morning” denote the advent of the Lord (n. 7844); that in heaven there are evening and twilight before morning; but not night, which is in hell (n. 6110).

AC (Potts) n. 8427 sRef Ex@16 @7 S0′ 8427. And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of Jehovah. That this signifies that in the beginning of a new state there will be the advent of the Lord, is evident from the signification of “morning,” as being the beginning of a new state (of which just above, n. 8426); and from the signification of “the glory of Jehovah,” as being His presence and advent. That “glory” denotes the presence and the advent of the Lord, is because in the supreme sense “glory” denotes the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord, and the Divine truth appears before the eyes of the angels as light and brightness from the Sun which is the Lord. (That “glory” denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, see n. 5922, 8267; and that it denotes the intelligence and wisdom which are from Divine truth, n. 4809; and that from this it denotes the internal sense of the Word, because this sense is Divine truth in glory, n. 5922.)
sRef Ex@24 @18 S2′ sRef Ex@40 @35 S2′ sRef Ex@40 @34 S2′ sRef Ex@24 @17 S2′ sRef Ex@24 @16 S2′ sRef Ex@24 @15 S2′ [2] It is said that “in the morning they should see the glory of Jehovah,” because the rising of the sun and the light from it (which light in heaven enlightens the angelic sight both external and internal), and consequently the presence and the advent of the Lord, who is the Sun in heaven, corresponds to the time of morning on the earth, and is here signified by “morning.” Therefore that light from the Sun, which light is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, thus is the Lord, is “glory.” From all this it is evident that by “glory” is signified the presence and the advent of the Lord. That these are “glory,” is also evident from many passages in the Word; as in Moses:
The cloud covered the mount, and the glory of Jehovah abode upon Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days; the appearance of the glory of Jehovah was like devouring fire on the top of the mount before the eyes of the sons of Israel (Exod. 24:15-17);
it is evident that the presence of Jehovah, that is, of the Lord, appearing like a cloud and like fire upon the mount, is here called “the glory of Jehovah.” Again:
The cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of Jehovah filled the tabernacle. And Moses could not enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of Jehovah filled the tabernacle (Exod. 40:34-35);
here also the presence of the Lord appearing as a cloud is called “glory.”
sRef Rev@21 @11 S3′ sRef Num@14 @10 S3′ sRef Rev@21 @10 S3′ sRef Rev@15 @8 S3′ sRef Lev@9 @23 S3′ sRef Lev@9 @24 S3′ sRef 1Ki@8 @10 S3′ sRef 1Ki@8 @11 S3′ sRef Rev@21 @23 S3′ [3] And in the following:
Moses and Aaron entered into the tent of meeting, and came out, and blessed the people; then appeared the glory of Jehovah toward the whole people (Lev. 9:23).
The glory of Jehovah appeared in the tent of meeting before all the sons of Israel (Num. 14:10; also 16:19, 42).
The cloud filled the house of Jehovah, so that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud; because the glory of Jehovah filled the house of Jehovah (1 Kings 8:10, 11).
The temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from His power; so that no one could enter into the temple (Rev. 15:8).
He showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, coming down from heaven from God, having the glory of God: the city hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it; for the glory of God doth lighten it, and the Lamb is the lamp thereof (Rev. 21:10, 11, 23);
here “the glory of God” manifestly denotes light from the Lord, which is the Divine truth proceeding from Him, thus the presence of the Lord, for the Lord is present in the truth which is from Him.
sRef Ex@33 @19 S4′ sRef Matt@24 @3 S4′ sRef Matt@24 @30 S4′ sRef Ex@33 @18 S4′ sRef Ex@33 @20 S4′ sRef Ex@33 @22 S4′ sRef Ex@33 @23 S4′ sRef Ex@33 @21 S4′ [4] That “the glory of Jehovah” denotes His presence, is further evident in Moses:
Moses said unto Jehovah, Show me I pray Thy glory; to whom he said, I will make all My good pass before thee; and when My glory shall pass by, it shall be that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I have passed by; but when I shall take away My hand thou shall see My back parts, and My faces shall not be seen (Exod. 33:18 to the end).
Here also “the glory of Jehovah” manifestly denotes His presence. In Matthew:
The disciples said unto Jesus, Tell us what shall be the sign of Thy coming? Jesus said, Then shall appear the sign of the Son of man, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory (24:3, 30);
the last time of the former church and the first time of the new church is here treated of; “the Son of man” denotes truth Divine proceeding from the Lord; “the clouds of heaven” denote the Word in the sense of the letter; “power and glory” denote the internal sense, thus the Divine truth which shall then appear; “the coming of the Lord” denotes the acknowledgment of truth Divine by those who are of the new church, and the denial of it by those who are of the old church (see n. 4060).
sRef Isa@40 @5 S5′ sRef Isa@40 @3 S5′ sRef Num@14 @21 S5′ sRef John@12 @41 S5′ [5] That the Lord as to Divine truth is “glory,” is evident in Isaiah:
The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of Jehovah; the glory of Jehovah shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together (40:3, 5);
speaking of the Lord, who is “the glory.” In John:
The Word became flesh, and dwelt in us, and we saw His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (1:14).
These things said Isaiah, when he saw His glory, and spake of Him (12:41);
here “glory” denotes the Lord. In like manner in Moses:
I am living, and the whole earth shall be filled with the glory of Jehovah (Num. 14:21);
here “the glory of Jehovah” denotes the advent of the Lord, and enlightenment by the Divine truth which is from Him.
sRef Luke@24 @26 S6′ sRef Mark@8 @38 S6′ sRef Isa@42 @8 S6′ [6] “Glory” denotes the Divine of the Lord in these passages:
I am Jehovah, this is My name, and My glory will I not give to another (Isa. 42:8).
When the Son of man cometh in the glory of His Father with the holy angels (Mark 8:38).
It behooved the Christ to suffer, and to enter into His glory (24:26).
As by “the glory of Jehovah” is signified the Lord as to Divine truth, so also by “glory” are signified the Divine wisdom and intelligence, which are of the Divine truth from the Lord. Wisdom and intelligence from the Divine are meant by “glory” in Ezekiel 1:28; 8:4; 9:3; 10:4, 18, 19; 11:22, 23, which was represented there by a rainbow such as is seen in a cloud.

AC (Potts) n. 8428 sRef Ex@16 @7 S0′ 8428. In that He heareth your murmurings. That this signifies that complaints will cease, is evident from the signification of “hearing,” when said of Jehovah, as being to be merciful and to bring aid, thus that complaints will cease; and from the signification of “murmurings,” as being sufferings from the bitterness of temptation, and the consequent complaints (n. 8351).

AC (Potts) n. 8429 sRef Ex@16 @7 S0′ 8429. Against Jehovah, and what are we that ye murmur against us? That this signifies that the complaints were against the Divine, and not against those who represented it, is evident from the fact that “Jehovah” denotes the Divine, here the Divine truth which Moses and Aaron represented; and from the signification of “murmuring,” as being complaint (as just above, n. 8428). And as it is said that “they murmured against Jehovah and not against Moses and Aaron,” there is signified that they murmured against Divine truth, which is represented by Moses and Aaron (n. 8425), and not against those who represent it; and therefore it is also said in the following verse, “What are we? your murmurings are not against us;” for the person who represents the Divine is relatively not anything. Moreover they who murmur against the person who represents, when he speaks from the Divine, do not murmur against the person, but against the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 8430 sRef Ex@16 @8 S0′ 8430. And Moses said, signifies information (as above, n. 8425).

AC (Potts) n. 8431 sRef Ex@16 @8 S0′ 8431. In that Jehovah shall give you in the evening flesh to eat. That this signifies that in the end of the state good will be appropriated by means of delight, is evident from the signification of “evening,” as being the end of a state (see above, n. 8426); and from the signification of “flesh,” as being one’s own made alive, or one’s heavenly own which a man has from the Lord, thus the good of love (n. 148, 149, 780, 3813, 7850, 8409); but here the good of faith, because it was the flesh of a bird or flying thing called “quail.” For by a flying thing is signified what is spiritual, or what is of faith; consequently by its “flesh” is signified good of that quality, here the good of the natural man, or delight. Be it known that by “the manna” is signified the good of the internal or spiritual man, but by “the quail” the good of the external or natural man, which is called delight; and that such is their signification is evident from the fact that the manna was given in the morning time, but the quail in the evening time; and by that which is given in the morning time is signified spiritual good, and by that which is given in the evening time is signified natural good or delight. For in the other life the state of morning is when spiritual good, or the good of the internal man, is in clearness; and natural good, or the good of the external man, is in obscurity: but the state of evening is when natural good, or the good of the external man, is in clearness and spiritual good, or the good of the internal man, is in obscurity. These alternations thus succeed each other also to the intent that the man may be perfected, especially that good may be appropriated to him, which in the state of evening is effected by means of delight.

AC (Potts) n. 8432 sRef Ex@16 @8 S0′ 8432. And in the morning bread to satiety. That this signifies that in the beginning of a new state they shall have as much good as they can receive, is evident from the signification of “bread,” as being the good of love (n. 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, 4976, 5915, 8410), but here the good of truth, which is the good of the spiritual church, because by “bread” is meant the manna (of which in what follows); from the signification of “the morning,” as being the beginning of a new state (see above, n. 8427); and from the signification of “to satiety,” which means as much as they desired (n. 8410), here as much as they could receive; for the good which flows in from the Lord is not given as much as men desire, but as much as they can receive; whereas evil is allowed as much as they desire.

AC (Potts) n. 8433 sRef Ex@16 @8 S0′ 8433. In that Jehovah heareth your murmurings. That this signifies that thus the complaints will cease, is evident from what was said above (n. 8428), where like words occur.

AC (Potts) n. 8434 sRef Ex@16 @8 S0′ 8434. Which ye murmur against Him. That this signifies that the complaints were against the Divine; and that “what are we? your murmurings are not against us,” signifies that they were not against those who represented the Divine, is evident also from what was said above (n. 8429), where like words occur.

AC (Potts) n. 8435 sRef Ex@16 @8 S0′ 8435. But against Jehovah. That this signifies that hereafter they must beware, is evident from the fact that it is repeated that their murmurings are against Jehovah, that is, against the Divine. Consequently by these words is now meant that hereafter they must beware of such complaints in temptations.

AC (Potts) n. 8436 sRef Ex@16 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @9 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @12 S0′ 8436. Verses 9-12. And Moses said unto Aaron, Say unto all the assemblage of the sons of Israel, Come ye near before Jehovah, for He hath heard your murmurings. And it was, as Aaron spake unto the whole assemblage of the sons of Israel, that they looked back unto the wilderness, and behold the glory of Jehovah was seen in the clouds. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, I have heard the murmurings of the sons of Israel; speak unto them, saying, Between the evenings ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be sated with bread; and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God.
“And Moses said unto Aaron,” signifies the influx of truth Divine proceeding immediately from the Lord through the truth Divine which proceeds mediately; “Say unto all the assemblage of the sons of Israel,” signifies instruction; “Come ye near before Jehovah,” signifies a state of reception, and the application thereto; “for He hath heard your murmurings,” signifies that He may bring aid on account of the suffering in the temptation; “and it was, as Aaron spake unto the whole assemblage of the sons of Israel,” signifies instruction from the Divine by means of influx; “that they looked back unto the wilderness,” signifies a recalling to mind of the state of temptation in which they had been; “and behold the glory of Jehovah was seen in the cloud,” signifies the presence of the Lord in truth accommodated to the perception; “and Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,” signifies the truth which proceeds from the Divine of the Lord, and in which is the Lord’s presence; “I have heard the murmurings of the sons of Israel,” signifies that the complaints arising from the temptation will cease; “speak unto them, saying,” signifies information by means of influx; “Between the evenings ye shall eat flesh,” signifies that in the end of the state good will be appropriated by means of delight; “and in the morning ye shall be sated with bread,” signifies that in the beginning of a new state they shall have as much good as they can receive; “and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God,” signifies that they may know that the Lord is the only God.

AC (Potts) n. 8437 sRef Ex@16 @9 S0′ 8437. And Moses said unto Aaron. That this signifies the influx of truth Divine proceeding immediately from the Lord through the truth Divine which proceeds mediately, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by the truth Divine that proceeds immediately from the Lord, which is represented by Moses, through the truth Divine that proceeds mediately and is represented by Aaron, as being influx. (That “saying” also denotes flowing in, see n. 5743, 6152, 6291, 7291, 7381, 8221, 8262; and that “Moses” denotes the truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord; and “Aaron” the truth which proceeds mediately, n. 7009, 7010, 7089, 7382.) What is meant by “truth proceeding immediately from the Lord,” and what by “truth proceeding mediately,” see n. 7055, 7056, 7058.

AC (Potts) n. 8438 sRef Ex@16 @9 S0′ 8438. Say unto all the assemblage of the sons of Israel. That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by truth Divine to those who are of the church, about the things to be done by Divine command, as being instruction (see also n. 7186, 7267, 7304, 7380, 7517, 8127); and from the signification of “the assemblage of the sons of Israel,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 7843).

AC (Potts) n. 8439 sRef Ex@16 @9 S0′ 8439. Come ye near before Jehovah. That this signifies a state of reception and the application thereto, is evident from the signification of “coming near before Jehovah,” as being influx (see n. 8159), and therefore also reception; for reception is the reciprocal of influx, because they correspond to each other. Insofar as a man receives the Divine influx, so far he is said to “come near before Him.” In the spiritual sense the coming near before Jehovah is nothing else, for coming near to Him is effected by means of faith and love; and as both faith and love are from Jehovah (that is, from the Lord), “coming near to Him” also denotes the reception of the good and truth that flow in from Him. That it also denotes application, is because reception is not anything unless there is also application, namely, to use. For the influx from the Divine passes first into the perception which is of the understanding with the man, thence it passes into the will, and next into act, that is, into good work, which is use, and there it ceases. When the influx of good and truth from the Lord makes this passage, then the good and truth are appropriated to the man; for then the influx goes down into the ultimate of order, that is, into the ultimate of nature, whither all Divine influx aims to come. The man in whom Divine influx thus advances may be called “a way of heaven.” From all this it can now be seen that by “coming near before Jehovah” is signified a state of reception and the application thereto; here, a state of reception of the good signified by “the manna,” and of the delight signified by “the quail.”

AC (Potts) n. 8440 sRef Ex@16 @9 S0′ 8440. For He hath heard your murmurings. That this signifies that He may bring aid on account of the suffering in the temptation, is evident from the signification of “hearing,” when said of Jehovah, as being to have compassion, and to bring aid, consequently also to cause to cease (see above, n. 8428); and from the signification of “murmurings,” as being the suffering in temptation and the complaint (n. 8351, 8428, 8433).

AC (Potts) n. 8441 sRef Ex@16 @10 S0′ 8441. And it was, as Aaron spake unto the whole assemblage of the sons of Israel. That this signifies instruction from the Divine by means of influx, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” when by the Divine through the truth proceeding mediately from the Lord, which is represented by Aaron, as being instruction by means of influx, for the Divine influx with man is into the truth in which he has been instructed (that “to speak” denotes influx, see n. 2951, 5481, 5797, 7270, 8128; and that it denotes instruction, n. 7226, 7241); and from the representation of Aaron, as being the truth that proceeds mediately from the Lord (n. 7009, 7382).

AC (Potts) n. 8442 sRef Ex@16 @10 S0′ 8442. That they looked back unto the wilderness. That this signifies a recalling to mind of the state of temptation in which they had been, is evident from the signification of “looking back” toward anything, as being thought and reflection (see n. 7341), therefore also a recalling to mind, for he who thinks and reflects, recalls to mind; and from the signification of “wilderness,” as being a state of undergoing temptations (see n. 6828, 8098).

AC (Potts) n. 8443 sRef Ex@16 @10 S0′ 8443. And behold the glory of Jehovah was seen in the cloud. That this signifies the presence of the Lord in truth accommodated to the perception, is evident from the signification of “the glory of Jehovah,” as being the presence and the advent of the Lord (see above, n. 8427); and from the signification of “the cloud,” as being the literal sense of the Word (see the preface to Genesis 18, and n. 4391, 5922, 6343e, 6752, 8106), thus truth accommodated to the perception, for the Word in the letter is such truth. But “the glory which is in the cloud” denotes Divine truth which is not so accommodated to the perception, because it is above the fallacies and appearances of the senses, thus it also denotes the internal sense of the Word (see the preface to Genesis 18, and n. 5922, 8427). That “glory” denotes the internal sense of the Word, is because in this sense the Lord’s church and kingdom are treated of, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, in which sense also is the veriest Divine truth. Truth Divine is not of one degree, but of many. Truth Divine in the first degree, and also in the second, is that which proceeds immediately from the Lord; this is above the angelic understanding. But truth Divine in the third degree is such as is in the inmost or third heaven; this is such that it cannot in the least be apprehended by man. Truth Divine in the fourth degree is such as is in the middle or second heaven; neither is this intelligible to man. But truth Divine in the fifth degree is such as is in the ultimate or first heaven; this can be perceived in some small measure by man provided he is enlightened; but still it is such that a great part of it cannot be expressed by human words; and when it falls into the ideas, it produces the faculty of perceiving and also of believing that the case is so. But truth Divine in the sixth degree is such as is with man, accommodated to his perception; thus it is the sense of the letter of the Word. This sense, or this truth, is represented by the cloud, and the interior truths are represented by the glory in the cloud. This is the reason why Jehovah (that is, the Lord) so often appeared to Moses and to the sons of Israel in a cloud (see Exod. 24:15, 16; 40:34, 35; 1 Kings 8:10, 11; Matt. 24:30; and other places). The appearing of the Lord is by means of Divine truth, and moreover is Divine truth. That a “cloud” denotes truth accommodated to the perception, is from the representatives in the other life, where angelic speech of the higher heavens appears to those who are beneath as light, and also as the brightness from light; whereas the speech of the angels of a lower heaven appears as a bright cloud, in form various, and in density or rarity according to the quality of the truths. From all this it can be seen that by “the glory of Jehovah seen in the cloud” is signified the presence of the Lord in truth accommodated to the perception.

AC (Potts) n. 8444 sRef Ex@16 @11 S0′ 8444. And Jehovah spoke unto Moses, saying. That this signifies the truth which proceeds from the Divine of the Lord, and in which is the Lord’s presence, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” as being influx and instruction (see above, n. 8441); and from the representation of Moses, as being the truth which proceeds from the Divine of the Lord (see n. 6752, 6771, 6827, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382). The presence of the Lord in truth from the Divine is signified by Jehovah’s speaking with Moses out of the cloud in which the glory of Jehovah was seen; for “the glory of Jehovah” denotes the presence of the Lord in the truth which proceeds from Him (n. 8427).

AC (Potts) n. 8445 sRef Ex@16 @12 S0′ 8445. I have heard the murmurings of the sons of Israel, signifies that the complaints arising from the temptation will cease (as above, n. 8428, 8433, where are like words).

AC (Potts) n. 8446 sRef Ex@16 @12 S0′ 8446. Speak unto them, saying. That this signifies information by means of influx, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” in the historicals of the Word, as being information (see n. 8041); and of “saying,” as being influx (n. 6291, 7291, 7381, 8221, 8262).

AC (Potts) n. 8447 sRef Ex@16 @12 S0′ 8447. Between the evenings ye shall eat flesh. That this signifies that in the end of the state good will be appropriated by means of delight, see n. 8431, where are like words.

AC (Potts) n. 8448 sRef Ex@16 @12 S0′ 8448. And in the morning ye shall be sated with bread. That this signifies that in the beginning of a new state they shall have as much good as they can receive, see also above (n. 8432).

AC (Potts) n. 8449 sRef Ex@16 @12 S0′ 8449. And ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God. That this signifies that they may know that the Lord is the only God, is evident from what was said and shown above (n. 7401, 7444, 7544, 7598, 7636).

AC (Potts) n. 8450 sRef Ex@16 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @14 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @13 S0′ 8450. Verses 1-15. And it was in the evening that the quail* came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning there was a deposit of dew round about the camp. And the deposit of dew went up, and behold upon the faces of the wilderness a small round thing, small as the hoar frost upon the earth. And the sons of Israel saw, and they said a man to his brother, What is this [Man hoc]? for they knew not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which Jehovah hath given you to eat. “And it was in the evening,” signifies the end of the state; “that the quail came up,” signifies natural delight through which is good; “and covered the camp,” signifies that it filled the natural of the man; “and in the morning,” signifies the beginning of a new state; “there was a deposit of dew round about the camp,” signifies the truth of peace adjoining itself; “and the deposit of dew went up,” signifies the insinuation of truth; “and behold upon the faces of the wilderness,” signifies a new will part; “a small round thing,” signifies the good of truth in the first formation; “small as the hoar frost upon the earth,” signifies truth in the form of good consistent and flowing; “and the sons of Israel saw,” signifies a perception; “and they said a man to his brother,” signifies amazement; “What is this? for they knew not what it was,” signifies at what was not known; “and Moses said unto them,” signifies information through truth from the Divine; “This is the bread which Jehovah hath given you to eat,” signifies that this is the good which must be appropriated and make their life, in the supreme sense that this is the Lord in you.
* Swedenborg retains the Hebrew word selav, untranslated. [REVISER]

AC (Potts) n. 8451 sRef Ex@16 @13 S0′ 8451. And it was in the evening. That this signifies the end of the state, is evident from the signification of “evening,” as being the end of a state (see above, n. 8426).

AC (Potts) n. 8452 sRef Ex@16 @13 S0′ 8452. That the quail came up. That this signifies natural delight through which is good, is evident from the signification of “quail,” as being natural delight. That “the quail” denotes natural delight is because it was a bird of the sea, and by a bird of the sea is signified what is natural, and by its flesh, which was longed for, is signified delight (see above, n. 8431). That it also denotes through which is good, is because it was given in the evening. For when in the other life there is a state which corresponds to evening, then good spirits, and also angels, are remitted into the state of the natural affections in which they had been when in the world, consequently into the delights of their natural man. The reason is that good may come out of it, that is, that they may thereby be perfected (n. 8426). All are perfected by the implantation of faith and charity in the external or natural man; for unless these are there implanted, good and truth cannot flow in from the internal or spiritual man, that is, from the Lord through this man, because there is no reception; and if there is no reception, the influx is stopped and perishes, nay, the internal man also is closed. From this it is plain that the natural must be brought into a state of accommodation, in order that it may be a receptacle. This is effected by means of delights; for the goods that belong to the natural man are called delights, because they are felt.
sRef Num@11 @34 S2′ sRef Num@11 @5 S2′ sRef Num@11 @33 S2′ sRef Num@11 @31 S2′ sRef Num@11 @32 S2′ sRef Num@11 @6 S2′ sRef Num@11 @31 S2′ [2] That “the quail” denotes natural delight is because, as before said, it is a bird of the sea; for it is said that it was carried off from the sea:
A wind went forth from Jehovah, and carried off the quail from the sea, and let it down upon the camp (Num. 11:31);
and by “a bird of the sea” and its “flesh” is signified natural delight, and in the opposite sense the delight of concupiscence. This is signified by “the quail” in the following passage in Moses:
The rabble that was in the midst of the people lusted a lust, and desired to have flesh; they said, Now is our soul dry, nor have our eyes anything [to look at] except the manna; there went forth a wind from before Jehovah, and carried off the quail from the sea, and let it down upon the camp; the people rose up all that day, and all the night, and all the morrow day, and gathered the quail; those who gathered least gathered ten homers, which they spread out for themselves by spreading out round about the camp; the flesh was yet between their teeth, ere it was swallowed, when the anger of Jehovah was kindled against the people, and Jehovah smote the people with a very great plague; wherefore he called the name of that place the graves of lust, because there they buried the people that lusted (Num. 11:4, 6, 31-34);
here “the quail” denote the delight of concupiscence. It is called the delight of concupiscence when the delight of any corporeal or worldly love has dominion and takes possession of the whole man, even so as to extinguish the good and truth of faith with him. This delight is what is described as the cause of their being smitten with a great plague. But the natural delight which is signified in this chapter by the quail that was given to the people in the evening, is not the delight of concupiscence, but is the delight of the natural or external man corresponding to the good of the spiritual or internal man. This delight has spiritual good within it, whereas the delight of concupiscence that is treated of in that chapter of Numbers has infernal evil within it. Each is called delight, and each is also felt as delight, but there is the greatest possible difference between them; for one has heaven in it, and the other has hell; moreover, when the external is put off, the one becomes heaven to the man, and the other becomes hell.
[3] The case herein is like that of two women who in outward form are alike beautiful in face and agreeable in life, but in the inward form are utterly unlike, the one being chaste and sound, the other lewd and rotten; thus one as to her spirit being with the angels, the other as to her spirit being with devils. But what they really are does not appear, except when the external is unrolled, and the internal is revealed. These things have been said in order that it may be known what the natural delight is in which is good, which is signified by “the quail” in this chapter; and what the natural delight is in which is evil, which is signified by “the quail” in the eleventh chapter of Numbers.

AC (Potts) n. 8453 sRef Ex@16 @13 S0′ 8453. And covered the camp. That this signifies that it filled the natural of the man, is evident from the signification of “covering,” as being to fill; and from the signification of “the camp,” as being goods and truths (see n. 8193, 8196), here the natural of the man, which is the containant; for the natural contains goods and truths, and without these it is not a living natural, nor are the good and truth of the external or natural man anything without the natural. Hence it is that as “the camp” signifies truths and goods, it also signifies the natural in which these are.

AC (Potts) n. 8454 sRef Ex@16 @13 S0′ 8454. And in the morning. That this signifies the beginning of a new state, is evident from the signification of “morning,” as being the beginning of a new state (see n. 8427).

AC (Potts) n. 8455 sRef Ex@16 @13 S0′ 8455. There was a deposit of dew round about the camp. That this signifies the truth of peace adjoining itself, is evident from the signification of “dew,” as being the truth of peace (n. 3579). “Dew” signifies the truth of peace because in the morning it comes down from heaven and appears upon the herbage like fine rain, and has also stored up in it something of sweetness or delight more than rain has, whereby the grass and the crops of the field are gladdened; and “morning” denotes a state of peace (n. 2780). What peace is see n. 2780, 3696, 4681, 5662, namely, that it is like dawn on the earth, which gladdens minds with universal delight; and the truth of peace is like the light of the dawn. This truth, which is called “the truth of peace,” is the very Divine truth in heaven from the Lord, which universally affects all who are there, and makes heaven to be heaven; for peace has in it confidence in the Lord, that He directs all things, and provides all things, and that He leads to a good end. When a man is in this faith, he is in peace, for he then fears nothing, and no solicitude about things to come disquiets him. A man comes into this state in proportion as he comes into love to the Lord.
[2] All evil, especially self-confidence, takes away a state of peace. It is believed that an evil person is at peace when he is in gladness and tranquility because all things succeed with him. But this is not peace; it is the delight and tranquillity of cupidities, which counterfeit a state of peace. But in the other life this delight, being opposite to the delight of peace, is turned into what is undelightful, for this lies hidden within it. In the other life the exteriors are successively unfolded even to the inmosts, and peace is the inmost in all delight, even in what is undelightful with the man who is in good. So far therefore as he puts off what is external, so far a state of peace is revealed, and so far he is affected with satisfaction, blessedness, and happiness, the origin of which is from the Lord Himself.
[3] Concerning the state of peace which prevails in heaven it can be said that it is such as cannot be described by any words, neither, so long as he is in the world, can it come into the thought and perception of man, by means of any idea derived from the world. It is then above all sense. Tranquility of mind, content, and gladness from success, are relatively nothing; for these affect only his externals; whereas peace affects the inmost things of all-the first substances, and the beginnings of substances in the man, and therefrom distributes and pours itself forth into the substantiates and derivatives, and affects them with pleasantness; and affects the origins of ideas, consequently the man’s ends of life, with satisfaction and happiness; and thus makes the mind of the man a heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 8456 sRef Ex@16 @14 S0′ 8456. And the deposit of dew went up. That this signifies the insinuation of truth, is evident from the signification of “going up,” as here being to be dissipated, and thus not to appear to the sight; and from the signification of “the dew,” as being the truth of peace (of which just above). The deposit of this upon the manna signifies the insinuation of truth; for the truth of peace is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord in heaven, which being the inmost insinuates itself into the truth which is beneath, and vivifies it, as the dew is wont to vivify the grass or growing crop upon which it falls in the morning. When the truth which is beneath has been vivified by it, then the truth of peace goes up, that is, as to appearance ceases, and the truth which had received life from it comes into view. Thus is born the truth of faith. For no truth of doctrine or of the Word becomes truth with man until it has received life from the Divine, and it receives life through the insinuation of the truth which proceeds from the Lord, which is called “the truth of peace.” This truth is not the truth of faith, but it is the life or soul of the truth of faith, and it disposes into the heavenly form all things which are in the truth that is called “the truth of faith,” and afterward it also disposes the truths themselves one with another. From all this it can be seen how the case is with the insinuation of truth with man by means of the truth of peace. Be it also known that the lower or exterior things with the man who is being regenerated receive life in succession from the higher or interior things; thus the truth of faith from the truth of peace; and the truth of peace from the Lord Himself. The insinuation of life from the Lord with those who are being regenerated is effected in successive order by Him, thus through what is inmost, and so through interior things to exterior. Consequently with the regenerated there is a way opened even from the Lord; but with those who are not regenerated the way is closed.

AC (Potts) n. 8457 sRef Ex@16 @14 S0′ 8457. And behold upon the faces of the wilderness. That this signifies a new will part, is evident from the signification of “the wilderness,” as here being a new will part through the insinuation of truth. For with the man of the spiritual church a new will part is formed by good through truth, and it appears with him as conscience. That this conscience is a conscience of truth, is evident from what has been previously shown concerning the regeneration of the spiritual man. “The wilderness” properly signifies what is uncultivated and uninhabited; in the spiritual sense it signifies where there are no good and truth, thus also where there is no life (see n. 1927, 2708, 3900), and therefore when it is said that the dew appeared upon the faces of the wilderness, and beneath the dew the manna, by “the wilderness” is signified a new will part.

AC (Potts) n. 8458 sRef Ex@16 @14 S0′ 8458. A small round thing. That this signifies the good of truth in its first formation, is evident from the signification of “small,” as being predicated of truth; and from the signification of “round,” as being predicated of good; consequently “a small round thing” is predicated of the good of truth. The good with the man of the spiritual church is called “the good of truth,” and is truth not only as to origin, but also as to essence. It is seen as truth, but it is felt as good. Consequently as truth it forms the intellectual part of the mind, and as good it forms the new will part. For in man the intellectual part is distinguished from the will part by the fact that the intellectual part presents to itself things in a form, and so that it may see them as in the light, whereas the will part is affected by them so that it simultaneously feels them as delight, thus as good, and this according to the quality of the form. That “small” is predicated of truth, and “round” of good, has its cause in the manifestations of truth and of good in the other life. When truths and goods are presented in a visible form, as they are in the other life openly before the eyes of spirits and angels, then truth is presented in a discrete quantity, consequently as much or as little, according to the quality of the truth; truth is also presented as angular in various forms, and it is also presented as white. But good is there presented in a continuous quantity, thus not as much or as little; good is also presented as round, which is continuous in form; and in color as blue, yellow, and red. That when good and truth are presented to view they appear in this way, comes from their difference as to quality, which when it becomes visible thus expresses and represents itself in a natural form. Hence it is that things which in the world approach such forms signify either truths or goods, for there is nothing in the universe that in respect to its quality does not bear relation either to good or to truth.

AC (Potts) n. 8459 sRef Dan@7 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@51 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @2 S0′ sRef Mark@9 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @14 S0′ sRef Lam@4 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @14 S0′ 8459. Small as the hoar frost upon the earth. That this signifies truth in the form of good, consistent and flowing, is evident from the signification of “small,” which is predicated of truth (of which just above), and from the signification of “as the hoar frost,” as being to be in the form of good. The good of truth, which is the good of the man of the spiritual church (see n. 8458), is compared to hoar frost from the continuity of this as compared to snow. Snow, from being small and white, is predicated of truth; but hoar frost, from its continuity, is predicated of truth made good, which is the good of truth. That “snow” is predicated of truth is plain from the following passages:
When Jesus was transfigured His vestments became shining, exceeding white as snow (Mark 9:23).
The angels at the sepulcher had an appearance as lightning, and clothing white as snow (Matt. 28:2, 3).
I saw in the midst of the seven lampstands one like unto the Son of man; His head and His hairs were white as white wool, as snow (Rev. 1:13, 14).
Her Nazirites were whiter than snow, they were fairer than milk (Lam. 4:7).
Thou shalt purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be made whiter than snow (Ps. 51:7).
I beheld till the thrones were cast forth, and the Ancient of Days did sit; His garment was like white snow, and the hair of His head like clean wool (Dan. 7:9).
In these passages “snow” is predicated of truth from its whiteness, and garments are compared to it, because “garments” in the spiritual sense denote truths (n. 4545, 4763, 5248, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6917, 6918). From all this it is evident what is meant by “hoar frost,” namely, truth in the form of good. Truth is said to be consistent and flowing in the form of good, because truth is the form of good, and good is the life of this form, and is as it were its soul.

AC (Potts) n. 8460 sRef Ex@16 @15 S0′ 8460. And the sons of Israel saw. That this signifies a perception, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to understand and perceive (see n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 4403-4421, 4567).

AC (Potts) n. 8461 sRef Ex@16 @15 S0′ 8461. And they said a man to his brother. That this signifies amazement, is evident from the fact that “saying” involves that which follows, here that they were amazed when they saw the manna, as they said, “What is this [Man hoc]? because they knew not what it was;” and from the signification of “a man to his brother,” as being mutually (n. 4725).

AC (Potts) n. 8462 sRef Ex@16 @15 S0′ 8462. What is this [Man hoc]? because they knew not what it was. That this signifies amazement at what was not known, is evident from the fact that the word “manna” in its own tongue means What? thus, that which is not known. That from this the bread that was given to the sons of Israel in the wilderness was called “manna,” is because this bread signifies the good of charity that is begotten through the truth of faith. Before regeneration this good is quite unknown to man, and it is not even known that it exists. For before regeneration a man believes that besides the delights of the love of self and of the world, which he calls good, there cannot be possible any good which is not from this source, or of such a nature. If anyone should then say that there is an interior good which cannot come to our notice, consequently not to knowledge, so long as the delights of the love of self and of the world have dominion, and that this good is that in which are good spirits and angels, people would be amazed as at something which is quite unknown, and as at something that is not possible; when yet this good immensely transcends the delights of the love of self and of the world. (That they who are in the loves of self and of the world do not know what charity and faith are, and what it is to do good without recompense, and that this is heaven in man, and that they believe that nothing of joy and life would remain if they were deprived of the delights of these loves, when yet heavenly joy then begins, see n. 8037.) From all this it is now evident why the manna was named from “What is this?”

AC (Potts) n. 8463 sRef Ex@16 @15 S0′ 8463. And Moses said unto them. That this signifies information through truth from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being information (see n. 7769, 7793, 7825, 8041); and from the representation of Moses, as being the truth that belongs to the law from the Divine (see n. 6771, 6827).

AC (Potts) n. 8464 sRef John@6 @51 S0′ sRef John@6 @58 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @31 S0′ sRef Num@11 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@78 @24 S0′ sRef Num@11 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef John@6 @50 S0′ sRef John@6 @49 S0′ sRef Ps@78 @23 S0′ 8464. This is the bread which Jehovah hath given you to eat. That this signifies that this is the good which must be appropriated and make their life, in the supreme sense that this is the Lord in you, is evident from the signification of “bread,” as being good celestial and spiritual, and in the supreme sense, as being the Lord (see n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, 4976, 5915), here spiritual good, that is, the good of the man of the spiritual church, which is the good of truth (of which just above, n. 8458). As this bread was the manna, it follows that by “the manna” is signified this good; which is also apparent from the description of it in the thirty-first verse:
It was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it like that of a cake in honey;
and likewise from the description of it in Numbers:
The manna was like coriander seed, and the appearance thereof as the appearance of bdellium; they ground it in mills, or beat it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pot, and made cakes of it: the taste of it was as the taste of fresh oil (11:7, 8).
From these particulars it is plain that in the spiritual sense “the manna” denotes the good of truth, that is, the good of the spiritual church. Hence also it is called “the grain of the heavens,” in David:
He commanded the skies from above, and opened the doors of the heavens, and made manna to rain down upon them, and gave them the grain of the heavens (Ps. 78:23, 24).
(That “grain” denotes the good of truth, see n. 5295, 5410.) “Manna” also denotes the good of truth which is given to those who undergo temptations and conquer, in John:
To him that overcometh I will give to eat of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone (Rev. 2:17).
That in the supreme sense “the manna” denotes the Lord in us, is evident from the very words of the Lord in John:
Your fathers did eat the manna in the wilderness, and are dead: this is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that one may eat thereof and not die: I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if anyone eat of this bread he shall live eternally (6:49-51, 58).
From all this it is very plain that by “the manna” in the supreme sense is signified the Lord. The reason is that “the manna” denotes the good of truth, and all good is from the Lord, and consequently the Lord is in good, and is the good itself. That this good will be appropriated to them and make their life, is signified by “eating” (n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745); for the good which is from the Lord makes the life of heaven with man, and thereafter nourishes and sustains it.

AC (Potts) n. 8465 sRef Ex@16 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @18 S0′ 8465. Verses 16-18. This is the word that Jehovah hath commanded, Gather ye of it everyone according to the mouth of his eating, an omer a head, according to the number of your souls, take ye everyone for him who is in his tent. And the sons of Israel did so, and they gathered, collecting for the numerous and for the few. And they measured it with the omer, and it made nothing over for the numerous; and for the few there was no lack; they gathered everyone according to his eating. “This is the word that Jehovah hath commanded,” signifies a mandate about it from the Divine; “Gather ye of it everyone according to the mouth of his eating,” signifies reception and appropriation according to the capacity of each one; “an omer a head,” signifies enough for everyone; “according to the number of your souls,” signifies enough for all in the society; “take ye everyone for him who is in his tent,” signifies communication with them, and from this the general good; “and the sons of Israel did so,” signifies the effect; “and they gathered, collecting for the numerous and for the few,” signifies reception according to the power of each society; “and they measured it with the omer,” signifies the power of the reception of good; “and it made nothing over for the numerous; and for the few there was no lack,” signifies that there was a just proportion for everyone in particular and in general; “they gathered everyone according to his eating,” signifies reception according to the capacity of each one.

AC (Potts) n. 8466 sRef Ex@16 @16 S0′ 8466. This is the word that Jehovah hath commanded. That this signifies a mandate about it from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “the word,” as being the thing that is treated of; and from the signification of “commanding,” when by Jehovah, as being a mandate.

AC (Potts) n. 8467 sRef Ex@16 @16 S0′ 8467. Gather ye of it every man according to the mouth of his eating. That this signifies reception and appropriation according to the capacity of each one, is evident from the signification of “gathering,” when said of the good of truth that is signified by “the manna,” as being to receive; and from the signification of “each one according to the mouth of his eating,” as being appropriation according to the capacity of each one. For “according to the mouth of the eating,” when food is treated of, denotes according to the necessity demanded for nourishment; but when said of the good of truth, it denotes according to the capacity of reception and appropriation, because by “eating” in the spiritual sense is signified to be appropriated (see n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745).

AC (Potts) n. 8468 sRef Ex@16 @16 S0′ sRef Hos@3 @2 S0′ 8468. An omer a head. That this signifies enough for everyone, is evident from the signification of “an omer,” as being sufficient (of which presently); and from the signification of “for a head,” as being for each one. That “an omer” denotes sufficient, is because it was the tenth part of an ephah, as is plain from the last verse of this chapter, and “ten” signifies what is full (see n. 3107); consequently “a tenth part” signifies what is sufficient, here for each one, that is, for a head. The “omer” is mentioned only in this chapter; but in other places, the “homer,” which was a measure containing ten ephahs, and consequently signified what is full; as in Hosea:
I purchased a woman, an adulteress, for fifteen pieces of silver, and a homer of barley, and a half homer of barley (3:1, 2);
where by “a woman an adulteress” is meant the house of Israel, in the spiritual sense the church there, the buying of which at a full price is signified by “fifteen pieces of silver and a homer of barley;” “fifteen pieces of silver” are predicated of truth, and “a homer of barley,” of good.
sRef Ezek@45 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@45 @14 S2′ sRef Ezek@45 @10 S2′ sRef Ezek@45 @11 S2′ [2] In Ezekiel:
Ye shall have balances of justice, and an ephah of justice, and a bath of justice: the ephah and the bath shall be of one measure, to lift the tenth of a homer to a bath, and to the tenth of a homer the ephah; according to the homer shall be thy measure: this is the heave-offering that ye shall heave, the of an ephah from a homer of wheat, from a homer of barley: and the set portion of oil, the bath for oil, shall be the tenth of a bath out of the cor, ten baths a homer, for ten baths are a homer (45:10, 11, 13, 14);
the new earth and the new temple are here treated of, by which is signified the Lord’s spiritual kingdom. Everyone can see that there will not be a homer there, nor an ephah, nor a bath, nor a cor, neither will there be wheat, barley, or oil. Thus it is evident that by these things are signified such things as are in that kingdom, which plainly are spiritual things, thus things which have relation either to the good of charity or to the truth of faith. A “homer” is predicated of good, because it is the measure of wheat and of barley; in like manner an “ephah.” But a “bath” is predicated of truth, because it is a measure of wine; and as it is also a measure of oil, by which is signified the good of love, it is said that a bath shall be the same part of a homer as is an ephah, which denotes in the spiritual sense that all things in that kingdom shall have relation to good, and also that the truth there will be good, and that this shall be given in fullness, because by “a homer” is signified what is full.
sRef Isa@5 @10 S3′ sRef Lev@27 @16 S3′ sRef Isa@5 @9 S3′ [3] In Isaiah:
Many houses shall be in devastation, even great and beautiful, that there be no inhabitant, for ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, and a homer of seed shall yield an ephah (5:9, 10);
here “ten acres” denotes what is full, and also much, in like manner “a homer,” but “a bath” and “an ephah” denote few; for when “ten” denotes much, “a tenth part” denotes a few. In Moses:
If a man shall sanctify unto Jehovah of the field of his possession, then thy estimation shall be according to his sowing, the sowing of a homer of barley for fifty shekels of silver (Lev. 27:16);
where “the sowing of a homer,” and also “fifty shekels,” denote fullness of estimation. As “a homer” signifies what is full, “ten homers” signify what is too much and superfluous (Num. 11:32).

AC (Potts) n. 8469 sRef Ex@16 @16 S0′ 8469. According to the number of your souls. That this signifies enough for all in the society, namely, of the good of truth which is signified by “the manna,” is evident from the signification of “according to the number of the souls,” as being sufficient for all in the society. For when by “an omer a head” is signified enough for everyone, by “according to the number of the souls” is signified enough for all in the society. The subject here treated of is the good of those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, which good is signified by “the manna,” and that sufficient of this will be given for everyone and sufficient for the society; for each house of the sons of Israel represented one society in heaven (see n. 7836, 7891, 7996, 7997). As regards the societies in heaven the case is this. Heaven consists of countless societies, which are distinct one from another. Each society has a general good distinct from the good of other societies; and also each one in a society has a particular good distinct from the good of all others in the society. From the distinct goods of those who are in the society, which are thus various, but yet accordant, there is produced a form, which is called “the heavenly form.” The universal heaven consists of such forms. Relatively to goods these conjunctions are called “forms,” but relatively to persons they are called “societies.” These things were represented by the distinctions of the sons of Israel into tribes, families, and houses.

AC (Potts) n. 8470 sRef Ex@16 @16 S0′ 8470. Take ye everyone for him who is in his tent. That this signifies communication with them, and from this the general good, is evident from the signification of a “tent,” as being a society as to good; “tent” here signifies the like as “house,” for when they sojourned they were in tents. That every man should take for him who was there, signifies communication with them, thus also from this the general good. As these words involve those things which come forth in the societies in heaven (as was said just above, see n. 8469), it shall be told further how the case is with those societies, in order that it may thereby be known what is meant by communication with those in the society, and with the general good arising therefrom, which is signified by “everyone taking for him who was in his tent.” Everyone in a society in heaven communicates his good to all who are in the society, and all therein communicate with each one, whence arises the good of all in general, that is, the general good. This good is communicated to the general good of other societies, whence arises a good still more general, and finally one most general. Such is the communication in heaven, and hence it is that they are a one, just as are the organs, members, and viscera in man, which, although various and dissimilar, nevertheless by such communications form a one. Such a communication of goods is possible only through love, which is spiritual conjunction. The universal thing that forms and brings into order all things in general and in particular is the Divine good of Divine love from the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 8471 sRef Ex@16 @17 S0′ 8471. And the sons of Israel did so. That this signifies the effect, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 8472 sRef Ex@16 @17 S0′ 8472. And they gathered, collecting for the numerous and for the few. That this signifies reception according to the power of each society, is evident from the signification of “gathering,” as being to receive (see above, n. 8467); and from the signification of “collecting for the numerous and for the few,” as being according to the power of each society. How these things are, must be unfolded from those which come forth in the societies in heaven; for “the manna” denotes heavenly food, and heavenly food is good and truth, and good and truth in heaven are the Lord, because from Him. From all this it can be seen that these things which were decreed about the manna, are such as come forth in the said societies. The case herein is that the Divine good which proceeds from the Lord is communicated to all in heaven universally and individually, but everywhere according to the power of receiving; for there are those who receive little, and there are those who receive much. They who receive little are in the borders of heaven, but they who receive much are in the interiors. Everyone there has a power of receiving according to the nature and amount of good acquired in the world. The difference in power is what is signified by the terms “numerous” and “few.”

AC (Potts) n. 8473 sRef Ex@16 @18 S0′ 8473. And they measured it with the omer. That this signifies the power of the reception of good, is evident from the signification of “an omer,” as being what is sufficient (see above, n. 8468), thus also power.

AC (Potts) n. 8474 sRef Ex@16 @18 S0′ 8474. And it made nothing over for the numerous; and for the few there was no lack. That this signifies that there was a just proportion for everyone in particular and in general, is evident from the signification of “making nothing over,” and also of “having no lack,” as being to employ a just proportion; and from the signification of “numerous” and “few,” as being a difference of power (of which above, n. 8472), here according to the power of everyone in particular and in general.

AC (Potts) n. 8475 sRef Ex@16 @18 S0′ 8475. They gathered everyone according to his eating. That this signifies reception according to the capacity of each one, is evident from what was said above (n. 8467), where are the same words.

AC (Potts) n. 8476 8476. Verses 19, 20. And Moses said unto them, Let no one make a residue of it till the morning. And they heard not unto Moses; and men made a residue of it until morning and it bred worms and stank, and Moses was angry with them. “And Moses said unto them,” signifies exhortation; “Let no one make a residue of it till the morning,” signifies that they should not be solicitous about acquiring it from themselves; “and they heard not unto Moses,” signifies no faith and thence no obedience; “and men made a residue of it until the morning,” signifies the abuse of good Divine, in that they desired to acquire it from themselves; “and it bred worms,” signifies that consequently it became filthy; “and stank,” signifies consequently infernal; “and Moses was angry with them,” signifies that consequently they turned away truth Divine from themselves.

AC (Potts) n. 8477 sRef Ex@16 @19 S0′ 8477. And Moses said unto them. That this signifies exhortation, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as involving what follows, here exhortation that they should not make a residue of it till the morning. (That “saying” involves also exhortation, see n. 7090, 8178.)

AC (Potts) n. 8478 sRef Matt@6 @30 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @29 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @31 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @28 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @27 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @33 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @32 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @19 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @25 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @26 S0′ sRef Matt@6 @34 S0′ 8478. Let no one make a residue of it till the morning. That this signifies that they should not be solicitous about acquiring it from themselves, is evident from the fact that the manna was to be given every morning, and that worms would be bred in that which was left over, by which is signified that the Lord daily provides necessaries, and that therefore they ought not to be solicitous about acquiring them from themselves. This also is meant by the “daily bread” in the Lord’s Prayer, and likewise by the Lord’s words in Matthew:
Be not solicitous for your soul, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on; why are ye solicitous about things to put on? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: therefore be ye not solicitous, saying, What shall we eat? and what shall we drink? or, wherewithal shall we be clothed? For after all these things do the nations seek; doth not your Heavenly Father know that ye have need of all these things? Seek ye first the kingdom of the heavens, and His righteousness; then shall all these things be added to you; therefore be ye not solicitous for the morrow, for the morrow will take care of the things of itself (6:25, 28, 31-34).
In like manner in Luke 12:11, 12, 22-31.
[2] As in this and the following verses in the internal sense care for the morrow is treated of, and as this care is not only forbidden, but is also condemned (that it is forbidden is signified by that they were not to make a residue of the manna till the morning, and that it is condemned is signified by that the worm was bred in the residue, and it stank), he who looks at the subject no deeper than from the sense of the letter may believe that all care for the morrow is to be cast aside, and thus that the necessaries of life are to be awaited daily from heaven; but he who looks at the subject deeper than from the letter, as for instance he who looks at it from the internal sense, is able to know what is meant by “care for the morrow.” It does not mean the care of procuring for oneself food and raiment, and even resources for the time to come; for it is not contrary to order for anyone to be provident for himself and his own. But those have care for the morrow who are not content with their lot; who do not trust in the Divine, but in themselves; and who have regard for only worldly and earthly things, and not for heavenly things. With such there universally reigns solicitude about things to come, and a desire to possess all things and to dominate over all, which is kindled and grows according to the additions thus made, and finally does so beyond all measure. They grieve if they do not obtain the objects of their desire, and feel anguish at the loss of them; and they have no consolation, because of the anger they feel against the Divine, which they reject together with everything of faith, and curse themselves. Such are they who have care for the morrow.
[3] Very different is the case with those who trust in the Divine. These, notwithstanding they have care for the morrow, still have it not, because they do not think of the morrow with solicitude, still less with anxiety. Unruffled is their spirit whether they obtain the objects of their desire, or not; and they do not grieve over the loss of them, being content with their lot. If they become rich, they do not set their hearts on riches; if they are raised to honors, they do not regard themselves as more worthy than others; if they become poor, they are not made sad; if their circumstances are mean, they are not dejected. They know that for those who trust in the Divine all things advance toward a happy state to eternity, and that whatever befalls them in time is still conducive thereto.
[4] Be it known that the Divine Providence is universal, that is, in things the most minute; and that they who are in the stream of Providence are all the time carried along toward everything that is happy, whatever may be the appearance of the means; and that those are in the stream of Providence who put their trust in the Divine and attribute all things to Him; and that those are not in the stream of Providence who trust in themselves alone and attribute all things to themselves, because they are in the opposite, for they take away providence from the Divine, and claim it for themselves. Be it known also that insofar as anyone is in the stream of Providence, so far he is in a state of peace; also that insofar as anyone is in a state of peace from the good of faith, so far he is in the Divine Providence. These alone know and believe that the Divine Providence of the Lord is in everything both in general and in particular, nay, is in the most minute things of all (as may be seen shown above, n. 1919, 4329, 5122, 5894, 6058, 6481-6486, 6490, 7004, 7007), and that the Divine Providence regards what is eternal (n. 6491).
[5] But they who are in the opposite are scarcely willing to hear Providence mentioned, for they ascribe everything to their own sagacity; and what they do not ascribe to this they ascribe to fortune or chance; some to fate, which they do not educe from the Divine, but from nature. They call those simple who do not attribute all things to themselves or to nature. From all this again it can be seen what is the quality of those who have care for the morrow, and what the quality of those who have no care for the morrow.

AC (Potts) n. 8479 8479. And they heard not unto Moses. That this signifies no faith and thence no obedience, is evident from the signification of “to hear,” as being to perceive, to have faith, and to obey (see n. 5017, 7216, 8361).

AC (Potts) n. 8480 sRef Matt@6 @29 S0′ 8480. And men made a residue of it until the morning. That this signifies the abuse of good Divine, in that they desired to acquire it from themselves, is evident from the signification of “making a residue of it until the morning,” as being to be solicitous about the acquisition of good of themselves (of which above, n. 8478), and consequently the abuse of good Divine. It is termed “abuse,” when there arises what is alike in ultimates, but from a contrary origin. Good arises from a contrary origin, when it does so from man, and not from the Lord; for the Lord is good itself, consequently He is the source of all good. The good which is from Him has in it what is Divine; thus it is good from its inmost and first being; whereas the good which is from man is not good, because from himself man is nothing but evil; consequently the good which is from him is in its first essence evil, although in the outward form it may appear like good. The case herein is like that of flowers painted upon a tablet, as compared with the flowers that grow in a garden. These flowers are beautiful from their inmosts; for the more interiorly they are opened, the more beautiful they are; whereas the flowers painted on a tablet are beautiful only in the outward form, and as to the inward one are nothing but mud and a mixture of earthy particles lying in confusion, as the Lord also teaches when He says of the lilies of the field that “Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these” (Matt. 6:29).
[2] Such is the case with the good that is from man in comparison with the good that is from the Lord. A man cannot know that these goods are so different from each other, because he judges from outward things; but the angels well perceive whence comes the good with a man, and consequently what is the nature of it. The angels who are with a man are in good from the Lord, and as it were dwell therein; but they cannot be in the good that is from a man; they remove themselves from it as far as they can, because inmostly it is evil. Good from the Lord has heaven in it, for this good is the form of heaven in an image, and in its inmost it stores up the Lord Himself, because in all the good that proceeds from the Lord there is a semblance of Himself, and consequently a semblance of heaven; whereas in the good that is from a man there is a semblance of the man, and as from himself a man is nothing but evil, there is a semblance of hell in it. So great is the difference between good from the Lord, and good from man.
[3] Good from the Lord is with those who love the Lord above all things and the neighbor as themselves; but good from man is with those who love themselves above all things and despise the neighbor in comparison with themselves. These are they who have care for the morrow, because they trust in themselves; but the former are they who have no care for the morrow, because they trust in the Lord (see above, n. 8478). They who trust in the Lord continually receive good from Him; for whatsoever happens to them, whether it appears to be prosperous or not prosperous, is still good, because it conduces as a means to their eternal happiness. But they who trust in themselves are continually drawing evil upon themselves; for whatever happens to them, even if it appears to be prosperous and happy, is nevertheless evil, and consequently conduces as a means to their eternal unhappiness. These are the things which are signified by the command that they should make no residue of the manna till the morning, and that what was left bred worms and stank.

AC (Potts) n. 8481 sRef Deut@28 @39 S0′ sRef Mark@9 @44 S0′ sRef Mark@9 @46 S0′ sRef Mark@9 @48 S0′ sRef Isa@66 @24 S1′ sRef Isa@66 @23 S1′ sRef Isa@66 @22 S1′ 8481. And it bred worms. That this signifies that consequently it became filthy, is evident from the signification of “breeding worms,” as being to produce what is filthy; for worms are produced from that which is filthy and stinking. The falsity of evil, which is in the good that is from our own, is compared to “a worm” because the case with them is similar; for falsity also gnaws and thus torments. There are two things which make hell, as there are two which make heaven. The two which make heaven are good and truth, and the two which make hell are evil and falsity. Consequently it is these two in heaven which make the happiness there; and it is the two in hell which make the torment there. The torment in hell from the falsity is compared to “a worm;” and the torment from the evil there is compared to “fire.” So in Isaiah:
As the new heavens and the new earth which I will make shall stand before Me, so shall your seed and your name stand: at last it shall come to pass from month to month, and from Sabbath to its Sabbath, that they shall stand before Me: then they shall go forth, and shall see the carcasses of the men that have transgressed against Me, for their worm shall not die, and their fire shall not be quenched; and they shall be a loathing to all flesh (66:22-24).
In like manner it is said by the Lord in Mark:
Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched (9:44, 46, 48);
speaking of Gehenna or hell. The filthiness of falsity is compared to “a worm” also in Moses:
Thou shalt plant vineyards, and till them, but thou shalt neither drink of the wine, neither shalt thou gather, because the worm shall devour it (Deut. 28:39);
“wine” denotes truth from good, and in the opposite sense falsity from evil (n. 6377).

AC (Potts) n. 8482 8482. And stank. That this signifies consequently infernal, is evident from the signification of “to stink,” as being infernal filth. “To stink” is here predicated of evil, and “the worm” is predicated of falsity; for when good becomes evil, it is like flesh, or like bread, when it putrefies, and the falsity from this evil is like the worm which is produced therein from the putridity.

AC (Potts) n. 8483 8483. And Moses was angry with them. That this signifies that they turned away truth Divine from themselves, is evident from the signification of “to be angry,” when said of Moses, by whom is represented truth Divine, as being a turning away from it (see n. 5034, 5798). (That this turning away appears as if it were on the part of the Lord, although it is on the part of man, see n. 5798.) In the Word, anger and wrath, and even fury, against men, are often attributed to Jehovah, when yet with Jehovah they are pure love and pure mercy toward man, and not the slightest anger. This is said in the Word from the appearance; for when men are against the Divine and consequently shut off from themselves the influx of love and mercy, they cast themselves into the evil of the penalty, and into hell. This appears like unmercifulness and like vengeance from the Divine on account of the evil which they have done, when yet there is nothing of this kind in the Divine, but it is in the evil itself. (But see what has been already shown on this subject, n. 1857, 2447, 6071, 6832, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7632, 7643, 7679, 7710, 7877, 7926, 8197, 8214, 8223, 8226-8228, 8282.) From all this it is evident that by “Moses being angry with them” is signified that they turned away truth Divine from themselves.

AC (Potts) n. 8484 8484. Verses 21-24. And they gathered it morning by morning, everyone according to the mouth of his eating: and the sun grew hot and it melted. And it was that on the sixth day they gathered bread double, two omers for each one; and all the princes of the assemblage came and told Moses. And he said unto them, This is what Jehovah spake, A rest, a Sabbath holy to Jehovah, is the morrow; what ye will bake, bake ye; and what ye will boil, boil ye; and all that is left over, this lay ye by for you to keep until the morning. And they laid it by till the morning, as Moses commanded, and it did not stink, and the worm was not in it.
“And they gathered it morning by morning,” signifies the reception of good from the Lord continually; “every man according to the mouth of his eating,” signifies by everyone according to his power of appropriation; “and the sun grew hot and it melted,” signifies that it vanishes away according to the degree of the increase of concupiscence; “and it was on the sixth day,” signifies at the end of every state; “they gathered bread double,” signifies conjunction from the good received; “two omers for each one,” signifies power then; “and all the princes of the assemblage came and told Moses,” signifies reflection from primary truths; “and he said unto them,” signifies instruction; “This is what Jehovah spake,” signifies influx from the Divine; “a rest,” signifies a state of peace when there is no temptation; “a Sabbath holy to Jehovah is the morrow,” signifies the conjunction of good and truth to eternity; “what ye will bake, bake ye,” signifies preparation for the conjunction of good; “and what ye will boil, boil ye,” signifies preparation for the conjunction of truth; “and all that is left over, this lay ye by for you to keep until the morning,” signifies the enjoyment of all good and truth then as it were from their own; “and they laid it by till the morning,” signifies the enjoyment that is to come; “as Moses commanded,” signifies according to instruction from truth Divine; “and it did not stink, and the worm was not in it,” signifies that there was nothing filthy therein, because in this way it was made their own by the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 8485 sRef Ex@16 @21 S0′ 8485. And they gathered it morning by, morning. That this signifies the reception of good from the Lord continually, is evident from the signification of “gathering the manna,” as being the reception of good (see above, n. 8467, 8472); and from the signification of “morning by morning,” or “every morning,” as being continually; for by “morning by morning” is signified every morrow, and by “the morrow” is signified what is eternal (n. 3998), thus also perpetually and continually.

AC (Potts) n. 8486 sRef Ex@16 @21 S0′ 8486. Every man according to the mouth of his eating. That this signifies by everyone according to his power of appropriation, is evident from what was said above (n. 8467), where are the like words.

AC (Potts) n. 8487 sRef Ex@16 @21 S0′ 8487. And the sun grew hot, and it melted. That this signifies that it vanishes away according to the degree of the increase of concupiscence, is evident from the signification of “the sun growing hot,” as being increasing concupiscence (of which in what follows); and from the signification of “melting,” as being to vanish away. That “the sun grew hot,” denotes increasing concupiscence, is because “the sun” in a good sense signifies heavenly love, for the reason that the Lord is the Sun in the other life, and that the heat which is from it is the good of love, and the light is the truth of faith. (That the Lord is a sun, and that heavenly love is therefrom, see n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531, 2120, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643, 4060, 4321, 4696, 5084, 5097, 5377, 7078, 7083, 7171, 7173, 7270.) Consequently in the opposite sense “the sun” denotes the love of self and of the world, and “the heat” or “growing hot of the sun” denotes in this sense concupiscence.
[2] How the case herein is, that the good of truth, which is signified by “the manna,” vanished according to the degree of increasing concupiscence, which is signified by its “melting when the sun grew hot,” shall be briefly told. The good of truth, or spiritual good, is indeed given to the man of the spiritual church when he is being regenerated; but as all the delight of the love of self and of the world, which had previously constituted his life extinguishes this good (because they are opposites), therefore the pure good of truth cannot long abide with that man, but it is tempered by the Lord by means of the delights of the loves which had belonged to his previous life; for unless this good were so tempered, it would become undelightful to him, and thus would be loathed. Such is heavenly good at first with those who are being regenerated. Insofar therefore as the delights of the loves of self and of the world rise up, so far the good of heavenly love vanishes away, for as before said they are opposites; and it is the same the other way about.
[3] Hence it is that in heaven there are alternations of states, to which correspond the alternations of times in the world (n. 8426), and that thus by means of alternations they are remitted into the delights of natural pleasures; for without a change of the states the good of heavenly love would become as it were dry, and of slight estimation; but it is otherwise when it is tempered by means of natural delights at the same time, or successively. From this it is that at first when the manna was given to the sons of Israel every morning, the quail was also given in the evening; for by “the quail” is signified natural delight, and also the delight of concupiscence (n. 8452).
sRef Num@11 @4 S4′ sRef Num@11 @6 S4′ sRef Num@21 @5 S4′ sRef Deut@8 @3 S4′ [4] But be it known that the concupiscences into which they who are in heaven are remitted when it is evening with them, are not concupiscences that are opposite to heavenly good, but those which in some measure agree with this good; for they are the delights of conferring benefits in a large way, and consequently something of glory, in which nevertheless there is benevolence and a study to be of service; they are also the delights of magnificence in the embellishments of home and the ornaments of dress, and many other similar delights. Such are the delights which do not destroy the good of heavenly love (but still they hide it), and at last, according to the degree of the man’s regeneration, they become the ultimate planes of heavenly good, and then they are no longer called “concupiscences,” but “delights.” That without a tempering by means of such things the good of heavenly love becomes as it were dry, and afterward is loathed as a thing of no value, is signified by the sons of Israel calling the manna dry food, and vile food, as we read when the quail was no longer given them, in Moses:
The rabble that was in the midst lusted a lust, whence the sons of Israel also wept again, and said, Who shall feed us with flesh? now our soul is dry, our eyes have not anything [to look at] except the manna (Num. 11:4, 6).
The people spake against God, and against Moses: Wherefore have ye made us come up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? there is no bread, nor water; now doth our soul loathe this most vile bread (Num. 21:5).
Jehovah afflicted thee, and made thee hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that He might teach thee that man doth not live by bread alone, but by every utterance of the mouth of Jehovah doth man live (Deut. 8:3).
[5] In like manner as by “the manna,” so also by “the unleavened bread,” there is signified good pure from falsities (n. 8058), which bread is for a similar reason called “the bread of misery” (Deut. 16:3). From all this it can now be seen what is meant by the good of truth vanishing away according to the degree of the increasing concupiscence, which is signified by “the manna melting when the sun grew hot.”

AC (Potts) n. 8488 sRef Ex@16 @22 S0′ 8488. And it was on the sixth day. That this signifies at the end of every state, is evident from the signification of “the sixth day,” as being the end of every state (see above, n. 8421).

AC (Potts) n. 8489 sRef Ex@16 @22 S0′ 8489. They gathered bread double. That this signifies conjunction from the good received, is evident from the signification of “gathering the manna,” as being the reception of good (that “gathering” denotes reception, see n. 8467, 8472; and also that “manna” denotes the good of truth, n. 8464); and from the signification of “double,” as being conjunction (n. 8423).

AC (Potts) n. 8490 sRef Ex@16 @22 S0′ 8490. Two omers for each one. That this signifies power then, is evident from the signification of “an omer,” as being what is sufficient, and thus power (see n. 8468, 8473), here enough, and power for conjunction; for by “the seventh day” or “the Sabbath” is signified the conjunction of good and truth.

AC (Potts) n. 8491 sRef Ex@16 @22 S0′ 8491. And all the princes of the assemblage came and told Moses. That this signifies reflection from primary truths, is evident from the signification of “the princes of the assemblage,” as being primary truths (see n. 1482, 2089, 5044); and from the signification of “telling,” as being reflection (n. 2862, 5508).

AC (Potts) n. 8492 sRef Ex@16 @23 S0′ 8492. And he said unto them. That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as involving the things that follow, here instruction, namely, how they were to do in the gathering of the manna on the day before the Sabbath. (That “saying” also denotes instruction, see n. 6879, 6881, 6883, 6891, 7186, 7267, 7304, 7380.)

AC (Potts) n. 8493 sRef Ex@16 @23 S0′ 8493. This is what Jehovah spake. That this signifies influx from the Divine, is evident from the fact that Jehovah or the Lord instructs by means of influx, and that this is expressed in the historicals of the Word by “saying,” and “speaking.” (That elsewhere also “to speak” denotes influx, see n. 2951, 5451, 5797, 7270, 8128.)

AC (Potts) n. 8494 sRef Ex@16 @23 S0′ 8494. A rest. That this signifies a state of peace when there is no temptation, is evident from the signification of “a rest,” such as there was on the days of the Sabbath, as being a representative of a state of peace, in which is effected the conjunction of good and truth. But the six preceding days represented the combat and labor, consequently the temptations, which precede a state of peace; for after temptations comes a state of peace, and then there is the conjunction of good and truth. (That the six days which precede the seventh or the Sabbath signified combat and labor, see n. 720, 737, 900; and that after temptations there are tranquility and peace, n. 3696, 4572, 5246, 6829, 8367, 8370.) That the Sabbath denotes the conjunction of good and truth, will be seen in what now follows.

AC (Potts) n. 8495 sRef Ex@16 @23 S0′ sRef Ex@31 @14 S1′ 8495. A Sabbath holy to Jehovah is the morrow. That this signifies the conjunction of good and truth to eternity, is evident from the signification of “the Sabbath,” as being the conjunction of good and truth (of which below); and from the signification of “the morrow,” as being to eternity (see n. 3998). He who does not know what the Sabbath represented, and thus what it signified, cannot know why it was accounted the most holy of all things. But the reason why it was accounted most holy was that in the supreme sense it represented the union of the Divine and the Divine Human in the Lord; and in the relative sense the conjunction of the Divine Human of the Lord with the human race. Consequently the Sabbath was most holy. And because it represented these things, it also represented heaven in respect to the conjunction of good and truth, which conjunction is called “the heavenly marriage.” And as the conjunction of good and truth is effected by the Lord alone, and nothing of it by man, and as it is effected in a state of peace, therefore it was most severely forbidden that man should then do any work, insomuch that the soul which did this was to be cut off, as we read in Moses:
Ye shall keep the Sabbath, because it is holy to you; he that profaneth it, dying shall die; for whosoever doeth work therein, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of his people (Exod. 31:14).
Therefore one was stoned who merely picked up sticks on that day (Num. 15:32-36). Therefore also the commandment concerning the Sabbath is the third commandment in the Decalogue, immediately following the two concerning the holy worship of Jehovah (Exod. 20:8; Deut. 5:12). And therefore the Sabbath is called “an eternal covenant” (Exod. 31:16), for by “covenant” is signified conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804).
sRef Num@15 @35 S2′ sRef Num@15 @36 S2′ sRef Num@15 @34 S2′ sRef Num@15 @32 S2′ sRef Num@15 @33 S2′ [2] From all this it can now be seen what is meant in the internal sense by the things said in the following passages about the Sabbath; as in Isaiah:
Blessed is the man who keepeth the Sabbath, that he profane it not; thus said Jehovah to the eunuchs who keep My Sabbaths, and choose that in which I delight, and take hold of My covenant, I will give them in My house and within My walls a place and a name, better than sons and daughters; I will give them an eternal name, that shall not be cut off; whosoever keepeth the Sabbath that he profane it not, and whoso taketh hold of My covenant, them will I bring in upon the mountain of My holiness, and I will cheer them in My house of prayer (56:2-7);
from all this it is evident that by “those who keep the Sabbath holy” are meant those who are in conjunction with the Lord. That they shall be in heaven is signified by “a place and a name better than sons and daughters being given them in the house of Jehovah, an eternal name that shall not be cut off,” and by their being “brought in upon the mountain of holiness.”
[3] In the same:
If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, not doing thy wills on the day of My holiness, but shalt call the Sabbath delights, holy to Jehovah, honorable; and shalt honor it, so that thou do not then thy ways, nor find thy desire, or speak a word, then shalt thou be delighted upon Jehovah, and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob (58:13, 14);
here it is very plain what was represented by “not doing any work on the Sabbath day,” namely, that they should not do anything from their own, but from the Lord; for the angelic state in heaven is that they will and do nothing from themselves, or from their own, and do not even think and speak therefrom: their conjunction with the Lord consists in this. Their own from which they are not to act, is signified by their “not doing their own wills, nor doing their own ways, nor finding their own desire, nor speaking a word.” This state with the angels is the heavenly state itself; and when they are in it, they have peace and rest, and the Lord also has rest; for when they have been conjoined with Him, they labor no more, because they are then in the Lord. These things are signified by the words, thus shalt thou call the Sabbath the holy delights of Jehovah, and they shall be delighted upon Jehovah.” The Lord’s rest is signified by His resting on the seventh day after the six days’ creation (Gen. 2:2).
sRef Isa@58 @14 S4′ sRef Isa@58 @13 S4′ sRef Isa@56 @4 S4′ sRef Isa@56 @3 S4′ sRef Isa@56 @2 S4′ sRef Isa@56 @5 S4′ sRef Isa@56 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@56 @7 S4′ [4] Like things are understood by these words in Jeremiah:
If hearing ye shall hear Me, that ye bring not in a burden through the gates of this city on the Sabbath day, and that ye hallow the Sabbath day, so that ye do not any work therein, then shall there enter through the gates of this city kings and princes sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariot and on horses, they and their princes, the man of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and this city shall be inhabited to eternity (17:24, 25);
by “work on the Sabbath” is signified everything that is from our own; the state of those who are not led by their own, but by the Lord, is described by there “entering through the gates of the city kings and princes sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariot and on horses;” by “kings” are signified the truths of faith; by “princes,” the primary things thereof; by “sitting upon the throne of David,” that these are from the Lord; by “the chariot and horses,” the doctrinal and intellectual things of faith. Be it known that all things which come from the man’s own are evil, and that all things which come from the Lord are good. (That with those who are led by the Lord all things flow in, down to the least thing of life both of intellect and of will, thus down to each and all things of faith and of charity, see what has been abundantly shown from experience, n. 2886-2888, 6053-6058, 6189-6215, 6307-6327, 6466-6495, 6598-6626, 6982, 6985, 6996, 7004, 7055, 7056, 7058, 7147, 7270.)
sRef Ezek@20 @12 S5′ sRef Ex@35 @3 S5′ sRef Jer@17 @25 S5′ sRef Jer@17 @24 S5′ [5] That the Sabbath was representative of the conjunction of the Lord with the human race, is evident in Ezekiel:
I gave them My Sabbaths that they might be for a sign between Me and them, to acknowledge that I Jehovah do sanctify them (20:12; also Exod. 31:13).
Therefore also it was forbidden to kindle a fire on the Sabbath day (Exod. 35:3), because by “fire” was signified everything that is of life; and by “kindling a fire,” that which is of life from man’s own. From all that has been said it is plain that the Lord is “the Lord of the Sabbath,” according to His words in Matthew 12:1-8; and it may be seen why many cures were performed by the Lord on the Sabbath days (Matt. 12:10-13; Mark 3:1-8; Luke 6:6-11; 13:10-17; 14:1-6; John 5:9-18; 7:22, 23; 9:14, 16); for the diseases of which they were healed by the Lord involved spiritual diseases, which are from evil (see n. 7337, 8364).

AC (Potts) n. 8496 sRef Ex@16 @23 S0′ sRef Ex@35 @3 S0′ 8496. What ye will bake, bake ye. That this signifies preparation for the conjunction of good; and “what ye will boil, boil ye” signifies preparation for the conjunction of truth, is evident from the signification of “baking,” as being preparation for the conjunction of good because it is done by means of fire; and from the signification of “boiling,” as being preparation for the conjunction of truth because it is done by means of water; for by “water” is signified the truth of faith (see n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668), and by “fire,” the good of love (n. 934, 5215, 6314, 6832, 6834, 6849, 7324, 7852). That it denotes preparation for conjunction, is plain; for what was baked and boiled was prepared for the following Sabbath day, by which conjunction is signified (as was shown just above), for they were forbidden to kindle a fire on the Sabbath day (Exod. 35:3), thus to bake or boil on that day. (That “baking” is said of bread and of the meat-offering, and was done by means of fire, see Isa. 44:15, 19; 1 Sam. 28:24; Ezek. 46:20; Lev. 6:17; and that “boiling” is said of flesh, and was done by means of water, see Exod 29:31; Lev. 6:28; 1 Sam. 2:13, 15.)

AC (Potts) n. 8497 sRef Ex@16 @23 S0′ 8497. And all that is left over, this lay ye by for you to keep until the morning. That this signifies the enjoyment of all good and truth then as it were from their own, is evident from the signification of “laying by what is over until the morning,” as being enjoyment on the Sabbath day; that it denotes the enjoyment of good and of truth, is because that which remained over of what was baked and boiled was to be laid by, and then was to be eaten; for by “baking” is signified the preparation of good, and by “boiling” the preparation of truth (as was shown just above, n. 8496); and by “eating” is signified enjoyment and appropriation (n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 3832, 4745, 7849); and from the signification of “for you to keep,” as being as it were from their own. That these things are signified by these words is because the good and truth which flow in from the Lord are conjoined, and as it were appropriated. Such is the conjunction of heaven (that is, of those who are in heaven) with the Lord. It is said “as it were from their own,” because the goods which are of faith and of charity cannot be given to man nor to angel so as to be their own, for men and angels are only recipients, or forms accommodated to receive life, thus good and truth, from the Lord. Life itself is from no other source, and as life is from the Lord, it cannot be appropriated otherwise than as appearing to be man’s own; but they who are in the Lord plainly perceive that life flows in, consequently good and truth, for these belong to life. The reason why life appears as man’s own is that the Lord from Divine love wills to give and to conjoin all His own to man, and as far as it can be effected, does conjoin it. This “own” which is given by the Lord, is called the heavenly own (see n. 731, 1937, 1947, 2882, 2883, 2891, 3812, 5660).

AC (Potts) n. 8498 sRef Ex@16 @24 S0′ 8498. And they laid it by till the morning. That this signifies the enjoyment that is to come, is evident from what was unfolded just above (n. 8497).

AC (Potts) n. 8499 sRef Ex@16 @24 S0′ 8499. As Moses commanded. That this signifies according to instruction from truth Divine, is evident from the signification of “commanding,” as being instruction; and from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (see frequently above).

AC (Potts) n. 8500 sRef Ex@16 @24 S0′ 8500. And it did not stink, and the worm was not in it. That this signifies that there was nothing filthy therein, because in this way it was made their own by the Divine, is evident from the signification of “to stink,” as being the infernal filthiness that is predicated of evil (of which above, n. 8482); and from the signification of “worm,” as being also infernal filthiness, but that which is predicated of falsity (n. 8481). (That such things are in whatever is done from man’s own, but that heavenly and divine things are in those which are done from the Lord, see n. 8478.)

AC (Potts) n. 8501 8501. Verses 25-27. And Moses said, Eat ye this today, because today is a Sabbath to Jehovah, today ye shall not find it in the field. Six days ye shall gather it, and on the seventh day is the Sabbath, it shall not be in it. And it was on the seventh day, there went out some of the people for to gather, and they found none. “And Moses said,” signifies information concerning this matter; “Eat ye this today,” signifies appropriation to eternity; “because today is a Sabbath to Jehovah,” signifies because good has been conjoined with truth by the Lord; “today ye shall not find it in the field,” signifies that then good shall no longer be acquired by means of truth; “six days ye shall gather it,” signifies the reception of truth before it is being conjoined with good; “and on the seventh day is the Sabbath,” signifies that afterward there is conjunction; “it shall not be in it,” signifies that no longer shall there be good by means of truth; “and it was on the seventh day,” signifies a state of conjoined good and truth; “there went out some of the people for to gather, and they found none,” signifies that they desired to acquire, but it was not possible.

AC (Potts) n. 8502 sRef Ex@16 @25 S0′ 8502. And Moses said. That this signifies information concerning this matter, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as involving what follows, here information about the manna, that they would not find it on the Sabbath day.

AC (Potts) n. 8503 sRef Ex@16 @25 S0′ 8503. Eat ye this today. That this signifies appropriation to eternity, is evident from the signification of “eating,” as being appropriation (see n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745); and from the signification of “today,” as being to eternity (n. 2838, 3998, 4304, 6165, 6984).

AC (Potts) n. 8504 sRef Ex@16 @25 S0′ 8504. Because today is a Sabbath to Jehovah. That this signifies because good has been conjoined with truth by the Lord, is evident from the signification of “the Sabbath,” as being the conjunction of good and truth (of which above, n. 8495); and from the signification of “today,” as being to eternity (of which just above, n. 8503); that “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, has been frequently shown above.

AC (Potts) n. 8505 sRef Ex@16 @25 S0′ 8505. Today ye shall not find it in the field. That this signifies that then good shall no longer be acquired by means of truth, is evident from the signification of “not finding,” when predicated of the good which is obtained by means of truth, as being to acquire no longer; and from the signification of “field,” as being man, here the mind of the man in which good is implanted by means of truth; for man is called “a field” from the fact that he receives the truths of faith, which are seeds, and brings forth the fruits of the seeds, which are goods.
[2] How the case herein is shall be briefly told. Before regeneration man acts from truth, but through it good is acquired; for truth becomes good with him when it becomes of his will, and thus of his life; but after regeneration he acts from good, and through it truths are procured. To make this still clearer: Before regeneration man acts from obedience; but after regeneration from affection. These two states are inverse to each other; for in the former state truth rules, but in the latter good rules; or, in the former state man looks downward or backward, but in the latter upward or forward.
sRef Matt@24 @17 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @15 S3′ sRef Luke@17 @31 S3′ sRef Luke@17 @32 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @18 S3′ [3] When a man is in the latter state, that is, when he acts from affection, he is no longer allowed to look back, and to do good from truth, for at that time the Lord flows into the good with him, and leads him by means of the good. If at that time he were to look back, or were to do good from truth, he would act from his own; for he who acts from truth leads himself, whereas he who acts from good is led by the Lord. This is what is meant by these words of the Lord:
When ye see the abomination of desolation, let him that is upon the house not go down to take anything out of his house; and let him that is in the field not return back to take his garments (Matt. 24:15, 17, 18).
In that day, whosoever shall be upon the house, and his vessels in the house, let him not go down to take them away; and whosoever is in the field, let him likewise not turn back to the things behind him. Remember Lot’s wife (Luke 17:31, 32).
(How the case is further with these things see what has been unfolded above, n. 3652, 5895, 5897, 7923, and what will be unfolded below, n. 8506, 8510.) These are the things which in the internal sense are signified by the words that “the manna would not be found in the field on the seventh day,” and “that there went out some of the people for to gather and they found none.”

AC (Potts) n. 8506 sRef Ex@16 @26 S0′ 8506. Six days ye shall gather it. That this signifies the reception of truth before it is being conjoined with good, is evident from the signification of “six days,” as being states of combat and of labor (see above, n. 8494), here a state of the reception of truth, or a state when good is acquired through truth (n. 8505), for in this state there are labor and combat. In this state man is let into temptations, which are combats with the evils and falsities in him; and then the Lord fights for the man and also with him. But after this state there is a state of the conjunction of good and truth, thus at that time a state of rest for the Lord also. This state is what was represented by the rest on the seventh day, or day of the Sabbath. That the Lord then has rest, is because when good has been conjoined with truth, the man is in the Lord, and is led by the Lord without labor and combat. This state is what is meant by the second state, treated of above, n. 8505.

AC (Potts) n. 8507 sRef Ex@16 @26 S0′ 8507. And on the seventh day is the Sabbath. That this signifies that afterward there is conjunction, is evident from the signification of “the seventh day” or “the Sabbath,” as being the conjunction of good and truth (see n. 8496).

AC (Potts) n. 8508 sRef Ex@16 @26 S0′ 8508. It shall not be in it. That this signifies that no longer shall there be good by means of truth, is evident from what has been unfolded above (n. 8505).

AC (Potts) n. 8509 sRef Ex@16 @27 S0′ 8509. And it was on the seventh day. That this signifies a state of conjoined good and truth, is evident from the signification of “the seventh day” or “Sabbath,” as being the conjunction of good and truth (as above, n. 8507).

AC (Potts) n. 8510 sRef Ex@16 @27 S0′ 8510. There went out some of the people for to gather, and they found none. That this signifies that they desired to acquire, but it was not possible, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8505). It is there made plain what it is to act from the truth which is of faith, and what from the good which is of charity, namely, that he who acts from the truth which is of faith is not yet in the order of heaven, but that he who acts from the good which is of charity is in this order. For the order in which man is led by the Lord is by man’s willing, consequently by means of good, for this is of the will, and then his understanding ministers, consequently truth, for this is of the understanding. When this state is attained, then is “the Sabbath;” for then the Lord has rest; this state comes forth when good has been conjoined with truth. That this state is the Lord’s “rest,” can be seen from the fact that Jehovah, or the Lord, after the creation and labor of six days, on the seventh day rested from all His work (Gen. 2:2). This state is the state of heaven; consequently heaven itself is called a “Sabbath,” or in heaven there is said to be a “perpetual Sabbath.” That by the creation in the first chapter of Genesis is meant a new creation or regeneration, and that by the six days in that chapter are meant temptations and combats, see what has been unfolded at chapters 1 and 2.

AC (Potts) n. 8511 8511. Verses 28-31. And Jehovah said unto Moses, How long do ye refuse to keep My commandments and My laws? See ye, because Jehovah hath given you the Sabbath, therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; rest ye everyone in his place, let no one go forth from his place on the seventh day. And the people rested on the seventh day. And the house of Israel called the name of it Manna; and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like that of a cake in honey. “And Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies the appearing of the Divine obscured; “How long do ye refuse to keep My commandments and My laws?” signifies on account of their not acting according to Divine order; “see ye,” signifies that they should pay attention and reflect; “because Jehovah hath given you the Sabbath,” signifies the conjunction of good and truth by the Lord; “therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days,” signifies that on this account even to the end of the former state He gives as much good through truth as will afterward effect this conjunction; “rest ye everyone in his place,” signifies a state of peace; “let no one go forth from his place on the seventh day,” signifies that they must then remain in this state; “and the people rested on the seventh day,” signifies a representative then of the conjunction of good and truth in a state of peace; “and the house of Israel called the name of it Manna,” signifies its quality in respect to them; “and it was like coriander seed, white,” signifies the truth therein that it was pure; “and the taste of it was like that of a cake in honey,” signifies that the good was delightful because it had been made good from truth by means of delight.

AC (Potts) n. 8512 sRef Ex@16 @28 S0′ 8512. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies the appearing of the Divine obscured, is evident, from the signification of “Jehovah said,” as involving what follows, here that they did not keep His commandments and laws, thus that the appearing of the Divine among them was obscured. For this takes place when anyone does not live according to the Divine commandments; because when anyone does live according to them, he lives according to Divine order, inasmuch as the Divine commandments are truths and goods which are in conformity with order; and when anyone lives according to order, he then lives in the Lord, because the Lord is order itself. From this it follows that he who does not live according to the commandments and laws which are of Divine order, does not live in the Lord, consequently that then the Divine is obscured with him. By living according to order is here meant to be led by the Lord through good, but to live not as yet according to order is to be led through truth; and when man is led through truth, the Lord does not appear to him; and therefore the man then walks in the dark, in which he does not see good. It is different when a man is led through good. He then sees in the light.

AC (Potts) n. 8513 sRef Ex@16 @28 S0′ 8513. How long do ye refuse to keep My commandments and My laws? That this signifies on account of their not acting according to Divine order, is evident from what has just been unfolded (n. 8512). That it may be known what it is to act according to Divine order, and what not to act according to it, something further shall be said. Everything that is done according to Divine order is inwardly open even to the Lord, and thus has heaven in it; but everything that is not done according to Divine order is inwardly closed, and thus has not heaven in it.
[2] Therefore Divine order is for the Lord to flow in through the interiors of man into his exteriors, thus through the will of man into his action. This takes place when the man is in good, that is, when he is in the affection of doing good for the sake of good, and not for the sake of himself. When a man does good for the sake of himself, and not for the sake of good, his interiors are closed, and he cannot be led of the Lord by means of heaven, but he is led by himself. The love determines by whom he is led, for everyone is led by his love. He who loves himself more than his neighbor, leads himself; but he who loves good is led by good, consequently by the Lord from whom is good.
[3] From all this it can be seen what the difference is between living according to order, and not living according to it. How a man must live for it to be according to order, the Word teaches, and the doctrine of faith from the Word. He who does not look beyond external things cannot possibly apprehend this; for he knows not what that which is internal is, scarcely that there is anything internal, and still less that this internal can be opened, and that when it is opened, heaven is therein. The intelligent of the world are especially in this ignorance, and those of them who hold that there is something internal, nevertheless have no idea, or a fatuous idea, about it. Hence it is that they believe but little, and moreover apply their knowledges to confirm that all things are of nature.

AC (Potts) n. 8514 sRef Ex@16 @29 S0′ 8514. See ye. That this signifies that they should pay attention and reflect, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to understand (see n. 2325, 3863, 4403-4421, 5114); consequently as being to perceive (n. 2150, 3764, 4567, 4723, 5400); and also to reflect (n. 6836, 6839).

AC (Potts) n. 8515 sRef Ex@16 @29 S0′ 8515. Because Jehovah hath given you the Sabbath. That this signifies the conjunction of good and truth by the Lord, is evident from the signification of “the Sabbath,” as being the conjunction of good and truth (see n. 8495); that it is by the Lord is signified by “Jehovah hath given,” for “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 8516 sRef Ex@16 @29 S0′ 8516. Therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days. That this signifies that on this account even to the end of the former state He gives as much good through truth as will afterward effect this conjunction, is evident from the signification of “the sixth day,” as being the end of a former state (see n. 8421); from the signification of “the manna,” which here is “the bread,” as being the good of truth (n. 8462, 8464); and from the signification of “the Sabbath,” for which also the manna was given on the sixth day and thus the bread of two days, as being the conjunction of good and truth (n. 8495). It was shown above that as by “the Sabbath” was signified the conjunction of good and truth, therefore by “the manna not being found on the seventh day” is signified that when a man is in this conjunction he acts from good, and no longer from truth, and also that he must not act from truth any longer (n. 8510).
[2] But as this appears a paradox, it may be further unfolded in a few words. Everyone ought to be led to Christian good, which is called “charity,” through the truth of faith; for the truth of faith will teach not only what charity is, but also what its nature must be; and unless he learns this first from the doctrine of his church (for he cannot possibly know it from himself), he cannot be prepared and thus adapted to receive this good. For example: he must know from the doctrine of faith, that it is not of charity to do what is good for the sake of self, or for the sake of recompense, thus not to merit salvation through works of charity; he must also know that all the good of charity is from the Lord, and nothing at all from self; besides many other things which instruct what charity is, and what its quality must be. From these considerations it can be seen that a man cannot be led to Christian good except through the truths which are of faith. A man must know further that truths do not of themselves enter into good, but that good adopts truths and adjoins them to itself; for the truths of faith lie in the memory of a man as in a field extended beneath the interior sight. Good from the Lord flows in through this sight, and chooses from them, and conjoins with itself, the truths which are in agreement with it. The truths which lie beneath cannot flow into the good which is above; for it is quite contrary to order, and even impossible, for the lower to flow into the higher (n. 5259).
[3] From all this it can now be known how Christian good is born with a man when he is being regenerated, and therefore also what must be the quality of the man when he has been regenerated, namely, that he acts from good, but not from truth; that is, that he is led of the Lord by means of good, and no longer by means of truth; for he is then in charity, that is, in the affection of doing this good. All who are in heaven are so led, for this is according to Divine order; and thus all things which they think and act flow as it were spontaneously and from freedom. It would be quite different if they were to think from truth and to act from it; for then they would think whether a thing ought to be so done, or not, and they would thus come to a standstill in every detail, and thereby would obscure the light they have, and finally they would act according to those things which they themselves love, thus according to influx from those things which favor their loves, which is to be led by themselves, and not by the Lord. From all this it is again evident what it is for good to be no longer acquired by means of truth, which is signified by their “gathering the manna for six days, and not finding it on the seventh” (see n. 8505, 8506, 8510).

AC (Potts) n. 8517 sRef Ex@16 @29 S0′ 8517. Rest ye everyone in his place. That this signifies a state of peace, is evident from the signification of “resting,” as being a state of peace (see n. 8494). That they were to rest on the Sabbath day and do no work then, not even kindle a fire, nor prepare for themselves what they were to eat, was representative of a state of peace, in which the conjunction of good and truth is effected by the Lord; for all the conjunction of good and truth is effected in this state. When a man is in a state of peace, he is then also led of the Lord by means of good; if a man were then to lead himself, even by means of truth, he would dissipate the state of peace, and so there would be no conjunction (see just above, n. 8516).

AC (Potts) n. 8518 sRef Ex@16 @29 S0′ 8518. Let no one go forth from his place on the seventh day. That this signifies that they must then remain in this state, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8494, 8517).

AC (Potts) n. 8519 sRef Ex@16 @30 S0′ 8519. And the people rested on the seventh day. That this signifies a representative then of the conjunction of good and truth in a state of peace, is evident from what was said above (n. 8494, 8517).

AC (Potts) n. 8520 sRef Ex@16 @31 S0′ 8520. And the house of Israel called the name of it Manna. That this signifies its quality in respect to them, is evident from the signification of “a name” and of “calling a name,” as being the quality of the thing (see n. 144, 145, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421, 6674). (That it was called “manna” from not being known, and that it denotes the good of truth, which is the good of those who were of the spiritual church, may be seen above, n. 8462, 8464.)

AC (Potts) n. 8521 sRef Ex@16 @31 S0′ 8521. And it was like coriander seed, white. That this signifies the truth therein, that it was pure, is evident from the signification of “seed,” as being the truth of faith (see n. 255, 1940, 2048, 3038, 3310, 3373). It is said “like coriander seed,” because this is white; for “white” is predicated of truth, and truth is also represented as white (n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319). The good of truth, which is signified by “the manna,” is now described, both what the quality of the truth therein is, and what the quality of the good therein is. The quality of the truth is described by its being “like coriander seed, white,” and the quality of the good by “the taste of it being like that of a cake in honey.”
[2] The good of truth, which is the good with those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, is quite different from the good which is with those who are of the Lord’s celestial kingdom. The good of truth which is with those who are of the spiritual kingdom is implanted in the intellectual part, for there is formed by the Lord in this part a new will, which is that the man wills to do according to the truth that he has drawn from the teaching of his church; and when he wills and does this truth, it becomes with him good, and is called “spiritual good,” and also “the good of truth.” That this is really truth, he indeed believes, because he has faith from the teaching; but he has no perception whether it is true, unless he may seem to himself to have it from the fact that he has confirmed it with himself, partly from the sense of the letter of the Word, and partly from the fallacies of ideas that favor his received opinion; not considering that there is nothing which cannot be confirmed, even falsity itself, so as to appear like truth (n. 4741, 5033, 6865, 7012, 7680, 7950). Hence it is, that all of every faith believe their own dogmas to be true, even the Socinians, and also the Jews themselves.
[3] From all this it is evident what is the quality of the truth which is turned into good in the case of many who are of the church. None of these can see whether the teaching of their church is true, except those who are in the affection of truth for the sake of the uses of life. They who have this end in view are continually enlightened by the Lord, not only during their life in the world, but also afterward. These alone are they who can receive; for the Lord leads them by means of good, and by means of it gives them to see truth, and thus to believe. From all this it is evident what is the source and what the quality of the good with those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom. But the good with those who are of the Lord’s celestial kingdom is not implanted in the intellectual part, but in the will part. They who are in this good know from internal perception, which is from the Lord, whether a thing is true. (On these two kinds of good, and the difference between them, see n. 2046, 2088, 2227, 2669, 2715, 2718, 3235, 3240, 3241, 3246, 4138, 4493, 5113, 6500, 6865, 7233, 7977, 7992.)

AC (Potts) n. 8522 sRef Ex@16 @31 S0′ 8522. And the taste of it was like that of a cake in honey. That this signifies that the good was delightful because it had been made from truth by means of delight, is evident from the signification of “the taste” [saporis], as being predicated of the delights that belong to good, because it corresponds to the delight of growing wise [sapiendi] (see n. 3502, 4793); from the signification of “a cake,” as being spiritual good (see n. 7978); and from the signification of “honey,” as being natural delight (n. 5620, 6857). From all this it follows that “the taste of it was like that of a cake in honey” signifies the good which is delightful because made from truth by means of delight. The source and method of arising, and thus the nature, of spiritual good are here described, namely that in its first origin it is truth, and that it is made good by the fact that it comes into act from the will, thus from affection; for whatever man wills from affection is perceived as good. But this good cannot arise except through the delights that are of the natural man. The spiritual man is introduced by means of these, and when he has been introduced, he has a consequent sense of this good. This then is what is signified by “the taste of the manna was like that of a cake in honey.”

AC (Potts) n. 8523 sRef Ex@16 @33 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @32 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @34 S0′ 8523. Verses 32-34. And Moses said, This is the word which Jehovah hath commanded, Fill an omer with it to be kept for your generations, to the end that they may see the bread wherewith I fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt. And Moses said unto Aaron, Take an urn, and put the omer full of manna therein, and lay it up before Jehovah, to be kept for your generations. As Jehovah commanded Moses, and Aaron laid it up before the Testimony to be kept.
“And Moses said, This is the word which Jehovah hath commanded,” signifies a mandate; “Fill an omer with it,” signifies the highest degree of power; “to be kept for your generations,” signifies which is for those who are of the spiritual church; “to the end that they may see the bread wherewith I fed you in the wilderness,” signifies the good of truth when in a state of temptations; “when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt,” signifies after they had been liberated from infestations; “and Moses said unto Aaron,” signifies influx; “Take an urn,” signifies truth; “and put the omer full of manna therein,” signifies good therein as much as it will hold; “and lay it up before Jehovah,” signifies that it may be in the presence of the Divine; “to be kept for your generations,” signifies that it may be the measure for those who are of that spiritual church; “as Jehovah commanded Moses,” signifies according to the mandate; “and Aaron laid it up before the Testimony to be kept,” signifies that it was in the presence of the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 8524 sRef Ex@16 @32 S0′ 8524. And Moses said, This is the word which Jehovah hath commanded. That this signifies a mandate, is evident from the signification of “the word which Jehovah hath commanded” as being a Divine mandate (see above, n. 8466).

AC (Potts) n. 8525 sRef Ex@16 @32 S0′ 8525. Fill an omer with it. That this signifies the highest degree of power, is evident from the signification of “an omer,” as being sufficient, and power (see n. 8468, 8473); and as “an omer” denotes sufficient, or as much as one person has, so also it denotes his highest degree of power.

AC (Potts) n. 8526 sRef Ex@16 @32 S0′ 8526. To be kept for your generations. That this signifies which is for those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “generations,” as being those things which are of faith and charity (see n. 613, 2020, 2584, 6239), and therefore, in a determinate sense, those who are of the spiritual church, because it is they who are in faith and charity, and who are represented by the sons of Israel, whose “generations” are here meant. “To be kept for them” signifies to be for a memorial.

AC (Potts) n. 8527 sRef Ex@16 @32 S0′ 8527. To the end that they may see the bread wherewith I fed you in the wilderness. That this signifies the good of truth when in a state of temptations, is evident from the signification of “the manna,” which here is “the bread,” as being the good of truth (see n. 8462, 8464); and from the signification of “the wilderness,” as being a state of undergoing temptations (see n. 8098).

AC (Potts) n. 8528 sRef Ex@16 @32 S0′ 8528. When I brought you forth from the land of Egypt. That this signifies after they had been liberated from infestations, is evident from the signification of “bringing forth,” as being to liberate; and from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being infestations (see n. 7278). That “the land of Egypt” denotes infestations is because by “the Egyptians and Pharaoh” are signified those who infested the upright in the other life, and who also at this day infest them (n. 7097, 7220, 7228, 7317, 8148).

AC (Potts) n. 8529 sRef Ex@16 @33 S0′ 8529. And Moses said unto Aaron. That this signifies influx, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by the internal Divine truth, which is represented by Moses, to the external truth Divine, which is represented by Aaron, as being influx; for Divine influx takes place through the truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord into the truth which proceeds mediately. (That Moses and Aaron in the representative sense denote these truths, see above, n. 7009, 7010, 7382.)

AC (Potts) n. 8530 sRef Ex@16 @33 S0′ 8530. Take an urn. That this signifies truth, is evident from the signification of “an urn,” as here being truth. That “an urn” denotes truth, is because it was the vessel which received the manna, by which is signified good, and all truth is as a vessel for good; hence also by “vessels” in general are signified truths (n. 3068, 3079, 3316, 3318), and consequently by “vessels” in particular, and here by “an urn.” That truths are recipient vessels for good may be illustrated by various things in nature-as by light, which is recipient of the heat from the sun, the light signifying truth, and the heat in the light signifying good. So it is with truth and good. It is similar with a garment in respect to the body, and with the body in respect to the soul; also with a blood-vessel and a fiber in respect to the blood and animal spirit enclosed therein; so also with the lungs in respect to the heart, consequently with the respiration of the lungs in respect to the pulse of the heart; in a word, with every organic form of the body in respect to the life which is therein. From these comparisons it can be seen what is the quality of truth without good, or what is the quality of faith without charity, namely, that it is like the organic forms of the body without life; that it is like the respiration of the lungs without the pulse of the heart, or like the lungs without the heart; and that it is like a blood-vessel and a fiber without blood and animal spirit; also like a body without a soul; consequently that it is like something inanimate; and if evil instead of good be therein it is like a carcass.

AC (Potts) n. 8531 sRef Ex@16 @33 S0′ 8531. And put the omerful of manna therein. That this signifies good therein as much as it will hold, is evident from the signification of “the omerful,” namely, as much as it will hold; and from the signification of “the manna,” as being spiritual good, or the good of truth (see n. 8462, 8464).

AC (Potts) n. 8532 sRef Ex@16 @33 S0′ 8532. And lay it up before Jehovah. That this signifies that it may be in the Divine presence, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 8533 sRef Ex@16 @33 S0′ 8533. To be kept for your generations. That this signifies that it may be the measure for those who are of that spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “an omer of manna,” which was laid up to be kept, as being as much as is sufficient (see n. 8468), thus also a measure, namely, of the amount of good this church had. (That “your generations” denotes those who are of the spiritual church, see n. 8526.) As regards the measure or degree of good that belongs to a church, be it known that goods in the other life vary in quality and in quantity, and that they are determined for everyone during his life in the world; they are determined according to the quality and quantity of each person’s faith and charity in his life. When the Lord grants, the quality and quantity of the good of everyone in the other life is manifested before the angels; for it can be presented to view in the light of heaven, but not in the light of the world. The case is the same in general, namely, in respect to the good of the church. The quantity and the quality of the good belonging to every individual, and to the church, are represented by weights and by measures in the Word; in the present case the quantity of the good of the spiritual church which is represented by the sons of Israel, by the “omer of manna” that was laid up before Jehovah to be kept.

AC (Potts) n. 8534 sRef Ex@16 @34 S0′ 8534. As Jehovah commanded Moses. That this signifies according to the mandate, is evident from the signification of “commanding,” when by Jehovah, as being a mandate (see above, n. 8466, 8524).

AC (Potts) n. 8535 sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@16 @34 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ 8535. And Aaron laid it up before the Testimony to be kept. That this signifies that it was in the presence of the Divine, is evident from the signification of “laying up to be kept,” as being for a memorial (see above n. 8526, 8533) and from the signification of “before the Testimony,” as being in the presence of the Divine. That “the Testimony” denotes the Divine is plain from what goes before, where it is said by Moses to Aaron that “he should store it up before Jehovah” (see n. 8532), thus before the Divine. That “the Testimony” denotes the Divine is because in the universal sense by “the Testimony” is meant the Word, and because the Word is truth Divine, thus the Lord. That the Lord is “the Word,” is plain in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word: and the Word was made flesh, and dwelt in us (1:1, 14).
That “the Testimony” denotes the Lord as to Divine truth is evident from the ark wherein was the Law published from Sinai, which is called “the Testimony:” that from this the tabernacle had all its sanctity, and that the Testimony was the holy Divine itself, is evident from the fact that above it was the propitiatory with the cherubs, and next outside the veil were the tables of gold with the loaves, and with the lamps; and that the most holy thing of worship was there administered by Aaron; also that Jehovah afterward spake with Moses there above the propitiatory between the two cherubs, thus from the Testimony (on which see Exod. 25:16, 21, 22; 40:20).

AC (Potts) n. 8536 8536. Verses 35, 36. And the sons of Israel did eat the manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat the manna until they came unto the border of the land of Canaan. And an omer is the tenth part of an ephah. “And the sons of Israel did eat the manna forty years,” signifies the appropriation of the good of truth in the state of all temptations; “until they came to a land inhabited,” signifies before they came to heaven, where good is everywhere; “they did eat the manna until they came unto the border of the land of Canaan,” signifies that there was appropriation of good from truth by them until they came to the region of heaven; “and an omer is the tenth part of an ephah,” signifies the amount of the good then.

AC (Potts) n. 8537 sRef Ex@16 @35 S0′ 8537. And the sons of Israel did eat the manna forty years. That this signifies the appropriation of the good of truth in the state of all temptations, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (see n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198); from the signification of “eating,” as being appropriation (n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745); from the signification of “the manna,” as being the good of truth (n. 8464); and from the signification of “forty years,” as being states of temptations. (That “years” denote states, see n. 482, 487, 488, 493, 893; and that “forty” denotes temptations, n. 730, 862, 2272, 2273, 8098.)

AC (Potts) n. 8538 sRef Ex@16 @35 S0′ 8538. Until they came to a land inhabited. That this signifies before they came to heaven where good is everywhere, is evident from the signification of “land,” here the land of Canaan, as being the Lord’s kingdom, thus heaven (see n. 1607, 3038, 3481, 3686, 3705, 4240, 4447, 5136). Heaven is called “a land inhabited” from good, for “inhabited” signifies what is alive from good (n. 2268, 2451, 2712, 3613, 8269, 8309).

AC (Potts) n. 8539 sRef Ex@16 @35 S0′ 8539. They did eat the manna until they came unto the border of the land of Canaan. That this signifies that there was appropriation of good from truth by them until they came to the region of heaven, is evident from the signification of “the manna,” as being the good of truth; from the signification of “eating,” as being appropriation (see above, n. 8537); and from the signification of “the land of Canaan,” as being heaven (see above, n. 8538); thus “the border of the land of Canaan” denotes the entrance to heaven, or the region where heaven begins. From all this it is evident that by their “eating the manna until they came to the border of the land of Canaan” is signified that the good of truth was appropriated by them even up to the region of heaven.
[2] How the case herein is, is evident from what was said before concerning the acquisition of good by means of truth, namely, that before regeneration all good is procured by means of truth, but that after regeneration man is led of the Lord by means of good; and that the former state is signified by “the six days” which precede the seventh, and that the latter state is signified by “the seventh day” or “the Sabbath.” From this it is also plain that the former state was represented by the journeyings of the sons of Israel in the wilderness forty years, and that the latter state was represented by their introduction into the land of Canaan. The case herein is that man is outside of heaven so long as he acts from truth and not from good; and he comes into heaven when he acts from good, for he is then actuated by the Lord according to the order of heaven, into which he does not come, consequently not into heaven, where order is, until he has been prepared, which is effected for good through truth. (On these two states, see what has been shown above, n. 7923, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8512, 8516.)

AC (Potts) n. 8540 sRef Ex@16 @36 S0′ 8540. And an omer is the tenth part of an ephah. That this signifies the amount of the good then, is evident from the signification of “an omer is the tenth part of an ephah,” as being as much as is sufficient, for by “ten” is signified what is full (see n. 3107), and therefore by “a tenth part” is signified as much as is sufficient (n. 8468) and from the signification of “an ephah,” as being good. That “an ephah” denotes good is because by it and by an omer were measured dry things that served for food, such as wheat, barley, fine flour; and by things that are used for food are signified goods: and by “a bath” and by “a hin” were measured liquids, which served for drink; consequently by these measures were signified truths. The containant receives this signification from the contents.
sRef Ezek@45 @10 S2′ sRef Lev@19 @36 S2′ sRef Ezek@45 @11 S2′ [2] That the ephah was a measure is plain from the following passages:
An ephah of justice, and a hin of justice, shall ye have (Lev. 19:36).
The ephah and the bath shall be one measure, because the ephah is the tenth of a homer (Ezek. 45:11).
Ye shall have balances of justice, and an ephah of justice, and a bath of justice (verse 10).
It is in like manner a measure in Amos 8:5.
sRef Zech@5 @11 S3′ sRef Zech@5 @9 S3′ sRef Zech@5 @10 S3′ sRef Zech@5 @8 S3′ sRef Zech@5 @6 S3′ sRef Zech@5 @5 S3′ sRef Zech@5 @7 S3′ [3] That “an ephah” denotes good is plain from the passages where the “meat-offering” is treated of, for which meal or fine flour was measured by an ephah (Lev. 5:11; Num. 5:15; 28:5; Ezek. 45:24; 46:7, 11). The “meat-offering” signifies good. And also from this passage in Zechariah:
The angel speaking in me said unto me, Lift up I pray thine eyes, What is this that goeth forth? and I said, What is it? He said, This is the ephah that goeth forth; he said moreover, This is their eye in all the earth. And behold there was lifted up a talent of lead, and at the same time this woman sitting in the midst of the ephah. Then he said, she is evil, and he cast her into the midst of the ephah, and he cast a stone of lead upon the mouth thereof. And I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, when behold there came forth two women, and the wind was in their wings; they had two wings like the wings of a stork; and they lifted up the ephah between the earth and the heaven; and I said unto the angel that spake in me, Whither do these carry off the ephah? who said unto me, To build her a house in the land of Shinar; and it shall be prepared, and she shall abide there upon her seat (5:5-11).
[4] What these things signify it is impossible for anyone to know except from the internal sense, and unless he thereby knows what is meant by “the ephah,” what by “the woman in the midst of it,” what by “the stone of lead upon the mouth of the ephah,” also what is meant by “Shinar.” When each detail is unfolded, it is clear that the profanation which was at that time in the church is signified; for by “the ephah” is signified good; by “the woman,” evil, as is there openly stated; by “the stone of lead,” falsity of evil shutting up, for “a stone” denotes external truth, and consequently in the opposite sense falsity (n. 643, 1298, 3720, 6426), and “lead” denotes evil (n. 8298). Thus by “the woman in the midst of the ephah, upon the mouth of which was a stone of lead,” is signified evil shut up in good by falsity, which is the same thing as profanation, for profanation is evil conjoined with good (n. 6348). “The two women lifting up the ephah between the earth and the heaven” denotes the churches (n. 252, 253) by which what was profane was rejected; “Shinar, whither the woman in the ephah was carried off” denotes external worship, within which is what is profane (n. 1183, 1292).

AC (Potts) n. 8541 8541. CONTINUATION ABOUT THE SPIRITS AND INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH JUPITER.
As regards their Divine worship, the chief point is that they acknowledge our Lord as the Most High, who rules heaven and earth; they call Him, The One Only Lord. And because they acknowledge and worship Him during the bodily life, they accordingly seek Him after death, and find that He is the same as our Lord. They were asked whether they know that the One Only Lord is a Man? They answered that they all know that He is a Man, because on their earth He has been seen by many as a Man, and because He instructs them in the truth, preserves them, and gives eternal life to those who believe in Him. They said further that He has revealed to them how they should live, and how they should believe; and that what has been revealed is handed down by the parents to their children, and that thus the teaching spreads to all the families, and thus throughout the whole nation that is from one father. They added that they seem to themselves to have the teaching inscribed on their minds, which they conclude from the fact that they instantly perceive, and acknowledge as of themselves, whether what is said by others about the life of heaven with man is true, or not.

AC (Potts) n. 8542 8542. The greatest care is taken that no one should fall into wrong opinions about the One Only Lord; and if they observe that anyone begins to think wrongly about Him, they first admonish him, then deter him by means of threats, and finally by means of punishments. They said that they have observed that if any such thing has crept into any family, that family is taken from among them, not by any death penalties inflicted by their companions, but by deprivation of breathing and consequently of life by spirits, after they have first been threatened with death. For on that earth spirits speak with the people, and chastise them if they have done evil, and also if they have intended to do evil (see n. 7801-7812); consequently if they think badly about the One Only Lord, they are threatened with death unless they repent. In this way the worship of the Lord, who to them is the supreme Divine, is preserved there.

AC (Potts) n. 8543 8543. They do not know that their One Only Lord was born a man on this earth. They said that it is of no concern to them to know this, but only to know that He is a Man, and directs the universe. Then I said that on our earth He is named Jesus Christ, and that “Christ” means the Anointed or King, and “Jesus” Savior, they said that they do not worship Him as a King, because royalty savors of what is worldly, but that they worship Him as the Savior. And because a doubt was injected by the spirits of our earth, whether their One Only Lord is the same as our Lord, they removed the doubt by recalling that they had seen Him in the Sun, and that they recognized that it was He whom they had seen on their earth. (On this subject see n. 7173; and that our Lord is the Sun of heaven, n. 1053, 3636, 3643, 4060, 4321, 5097, 7078, 7083, 7171, 7173.)

AC (Potts) n. 8544 8544. When the spirits of the earth Jupiter had stayed with me for several weeks, there suddenly flowed into them a doubt whether their One Only Lord is the same as our Lord; but this doubt, which inflowed in a moment, was also dissipated in a moment. It flowed in from some spirits from our earth; and then to my surprise, the spirits of Jupiter blushed with shame so great at their for a moment doubting it, that they told me not to publish it on this earth, lest they should be charged with some unbelief on that account, when yet they now know it better than others.

AC (Potts) n. 8545 8545. There were spirits from the earth Jupiter with me while I was reading the seventeenth chapter of John, about the Lord’s love, and about His glorification; and when they heard what is there written, a holy influence took possession of them, and they confessed that all things therein are Divine. But then spirits from our earth who were unbelievers continually suggested objections, saying that He was born an infant, lived a man, appeared like other men, was crucified, and the like. But the spirits of the earth Jupiter paid no attention to these things. They said that such are their devils, whom they abhor, adding that nothing heavenly finds room in the minds of those spirits of our earth, but only what is earthly, which they call dross. That such is the case, they found out with certainty from the fact that when those spirits heard that on their earth the inhabitants walk naked, obscenity at once took possession of their thoughts, and they paid no attention to their heavenly life, of which they heard at the same time (see n. 8375).

AC (Potts) n. 8546 8546. Once also I talked with the spirits of the earth Jupiter about the Lord, saying that no one can do any good from himself, but from the Lord, who is Good itself, consequently the fountain of all good. They then modestly replied that they suppose they can do good of themselves, and do not know otherwise. But when it was shown them that all good comes solely from the Lord, they said that they spoke after the human manner, and that this was said in a heavenly manner, and that their angels so think, and they themselves also, insofar as they become angels. They added that it is simpler to speak in that way. It was then given to reply that the Lord allows those who live in simplicity and innocence so to speak, provided they know that nothing of good comes from themselves, but all from the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 8547 8547. The spirits of the earth Jupiter were very much affected, and rejoiced, when they heard it said that the One Only Lord is the only Man, and that all have from Him that they are called men; but that they are men insofar as they become images of Him, that is, insofar as they love Him and love the neighbor, thus insofar as they are in good; for the good of love and of faith is the Lord’s image.

AC (Potts) n. 8548 sRef John@3 @3 S0′ 8548. CHAPTER 17.
THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY.

He who does not receive spiritual life, that is, who is not begotten anew by the Lord, cannot come into heaven. This the Lord teaches in John: “Verily, verily, I say to thee, Except a man be begotten anew, he cannot see the kingdom of God” (John 3:3).

AC (Potts) n. 8549 8549. Man is not born of his parents into spiritual life, but into natural life. Spiritual life is to love God above all things, and to love the neighbor as oneself, and this according to the commandments of faith which the Lord has taught in the Word. But natural life is to love self and the world above the neighbor, yea above God Himself.

AC (Potts) n. 8550 8550. Every man is born of his parents into the evils of the love of self and of the world. Every evil which by habit has contracted a kind of nature, is derived into the offspring, thus successively from parents, from grandparents, and from great-grandparents, in a long series backward. From this the derivation of evil has at last become so great, that all of man’s own life is nothing else than evil. This continuous derived nature is not broken and changed, except by the Lord through a life of faith and charity.

AC (Potts) n. 8551 8551. Man continually inclines and lapses into what he derives hereditarily. By so doing he confirms this evil in himself, and also adds to it more evils from himself.

AC (Potts) n. 8552 8552. These evils are utterly contrary to spiritual life. They destroy it. Therefore unless in respect to his spiritual life a man is conceived anew, born anew, and reared anew, that is, created anew by the Lord, he is damned, for he wills nothing else, and consequently thinks nothing else, than what is of hell.

AC (Potts) n. 8553 8553. When a man is of this character, the order of life in him is inverted. That which ought to rule serves, and that which ought to serve rules. For his salvation to be possible this order in the man must be wholly inverted. This is effected by the Lord through regeneration.

EXODUS 17

1. And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys according to the mouth of Jehovah, and they encamped in Rephidim; and there was no water for the people to drink.
2. And the people quarreled with Moses, and they said, Give ye us water and we will drink. And Moses said to them, why quarrel ye with me? why do ye tempt Jehovah?
3. And the people thirsted there for waters, and the people murmured against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this, that thou hast made us come up out of Egypt, to make me die, and my sons, and my cattle, with thirst?
4. And Moses cried unto Jehovah, saying, What shall I do to this people? a little more and they stone me.
5. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Pass on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go.
6. Behold, I stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come waters out of it, that the people may drink. And Moses did so before the eyes of the elders of Israel.
7. And he called the name of the place Massah and Meribah, because of the quarreling of the sons of Israel, and because of their tempting Jehovah, saying, Is Jehovah in the midst of us, or not?
8. And Amalek came, and fought with Israel in Rephidim.
9. And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight against Amalek: tomorrow I stand upon the top of the hill, and the rod of God in my hand.
10. And Joshua did as Moses had said to him, in fighting against Amalek; and Moses, and Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.
11. And it was, when Moses lifted up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, that Amalek prevailed.
12. And Moses’ hands were heavy, and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat upon it; and Aaron and Hur held up his hands, one on one side, and the other on the other; and it was, his hands were steady until the setting of the sun.
13. And Joshua weakened Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.
14. And Jehovah said unto Moses, write this for a memorial in the book, and put it in the ears of Joshua, that blotting I will blot out the memory of Amalek from under the heavens.
15. And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovah-nissi.
16. And he said, Because there is a hand against the throne of Jah, Jehovah shall have war against Amalek from generation to generation.

AC (Potts) n. 8554 sRef Ex@17 @0 S0′ 8554. THE CONTENTS
In the preceding chapter, in the internal sense, the third temptation was treated of-that there was a lack of good. This having been given them, in the internal sense in this chapter the fourth temptation is treated of-that there was a lack of truth. This temptation is signified by “the murmuring of the sons of Israel because they had no water;” and therefore the truth of faith was given them by the Lord, which is signified by “the water out of the rock of Horeb.”

AC (Potts) n. 8555 sRef Ex@17 @0 S0′ 8555. Then follows the combat of the falsity that is from evil against the truth and good of faith, which combat is represented by the fighting of Amalek against Israel. That they who are in the truth and good of faith conquer when they look upward to the Lord, and that they yield when they look downward, is represented by the sons of Israel conquering so long as Moses kept his hands raised, and by their yielding when he let them down.

AC (Potts) n. 8556 sRef Ex@17 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @2 S0′ 8556. THE INTERNAL SENSE
Verses 1-3. And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys according to the mouth of Jehovah, and they encamped in Rephidim; and there was no water for the people to drink. And the people quarreled with Moses, and they said, Give ye us water and we will drink. And Moses said to them, Why quarrel ye with me? why do ye tempt Jehovah? And the people thirsted there for the waters; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this, that thou hast made us come up out of Egypt, to make me die, and my sons, and my cattle, with thirst? “And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel journeyed,” signifies what is progressive of spiritual life; “from the wilderness of Sin,” signifies from a state of temptation as to good; “after their journeys,” signifies according to the order of life for receiving the life of heaven; “according to the mouth of Jehovah,” signifies by the providence of the Lord; “and they encamped in Rephidim,” signifies the setting in order of the interiors for undergoing temptation as to truth, the nature of which is signified by “Rephidim;” “and there was no water for the people to drink,” signifies a lack of truth and of the consequent refreshment; “and the people quarreled with Moses,” signifies a grievous complaining against truth Divine; “and they said, Give ye us water, and we will drink,” signifies an ardent longing for truth; “and Moses said to them,” signifies an answer by influx into the thought; “Why quarrel ye with me?” signifies that they should be more moderate in complaint; “why do ye tempt Jehovah?” signifies that it was against the Divine, of whose aid they despair; “and the people thirsted there for the waters,” signifies an increase of longing for truth; “and the people murmured against Moses,” signifies a greater degree of suffering; “and said, Wherefore is this, that thou hast made us come up out of Egypt,” signifies why have we been liberated from infestations; “to make me die, and my sons, and my cattle, with thirst,” signifies that from the lack of truth everything of spiritual life is expiring.

AC (Potts) n. 8557 sRef Ex@17 @1 S0′ 8557. And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel journeyed. That this signifies what is progressive of spiritual life, is evident from the signification of “journeying,” as being what is successive and continuous of life (see n. 4375, 4554, 4585, 5996, 8181, 8345, 8397), here what is successive or progressive of spiritual life, that is, its growth, which takes place continuously by means of temptations. That spiritual life grows by means of temptations is because by means of them the truths which are of faith are confirmed, and are conjoined with the good which is of charity. (That “the assemblage of the sons of Israel” denotes those who are of the spiritual church, see n. 7830, 7843.)

AC (Potts) n. 8558 sRef Ex@17 @1 S0′ 8558. From the wilderness of Sin. That this signifies from a state of temptation as to good, is evident from the signification of a “wilderness,” as being a state of undergoing temptations (see n. 6828, 8098); and from the signification of “Sin,” as being the quality and state of temptation as to good (n. 8398).

AC (Potts) n. 8559 sRef Ex@17 @1 S0′ 8559. After their journeys. That this signifies according to the order of life for receiving the life of heaven, is evident from the signification of “journeys,” as being what is progressive of spiritual life (of which just above, n. 8557), thus the order of that life (n. 1293). That it denotes for receiving the life of heaven, is because that life is a gift of the Lord to man by means of the temptations that are described by the journeys of the sons of Israel in the wilderness. The life of heaven is to be led of the Lord by means of good. In order that a man may come to that life, good must be implanted by means of truth; that is, charity by means of faith. So long as this is being done, the man is in the way to heaven, but is not yet in heaven. And in order that at that time the truths which are of faith may be confirmed, and may also be conjoined with good, the man is let into temptations, for these are the means of the conjunction of good and truth. When therefore the man is in good, that is, in the affection of doing good for the sake of good, thus for the sake of the neighbor, he is uplifted into heaven, for he is in the order of heaven, and is led of the Lord by means of good. From all this it can be seen what is meant by “the life of heaven.”

AC (Potts) n. 8560 sRef Ex@17 @1 S0′ 8560. According to the mouth of Jehovah. That this signifies by the providence of the Lord, is evident from the signification of “the mouth of Jehovah,” as being the truth Divine according to which they were led; for “the mouth of Jehovah” is here taken for a Divine utterance, and for being led according to it, which is Providence. The Divine Providence differs from all other leading and guidance in the fact that Providence continually regards what is eternal, and continually leads unto salvation, and this through various states, sometimes glad, sometimes sorrowful, which the man cannot possibly comprehend; but still they are all profitable to his eternal life. These things are signified by “journeys according to the mouth of Jehovah.” (That “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, see n. 1343, 1736, 2004, 2005, 2018, 2025, 2156, 2329, 2447, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5041, 5663, 6281, 6303, 6905.)

AC (Potts) n. 8561 sRef Ex@17 @1 S0′ 8561. And they encamped in Rephidim. That this signifies the setting in order of the interiors for undergoing temptation as to truth, the nature of which is signified by “Rephidim,” is evident from the signification of “encamping,” as being the setting in order of truth and good for undergoing temptations (see n. 8130, 8131, 8155), here for undergoing temptation as to truth, which is represented by their “having no water”‘ (of which in what follows). It is said “the setting in order of the interiors,” because truth and good constitute the interiors of the man of the church. That “Rephidim” signifies the nature of this temptation, is because the names of places signify the quality of the state of the thing, here the quality of the state of the temptation as to truth, because this is what is here treated of.

AC (Potts) n. 8562 sRef Ex@17 @1 S0′ 8562. And there was no water for the people to drink. That this signifies a lack of truth and of the consequent refreshment, is evident from the signification of “water,” as being the truth of faith (see n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668); and from the signification of “drinking,” as being to be instructed in the truths of faith and to receive them (n. 3069, 3772, 4017, 4018), here, to be refreshed; for as water and drink refresh the natural life, so truths and the knowledges of truth refresh the spiritual life. For he who is in spiritual life longs for the sustenance thereof from such things as are called heavenly food and drink, which are the goods and truths of faith; in like manner as he who is in natural life longs for sustenance from such things as are natural food and drink.
[2] That temptation as to truth is now treated of, is because temptation as to good was treated of just before, after which temptation they received the manna, by which is signified good. For when man is endowed with good by the Lord, he comes into a longing for truth, and this longing is kindled according to the lack of truth, because good continually strives after truth. All the genuine affection of truth is from good. The case herein is like food, which without drink cannot nourish the natural life; and it is also like it in that food longs for drink, with which it may be conjoined so as to serve for use. This then is the reason why temptation as to truth follows immediately after temptation as to good. Temptation attacks that which a man loves and longs for (n. 4274, 4299).

AC (Potts) n. 8563 sRef Ex@17 @2 S0′ 8563. And the people quarreled with Moses. That this signifies a grievous complaining against truth Divine, is evident from the signification of “to quarrel,” as being a grievous complaining, for he who quarrels in temptation grievously complains; and from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (see n. 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382).

AC (Potts) n. 8564 sRef Ex@17 @2 S0′ 8564. And they said, Give ye us water and we will drink. That this signifies an ardent longing for truth, is evident from what was shown just above (n. 8562) on the signification of “water” and of “drinking.”

AC (Potts) n. 8565 sRef Ex@17 @2 S0′ 8565. And Moses said to them. That this signifies an answer by influx into the thought, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by the truth Divine which is represented by Moses, as being an answer; and as all answer from the Divine is effected by means of influx, and that indeed into the thought, therefore this is the signification.

AC (Potts) n. 8566 sRef Ex@17 @2 S0′ 8566. Why quarrel ye with me? That this signifies that they should be more moderate in their complaining, is evident from the signification of “to quarrel,” as being a grievous complaining (see n. 8563); and that they should be more moderate is also involved, for it is said that thereby they “tempt Jehovah.”

AC (Potts) n. 8567 sRef Ex@17 @2 S0′ 8567. Why do ye tempt Jehovah? That this signifies that it was against the Divine, of whose aid they despair, is evident from the signification of “tempting Jehovah,” as being to complain against the Divine; that it denotes even to despairing of His aid, is because complaints in temptations involve such despair. For temptations are continual despairings of salvation, in the beginning slight, but in course of time grievous, until at last there is doubt, almost denial, of the presence of the Divine and of His aid. In temptations the spiritual life is for the most part brought to this extremity; for in this way the natural life is extinguished, because then, in the midst of the despair, the inmost is kept by the Lord in combat against falsity; and therefore this despair is soon dissipated by comfortings that are in the next place insinuated by the Lord; for after every spiritual temptation there is consolation, and as it were newness of life. (That temptations are carried even to despair, see n. 1787, 2694, 5279, 5280, 7147, 7155, 7166, 8165, and that after temptations there is consolation, n. 3696, 4572, 5246, 6829, 8367, 8370.)

AC (Potts) n. 8568 sRef Ex@17 @3 S0′ sRef Amos@8 @11 S1′ sRef Amos@8 @12 S1′ sRef Amos@8 @13 S1′ 8568. And the people thirsted there for the waters. That this signifies an increase of longing for truth, is evident from the signification of “thirsting,” as being to strive after and long for, and as being predicated of truth, as “hungering” is predicated of good; and from the signification of “water,” as being the truth of faith (see n. 8562). That “to thirst” denotes to strive after and long for the truth which is signified by “water,” is very plain from many passages in the Word, as in Amos:
Behold the days come wherein I will send a famine into the land, not a famine for bread, nor a thirst for waters, but for hearing the words of Jehovah; and they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east; they shall run to and fro to seek the word of Jehovah, and shall not find it; in that day shall the beautiful virgins and the young men faint with thirst (Amos 8:11-13).
A longing to know truth is here described by “thirsting;” the longing for truth is signified by “I will not send a thirst for waters, but for hearing the words of Jehovah;” the lack of truth and the consequent privation of spiritual life are described by, “in that day shall the beautiful virgins and the young men faint with thirst;” “beautiful virgins” denote those who are in affections of good, and “young men” those who are in affections of truth.
sRef Isa@55 @1 S2′ [2] In Isaiah:
Ho, everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver; come ye, buy, eat, come ye and buy wine and milk without silver and without price (Isa. 55:1).
“Everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters,” manifestly denotes one who longs for the truths of faith; “to buy wine and milk without price” denotes to procure the truth and good of faith for themselves from the Lord, thus gratuitously (that “waters” denote the truth of faith, see n. 8562; that “wine” denotes the good of faith, n. 6377, and also “milk,” n. 2184). Everyone can see that by “coming to the waters and buying wine and milk,” is not here meant wine and milk, but such things as are of heaven and the church.
sRef John@4 @14 S3′ sRef Rev@21 @6 S3′ sRef John@4 @13 S3′ [3] In like manner in John:
I will give to him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life free (Rev. 21:6);
where “the fountain of the water of life” denotes the truth and good of faith; “he that is athirst” denotes one who longs from affection, according to the Lord’s words in John:
Jesus said to the woman of Samaria, Everyone that drinketh of this water shall thirst again: but he that drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall become in him a fountain of water springing up into eternal life (John 4:13, 14).
Here “water” plainly denotes the truth of faith from the Word, thus from the Lord; “never thirsting” here denotes that truth shall no longer fail him.
sRef John@6 @35 S4′ sRef John@7 @38 S4′ sRef John@7 @37 S4′ [4] In like manner elsewhere in John:
Jesus said, I am the bread of life; he that cometh to Me shall never hunger, and he that believeth in Me shall never thirst (John 6:35).
Jesus cried, saying, If anyone thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink; whosoever believeth in Me, as the Scripture hath said, Out of his belly shall flow streams of living water (John 7:37, 38).
In these passages “to thirst” denotes to long for truth; “to drink” denotes to be instructed; “streams of living water” denote Divine truth, which is from the Lord alone.
sRef Isa@21 @14 S5′ sRef Isa@32 @6 S5′ [5] In Isaiah:
Bring ye waters to meet him that is thirsty; O ye inhabitants of the land of Tema, come before the wanderer with his bread (Isa. 21:14);
where “bringing waters to meet him that is thirsty” denotes instructing in truths him who longs for them, and thus refreshing the life of his soul. In the same:
The fool will speak folly, and his heart will do iniquity, to do hypocrisy, and to utter error against Jehovah, to make empty the soul of the hungry one, and he will make the drink of the thirsty one to fail (Isa 32:0);
“the hungry one” denotes him who longs for good; and “he that thirsteth for drink,” him who longs for truth.
sRef Isa@41 @18 S6′ sRef Isa@41 @17 S6′ [6] Again:
The poor and needy seek water but there is none, and their tongue faileth for thirst; I will open rivers upon the hillsides, and I will put fountains in the midst of the valleys, the wilderness for a pool of waters, and the dry land for springs of waters (Isa. 41:17, 18);
everyone can plainly see that “seeking water” denotes seeking truth; that “failing for thirst” denotes being deprived of spiritual life from a lack of truth; that “rivers,” “fountains,” “a pool,” and “springs of waters” denote the truths of faith in which they were to be instructed.
sRef Isa@48 @21 S7′ sRef Isa@48 @20 S7′ sRef Isa@49 @10 S7′ [7] Again:
Say ye, Jehovah hath redeemed his servant Jacob; then shall they not thirst, He shall lead them in the wastes; He shall cause the waters to flow out of the rock for them, and He will cleave the rock that the waters may flow out (Isa. 48:20, 21);
“they shall not thirst” denotes that truths shall not fail them; “waters” here manifestly denote the truths of faith. Again:
They shall not hunger nor thirst; neither shall the heat nor the sun smite them; for He that hath mercy on them shall lead them, so that even upon the springs of waters He will lead them (Isa. 49:10);
“they shall not hunger” denotes that good shall not fail them; “they shall not thirst” denotes that truth shall not fail them; “springs of waters” denote the knowledges of truth from the Word.
sRef Isa@35 @6 S8′ sRef Deut@8 @15 S8′ sRef Isa@35 @4 S8′ sRef Isa@35 @7 S8′ [8] In like manner in Moses:
Jehovah leadeth thee through the great and fearful wilderness, of the serpent, of the fire-serpent, and of the scorpion, and of thirst, where are no waters; who bringeth forth for thee waters out of the stone of the crag (Deut. 8:15). Again in Isaiah:
Behold your God will come; then in the wilderness shall waters break out, and rivers in the plain of the desert; and the dry place shall become a pool, and the thirsty one for springs of waters (Isa. 35:4, 6, 7);
“the waters in the wilderness that shall break out,” “rivers,” “a pool,” “springs of waters,” plainly denote the truths of faith and the knowledges of them, which would be given from the Lord when He should come into the world.
sRef Ps@63 @1 S9′ sRef Isa@50 @2 S9′ sRef Isa@5 @13 S9′ [9] In David:
O God, my God, in the morning do I seek Thee; my soul thirsteth for Thee, my flesh longeth for Thee, in a land of drought, and weary without waters (Ps. 68:1);
where “thirsting” is predicated of truth; “weary without waters” denotes that there are no truths. “Thirst” denotes a lack of truth and the consequent privation of spiritual life, in Isaiah:
Therefore My people will go into exile, for not acknowledging, and their glory are men of famine, and their multitude are parched with thirst (Isa. 5:13).
I make the rivers a wilderness: their fish stinketh because there is no water, and dieth for thirst (Isa. 50:2).
sRef Ex@17 @2 S10′ sRef Ex@17 @1 S10′ sRef Ex@17 @3 S10′ sRef Ex@17 @6 S10′ [10] From these passages it can now be seen what is signified in this chapter by there being “no water for the people to drink” (verse 1); by their saying, “Give us water and we will drink” (verse 2); by “the people thirsting there for waters” (verse 3); by that “there shall come waters out of the rock” (verse 6). Consequently by their murmuring on account of the lack of water is signified temptation from the lack of truth; for when a man comes into temptation from the lack of truth, he is kept in a vehement longing for it, and at the same time in despair of eternal salvation on this account: these things then cause suffering, and complaint.

AC (Potts) n. 8569 sRef Ex@17 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @4 S0′ 8569. And the people murmured against Moses. That this signifies a greater degree of suffering, is evident from the signification of “murmuring,” as being suffering from the bitterness of the temptation (see n. 8351); that it denotes a greater degree of suffering is evident from the words of Moses when he cried to Jehovah, “a little more and they stone me” (verse 4).

AC (Potts) n. 8570 sRef Ex@17 @3 S0′ 8570. And said, Wherefore is this, that thou hast made us come up out of Egypt? That this signifies, Why have we been liberated from infestations? is evident from the signification of “making to come up,” or “bringing out,” as being liberating; and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being infestations (n. 7278); for by “the Egyptians are signified those who infest those who are of the church in the other life (see n. 6854, 6914, 7474, 7828, 7932, 8018, 8099, 8159, 8321).

AC (Potts) n. 8571 sRef Ex@17 @3 S0′ 8571. To make me die, and my sons, and my cattle, with thirst. That this signifies that from the lack of truth everything of spiritual life is expiring, is evident from the signification of “dying,” as being to expire, here in respect to the spiritual life; from the signification of “me, my sons, and my cattle,” as being all things of spiritual life; for by “me,” or the man of the church, is signified the good of charity and of faith; by “sons,” the interior truths of faith; and by “cattle,” the exterior truths from which is good; thus all things which are of the spiritual life. For spiritual life consists of the good of charity and of faith, and of the truth of faith internal and external. (That “man” denotes good, see n. 4287; that “sons” denote the truths of faith, n. 489, 491, 533, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3372, 3704; and that “cattle” denote the truths from which is good, n. 6016, 6045, 6049.) And from the signification of “thirst,” as being a lack of truth (of which just above, n. 8568).

AC (Potts) n. 8572 8572. Verses 4-6. And Moses cried unto Jehovah, saying, What shall I do to this people? a little more and they stone me. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Pass on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thine hand, and go. Behold, I stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come waters out of it, that the people may drink. And Moses did so before the eyes of the elders of Israel. “And Moses cried unto Jehovah, saying,” signifies interior lamentation and intercession; “What shall I do to this people?” signifies for those who are in a complaining so grievous on account of the non-reception of truth; “a little more and they stone me,” signifies that they are not far from doing violence to truth from the Divine; “and Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies aid; “Pass on before the people,” signifies that He should lead and teach them; “and take with thee of the elders of Israel,” signifies from primary truths; “and thy rod wherewith thou smotest the river,” signifies the Divine power by which falsities had been dissipated; “take in thine hand, and go,” signifies that equipped therewith he should perform the mandate; “Behold, I stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb,” signifies the Lord as to the truths of faith; “and thou shalt smite the rock,” signifies that they should be urgent in entreating Him; “and there shall come waters out of it,” signifies that the truths of faith are from Him; “that the people may drink,” signifies which shall refresh them and give them spiritual life; “and Moses did so before the eyes of the elders of Israel,” signifies the effect by means of primary truths.

AC (Potts) n. 8573 sRef Luke@22 @27 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @26 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @30 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @28 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @29 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @24 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @25 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @4 S0′ sRef Mark@10 @35 S1′ sRef Mark@10 @36 S1′ sRef Mark@10 @37 S1′ 8573. And Moses cried unto Jehovah. That this signifies interior lamentation and intercession, is evident from the signification of “crying,” when for Divine aid, which the people demanded by reason of their grievous suffering, as being interior lamentation (see n. 7782), and also intercession (n. 8179). As by “Moses crying unto Jehovah” is signified intercession by the Divine truth which is represented by Moses, it shall be briefly told what intercession is, and how the case is in respect to it. They who do not know what intercession is, cannot form any other idea about it than that the Lord continually prays to the Father, and intercedes for the sinner who devoutly supplicates and promises repentance. Nay, the simple think that the Lord sits with the Father, and pleads with Him for the sinner, and entreats Him to give him to Himself, that he may be in His kingdom, and may enjoy eternal happiness. Such an idea have very many about the intercession spoken of in the Word, where it is said that the Lord will entreat His Father for them. But who cannot see that these things were said according to the ideas of human thought? For everyone at that time, as also very many at this day, could not think otherwise of the heavenly kingdom, than as they think of an earthly kingdom, because they get the idea about the former from the latter. This is plainly evident from those very apostles of the Lord, James and John, who asked to sit the one on His right hand, and the other on His left, in His kingdom (Mark 10:35-37); and also from the rest of the apostles, among whom there was a contention as to which of them should be the greatest in the Lord’s kingdom, and who were therefore told by the Lord that they should eat and drink at His table in His kingdom, and should sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Luke 22:24, 30), thus that they should reign with Him. It is evident that these things were said in accordance with their ideas, and thus in accordance with their apprehension, and that in the interior sense they have a different signification, which at that time could not so well be made known. (What “the twelve thrones” signify on which the apostles were to sit, see n. 2129, 6397.)
[2] As regards intercession, the case is this. There is intercession in all love, consequently in all mercy; for mercy is of love. That he who loves, or who feels compassion, continually intercedes, can be seen from examples. A husband who loves his wife, wishes her to be kindly received by others, and to be well treated; he does not say this in express terms, but continually thinks it, consequently is in silence continually entreating it, and interceding for her. Parents act in like manner in favor of their children whom they love. In like manner do those also who are in charity for their neighbor; and they who are in friendship for their friends. From all this it can be seen that there is constant intercession in all love. It is the same in respect to the Lord’s intercession for the human race, and in especial for those who are in the good and truth of faith; for toward them there is Divine, that is, infinite love; and there is Divine, that is, infinite mercy. He does not pray the Father for them, and in this way intercede, for this would be to act altogether after a human manner; but He continually excuses, and continually forgives, for He continually feels compassion; and this is done on the part of the Lord Himself, for the Lord and the Father are one (John 14:8-12).
[3] A secret that lies still more interiorly hidden in the word “intercession,” shall also be told. The Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord continually intercedes in the manner described, because it proceeds from the Divine love. When the Lord was in the world He was the Divine truth; but since He was glorified, which was effected when He rose again, He is the Divine good (n. 7499). It is the Divine good which is meant in the Word in the internal sense by “the Father,” and the Divine truth which is meant by “the Son” (n. 2803, 3704, 7499). And as in the Divine truth, which proceeds from the Divine good, there is continual intercession, therefore it is said that the Son entreats the Father, and intercedes for man. This latter idea could be apprehended by man, but the former with difficulty.

AC (Potts) n. 8574 sRef Ex@17 @4 S0′ 8574. What shall I do to this people? That this signifies for those who are in a complaining so grievous on account of the non-reception of truth, is evident from the signification of “What shall I do to this people?” as involving such things; for by the quarreling of the people against Moses is signified a grievous complaining (see n. 8563, 8566); and by their having “no water to drink” is signified a lack of truth (n. 8562, 8568).

AC (Potts) n. 8575 sRef Ex@17 @4 S0′ 8575. A little more and they stone me. That this signifies that they are not far from doing violence to truth from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “a little more,” as being that it is not far off; and from the signification of “stoning,” as being the punishment on account of the violation of the truth which is of worship (see n. 7456); here, in the opposite sense, of the doing of violence to truth from the Divine, which truth is represented by Moses. (That “Moses” denotes truth from the Divine, has been frequently shown.)

AC (Potts) n. 8576 sRef Ex@17 @5 S0′ 8576. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies aid, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as involving the things which follow, here that truths should be given, of the lack of which they so grievously complained, which truths are signified by “water from Horeb.” Therefore “saying” here involves aid.

AC (Potts) n. 8577 sRef Ex@17 @5 S0′ 8577. Pass on before the people. That this signifies that he should lead and teach them, is evident from the signification of “passing on before,” as being to lead, thus also to teach, for he who teaches, leads in a spiritual way; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, who are here “the people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (of which frequently).

AC (Potts) n. 8578 sRef Ex@17 @5 S0′ 8578. And take with thee of the elders of Israel. That this signifies from primary truths, is evident from the signification of “the elders of Israel,” as being the primary things of wisdom and intelligence which are in agreement with good and with truth (see n. 6524, 6525, 6890, 7912), thus primary truths, for these belong to intelligence and wisdom.

AC (Potts) n. 8579 sRef Ex@17 @5 S0′ 8579. And thy rod wherewith thou smotest the river. That this signifies the Divine power by which falsities had been dissipated, is evident from the signification of “a rod,” as being power (see n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936, 6947, 7011, 7026), here Divine power, because by Moses, whose rod it was, is represented the Lord as to Divine truth; and from the signification of “the river,” here the river of Egypt, as being falsity (n. 6693). It is said “wherewith thou smotest the river,” in order that the dissipation of falsity may be signified, for by the Divine power whereby truth is given, falsities also are dissipated; the truth which is given is signified by “the water out of the rock in Horeb.”

AC (Potts) n. 8580 sRef Ex@17 @5 S0′ 8580. Take in thine hand, and go. That this signifies that equipped therewith he should perform the mandate, is evident from the signification of “taking the rod in the hand,” as being to be equipped with this power. That “go thou” denotes to perform the mandate, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 8581 sRef Ex@17 @6 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @4 S1′ sRef Deut@32 @3 S1′ sRef Deut@32 @37 S1′ sRef Deut@32 @15 S1′ sRef Deut@32 @13 S1′ sRef Deut@32 @31 S1′ sRef Deut@32 @18 S1′ sRef Deut@32 @30 S1′ 8581. Behold I stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb. That this signifies the Lord in respect to the truths of faith, is evident from the signification of “a rock,” as being faith, here faith from the Lord, or the Lord in respect to faith; for Jehovah, that is, the Lord, says, “Behold I stand upon the rock;” and from the signification of “Horeb,” as being the Divine Law; consequently by these words is signified the Lord in respect to the truths of faith which are from His law, or the Word. That “a rock” denotes the Lord as to faith, and relatively to man, the faith which is from the Lord, is evident from many passages in the Word, as in Moses:
Give ye greatness to our God, the Rock whose work is perfect. He made him ride on the high places of the earth, and he did eat the produce of the fields, He made him suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the stone of the rock. But when Jeshurun became fat, he kicked, he forsook God who made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock of his salvation. The Rock that begat thee thou hast given to forgetfulness, and hast forgotten God thy Former. Their rock hath sold them, and Jehovah hath shut them up, for their rock is not as our Rock. When it is said, Where are their gods, the rock in which they trusted (Deut. 32:3, 4, 13, 15, 18, 30, 31, 37).
From these words it is plain that it is Jehovah, that is, the Lord, who is called “the Rock”; that this is Jehovah or the Lord as to faith, is clear from the details here in the internal sense.
sRef Dan@2 @35 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @44 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @45 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @34 S2′ [2] In Daniel:
Thou wast seeing till that a stone was cut out, which was not by hands, and it smote the image upon its feet that were of iron and clay, and brake them in pieces. Then were the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken in pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors; so that the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them. But the stone that smote the image became a great Rock, and filled the whole earth. The God of the heavens shall make a kingdom arise which shall not be destroyed to the ages; and His kingdom shall not be permitted to another people; it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms; but itself shall stand to the ages. Forasmuch as thou hast seen that a stone was cut out from the rock, that was not by hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold (Dan. 2:34, 35, 44, 45).
This is said of the Lord and His kingdom, and by “a stone” is meant faith, and by “a rock” the Lord as to faith. That these things are signified by “stone” and by “rock,” is plain to everyone who reflects. “Stone” too signifies in the Word the truth which is of faith (see n. 643, 1298, 3720, 3769, 3771, 3773, 3789, 3798, 6426); and therefore the Lord as to Divine truth is called “the Stone of Israel” (n. 6426). That “a rock” denotes the Lord as to the truth of faith, is because by “a rock” is also meant a bulwark against falsities; the bulwark itself is the truth of faith, for combat is waged from this truth both against falsities and against evils.
sRef Matt@16 @19 S3′ sRef Matt@16 @18 S3′ [3] From all this it can also be seen that by “rock” is meant the Lord as to faith, and also the faith which is from the Lord, in the words which the Lord spake to Peter, in Matthew:
I say unto thee, Thou art Peter [Petrus], and upon this rock [Petra] I will build My church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens; and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in the heavens; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in the heavens (Matt. 16:18, 19).
That “a rock” here denotes the Lord as to faith, and the faith which is from the Lord, and that Peter represents this faith, see the preface to Genesis 22, also n. 3750, 4738, 6000, 6073, 6344. It is also plain to everyone who thinks from sound reason that the power of opening heaven and of shutting hell for the good, and of opening hell and shutting heaven for the evil, belongs to the Lord alone; and that this belongs to faith is because faith is from the Lord, thus also is the Lord’s, that is, the Lord Himself is in it. Moreover all sovereign power in the other life comes through the truth of faith from good (see n. 4931, 6344, 6423, 8200, 8304). And he who thinks from reason can conclude that the Lord’s church has not been built upon any man, thus not upon Peter, but upon the Lord Himself, thus upon faith in Him.
[4] From all this it can be seen into what and how great errors they fall, who press so closely the sense of the letter of the Word; and with what eagerness the leaders of the church catch at the idea that such power was given to Peter, and consequently to those who call themselves his successors, because it favors their love; and with what difficulty they suffer themselves to be persuaded that anything else is meant, for everyone desires to procure for himself the height of power. From the above it is also plain how necessary it is to know what is signified in the internal sense by “a rock,” what by “keys,” what by “the gates of hell,” and many other things.
sRef Ps@61 @2 S5′ sRef Isa@17 @10 S5′ sRef Isa@16 @1 S5′ sRef Jer@51 @26 S5′ sRef Jer@51 @25 S5′ sRef Ps@40 @2 S5′ sRef Isa@51 @1 S5′ sRef Ps@81 @16 S5′ sRef Jer@48 @28 S5′ sRef Isa@42 @11 S5′ sRef Isa@31 @9 S5′ sRef Isa@31 @8 S5′ [5] That Jehovah is called “the Rock,” and that then is meant the Lord as to faith, is also evident from many other passages in the Word, as from the following, which may be cited without further explication:
Send ye the lamb of the Ruler of the land from the Rock toward the wilderness unto the mount of Zion (Isa. 16:1).
Thou hast forgotten the God of thy salvation, and hast not remembered the Rock of thy refuge (Isa.
Asshur shall fall with the sword not of a man, also his rock shall pass away through dread thereof (Isa. 31:8, 9).
Let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them cry from the top of the mountains (Isa. 42:11).
Attend to Me, ye that follow after righteousness, that seek Jehovah, look back unto the Rock from which ye were hewn (Isa. 51:1).
Forsake the cities, and dwell in the rock, ye inhabitants of Moab (Jer. 48:28).
I am against thee, O destroying mountain, destroying the universal earth; and I will stretch out My hand against thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a mountain of burning; neither shall they take from thee a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations (Jer. 51:25, 26);
speaking of Babel. And in David:
He made me come up out of a pit of devastation, out of the mire of clay, and He set my feet upon a rock (Ps. 40:2).
From the extremity of the earth do I cry unto Thee when my heart faileth, Thou leadest me to the Rock that is high from Me (Ps. 61:2).
He fed them with the fat of wheat; and with honey out of the rock I sated them (Ps. 81:16).
sRef Judg@6 @20 S6′ sRef Judg@6 @21 S6′ sRef Judg@13 @20 S6′ sRef Judg@13 @19 S6′ [6] As “a rock” signified the Lord as to faith, and faith from the Lord, therefore also wonderful things were done upon a rock, of which it is thus written in the book of Judges:
The angel of Jehovah said unto Gideon that he should take the flesh and the unleavened things, and put them upon the rock, and pour out the broth, and there went up fire out of the rock, and devoured the flesh and the unleavened things (Judg. 6:20, 21).
Manoah the father of Samson took a kid of the goats, and offered it upon the rock. Then the angel did wondrously, and went up in the flame (Judg. 13:19, 20).
What these things signified can be seen if from the internal sense there is unfolded what Gideon represented, and what Manoah the father of Samson; also what was signified by “the flesh” and “the unleavened things,” and by “the broth,” as also by “the kid of the goats,” and by “the fire;” for all and each of these things were representative and significative.
sRef Isa@48 @21 S7′ sRef Isa@48 @20 S7′ [7] From the signification of “a rock,” as being faith, it can also be known what is meant by Moses being put in an opening of the rock when he was to see Jehovah (Exod. 33:20-23); for by “an opening of a rock” is signified obscurity of faith. That the rock in Horeb from which came the waters signified the Lord, is known in the churches; but that it signifies the Lord as to faith, and also that it signifies faith from the Lord, has now been shown. The like to what is signified by “the rock in Horeb” is also signified by these words in Isaiah:
Say ye, Jehovah hath redeemed His servant Jacob, then shall he not thirst, He shall lead them in the wastes, He shall make the waters flow out of the rock for them, while He shall cleave the rock that the waters may flow out (Isa. 48:20, 21).
That water was not given to the people from any other rock than that in Horeb, is because by “Horeb” is signified the Divine Law; that the Divine Law is signified by “Horeb,” is because the Law was there promulgated; and faith which is from the Lord is from the Divine Law, that is, from the Word; for through this the Lord teaches what faith is, and also gives faith.

AC (Potts) n. 8582 sRef Num@20 @10 S0′ sRef Num@20 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @6 S0′ sRef Num@20 @12 S0′ 8582. And thou shalt smite the rock. That this signifies that they should be urgent in entreating the Lord, is evident from the signification of “smiting,” as being to be urgent in entreating, but from a humble heart. That “to smite the rock” denotes to entreat urgently from a humble heart, can be seen from the fact that because Moses smote the rock from a hard heart, and in this way expostulated, therefore it was intimated to him that he should not bring the people into the land of Canaan, as he himself relates in the book of Numbers:
Moses and Aaron gathered the congregation together before the rock, and he said to them, Hear I pray ye rebels; shall we bring you forth waters out of this rock? and Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock with his rod twice. Nevertheless many waters came out. Then Jehovah said unto Moses and Aaron, Because ye have not believed in Me, and sanctified Me in the eyes of the sons of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them (Num. 20:10-12).

AC (Potts) n. 8583 sRef Ex@17 @6 S0′ 8583. And there shall come waters out of it. That this signifies that the truths of faith are from Him, is evident from the signification of “the rock from which the waters would come out,” as being the Lord as to faith (of which just above, n. 5581); and from the signification of “waters,” as being the truths of faith (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8568).

AC (Potts) n. 8584 sRef Ex@17 @6 S0′ 8584. That the people may drink. That this signifies which shall refresh them and give them spiritual life, is evident from the signification of “drinking” as being to be instructed in the truths of faith, and thus giving and refreshing the spiritual life (see above, n. 8562).

AC (Potts) n. 8585 sRef Ex@17 @6 S0′ 8585. And Moses did so before the eyes of the elders of Israel. That this signifies the effect by means of primary truths, is evident from the signification of “Moses did so,” as being the effect; and from the signification of “the elders of Israel,” as being primary truths (see n. 8578). It was previously said that Moses should “take with him of the elders of Israel,” and now that he did so “in the sight of the elders of Israel,” because faith is given by means of truth, and indeed by means of primary truths; for enlightenment is effected by virtue of these, so that the truths flowing from them, which are called “secondary,” may be clearly perceived.

AC (Potts) n. 8586 sRef Ex@17 @7 S0′ 8586. Verse 7. And he called the name of the place Massah and Meribah, because of the quarreling of the sons of Israel, and because of their tempting Jehovah, saying, Is Jehovah in the midst of us, or not? “And he called the name of the place Massah,” signifies the quality of the state of the temptation; “and Meribah,” signifies the quality of the complaining; “because of the quarreling of the sons of Israel,” signifies a complaining from the grievousness of the temptation even so that they nearly yielded; “and because of their tempting Jehovah,” signifies that it was against the Divine whose aid they despair of; “saying, Is Jehovah in the midst of us?” signifies that they almost believed that the Lord does not bring aid to His own.

AC (Potts) n. 8587 sRef Ex@17 @7 S0′ 8587. And he called the name of the place Massah. That this signifies the quality of the state of the temptation, is evident from the signification of “name” and of “calling by name,” as being the quality (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2628, 2724, 3006, 3421, 6674, 6887); and from the signification of “the place,” as being the state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5606, 7381). That the quality of the state of the temptation is meant, is because temptation is the subject treated of; the quality of the state of it is signified by “Massah.” Moreover in the original tongue “Massah” means “temptation.” Its quality will be described in what now follows.

AC (Potts) n. 8588 sRef Ex@17 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@81 @7 S1′ 8588. And Meribah. That this signifies the quality of the complaining, is evident from the fact that in the original tongue “Meribah” means “contention,” or “quarreling,” and “quarreling” signifies complaining (see n. 8563, 8566); and because names signify the quality of the thing (n. 8587), therefore “Meribah” here signifies the quality of the complaining. As regards this temptation itself and its quality, be it known that in this passage are described those who in temptations almost yield, namely, those who complain against heaven and also against the Divine Itself, and at last almost disbelieve in the Divine Providence. These things are signified in the internal sense by what precedes, and also by what follows in this verse, namely, the quality of the state of the temptation, which is signified by “Massah,” and the quality of the complaining in the temptation, which is signified by “Meribah.” That this quality is here signified by “Meribah,” is plain in David:
Thou calledst upon Me in distress, and I rescued thee; I answered thee in the secret place, I proved thee at the waters of Meribah (Ps. 81:7).
[2] But in the internal historical sense, in which the subject treated of is the state of religion with the Israelitish nation, that nation is described in respect to its quality toward Jehovah, namely, that they were not willing by supplication to entreat Him for aid, but that they expostulated. The reason was, that at heart they did not acknowledge Jehovah as the supreme God, but only in the mouth, when they saw the miracles. That at heart they did not acknowledge Him is very evident from the Egyptian calf which they made for themselves and worshiped, saying that these were their gods; also from their frequent apostasy (of which see n. 8301). This is what is here described in the internal historical sense; but in the internal spiritual sense is described the quality of the temptation with those who before they are liberated are brought to the last of temptation.
sRef Deut@33 @8 S3′ sRef Deut@33 @9 S3′ sRef Deut@6 @16 S3′ sRef Ps@95 @11 S3′ sRef Deut@4 @16 S3′ sRef Ps@95 @10 S3′ sRef Ps@95 @9 S3′ sRef Ps@95 @8 S3′ [3] That the quality of the Israelitish nation and of its religiosity is described by contention with Moses at Massah and Meribah, is also evident in the following passages:
Harden not your heart, as at Meribah, as in the day of Massah in the wilderness, where your fathers tempted Me; they tempted Me, and saw My work; for forty years did I feel loathing at the generation, and said, It is a people that do err in their heart, and the same have not known My ways, to whom I sware in Mine anger that they should not come unto My rest (Ps. 95:8-11).
Ye shall not tempt Jehovah your God, as ye tempted Him in Massah (Deut. 6:16; 9:22, 24).
Of Levi he said, Thy Thummim and thy Urim are with the Holy Man, whom thou didst tempt at Massah, with whom thou didst contend at the waters of Meribah (Deut. 33:8).
“The Holy Man” here denotes the Lord, whom they tempted, and whom Moses and Aaron did not sanctify.
sRef Num@20 @13 S4′ sRef Num@20 @24 S4′ sRef Num@20 @12 S4′ [4] In the internal historical sense, in which the subject treated of is the religiosity of the Israelitish nation, by Moses and Aaron is not represented truth Divine, but the religiosity of that nation whose leaders and heads they were (n. 7041). Because this religiosity was such as said above, it was intimated to them that they should not bring the people into the land of Canaan, as is written in the book of Numbers:
Jehovah said unto Moses and Aaron, Because ye have not believed in Me, and sanctified Me in the eyes of the sons of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them; these are the waters of Meribah, because the sons of Israel contended with Jehovah (Num. 20:12, 13; 27:14).
Aaron shall be gathered unto his people, and shall not come into the land which I have given to the sons of Israel, because ye rebelled against My mouth at the waters of Meribah (Num. 20:24).
The same is said of Moses (Deut. 32:50, 51).
[5] That still representative Divine worship was instituted with that nation, was because representative worship could be instituted with any nation that had holy externals of worship, and worshiped almost idolatrously; for what is representative does not regard the person, but the thing (n. 1361), and it was the genius of that nation, beyond any other nation, to worship merely external things as holy and Divine, without any internal; as for instance to worship as deities their fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and afterward Moses and David, and moreover to account holy and as Divine, and to worship, every stone and every piece of wood that had been inaugurated in their Divine worship; as the arks, the tables therein, the lamp, the altar, the garments of Aaron, the Urim and Thummim, and afterward the temple. Of the Lord’s Providence there was then given a communication of the angels of heaven with man by means of such things. For there must needs be somewhere a church, or the representative of a church, in order that there may be communication of heaven with the human race; and as that nation, beyond any other nation, could make Divine worship consist in external things, and thus act the representative of a church, therefore that nation was taken.
[6] At that time communication with the angels in heaven was effected by means of representatives in the following way. Their external worship was communicated to angelic spirits who are simple, and who do not reflect upon internal things, but still are interiorly good. Such are they who in the Grand Man correspond to the outer skin. These pay no attention whatever to the internal of man, but only to his external. If this appears holy, they think holily of the internal also. The more interior angels of heaven saw in those spirits the things that were represented, consequently the heavenly and Divine things that corresponded; for they could be present with these spirits, and see those things; but not with the men except by means of the spirits. For angels dwell with men in things interior; but where there are no such things, they dwell in the interior things of simple spirits; for the angels have no interest in other than spiritual and heavenly things, which are the interior things contained in representatives. From these few words it can be seen how there could be communication with heaven by means of such a people. But see what has been previously shown on this subject, namely: That with the Jews the holy of worship was miraculously elevated into heaven quite apart from them (n. 4307); that whatever their quality might be, the descendants of Jacob could represent what is holy, provided they closely observed the rituals commanded (n. 3147, 3479, 3480, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4289, 4293, 4307, 4444, 4500, 4680, 4825, 4844, 4847, 4899, 4912, 6304, 6306, 7048, 7051, 8301).

AC (Potts) n. 8589 sRef Ex@17 @7 S0′ 8589. Because of the quarreling of the sons of Israel. That this signifies a complaining from the grievousness of the temptation even so that they nearly yielded, is evident from the signification of “quarreling,” as being a grievous complaining (see n. 8563); that it denotes that they nearly yielded, is evident from the character of their quarreling, namely, that they had almost stoned Moses, and that they tempted Jehovah, saying, Is Jehovah in the midst of us?

AC (Potts) n. 8590 sRef Ex@17 @7 S0′ 8590. And because of them tempting Jehovah. That this signifies that it was against the Divine, whose aid they despair of, is evident from what was said above (see n. 8567), where are the same words.

AC (Potts) n. 8591 sRef Ex@17 @7 S0′ 8591. Saying, Is Jehovah in the midst of us? That this signifies that they almost believed that the Lord does not bring aid to His own, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 8592 sRef Ex@17 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @9 S0′ 8592. Verses 8, 9. And Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim. And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight against Amalek; tomorrow I stand upon the top of the hill, and the rod of God in my hand. “And Amalek came,” signifies falsity from interior evil; “and fought with Israel in Rephidim,” signifies that they attacked when grievous temptation was being endured; “and Moses said unto Joshua,” signifies Divine influx into truth combating; “Choose us out men,” signifies that it may draw up truths for the fight; “and go out, fight against Amalek,” signifies against falsities from interior evil; “tomorrow I stand on the top of the hill,” signifies the conjunction of truth Divine with the good of charity, and the consequent influx; “with the rod of God in my hand,” signifies that from this was power.

AC (Potts) n. 8593 sRef Ex@17 @8 S0′ 8593. And Amalek came. That this signifies falsity from interior evil, is evident from the signification of “Amalek,” as being the falsity from interior evil (of which below). It is first to be told who and what they are who are in falsity from interior evil. Interior evil is that which lies inwardly concealed with man, hidden in his will, and thence in his thought, no trace of which appears in his externals, as in his actions, speech, and face. They who are in such evil study by every method and art to hide and hoard it under the semblance of what is honorable and just, and under the semblance of the love of the neighbor; yet still they devise nothing else within themselves than how they can inflict evil, and so far as they can they do inflict evil by means of others, taking care that it should not appear to be from them; they also color over the evil itself, that it may not seem like evil. The greatest delight of their life is to meditate such things, and to attempt them in concealment. This is called interior evil. They who are in this evil are called “evil genii,” and in the other life are completely separated from those who are in exterior evil, and who are called “spirits.” The evil genii have their hell behind man, that is, at his back, and are there in various caverns; but evil spirits have their hell before man, and also at the sides. In the Grand Man these genii belong to the province of the cerebellum, and also to that part of the spinal marrow which sends forth fibers and nerves to the involuntary parts.
sRef Num@14 @45 S2′ sRef Num@14 @43 S2′ [2] As further concerning the falsity from this evil-it is not like the falsity from the evil of evil spirits, for in itself it is evil. They who are in this evil do not attack the truths of faith, but the goods of faith; for they act by means of depraved affections, whereby they pervert good thoughts, and this in a manner almost incomprehensible. Because they are of such a nature, their hells are completely separated from the hells of evil spirits, insomuch that they have scarcely any communication, and this for the reason that they may be separated from the men of the spiritual church; for if they were to flow in from their hells, it would be all over with the man of that church, because they would act in the most hidden manner into his conscience and would pervert it, and this by the breathing in of depraved affections. These infernal genii never attack a man openly, nor when he is capable of vigorous resistance; but when it appears that a man is falling so as to yield, they are then suddenly at hand, and push him on to a complete fall. This too is represented by the fact that Amalek now fell upon Israel; and also afterward, when the sons of Israel had set themselves in opposition to Jehovah, and were afraid of the nations in the land of Canaan:
Then Amalek came down with the Canaanite from the mountain, and they smote the sons of Israel even unto Hormah (Num. 14:45).
sRef 1Sam@15 @11 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @14 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @2 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @13 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @12 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @5 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @6 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @3 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @4 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @9 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @10 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @7 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @8 S3′ sRef Deut@25 @18 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @23 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @24 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @25 S3′ sRef Deut@25 @19 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @26 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @17 S3′ sRef Deut@25 @17 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @15 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @16 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @18 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @21 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @22 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @19 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @20 S3′ sRef 1Sam@15 @1 S3′ sRef Ex@17 @16 S3′ [3] From all this it can be seen what is the quality of those who are represented by Amalek, and why the judgment came upon Amalek from Jehovah that there should be perpetual war against them, and that the memory of them should be blotted out from under heaven, according to these words in the last verse of this chapter:
Because the hand of the evil is against the throne of Jah, there shall be war to Jehovah against Amalek from generation to generation (Exod. 17:16).
And in Deuteronomy:
Remember what Amalek did to thee by the way, when thou camest forth out of Egypt; that he met thee in the way, and smote the hindmost in thee, all that were feeble, when thou wast faint and weary, and he feared not God; when Jehovah thy God shall have given thee rest, thou shalt blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget (Deut. 25:17-19).
Also in the first book of Samuel, where it is said by Jehovah through Samuel unto Saul:
I have resolved to visit that which Amalek did to Israel, who laid wait for him in the way, when he was coming up out of Egypt; wherefore go and smite Amalek, and give to the curse all things which are his, and spare them not; but slay from man even to woman, from infant even to suckling, from ox even to small cattle, from camel even to ass. But Saul spared king Agag, and the best of the flock, and of the oxen, and the second sort, and the rams, and all that was excellent;
and so it was denounced against Saul that from him there should no more be a king over Israel (1 Sam. 15:1-3, 9, 23, 26).
That “the memory of Amalek was to be blotted out,” and that “all things with him were to be given to the curse,” signified that evil genii should have no communication whatever with those who are of the spiritual church; for they communicate with those who are not in truths, but who favor falsities from evil affection.
sRef 1Sam@15 @33 S4′ sRef 1Sam@15 @32 S4′ [4] Who cannot see that without a cause that lies deeply concealed Jehovah would never have said that “there should be perpetual war against Amalek,” and that “the memory of them should be blotted out from under heaven,” and that “all things with him should be given to the curse,” and that nevertheless this was not done. The deeply hidden reason why these things were said and done, is involved in the words of Samuel to Agag the king of the Amalekites, whom Saul spared:
Agag the king of Amalek came unto Samuel delicately; but Samuel said, As thy sword hath bereaved women, so shall thy mother be bereaved beyond women; and Samuel hewed him in pieces before Jehovah (1 Sam. 15:32, 33).
“To go delicately” signifies the outward blandishments of such spirits in the presence of others; “thy sword hath bereaved women” signifies that the falsity of these spirits inflicts violence on good affections; “thy mother shall be bereaved beyond women” signifies that with them will prevail evil affection from the will, and not from the intellectual part; “and Samuel hewed him in pieces before Jehovah” signifies that they were separated from those who are in falsity from evil from the intellectual part; thus genii from spirits (as said above). (That “women” denote affections, see n. 568, 6014, 8337; and that “a sword” denotes falsity combating and vastating, n. 2799, 4499, 7102.)

AC (Potts) n. 8594 sRef Ex@17 @8 S0′ 8594. And fought with Israel in Rephidim. That this signifies that they attacked when grievous temptation was being endured, is evident from the signification of “fighting,” as being to attack by means of falsities from interior evil; and from the signification of “Rephidim,” as being the quality of the temptation as to truth (see n. 8561). What is meant by these words is evident from what was said just above (n. 8593), namely, that in the other life they who are represented by Amalek attack those who are in temptation when they are falling almost to the point of yielding.

AC (Potts) n. 8595 sRef Ex@17 @9 S0′ 8595. And Moses said unto Joshua. That this signifies Divine influx into fighting truth, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as here being influx, because into truth combating, which is represented by Joshua; that it is Divine influx, is because by Moses is represented Divine truth, that is, the truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord, which truth, being purely Divine, flows into the truths of faith of whatever kind, and causes them to be truths; and from the representation of Joshua, as being fighting truth. That Joshua denotes fighting truth is evident from the fact that he was commanded to fight against Amalek, that is, against the falsities from interior evil. This war must be waged by truth made fighting through the influx of Divine truth. The truth Divine itself which proceeds immediately from the Lord, is not fighting, but pacific; for it is peace itself, because it proceeds from the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love. But in order that it may become fighting truth, it flows into such angels as are in ardent zeal for truth and good, and who being excited by this zeal fight. Hence comes the fighting truth which is represented by Joshua.
sRef Josh@5 @13 S2′ sRef Josh@5 @14 S2′ sRef Josh@5 @15 S2′ [2] As this truth was represented by Joshua, therefore he was also made the leader over the sons of Israel after Moses, and brought them into the land of Canaan, and fought with the nations there. For this reason also, when he came into the land of Canaan, there appeared to him an angel of Jehovah with a sword drawn in his hand, who called himself “the Prince of Jehovah’s army” (Josh. 5:13-15). By “a sword drawn in the hand” is signified fighting truth Divine in its power. (That “a sword” denotes truth fighting, see n. 2799, 4499; also that “a drawn sword” denotes truth continually fighting against falsities and evils, see n. 8294; and that “hand” denotes power, n. 878, 4931-4937, 7518, 8050, 8153; and also that by “the nations in the land of Canaan” are signified falsities and evils against which the fight is to be waged, n. 8504.)

AC (Potts) n. 8596 sRef Ex@17 @9 S0′ 8596. Choose us out men. That this signifies that it may draw up truths for the fight, is evident from the signification of “men,” as being truths (n. 265, 749, 1007, 3134). To draw up these for the fight is signified by “Joshua choosing them;” for when by Joshua is represented truth Divine fighting, by “the men whom he chose” and joined to himself, are signified truths drawn up for the fight.

AC (Potts) n. 8597 sRef Ex@17 @9 S0′ 8597. And go out, fight against Amalek. That this signifies against the falsities from interior evil, is evident from the representation of Amalek, as being falsities from interior evil (see above, n. 8593).

AC (Potts) n. 8598 sRef Ex@17 @9 S0′ 8598. Tomorrow I stand on the top of the hill. That this signifies the conjunction of truth Divine with the good of charity, and the consequent influx, is evident from the representation of Moses, who was to stand on the top of the hill, as being truth Divine (of which frequently above); from the signification of “standing,” as being to be conjoined and to flow in; that “standing” here denotes to be conjoined, is because he was then on the top of the hill, and by “a hill” is signified the good of charity; that it also denotes to flow in, is because from it he viewed the battle, and also determined it, which is signified by Israel prevailing when he lifted up his hand and by Amalek prevailing when he let down his hand: and from the signification of “a hill,” as being the good of charity (n. 6435).
[2] How the case is with the conjunction and influx of the good of charity into the fighting truth, shall be briefly told. As before said, the Divine becomes fighting truth through conjunction with those who are in zeal. They who are in zeal fight, yet not from any enmity and hostility, but rather from charity; for zeal differs from anger in the fact that zeal has within it the good of charity; and therefore when zeal fights it merely removes those who are in falsity and evil, to prevent them from hurting those who are in good and truth. On the other hand, anger not only removes them, but also pursues them with hatred and revenge. For from the charity that is in it, zeal wishes well even to those who are in evil and falsity, and also does well to them so far as they do not injure the good, whereas anger, from the hatred and revenge which are within it, wishes harm to all with whom it fights, whether they be good or evil. From this it can be seen what is meant by the influx of the good of charity into truth fighting. (That zeal has good in it, and anger has evil, see n. 4164, 4444.)

AC (Potts) n. 8599 sRef Ex@17 @9 S0′ 8599. With the rod of God in thy hand. That this signifies that from this there was power, is evident from the signification of “the rod of God,” as being Divine power (n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936, 7026); and from the signification of “hand,” as also being power (n. 8595). It is said “the rod of God in the hand,” because by “rod” is signified exterior power, and by “hand” interior power; or by “rod” natural power, and by “hand” spiritual power (n. 6947, 7011). It is said that “from this there was power,” because truth fighting has power in it from good; for all the power which truth has, is from the good which is therein. The reason is that the Divine is in good, and through good in truth; but is not in truth without good. That all the power of truth is from good, see n. 3563, 4931; and that all the power of good is from the Divine, is manifest.

AC (Potts) n. 8600 sRef Ex@17 @13 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @12 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @11 S0′ 8600. Verses 10-13. And Joshua did as Moses had said to him in fighting against Amalek; and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. And it was, when Moses lifted up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, that Amalek prevailed. And Moses’ hands were heavy, and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat upon it; and Aaron and Hur held up his hands, one on one side, and the other on the other; and it was, his hands were steady until the setting of the sun. And Joshua weakened Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.
“And Joshua did as Moses had said to him,” signifies the effect, as the fighting truth had been instructed by Divine truth; “in fighting against Amalek,” signifies against the falsity from interior evil; “and Moses, and Aaron, and Hur,” signifies Divine truths in successive order; “went up to the top of the hill,” signifies in the good of charity; “and it was when Moses lifted up his hand,” signifies when faith looked toward the Lord with those who were of the spiritual church; “that Israel prevailed,” signifies that then the fighting truth conquered; “and when he let down his hand,” signifies when the faith with them looked downward or away from the Lord to self and the world; “that Amalek prevailed,” signifies that then the falsity conquered; “and Moses’ hands were heavy,” signifies that the power of looking upward to the Lord failed; “and they took a stone,” signifies truth Divine in the ultimate of order; “and put it under him, and he sat upon it,” signifies correspondence with truth in the first of order; “and Aaron and Hur,” signifies truths in order; “held up his hands,” signifies the upholding of the power of the fighting truth; “one on one side, and the other on the other,” signifies on all sides; “and it was, his hands were steady,” signifies the strength of power then; “until the setting of the sun,” signifies when this state ceased; “and Joshua weakened Amalek and his people,” signifies the lessening of power with those who are in falsity from interior evil; “with the edge of the sword,” signifies by means of fighting truth.

AC (Potts) n. 8601 sRef Ex@17 @10 S0′ 8601. And Joshua did as Moses had said to him. That this signifies the effect, as the fighting truth had been instructed by Divine truth, is evident from the signification of “doing,” as being the effect; from the representation of Joshua, as being fighting truth (see just above, n. 8595); and from the signification of “as Moses had said to him,” as being as it had been instructed by Divine truth. For by Moses is represented Divine truth, and by “as he said” is signified to be instructed by it.

AC (Potts) n. 8602 sRef Ex@17 @10 S0′ 8602. In fighting against Amalek. That this signifies against the falsities from interior evil, is evident from the representation of Amalek, as being falsity from interior evil (see above, n. 8593).

AC (Potts) n. 8603 sRef Ex@17 @10 S0′ 8603. And Moses, Aaron, and Hur. That this signifies Divine truths in successive order, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being Divine truth proceeding immediately from the Lord (see n. 7010); from the representation of Aaron, as being Divine truth proceeding mediately from the Lord (n. 7009); and from the representation of Hur, as being Divine truth again mediately proceeding through this; thus they denote truths in successive order.
[2] What is meant by truths in successive order shall be briefly told. Each and all things in universal nature come forth from interior things in order, being derivations and successions. But interior things do not cohere with exterior things by continuity, but they are distinct, and are conjoined by means of protrusions like fibers, through which there are communications. An idea of the nature of these derivations and consequent successions in general, may be obtained from fruits, as from citrons, apples, and the like. The most external things are the skins which encompass them; the interior things are the pulp which is enclosed; the still more interior things are the seeds, which are encompassed with cases outwardly, and next themselves with membranes; beneath which is the inner pulp, containing the first form, as a soul; from which again come new trees and new fruits.
[3] All these things are in successive order, and are distinct from one another, and are also joined together. The communication of the interior things with the exterior is effected in a wonderful way by means of passings over that are as it were fibrous. At first, while forming, they almost cohere, but in course of time they are separated; for before the first form, which is the inmost in the seed, can be expanded into forms like its parents, it must be successively opened; and when it is being opened and begins to grow, the pulps with which it is encompassed adapt themselves, serving first as soil, next as fertilizing sap; after this period, which is its period in the womb, it is born, and is then left to the soil of the earth, wherein it has been sown in the form of seed.
[4] From all this an idea can be formed how the case is with derivatives in successive order. As it is in the vegetable kingdom, so also it is in the animal kingdom, but in this much more perfectly. There are in the animal kingdom exterior, and interior, and inmost things, in like manner in successive order, which are distinct from one another, and are also joined together; but they differ in the fact that the forms in the animal kingdom have been created to receive life. Consequently, as the forms recipient of life are in successive order, so also are the lives which result therefrom; for the forms or substances recipient of life are the subjects, and the things that result from their changes and modifications are the forces, which are to be called “lives,” because they are living forces.
[5] From all this it can now be seen what is meant by “Divine truths in successive order;” for all things that belong to life bear relation to truth, and their perfection to good, and in the opposite sense to falsity, and their imperfection to evil. The passings over from one to the other in successive order are also called “degrees.”
[8603a. Went up to the top of the hill, signifies in the good of charity.]

AC (Potts) n. 8604 sRef Ex@17 @11 S0′ 8604. And it was when Moses lifted up his hand. That this signifies when the faith looked toward the Lord, with those who were of the spiritual church, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (of which frequently above); and from the signification of “lifting up the hand,” as being to determine the spiritual power upward, thus to the Lord. That “the hand” denotes spiritual power, see n. 6947, 7011; and because it denotes spiritual power it denotes faith; for all power in the spiritual world (that is, against falsities from evil) belongs to truth from good, or to faith from charity (n. 3563, 4932).
[2] What it is to look toward the Lord, and what it is to look toward the world and self; thus what it is to look above self, and what to look below self (see n. 7814-7821); namely, that to look above self is to look to the neighbor, to our country, to the church, to heaven, thus to the Lord (n. 7814, 7815, 7817); that to look below self is to look to the world and to self (n. 7817); that to look above self and below self is to have as the end and to love above all things (n. 7818); that man is distinguished from brutes by the fact that he can look above self and below self, and that when he looks above self, he is a man, but when below self, he is a beast (see n. 7821); and that to look above self is to be elevated by the Lord (n. 7816), for the Lord flows in with every man through the truth which is from Himself, whereby He gives life to man, because the light which is from the Lord is Divine truth, and is life (John 1:4).
[3] This Divine truth which is from the Lord flows into the good with man, and by means of it draws the man to itself; for the life which is from the Lord has a power of attracting, because it is from love, since all love has in it this power, inasmuch as it wills to be conjoined, so as to be a one. Then therefore a man is in good, and from good in truth, he is drawn by the Lord, and is conjoined with Him. This is meant by “looking upward to the Lord.” But when a man is not in good, thus not in truth from good, then too he is drawn by the Lord, but cannot be elevated, because evils and the derivative falsities turn themselves away. This is meant by “looking downward,” or “to self and the world.”
sRef John@12 @32 S4′ [4] That the Lord draws man to Himself, the Lord Himself teaches in John:
I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto Myself (John 12:32).
From all this it can now be seen how it is to be understood that when the faith looked toward the Lord, the fighting truth conquered, and that when the faith looked downward from the Lord to self and the world, the falsity conquered, as is signified by Israel prevailing when Moses held up his hand, and by Amalek prevailing when he let down his hand.

AC (Potts) n. 8605 sRef Ex@17 @11 S0′ 8605. Israel prevailed. That this signifies that then the fighting truth conquered, is evident from the signification of “prevailing,” as being to conquer; and from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church, here those who fight from truths against the falsities from interior evil.

AC (Potts) n. 8606 sRef Ex@17 @11 S0′ 8606. And when he let down his hand. That this signifies when the faith with them looked downward, or away from the Lord, to self and the world, is evident from the things unfolded just above (n. 8604.) The reason why the faith that looks to the Lord conquers, is that in this case the Lord fights, for the Lord is the faith, because the faith is from Him. But the faith which looks away from the Lord to self and the world yields, because the man then fights from himself.

AC (Potts) n. 8607 sRef Ex@17 @11 S0′ 8607. Amalek prevailed. That this signifies that then the falsity conquered, is evident from the signification of “prevailing,” as being to conquer; and from the representation of Amalek, as being falsity from interior evil (n. 8593). By Israel now conquering, and now Amalek, was represented that they who are of the spiritual church cannot be in a faith that continuously looks to the Lord, but that they are by turns in a faith which looks to themselves and the world; for they who are of that church are in obscurity, and consequently in weakness, as to faith. (That such is their quality, see n. 2708, 2715, 2718, 2831, 2935, 2937, 3833, 6289, 6500, 6639, 6865, 6945, 7233). Hence it is that Amalek was not extirpated by Joshua, nor afterward by the judges, nor by the kings, in the land of Canaan, notwithstanding the command that he should be blotted out (n. 8593).

AC (Potts) n. 8608 sRef Ex@17 @12 S0′ 8608. And Moses’ hands were heavy. That this signifies that the power of looking upward to the Lord failed, is evident from the signification of “hands,” as being the powers that belong to faith (see above, n. 8604); and from the signification of “heavy,” or that the strength to lift up the hands was diminished, as being that the power of looking upward to the Lord failed; for by “lifting up the hands” is signified faith looking upward to the Lord (n. 8604), and by “letting down the hand,” faith looking downward from the Lord (n. 8606).

AC (Potts) n. 8609 sRef Ex@17 @12 S0′ 8609. And they took a stone. That this signifies truth Divine in the ultimate of order, is evident from the signification of “a stone,” as being truth (see n. 643, 1298, 3720, 3769, 3771, 3789, 6426), here truth in the ultimate of order, because it was put under him and he sat upon it. Moreover a common stone signifies lower truth, but a precious stone higher or interior truth. What truth in the ultimate of order is, can be seen from what was said above (n. 8603) concerning truths in successive order, namely, that there are interior truths and exterior truths. Those which are last or ultimate are meant by “truths in the ultimate of order.”

AC (Potts) n. 8610 sRef Ex@17 @12 S0′ 8610. And put it under him, and he sat upon it. That this signifies correspondence with truth in the first of order, can be seen from the fact that this stone supported Moses, and by Moses is represented truth in the first of order, or the truth Divine which proceeds immediately from the Lord. When the truth in the ultimate of order corresponds to this truth, then this truth is supported, because then they act as a one. For interior things are conjoined with exterior and finally with the last or ultimate by means of correspondences; then the truth which is first has strength in that which is last, because it is in this and acts by means of it. But if there is no correspondence, there is disjunction; consequently the truth which is first has no strength in the last or ultimate. What correspondence is, can be seen from what has been abundantly adduced at the end of many chapters concerning the correspondence with the Grand Man of all things appertaining to man.

AC (Potts) n. 8611 sRef Ex@17 @12 S0′ 8611. And Aaron and Hur. That this signifies truths in order, is evident from the representation of Aaron and Hur, as being lower truths in successive order relatively to the truth that is in the first of order which is represented by Moses (see above, n. 8603).

AC (Potts) n. 8612 sRef Ex@17 @12 S0′ 8612. Held up his hands. That this signifies the upholding of the power of the fighting truth, is evident from the signification of “hands,” as being power (see n. 878, 4931-4937, 7518, 8050, 8153), here the power of the fighting truth which is represented by Joshua (n. 8595). That the upholding of the fighting truth is what is signified by “Aaron and Hur holding up the hands of Moses,” is because Joshua prevailed through the uplifting of the hands of Moses.

AC (Potts) n. 8613 sRef Ex@17 @12 S0′ 8613. One on one side, and the other on the other. That this signifies on all sides, is evident from the fact that “one on one side, and the other on the other” means at the right hand and at the left, and in the spiritual sense “at the right hand and at the left” denotes on all sides, for the right and the left are not determinations to a certain quarter, but to every quarter, according to whatever direction the man turns himself. Still more is this the case in the spiritual world, where the determinations of spaces are not at all as they are in the natural world; for in the spiritual world what is at the right appears at the right in every turning or turning right round; in like manner what is at the left (see n. 4321, 4882).

AC (Potts) n. 8614 sRef Ex@17 @12 S0′ 8614. And it was, his hands were steady. That this signifies the strength of power then, is evident from the signification of “hands,” as being power (see above, n. 8612). Hence the strength of power is signified by the hands being made steady through being held up.

AC (Potts) n. 8615 sRef Ex@17 @12 S0′ 8615. Until the setting of the sun. That this signifies when this state ceased, namely, the state of combat with falsity from interior evil, is evident from the fact that the times of the day, from the rising of the sun to its setting, and again to its rising, signify the changes of state which those undergo who are in the other life. The end of this state is signified by the time of the sun’s setting, and hence by “until the setting of the sun,” is signified when this state ceased. (That the times of the day from the rising of the sun to its setting signify states and their changes, see n. 5672, 5962, 6110, 8426.)
[2] Every person who reflects can see that the things which are related in these verses contain arcana which do not appear in the letter-as that Moses stood on a hill, and had a rod in his hand; that Joshua conquered when Moses lifted up his hands, and Amalek conquered when Moses let down his hands; that they put a stone under him upon which he sat; and that Aaron and Hur held up his hands, and this until the setting of the sun. Unless all and every one of these things had corresponded to things that are in heaven, they could not have contributed anything to the battle with Amalek.
[3] Correspondences have all power, insomuch that what is done on earth according to correspondences avails in heaven, because correspondences are from the Divine. They who are in the good of love and of faith are in correspondence, and the Divine does all things that appertain to them, for from the Divine come the good of love and the good of faith. All the miracles recorded in the Word were done by means of correspondences. The Word has been so written that every particular therein, even to the most minute, corresponds to things that are in heaven. Consequently the Word has Divine power; and it conjoins heaven with earth, for when the Word is read on earth, the angels in heaven are moved unto the holiness that is in the internal sense. This is effected by means of the correspondences of all the several expressions in the Word.

AC (Potts) n. 8616 sRef Ex@17 @13 S0′ 8616. And Joshua weakened Amalek and his people. That this signifies the lessening of the power with those who are in the falsity from interior evil, is evident from the signification of “weakening,” as being a lessening of the power; and from the representation, of Amalek and his people, as being those who are in the falsity from interior evil (see above, n. 8593).

AC (Potts) n. 8617 sRef Ex@17 @13 S0′ 8617. With the edge of the sword. That this signifies by means of fighting truth, is evident from the signification of “a sword,” as being fighting truth (see. n. 2799, 8294).

AC (Potts) n. 8618 8618. Verses 14-16. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in the book, and put it in the ears of Joshua, that blotting I will blot out the memory of Amalek from under the heavens. And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovah-nissi; and he said, Because there is a hand against the throne of Jah, Jehovah shall have war against Amalek from generation to generation. “And Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies instruction; “Write this for a memorial in the book,” signifies for perpetual remembrance; “and put it in the ears of Joshua,” signifies to be obeyed in behalf of truth fighting against this falsity; “that blotting I will blot out the memory of Amalek from under the heavens,” signifies that this falsity must be completely removed so that it may fight no longer; “and Moses built an altar,” signifies in what is holy of worship and of memory; “and called the name of it Jehovah-nissi,” signifies continual warfare and the Lord’s protection against those who are in the falsity of interior evil; “and he said, Because there is a hand against the throne of Jah,” signifies because they wish to do violence to the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; “Jehovah shall have war against Amalek from generation to generation,” signifies that they were brought under the yoke, and were cast into hell, from which by reason of the Lord’s Divine power they can never rise up.

AC (Potts) n. 8619 8619. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as involving the things that follow; and because Moses is here instructed what must be done, it is instruction that is signified.

AC (Potts) n. 8620 sRef Dan@7 @10 S0′ sRef Dan@12 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @14 S1′ sRef Rev@20 @13 S1′ sRef Rev@20 @15 S1′ sRef Rev@20 @12 S1′ sRef Ps@69 @28 S1′ sRef Ps@69 @27 S1′ sRef Isa@30 @8 S1′ sRef Rev@3 @5 S1′ sRef Rev@21 @27 S1′ 8620. Write this for a memorial in the book. That this signifies for perpetual remembrance, is evident from the signification of “a memorial,” as being that it is to be remembered, or that it is to be in the memory (see n. 8066, 8067); and from the signification of “writing in the book,” as being for perpetual remembrance. This is signified by “writing in a book” in Isaiah:
Come, write thou upon a tablet before them, and express it upon a book, that it may be for the time to come, forever even to eternity (Isa. 30:8).
As remembrance is signified by “writing in a book,” therefore the faithful are said to be “written in the book of life;” for by “Divine remembrance” is signified salvation, and by “non-remembrance,” or “forgetting,” is signified damnation. Concerning the book of life we read in these passages:
The Ancient of days did sit for the judgment, and the books were opened (Dan. 7:9, 10).
At that time thy people shall be rescued, everyone that shall be found written in the book (Dan. 12:1).
Give iniquity upon their iniquity; and let them not arrive at Thy righteousness; let them be blotted out of the book of lives, and not be written with the righteous (Ps. 69:27, 28).
He that overcometh shall be clothed in white garments; and I will not blot his name out of the book of life (Rev. 3:5).
There shall not enter into the New Jerusalem any but those who are written in the Lamb’s book of life (Rev. 21:27).
I saw that the books were opened; and another book was opened, which is that of life; and the dead were judged according to the things that were written in the books, according to their works. They were all judged according to their works. And if anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was cast out into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:12, 13, 15; and also, 13:8; 17:8).
He who does not know from the internal sense what the book of life is, and also what the books are out of which the dead are to be judged, cannot have any other idea than that in heaven there are such books, and that in them are written the acts of all, whereof the memory is thus preserved. When yet by “books” in the above passages are not meant books, but the remembrance of all things that have been done; for everyone carries with him into the other life the memory of all his acts, thus the book of his life (n. 2474). But no one except the Lord alone can judge anyone according to his acts; because all acts proceed from final causes, which lie deeply concealed within. Man is judged according to these causes; and no one knows them but the Lord. Therefore judgment belongs to Him alone, which is also meant by these words in John:
I saw upon the right hand of Him that sat on the throne a book written within and on the back, sealed with seven seals. Thereafter I saw a strong angel crying with a great voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof? One of the elders said to me, Behold the lion that is of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, hath overcome to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof. And He took the book, and they sang a new song, Worthy art Thou who takest the book, and openest the seals thereof (Rev. 5:1, 2, 5, 8, 9).
From all this it can be seen that by “a book written” is meant the presence of the acts of everyone. In like manner by the “book” in David:
On Thy book all the days were written that were ordained (Ps. 139:16).

AC (Potts) n. 8621 8621. And put it in the ears of Joshua. That this signifies to be obeyed in behalf of truth fighting against this falsity, is evident from the signification of “putting in the ears,” as being to be obeyed (that “ear” denotes obedience, see n. 2542, 3869, 4652- 4660); and from the representation of Joshua, as being truth fighting against the falsity from interior evil (n. 8595).

AC (Potts) n. 8622 8622. That blotting I will blot out the memory of Amalek from under the heavens. That this signifies that this falsity must be completely removed so that it may fight no longer, is evident from the signification of “blotting out the memory,” as being to remove (of which below); and from the representation of Amalek, as being those who are in falsity from interior evil (see n. 8593).
[2] That “blotting out the memory of Amalek” denotes to remove the falsity which is from interior evil, is because this can be removed, but cannot be blotted out, for this falsity exists with the infernal genii who live to eternity (n. 8593). But these genii are removed by the Lord, to prevent them from flowing into those who are of the spiritual church. The reason is that they do not flow into the thoughts which are of the understanding, thus not into what is of faith, as infernal spirits do, but into the affections which are of the will, consequently into the things of charity; and this so secretly that there never appears a trace that it is from them; and therefore if they were to flow in, the man of the spiritual church could not possibly be saved, because they would pervert and utterly deprave the affections of truth and good. Hence it is that these infernal genii are removed, so that they may not communicate with those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom.
[3] Be it known further that with the man of the spiritual church a new will has been implanted in the intellectual part (n. 895, 927, 1023, 1043, 1044, 2256, 4328, 4493, 5113), which will these genii would wholly destroy if they were permitted to flow in. They would also enter into the hereditary evils of the old will, and would reopen them, and yet they have been closed (that these have been closed, see n. 986, 1667, 2308). These infernal genii are removed in this way in order to prevent their flowing in; because their falsity, which is falsity from interior evil, is evil, and indeed such evil that it cannot flow into the intellectual part, but into the will part; and as the new will of the man of the spiritual church has been implanted in the intellectual part, as was said above, they have consequently been removed from influx into it. To this end moreover the Lord provides that such genii be vastated as to everything intellectual.
[4] Men become such genii after death who have continually meditated evil against their neighbor, and have delighted their thought with such things, and moreover have inflicted evil, but secretly and by means of others, taking the greatest care that no one should know that it came from them. In other respects they have seemed in outward appearance modest and courteous, and like friends, and also like Christians in their speech, as also in their life, yet have been hypocrites, and inwardly deceitful tigers.

AC (Potts) n. 8623 sRef Josh@22 @20 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @21 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @18 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @19 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @22 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @25 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @26 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @23 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @24 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @13 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @14 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @15 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @12 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @15 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @17 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @10 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @11 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @16 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @33 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @32 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @34 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @31 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @28 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @29 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @30 S0′ sRef Josh@22 @27 S0′ 8623. And Moses built an altar. That this signifies for what is holy of worship and of memory, is evident from the signification of “an altar,” as being the chief representative of the Lord (see n. 2777, 2811, 4489), and consequently what is holy of worship (n. 4541). That it is also for memory, is because in ancient times mounds were piled up as a witness unto and in memory of something that was to stand firm, and which they were to remember; and afterward also altars (n. 4192); in the present case in memory of the fact that because the hand of Amalek was against the throne of Jah, Jehovah would have war against him from generation to generation. That altars were erected for witness and memory, is also evident from the altar that the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh built at the Jordan, concerning which they said to the sons of Israel, who on that account were disposed to make war against them, that they built it to be a witness that they would not worship Jehovah by burnt-offerings and sacrifices upon this altar, but upon the altar that was before the tabernacle; and therefore they called that altar “a witness between us and you that Jehovah is God” (Josh. 22:10-34).

AC (Potts) n. 8624 sRef Ex@17 @15 S0′ 8624. And called the name of it Jehovah-nissi. That this signifies continual warfare, and the Lord’s protection, against those who are in the falsity of interior evil, is evident from the fact that the names bestowed by the ancients in the church signified the quality and the state of the thing then in question, and these they also wrapped up in the very names (see n. 340, 1946, 3422, 4298). The quality and the state of the thing here treated of is that Jehovah would have war against Amalek from generation to generation; in the internal sense, that there should be perpetual war against those who are in the falsity of interior evil; this also is signified by “Jehovah-nissi.” In the original tongue “Jehovah-nissi” means “Jehovah my banner,” or “ensign,” and by “an ensign,” or “banner,” in the Word is signified a calling together for war; and as it is said that “Jehovah shall have war,” protection by Him is also signified.
sRef Jer@4 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@49 @22 S2′ sRef Isa@13 @2 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @26 S2′ sRef Isa@18 @3 S2′ [2] That by “a banner” or “ensign” is signified a calling together for war, is evident from the fact that when they were called together, whether for journeyings, or for festivals, or for war, they sounded a trumpet, and then also lifted up an ensign or banner upon the mountains. That they sounded a trumpet see Numbers 10:1-11; that they lifted up an ensign or banner see the following passages:
Declare ye in Judah, and make it heard in Jerusalem, and say, and blow ye the trumpet in the land, proclaim, fill full, say, Gather yourselves together, and let us enter into the defensed cities, set up a banner toward Zion, assemble yourselves, stay not (Jer. 4:5, 6).
All ye inhabitants of the world, and ye dwellers on the earth, when a banner is lifted up, see ye; and when a trumpet is sounded, hear ye (Isa. 18:3).
He hath lifted up a banner to the nations from far, and hath hissed for him from the extremity of the earth; and behold he shall come with speed swiftly (Isa. 5:26).
Lift ye up a banner upon the lofty mountain, lift up the voice unto them, wave the hand, that they may come to the gate of the princes (Isa. 13:2).
Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Behold I will lift up My hand toward the nations, and set up My banner to the peoples; and they shall bring thy sons in their bosom, and thy daughters they shall carry upon their shoulder (Isa. 49:22).
From these passages it is plain that by “a banner” is signified a gathering together.
sRef Isa@59 @19 S3′ sRef Isa@59 @20 S3′ sRef Isa@11 @10 S3′ [3] That “a banner” or “ensign,” when predicated of the Lord, signifies also protection, is evident in these passages:
They shall fear the name of Jehovah from the west, and His glory from the rising of the sun; because it will come as a pent-up stream, the spirit of Jehovah shall lift up a banner against him; then shall the Redeemer come to Zion (Isa. 59:19).
It shall come to pass in that day that the root of Jesse, which standeth for a banner of the people, shall the nations seek; and his rest shall be glory (Isa. 11:10).
sRef Num@21 @8 S4′ sRef Num@21 @9 S4′ sRef John@3 @15 S4′ sRef John@3 @14 S4′ [4] Inasmuch as “an ensign” which in the original tongue is expressed by the same term as “a banner,” signified a gathering together, and when said of the Lord, protection also, therefore it was expressly commanded that a brazen serpent should be set upon an ensign, of which we read in Moses:
Jehovah said unto Moses, Make thee a serpent, and set it upon an ensign; and it shall come to pass that everyone that is bitten, and looketh at it, shall live. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon an ensign; whence it came to pass that if a serpent had bitten a man, and he looked at the serpent of brass, he lived again (Num. 21:8, 9).
That the brazen serpent represented the Lord, see John 3:14, 15; that it also signified protection, is plain; for the healing effected by looking on the serpent that was on the ensign signified healing from evils of falsity by the looking of faith to the Lord. For the Lord says in the passage as quoted from John:
As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of man be lifted up; that whosoever believeth in Him may not perish, but may have eternal life (John 3:14, 15).

AC (Potts) n. 8625 sRef Ex@17 @16 S0′ 8625. And he said, Because there is a hand against the throne of Jah. That this signifies because they wish to do violence to the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of “a hand against anyone,” as being to do violence; and from the signification of “the throne of Jah,” as being the Lord’s spiritual kingdom. That “the throne of Jah” denotes the Lord’s spiritual kingdom is because “a throne” is predicated of the Lord’s royalty; and the Lord’s spiritual kingdom corresponds to His royalty. There are two things which are predicated of the Lord, namely, priesthood and royalty. The celestial kingdom corresponds to His priesthood, and the spiritual kingdom to His royalty; for the Lord is called “Priest” from Divine good, and “King” from Divine truth. This latter, namely, Divine truth, is involved in the name “Christ,” and Divine good in the name “Jesus” (see n. 1728, 2015, 3004, 3009, 6148). “Throne” is predicated of the Lord’s royalty, consequently of His spiritual kingdom, and in like manner “Jah.” (What “throne” signifies, see n. 5213; and what “Jah,” n. 8267.)
[2] As regards the subject itself, namely, that they who are represented by Amalek (who are infernal genii that are in the falsity from interior evil) wish to do violence to the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, this has been unfolded above (n. 8593, 8622). They who were in the falsity of this evil could not be warded off from those who were of the spiritual church until the Lord came into the world and made the human in Himself Divine. They were then shut up in hell, whence they can never rise up; moreover, the communication which is effected through influx, was quite taken away. For the man of the spiritual church is in obscurity as to the truth of faith, and acknowledges it as truth because the church has said so, and not because he has perceived it to be truth. With these men this truth becomes good, and consequently a matter of conscience. If malignant genii were to flow into their obscurity, they would destroy the conscience in a thousand ways; for they do not act into the truths of faith therein, but into the affections themselves; and wheresoever they notice anything of the affection of good, they pervert it in a moment so secretly that it cannot possibly be noticed. They attack the very ends. In a word, their malignity cannot be described; but it may be compared to an unseen deadly poison, which penetrates to the very marrows. Concerning these genii, of the Lord’s Divine mercy more shall be said from experience at the end of the chapters.

AC (Potts) n. 8626 sRef Ex@17 @16 S0′ 8626. Jehovah shall have war against Amalek from generation to generation. That this signifies that they were brought under the yoke and were cast into hell, from which by reason of the Lord’s Divine power they can never rise up, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah having war,” as being a casting into hell: and from the signification of “from generation to generation,” as being perpetually, thus that they can never rise up from it. (That this was by the Divine power of the Lord, see just above, n. 8625.) That “Jehovah having war” denotes a casting into hell, is because “Jehovah having war” denotes perpetual victory. The infernal genii cannot possibly wage war and fight against Jehovah, that is, against the Lord; yet it appears to them that they fight, and even that they sometimes conquer, when they subjugate those who are in evil; but still they have no power whatever against the Divine. The least exercise of Divine power by a single nod instantly subdues the whole diabolical crew, even if it consists of myriads of myriads; but still it gives them the opportunity to act insofar as their doing so may be of use, and insofar as their evil can be turned by the Lord into good. On this subject, of the Lord’s Divine mercy, elsewhere. From all this it can in some measure be seen that by “Jehovah having war with Amalek from generation to generation” is signified subjugation and casting into hell, from which by reason of the Lord’s Divine power they can never rise up.

AC (Potts) n. 8627 8627. CONTINUATION ABOUT THE INHABITANTS AND SPIRITS OF THE EARTH JUPITER.
The inhabitants of the earth Jupiter make wisdom consist in thinking well and justly about the occurrences in life. They derive this wisdom from their parents, from infancy, and it is transmitted by succession to posterity, and thereby increases. They know nothing at all of the sciences, such as are cultivated on our earth, and they do not wish to know them. They call them “shades,” and compare them to clouds that intercept the sun. They have got this idea about the sciences from some belonging to our earth, who in their presence have boasted that they are wise from the sciences.

AC (Potts) n. 8628 8628. The spirits from our earth who had thus boasted, were those who had made wisdom consist in things of mere memory, as in the languages; in the historical matters of the literary world; in bare experimental discoveries; in terms, especially such as are philosophical; and in other things of the kind; and had not used them as means for being wise; but had made wisdom consist in these things themselves. As these have not cultivated their rational faculty by the sciences as means, they have little perception in the other life, for they see only in terms and from terms, which there are like dust, and like thick clouds before the intellectual sight. And they who have been conceited by reason of this their learning, have still less perception. But they who have used the sciences as means for annihilating the things of faith, have totally destroyed their understanding, and see in thick darkness, like owls, falsity for truth, and evil for good.
[2] From their interaction with such the spirits of Jupiter had concluded that the sciences induce shade and cause blindness. But they were told that on this earth the sciences are the means of opening the intellectual sight, which sight is in the light of heaven, and instructs in such things as are of spiritual life; but as there reign the love of self and the love of the world, and consequently such things as are of merely natural and sensuous life, the sciences are to such the means of becoming insane; that is, of confirming themselves in favor of nature against the Divine, and in favor of the world against heaven.
[3] They were told further that in themselves the sciences are spiritual riches, and that they who possess them are like those who possess worldly riches, which in like manner are means of performing use to oneself, to the neighbor, and to our country, and also are means of doing evil; and also that they are like garments, which serve for use and adornment, and also for pride, as with those who desire to be honored from these alone. The spirits of the earth Jupiter understood these things well, but they marveled that any who are men should have set the things which lead to wisdom before wisdom itself; and that they should not see that to immerse the mind in such things, and not to elevate it beyond them, is to obscure and blind it.

AC (Potts) n. 8629 8629. A certain spirit ascending from the lower earth came to me and said that he had heard my conversation with the other spirits, but that he had understood scarcely anything that had been said about spiritual life and light. I asked him whether he wished to learn these things. He said he had not come with that intention; from which it might be inferred that he was unwilling. He was very stupid. The angels said that this man, during his life in the world, had been one of those who are celebrated for their learning. He was cold, as was plainly felt from his afflatus, which was a sign of merely natural light and of no spiritual light; thus that by means of the sciences he had not opened, but had closed for himself, the way to the light of heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 8630 8630. As the inhabitants of the earth Jupiter acquire intelligence by another way than do the inhabitants of our earth, and besides are from their life of a different disposition, they cannot be together; but if they approach they either shun or repel them. There are spheres that are to be called spiritual spheres, which continually emanate, nay, pour forth from every society. These spheres are from the activity of the affections and of the derivative thoughts, thus they are of the life itself (concerning spheres, see n. 1048, 1053, 1316, 1504, 1505, 1507, 1508, 1510-1519, 2401, 4464, 5179, 6206, 7454, 6598-6613, 8063).
[2] All the consociations in the other life are effected in accordance with the spheres; those which agree together are conjoined according to their agreement; those which do not agree are repelled according to their disagreement. Every province in the Grand Man (to which some member or organ in the human body corresponds), has its own sphere distinct from the sphere of any other province; hence the mutual conjunction of those who belong to the same province; and the disjunction of those who belong to some other. The spirits and angels who are from the earth Jupiter bear relation in the Grand Man to the IMAGINATIVE OF THOUGHT, and thus to an active state of the interior parts. But the spirits of our earth bear relation to the various functions of the exterior parts of the body, into which, when they desire to rule, the Imaginative of Thought cannot flow; hence the oppositions between the spheres.

AC (Potts) n. 8631 8631. In what clear perception the spirits of Jupiter are with respect to spiritual things, was made evident to me from their representation of how the Lord, whom they call their One Only Lord, converts depraved affections into good affections. They represented the intellectual mind as a beautiful form, and imparted to it an activity of the form that was suited to the affection; and they next showed how the Lord bends what is depraved therein to good, which they did in a way that no words can describe, and so dexterously that they were praised by the angels. There were then present learned ones from our earth, who had immersed their intellectual in the terms of memory-knowledges, and had disputed much about form, substance, the material and the immaterial, and the like, without applying such things to any use; but they could not comprehend even this representation.

AC (Potts) n. 8632 8632. I have spoken with spirits of that earth about the Lord, that He does evil to no one, still less punishes anyone. These spirits, being of the more simple ones, at first did not wish to admit this, believing that punishments are from the Lord. But when they were told that when their angels are with a man of their own earth, they do not chastise, nor even speak harshly, but only permit the punishing spirits who also are present to do so; and that seeing the angels do not chastise, how much less does the Lord, who is good itself, and who directs the angels-on hearing this they made acknowledgment, and affirmed in a plain voice, that the Lord punishes no one, and does evil to no one, nor does He even speak harshly to anyone. (On the angels and the punishing spirits with the inhabitants of Jupiter, see n. 7802-7805, 7810.)

AC (Potts) n. 8633 8633. As to what further concerns the life of those in that earth, I have been instructed by their spirits that as they do not care for memory-knowledges, so neither do they care for things made by art; also that they have no holidays, but that every morning at sunrise, and every evening at sunset, they have holy worship to the One Only Lord in their tents, and that they then also sing.

AC (Potts) n. 8634 8634. The subject of the inhabitants and spirits of the earth Jupiter will be continued at the end of the following chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 8635 8635. CHAPTER 18.
THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY.

No one can be regenerated unless he knows such things as are of the new life, that is, of spiritual life; for man is introduced into this life by means of regeneration. The things which are of the new life, or of spiritual life, are truths which must be believed, and goods which must be done; the former are of faith, the latter of charity.

AC (Potts) n. 8636 8636. No one can know these things from himself, for man apprehends only those things which have been obvious to his senses; from these he has procured for himself a light which is called natural light, by virtue of which he sees nothing else than what belongs to the world and to himself, and not what belongs to heaven and to God; these he must learn from revelation.

AC (Potts) n. 8637 8637. For example, that the Lord, who was God from eternity, came into the world to save the human race; that He has all power in heaven and in earth; that everything of faith and everything of charity, thus everything of truth and good is from Him; that there is a heaven, and that there is a hell; that man will live to eternity, in heaven if he has done well, in hell if he has done evil.

AC (Potts) n. 8638 8638. These things and more are of faith, which must be known by the man who is to be regenerated; for he who knows them can think them, then will them, and lastly do them, and thus have new life.

AC (Potts) n. 8639 8639. On the other hand, he who does not know that the Lord is the Savior of the human race, cannot have faith in Him, worship Him, love Him, and thus do good for His sake. He who does not know that all good is from Him, cannot think that his own righteousness and his own salvation are from Him, still less can he will it to be so, thus he cannot live from Him. He who does not know that there is a hell, and that there is a heaven, nor that there is eternal life, cannot even think about the life of heaven, nor apply himself to receiving it; and so in all other things.

AC (Potts) n. 8640 8640. From all this it can be seen what the quality of the life of a regenerate person is, that it is a life of faith; and also that it cannot be given to a man until he is in such a state as to be able to acknowledge the truths of faith, and insofar as he acknowledges them, to will them.

EXODUS 18

1. And Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people, in that Jehovah had brought forth Israel out of Egypt.
2. And Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses’ wife, after he had sent her away:
3. And her two sons; of which the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been a sojourner in a strange land:
4. And the name of the other was Eliezer; Because the God of my father was my help, and liberated me from the sword of Pharaoh.
5. And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law came, and his sons, and his wife, unto Moses, unto the wilderness where he was encamped at the mount of God.
6. And he said unto Moses, I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, with her two sons with her.
7. And Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed himself down, and kissed him; and they asked a man his companion as to peace; and they came into the tent.
8. And Moses told his father-in-law all that Jehovah had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the trouble that found them in the way, and Jehovah rescued them.
9. And Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel, who rescued them out of the hand of the Egyptians.
10. And Jethro said, Blessed be Jehovah, who hath rescued you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who rescued His people from under the hand of the Egyptians.
11. Now I know that Jehovah is great above all the gods; for the reason that they dealt proudly over them.
12. And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God; and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God.
13. And it was on the morrow, and Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening.
14. And Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, and he said, What is this word that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou alone, and all the people standing over thee from the morning until the evening?
15. And Moses said to his father-in-law, Because the people cometh unto me to inquire of God:
16. When they have a word, it cometh unto me; and I judge between a man and his companion, and I make known the judgments of God, and His laws.
17. And Moses’ father-in-law said unto him, The word that thou doest is not good.
18. Wearing thou wilt wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee; because the word is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to do it, thou alone.
19. Now hear my voice, I will counsel thee, and God shall be with thee: be thou for the people with God, and bring thou the words unto God:
20. And do thou teach them the statutes and the laws, and make known to them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do.
21. And do thou see out of all the people men of strenuousness, fearing God, men of truth, hating gain; and do thou set of them for princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens:
22. And let them judge the people in every time; and it shall be, every great word let them bring unto thee, and every small word let them judge; and devolve from upon thee, and let them bear with thee.
23. If thou do this word, and God have commanded thee, then thou shalt be able to stand, and also all this people shall come upon its place in peace.
24. And Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said.
25. And Moses chose men of strenuousness out of all Israel, and gave them as heads over the people: princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens.
26. And they shall judge the people in every time, the difficult word they shall bring unto Moses, and every small word they shall judge.
27. And Moses let his father-in-law go, and he went to himself unto his own land.

AC (Potts) n. 8641 sRef Ex@18 @0 S0′ 8641. THE CONTENTS.
The subject treated of in the internal sense in this chapter is truths in successive order from the First to the last, and that they are set in order by good Divine. Truth in the first degree is represented by Moses; the truths derived therefrom in successive order are represented by the princes of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens. And good Divine, by which the setting in order is effected, is represented by Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law.

AC (Potts) n. 8642 sRef Ex@18 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @2 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @4 S0′ 8642. THE INTERNAL SENSE
Verses 1-5. And Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people, in that Jehovah had brought forth Israel out of Egypt; and Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses’ wife, after he had sent her away. And her two sons, of which the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been a sojourner in a strange land. And the name of the other Eliezer; Because the God of my father was my help, and liberated me from the sword of Pharaoh. And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law came, and his sons, and his wife, unto Moses, into the wilderness where he was encamped at the mount of God. “And Jethro the priest of Midian,” signifies the Divine good; “Moses’ father-in-law,” signifies from which is the good conjoined with truth Divine; “heard all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people,” signifies the perception of those things which had been done for those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; “in that Jehovah had brought forth Israel out of Egypt,” signifies that they had been liberated by the Lord from infestations; “and Jethro Moses’ father-in-law took Zipporah, Moses’ wife,” signifies good from the Divine conjoined with truth Divine; “after he had sent her away,” signifies separation hitherto relatively to the state of those who are of the spiritual church; “and her two sons,” signifies the goods of truth; “of which the name of the one was Gershom, for he said I have been a sojourner in a strange land,” signifies the quality of the good of truth of those who are out of the church; “and the name of the other was Eliezer,” signifies the quality of the good of truth of those who are within the church; “because the God of my father was my help,” signifies the Lord’s mercy and presence in the church; “and liberated me from the sword of Pharaoh,” signifies liberation from the falsity of those who infested; “and Jethro Moses’ father-in-law came,” signifies the Divine good; “and his sons,” signifies the goods of truth; “and his wife,” signifies good conjoined with truth Divine; “unto Moses unto the wilderness,” signifies conjunction in the state before regeneration when there are temptations; “where he was encamped at the mount of God,” signifies near to the good of truth.

AC (Potts) n. 8643 sRef Ex@18 @1 S0′ 8643. And Jethro the priest of Midian. That this signifies the Divine good, is evident from the representation of Jethro, the priest of Midian, as being the good of the church that is in the truth of simple good (see n. 7015), but here he denotes the Divine good, for the reason that Moses, of whom Jethro was the father-in-law, represents Divine truth. For when the son-in-law represents truth, then the father-in-law represents the good in a higher degree, because he is the father of the other’s wife. That the Divine good is here represented by Jethro, is because in this chapter the subject treated of is the setting in order of truths with the man of the spiritual church, and this is effected by Divine good through Divine truth; for all setting in order is by good through truth. This setting in order is effected with the man of the spiritual church when he begins to act no longer from truth, but from good; for this state is his second state, which arises after he has undergone temptations. For when he acts from truth, then he is tempted, to the intent that the truths with him may be confirmed; and when these have been confirmed, then they are reduced by the Lord into order; and when they have been reduced into order, then he enters the second state, which consists in willing truths and doing them, whereby they become of the life, and are called goods. This setting in order is treated of below.

AC (Potts) n. 8644 sRef Ex@18 @1 S0′ 8644. Moses’ father-in-law. That this signifies from which is good conjoined with truth Divine, is evident from the signification of “father-in-law,” as being the good from which is the good that is conjoined with truth (see n. 6827); and from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (n. 6752, 6771, 7010, 7014, 7382). The reason why “a father-in-law” signifies good from which is good conjoined with truth, is that “a wife” signifies good when “the man” signifies truth (n. 2517, 4510, 4823). As in what follows, the conjunction of Divine good with Divine truth is treated of, whereby a setting in order may be effected in the man of the church, be it known that between Divine good and Divine truth there is this distinction: that Divine good is in the Lord, and Divine truth is from the Lord. It is as with the fire of the sun and the light which is therefrom; the fire is in the sun, and the light is from the sun; in the light there is not fire but heat.
[2] Moreover in the other life the Lord is the Sun, and also is the light. In the Sun there, which is Himself, is Divine fire, which is the Divine good of the Divine love. From that Sun is Divine light, which is Divine truth from Divine good. In this Divine truth there is also Divine good, but not such as is in the Sun, it being accommodated to reception in heaven; for unless it were accommodated to reception, heaven could not have come into existence, because no angel can bear the flame from the Divine love. He would be consumed in a moment, as would a man if the flame of the sun of this world should blow directly upon him.
[3] But how the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love is accommodated to reception, cannot be known by anyone, not even by the angels in heaven, because it is an accommodation of the Infinite to the finite; and the Infinite is such as to transcend all the understanding of the finite, insomuch that when the understanding of the finite desires to look in that direction, it falls as into the depth of the sea and perishes. (That the Lord is the Sun in heaven, and that the Sun there is the Divine good of His Divine love, and that the light therefrom is Divine truth, from which is intelligence, see n. 1053, 1521- 1533, 1619-1632, 2776, 3094, 3138, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3225, 3339, 3341, 3636, 3643, 3993, 4180, 4302, 4408, 4409, 4415, 4523, 4533, 4696, 7083, 7171, 7174, 7270, 8197.)

AC (Potts) n. 8645 sRef Ex@18 @1 S0′ 8645. Heard all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people. That this signifies the perception of those things which had been done for those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of “hearing,” namely, all that God had done, as being perception (see n. 5017, 8361); from the signification of “all that God had done,” as being the things that had been done by the Divine; and from the representation of Israel, who here is Moses and the people for whom the things were done, as being those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223); for Moses together with the people represents this kingdom, Moses as the head, and the people as the things that are subject to the head; thus also Moses represents the Lord as to Divine truth, for from this is the spiritual kingdom.

AC (Potts) n. 8646 sRef Ex@18 @1 S0′ 8646. In that Jehovah had brought forth Israel out of Egypt. That this signifies that they had been liberated by the Lord from infestations, is evident from the signification of “bringing forth,” as being to liberate; from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual kingdom (see above, n. 8645); and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being infestations by falsities (n. 7278). That “Egypt” signifies infestations, is because by “the Egyptians” and “Pharaoh” are signified those who by means of falsities infested in the other life those who were of the spiritual church (n. 7097, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7220, 7228, 7317, 8148).

AC (Potts) n. 8647 sRef Ex@18 @2 S0′ 8647. And Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses’ wife. That this signifies good from the Divine conjoined with truth Divine, is evident from the representation of Jethro Moses’ father-in-law, as being the Divine good from which is good conjoined with truth, in this case with the truth Divine which is represented by Moses (of which above, n. 8643, 8644); and from the representation of Zipporah, Moses’ wife, as being good Divine. For marriages represent the conjunction of good and truth; in the celestial church the husband represents good, and the wife the derivative truth; but in the spiritual church the man represents truth, and the wife good. Here, Moses’ wife represents good, because the spiritual kingdom is treated of (n. 2517, 4510, 4823, 7022).

AC (Potts) n. 8648 sRef Ex@18 @2 S0′ 8648. After he had sent her away. That this signifies separation hitherto relatively to the state of those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “sending away,” as being separation. That it is relatively to the state of those who are of the spiritual church, is because in the first state of those who are in the spiritual church good does not appear, but only truth. How this is, can be seen from what has been already shown concerning the two states of those who are of the spiritual church; namely, that in the first state they act from truth and not from good, but in the second they act from good. In the first state, when they act from truth and not from good, good is as it were absent, and is like a wife that has been sent away; but in the second state, when they act from good, then good is present, and is like a wife that is conjoined with her man. This is what is meant in the internal sense by “after he had sent her away.”
[2] Be it further known, that this is relatively to those who are of the spiritual church, for the truth which proceeds from the Lord is always conjoined with its good; but in the first state, which is before regeneration, good is not received, but only truth, although both flow in through heaven from the Lord. In the second state however, which is after regeneration, good is received conjoined with truth. That which takes place with man is predicated as taking place with the Lord, for the reason that it so appears. This is the case in very many other instances, as for example, that the Lord does evil, punishes, casts into hell. These things are predicated of the Lord because it appears so, when yet all evil which befalls man is done by the man. There are very many such things in the Word, which however are plain to him who searches the Scriptures from the affection of truth, and for the sake of the good of life, because he is enlightened by the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 8649 sRef Ex@18 @3 S0′ 8649. And her two sons. That this signifies the goods of truth, is evident from the signification of “sons,” as being truths (see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2159, 2623, 3704, 4257), in this case the goods of truth, because they are called “sons of the wife,” as is plain from the original tongue, in like manner as in the sixth verse following. Consequently as by “wife” is signified good conjoined with truth (n. 8647), by the “sons” are here signified the goods of truth. The goods of truth are truths which have become of the will and consequently of the life, and constitute the new will with the man of the spiritual church.

AC (Potts) n. 8650 sRef Ex@18 @3 S0′ 8650. Of which the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been a sojourner in a strange land. That this signifies the quality of the good of truth of those who are out of the church, is evident from the signification of “name” and of “calling the name,” as being the quality (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421, 6674). This quality is described by the words which Moses then said, namely, “I have been a sojourner in a strange land.” That by these words is signified the good of truth of those who are out of the church, is because by “a sojourner” are signified those who were born out of the church, and yet were being instructed in the things of the church; and by “a strange land” is signified where the church is not. (That “a sojourner” denotes those who were out of the church, and were being instructed in the things that belong to the church, see n. 1463, 4444, 7908, 8007, 8013.) That “a strange land” denotes where the genuine church is not, is because by “land” is signified the church (n. 662, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577), and “strange” denotes where there is not what is genuine; for the Lord’s church is scattered through the whole world, thus also among the Gentiles (n. 2049, 2284, 2589-2604). Moreover that when Gershom was born, Moses was out of his own church, and was among those who were in the good of simple truth, and who are signified by “the Midianites,” see n. 6793-6796.

AC (Potts) n. 8651 sRef Ex@18 @4 S0′ 8651. And the name of the other was Eliezer. That this signifies the quality of the good of truth of those who are within the church, is evident from the signification of “name” and of “calling the name,” as being the quality (see above, n. 8650). That it denotes the quality of the good of truth, is because by the “two sons” are signified the goods of truth (see n. 8649). That the quality of this good of truth is that of those who are within the church, is plain from the words which Moses spoke concerning this son when he was born, namely, “because the God of my father was my help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh;” and from the fact that the quality of the good of truth, which was signified by “the name of the first son, Gershom,” is that of those who are out of the church (n. 8650).

AC (Potts) n. 8652 sRef Ex@18 @4 S0′ 8652. Because the God of my father was my help. That this signifies the Lord’s mercy and presence in the church, is evident from the signification of “father,” as being the church as to good (see n. 5581), and as being the Ancient Church (n. 6050, 6075, 6846); from the signification of “the God of my father,” as being the Divine of the Ancient Church, which was the Lord (n. 6846, 6876, 6884); and from the signification of “help,” when predicated of the Lord, as being mercy; for help from Him is of mercy, and is also of presence, because where the reception of mercy is, there is presence; and this is especially in the church, because there is the Word, and through the Word the Lord’s presence.

AC (Potts) n. 8653 sRef Ex@18 @4 S0′ 8653. And liberated me from the sword of Pharaoh. That this signifies the liberation from the falsity of those who infested, is evident from the signification of “a sword,” as being truth, and in the opposite sense, falsity, fighting and vastating (see n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest the upright in the other life by means of falsities (n. 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7220, 7228, 7317).

AC (Potts) n. 8654 sRef Ex@18 @5 S0′ 8654. And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law came. That this signifies the Divine good, is evident from the representation of Jethro and Moses, as being the Divine good and the Divine truth; and from the signification of “father-in-law” (of which above, n. 8643, 8644).

AC (Potts) n. 8655 sRef Ex@18 @5 S0′ 8655. And his sons, signifies the goods of truth (see above, n. 8649).

AC (Potts) n. 8656 sRef Ex@18 @5 S0′ 8656. And his wife. That this signifies good conjoined with truth Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses’ wife, as being good from the Divine conjoined with truth Divine (of which also above, n. 8647).

AC (Potts) n. 8657 sRef Ex@18 @5 S0′ 8657. Unto Moses unto the wilderness. That this signifies conjunction in the state before regeneration when there are temptations, is evident from the signification of “coming unto Moses,” as being conjunction, namely, of the Divine good which is represented by Jethro with the Divine truth which is represented by Moses; and from the signification of “the wilderness,” as being a state of undergoing temptations (see n. 6828, 8098), thus the state before regeneration. That there are two states which those enter into who are being regenerated and are becoming a spiritual church, and that when they are in the former state they undergo temptations, see above (n. 8643). The former state is described by the state of the sons of Israel in the wilderness, and the latter state by their state in the land of Canaan under Joshua.

AC (Potts) n. 8658 sRef Ex@18 @5 S0′ 8658. Where he was encamped at the mount of God. That this signifies near to the good of truth, is evident from the signification of “being encamped,” as being the setting in order of the truth and good which are of the church with man (see n. 8103, 8130, 8131, 8155); and from the signification of “the mount of God,” as being the good of love (see n. 795, 796, 2722, 4210, 6435, 8327), here the good of truth, because the subject treated of is the good of those who are of the spiritual church, who are represented by the sons of Israel. The good they have is the good of truth (this good is also the good of charity), and therefore it is called “the mount of God,” because “God” is said where truth is treated of, and “Jehovah” where good is treated of (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873). From all this it is evident that by “he was encamped at the mount of God,” is signified the setting in order of the good and truth of the church near to the good of truth. What is meant by this shall be briefly told. When man is in the former state, namely, when he acts from truth and not yet from good, that is, when he acts from faith and not yet from charity, he is in a state of undergoing temptations. By these he is progressively carried to the second state, namely, that he acts from good, that is, from charity and the affection of it. When therefore he comes near to this state, he is said to be “encamped at the mount of God,” that is, at the good from which he will afterward act. This is said because in what now follows the subject treated of is the new disposition or setting in order of the truths for entering into this state, to which the man of the church comes after he has undergone temptations, and before the law Divine is inscribed on his heart. In what precedes the subject treated of was temptations, and in what now follows it is the law promulgated from Mount Sinai. “Mount Sinai” denotes the good in which is truth.

AC (Potts) n. 8659 sRef Ex@18 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @6 S0′ 8659. Verses 6, 7. And he said unto Moses, I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her. And Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed himself down, and kissed him; and they asked a man his companion as to peace; and they came into the tent. “And he said unto Moses,” signifies influx and the derivative perception; “I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her,” signifies Divine goods in their order; “and Moses went out to meet his father-in-law,” signifies the application of truth Divine to Divine good; “and bowed himself down,” signifies immission;* “and kissed him,” signifies conjunction; “and they asked a man his companion as to peace,” signifies a natural Divine celestial state; “and they came into the tent,” signifies the holiness of the union.
* “Immission” is the correlative of “emission,” and is found in Heaven and Hell n. 551e, and Apocalypse Explained n. 503:4. The verb immittere, in the sense of “to let into,” is rather frequently used by Swedenborg. [REVISER.]

AC (Potts) n. 8660 sRef Ex@18 @6 S0′ 8660. And he said unto Moses. That this signifies influx and the derivative perception, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by Divine good to Divine truth concerning the setting in order of truths, as being influx; and because it denotes influx it also denotes perception, for perception is from influx (that relatively to the agent “to say” denotes influx, and relatively to the recipient, perception, see n. 5743).

AC (Potts) n. 8661 sRef Ex@18 @6 S0′ 8661. I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her. That this signifies Divine goods in their order, is evident from the representation of Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, as being Divine good (see n. 8643, 8644); from the representation of Zipporah, Moses’ wife, as being good therefrom conjoined with truth Divine (n. 8647); and from the representation of her sons, as being the goods of truth (n. 8649- 8651), thus goods in their order. Goods in their order are goods interior and exterior in order successively according to degrees (n. 3691, 4154, 5114, 5145, 5146, 8603).

AC (Potts) n. 8662 sRef Ex@18 @7 S0′ 8662. And Moses went out to meet his father-in-law. That this signifies the application of truth Divine to Divine good, is evident from the signification of “going out to meet,” as being application; that “to go out to meet” denotes application is because it presently follows that “he kissed him,” by which is signified conjunction, and application precedes conjunction; from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (of which above, n. 8644); and from the representation of Jethro, who is his father-in-law, as being Divine good (of which also above, n. 8643, 8644).

AC (Potts) n. 8663 sRef Ex@18 @7 S0′ 8663. And bowed himself down. That this signifies immission, is evident from the signification of “bowing down,” as being humiliation and submission (n. 2153, 5682, 7068), but in this case immission,* because it is predicted of truth Divine relatively to Divine good.
* “Immission” is the correlative of “emission,” and is found in Heaven and Hell n. 551e, and Apocalypse Explained n. 503:4. The verb immittere, in the sense of “to let into,” is rather frequently used by Swedenborg. [REVISER.]

AC (Potts) n. 8664 sRef Ex@18 @7 S0′ 8664. And kissed him. That this signifies conjunction, is evident from the signification of “kissing,” as being conjunction from affection (see n. 3573, 3574, 4215, 4353, 5929, 6260).

AC (Potts) n. 8665 sRef Ex@18 @7 S0′ 8665. And they asked a man his companion as to peace. That this signifies a mutual Divine celestial state, is evident from the signification of “asking as to peace,” as being consociation in respect to a Divine celestial state (of which below); and from the signification of “a man to his companion,” as being mutually. That “asking as to peace” denotes consociation in respect to a Divine celestial state, is because in the internal sense “to ask as to peace” is to ask about the life, its prosperity and happiness; but in the supreme sense, where Divine good and truth Divine are the subject treated of, “to ask as to peace” denotes consociation in respect to a Divine celestial state. For in the supreme sense “peace” signifies the Lord, and from this the state of the inmost heaven, where they are who are in love to the Lord, and from this in innocence. These moreover are above all others in peace, because in the Lord; and their state is called “Divine celestial.” Hence it is that by “peace” is here meant such a state. (What “peace” denotes in the supreme sense, and what in the internal sense, see n. 3780, 4681, 5662, 8455.)

AC (Potts) n. 8666 sRef Ex@18 @7 S0′ 8666. And they came into the tent. That this signifies the holiness of the union, is evident from the signification of “a tent,” as being the holy of love (see n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 4128), thus the holiness of the union, because love is union. Hence “to come into the tent” denotes to be united from holy love. In this verse the subject treated of is the union of the Divine good with truth Divine. And because all union is first effected by means of an influx of the one into the other and the consequent perception, next by application, then by immission, afterward by conjunction, therefore there is first described the influx and the consequent perception (n. 8660), next the application (n. 8662), then the immission (n. 8663), after this the conjunction (n. 8664), finally the union by love.

AC (Potts) n. 8667 sRef Ex@18 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @9 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @8 S0′ 8667. Verses 8-11. And Moses told his father-in-law all that Jehovah had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the trouble that followed them in the way, and Jehovah rescued them. And Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel, who rescued them out of the hand of the Egyptians. And Jethro said, Blessed be Jehovah, who hath rescued you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who rescued His people from under the hand of the Egyptians. Now I know that Jehovah is great above all the gods; for the reason that they dealt proudly over them. “And Moses told his father-in-law all that Jehovah had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians,” signifies perception then from truth Divine concerning the power of the Lord’s Divine Human against those who were in falsities and infested; “for Israel’s sake,” signifies in behalf of those who are of the spiritual church; “all the trouble that found them in the way,” signifies labor in temptations; “and Jehovah rescued them,” signifies liberation by virtue of the Lord’s Divine aid; “and Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel,” signifies a state of Divine good when all things succeed; “who rescued them out of the hand of the Egyptians,” signifies on account of liberation from the reviling of those who infested; “and Jethro said, Blessed be Jehovah,” signifies the Divine good;* “who hath rescued you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh,” signifies liberation from the reviling of those who infested; “who hath rescued His people from under the hand of the Egyptians,” signifies mercy toward those who were in the good of truth and truth of good; “now I know that Jehovah is great above all the gods,” signifies the Lord, that there is no God besides Him; “for the reason that they dealt proudly over them,” signifies by reason of the endeavor to rule over those who are of the church.
* Compare n. 8674. [REVISER]

AC (Potts) n. 8668 sRef Ex@18 @8 S0′ 8668. And Moses told his father-in-law all that Jehovah had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians. That this signifies perception then from truth Divine concerning the power of the Lord’s Divine Human against those who were in falsities and infested, is evident from the signification of “Moses told,” as being perception from truth Divine (that “to tell” denotes to perceive, see n. 3209; and that “Moses” denotes truth Divine, n. 6752, 6771, 7010, 7014, 7382); from the representation of Moses’ father-in-law, as being the Divine good from which is good conjoined with truth Divine (see n. 8643, 8644); from the signification of “all that Jehovah had done,” as being those things which were done for the sons of Israel in Egypt and afterward in the wilderness. And as these things in the internal sense involve the things which were done for those who were of the Lord’s spiritual church, and who were detained in the lower earth until the Lord glorified the Human in Himself, therefore by these words is signified perception concerning the power of the Lord’s Divine Human. (That they who were of the Lord’s spiritual church were detained in the lower earth and were saved by the power of the Lord’s Divine Human, see n. 6854, 7035, 7091, 7828, 8018, 8054, 8099, 8321.) And from the representation of Pharaoh and the Egyptians, as being those who were in falsities and infested (n. 7097, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7220, 7228, 7317).

AC (Potts) n. 8669 sRef Ex@18 @8 S0′ 8669. For Israel’s sake. That this signifies in behalf of those who were of the spiritual church, is evident from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (see n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223).

AC (Potts) n. 8670 sRef Ex@18 @8 S0′ 8670. All the trouble that had found them in the way. That this signifies labor in temptations, is evident from the signification of “trouble,” as being labor-that “trouble” denotes labor is because it is predicated of temptations, for in these they who are tempted have labor against falsities and evils, and the angels also have labor with them to keep them in the faith, and thus in the power of conquering; and from the signification of “that had found them in the way,” as being in respect to temptations (namely, labor), because “in the way,” means in the wilderness, where they underwent temptations (of which above).

AC (Potts) n. 8671 sRef Ex@18 @8 S0′ 8671. And Jehovah rescued them. That this signifies liberation by virtue of the Lord’s Divine aid, is evident from the signification of “rescuing,” as being liberation. (That “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, see n. 1343, 1736, 1815, 2447, 2921, 3035, 5041, 5663, 6280, 6303, 6905.)

AC (Potts) n. 8672 sRef Ex@18 @9 S0′ 8672. And Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel. That this signifies the state of Divine good when all things succeed, is evident from the representation of Jethro, as being Divine good (see above n. 8643); from the signification of “rejoicing over all the good,” when predicated of the Divine good which is represented by Jethro, as being the state of this good; for the state of the Divine when good is done to heaven and the angels there, and also to the church and the man there, is expressed in the Word by “joy,” but the quality of this joy is beyond comprehension, because it belongs to the Infinite. That there is also infinite joy on account of the reception of good by those who are in heaven and the church, can be seen from the Divine love, which is infinite toward the human race (n. 8644), for all joy is of love. From all this it is evident that by “Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel,” is signified the state of the Divine good when all things succeed; for by “Israel” are meant those who were of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom and spiritual church (n. 8669), with whom all things had succeeded, because they had been liberated from infestations, and afterward had conquered in temptations, as has been above described.

AC (Potts) n. 8673 sRef Ex@18 @9 S0′ 8673. And rescued them out of the hand of the Egyptians. That this signifies on account of liberation from the reviling of those who infested, is evident from the signification of “rescuing,” as being liberation (see above, n. 8671); and from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who infested by falsities (n. 8668).

AC (Potts) n. 8674 sRef Ex@18 @10 S0′ 8674. And Jethro said, Blessed be Jehovah. That this signifies that from the Lord is all good, is evident from the signification of “blessed be Jehovah,” as being that all good is from the Lord (see n. 1096, 1422, 3140). (That “Jehovah” denotes the Lord, see above, n. 8671.) That “blessed be Jehovah” denotes that from the Lord is all good, is because in the case of man, “blessing” involves all the good of eternal life, that is, the good of love to the Lord and toward the neighbor (n. 3406, 4981); and these goods make eternal life with man.

AC (Potts) n. 8675 sRef Ex@18 @10 S0′ 8675. Who hath rescued you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh. That this signifies liberation from the reviling of those who infested, is evident from what has been unfolded above (n. 8671, 8673).

AC (Potts) n. 8676 sRef Ex@18 @10 S0′ 8676. Who hath rescued His people from under the hand of the Egyptians. That this signifies mercy toward those who were in the good of truth and truth of good, is evident from the signification of “rescuing,” as being liberation (as just above, n. 8675); from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who infested by falsities (n. 8668); and from the representation of Israel, who are here “the people of Jehovah,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 8645), thus who are in the good of truth and truth of good (n. 7957, 8234). That it is of the Lord’s mercy is because it is said, “blessed be Jehovah who hath rescued,” and by “blessed be Jehovah” is signified that from Him is all good from His Divine love (n. 8674). The Divine love from which good comes to man who is in a state of misery, because of himself he is wholly in evil and in hell, is mercy.

AC (Potts) n. 8677 sRef Ex@18 @11 S0′ 8677. Now I know that Jehovah is great above all gods. That this signifies the Lord, that there is no God besides Him, is evident from what has been said and shown above (n. 7401, 7444, 7544, 7598, 7636, 8274).

AC (Potts) n. 8678 sRef Ex@18 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@14 @13 S1′ sRef Isa@14 @14 S1′ sRef Isa@14 @12 S1′ sRef Isa@14 @19 S1′ sRef Isa@14 @15 S1′ 8678. For the reason that they dealt proudly over them. That this signifies by reason of the endeavor and the force used to rule over those who are of the church, is evident from the signification of “dealing proudly,” as being the endeavor and the force used to rule (of which below); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, who are they over whom they dealt proudly, as being those who are of the spiritual church (see above, n. 8645). That “to deal proudly” denotes the endeavor and the force used to rule, is because this endeavor and the consequent force are in all pride, for pride is to love self more than others, and to set self above them, and to wish to exercise command over others; and they who wish this also despise others in comparison with self, and also persecute from hatred and revenge those who set themselves above them, or do not pay them respect. The love of self, which is pride, is of such a quality that so far as the rein is given it, it rushes on, growing step by step to the utmost of the ability that is granted to it, until at last it lifts itself to the very throne of God with the desire to be in His stead. Such are all who are in hell. That they are such is perceived from their endeavor from there, and also from their dangerous hatreds and direful revenges one against another for the sake of rule. This endeavor is what is restrained by the Lord, and is meant by “the head of the serpent which the seed of the woman shall trample on” (n. 257). Such are also meant by “Lucifer” in Isaiah:
How hast thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the dawn! thou hast been cut off to the earth, thou hath been weakened beneath the nations; yet thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into the heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; and I will sit on the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the cloud; I will become like the Most High. Yet verily thou hast been let down to hell, to the sides of the pit, thou hast been cast forth out of thy sepulcher like an abominable shoot, the raiment of the slain, thrust through with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit, like a carcass that is trampled on (Isa. 14:2-15, 19).
[2] That pride of heart, which is the love of self, repels from itself the Divine, and removes heaven from itself, can be plainly seen from the state of reception of the Divine and of heaven, which is a state of love toward the neighbor, and a state of humiliation toward God. So far as a man can humble himself before the Lord, and so far as he can love his neighbor as himself, and, as in heaven, above himself, so far he receives the Divine, and consequently is so far in heaven. From all this it is evident in what state are those who love themselves more than the neighbor, and who “deal proudly over him,” that is, who are in the love of self; namely, that they are in a state opposite to heaven and to the Divine, consequently in the state in which the infernals are. (See what has been already said and shown about the love of self, n. 2041, 2045, 2051, 2057, 2219, 2363, 2364, 2444, 3413, 3610, 4225, 4750, 4776, 4947, 5721, 6667, 7178, 7255, 7364, 7366-7377, 7488-7492, 7494, 7643, 7819, 7820, 8318, 8487.)

AC (Potts) n. 8679 sRef Ex@18 @12 S0′ 8679. Verse 12. And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God; and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God. “And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God,” signifies worship from the good of love and truths of faith; “and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel,” signifies the things of the church which are primary; “to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God,” signifies the appropriation of these things by virtue of the Divine good.

AC (Potts) n. 8680 sRef Ex@18 @12 S0′ sRef Deut@12 @27 S0′ 8680. And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God. That this signifies worship from the good of love and truths of faith, is evident from the signification of “a burnt-offering” and of “sacrifices,” as being representatives of the celestial and spiritual things which are of internal worship; burnt-offerings being representative of celestial things, that is, of the good of love; and sacrifices being representative of spiritual things, that is, of the truth of faith (see n. 922, 923, 1823, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519, 6905). That burnt-offerings represented those things which are of the good of love, and sacrifices those things which are of the truth of faith, is evident from their institution; namely, that in the burnt-offerings all was consumed, both the flesh and the blood; but in the sacrifices the flesh was eaten, as can be seen from what is said in Leviticus 1 to 5; Numbers 28, and in Deuteronomy, where are these words:
That thou mayest make thy burnt-offerings, the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of Jehovah thy God; the blood of the sacrifices shall be poured out upon the altar of Jehovah thy God, and thou shalt eat the flesh (Deut. 12:27).
The reason why these two things were represented by the burnt-offerings and the sacrifices, was that the burnt-offerings and the sacrifices represented all the worship of God in general (n. 923, 6905); and the worship of God in general is founded upon love and faith, for without these there is no worship, but only a rite, such as is of the external man without the internal, thus devoid of life.

AC (Potts) n. 8681 sRef Ex@18 @12 S0′ 8681. And Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel. That this signifies the things of the church which are primary, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the truth of doctrine (see n. 6998, 7009, 7089, 7382); and from the representation of the elders of Israel, as being the chief truths of the church that are in agreement with good (n. 6524, 8578, 8585); for by “Israel” is signified the church (n. 8645).

AC (Potts) n. 8682 sRef Ex@18 @12 S0′ 8682. To eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God. That this signifies the appropriation of these things by virtue of the Divine good, is evident from the signification of “eating,” as being appropriation (see n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 3832, 4745); and from the signification of “bread,” as being the good of love (n. 2165, 2177, 3464, 3735, 4211, 4217, 4735, 5915); that it denotes from the Divine good, is signified by their “eating the bread before God.” By “bread” is here meant all the food that was used at that time, especially the flesh of the sacrifices; for when sacrifices were offered, the flesh of them was eaten beside the altar. (That by “bread” is signified all worship in general, see n. 2165.)
[2] The reason why the flesh of the sacrifices was eaten, was that there might be represented the appropriation of celestial good, and also consociation by love, for the flesh of the sacrifice which they then ate, signified the good of love; wherefore this was to them a holy feast. (That “flesh” denotes the good of love, see n. 7850.) From all this it can be seen what was meant by the Lord when He said that they should “eat His flesh” (John 6:53- 56); and also when He instituted the Holy Supper, that the bread was “His body” (Matt. 26:26). No one can ever know the meaning of these things unless he knows that there is an internal sense, and that in this sense are understood celestial and spiritual things in place of the natural things; and that the natural things correspond to them, and have a signification according to the correspondences. Otherwise no one could ever know why the Holy Supper was instituted, and what holiness there is in the bread; and why the bread is the body and the flesh, besides countless other things.

AC (Potts) n. 8683 8683. Verses 13-16. And it was on the morrow, and Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening. And Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, and he said, What is this word that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou alone, and all the people standing over thee from the morning until the evening? And Moses said to his father-in-law, Because the people cometh unto me to inquire of God; when they have a word, it cometh unto me; and I judge between a man and his companion, and I make known the judgments of God, and His laws. “And it was on the morrow,” signifies what is eternal; “and Moses sat to judge the people,” signifies the disposing of truth Divine with those who were of the spiritual church in the state before it was from good; “and the people stood over Moses,” signifies obedience then in conformity with truth Divine; “from the morning until the evening,” signifies in every state then interiorly and exteriorly; “and Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people,” signifies the omniscience of Divine good; “and he said, Why sittest thou alone?” signifies that there was no influx of truth from good from any other source; “and all the people standing over thee from the morning until the evening,” signifies that at that time this was the source of everything of will with those who were of the spiritual church, in every state; “and Moses said to his father-in-law,” signifies the reciprocity that is in the answer; “Because the people cometh unto me to inquire of God,” signifies that they do not will and act from any other source than from the fact that the Word has so said; “when they have a word,” signifies in everything that befalls; “it cometh unto me, and I judge between a man and his companion,” signifies that at this time they are disposed in conformity with revealed truth; “and I make known the judgments of God, and His laws,” signifies that from this source they are taught what is true and what is good.

AC (Potts) n. 8684 sRef Ex@18 @13 S0′ 8684. And it was on the morrow. That this signifies what is eternal, is evident from the signification of “tomorrow,” or “the morrow,” as being what is eternal (n. 3998).

AC (Potts) n. 8685 sRef Ex@18 @13 S0′ 8685. And Moses sat to judge the people. That this signifies the disposing of truth Divine with those who were of the spiritual church in the state before it was from good, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the truth Divine that proceeds immediately from the Lord (see n. 7010, 7382); from the signification of “judging,” as being a disposing. That “judging” here denotes a disposing, is because truth Divine does not judge anyone, but flows in and disposes that it may be received, and according to the reception judgment then takes place in accordance with the laws of order, which is meant by the judgment of the Lord (Matt. 25:31 to end, John 5:22, 26, 27, 30; 9:39), as is evident from the Lord’s words where He says that He “judges no man” (John 3:17-21; 8:15; 12:47, 48). And from the representation of Israel, who is here “the people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (see above n. 8645). From all this it is evident that by “Moses sat to judge the people,” is signified the disposing of the truth Divine that proceeds immediately from the Lord with those who are of the spiritual church.
[2] That it denotes in a state before it is from good, is evident from what follows. For the man who is being regenerated and becoming a church has two states; in the first state he acts from truth, in the second from good (on which see n. 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658). In both states the man is led by the Lord; but in the first by immediate influx, and in the second by influx both immediate and mediate. (Concerning the influx of good and truth from the Lord, immediate and mediate, see n. 6472-6478, 6982, 6985, 6996, 7054-7058, 7270.) Immediate influx is represented by Moses judging the people alone; but influx both immediate and mediate, by the princes of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens, being chosen, to judge small affairs, and to refer great affairs to Moses (of which below). But these are arcana which scarcely anyone can understand, except one who is in enlightenment from the Lord, and through enlightenment in perception. These two kinds of influx, and also the consequent effects, can indeed be described, but still they do not fall rightly into the thought unless there is perception from heaven; and perception from heaven is not given except with those who are in the love of truth from good; and not even then unless they are in the love of truth from genuine good.

AC (Potts) n. 8686 sRef Ex@18 @13 S0′ 8686. And the people stood over Moses. That this signifies obedience then in conformity with truth Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (as just above, n. 8685), consequently “to stand over him” signifies to consult truth Divine, to await an answer from it, and to do according to this, that is, to obey. By these words in the internal sense is described the first state, wherein the man who is being regenerated is led by means of truth from the Lord; the truth by means of which he is led is the Word, for this is truth Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 8687 sRef Ex@18 @13 S0′ 8687. From the morning until the evening. That this signifies in every state interiorly and exteriorly, is evident from the signification of “morning” and of “evening,” as being spiritual states, which succeed each other like the states of times in the world, namely, morning, midday, evening, night, and again morning (that these times correspond to changes of states in the other life, see n. 5672, 5962, 6110, 8426). That they are interiorly and exteriorly, is because in the other life the angels are interiorly in good and truth when in a state of morning there, that is, in a state corresponding to the time of morning, but exteriorly in good and truth when in a state of evening there; for when they are in a state of evening they are in natural delight; but when they are in a state of morning they are in spiritual delight (see n. 8431, 8452).

AC (Potts) n. 8688 sRef Ex@18 @14 S0′ 8688. And Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people. That this signifies the omniscience of Divine good, is evident from the signification of “seeing all that he did,” when said of the Divine good which is represented by Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, as being omniscience; for in the internal sense “to see” denotes to understand and perceive (see n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 4403-4421, 5400) but in the supreme sense, where the Lord is treated of, it denotes foresight and providence (n. 2837, 2839, 3686, 3854, 3863), consequently “to see all that he did” denotes omniscience.

AC (Potts) n. 8689 sRef Ex@18 @14 S0′ 8689. And he said, Why sittest thou alone? That this signifies that there was no influx of truth from good from any other source, is evident from the signification of “sitting alone,” when said of truth Divine proceeding immediately from the Lord, which is represented by Moses, as being influx from Him alone, and not at the same time from any other source. (How this is can be seen from what was said above, n. 8685.)

AC (Potts) n. 8690 sRef Ex@18 @14 S0′ 8690. And all the people standing over thee from the morning until the evening. That this signifies that at that time this was the source of everything of will with those who were of the spiritual church, in every state, is evident from the representation of Israel, who is here “the people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (see above, n. 8645); from the signification of “standing over” Moses, as being obedience in conformity with truth Divine (as also above, n. 8686), and because it denotes obedience, it is of the will, for obedience is of the will, but it is the will to do truth by reason of command, not by reason of affection, and this will is obedience; and from the signification of “from the morning until the evening,” as being in every state, interior and exterior (of which above, n. 8687). The first state, in which man is before regeneration, is here treated of, which is that he does good from obedience, and not yet from affection; but this good is the truth which he does, because it is done only from command, thus as yet from compulsion, but not from freedom. He does good from freedom when he does it from affection; for everything that flows from the affection which is of love is free. When man is in the former state, then the Lord flows in and leads immediately; but the immediate influx of the Lord does not come to perception, because it is into the inmosts of the man; whereas the influx of the Lord which is immediate and at the same time mediate, does come to perception, and gives affection, for it is not only into man’s inmosts, but also into his mediates and outmosts. This latter state is treated of in what follows in this chapter; the former is described in these verses, where it is said of Moses that he judged alone (see what has been said above, n. 8685).

AC (Potts) n. 8691 sRef Ex@18 @15 S0′ 8691. And Moses said to his father-in-law. That this signifies the reciprocity that is in the answer, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as here being the answer, for Moses makes answer to his father-in-law. Reciprocity is meant because by Moses is represented Divine truth conjoined and united to Divine good (n. 8664, 8666); and when there is conjunction and union, then there is reciprocity, for good acts and truth reacts; the reaction is the reciprocity that is in the answer. So also it is in general with good and truth in the man in whom they have been conjoined.

AC (Potts) n. 8692 sRef Ex@18 @15 S0′ 8692. Because the people cometh unto me to inquire of God. That this signifies that they do not will and act from any other source than from the fact that the Word has so said, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine, thus the Word (n. 5922, 6723, 6752); and from the signification of “the people coming to him to inquire of God,” as being to consult what the Divine dictates, thus what they should will and do.

AC (Potts) n. 8693 sRef Ex@18 @16 S0′ 8693. When they have a word. That this signifies in everything that befalls, is evident from the signification of “a word,” as being a thing that befalls. That “in everything” is meant, is because the people came to him alone, and thereby is signified that truth Divine was to be consulted in everything.

AC (Potts) n. 8694 sRef Ex@18 @16 S0′ 8694. It cometh unto me, and I judge between a man and his companion. That this signifies that at this time they are disposed in conformity with revealed truth, is evident from the signification of “coming unto him,” when said of the truth Divine which is represented by Moses, as being to consult what must be willed and done (see above n. 8692); and from the signification of “judging between a man and his companion,” as being a disposing among truths. (That “to judge,” denotes to dispose, see above, n. 8685.) That it is in conformity with revealed truth, follows; for it is said just above, that “the people came unto him to inquire of God,” and just below, that he “makes known to them the judgments and laws of God.”
God.”
[2] By “revelation” is meant enlightenment when the Word is read, and perception then; for they who are in good and long for truth are taught in this way from the Word; but they who are not in good cannot be taught from the Word, but can only be confirmed in such things as they have been instructed in from infancy, whether true or false. The reason why those who are in good have revelation, and those who are in evil have no revelation, is that in the internal sense each and all things in the Word treat of the Lord and of His kingdom, and the angels who are with man perceive the Word according to the internal sense. This is communicated to the man who is in good, and reads the Word, and from affection longs for truth, and consequently has enlightenment and perception. For with those who are in good and from this in the affection of truth, the intellectual part of the mind is open into heaven, and their soul, that is, their internal man, is in fellowship with angels; but it is otherwise with those who are not in good, thus who do not from the affection of good long for truth; to these heaven is closed.
[3] But what is the nature of the revelation with those who are in good and from this in the affection of truth, cannot be described. It is not manifest, neither is it altogether hidden; but it is a certain consent and favoring from within that a thing is true, and a non-favoring if it is not true. When there is a favoring, the mind is at rest and is serene, and in this state there is the acknowledgment which is of faith. The cause of its being so is from the influx of heaven from the Lord; for through heaven from the Lord there is light, that surrounds and enlightens the intellect, which is the eye of the internal sight. The things which are then seen in that light are truths, for this very light is the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord. That this Divine truth is light in heaven, has been frequently shown.

AC (Potts) n. 8695 sRef Ex@18 @16 S0′ 8695. And I make known the judgments of God, and His laws. That this signifies that from this source they are taught what is true and what is good, is evident from the signification of “making known,” as being to teach; from the signification of “judgments,” as being truths (n. 2235, 6397); and from the signification of “laws,” as being the truths of good. That “laws” denote the truths of good, is because in a wide sense “the law” signifies the whole Word, in a less wide sense the historic Word, in a close sense the Word which was written by Moses, and in the closest sense the ten commandments of the Decalogue (n. 6752). Consequently as the Word is the Divine truth which proceeds from the Divine good of the Lord, “laws” denote the truths of good. The truths of good are truths which are from good, and in themselves are goods, because they derive their spring from good.

AC (Potts) n. 8696 sRef Ex@18 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @20 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @23 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @22 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @21 S0′ 8696. Verses 17-23. And Moses’ father-in-law said unto him, The word that thou doest is not good. Wearing thou wilt wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee, because the word is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to do it, thou alone. Now hear my voice, I will counsel thee, and God shall be with thee. Be thou for the people with God, and bring thou the words unto God; and do thou teach them the statutes and the laws, and make known to them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do. And do thou see out of all the people men of strenuousness, fearing God, men of truth, hating gain; and do thou set them for princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes fifties, and princes of tens; and let them judge the people in every time; and it shall be, every great word let them bring unto thee, and every small word let them judge; and devolve from upon thee, and let them bear with thee. If thou do this word, and God have commanded thee, then thou shalt be able to stand, and also all this people shall come upon its place in peace. “And Moses’ father-in-law said unto him,” signifies foresight; “The word that thou doest is not good,” signifies that a change must be made; “wearing thou wilt wear way, both thou, and this people that is with thee,” signifies that thus the truth which has been implanted would perish; “because the word is too heavy for thee,” signifies that it is not possible because not in conformity with order; “thou art not able to do it, thou alone,” signifies without the influx of truth from the Divine from some other source; “now hear my voice,” signifies agreement from the union; “I will counsel thee, and God shall be with thee,” signifies that it is from the Divine; “be thou for the people with God,” signifies the truth proceeding immediately from the Lord; “and bring thou the words unto God,” signifies mediation and intercession; “and do thou teach them the statutes and the laws,” signifies that from truth immediately from the Lord come the external and internal goods and truths of the church; “and make known to them the way wherein they must walk,” signifies the light of intelligence and the consequent life; “and the work that they must do,” signifies faith in act; “and do thou see out of all the people,” signifies the choosing of ministering truths; “men of strenuousness, fearing God,” signifies with which good from the Divine could be conjoined; “men of truth, hating gain,” signifies with which the truths are pure without a worldly end; “and do thou set them for princes of thousands,” signifies primary truths which are in the first degree under the truth immediately from the Divine; “princes of hundreds,” signifies primary truths in the second degree; “princes of fifties,” signifies intermediate primary truths; “and princes of tens,” signifies primary truths in the third place; “and let them judge the people in every time,” signifies a disposing In this manner perpetually; “and it shall be, every great word let them bring unto thee,” signifies that everything is from the truth that is immediately from the Divine; “and every small word let them judge,” signifies the appearance of some singular and particular things as from another source; “and devolve from upon thee, and let them bear with thee,” signifies thus functions and offices for them; “if thou do this word, and God have commanded thee,” signifies that thus it is from the Divine; “then thou shalt be able to stand,” signifies thus an abode with them; “and also all this people shall come upon its place in peace,” signifies that they who are of the spiritual church shall thus be in good, and shall be led by means of good.

AC (Potts) n. 8697 sRef Ex@18 @17 S0′ 8697. And Moses’ father-in-law said unto him. That this signifies foresight, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when it is predicated of the Divine good that is represented by Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, as being foresight (see also n. 5361, 6496).

AC (Potts) n. 8698 sRef Ex@18 @17 S0′ 8698. The word that thou doest is not good. That this signifies that a change must be made, is evident from what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 8699 sRef Ex@18 @18 S0′ 8699. Wearing thou wilt wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee. That this signifies that thus the truth which has been implanted would perish, is evident from the signification of “wearing away,” as being to be gradually consumed, thus to perish. That it denotes the truth which has been implanted, is because by “Moses” is meant truth from the Divine, and by “the people” those who receive. How the case is with these things shall be told in what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 8700 sRef Ex@18 @18 S0′ 8700. For the word is too heavy for thee. That this signifies that it is not possible because not in conformity with order, is evident from the signification of “a heavy word,” as being that it is not possible. That “a heavy word” here denotes that it is not possible, is evident from what precedes, namely, that “wearing he would wear away, and the people that were with him,” by which is signified that the truth which has been implanted would perish; and also from what follows, namely, “Thou art not able to do it, thou alone;” and afterward, “If thou do this word, thou shalt be able to stand;” by which is meant impossibility unless a change is made.
[2] That it is not possible because not in conformity with order, is because in the other life everything is possible that is in conformity with order. The Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord is what makes order, and is order itself. Consequently as everything that is according to Divine truth is according to order, it is possible; and as everything that is contrary to Divine truth is contrary to order, it is impossible. That this is the case may appear more evident from examples. It is according to order that they who have lived well shall be saved, and that they who have lived ill shall be condemned. Hence it is impossible that they who have lived well should be sent into hell, and that they who have lived ill should be raised into heaven. Consequently it is impossible that they who are in hell can of the Lord’s pure mercy be brought out therefrom into heaven and be saved; for it is the reception of the Lord’s mercy while they lived in the world through which everyone is saved. They who receive it then are in the other life in the Lord’s mercy, for they are then in the capacity of receiving it there. To give it to others, and in general to everyone at pleasure, provided they have faith, and thus believe that they are cleansed from sins, is impossible, because it is contrary to order, that is, contrary to the Divine which is order.
[3] It is according to order that faith and charity be implanted in freedom and not under compulsion, and that the faith and charity which have been implanted in freedom, endure; but not if they have been implanted under compulsion. The reason is that what is done in freedom is insinuated into the affection, and thus into the will of man, and is therefore appropriated; but not what is done under compulsion. Consequently it is impossible for man to be saved unless, seeing that he has been born in evil, he is allowed to do evil, and to desist from evil. When in this freedom he desists from evil of himself, the affection of truth and good is insinuated by the Lord, whereby he has freedom to receive the things which are of faith and charity, for freedom belongs to the affection. From this it is plain that it is impossible to compel man to salvation. If this could be done, all men in the world would be saved.
[4] It is according to order for all in the other life to be associated together according to the life which they have acquired to themselves in the world; the evil with the evil, and the good with the good. Consequently it is not possible for the evil and the good to be together; neither is it possible for those to be in good who are evil, because good and evil are opposites, and the one destroys the other. For this reason also it is plain that it is not possible for those to be saved who are in hell; thus that it is not possible for salvation to be from mercy alone however a man has lived. They who are in hell and are there tormented, impute the torments there to the Divine, saying that the Divine can take away their torment if He will, because He is omnipotent; but that He will not, and that therefore He is the cause of their torment; for he who can and will not, they say, is the cause. But to take away such torments is impossible, because it is contrary to order; for if they were taken away, the evil would rise up against the good, and would subjugate the angels themselves, and destroy heaven. But the Divine wills nothing but good, namely, the happiness of the good, and for the sake of this, the bridling, and at the same time, the amendment, of the wicked. This being the end-the end of the Divine love and of mercy itself-it is not possible that torments should be taken away from him who is in hell. From these examples it can be seen that everything is impossible which is contrary to order, howsoever it may appear as possible to those who do not know the arcana of heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 8701 sRef Ex@18 @18 S0′ 8701. Thou art not able to do it, thou alone. That this signifies without the influx of truth from good* from some other source, is evident from the signification of “doing it alone,” when said of the truth Divine represented by Moses, as being the influx of truth from it alone, and not at the same time from some other source. How the case herein is can be seen from what was said above (n. 8685) concerning the immediate influx of truth Divine, and concerning its influx immediate and at the same time mediate; namely, that the influx of truth Divine is immediate in the first state of man when he is being regenerated; but that the influx is immediate and mediate in the second state, that is, when he has been regenerated. When the influx is immediate, the Lord indeed flows in with good and truth, yet the good is not then perceived, but truth; therefore the man is then led by means of truth, not so much by good. But when the influx is at the same time mediate, then good is perceived, for mediate influx is into the man’s external sensuous; hence it is that the man is then led by the Lord by means of good. In general be it known that a man has not been regenerated until he acts from the affection of good; for he then wills good, and it is delightful and blessed to him to do it. When he is in this state, his life is the life of good, and he is in heaven, for what universally reigns in heaven is good; the truth which is of faith, however, leads man to good, thus to heaven, but does not place him in heaven. The reason of this is that in the other life all are associated together according to the life of the will, not according to the life of the understanding; for where the will is, there the understanding is, but not the reverse: it is so in heaven, and it is so in hell. They who are evil are not sent into hell until they are in the evil of their life; for when they are in this, they are also in the falsity of their evil; in like manner they who are in good are, in heaven, in the truth of their good. In the other life all are reduced to the state of having one mind, namely, that what they will they also think, and they do not think differently from what they will. But in the world it is otherwise, for in the world a man can think differently, and even understand differently, from what he wills; but this in order that he may be reformed, that is, may understand good though he wills evil, and thus may be led by his understanding to will good; but in the other life everyone is led according to his will which has been acquired in the world.
* Compare the explication of these words in n. 8696. [REVISER]

AC (Potts) n. 8702 sRef Ex@18 @19 S0′ 8702. Now hear my voice. That this signifies agreement from the union, is evident from the signification of “hearing a voice,” as being obedience, but here agreement, because it is said by Jethro, by whom is represented the Divine good united to the Divine truth which is represented by Moses (that they are united, see n. 8666); consequently by “hear my voice” is signified agreement from the union. Be it known that when good and truth have been conjoined, there is agreement in each and all things, namely, of good with truth and of truth with good. The reason is that good is of truth and truth is of good, and thus these two are one; for what good wills, this truth confirms; and what truth perceives as truth, this good wills, and both together do. The case is similar with good and truth as with the will and the understanding; what the will wills and loves, this the understanding thinks and confirms, and vice versa. That these two are alike is because good is of the will, and truth is of the understanding. In such a state are they who are led of the Lord by means of good (of which just above, n. 8701).

AC (Potts) n. 8703 sRef Ex@18 @19 S0′ 8703. I will counsel thee, and God shall be with thee. That this signifies that it is from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “to counsel,” when by the Divine good which is represented by Jethro, as being what is determined by the Divine, thus what is from the Divine; and from the signification of “God shall be with thee,” as also being from the Divine. But from the Divine, as signified by “to counsel,” respects the Divine good which is represented by Jethro; whereas from the Divine, as signified by “God shall be with thee,” respects the Divine truth which is represented by Moses.

AC (Potts) n. 8704 sRef Ex@18 @19 S0′ 8704. Be thou for the people with God. That this signifies the truth proceeding immediately from the Lord, is evident from the signification of “being for the people with God,” when said of the Divine truth represented by Moses, as being nearest with the Lord, because proceeding immediately from Him. What these things involve, will be plain from what now follows.

AC (Potts) n. 8705 sRef Ex@18 @19 S0′ 8705. And bring thou the words unto God. That this signifies mediation and intercession, is evident from the signification of “bringing the words unto God,” when said of the Divine truth, as being to mediate with the Divine Itself and to intercede, for he who mediates and intercedes brings the matters to Him who gives aid. Mediation and intercession are of the Divine truth, because this is nearest with the Divine good, which is the Lord Himself. That the Divine truth is nearest with the Divine good, which is the Lord, is because it proceeds immediately from Him. As the occasion offers, it shall here be told how the case is with the Lord’s mediation and intercession. They who believe that there are three Persons who constitute the Divine and who together are called one God, from the sense of the letter of the Word, have no other idea of mediation and intercession than that the Lord sits at the right hand of His Father, and speaks with Him as man with man, and brings the supplications of men to the Father, and entreats that for His sake, because He suffered the cross for the human race, He may pardon them and have mercy. Such is the idea of intercession and mediation which every simple person has from the sense of the letter of the Word.
[2] But be it known that the sense of the letter is according to the apprehension of simple men, in order that they may be introduced into interior truths themselves; for the simple cannot have any other idea of the heavenly kingdom than as of an earthly kingdom, nor any other idea of the Father than as of a king on the earth, and of the Lord than as of the son of a king who is the heir of the kingdom. That the simple have such an idea, is plainly evident from the idea of the Lord’s apostles themselves about His kingdom; for at first they believed, like the rest of the Jews, that the Lord as the Messiah would be the greatest king upon the earth, and would raise them to a height of glory above all the nations and peoples on the whole globe. But when they heard from the Lord Himself that His kingdom is not on earth but in heaven; then neither could they think otherwise than that His kingdom in heaven is altogether like a kingdom on the earth. And therefore James and John asked that in His kingdom the one might sit on His right hand and the other on His left; and the rest of the apostles, who also wanted to become great in that kingdom, had indignation, and disputed among themselves which of them should be greatest there. And as such an idea cleaved to them and could not be rooted out, the Lord indeed said unto them that they should “sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel” (see Mark 10:37, 41; Luke 22:24, 30; Matt. 19:28); but they did not then know what the Lord meant by the “twelve thrones,” and by the “twelve tribes,” and by “judgment.”
[3] From all this it can now be seen what the idea is, and whence it is, concerning the Lord’s mediation and intercession with the Father. But he who knows the interior things of the Word has a totally different notion about the Lord’s mediation and His intercession, namely, that He does not intercede as a son with a royal father on earth, but as the Lord of the universe with Himself, and as God of Himself, for the Father and He are not two, but are one, as He Himself teaches (John 14:8-11). He is called “Mediator” and “Intercessor,” because by “the Son” is meant the Divine truth, and by “the Father” the Divine good (see n. 2803, 2813, 3704), and mediation is effected through the Divine truth, because by means of it access is given to the Divine good; for the Divine good cannot be approached, because it is like the fire of the sun, but the Divine truth, because it is like the light therefrom, which gives to man’s sight, which is of faith, passage and access (n. 8644). Hence it can be seen what mediation and intercession are. It shall be told further whence it is that the Lord Himself, who is the Divine good itself and the Sun itself of heaven, is called “a Mediator and Intercessor with the Father.”
sRef John@1 @18 S4′ sRef John@5 @37 S4′ [4] When the Lord was in the world, and before He was fully glorified, He was the Divine truth; wherefore at that time there was mediation, and He interceded with the Father, that is, with the Divine good itself (John 14:16, 17; 17:9, 15, 17). But after He was glorified as to the Human, He is called “Mediator and Intercession” for this reason, that no one can think of the Divine Itself unless he presents to himself the idea of a Divine Man; still less can anyone be conjoined through love with the Divine Itself except by means of such an idea. If anyone without the idea of a Divine Man thinks of the Divine Itself, he thinks indeterminately, and an indeterminate idea is no idea; or he conceives an idea of the Divine from the visible universe without an end, or with an end in obscurity, which idea conjoins itself with the idea of the worshipers of nature, and also falls into nature, and thus becomes no idea. From this it is evident that there would not be any conjunction with the Divine through faith, nor through love. All conjunction requires an object, and the conjunction effected is according to the quality of the object. For this reason the Lord as to the Divine Human is called “a Mediator” and “an Intercessor,” but He mediates and intercedes with Himself. That the Divine Itself cannot be apprehended by any idea, is evident from the Lord’s words in John:
No one hath ever seen God; the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth (John 1:18).
Ye have never heard the voice of the Father, nor seen His shape (John 5:37).
[5] Nevertheless, what is remarkable, all who think from themselves or from the flesh about God, think of Him indeterminately, that is without any determinate idea; whereas they who think of God not from themselves, nor from the flesh, but from the spirit, think about Him determinately, that is, they present to themselves an idea of the Divine under a human form. So the angels in heaven think of the Divine, and so the wise ancients thought, to whom also, when the Divine Itself appeared, it appeared as a Divine Man; for the Divine passing though heaven is a Divine Man. The reason is that heaven is a Grand Man, as has been shown at the end of many chapters. From all this it is evident of what sort are the intelligent of the world, and of what sort are the intelligent of heaven; namely, that the intelligent of the world remove from themselves the idea of the human; and consequently between their minds and the Divine there is no mediation, whence they have thick darkness; whereas the intelligent of heaven have an idea of the Divine in the Human; thus the Lord is to them mediation, and consequently in their minds there is light.

AC (Potts) n. 8706 sRef Ex@18 @20 S0′ 8706. And do thou teach them the statutes and the laws. That this signifies that from truth immediately from the Lord come the external and internal goods and truths of the church, is evident from the representation of Moses, of whom it is said that he should teach, as being the truth proceeding immediately from the Lord (see n. 7010, 7382); from the signification of “the statutes,” as being the external goods and truths of the church (n. 3382, 8362); and from the signification of “the laws,” as being the internal goods and truths of the church (n. 8695).

AC (Potts) n. 8707 sRef Ex@18 @20 S0′ 8707. And make known to them the way wherein they must walk. That this signifies the light of intelligence, and the consequent life, is evident from the signification of “the way,” as being predicated of the understanding of truth (see n. 627, 2333), here in an interior degree, because it is predicated of the understanding which the man of the spiritual church has from the immediate influx of truth from the Lord, from which there is no perception of truth, but light which gives the capacity of understanding. It is with this light as with the light of the sight of the eye; in order that the eye may see objects, there must be a light from which there is a general illumination. In this light the eye sees and discerns objects, and is affected with beauty and delight according to their agreement with order. The case is similar with the sight of the internal eye, which is the understanding; in order that this may see, there must also be a light from which there is a general illumination, in which come into view the objects which are the things of intelligence and wisdom. This light is from the Divine truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord (see n. 8644). The objects presented in this light appear beautiful and delightful according to their agreement with each person’s good. And from the signification of “wherein they must walk,” that is, in the light, as being the consequent life. (That in the internal sense “to walk” denotes life, see n. 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605, 8417, 8420.)

AC (Potts) n. 8708 sRef Ex@18 @20 S0′ 8708. And the work that they must do. That this signifies faith in act, is evident from the signification of “the work that they must do,” as being action, here action from the light of intelligence, thus from faith; for faith from the Lord is in the light of intelligence (of which above, n. 8707). In proportion as a man receives of the truths which are of faith, he enters into that light and is raised into heaven; but the reception of the truths of faith is not effected by acknowledgment alone, but by acknowledgment conjoined with life; that is, by their being acknowledged in act. This reception is what is meant by “the work that they must do.”

AC (Potts) n. 8709 sRef Ex@18 @21 S0′ 8709. And do thou see out of all the people. That this signifies the choosing of ministering truths, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as here being to choose; and from the signification of “the people,” as being predicated of truths (see n. 1259, 1260, 3581, 4619), here of truths that minister to the truth immediately from the Divine which is represented by Moses (n. 7010); for the princes whom he was to choose were to be ministrant to him. (That “princes” denote ministrant truths, will be seen below.)

AC (Potts) n. 8710 sRef Ex@18 @21 S0′ 8710. Men of strenuousness, fearing God. That this signifies with which good from the Divine could be conjoined, is evident from the signification of “men of strenuousness,” as being those who have strength from the truths which are from good; for by “man” is signified truth (n. 3134, 5502), and by “strenuousness,” the consequent strength. Moreover in the original tongue “strength” is signified by the same expression that is here rendered “strenuousness.” That it denotes strength from the truths that are from good, is because the men are said also to be “God fearing,” and by “God fearing” are signified those who are in good from the Divine; for “the fear of God” denotes worship from the good of faith and from the good of love (n. 2826, 5459).

AC (Potts) n. 8711 sRef Ex@18 @21 S0′ 8711. Men of truth, hating gain. That this signifies because the truths are pure without a worldly end, is evident from the signification of “men of truth,” as being pure truths; that “men of truth” denote pure truths is because by “men” are signified truths (see n. 3134, 5502), and by “truth,” faith (n. 3121), thus by “men of truth” are signified truths of faith, that is, pure truths; and from the signification of “hating gain,” as being aversion to persuasions from falsity and evil, for by “hating” is signified aversion, and by “gain,” the falsity and evil which persuade and draw away from truth and good. By “gain” in general is signified all the falsity from evil that perverts the judgments of the mind; and as this is the case with those who have the world as their end, therefore by “those who hate gain” are also signified those who are without a worldly end. That “gain” denotes all the falsity from evil which perverts the judgments of the mind and withdraws from truth and good, can be seen by everyone who reflects, and in this sense “gain” is frequently mentioned in the Word (as in Isa. 33:15; 56:11; 57:17; in Jer. 6:13; 8:10; 22:17; and in Ezek. 22:27; 33:31; in David also, Ps. 119:36).

AC (Potts) n. 8712 sRef Ex@18 @21 S0′ 8712. And do thou set them for princes of thousands. That this signifies the primary truths which are in the first degree under the truth that is immediately from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “princes,” as being primary things (on which see n. 1482, 2089, 5044), here truths from good, because these princes were to be under Moses, by whom is represented truth Divine proceeding from Divine good, that is, from the Lord; and from the signification of “thousands,” as being those who are in the first degree; for by “a thousand” are signified many persons, or in the abstract sense many things and where there are many things, or they who are over many, and are thereby in a degree of greater dignity than those who are over few; here therefore those who are in the first degree, for they who were in a lower degree were princes of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens (that in the internal sense “a thousand” does not mean a thousand, but many persons or many things, see n. 2575).

AC (Potts) n. 8713 sRef Ex@18 @21 S0′ 8713. Princes of hundreds. That this signifies primary truths in the second degree, is evident from the signification of “princes,” as being primary things (as just above, n. 8712); and from the signification of “hundreds,” as being many persons or many things, but in the second degree, because “thousands” signify those in the first degree. (That “a hundred” denotes much, see n. 4400.)

AC (Potts) n. 8714 sRef Ex@18 @21 S0′ 8714. Princes of fifties. That this signifies intermediate primary truths, is evident from the signification of “princes,” as being primary things (as above, n. 8712, 8713); and from the signification of “fifties,” as being intermediate things, namely, between the truths from good that are in the second degree and those which are in the third, signified by “princes of hundreds” and “princes of tens.” That “fifty” denotes things intermediate, is because by “fifty” is signified both much and somewhat, the like as by “five” (that it signifies much, see n. 5708, 5956; that it signifies somewhat, n. 4638, 5291); consequently when “fifty” is named between “a hundred” and “ten,” it denotes things intermediate. Intermediate things are those which draw near to one side, and proceed from the other, thus are between those which for the sake of conjunction are in a prior degree and those which are in a posterior one.

AC (Potts) n. 8715 sRef Rev@20 @2 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @21 S0′ sRef Ps@68 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@90 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@144 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@105 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @5 S0′ sRef Luke@14 @31 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @7 S0′ sRef Matt@18 @28 S0′ sRef Ps@91 @7 S0′ sRef Matt@18 @24 S0′ 8715. And princes of tens. That this signifies primary truths in the third place, is evident from the signification of “princes,” as being primary things (as above); and from the signification of “tens,” as also being many, but in a less degree, because under “hundreds” (that “tens,” or “ten,” also denotes many, see n. 3107, 4638). Princes being set in order over a thousand, over a hundred, and over ten, abstractedly from all number represented many things in the first degree, in the second, and in the third, in like manner as in other passages in the Word, as where the Lord said of the servant that he “owed ten thousand talents,” and that the fellow-servant “owed him a hundred pence” (Matt. 18:24, 28); in like manner where He spoke of “a king about to wage war with another king, as consulting whether he was able with ten thousand to meet the other who was coming with twenty thousand” (Luke 14:31). In like manner in John:
An angel coming down from heaven laid hold on the dragon, and bound him a thousand years, and cast him into the abyss, that he should seduce the nations no more, until the thousand years should be consummated. The rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were consummated: this is the first resurrection (Rev. 20:1-3, 5).
in this passage by “a thousand” is not signified a thousand, but much, without any number. In like manner in Moses:
Jehovah doing mercy to a thousand generations that love Him (Exod. 20:5, 6; Deut. 5:9, 10; 7:9; also in Jer. 32:18).
In David:
The word He commanded to a thousand generations (Ps. 105:8).
A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand; it shall not come nigh thee (Ps. 91:7)
The chariots of God are twenty thousand, thousands of peaceful ones (Ps. 68:17).
Our flocks thousands, and ten thousands in our streets (Ps. 144:13).
A thousand years in Thy sight are as a day (Ps. 90:4).
It is similar with “a hundred” and with “ten,” for lesser numbers signify the like with the greater that result from multiplication by a like number (see n. 5291, 5335, 5708, 7973); (that “a hundred” and also “ten” signify much, see n. 3107, 4400, 4638).

AC (Potts) n. 8716 sRef Ex@18 @22 S0′ 8716. And let them judge the people in every time. That this signifies a disposing in this manner perpetually, is evident from the signification of “judging,” as being the disposing of truths (of which above, n. 8685); and from the signification of “in every time,” as being perpetually.

AC (Potts) n. 8717 sRef Ex@18 @22 S0′ 8717. And it shall be, every great word let them bring unto thee. That this signifies that everything is from the truth that is immediately from the Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth immediately from the Divine (see n. 7010, 7382); that everything is from this, is signified by “every great word let them bring unto him.” It appears from the sense of the letter as if everything was to be brought to Divine truth; but as everything comes from the Lord through the truth proceeding from Him, for everything of life is from Him, therefore in the internal sense it is not signified to this truth, but from it. The case herein is as was shown concerning influx (n. 3721, 5119, 5259, 5779, 6322), namely, that influx does not take place from exteriors to interiors; but from interiors to exteriors. The reason is that all exteriors are formed to minister to interiors, as instrumental causes to their principal causes, and the former are dead causes without the latter. Be it known that in the internal sense things are set forth such as they are in themselves; not such as they appear in the sense of the letter.
[2] In itself the fact is that by means of the truth proceeding from Himself the Lord directs all things down to the veriest singulars; not as a king in the world, but as God in heaven and in the universe. A king in the world exercises only a care over the whole, and his princes and officers a particular care. It is otherwise with God, for God sees all things, and knows all things from eternity, and provides all things to eternity, and from Himself holds all things in their order. From this it is evident that the Lord has not only a care over the whole, but also a particular and individual care of all things, otherwise than as a king in the world. His disposing is immediate through the truth Divine from Himself, and is also mediate through heaven. But the mediate disposing through heaven is also as it were immediate from Himself, for what comes out of heaven comes through heaven from Him. That this is so the angels in heaven not only know, but also perceive in themselves. (That the Divine disposing or providence of the Lord is in all things and each, nay, in the veriest singulars of all, howsoever otherwise it appears before man, see n. 4329, 5122, 5904, 6058, 6481-6487, 6490, 6491.)
[3] But this subject falls with difficulty into the idea of any man, and least of all into the idea of those who trust in their own prudence; for they attribute to themselves all things that happen prosperously for them, and the rest they ascribe to fortune, or chance; and few to the Divine Providence. Thus they attribute the things that happen to dead causes, and not to the living cause. When things turn out happily they indeed say that it is of God, and even that there is nothing that is not from Him; but few, and scarcely any, at heart believe it. In like manner do those who place all prosperity in worldly and bodily things, namely, in honors and riches, and believe that these alone are Divine blessings; and therefore when they see many of the evil abound in such things, and not so much the good, they reject from their heart and deny the Divine Providence in individual things, not considering that Divine Blessing is to be happy to eternity, and that the Lord regards such things as are of brief duration, as relatively, are the things of this world, no otherwise than as means to eternal things. Wherefore also the Lord provides for the good, who receive His mercy in time, such things as contribute to the happiness of their eternal life; riches and honors for those to whom they are not hurtful; and no riches and honors for those to whom they would be hurtful. Nevertheless to these latter He gives in time, in the place of honors and riches, to be glad with a few things, and to be more content than the rich and honored.

AC (Potts) n. 8718 sRef Ex@18 @22 S0′ 8718. But every small word let them judge. That this signifies the appearance of some particular and singular things as from another source, is evident from the things unfolded just above (n. 8717), namely, that by their bringing every great word unto Moses is signified that each and all things down to the veriest singulars are from the Lord. From this it also follows that “a small word” too, that is, things particular and singular, are from Him. That there is an appearance that they are from another source will be seen below.

AC (Potts) n. 8719 sRef Ex@18 @22 S0′ 8719. And devolve from upon thee, and let them bear with thee. That this signifies thus functions and offices for them, is evident from the signification of “to devolve from upon thee,” as being to hand down to others also; and from the signification of “bearing with thee,” as being to be of assistance. That by these words is signified thus functions and offices for them, is because the Lord does each and all things from Himself immediately, and mediately through heaven. That He acts mediately through heaven is not because He needs their aid, but that the angels there may have functions and offices, and consequently life and happiness in accordance with their offices and uses. From this there is an appearance to them that they act from themselves, but a perception that it is from the Lord. These things are signified by Moses “devolving from upon him,” and by the princes, who were to judge small matters, “bearing with him.” (That the Lord flows in not only immediately, but also mediately, and not only into the firsts, but also into the mediates and lasts of order, see n. 6982, 6985, 6996, 7004, 7007.)

AC (Potts) n. 8720 sRef Ex@18 @23 S0′ 8720. If thou do this word, and God have commanded thee. That this signifies that thus it is from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “if God have commanded that thou do this word,” as being when it is so from the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 8721 sRef Ex@18 @23 S0′ 8721. Then thou shalt be able to stand. That this signifies thus an abode with them, is evident from the signification of “thou shalt be able to stand,” as being to have an abode with those who are of the spiritual church. That this is signified, is because if truth flowed in only immediately from the Divine, and not also through heaven mediately, the man of that church could be led only by means of truth, and not by means of good, as can be seen from what was shown above (n. 8685, 8701); and unless he were led by means of good, he could not be in heaven, thus the Lord could not have an abode with him; for the abode of the Lord with man is in the good with him, and not in the truth except through the good.

AC (Potts) n. 8722 sRef Ex@18 @23 S0′ 8722. And also all this people shall come upon its place in peace. That this signifies that they who are of the spiritual church shall thus be in good, and shall be led by means of good, is evident from the signification of “the people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church, because by “the people” are meant the sons of Israel, by whom is represented the spiritual church; from the signification of “coming unto a place,” as being to the state to which they shall be led, which state is a state of good; for they who are of the spiritual church are led by means of truth to good, and when they come to good, then they come to their own place (that “place” denotes state see n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381); and from the signification of “peace,” as being the Divine in good; for in the supreme sense “peace” denotes the Lord, and it is from this that it inmostly affects good, and is the very being of the happiness of those who are in good. So long as man is in truth, and not yet in good, he is in an untranquil state; but when he is in good, then he is in a tranquil state, thus in peace. The reason is that evil spirits cannot attack good, but flee away at the first perception of it; whereas they can attack truth. Hence it is that when men are in good, they are in peace. This is what is signified by “all this people shall come upon its place in peace.” (What it is to be led by the Lord by means of truth, and what by means of good, see n. 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701.)

AC (Potts) n. 8723 sRef Ex@18 @27 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @24 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @25 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @26 S0′ 8723. Verses 24-27. And Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said. And Moses chose men of strenuousness out of all Israel, and gave them as heads over the people: princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens. And they shall judge the people in every time, the difficult word they shall bring unto Moses, and every small word they shall judge. And Moses let his father-in-law go, and he went to himself unto his own land.
“And Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said,” signifies the effect according to the setting in order of Divine good; “and Moses chose men of strenuousness out of all Israel,” signifies the choice of truths with which good could be conjoined among those who were of the spiritual church; “and gave them as heads over the people,” signifies influx into these truths; “princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens,” signifies primary truths that are subordinate in successive order to the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine; “and they shall judge the people in every time,” signifies their consequent perpetual dependence; “the difficult word they shall bring unto Moses,” signifies mediation and intercession; “and every small word they shall judge,” signifies the appearance of some particular and singular things as from another source; “and Moses let his father-in-law go,” signifies a state of truth Divine accommodated; “and he went to himself unto his own land,” signifies to the Divine Itself.

AC (Potts) n. 8724 sRef John@5 @26 S0′ sRef John@7 @39 S0′ sRef John@16 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@18 @24 S0′ sRef John@5 @19 S0′ sRef John@16 @14 S0′ sRef John@16 @13 S0′ 8724. And Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said. That this signifies the effect according to the setting in order of Divine good, is evident without explication; for by Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, is represented the Divine good (see n. 8643), and by Moses the Divine truth which proceeds from the Divine good (n. 8644). The Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord does nothing of itself, but from the Divine good which is the Divine Itself; for the Divine good is the Being, but the Divine truth is the Coming-forth therefrom; wherefore the Being must be in the Coming-forth that this may be anything, and consequently that anything may be done. When the Lord was in the world He was Divine truth, and then the Divine good in Him was “the Father;” but when He was glorified, then He became the Divine good even as to the Human. The Divine truth which then proceeded from Him is called the “Paraclete,” or “Spirit of Truth.” He who knows these two arcana, if he is in enlightenment from the Lord when he reads the Word, can be in the understanding of many things which the Lord Himself spoke concerning the Father and concerning Himself, and also concerning the Paraclete, the Spirit of Truth, which otherwise would be incomprehensible mysteries; as in John:
Jesus said, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth the Father doing; for what things soever He doeth, these the Son also doeth in like manner. As the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given also to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:19, 26).
The Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified (John 7:39).
If I go not away, the Paraclete will not come unto you; but If I go, I will send Him unto you; He, the Spirit of Truth, shall not speak from Himself; but what things soever He shall hear, shall He speak. He shall glorify Me, for He shall receive of Mine (John 16:7, 13, 14);
and more similar passages elsewhere.

AC (Potts) n. 8725 sRef Ex@18 @25 S0′ 8725. And Moses chose men of strenuousness out of all Israel. That this signifies the choice of truths with which good could be conjoined among those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “men of strenuousness,” as being truths with which good can be conjoined (see above, n. 8710); and from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (of which above, n. 8645). It is said “the choice of truths with which good can be conjoined,” because there are truths with which good cannot as yet be conjoined, and truths with which it can. The truths with which it can be conjoined, are truths confirmed, and also consociated with many others, even with such as delight the intellectual sight; in this way these truths enter into the affection, which makes the man will them. When this takes place, then good conjoins itself with them; for to will truths, and from this to do them, makes them to be good. Be it known further, that good is not conjoined with truths until these truths have been purified from the falsities which are from evil, and until they have a connection with all the truths which must be truths of faith with him who is to be regenerated. From the Lord the angels clearly and plainly see and perceive the connection and purification of truths, however little the man may feel or perceive in himself anything of the kind.

AC (Potts) n. 8726 sRef Ex@18 @25 S0′ 8726. And gave them as heads over the people. That this signifies influx into these truths, is evident from the signification of “men of strenuousness,” who here are those whom he made heads over the people, as being truths with which good can be conjoined (of which just above, n. 8725); from the representation of Moses, as being the truth immediately from the Divine (of which frequently above); and from the signification of “giving them as heads,” as being to flow in, and thus to give quality to, in order that the truth immediately from the Divine may through them lead the man of the church by means of good. How this is, can be seen from what has been before set forth, namely, that the man who is being regenerated is at first led by means of the truth which is of faith; but when he has been regenerated he is led by means of the good which is of charity (n. 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701); and that in the first state, namely, when he is led by means of truth, the Lord flows in through the truth Divine which proceeds immediately from Him; but in the other state, namely, when he is led by means of good, the Lord flows in through both the truth which proceeds immediately, and that which proceeds mediately, from Him (n. 8685, 8701); and that the mediate influx is equally from the Lord as is the immediate (n. 8717). These are the things described in this verse in the internal sense. The very mediate influx of truth from the Divine is signified by the words, “Moses gave them as heads over the people.”

AC (Potts) n. 8727 sRef Ex@18 @25 S0′ 8727. Princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens. That hereby are signified primary truths that are subordinate in successive order to the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine, is evident from what was adduced above (n. 8712-8715, 8717, 8718, 8722).

AC (Potts) n. 8728 sRef Ex@18 @26 S0′ 8728. And they shall judge the people in every time. That this signifies their consequent perpetual dependence, is evident from the signification of “judging,” as being the disposing of truths (see n. 8685), here the subordinate disposing, which is dependence; for the princes who were to judge the people were in the place of Moses in small matters; in the internal sense that truths in successive order from interior to exterior are subordinate to the truth immediately from the Divine, through which truths the Lord thus acts mediately; but in the sense determined to persons it means the angels and angelic societies in such subordination and dependence, for through them the Lord acts mediately and directs men; nevertheless, it is not the angels who direct, but the Lord through them (n. 8718, 8719). As further concerning this subject, be it known that some things also come from the angels themselves who are with man; but all the good and truth which become of faith and charity, that is, of the new life with man, come from the Lord alone, and also through the angels from Him; in like manner all disposing, which is continual, is for this use. The things which come from the angels themselves are such as accommodate themselves to the affection of the man, and in themselves are not goods, but still serve for introducing the goods and truths which are from the Lord. That “in every time” denotes perpetually, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 8729 sRef Ex@18 @26 S0′ 8729. The difficult word they shall bring unto Moses. That this signifies mediation and intercession, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8705). It is here said that they “shall bring the word unto Moses,” and there, that “Moses shall bring it to God”; but each involves what is similar.

AC (Potts) n. 8730 sRef Ex@18 @26 S0′ 8730. And every small word they shall judge, signifies the appearance of some particular and singular things as from another source, as above (n. 8718), where are the same words.

AC (Potts) n. 8731 sRef Ex@18 @27 S0′ 8731. And Moses let his father-in-law go. That this signifies a state of truth Divine accommodated, is evident from the fact that when all things have been reduced into order, that is, accommodated, namely, when mediate truths have been subordinated to the truth immediately from the Divine, it is the end of this state. This is described by Moses letting his father-in-law go; for the beginning of this state is described by Jethro’s coming unto Moses, and by their being thus consociated for that end. The reason why it was not before commanded by Jehovah that princes should be set in order who also should judge the people, but that this was done by the counsel and persuasion of Jethro, was in order that the subject of this chapter might be fully represented in its order. For in what precedes, the subject treated of was the previous state in which are those of the spiritual church during regeneration, namely, when they are being led by the Lord by means of truth. To this state the other succeeds, which is that they are led by the Lord by means of good. This turning or change of one state into the other is what is described in this chapter by Jethro.

AC (Potts) n. 8732 sRef Ex@18 @27 S0′ 8732. And he went to himself unto his own land. That this signifies to the Divine Itself, is evident from the signification of “going unto his own land,” as being to the former state, thus to the Divine. Moreover by “land” in the internal sense is signified the church, and also heaven; therefore in the supreme sense is signified the Divine. (That by “land” in the internal sense is signified the church, thus also the kingdom of the Lord in heaven, see n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011.) That by “land” in the supreme sense is signified the Divine, is because Jethro represented the Divine good, thus the Divine Itself, the returning whereto cannot otherwise be expressed in the historic sense of the letter than by “going unto his own land.” For the significatives in the Word accommodate themselves to the thing represented, the signification which properly belongs to the expression still remaining, as for instance the signification of “land,” which properly signifies the church, for the reason that they who are in heaven do not think of land when it is read of in the Word, but of the spiritual state of the nation which is in the land, thus of the religion there; and therefore when a “land” is read of where the church is, then they have an idea of the church there; and when an idea of the church, they have also an idea of the Lord’s kingdom, consequently of heaven; and when an idea of heaven, they have also an idea of the Divine there. But when the thing represented treats of any other holy thing in the church or in heaven, then that thing can be understood by “land”-as love, charity, good, faith. Hence it is evident that the signification still remains which properly belongs to the expression; as when good is signified, or love or charity, still through all there remains the signification of the church; for these things are the essentials of the church, and make it to be the church.

AC (Potts) n. 8733 8733. CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE SPIRITS AND THE INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH JUPITER.
As the spirits of the earth Jupiter bear relation in the Grand Man to the Imaginative of Thought, they speak little and think much; and when they speak, their speech is cogitative, and differs from the speech of others in the fact that it does not terminate so much in sound, as in a kind of soft murmur which is inwardly rapid. The very thought with them in this way unfolds itself into speech. The reason is that they are of a genius intermediate between the spiritual and the celestial; for the spiritual speak sonorously, and bring the whole of their thought into their speech; wherefore in order that their thought may be known, it must be gathered from the words. But not so the celestial; for that which is of their will rolls itself by somewhat of thought into what is like a wave, which affects and moves the will of another according to the state of the matter.

AC (Potts) n. 8734 8734. The speech of spirits in general is formed from ideas of thought that fall into words according to the fullness and the affection; and as the entire idea of the thing is thus presented and communicated, spirits can express more within a minute than a man in the world can within an hour; for the whole idea of the thing, such as it is in the thought, is fully transmitted into the thought of the other. From this it was made plain to me what the conjunction of minds or spiritual conjunction is (which is charity or mutual love), namely, that the mind of the one presents itself in the mind of the other with all the good of its own thought and will toward him, and in this way affects him; and on the other hand, what spiritual disjunction is (which is enmity and hatred), namely, that the mind of the one presents itself in the mind of the other with the thought and will of destroying him, which causes rejection.

AC (Potts) n. 8735 8735. I was further instructed by the spirits of the earth Jupiter who were with me for a considerable time, that on that earth there are also those who call themselves “saints,” and who, under a penalty, command their servants, whom they multiply, to call them “lords.” They likewise forbid them to adore the Lord of the universe, saying that they are the Lord’s mediators, and that they will bring their supplications to the Lord of the universe. The Lord of the universe, who is our Lord, they do not call “the One Only Lord,” as the rest do, but “the Supreme Lord,” for the reason that they also call themselves lords.

AC (Potts) n. 8736 8736. These saints, who are saluted as lords by their servants, call the sun the face of the Supreme Lord, and believe His abode to be there, wherefore they also adore the sun. The rest of the inhabitants hold them in aversion, and will not have interaction with them, both because they adore the sun, and because they call themselves lords, and are worshiped by their servants as mediatory gods.

AC (Potts) n. 8737 8737. The instructing and chastising spirits (spoken of above, n. 7802-7812), do not come to these, as to others on that earth, because they do not suffer themselves to be instructed, nor are they amended by discipline. They are inflexible, because they act from the love of self. The spirits say that they know from the coldness that it is they; and that when they notice the coldness, they depart from them.

AC (Potts) n. 8738 8738. There was shown me by the spirits the head-covering of those who call themselves saints: it was a towering hat of a darkish color.

AC (Potts) n. 8739 8739. In the other life such appear to the right, backward, at some height, and there sit like idols, and also are at first worshiped by their servants, who had been with such; but are afterward held by them in derision. And what surprised me, their faces shine there as if from fire, which is because of their having believed that they were saints, and in the likeness of the Lord, who is in the sun. But notwithstanding this fiery appearance of their faces, they are cold, and have an intense desire to be made warm. From this it is plain that the fire with which they shine is as it were an ignis fatuus.

AC (Potts) n. 8740 8740. In order to make themselves warm, the same seem to themselves to cut wood, and while they are cutting, there appears underneath the wood somewhat of a man whom they at the same time attempt to strike. This comes to pass because of their attributing merit to themselves; and as they attribute sanctity, they also impute to themselves righteousness. They who do this in the world, in the other life seem to themselves to cut wood; as is the case likewise with some from our earth, concerning whom previously, from experience, which experience, for the sake of illustrating the subject, may here be quoted (from n. 4943):
“In the lower earth, under the soles of the feet, are also those who have placed merit in good deeds and in works. Some of them appear to themselves to cut wood. The place where they are is rather cold, and they seem to themselves to acquire warmth by their labor. With these also I conversed; and it was given me to ask them whether they wished to come out of that place. They replied that they had not yet merited it by their labor. But when this state has been passed through, they are taken out thence. These spirits also are natural, because the wish to merit salvation is not spiritual, for it comes from their own; not from the Lord. Moreover they regard themselves as superior to others, and some of them even despise others. If these persons do not receive more joy than others in the other life, they are indignant against the Lord; and therefore when they cut wood, there sometimes appears as it were somewhat of the Lord under the wood, and this from their indignation. But as they have led a pious life, and have acted in this way from ignorance, in which there was something of innocence, therefore angels are occasionally sent to them who console them. And sometimes too there appears to them from above on the left as it were a sheep, at the sight of which they also receive consolation.” (See also n. 1110.)

AC (Potts) n. 8741 8741. The subject of the spirits and inhabitants of the earth Jupiter will be continued at the end of the following chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 8742 8742. CHAPTER 19
THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY.

Everyone has an internal man and an external man; the internal man is what is called the spiritual man, and the external man is what is called the natural man. Both must be regenerated for the man to be regenerated.

AC (Potts) n. 8743 8743. With the man who has not been regenerated the external or natural man commands, and the internal or spiritual man serves; but with the man who has been regenerated the internal or spiritual man commands, and the external or natural serves. This inversion cannot possibly exist except through regeneration by the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 8744 8744. So long as the external man has not been regenerated, he makes all good consist in pleasure, in gain, in pride, and burns with hatred and revenge against those who set themselves in opposition; and then the internal man not only consents, but also supplies reasons which confirm and promote; thus the internal man serves and the external commands.

AC (Potts) n. 8745 8745. But when the external man has been regenerated, the internal man makes all good consist in thinking well of the neighbor and willing well to him, and the external man makes all good consist in speaking well of him and acting well toward him; and at last each has as its end to love the neighbor and to love the Lord, and not as before to love self and to love the world. In this case the external or natural man serves, and the internal or spiritual man commands.

AC (Potts) n. 8746 8746. The internal man is first regenerated by the Lord, and afterward the external man, and the latter by means of the former. The internal man is regenerated by thinking those things which are of faith, and willing them; but the external man by a life according to them. The life of faith is charity.

AC (Potts) n. 8747 8747. The man who has been regenerated is in heaven as to his internal man, and is an angel there with angels, among whom also he comes after death. He can then live the life of heaven, love the Lord, love the neighbor, understand truth, relish good, and perceive blessedness therefrom. These things are the happiness of eternal life.

EXODUS 19

1. In the third month of the going forth of the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt, in this day they came into the wilderness of Sinai.
2. And they journeyed from Rephidim, and came into the wilderness of Sinai, and encamped in the wilderness; and there Israel encamped close to the mountain.
3. And Moses went up unto God, and Jehovah called unto him from the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and declare to the sons of Israel:
4. Ye have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto Me.
5. And now, if hearing ye shall hear My voice, and keep My covenant, then ye shall be Mine own possession above all peoples; for all the earth is Mine:
6. And ye shall be to Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the sons of Israel.
7. And Moses came and called the elders of the people, and set before them all these words which Jehovah commanded him.
8. And all the people answered together, and said, All that Jehovah hath spoken we will do. And Moses reported the words of the people unto Jehovah.
9. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Behold I come unto thee in the density of the cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and may also believe in thee to eternity; and Moses declared the words of the people unto Jehovah.
10. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments.
11. And let them be ready against the third day, because in the third day Jehovah will come down unto the eyes of all the people upon Mount Sinai.
12. And thou shalt set bounds to the people round about, saying, Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mountain, or touch the extremity of it; everyone that toucheth the mountain, dying he shall die:
13. No hand shall touch it, because stoning he shall be stoned, or shooting he shall be shot; if a beast, if a man, he shall not live; when the jobel is drawn out, they shall come up into the mountain.
14. And Moses went down from the mountain unto the people, and sanctified the people, and they washed their garments.
15. And he said unto the people, Be ready for three days, come not near unto a woman.
16. And it was on the third day, when it was morning, that there were voices and lightnings, and a heavy cloud upon the mountain, and the voice of a trumpet exceeding strong, and all the people that were in the camp trembled.
17. And Moses made the people go forth out of the camp to meet God; and they took their stand in the lower parts of the mountain.
18. And Mount Sinai smoked, the whole of it, because Jehovah descended upon it in fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain trembled mightily.
19. And when the voice of the trumpet was going, and waxing strong mightily, Moses spake, and God answered him in a voice.
20. And Jehovah came down upon Mount Sinai, unto the head of the mountain; and Jehovah called Moses unto the head of the mountain, and Moses went up.
21. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest perchance they break through unto Jehovah to see, and many of them fall.
22. And the priests also, who come near unto Jehovah, shall sanctify themselves, lest perchance Jehovah make a breach in them.
23. And Moses said unto Jehovah, The people cannot come up unto Mount Sinai; for Thou didst charge us, saying, Set bounds to the mountain, and sanctify it.
24. And Jehovah said unto him, Go, get thee down; and come up thou, and Aaron with thee; and let not the priests and the people break through to come up unto Jehovah, lest perchance He make a breach in them.
25. And Moses went down unto the people, and told them.

AC (Potts) n. 8748 sRef Ex@19 @0 S0′ 8748. THE CONTENTS.
In what now follows, the subject treated of in the internal sense is the revelation of truth Divine from the Lord out of heaven, and in this chapter the preparation for receiving it.

AC (Potts) n. 8749 sRef Ex@19 @2 S0′ sRef Ex@19 @1 S0′ 8749. THE INTERNAL SENSE
Verses 1, 2. In the third month of the going forth of the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt, in this day they came into the wilderness of Sinai. And they journeyed from Rephidim, and came into the wilderness of Sinai, and encamped in the wilderness; and Israel encamped close to the mountain. “In the third month,” signifies fullness of state; “of the going forth of the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt,” signifies after those who were of the spiritual church had been liberated from infestations; “in this day,” signifies that it was then; “they came into the wilderness of Sinai,” signifies a state of good in which truths of faith were to be implanted; “and they journeyed from Rephidim,” signifies continuity of life from the former state; “and came into the wilderness of Sinai,” signifies to a state of good in which truths were to be implanted; “and encamped in the wilderness,” signifies the arrangement in this state; “and Israel encamped close to the mountain,” signifies the arrangement by Divine celestial good with those who are of the spiritual church.

AC (Potts) n. 8750 sRef Ex@19 @1 S0′ 8750. In the third month. That this signifies fullness of state, is evident from the signification of “month,” as being state; for all periods of time, as “days,” “weeks,” “months,” and “years,” signify states (see n. 2788); and from the signification of “three” and “third,” as being what is complete (n. 1825, 2788, 4495, 5159); consequently “in the third month” denotes in fullness of state.
[2] What fullness of state is, shall be briefly told. Every state has its beginning, its progression, and its end. When a state arrives at its end, it is then full, and is called “fullness.” In the other life all things are measured by progressions of state and their successive changes from beginning to end, as in the world by times. That this is so is because in heaven there are no times, but states in their stead. The reason is that the sun in the other life, which is the Lord, remains constantly in its place, and does not, as in the world, by apparent daily progressions distinguish the day into morning, noon, evening, and night; nor by apparent annual progressions distinguish the year into spring, summer, autumn, and winter. From this it is that in heaven there are no times, but states in their stead. But as in the inmost sphere of heaven there is a certain progression according to the Divine heavenly form, which comes to the perception of no one, and as according to this progression the states of all in heaven undergo changes, the angels there are by turns in the good of love, in the truth of faith, and in obscurity as to the one and the other. From this it is that there is a correspondence of the states there with times in the world, namely, of the state of the good of love with morning, of the state of the truth of faith with good, and of an obscure state with evening and night. Moreover the heat also, which is from the sun there, is the good of love; and the light which is from the sun there, is the truth of faith. From this also it is that there is a correspondence of the heat in the world with love, which is therefore called “spiritual heat;” as also of the light in the world with faith, which is therefore called “spiritual light.”
[3] There are in general two states of life, namely, a state of thought, which is of the understanding, and a state of affection, which is of the will. The state of thought, which is of the understanding, bears relation to the truth which is of faith. It is this state that is enlightened by light from the sun of heaven, which is the Lord. So also is the light of the understanding in man from that light. But the state of affection, which is of the will, bears relation to the good which is of charity; and moreover the heat of the will in man, which is love, is from the heat from that sun in heaven, which is the Lord. From all this it can now be seen how the case is with states and their changes in the other life, and what is meant by the fullness of state which is signified by “the third month.” By state here, of which fullness is predicated, is meant the former state which those who were of the spiritual church had passed through. (That these pass through two states, the first when they are led by the Lord by means of truth, the second when they are led by Him by means of good, see n. 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701.) Here there is meant a fullness of the former state which has been described in what goes before; now the second state is described.

AC (Potts) n. 8751 sRef Ex@19 @1 S0′ 8751. Of the going forth of the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt. That this signifies after those who were of the spiritual church had been liberated from infestations, is evident from the signification of “going forth,” as being to be liberated; from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (see n. 6426, 6637, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223); and from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being infestations (n. 7278). (What infestations are, see n. 7474; and also that those who were of the spiritual church were detained in the lower earth until the coming of the Lord into the world, and were liberated by the Lord, n. 6854, 6914, 7035, 7091, 7474, 7878, 7932, 8018, 8054, 8099.)

AC (Potts) n. 8752 sRef Ex@19 @1 S0′ 8752. In this day. That this signifies that it was then, is evident from the signification of “in this day,” as being then; for by “day” is signified state (see n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 2788, 7680); and therefore “in this day” denotes when there was fullness of state.

AC (Potts) n. 8753 sRef Ex@19 @1 S0′ 8753. They came into the wilderness of Sinai. That this signifies a state of good in which truths of faith were to be implanted, is evident from the signification of “the wilderness of Sinai,” as being a state of good in which truths of faith are to be implanted. “The wilderness” here denotes good in which truths have not yet been implanted; and “Sinai” denotes the truths themselves. For a “wilderness” has several significations (see n. 3900); in general it signifies what is uninhabited and uncultivated, thus in the spiritual sense, good in which as yet there are no truths, for good without truths is spiritually uncultivated; consequently a “wilderness” signifies a new will that as yet has not been formed by means of the truths of faith (n. 8457).
sRef Ps@68 @9 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @7 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @8 S2′ [2] As regards “Mount Sinai,” it signifies in the supreme sense Divine truth from Divine good; “mountain,” Divine good; and “Sinai,” Divine truth. In the internal sense it signifies the truth of faith from good, here the truth of faith that is to be implanted in good, because the law had not yet been promulgated from it. “Mount Sinai” has these significations because the law was promulgated by the Lord from thence, and “the law” denotes Divine truth from Divine good, and also the truth of faith from good (n. 6752, 7463, 8695). For this reason it was that the sons of Israel encamped in the wilderness near that mountain, for from it were promulgated not only the ten commandments, which are “the law” in a close sense, but also all the statutes of the church, which contained in themselves, because they represented, the spiritual and celestial truths and goods of the Lord’s kingdom. That the law was promulgated from thence, is evident from the following chapter, and that so also were the statutes of the church, from the succeeding chapters, and also from Leviticus 7:37, 38; 27:34. The same is signified by “Sinai” in David:
O God, when Thou wentest forth before Thy people, when Thou didst march in the wilderness; the earth trembled, the heavens also dripped before God; this Sinai before God, the God of Israel. Thou, O God, makest to drip the rain of Thy benevolences (Ps. 68:7-9).
Here “Sinai” denotes the truth that is from good, for such is the signification of “the heavens dripping before God,” and of “God making to drip the rain of His benevolences.”
sRef Judg@5 @7 S3′ sRef Judg@5 @4 S3′ sRef Judg@5 @6 S3′ sRef Judg@5 @5 S3′ [3] In the book of Judges:
Jehovah, when Thou wentest forth out of Seir, when Thou camedst forth out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also dripped, the clouds also dripped waters, the mountains flowed down before Jehovah, Sinai itself before Jehovah the God of Israel. In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael, the ways ceased, and they that walked in paths went through crooked ways, the roads ceased in Israel; they ceased until I Deborah arose, until I arose a mother in Israel (Judg. 5:4-7).
Here also “Sinai” denotes the law or Divine truth from Divine good, by virtue of which the truths of faith were implanted in its good, which things are also signified by “the heavens dripped,” and “the clouds dripped waters;” that the truths of faith were lacking and were perverted, is signified by “the ways ceased, and they that walked in paths went through crooked ways” (that “ways,” “paths,” and “roads” denote truths, see n. 627, 2333, 3123, 3477); for the subject treated of in this prophetic song, which is the song of Deborah and Barak, is the perversion of the truth of the church, and its restitution.
sRef Deut@33 @2 S4′ [4] In Moses:
Jehovah came from Sinai, He rose up from Seir to them; He shone forth from Mount Paran, and He came from the ten thousands of holiness, from His right hand was the fire of the law to them (Deut. 33:2).
in this chapter the sons of Jacob are blessed by Moses before his death, who begins the prophetic utterance of his blessing with “Jehovah came from Sinai,” and by “Sinai” are here signified the truths of faith in the complex. That he begins in this way is because by “the sons of Jacob” are signified all the truths and goods of faith (n. 3858, 3862, 3926, 3939, 6335); and in like manner by “the sons of Israel” (n. 5414, 5951, 5879).

AC (Potts) n. 8754 sRef Ex@19 @1 S0′ 8754. A few words shall here be said about the good in which truths are to be implanted, which good is here signified by “the wilderness of Sinai.” (That the man who is being regenerated is first led by the Lord by means of truth, and afterward by means of good, see n. 7923, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701.) He who is being regenerated is led by means of truth to the intent that he may come to good, that is, may know it, and then will it, and finally do it. But when he is being led to good by means of truth, he first comes to the good in which the truths of faith have not yet been implanted; for truths cannot be implanted until he is in good. Before this they are indeed known, because they are in the memory, but at this time they are not in good, but are outside of good. Afterward when the man receives new life, which he first receives when he is in good, the truths of faith are implanted, and as it were enter upon a marriage with good in the internal man. This good, in which the truths of faith have not yet been implanted, but which is still so disposed that they can be received, is here meant by “the wilderness of Sinai.” No other good is meant than Christian good (on which see n. 8635-8638).

AC (Potts) n. 8755 sRef Ex@19 @2 S0′ 8755. And they journeyed from Rephidim. That this signifies continuity of life from the former state, is evident from the signification of “journeying,” as being the continuity of life (see n. 4375, 4554, 4585, 5996, 8181, 8345, 8397, 8557); and from the signification of “Rephidim” as being the quality of the state of temptation in respect to truth (see n. 8561), thus the quality of the former state (of which just above, n. 8754); for in the former state the man of the spiritual church undergoes temptations, and therefore from that state there is the continuity of life which is signified by “journeying from Rephidim.”

AC (Potts) n. 8756 sRef Ex@19 @2 S0′ 8756. And came into the wilderness of Sinai. That this signifies to a state of good in which truths were to be implanted, is evident from what was said above (n. 8753), where like words occur; and concerning the quality of this good, see n. 8754.

AC (Potts) n. 8757 sRef Ex@19 @2 S0′ 8757. And encamped in the wilderness. That this signifies the arrangement in this state, is evident from the signification of “encamping,” as being the setting in order of the truth and good which are of the life (see n. 8103), thus also their arrangement; and from the signification of “wilderness,” as being a state of good in which are not yet the truths of faith (of which above, n. 8753).

AC (Potts) n. 8758 sRef Ex@19 @2 S0′ 8758. And Israel encamped close to the mountain. That this signifies the arrangement by Divine celestial good with those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “to encamp,” as being arrangement (see n. 8757); from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 8751); and from the signification of “a mountain,” as being the good of celestial love (n. 4210, 4635, 8327). By Divine celestial good is meant the Divine good in heaven, for in itself Divine good is far above heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 8759 sRef Ex@19 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@19 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@19 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@19 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@19 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@19 @6 S0′ 8759. Verses 3-8. And Moses went up unto God, and Jehovah called unto him from the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say unto the house of Jacob, and declare to the sons of Israel: Ye have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto Me. And now if hearing ye shall hear My voice, and keep My covenant, then ye shall be Mine own possession above all peoples; because all the earth is Mine; and ye shall be to Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation; these are the words which thou shalt speak unto the sons of Israel. And Moses came and called the elders of the people, and set before them all these words which Jehovah commanded him. And all the people answered together, and said, All that Jehovah hath spoken we will do; and Moses reported the words of the people unto Jehovah.
“And Moses went up unto God,” signifies the truth from the Divine which is beneath heaven conjoining itself with the Divine truth which is in heaven; “and Jehovah called unto him from the mountain, saying,” signifies the union of the Divine good in heaven with the Divine truth there; “Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and declare to the sons of Israel,” signifies the salvation of those who are of the external and internal spiritual church; “Ye have seen what I did to the Egyptians,” signifies the remembrance of all things that befell the evil who infested; “and I bare you on eagles’ wings,” signifies and that by means of truths they were raised to heavenly light; “and brought you unto Me,” signifies thus to the good of love which is in heaven; “and now if hearing ye shall hear My voice,” signifies the reception of truth; “and keep My covenant,” signifies thus life in good and the consequent conjunction; “then ye shall be Mine own possession above all peoples,” signifies that then the Divine truth shall be with them more than with others; “because all the earth is Mine,” signifies that the Lord has all power in heaven and on earth; “and ye shall be to Me a kingdom of priests,” signifies that then the good of truth shall be with them; “and a holy nation,” signifies thus the spiritual kingdom; “these are the words which thou shalt speak unto the sons of Israel,” signifies influx for the receiving of truths in good; “and Moses came and called the elders of the people,” signifies the choosing of those who were primarily in the intelligence of truth; “and set before them all these words,” signifies a setting forth, together with influx; “which Jehovah commanded him,” signifies from the Divine; “and all the people answered,” signifies reception; “and said, All that Jehovah hath spoken we will do,” signifies according to influx from the Divine; “and Moses reported the words of the people unto Jehovah,” signifies correspondence and conjunction.

AC (Potts) n. 8760 sRef Ex@19 @3 S0′ 8760. And Moses went up unto God. That this signifies the truth from the Divine which is beneath heaven conjoining itself with the Divine truth which is in heaven, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth from the Divine (see n. 6771, 6827, 7014), here truth from the Divine which is beneath heaven, for the reason that now he represents the sons of Israel as their head, thus those who are of the spiritual church, who as yet are not in heaven because not yet in good formed by truths (see n. 8753, 8754); and from the signification of “going up,” as being to conjoin oneself, for he who goes up to the Divine conjoins himself with Him; as for instance when “going up into heaven” is mentioned, there is meant being conjoined with the Lord; and the reverse is meant by “coming down from heaven.” The Divine truth in heaven, with which there is conjunction, is meant by “God,” for in the Word the Lord is called “God” from Divine truth, and “Jehovah” from Divine good (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4402, 7010, 7268, 7873, 8301); and because the conjunction of Divine truth with Divine good is here treated of, therefore in this verse “God” is first mentioned, and then “Jehovah,” in these words, “Moses went up unto God, and Jehovah called unto him from the mountain.”
[2] It is said, the Divine truth in heaven, and afterward, the Divine good in heaven, for the reason that the Divine Itself is far above the heavens, not only the Divine good itself, but also the Divine truth itself which proceeds immediately from the Divine good. That these are far above heaven, is because in itself the Divine is infinite, and the infinite cannot be conjoined with finite things, thus not with the angels in the heavens, except by the putting on of something finite, and thus by accommodation to reception. The Divine good itself is also in itself an infinite flame of ardor, that is, of love, and this flame no angel in heaven can bear, for he would be consumed like a man if the flame of the sun were to touch him without intermediate tempering. Moreover if the light from the flame of the Divine love, which light is Divine truth, were to flow in without abatement from its own fiery splendor, it would blind all who are in heaven. From all this it can be seen what the difference is between the Divine good and Divine truth above the heavens, and the Divine good and Divine truth in the heavens, here treated of.

AC (Potts) n. 8761 sRef Ex@19 @3 S0′ 8761. And Jehovah called unto him from the mountain. That this signifies the union of the Divine good in heaven with the Divine truth there, is evident from the signification of “calling unto him,” or “calling anyone unto Himself,” when said of the Divine, as being conjunction, here union, because it is said of Divine good with Divine truth which are made one by conjunction. (That “to call anyone to Himself” denotes conjunction, and also presence, see n. 6047, 6177, 7390, 7451, 7721.) That it is Divine good with which there was conjunction, is because the name here used is “Jehovah” (on which subject see just above, n. 8760). And from the signification of “mountain,” as being good Divine in heaven (on which just above, n. 8758), here heaven; for whether you say “Divine good in heaven,” or “heaven,” it is the same, because heaven arises from this good. The case herein is like that of all other things abstracted from their subjects, which when spoken of nevertheless lead to the perception of the subjects in which they are; as when the truth of faith, or the good of charity, is spoken of, there is understood the man of the church in whom they are. This is especially the case in heaven, for there the Divine good united to the Divine truth is all in all, thus is the life or soul of heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 8762 sRef Ex@19 @3 S0′ 8762. Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and declare to the sons of Israel. That this signifies the salvation of those who are of the external and internal spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “saying,” and “declaring,” as here being salvation, for the things which are now said and declared by Jehovah through Moses involve salvation; and from the signification of “the house of Jacob,” and “the sons of Israel,” as being the external and internal church (see n. 3305, 4286). What is meant by the external church and the internal church has been already stated in several places, namely, that the external of the Ancient Church was all that which represented the internal, and that the internal of the church was that which was represented by the externals. As for example, they who made Divine worship consist in sacrifices, and in rites and statutes, which represented spiritual and heavenly things of the Lord’s kingdom, were in externals; but they who made Divine worship consist at the same time in the celestial and spiritual things which were represented, were in internals. In like manner at this day, they who make Divine worship consist in frequenting temples, hearing preachings, attending the Holy Supper, and who do these things with devotion, without thinking any further about them than that they ought to be frequented because they are instituted and commanded, these are of the external church; whereas they who at the same time believe that such things are to be attended to, but that still the essential of worship is the life of faith, that is, charity toward the neighbor and love to the Lord, these are of the internal church. Consequently also they are of the external church who do what is good to the neighbor and worship the Lord merely from the obedience of faith; whereas they are of the internal church who do what is good to the neighbor and worship the Lord from love. So in all other cases.
[2] Nevertheless with everyone who is of the church there must be both, namely, an external and an internal. If there are not both there is no spiritual life with him, for the internal is like a soul, and the external is like the body of the soul. But they who are of the external church are clearly in its externals and obscurely in its internals, whereas they who are of the internal church are clearly in internals and obscurely in externals. But those who are in externals and not at the same time in internals are not of the church. All those are in both who are in the good of life according to the teachings of their church; but those are in externals without internals who are in worship and not at the same time in the good of life according to the teachings of the church. There are few who know this, and the reason why few know it, is that they make all worship, and thereby all salvation, consist in faith, and not at all in charity. From this also it is that they who think about eternal salvation make it consist in a life of piety, and not at all in a life of charity (on which see n. 8252-8257).

AC (Potts) n. 8763 sRef Ex@19 @4 S0′ 8763. Ye have seen what I did to the Egyptians. That this signifies the remembrance of all things that befell the evil who infested, is evident from the signification of “ye have seen,” as being remembrance; and from the representation of the Egyptians, as being the evil who infested (see n. 7097, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7317). From this it is plain that by “ye have seen what I did to the Egyptians” is signified the remembrance of all things that befell those who infested.

AC (Potts) n. 8764 sRef Ex@19 @4 S0′ 8764. And I bare you on eagles’ wings. That this signifies and that thus by means of truths they were raised to heavenly light, is evident from the signification of “bearing anyone on eagles’ wings,” as being to be raised on high even into heavenly light; for by “bearing” is signified to be raised, by “wings” are signified spiritual truths, and by “an eagle,” the rational as to truth. (That “an eagle” has this signification, see n. 3901, for eagles fly on high.) For by the visible heaven the ancients understood the angelic heaven. Moreover the simple believed that there was the home of the angels, and also that on high, because nearer the sun and stars, was heavenly light itself. Hence it is that “to be borne on eagles’ wings” denotes to be borne on high into that light. That raising thither is effected by means of the truths of faith, is because the truth of faith is what raises man even to heaven, where its good is. That the rational as to truth is “an eagle,” is because the rational of man is his heaven, and the natural is relatively like the earth, for the rational constitutes the internal man, and the natural the external man.
[2] That “wings” denote spiritual truths, is because “birds” in general signify intellectual things and thoughts (n. 40, 745, 776, 3219, 5149, 7441); consequently “wings” denote spiritual truths, because all the intellectual is from these truths. The intellectual derived from falsities, however discerning and acute it appears, is not the intellectual; for the intellectual sees from the light of heaven, and the light of heaven is spiritual truth, that is, the truth of faith. Wherefore where there is no truth of faith, there is no light, but thick darkness, and an intellectual in thick darkness is no intellectual. “Wings” also denote the powers which belong to spiritual truth from its good; for the wings with birds are like the hands or arms with man, and by the “arms” and “hands” are signified powers (n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 5544, 6292, 6947, 7518, 7673, 8050, 8153, 8281, 8305). (That there is power in spiritual truth from good, see n. 3563, 4931, 5623, 6344, 6423.)
sRef Ezek@1 @23 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @6 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @24 S3′ [3] That “wings” denote spiritual truths, or truths of faith which have power from good, is manifest from other passages in the Word. Wherefore when “wings” are attributed to the Divine, by them is signified the Divine truth which has omnipotence; as where they are attributed to the cherubs, by which is signified the Providence of the Lord, as in Ezekiel:
Every cherub had four faces, and every one of them had four wings; their wings were erect, the one toward the other; every one had wings that covered their bodies. I heard the sound of their wings like the sound of great waters, like the voice of Shaddai; when they went, a voice of tumult like the voice of a camp; when they stood, they let down their wings. I heard the voice of their wings kissing one another, and the voice of the wheels beside them. The voice of the wings of the cherubs was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Shaddai. The likeness of the hands of a man was under their wings (Ezek. 1:6, 23, 24; 3:13; 10:5, 21).
[4] That here “wings” denote truth Divine is evident from each particular of the description, as well as from the fact that the wings were erect the one toward the other, that they covered their bodies, and that the sound of them was heard like the sound of great waters, like the voice of wheels, and like the voice of Shaddai, and also that the likeness of the hands of a man was under their wings. That the wings were “erect the one toward the other” represented the consociation of all in the Divine; that they “covered their bodies” signified that the Divine truth was a covering to the Divine good from which it proceeds. For the Divine good is a flame, and the Divine truth is the light therefrom, encompassing and thus covering the flame. The flame itself does not appear in heaven, but only the light in which the flame is, and which is thus perceived as heat, which is love. That “a sound was heard like the sound of great waters” signifies the quality of Divine truth in heaven; in like manner “its voice like the voice of wheels, and like the voice of Shaddai;” for “sound” and “voice” are attributed to Divine truth. It is therefore said, “the voice of great waters,” because “waters” denote truths (see n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8137, 8138, 8568), as also “the voice of the wheels,” because “wheels” denote the truths of doctrinal things, for the reason that “chariots” denote doctrines of truth (n. 5321, 5945, 8146, 8148