Apocalypse Revealed (Coulson)

AR (Coulson) n. 0 sRef Jame@5 @14 S0′ 0. PREFACE

THERE are many who have laboured at an exposition of the Apocalypse, but because up to this time the spiritual sense of the Word had not been known, they could not see the arcana that remain concealed therein; for only the spiritual sense discovers these. The expositors have therefore made various guesses, and most of them have applied the things that are there to the conditions of empires, intermingling some things about ecclesiastical matters also. The Apocalypse, however, like the whole Word, does not treat in its spiritual sense of worldly things at all but of heavenly things, thus not of empires and kingdoms but of heaven and the Church.

It is necessary to know that since the last judgment accomplished in the spiritual world in the year 1757, dealt with in a special little work published in London in 1758, a new heaven has been formed of Christians, but only of those who could admit that the Lord is the God of heaven and earth, in accordance with His words in Matthew xxviii 18 and who at the same time repented in the world of evil deeds. Out of this new heaven a new Church on earth (in terris) is descending, and will continue to descend. This is the New Jerusalem. That this Church is going to acknowledge the Only Lord is evident from these words in the Apocalypse:-

There came unto me one of the seven angels and spoke with me, saying, Come, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb’s wife, and he showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God Rev. xxi 9, 10);

and in another place:-

Let us rejoice and exult, for the time of the Lamb’s wedding has come, and His wife has made herself ready: blessed are those who are called unto the supper of the Lamb’s wedding Rev. xix 7, 9.

That there will be a new heaven, and that a new Church on earth will descend therefrom, is evident from these words there:-

I saw a new heaven and a new land, and I saw the holy city Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. The One sitting upon the throne said, Behold I am making all things new; and He said unto me, Write, for these words are true and trustworthy Rev. xxi 1, 2, 5.

‘A new heaven’ is a new heaven of Christians. ‘The new Jerusalem’ is a new Church on earth, which will act as one with that new heaven. ‘The Lamb’ is the Lord as to the Divine Human.

To these observations some things will be added for enlightenment. The Christian heaven is below the ancient heavens. Into it, from the time of the Lord when He was in the world, have been admitted those who have worshipped the one God under three Persons and at the same time have had no idea of three Gods; and this on account of the Trinity of Persons having been received in the whole of Christendom. Those, however, who have cherished no other idea of the Lord’s Human than as of the human of another man, have not been able to receive the faith of the New Jerusalem, which is that the Lord is the Only God, in Whom is the Trinity. For that reason they have been separated and sent out to the extremities. It has been given [me] to see the separations since the last judgment, and the banishments. For upon a just idea of God the entire heaven is founded, and on earth the entire Church, and in general every religion; since by means of that idea there is a conjunction, and through the conjunction light, wisdom and eternal happiness.

Every one is able to see that the Apocalypse cannot possibly be expounded except by the Only Lord, for the single words there contain arcana that would never be known without a unique (singularis) enlightenment and thus a revelation. It has therefore pleased the Lord to open the sight of my spirit for me, and to teach. Do not therefore suppose that I have undertaken anything there from myself, or from any angel, but from the Lord Only. The Lord indeed said to John through an angel:-

Do not seal the words of the prophecy of this book Rev. xxii 10.

By this it is understood that they are to be made manifest.


THE DOCTRINAL TENETS OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND RELIGION

IN A SHORT SUMMARY

Since, in chapters xvii, xviii, and xix of the Apocalypse, the Babylon that is the Roman Catholic form of religion* is again treated of, its Doctrinal Tenets ought to be disclosed at the outset, and in this order: on Baptism; the Eucharist or Holy Supper; Masses; Penance [or Repentance]; Justification; Purgatory; the Seven Sacraments; the Saints; and Power.
* The Latin is religiosum. See n. 719 where this term is explained.

I. ON BAPTISM, they teach:- That after the offence of transgression the entire Adam was altered for the worse as to body and soul.
That this sin was transferred to the whole human race. That this original sin is taken away solely by means of Christ’s merit; and Christ’s merit is applied by means of the sacrament of Baptism; and thus the whole guilt of original sin is taken away by Baptism.
That in a baptised person there still remains concupiscence as an incentive to sin, but not sin.
That in this way men put on Christ, are made new creatures, and obtain a full and entire remission of sins.
Baptism is called the layer of regeneration and faith. That baptised persons, when they have reached manhood, ought to be questioned regarding the promises made by their sponsors, and this is the SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION.
That because of lapses after Baptism a sacrament of Penance [or Repentance] is necessary.

II. ON THE EUCHARIST OR HOLY SUPPER
That immediately after the consecration the very Body of Jesus Christ and the very Blood, together with His Soul and Divinity, are really and substantially contained under the form (species) of bread and wine; the Body under the form of bread and the Blood under the form of wine, by virtue of the words; but the Body itself under the form of wine, and the Blood under the form of bread, and the Soul under each, by virtue of the natural connection and concomitance whereby the parts of Christ the Lord are joined together; and the Divinity on account of the admirable hypostatic union thereof with the body and soul. Wherefore as much is contained under either form as under each; in a word, Christ whole and entire is manifest under the form of bread, and under each part of that form, and the whole also is manifest under the form of wine and its parts. Therefore the two forms are separated, and the bread is given to the laymen, and the wine to the clergy.
That water should be mixed with the wine in the chalice.
That laymen should receive the communion from the clergy, but the clergy should communicate themselves.
That after the consecration the very Body and very Blood of Christ are in the hosts in the consecrated particles, and therefore the host* should be adored when it is being shown and carried about.
That this wonderful and unique conversion of the whole substance of the bread into the Body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the Blood, is termed transubstantiation.
That under certain conditions communication under both forms may be conceded by the Pontiff.
It is called supersubstantial bread, and angels’ bread, which they eat without veils: it is also called spiritual food, and the antidote by which they are freed from sins.
* The Latin word hostia = sacrifice or victim.

III. ON MASSES
It is termed the Sacrifice of the Mass, because the sacrifice by which Christ offered Himself to God the Father is represented therein under the form of the bread and wine. Consequently it is a sacrifice truly propitiatory, pure, and in it there is nothing but what is holy.
That if the people do not communicate sacramentally, but only the minister, then the people communicate spiritually, because ministers engage in it not for themselves only, but for all the faithful who pertain to the body of Christ.
That masses should not be celebrated in the vulgar tongue because they contain the great instruction of the faithful people; but ministers may explain something on the Lord’s days.
That it has been instituted that certain things, which are mystical, be pronounced in a softened, and others in a raised tone; and that in order that there may be majesty in so great a sacrifice that is offered to God, there should be lights, fumigations of incense, vestments, and other things of this kind.
That it ought to be offered for the sins, punishments, satisfactions, and any necessities of the living; and for the dead.
That masses in honour of the saints are thanksgivings on account of their interceding when implored.

IV. ON PENANCE [or REPENTANCE]
That besides Baptism, there is a sacrament of Penance [Repentance] by which the benefit of Christ’s death and merit is applied to those who have lapsed after Baptism, so that it is called a laborious kind of baptism.
That the parts of Penance are contrition, confession, and satisfaction.
That CONTRITION is a gift of God, and an impulse of the Holy Spirit, not yet dwelling in but only moving a person; therefore it is a disposition.
That CONFESSION should be made of all mortal sins, even the most hidden, and of the intentions.
That sins that are kept back are not remitted, but those which do not come to mind after diligent considering are included in the confession.
That it should be made at least once a year.
That sins are to be absolved by the ministers of the Keys, and are remitted on their saying, I ABSOLVE.
That absolution is after the manner of the judge’s act when sentence is pronounced.
That more grievous sins should be absolved by bishops, and still more grievous ones by the Pontiff.
SATISFACTION is achieved by means of satisfying punishments imposed at the discretion of the minister according to the measure of the delinquency.
That when eternal punishment is remitted, so is temporal punishment.
That the power of INDULGENCES was bequeathed by Christ to the Church, and the use of them is most salutary.

V. ON JUSTIFICATION
That a transference from the state in which man is born a son of Adam into a state of grace through the second Adam the Saviour cannot be effected without the layer of regeneration and faith, or Baptism.
That the second beginning of justification is from a prevenient grace, which is a vocation with which man co-operates by turning himself.
That disposition is formed by FAITH, to which he is freely moved, believing those things to be true which have been revealed: then by HOPE, while he trusts that God is propitious for Christ’s sake: and by CHARITY, by which he begins to love the neighbour and have a hatred of sins.
That justification, which follows, is not merely the remission of sins, but the sanctification and renewal of the inward man. Then they are not only reputed to be just, but are just, receiving justice within them, and because they accept the merit of Christ’s passion, therefore justification is inserted through faith, hope, and charity.
aRef Rev@21 @5 S2′ [2] That faith is the beginning of human salvation, the foundation and root of justification, and this is to be justified by faith: and because none of those things which precede justification, whether faith or works, merit the grace of justification, this is to be justified gratis, for it is a prevenient grace: and yet man is justified by works, and not so much by faith.
That the just may fall into light and venial sins, and still be just; and therefore the just ought to work continually, in prayers, oblations, almsgivings and fastings, lest they fall, for they are born again into a hope of glory, and not into glory.
That if the just have fallen away from the grace of justification, they may again be justified through the sacrament of Penance [Repentance]. By every mortal sin grace is lost, but not faith, but faith also is lost by infidelity, which is recession from religion.
That the works of a justified man are merits, and the justified, by those works which are performed by them through the grace of God and the merit of Christ, merit eternal life.
That since Adam’s sin, FREE-WILL is not lost or extinguished, and man co-operates by assenting to God calling, for otherwise he would be an inanimate body.
They establish PREDESTINATION by saying that no one knows whether he is in the number of the predestined and among those whom God has chosen unto Himself, except by a special revelation.

VI. ON PURGATORY
That all the guilt to be discharged by temporal punishment is not blotted out by justification; therefore all come into Purgatory to be freed from it before the entrance into heaven is open.
That the souls there detained are assisted by the prayers (suffragii) of the faithful, and chiefly by the sacrifice of the Mass; and this should be diligently taught and proclaimed.
The torments there are variously described, but are inventions and mere fictions.

VII. ON THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS
That there are seven Sacraments:-Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance [Repentance], Extreme Unction, [Holy] Orders (Ordo), and Matrimony.
That there are neither more nor less.
That one may be more important (dignus) than another.
That they contain grace; and the grace is conferred through them by the act performed.
That the Sacraments of the Old Law were of the same number. Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist and Penance have been treated of above.
ON THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION:-
That it is derived from James v 14, 15.
That it is applied to the sick near the end of life, whence it is called the Sacrament of Departing.
That if they should recover, it may be applied again.
That it is applied by means of oil blessed by a bishop, and with these words, ‘May God grant thee indulgence for whatever offence thou hast committed through fault of the eyes, nostrils, or touch.’
ON THE SACRAMENT OF ORDERS:-
That there are seven orders in the ministry of the priesthood, which differ in rank, and together are called the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, which is as an army set in array.
That inaugurations into the ministry are effected by unctions, and by a transference of the Holy Spirit into them.
That for the ordinations of bishops and priests no secular power is required, neither is the consent of, vocation by, or authority of a magistrate required.
That those who climb up to the ministry, being called and instituted only by secular powers (ab illis), are not ministers but thieves and robbers, who do not enter in by the door.
ON THE SACRAMENT OF MATRIMONY:-
That dispensation in degrees [of consanguinity] and divorces belongs to the Church.
That the clergy may not contract marriage.
That all of them are able to have the gift of chastity, and if anyone says that he cannot, even though he has made a vow, let him be anathema; because God does not deny it to them that ask it rightly, neither does he suffer anyone to be tempted more than he can bear.
That a state of virginity and celibacy is to be preferred to the conjugial state; besides more.

VIII. ON SAINTS
That the saints reigning together with Christ offer up their own prayers to God for men.
That Christ ought to be adored, and the saints invoked.
That the invocation of saints is not idolatrous, nor opposed to the honour of the one Mediator between God and men. It is called Latria.*
That the images of Christ, of Mary Mother of God, and of Saints are to be venerated and honoured, not that any divinity or virtue is believed to be in them, but because the honour which is shown unto them is referred to the prototypes which they represent; and by the images which men kiss, and before which they prostrate themselves and uncover the head, they adore Christ and venerate the saints.
That the miracles of God are performed through saints.

IX. ON POWER
That the Roman Pope is the successor of the Apostle Peter, and Vicar of Jesus Christ, the Head of the Church and the universal Bishop.
That he is above Councils.
That he has the keys to open and shut heaven, thus the power of remitting and retaining sins. Therefore he, as key-bearer of everlasting life, has a right at once to earthly and heavenly empire.
That bishops and priests also have such a power from him, because it was given also to the rest of the apostles, and therefore they are styled ministers of the keys.
That it belongs to the Church to judge of the true sense and interpretation of Sacred Scripture, and they who go against this should be punished by penalties established by law.
That it is not fitting for laymen to read Sacred Scripture, because the meaning thereof is not known except by the Church. Consequently its ministers boast that it is known to them.
* Possibly this is an error for Dulia. Lairia = the kind of supreme worship lawfully offered to God alone, opposed to Dulia, that given to saints and angels, and to Hyperdulia, that given to the Virgin.

X. These [statements] are derived from Councils and Bulls, especially from the Council of Trent* and the Papal Bull confirming it, wherein all who think, believe, and act contrary to the things that have been decreed, which are in general those adduced above, they condemn by anathema.
* The Council of Trent (or Trento, in the Italian Alps) began in December 1545. There were some lengthy interruptions, but the work was completed in December 1563 under Pope Pius IV, who signed the Bull confirming it on 13th November 1564.

THE DOCTRINAL TENETS OF THE CHURCH AND RELIGION OF THE REFORMED IN A SHORT SUMMARY

Since the Reformed are much treated of in the Apocalypse in its spiritual sense, their Doctrinal Tenets ought also to be disclosed at the outset before the Expositions, and in this order: on God; Christ the Lord; Justification by Faith; Good Works; the Law and the Gospel; Repentance and Confession; Original Sin; Baptism; the Holy Supper; Free-will; and the Church.

I. ON GOD
On God the belief is in accordance with the Athanasian Creed, which being readily available is not quoted here.
That it is a belief in God the Father as the Creator and Preserver, in God the Son as the Saviour and Redeemer, and in the Holy Spirit as the Enlightener and Sanctifier, is indeed well known.

II[A*]. ON CHRIST THE LORD
On the Person of Christ the same doctrine is not taught by all the Reformed.
By the LUTHERANS, thus:- That the Virgin Mary did not merely conceive and bring forth very Man, but also the very Son of God, whence she is rightly addressed and revered as the Mother of God.
That in Christ there are two natures, the Divine and the Human, the Divine from what is eternal, and the Human in time.
That these two natures are personally united, altogether in such a manner that there are not two Christs-one the Son of God, the other the Son of man-but so that one and the same is Son of God and Son of man, not that these two natures are mixed together into one substance, nor that one is changed into the other, but that each nature retains its own properties; and what these are is also described.
That the union of these natures is hypostatic, and this is the most perfect communion such as is that of soul and body.
Therefore it is rightly said that in Christ God is Man and Man is God.
That He did not suffer so greatly for us as a Man only (nudus Homo), but as a Man whose Human nature has so close and ineffable a union and communion with the Son of God, as to become one Person with this.
That truly the Son of God suffered for us, but yet in accordance with the properties of the Human nature.
That the Son of Man, by which is understood Christ as to the Human nature, was really exalted to the right hand of God when He was taken into God. This was done as soon as He was conceived by the Holy Spirit in the mother’s womb.
That Christ always had that Majesty by reason of the personal union, although in the state of exinanition He only exercised it so far as He saw fit. But after the resurrection He fully and entirely put off the form of a servant, and put the Human nature or essence into the plenary possession of Divine Majesty; and in this manner entered into glory.
In a word, Christ is, and to eternity remains, very God and Man in one undivided Person. And being also as to His Human present at the right hand of God, He governs all things in the heavens and on earth, and also fills all things, being with us, and dwelling and operating in us.
That there is no difference of adoration, because through the nature that is perceived the Divinity that is not perceived is adored.
That the Divine Essence communicates and imparts its own peculiar excellences to the Human nature and performs its own Divine operations through the body as through an instrument.
Thus all the fullness of the Divinity dwells in Christ bodily, in accordance with Paul.
That the incarnation was accomplished so that He might reconcile the Father to us, and become a victim for the sins of the whole world, original as well as actual.
That He was incarnate of (ex) the substance of the Holy Spirit, but the Human nature, which He as the Word assumed and united to Himself, was produced by (a) the Virgin Mary.
That He sanctifies those who believe in Him, by sending the Holy Spirit into their hearts to rule, comfort and vivify them, and defend them against the devil and the force of sin.
That Christ descended to the lower regions and destroyed hell for all believers; but in what manner these things were effected, He does not wish them to scrutinise too eagerly, but that knowledge of this matter will be reserved for another age, when not only this mystery but many others also will be revealed.
These [statements]** are derived from Luther, the Augsburg Confession, the Nicene Council, and the Schmalcaldic Articles. See the Formula Concordiae.
By another section of the Reformed, also treated of in the Formula Concordiae, it is believed that Christ, in accordance with the Human nature, by exaltation received no more than created gifts and finite power, thus that He is a Man like any other, retaining the properties of the flesh.
That therefore as to the Human nature He is not Omnipresent and Omniscient.
That although absent, He as a King governs things at a distance from Himself.
That as God from what is eternal He is with the Father, and as a Man born in time He is with the angels in heaven.
Moreover the statement that in Christ God is Man and Man God is a figure of speech; besides other similar things.
This difference of opinion, however, does away with the Athanasian Creed, which is received by all in Christendom, where are these words:-
The true faith is that we believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God is God and Man, God of the substance of the Father born before the world, and Man of the substance of the mother born in the world; perfect God and perfect Man: Who although He is God and Man, yet there are not two but one Christ; one, not by a conversion of the Divine Essence into the body, but by the taking of His Human into God; one altogether, not by confusion of substance, but by unity of Person; for as the rational soul and body is one man, so God and Man is one Christ.
* The number II is repeated at the next section.
** Martin Luther: the German Protestant reformer (1483-1546), whose Ninety-Five Theses posted on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenburg on 31st October 1517 precipitated the Reformation.
The Augsburg Confession: a document prepared by Philip Schwartzerd, known as Melancthon, a gentle classical scholar and friend of Luther. It was read on 25th June 1530 before the Emperor Charles V and a Reichstag held at Augsburg (or Augusta) in Bavaria.
The Schmalcaldic Articles: a statement of faith drawn up by Luther and presented to a meeting of theologians and others at Schmalkalden in Thuringia in January 1537.
The Formula Concordiae: a Form of Concord prepared by Protestant theologians in 1577 and published on 25th June 1580, the fiftieth anniversary of the Augsburg Confession. Intended to end past controversy, it presented a strictly Lutheran view in much detail.
The Nicene Council: a meeting of bishops summoned by the Emperor Constantine in 325. In an effort to counter the Arian heresy the Council formulated ‘The Creed of Nicaea’, a forerunner of the ‘Nicene Creed’.

II [B*]. ON JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH, AND ON GOOD WORKS
The justifying and saving faith of the clergy is this:-
That God the Father turned Himself away from the human race on account of their iniquities, and so from justice condemned them to eternal death, and that He therefore sent the Son into the world, Who might expiate and redeem them, and make satisfaction and reconciliation; and that the Son did this by taking upon Himself the condemnation of the law and suffering Himself to be crucified, and in this manner as also by obedience He fully satisfied God’s justice, even to Himself becoming Justice; and that God the Father imputes and applies this to believers as His merit, and sends them the Holy Spirit, Who produces charity, good works, and repentance as a good tree produces good fruit, and justifies, renews, regenerates, and sanctifies; and that this faith is the one and only means of salvation, and through it alone are a man’s sins remitted.
They distinguish between the act and state of justification. By the act of justification they understand the beginning of the justification which takes place at the moment when the man through that faith alone lays bold of Christ’s merit with confidence.
By the state of justification they understand the progress of that faith, which takes place by means of an interior working of the Holy Spirit, which only manifests itself by certain signs, concerning which they teach various things.
They also treat of the manifest good works that are done by the man, of his volition, and which follow that faith; but they exclude them from justification because the selfhood (proprium) and thus the merit of the man is in them.
This briefly is the present day faith; but the confirmations and teachings thereof are many and complicated, some of which also shall be adduced. These are:-
That men cannot be justified before God by their own strength, merits or works, but gratuitously for Christ’s sake, through faith. By this faith they believe themselves to be received into grace, their sins being remitted for His sake, Who made satisfaction for us by His own death, and that God the Father imputes this to believers for righteousness before Him.
That this faith is not only a historical knowledge that Christ suffered and died for us, but is also a heartfelt assent, confidence, and trust that sins are gratuitously remitted for Christ’s sake, and that they are justified; and then these three things concur, the gratuitous promise, Christ’s merit as the price, and the propitiation.
That faith is the righteousness by which we are reputed righteous before God on account of the promise; and to be justified is to be absolved from sins, and it may in some measure also be termed being quickened and regenerated.
That faith is reckoned to us for righteousness, not because it is so good a work, but because it lays hold of the merit of Christ.
That Christ’s merit is His obedience, suffering, death and resurrection.
That it is necessary for there to be something through which God can be approached, and this is nothing else but faith by which reception is effected.
That in the act of justification faith enters by means of the Word and the hearing, and is not an act of the man, but is the operation of the Holy Spirit: and then the man co-operates no more than a pillar of salt, a stock or a stone, doing nothing of himself and knowing nothing about it. But after the act he does co-operate, yet without any will of his own in spiritual things.
In things natural, civil, and moral, it is otherwise.
That nevertheless they can make progress in spiritual things so far as to will good and be delighted with it, but this itself is not from their own will, but from the Holy Spirit, and thus they co-operate not from their own powers but from the new powers and gifts that the Holy Spirit has begun in their conversion.
Moreover in a true conversion, change, renovation, and movement are effected in the man’s understanding and heart.
That charity, good works, and repentance do not enter into the act of justification, but they are necessary in the state of justification, especially on account of God’s command; and by their means they merit the bodily rewards of this life, but not the remission of sins and the glory of eternal life, because faith alone justifies without the works of the law, and saves.
That in the act faith justifies the man, but in the state faith renews him.
That in the renovation it is necessary, on account of God’s command, that fitting works be done, as the Decalogue prescribes, because God wills that the carnal lusts should be restrained by a civil discipline, and He has therefore given doctrine, laws, public officials and penalties.
It follows that it is therefore false that by works we merit the remission of sins and salvation, or that works do anything to preserve faith; and it is false also that a man be reckoned just on account of the justice of his reason and that reason is able of its own powers to love God above all things, and do His law.
In a word, that faith and salvation are preserved and retained in men not by means of good works but only through the Spirit of God and through faith. But still good works are testimonies that the Holy Spirit is present and dwells in them.
The statement that good works are harmful to salvation is condemned as pernicious, because the interior works of the Holy Spirit that are good should be understood, not the exterior ones proceeding from a man’s own will, which are not good but evil, because merit-seeking.
Moreover they teach that Christ at the last judgment is going to pronounce sentence upon good and evil works as effects proper and not proper to the man’s faith.
At the present day this faith reigns in the whole Reformed Christian world with the clergy, but not with the laymen except a very few. For by faith laymen understand nothing else but to believe in God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and that he who lives well and believes well will be saved; and of the Lord that He is a Saviour; for they are ignorant of the mysteries of the justification of their preachers, although they preach them until they go in at one ear and out at the other with their lay bearers. Indeed the teachers themselves reckon they are learned as the result of a knowledge of those mysteries, and in their colleges and universities they expend much labour to apprehend them. Therefore it was said above that this faith is the faith of the clergy.
Still, however, the teachers teach this same faith in different ways in the kingdoms where the Reformed are.
In GERMANY, SWEDEN, and DENMARK:-
That the Holy Spirit operates through that faith, and justifies and sanctifies men, and afterwards renews and regenerates them successively, but without the works of the law; and those who are in that faith as the result of trust and confidence are in grace with God the Father; and then the evils that they do indeed appear, but are continually being remitted.
In ENGLAND:-
That that faith is producing charity unknown to the man and that the man’s interiorly feeling the Holy Spirit operating within him is also the good of charity; and that if he does not feel this, and yet does good for the sake of salvation it can be termed good, but still its having merit in it is derived from the man.
They also teach that that faith can work this at the last hour of death, although it is not known how.
In HOLLAND:-
That God the Father for the sake of the Son by means of the Holy Spirit justifies and purifies the man interiorly through that faith, but only as far as the man’s own will, from which the faith turns back without touching it.
Some teach that it does lightly touch, and that thus the evils of the man’s will do not appear before God.
Few of the laymen, however, are aware of these mysteries, and [the teachers] are unwilling to publish them just as they are, because they know that the laymen do not relish them.
* The number II is repeated from the previous section.

III. ON THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL
That the Law has been given by God so that it may be known what sin is, and thus that it may be held off by threat and fear, and thereafter by the promise and announcement of grace.
Therefore the chief office of the Law is that original sin and all its fruits may be revealed, and it may be known how horribly man’s nature has fallen and to what depths it is depraved.
For this reason it thoroughly terrifies, humiliates, and prostrates a man until he despairs of himself, and anxiously desires help.
This effect of the Law is called contrition, which is not active or factitious, but passive and a torment of conscience.
But the Gospel is the whole doctrine concerning Christ and faith, and thus concerning the remission of sins, consequently a most joyful messenger, not reproving and terrifying, but comforting.
By the Law the anger of God upon all impiety is revealed, and the man is condemned, and therefore it causes the man to look to Christ and the Gospel.
There must be preaching about both, because they have been joined together.
The Gospel teaches that Christ has taken upon Himself every curse of the Law, and has expiated all sins, and that through faith we follow the remission.
That it is not by the preaching of the Law but of the Gospel that the Holy Spirit is given and received, and a man’s heart is renewed; and the Spirit afterwards makes use of the ministry of the Law to teach and show in the Decalogue what the good will and pleasure of God is. Thus the Spirit mortifies and makes alive.
That a distinction should be made between the works of the Law and the works of the Spirit, and therefore the faithful are not under the Law but under grace, for that very reason.
That the righteousness of the Law does not justify, that is, it neither reconciles nor regenerates, nor by itself does it render men acceptable to God, but when the Holy Spirit is given, the fulfilling of the Law follows.
That the works of the second table of the Decalogue do not justify, because thereby we act with men, and not properly with God, and yet in justification we must act with God.
That Christ, because without sin He underwent the punishment of sin and was made a sacrifice on our behalf, endured that right of the Law so that it should not condemn believers, because He is a propitiation for them, for the sake of which they are reckoned righteous.

IV. ON REPENTANCE AND CONFESSION
That repentance is composed of two parts, one part being contrition or the terror struck into the conscience on account of sin the other being faith, which is conceived as the result of the Gospel, and comforts the conscience by the remission of sins, and delivers from terrors.
He who confesses his whole self to be sin, includes all sins, excludes none, and forgets none. Thus sins are cleansed, the man being purified, rectified and sanctified, inasmuch as the Holy Spirit does not allow sin to have dominion, but represses and restrains it.
That the enumeration of sins ought to be free, the person being willing or unwilling, and much should be made of private confession and absolution.
Therefore if anyone is willing he can confess his sins and receive absolution from the confessor, and the sins have then been remitted.
The words which the minister is then to say in response are, ‘May God be propitious to thee and confirm thy faith; be it unto thee as thou believest, and I by command of the Lord remit for thee thy sins’; but others say ‘I announce to thee a remission of sins’.
But still the sins are remitted neither by repentance nor by works, but by faith.
Therefore the repentance of the clergy is only a confession before God that they are sinners, and a prayer that they may continue steadfastly in faith.
That expiations and satisfactions are not necessary, because Christ is the Expiation and Satisfaction.

V. ON ORIGINAL SIN
They teach that after Adam’s fall all men propagated according to nature are born with sin, that is, without the fear of God, and with lusts; and this condemns and even now brings eternal death to those who are not born again by Baptism and the Holy Spirit. It is a privation of original righteousness, together with a disordered disposition of the parts of the soul and a corrupt condition.
That there is a difference between the nature itself into which man has been created, which nature exists also after the fall and continues to be a creature of God, and original sin.
That there is thus a difference between the corrupt nature and the corruption that has been impressed on the nature, through which the nature has been corrupted.
That no one save God only is able to separate the corruption of the nature from the nature itself.
This is what will be done manifestly in the blessed resurrection, because then the nature itself that the man carries about in the world is going to be resurrected without original sin and enjoy eternal felicity.
That the difference is like that between the work of God and the work of the devil.
That this sin has not invaded the nature as if Satan had created any evil substantially and mixed that with the nature, but that concreated and original righteousness has been lost.
That original sin is accidental; and man by reason thereof is as it were spiritually dead before God.
That this evil is covered and pardoned by Christ only.
That the seed itself of which man is formed has been contaminated with that sin.
That also as a result of this a man receives from his parents depraved inclinations and an internal uncleanness of heart.

VI. ON BAPTISM
That Baptism is not simply water, but that it is water taken by Divine command and sealed with the Word of God, and thus sanctified.
That the virtue, work, fruit and end of Baptism is that men may be saved and elected into the Christian communion.
That through Baptism there is made available victory over death and the devil, the remission of sins, God’s grace, Christ with all His works, and the Holy Spirit with all His gifts, and eternal blessedness to all (collectively and individually) who believe.
Whether through Baptism faith is also given to infants is too deep a matter for earnest inquiry.
That immersion in the water signifies the mortification of the old man and the resurrection of the new. It can therefore be called the bath of regeneration, and a veritable bath in the Word, as well as in the death and burial of Christ.
That the life of a Christian, once begun in this manner, is a daily baptism.
That the water does not effect this, but the Word of God that is in and with the water, and the faith of God’s Word added to the water. It follows as a result that baptism in the Name of God is indeed performed by men; yet it is not done by them but by God Himself.
That Baptism does not take away original sin when a depraved lust is extinguished, but it takes away the guilt.
But others of the Reformed believe:-
That Baptism is an external bathing of water whereby an internal washing from sins is signified.
That it does not confer regeneration, faith, God’s grace, and salvation, but just signifies and seals them.
Also that they are not conferred in and with Baptism, but afterwards as the person grows up.
Moreover the grace of Christ and the gift of faith attend only the elect.
And because salvation does not depend on Baptism, that it is permitted to be performed by another, failing a regular minister.

VII. ON THE HOLY SUPPER
Those of the Reformed who are called Lutheran teach:- That in the Holy Supper or sacrament of the altar, the Body and Blood of Christ are truly and substantially present, and are actually distributed and received together with the bread and wine.
That therefore the very Body and Blood of Christ are in, with, and under the bread and wine, and are given to Christians to masticate and drink.
That therefore they are not simply bread and wine, but are included and bound up with the Word of God, and this causes them to be Christ’s Body and Blood, for when the Word is added to the element it becomes a Sacrament.
That nevertheless this is not a transubstantiation such as that of the Papists.
That it is food for the soul nourishing and strengthening the new man.
That it has been instituted in order that faith may recover and get back its strength, to give remission of sins and the new life that Christ earned for us.
That thus the Body and Blood of Christ are taken not only spiritually by faith, but also by the mouth in a supernatural way, by reason of the sacramental union with the bread and wine.
That the worth of this Supper rests in obedience alone, and in Christ’s merit, which is applied by a true faith.
In a word, that the Sacraments of the Lord’s Supper and of Baptism are testimonies of the will and grace of God towards men; and the Sacrament of the Supper is a promise of the remission of sins through faith. It moves the heart to believe; and the Holy Spirit works through the Word and the Sacraments.
That the consecration of the minister does not produce these [results], but it is to be attributed to the omnipotent virtue of the Lord alone.
That the worthy as well as the unworthy receive the very Body and the very Blood of Christ as He hung upon the cross; but the worthy to salvation, the unworthy to damnation.
That the worthy are those who have faith.
That no one is to be urged to the Supper, but each person may approach when spiritual hunger impels.
Others of the Reformed, however, teach:-
That in the Holy Supper the Body and Blood of Christ are taken spiritually only, and that the bread and wine there are only signs, types, symbols, tokens, figures and similitudes.
That Christ is not present bodily, but only by the virtue and operation out of His Divine essence; but that in heaven there is a conjunction in accordance with the communication of attributes (secundum communicationem idiomatum).
That the worth of this Supper depends not only on faith, but also on preparation.
That the worthy alone receive its virtue, but the unworthy merely the bread and wine.
Although the latter have dissented, yet all the Reformed agree in this, that those who wish to come to that Supper worthily must necessarily practise repentance.
The Lutherans [teach] that if they do not repent from evil works, and yet approach, they are damned to eternity; and the English, that otherwise the devil will enter into them as into Judas. This is evident from the prayers read before Communion.

VIII. ON FREE WILL
They make a distinction between the states before the fall, after the fall, after the reception of faith and renovation, and after the resurrection.
That man since the fall is entirely incapable of beginning, thinking, understanding, believing, willing, operating or cooperating anything in spiritual and Divine things of his own power, or of applying or accommodating himself to grace; but his natural will is only for those things that are against God and displeasing to Him.
That thus in spiritual things man is like a stock, but still he has a capacity, not active but passive, by which he can be turned to good through the grace of God.
Nevertheless there has remained with man since the fall a free will, to be able or unable to hear the Word of God, and thus a little spark of faith may be kindled in the heart, which embraces the remission of sins for Christ’s sake and imparts consolation.
That the human will, however, enjoys the liberty of practising civil justice, and of choosing things that are subject to reason.

IX. ON THE CHURCH
That the Church is the congregation and communion of saints, and is spread through the entire world among those who have the same Christ, and the same Holy Spirit, and the same Sacraments, whether they have similar or dissimilar traditions.
Also that it is principally a society of faith.
And that this Church only is the Body of Christ, and the good are the Church in fact and name, but the evil in name only.
That the evil and hypocrites, because they are intermixed, are members of the Church according to its external signs, provided they have not been excommunicated, but they are not members of the Body of Christ.
That ecclesiastical rites, which are called ceremonies, are matters of indifference (adiaphori), and are neither the worship of God nor a part of the worship of God.
That therefore the Church is at liberty to institute, change, and abrogate such things as the distinctions of vestments, times, days, foods, and other things; and therefore one Church should not condemn another on account of such things.

X. These are the Doctrinal Tenets of the Church and Religion of the Reformed in a short summary. Those, however, which the Schwengfeldians, Pelagians, Manichaeans, Donatists, Anabaptists, Arminians, Zwinglians, Anti-trinitarians, Socinians, Arians, and at this day the Quakers and Herrnhuters, teach are passed over, because they are disapproved and rejected as heretical by the Church of the Reformed.

AR (Coulson) n. 1 sRef Rev@21 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@22 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @1 S0′ 1. THE APOCALYPSE

THE FIRST CHAPTER

1. THE REVELATION OF JESUS CHRIST, which GOD gave unto Him to show unto His servants things which must shortly come to pass; and He signified, sending by His angel to His Servant John.

2. Who bare witness of the Word of GOD, and the testimony of JESUS CHRIST, whatsoever things he saw.

3. Blessed is he who reads and they who hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things that are written therein, for the time is near.

4. John to the seven Churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you and peace from Him Who is, and Who was, and Who is to come; and from the seven spirits who are before His throne.

5. And from JESUS CHRIST, Himself the Faithful Witness, Himself the First-born from the dead, and Himself the Prince of the kings of the land, loving us and washing us from our sins in His own blood.

6. And He makes us kings and priests unto GOD AND HIS FATHER: to Him be glory and strength for ages of ages. [Amen.]

7. Behold He is coming with clouds, and every eye shall see Him, and they who pierced Him, and all the tribes of the land shall wail over Him. Even so, Amen.

8. I am Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the Ending, says the LORD, Who is, and Who was, and Who is to come, the Almighty.

9. I John, who also am your brother and companion in affliction, and in the kingdom, and the patient expectation of JESUS CHRIST, was in the isle called Patmos for the Word of GOD, and the testimony of JESUS CHRIST.

10. I came to be in the spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice as of a trumpet,

11. Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last. What thou seest write in a book, and send to these Churches in Asia, unto Ephesus, and Smyrna, and Pergamum, and Thyatira, and Sardis, and Philadelphia, and Laodicea.

12. And I turned to see the voice that was speaking with me, and having turned I saw seven golden lampstands.

13. And in the midst of the seven lampstands One like the SON OF MAN clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the breasts with a golden girdle.

14. And His head and hairs were white as wool, like snow, and His eyes as a flame of fire.

15. And His feet like burnished bronze as if burned in a furnace, and His voice as the voice of many waters.

16. And having in His right hand seven stars; and out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth, and His face as the sun shines in its power.

17. And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. And He laid His right hand upon me, saying unto me, Do not be afraid, I am the First and the Last;

18. And am the Living One, and was put to death, and behold I am the Living One for ages of ages, Amen, and have the keys of hell and of death.

19. Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which are going to be hereafter.

20. The mystery of the seven stars which thou hast seen in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands. The seven stars are the Angels of the seven Churches, and the seven lampstands which thou hast seen are the seven Churches.

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

THE CONTENT OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER

That this Revelation is from the Only Lord, and that it is received by those who will be in His New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, and who acknowledge the Lord as the God of heaven and earth. Also the Lord is described as to the Word.

THE CONTENTS OF EACH OF THE VERSES

1. The Revelation of Jesus Christ
signifies predictions by the Lord concerning Himself and concerning His Church, what this will be like at its end, and what it is going to be like afterwards.
Which God gave unto Him to show unto His servants
signifies for those who are in a faith derived from charity.
Things which must shortly come to pass
signifies that they are certainly going to happen so that the Church may not perish.
And He signified, sending by His angel unto His servant John
signifies the things that have been revealed by the Lord through heaven to those who are in the good of life derived from charity and its faith.

2. Who bare witness of the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ
signifies who from the heart and so in the light receive Divine Truth out of the Word, and acknowledge the Lord’s Human to be Divine.
Whatsoever things he saw
signifies their enlightenment in all the things that are in this Revelation.

3. Blessed is he who reads and they who hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things that are written therein
signifies their fellowship with the angels of heaven, who live in accordance with the doctrine of the New Jerusalem.
For the time is near
signifies that the state of the Church is such that it cannot any longer endure so as to have conjunction with the Lord.

4. John to the seven Churches
signifies to all who are in Christendom, where the Word is, and through it the Lord is known, and who accede to the Church.
Which are in Asia
signifies to those who are in the light of the truth (veritas) out of the Word.
Grace be unto you and peace
signifies a Divine salutation.
From Him Who is and Who was and Who is to come
signifies from the Lord Who is the Eternal and Infinite, and is Jehovah.
And from the seven spirits who are before His throne
signifies from the entire heaven, where the Lord is in His Divine Truth.

5. From Jesus Christ
signifies the Divine Human.
Himself the Faithful Witness
signifies that He is Divine Truth Itself.
Himself the First-born from the dead
signifies that He also is Divine Good Itself.
And Himself the Prince [of the kings] of the land
signifies out of Whom is everything true derived from good in the Church.
Loving us and washing us from our sins [its His own blood]
signifies Who out of Love and Mercy reforms and regenerates men by means of His Divine truths out of the Word.

6. And He makes us kings and priests
signifies Who grants that those who are born from Him, that is, regenerated, are in wisdom derived from Divine truths, and in love derived from Divine goods.
Unto God and His Father
signifies thus [they are] images of His Divine Wisdom and of His Divine Love.
To Him be glory and strength for ages of ages
signifies Who Only has Divine Majesty and Divine Omnipotence to eternity.
Amen
signifies Divine confirmation out of the Truth (veritas), thus out of His very Self.

7 And He is coming with the clouds of heaven
signifies that the Lord is going to reveal Himself in the sense of the letter of the Word, and to open its spiritual sense at the end of the Church.
And every eye shall see Him
signifies that all who out of affection are in an understanding of Divine Truth are going to acknowledge [Him].
And they who pierced Him
signifies that those in the Church who are in untruths are also going to see.
And all the tribes of the land shall wail*
signifies that this will be when there are no longer any goods and truths in the Church.
Even so, Amen
signifies Divine confirmation that it is going to be so.

8. And I am Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the Ending
signifies Who is the Very and Only One from Primes to Ultimates, from Whom all things are, thus Who is the Very and One Only Love, the Very and One Only Wisdom, and the Very and One Only Life in Itself, and thus the Very and One Only Creator, Saviour, and Enlightener from Himself, and thence the All in all of heaven and the Church.
Says the Lord, Who is and Who was and Who is to come
signifies Who is the Eternal and Infinite, and is Jehovah.
And the Almighty
signifies Who is, lives, and has power out of His Very Self, and Who rules all things out of primes by means of ultimates.

9. I John, who also** am your brother and companion
signifies those who are in the good of charity and thence in the truths of faith.
In affliction, and in the kingdom, and the patient expectation of Jesus Christ
signifies those things [i.e. the good of charity and truths of faith] in the Church which have been infested by evils and untruths, but these [evils and untruths] are to be removed by the Lord when He comes.
Was in the isle called Patmos
signifies the state and situation in which he could be enlightened.
For the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ
signifies so that from the heart, and thus in the light, Divine Truth may be received out of the Word, and the Lord’s Human acknowledged to be Divine.

10. I came to be in the spirit on the Lord’s day
signifies the spiritual state then as a result of Divine influx.
And heard behind me a great voice as of a trumpet
signifies a manifest perception of Divine Truth revealed out of heaven.

11. Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last
signifies Who is the Very and Only One from Primes to Ultimates, from Whom all things are, and more as above (verse 8).
[What thou seest write in a book

signifies so that [these truths] may be revealed to posterity.]*** And send to these Churches in Asia
signifies for those in Christendom who are in the light of the truth (veritas) out of the Word.
Unto Ephesus, and Smyrna, and Pergamum, and Thyatira, and Sardis, and Philadelphia, and Laodicea
signifies specifically in accordance with the state of reception of each one.

12. And I turned to see the voice that was speaking with me
signifies the inversion of the state of those who are in the good of life, as to the perception of truth in the Word, while they turn to the Lord.
And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands
signifies the New Church, which will be in enlightenment from the Lord out of the Word.

13. And in the midst of the seven lampstands One like the Son of Man
signifies the Lord as to the Word from Whom that Church [will be].
Clothed with a garment down to the foot
signifies the Divine proceeding, which is Divine Truth.
And girt about the breasts with a golden girdle
signifies the Divine proceeding and at the same time conjoining, which is Divine Good.

14. And His head and hairs were white as wool, like snow
signifies the Divine Love of the Divine Wisdom in primes and in ultimates.
And His eyes as a flame of fire
signifies the Divine Wisdom of the Divine Love.

15. And His feet like burnished bronze as if burned in a furnace
signifies natural Divine Good.
And his voice as the voice of many waters
signifies natural Divine Truth.

16. And having in His right hand seven stars
signifies all the cognitions**** of good and truth in the Word out of Himself.
And out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth
signifies the dispersion of untruths by the Lord by means of the Word and doctrine.
And His face as the sun shining in power
signifies the Divine Love and Wisdom, which are Himself, and proceed from Him.

17. And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead
signifies a failing of one’s own life as a result of such presence of the Lord.
And He put His right hand upon me
signifies life then inspired by Him.
Saying unto me, Do not be afraid
signifies revival, and adoration then from profound humiliation.
I am the First and the Last
signifies that He is the Eternal and Infinite, therefore the Only God.

18. And I am the Living One
signifies Who Only is Life, and from Whom Only Life is.
And was put to death
signifies that in the Church He has been disregarded, and His Divine Human has not been acknowledged.
And behold I am the Living One for ages of ages
signifies that He is eternal Life.
Amen
signifies Divine confirmation that it is the truth (veritas).
And have the keys of hell and of death
signifies that He Only can save.

19. Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which are going to be hereafter
signifies in order that all the things that are now being revealed may be for posterity.

20. The mystery of the seven stars which thou hast seen in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands
signifies the arcana in the visions concerning a new heaven and a new Church.
The seven stars are the Angels of the seven Churches
signifies the new Church in the heavens, which is the new heaven.
And the seven lampstands which thou hast seen are the seven Churches
signifies the new Church on earth (in terris), which is the new Jerusalem coming down from the Lord out of the new Heaven.
* The words ‘over Him’, omitted here, are not referred to at n. 27.
** Reading et (also) instead of est (is).
*** Omitted here in the Original Edition. But see n. 39.
**** The term cognitiones, here used in the Latin, is translated ‘cognitions’ to distinguish these knowledges from those that are meant by the Latin scientifica also used in the Writings of Swedenborg. Two of the meanings most commonly associated with cognitiones are (i) a particular species of knowledge, as knowledges of the Word, of good and truth, or of spiritual things (AC 24, 3665, 9945; NJHD 51; HH 111, 351, 469, 474, 517, 518); and (ii) a higher type of knowledge which is from understanding and perception (AC 1486-7; HH 110, 353).

THE EXPOSITION

Up to this time it has not been known what the spiritual sense is. In THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 5-26), it has been shown that that sense is in the details of the Word, and that without it the Word in many places cannot be understood. This sense is not apparent in the sense of the letter, for it is within it like the soul in the body. It is known that there is a Spiritual and a Natural, and that what is spiritual inflows into what is natural and presents itself to be seen and felt in forms that become objects of sight and touch, and that the Spiritual apart from those forms is not perceived otherwise than as affection and thought, or as love and wisdom, which are of the mind. It is acknowledged that affection and thought, or love to which affection pertains, and wisdom to which thinking pertains, are spiritual. The fact is known that these two faculties of the soul present themselves in the body in forms that are called sensory and motor organs; as also is the fact that they [the soul’s faculties and organs] make one, and one in such a way that, while the mind thinks, the mouth instantly utters what is being thought, and while the mind wills, the body instantly does what is being willed. From this it is clear that with man there is a perfect union of things spiritual and natural. [2] It is similar in all the things of the world and in each separate thing thereof. What is spiritual is there, being the inmost of the cause, and what is natural is there, being the effect of that; and the two make one. In the Natural also the Spiritual is not apparent, because, as has been said, this is within it as the soul in the body, and as the inmost of the cause in the effect. It is similar with the Word. Since this is Divine, it is not possible for anyone to deny that in its bosom it is spiritual. Since, however, what is spiritual is not apparent in the sense of the letter, which is natural, the spiritual sense was unknown up to this time; and it could not have become known before, until genuine truths were revealed by the Lord, for that sense is in these truths. This is why the Apocalypse has not been understood up to this time. But so that there may be no doubt that such things are therein, the details must he expounded and demonstrated by means of similar things elsewhere in the Word. The exposition and demonstration now follows.

AR (Coulson) n. 2 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 2. [verse 1] ‘The Revelation of Jesus Christ’ signifies predictions by the Lord concerning Himself and concerning His Church, what this will be like at its end, and what it is going to be like afterwards, in the heavens as well as on earth (in terris). By ‘the Revelation of Jesus Christ’ are signified all the predictions, and because these are from the Lord, it is said, ‘the Revelation of Jesus Christ’. That they are concerning the Lord and concerning His Church will be plain from the expositions. In the Apocalypse it does not treat of the successive states of the Church, still less of the successive states of kingdoms, as some have believed until now; but there from beginning to end it treats of the last state of the Church in the heavens and on earth (in terris), and then of the last judgment, and after this of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem. That this New Church is the final purpose of this work is clear. The things therefore that precede treat of what the state of the Church is like immediately beforehand. But in what series it treats of those matters can be seen from the contents of each of the chapters, and more distinctly from the exposition of each of the verses.

AR (Coulson) n. 3 sRef Dan@9 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ sRef Jer@25 @4 S0′ sRef Amos@3 @7 S1′ 3. ‘Which God gave unto Him to show unto His servants’ signifies for those who are in a faith derived from charity, or in the truths of wisdom derived from the good of love. By ‘to show’ is signified to make manifest, and by servants here are signified those who are in a faith derived from charity. These things are made manifest to them because they understand and receive. By ‘servants’ are understood in the spiritual sense those who are in truths, and since truths are derived from good, by ‘servants’ are understood those who are in truths derived from good, thus also those who are in wisdom derived from love, because wisdom is of truth, and love is of good. Then again those who are in a faith derived from charity are understood, because faith also is of truth and charity is of good; and since the genuine spiritual sense is abstracted from personality, therefore in it truths are signified by ‘servants’. Now since truths are of service to good by teaching it, therefore in general, and properly, by ‘a servant’ in the Word is understood being of service, or the person or thing that is of service. In this sense not only are the prophets called servants of God, but the Lord also as to His Human. That the prophets have been called servants of God is established from these passages:-

Jehovah has sent unto you all His servants the prophets Jer. xxv 4.

He has revealed His secret unto His servants the prophets Amos iii 7.

He set before us by the hand of His servants the prophets Dan. ix 10.

And Moses is called a servant of Jehovah (Mal. iv 4). This is because by a prophet in the spiritual sense is understood the truth of doctrine, concerning which [see] below. sRef Isa@37 @35 S2′ sRef Isa@53 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @19 S2′ sRef Ezek@34 @24 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@52 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@37 @24 S2′ [2] And because the Lord was the Divine Truth itself which also is the Word, and on account of this He has Himself been declared the Prophet, and because He was of service in the world, and to eternity is of service to all by teaching, therefore also in certain passages He is called the Servant of Jehovah, as in the following places:-

Out of the travail of His soul He shall see, He shall be satisfied; by His knowledge shall My righteous Servant justify many Isa. liii 11.

Behold My Servant shall deal prudently; He shall be extolled and exalted and shall lead forth strongly Isa. lii 13.

Behold My Servant upon Whom I lean, Mine Elect; My Soul has good pleasure; I have put the Spirit upon Him Isa. xlii 1, 19.

These things are concerning the Lord. In like manner David [is called a servant] where by him is understood the Lord, as in these passages:-

I Jehovah will be their God, and My Servant David a Prince in the midst of them Ezek. xxxiv 24.

My Servant David shall be King over them so that there may be One Shepherd for them all Ezek. xxxvii 24.

I will protect this city to preserve it, for the sake of Me and My Servant David Isa. xxxvii 35.

Likewise Ps. lxxviii 70-72; lxxxix 3, 4, 20 [H.B. 4, 5, 21]. That by ‘David’ in these places is understood the Lord may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 43, 44). The Lord Himself says in like manner concerning Himself:-

Whosoever wishes to become great among you ought to be your minister, and whosoever wishes to be first ought to be your servant, as the Son of Man came not to be Himself ministered unto, but to minister Matt. xx 25-28; Mark x 42-44; Luke xxii 27; likewise Luke xii 37.

The Lord says this because by ‘servant’ and ‘minister’ is understood one who is of service and ministers by teaching, and abstractly from personality, the Divine Truth, which He Himself was. sRef Matt@20 @27 S3′ sRef Matt@20 @28 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @46 S3′ sRef Matt@20 @26 S3′ sRef Luke@12 @37 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @45 S3′ [3] Since, therefore, by ‘servant’ is understood one who teaches Divine Truth, it is clear that by ‘servants’ in this part of the Apocalypse are understood those who are in truths derived from good, or in a faith derived from charity, because they are able to teach from the Lord, that is, the Lord can teach and minister through them. They are termed ‘servants’ in this sense in Matthew:-

In the consummation of the age, who is a faithful and prudent servant, whom his Lord shall set over His household, to give them food in its season? Blessed is that servant whom the Lord shall find so doing Matt. xxiv 45 [46].

And in Luke:-

Blessed are those servants whom the Lord having come shall find watchful. Verily I say unto you that He shall gird Himself and make them to recline, and Himself coming near shall minister unto them Luke xii 37.

In heaven all who are in His spiritual kingdom are called servants of the Lord, while they who are in His celestial kingdom are called His ministers. This is because those who are in His spiritual kingdom are in Wisdom derived from Divine Truth, and those who are in His celestial kingdom are in Love derived from Divine Good; moreover Good ministers and Truth is of service. In the opposite sense, however, by ‘servants’ are understood those who serve the Devil. These are in a state of real servitude; but those who serve the Lord are in a state of liberty, as also the Lord teaches (John viii 32-36).

AR (Coulson) n. 4 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 4. ‘Things which must shortly come to pass’ signifies that they are certainly going to happen so that the Church may not perish. By ‘must shortly come to pass’ is not understood that the things that have been predicted in the Apocalypse are going to happen at once and shortly, but certainly; and that unless they do happen the Church perishes. In the Divine idea, and thence in the spiritual sense, there is no time, but instead of time there is state; and because ‘shortly’ is of time, certainty is signified by it, and that it is going to happen before its time. For the Apocalypse was given in the first century, and now seventeen centuries have passed by, in consequence of which it is plain that by ‘shortly’ is signified that which corresponds [to it], and that is certainty. sRef Matt@24 @22 S2′ [2] These words of the Lord involve exactly the same:-

Except those days should be shortened, no flesh would be preserved; but for the elect’s sake, those days shall be shortened Matt. xxiv 22.

By them it is also understood that unless the Church was brought to an end before its time it would perish absolutely. In that chapter the consummation of the age and the Lord’s coming are dealt with, and by the consummation of the age the last state of the old Church, and by the Lord’s coming the first state of the new Church, is understood. sRef Ps@90 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@2 @7 S3′ [3] It has been said that in the Divine idea there is no time, but the presence of all the things that have been and are going to be. Therefore it is said in David:-

A thousand years in Thy sight are as yesterday Ps. xc 4.

and in the same:-

I will declare the decree, Jehovah has said unto Me, Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee Ps. ii 7.

‘This day’ is the presence of the Lord’s coming. It is in consequence of this also that an entire period is termed ‘a day’, its first state being a daybreak and morning, and its last an evening and night.

AR (Coulson) n. 5 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 5. ‘And He signified sending by His angel to His servant John’ signifies the things that have been revealed by the Lord through heaven to those who are in the good of life derived from charity and its faith. By ‘He signified sending by His angel’ in the spiritual sense is understood the things that have been revealed out of heaven, or through heaven by the Lord: for everywhere in the Word by ‘angel’ is understood the angelic heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself. This is because no angel separated from heaven ever speaks with man, for any one there has such a conjunction with all that each angel speaks from the communion although he is not conscious of this. For heaven in the Lord’s view is like One Man, whose soul is the Lord Himself. The Lord therefore speaks with man through heaven, as a man speaks with another out of his soul through his body, and this is done in conjunction with all the things and with each single thing of his mind, those that he speaks being in their midst. But this arcanum cannot be explained in a few words. It is in part explained in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM. It is plain from this that by ‘angel’ heaven is signified, and in the supreme sense the Lord. The Lord is understood by ‘angel’ in the supreme sense because heaven is not heaven out of the propria* of the angels, but out of the Divine of the Lord, out of which they have love and wisdom, indeed life. It is because of this that in the Word the Lord Himself is termed ‘Angel’. From these things it is plain that the angel did not speak out of himself with John, but that it was the Lord in the midst of heaven through him. [2] By those words it is understood that these things have been revealed to those who are in the good of a life derived from charity and its faith, because these are understood by ‘John’. For by the twelve disciples or apostles of the Lord all belonging to the Church who are in truths derived from good are understood, and in an abstract sense, all things of the Church; and by ‘Peter’ all who are in faith, and abstractly faith itself, by ‘James’ those who are in charity, and abstractly charity itself, and by ‘John’ those who are in the good of a life derived from charity and its faith, and abstractly the good of life itself therefrom. That these things are understood by ‘John’, ‘James’ and ‘Peter’ in the Word of the Evangelists may be seen in the little work concerning THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, published at London in the year 1758 (n. 122). [3] Now, since the good of a life derived from charity and its faith makes the Church, therefore the arcana of the state of the Church have been revealed through the apostle John, and they are contained in his visions. That things of heaven and the Church are signified in the Word by all names of persons and places has been shown many times in the ARCANA CAELESTIA, also published at London. It can be established from these things that by ‘He signified sending through His angel to His servant John’ is understood in the spiritual sense the things that have been revealed by the Lord through heaven to those who are in the good of a life derived from charity and its faith; for charity works good by means of faith, and neither charity by itself nor faith by itself does this.
* The Latin word proprium (plural propria) means ‘what is one’s own’. Swedenborg uses it in a special sense involving ‘what is of the self’.

AR (Coulson) n. 6 sRef Rev@1 @2 S0′ sRef John@15 @26 S0′ 6. [verse 2] ‘Who bare witness of the Word of God, and the testimony of Jesus Christ’ signifies who from the heart, and so in the light, receive Divine Truth out of the Word, and acknowledge the Lord’s Human to be Divine. It is said of John that he bare witness of the Word of God; but since by ‘John’ is understood all who are in the good of a life derived from charity and its faith, as has been stated just above (n. 5), therefore all those are understood in the spiritual sense. The angels, who are in the spiritual sense of the Word, never know any name of a person mentioned by name in the Word, but only what the person represents and thence signifies, and this, instead of ‘John’, is the good of life, or good in act; consequently all comprehensively who are in that good. These ‘bear witness’ that is, see, acknowledge, receive from the heart in the light, and avow, the truths of the Word, especially that truth there that the Lord’s Human is Divine, as can be established from the passages out of the Word adduced in abundance in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD. By ‘Jesus Christ’ and by ‘the Lamb’ in the Apocalypse is understood the Lord as to the Divine Human, and by ‘God’ the Lord as to the Divine from which [all things are] (Divinum a Quo). sRef John@1 @7 S2′ sRef John@1 @34 S2′ sRef John@1 @14 S2′ sRef John@5 @33 S2′ sRef John@1 @1 S2′ sRef John@1 @8 S2′ sRef John@8 @14 S2′ sRef John@1 @2 S2′ sRef John@5 @34 S2′ sRef John@1 @9 S2′ [2] With regard to the spiritual signification of ‘to bear witness’, this is predicated of the truth (veritas), because in the world the truth (veritas) is to be witnessed, and when it has been witnessed, it is acknowledged. In heaven, however, the truth (veritas) itself bears witness of itself, because it is the very light of heaven. For when angels hear a truth (veritas) they recognise and acknowledge it there and then; and since the Lord is the Truth (Veritas) Itself as He Himself teaches in John xiv 6, in heaven He is His own Testimony. From this it is plain what is understood by ‘the testimony of Jesus Christ’. Therefore the Lord says:-

You sent unto John, and he bare witness unto the truth (veritas), but

I receive not testimony from man John v 33, 34.

And in another place:-

John came for a testimony to bear witness of the Light; he was not that Light: the Word, which was with God and was God, and was made flesh, was the true Light, which lights every man John i 1, 2, 7, 8, [9,] 14, 34.

Elsewhere:-

Jesus said, I bear witness of Myself, and My testimony is true, for I

know whence I came and whither I go John viii 14.

When the Comforter the Spirit of truth (veritas) has come, He shall testify of Me John xv 26.

By ‘the Comforter the Spirit of truth’ is understood the Truth (Veritas) itself proceeding from the Lord, concerning which it is therefore said that He will not speak from Himself but out of the Lord (John xvi 13, 14, 15).

AR (Coulson) n. 7 sRef Rev@1 @2 S0′ 7. ‘Whatsoever things He saw’ signifies their enlightenment in all the things that are in this Revelation. By ‘whatsoever things he saw’ in the spiritual sense is not understood the things that John saw, for those were only visions, but the things that they who are understood by ‘John’ see, and they are those who are in the good of a life derived from charity and its faith, as was said above. In the visions of John these see arcana concerning the state of the Church, thus not when they read them themselves, but when they see them revealed. Moreover to see signifies to understand, therefore in ordinary language it is said that one sees a thing, and one sees that it is the truth (veritas). For a man has sight pertaining to his spirit, just as he has sight pertaining to his body. With his spirit, however, a man sees spiritual things because he sees by virtue of the light of heaven, but with his body he sees natural things because he sees by virtue of the light of the world; and the spiritual things are realities, while the natural things are the forms of those realities. It is the sight of a man’s spirit that is called the understanding. From these things it is plain what is understood in the spiritual sense by ‘whatsoever things he saw’. Similarly in the places following where it is said that ‘he saw’.

AR (Coulson) n. 8 sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ 8. [verse 3] ‘Blessed is he who reads, and they who hear the words of this prophecy, and keep the things that are written therein’ signifies their fellowship with the angels of heaven, who live according to the doctrine of the New Jerusalem. By ‘blessed’ is here understood one who as to the spirit is in heaven; in this manner he is in fellowship with the angels of heaven while living in the world, for he is in heaven in regard to the spirit. By ‘the words of the prophecy’ is understood nothing else than the doctrine of the New Jerusalem, for by ‘a prophet’ in an abstract sense is signified the Doctrine of the Church out of the Word, thus here the Doctrine of the new Church that is the New Jerusalem. By ‘prophecy’ something similar is understood. By ‘to read, hear and keep the things that are written therein’ is signified to wish to know that doctrine, to turn to the things that are there, and to do the things that are there, in short to live according to it. It is plain that they are not blessed who only read, hear, and keep or retain in the memory the things that were seen by John; see below (n. 944). sRef Matt@24 @11 S2′ sRef Matt@24 @24 S2′ aRef Matt@21 @46 S2′ [2] The reason why by ‘a prophet’ is signified the Doctrine of the Church out of the Word, and by ‘prophecy’ something similar, is because the Word was written by means of prophets, and in heaven a person is regarded from what pertains to his office and function. From this also every man, spirit and angel is named there. Therefore when a prophet is mentioned, the Word as to Doctrine, or the Doctrine out of the Word, is understood, because the prophetic function has been to write and teach the Word. Resulting from this, the Lord because He is the Word Itself has been termed ‘Prophet’; Deut. xviii 15-20; Matt. xiii 57, xxi 11; Luke xiii 33. So that it may be known that by ‘a prophet’ is understood the Doctrine of the Church out of the Word, some passages will be adduced from which this can be gathered. In Matthew:-

In the consummation of the age many false prophets shall rise up, and shall lead many astray: there shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and they shall if possible lead the elect into error Matt. xxiv 11, 24.

The ‘consummation of the age’ is the last time of the Church, and this is now, when there are not false prophets but untruths of doctrine. sRef Matt@10 @41 S3′ sRef Matt@10 @42 S3′ [3] In the same:-

Whoever shall support a prophet in the name of a prophet, shall get a prophet’s reward, and whoever shall support a just man in the name of a just man, shall get a just man’s reward Matt. x 41.

‘To support a prophet in the name of a prophet’ is to receive the truth of doctrine because it is true, and ‘to support a just man in the name of a just man’ is to receive good for the sake of good, and ‘to get a reward’ is to be saved in accordance with the reception. It is plain that no one receives a reward or is saved because he has supported a prophet and a just man in the name of such. Without knowing what a prophet and a just man [signify] those words cannot be understood by any one, nor can those that follow:

That whosoever shall give to drink to one of these little ones as much as a drink of cold [water] in the name of a disciple, shall not lose a reward [Matt. x 42].

By ‘a disciple’ is understood charity and at the same time faith, from the Lord.
sRef Rev@18 @20 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @28 S4′ sRef Jer@23 @15 S4′ sRef Jer@18 @18 S4′ sRef Matt@7 @23 S4′ sRef Rev@11 @18 S4′ sRef Jer@5 @13 S4′ sRef Jer@23 @16 S4′ sRef Matt@7 @22 S4′ [4] In Joel:-

I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh so that your sons and your daughters shall prophesy Joel ii 28 [H.B. iii 1].

This concerns the Church that was to be restored by the Lord, in which they did not prophesy but received doctrine, which is ‘to prophesy’. In Matthew:-

Jesus said, Many will say unto Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not

prophesied by means of Thy Name? but then I will confess unto them, I have not known you; depart from Me you that work iniquity Matt. vii 22, 23.

Who does not see that they are not going to say that they have prophesied, but that they have known the Doctrine of the Church, and taught it? In the Apocalypse:-

The time is come for judging the dead, and giving a reward to the prophets Rev. xi 18;

and in another place:-

Exult O heaven, O holy apostles and prophets, for God has judged your judgment Rev. xviii 20.

It is plain that rewards are not to be given only to prophets, and that not only apostles and prophets are going to exult when the last judgment is about to take place, but all who have received the truths of doctrine, and lived in accordance with them; and so these are understood by ‘apostles’ and ‘prophets’. sRef Micah@3 @6 S5′ sRef Jer@8 @10 S5′ sRef Ex@7 @1 S5′ sRef Isa@28 @7 S5′ [5] In Moses:-

Jehovah said unto Moses, I have set thee up as God to Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be to thee a prophet Exod. vii 1.

By ‘God’ is understood the Divine Truth as to reception from the Lord, in which sense the angels also are called ‘gods’, and by ‘a prophet’ is understood one teaching and speaking this truth. It is in consequence of this that Aaron is there termed a ‘prophet’. The like is signified by ‘prophet’ elsewhere, as in these passages:-

The law shall not perish from the priest, nor the Word from the prophet Jer. xviii 18.

From the prophets of Jerusalem hypocrisy has gone forth into all the land Jer. xxiii 15, 16.

The prophets shall become wind, and there is no word in them Jer. v 13.

The priest and the prophet err through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they stumble in judgment Isa. xxviii 7.

The sun sets over the prophets, and the day grows black over them Micah iii 6.

From the prophet even unto the priest, each one makes falsehood Jer. viii 10.

[6] In the spiritual sense in these passages by ‘prophets’ and ‘priests’ are not understood prophets and priests, but the entire Church, by ‘prophets’ the Church as to the truth of doctrine, and by ‘priests’ the Church as to the good of life, both of which had been destroyed. These things are understood in this manner by angels in heaven, while by men in the world they are understood in accordance with the sense of the letter. That the prophets represented the state of the Church as to doctrine, and the Lord as to the Word Itself, may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 15-17).

AR (Coulson) n. 9 sRef Matt@24 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S0′ 9. ‘For the time is near’ signifies that the state of the Church is such that it cannot any longer endure so as to have conjunction with the Lord. There are two Essentials through which there is conjunction with the Lord and thereby salvation, ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF THE ONE GOD, and REPENTANCE OF LIFE. Today, however, instead of an acknowledgment of the One God, there is an acknowledgment of three [Gods], and instead of a repentance of life there is repentance of the mouth only, [saying] that one is a sinner; and there is no conjunction through these two. Therefore unless a new Church rises up, which acknowledges those two Essentials, and lives them, no one can be saved. On account of this danger the time has been shortened by the Lord, in accordance with His words in Matthew:-

Then shall be great affliction, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until now, nor shall be; yea, except those days should he shortened, no flesh would be preserved Matt. xxiv 21, 22.

That near or nearness of time is not understood may be seen below (n. 947).

AR (Coulson) n. 10 sRef Matt@12 @45 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@12 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@12 @1 S0′ 10. [verse 4] ‘John to the seven Churches’ signifies to all who are in Christendom, where the Word is, and through it the Lord is known, and who accede to the Church. By ‘the seven Churches’ are not understood seven Churches, but all who belong to the Church in Christendom; for in the Word numbers signify things, and ‘seven’ signifies all things and all people, and thence also what is full and perfect, and it is mentioned in the Word where it treats of a holy thing, and in the opposite sense of a profane thing. This number therefore involves what is holy, and in the opposite sense what is profane. Numbers signify things, or rather they are as certain adjectives to substantives, imparting some quality to things. This is because number in itself is natural, for by means of numbers natural objects are limited, but those that are spiritual are limited by means of things and their states. He, therefore, who does not know the signification of the numbers in the Word, and especially in the Apocalypse, is unable to know the many arcana that are contained therein. Now, since all things and all people are signified by ‘seven’, it is plain that by ‘the seven Churches’ are understood all who are in Christendom, where the Word is, and through it the Lord is known. These, if they live in accordance with the Lord’s precepts in the Word, make the Church itself. sRef Rev@4 @5 S2′ sRef Lev@8 @11 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @18 S2′ sRef Rev@16 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@5 @1 S2′ sRef Lev@8 @35 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @24 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @21 S2′ sRef Lev@8 @33 S2′ sRef Rev@8 @2 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @16 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @28 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S2′ sRef Rev@15 @6 S2′ sRef Lev@4 @17 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @14 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @13 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @12 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @15 S2′ sRef Lev@4 @16 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @20 S2′ sRef Num@19 @4 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @35 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @30 S2′ sRef Ps@79 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @37 S2′ [2] It is for this reason that the Sabbath was instituted on the ‘seventh day’, and the ‘seventh year’ used to be termed the Sabbatical year, and the ‘seven times seventh year’ the Jubilee, by which everything holy in the Church was signified. For the same reason ‘a week’, in Daniel and elsewhere, signifies an entire period from beginning to end, and is predicated of the Church. Similar things are signified by ‘seven’ in the following passages:-

The seven golden lampstands, in the midst of which was the Son of Man Rev. i 13.

The seven stars in His right hand Rev. i 16, 20.

The seven spirits of God Rev. i 4; iv 5.

The seven lamps of fire Rev. iv 5.

The seven angels, to whom were given seven trumpets Rev. iii 2.

The seven angels having the seven last plagues Rev. xv 5, 6.

The seven phials full of the seven last plagues Rev. xvi 1; xxi 9.

The seven seals with which the Book was sealed Rev. viii 2.

Similarly in the following:-

Their hands were filled seven days* Exod. xxix 35.

They were sanctified seven days Exod. xxix 37.

When they were inaugurated they used to march seven days clothed in the garments of holiness Exod. xxix [29,] 30.

For seven days they might not withdraw from the tent, when they were being initiated into the priesthood Lev. viii 33, 35.

The altar was atoned for seven times upon the horns Lev. xvi 18, 19.

The altar was sanctified seven times in succession Lev. viii 11.

Blood was sprinkled seven times in succession in the direction of the veil Lev. iv 16, 17.

And also seven times in succession towards the east Lev. xvi 12-15.

The water of separation was sprinkled seven times in succession in the direction of the tent Num. xix 4.

The Passover was celebrated for seven days, and for seven days unleavened [bread] was eaten Exod. xii 1 seq.; Deut. xvi 4-7.

In like manner:-

The Jews used to be punished sevenfold for their sins Lev. xxvi 18, 21, 24, 28.

Therefore David says:-

Render unto [our] neighbours sevenfold into their bosom Ps. lxxix 12.

sRef Ezek@39 @11 S3′ sRef Jer@15 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @12 S3′ sRef Ps@12 @6 S3′ sRef 1Sam@2 @5 S3′ sRef Rev@12 @3 S3′ [3] ‘Sevenfold’ is fully. Again in these places:-

The sayings of Jehovah are pure sayings, silver purified in the furnace seven times Ps. xii 6 [H.B. 7].

The hungry ceased, so that the barren has borne seven, but she who has many children has failed 1 Sam. ii 5.

‘The barren’ is the Church of the Gentiles, who did not have the Word; ‘she who has many children’ is the Church of the Jews, who had the Word.

She who has borne seven languishes, she shall breathe out her soul Jer. xv 9.

Similarly:-

They who dwell in the cities of Israel shall set on fire and burn the weapons, and they shall light them up with fire for seven years; they shall bury Gog, and seven months shall they be cleansing the land Ezek. xxxix 9, [11,] 12.

The unclean spirit will take with him semen other spirits worse than himself Matt. xii 45.

Profanation is described there, and by the ‘seven spirits’ with whom he was going to return are signified all the untruths of evil, thus the complete extinction of good and truth. By the ‘seven heads of the dragon’ and the ‘seven diadems upon his heads’ (Rev. xii 3) is signified the profanation of all good and truth. It is plain from these things that ‘seven’ involves what is holy or what is profane, and signifies all and what is full.
* AV has ‘seven days shalt thou consecrate them’, but Hebrew has ‘seven days shalt thou fill their band’. See also AC 10,110 and 10,120.

AR (Coulson) n. 11 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 11. ‘Which are in Asia’ signifies to those who are in the light of the truth (veritas) out of the Word. Since by all the names of persons and places in the Word are understood things of heaven and the Church, as was said before, so are they also understood by ‘Asia’ and similarly by the names of the seven Churches there, as will be plain from the things following. By ‘Asia’ are understood those who are in the light of the truth (veritas) out of the Word because the Most Ancient, and after it the Ancient, and then the Israelitish Church, was in Asia; also, because with them there was an olden Word and afterwards the Israelitish Word; and all the light of the truth (veritas) is out of the Word. That there have been Ancient Churches in the Asiatic world, and that they had a Word that was afterwards lost, and eventually the Word that [we have] at this day, may he seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 101-103). It is, then, in consequence of this that by ‘Asia’ here are signified all who are in the light of the truth (veritas) out of the Word. [2] ‘Concerning the Olden Word that used to be in Asia before the Israelitish Word, this new thing deserves to be mentioned: It has till now been preserved among the peoples who dwell in Great Tartary. I have spoken with spirits and angels who were from there in the spiritual world, and they said that they possess a Word, that they have had it in their possession from ancient times, that they perform their Divine worship in accordance with that Word, and that it consists of nothing but correspondences. They said that even the Book of JASHER that is mentioned in Joshua x 12, 13, and in 2 Sam. i 17, 18, is in it; also, that with them are the books, THE WARS OF JEHOVAH and THE PROPHETICAL [ENUNCIATIONS],* mentioned by Moses (Num. xxi 14, 15, and 27-30); and when in their presence I read the words that Moses had quoted therefrom, they searched to see if they appeared there, and found them. From these things it was plain to me that the Olden Word is still with them. In the course of the conversation they said that they worship Jehovah, some as an invisible, and some as a visible God. Afterwards they told me that they do not suffer foreigners to enter among them, except the Chinese, with whom they cultivate peace, because the emperor of China is from there. Then they also told me that they are so densely populated that they do not believe any region in the entire world is more densely populated; which is indeed credible on account of the wall so many miles long which the Chinese built up a long time ago for their own protection against invasion by them. Ask about it in China, and perchance you will find that [Word] there among the Tartars.’
* See the explanation of this title in SS 103 and TCR 265.

AR (Coulson) n. 12 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 12. ‘Grace be unto you and peace’ signifies a Divine salutation. What is understood specifically by ‘grace’ and ‘peace’ will be stated in the things following. That ‘Peace be unto you’ was the Lord’s salutation to the disciples, thus a Divine salutation, maybe seen (Luke xxiv 36, 37; John xx 19-21); and by the Lord’s command it was the salutation of the disciples to all to whom they might enter in (Matt. x 11-15).

AR (Coulson) n. 13 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S1′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S1′ 13. ‘From Him Who is and Who was and Who is to come’ signifies from the Lord Who is the Eternal and Infinite, and is Jehovah. That it is the Lord is quite plain from the things following in this chapter, where it is stated that he heard a voice coming from the SON OF MAN saying:-

I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last (vers. 11, 13);

and then:-

I am the First and the Last (vers. 17);

and in the following chapter (verse 8) and afterwards (chaps. xxi 6; xxii 12, 13); and in Isaiah:-

Thus says Jehovah the King of Israel, and His Redeemer Jehovah Zebaoth; I am the First and I am the Last, and besides me there is no God Isa. xliv 6;

also chap. xlviii 12; and He Who is the First and the Last is ‘He Who is and Who was and Who is to come’. [2] This also is understood by ‘Jehovah’; for the name Jehovah signifies ‘is’; and He Who Is, or Who is Being (Esse) Itself, is also WAS, and IS TO COME, for the past and the future are in Him the present. In consequence of this He is the Eternal apart from time, and the Infinite apart from space. The Church avows this because of the DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY that is called Athanasian, where these [words are]:-

The Father is Eternal and Infinite, the Son is Eternal and Infinite, and the Holy Spirit is Eternal and Infinite, and yet there are not three Eternals and Infinites, but One.

That this One is the Lord has been demonstrated in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD.

AR (Coulson) n. 14 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ sRef Isa@66 @1 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ sRef Ezek@1 @26 S0′ sRef Ps@103 @19 S0′ 14. ‘And from the seven spirits who are before the throne’ signifies from the entire heaven, where the Lord is in His Divine Truth, and His Divine Truth is received. By ‘the seven spirits’ are understood all who are in Divine Truth, and in an abstract sense Divine Truth (Verum) or the Truth (Veritas) itself. That by ‘seven’ all people and all things are understood, may be seen above (n. 10), and that by ‘throne’ is understood the entire heaven will be seen presently. Consequently by ‘before the throne’ is understood where His Divine Truth is; for heaven is not heaven out of the propria of the angels, but out of the Divine of the Lord, as has been shown in many [places] in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING THE DIVINE PROVIDENCE, and CONCERNING THE DIVINE LOVE. That the Lord’s throne signifies heaven, is plain from the following passages:-

Thus says Jehovah, The heavens [are] My throne Isa. lxvi 1.

Jehovah in the heavens has strengthened His throne Ps. ciii 19.

He who swears by heaven swears by the throne of God and by Him Who sits thereon Matt. xxiii 22.

Above the expanse that was over the head of the cherubs, as it were the appearance of a sapphire stone, the likeness of a throne, and upon it the appearance of a Man Ezek. i 26; x 1.

By ‘the expanse over the head of the cherubs’ is understood heaven. Also in the Apocalypse:-

He Who overcomes, I will give him to sit in My throne Rev. iii 21

‘In [My] throne’ is in heaven, specifically where His Divine Truth reigns. Likewise therefore where the judgment is treated of it is stated that the Lord is going to be seated upon a throne, for the judgment is effected by means of truths.

AR (Coulson) n. 15 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 15. [verse 5] ‘And from Jesus Christ’ signifies the Divine Human. That by ‘Jesus Christ’ and ‘the Lamb’ in the Word is understood the Lord as to the Divine Human may be seen above (n. 6).

AR (Coulson) n. 16 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 16. ‘Himself the Faithful Witness’ signifies that He is Divine Truth Itself. That ‘witness’ is said of the truth (veritas), and that the Truth (Veritas) bears witness of itself, even as the Lord does, Who is the Divine Truth and Word itself, may be seen above (n. 6).

AR (Coulson) n. 17 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @28 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @29 S0′ 17. ‘Himself the First-born from the dead’ signifies that He also is Divine Good Itself. No one as yet knows what is ‘the First-born from the dead’; and what it signifies was debated by. the ancients. It was known to them that by ‘the first-born’ is signified what is first and primary, out of which is everything of a Church; and it has been believed by many that it was truth in doctrine and faith, but by a few that it was truth in act and deed, which is the good of life. That the latter truth is what is first and primary of a Church, and thence is understood in the proper sense by ‘the first-born’, will be seen. But first something will be said about the opinion of those who have believed that truth in doctrine and faith is what is the first and primary thing of a Church, thus ‘the first-born’. They have believed this because it is learned first, and because a Church becomes a Church by means of truth, but still not before truth becomes of the life. Before this it is merely in the thought and in the memory of the understanding, and not in the act of the will; and truth that is not truth in act or deed is not living. It is merely like a tree running all to branches and leaves without fruit, and like knowledge without application to use. It is also like the foundation upon which a house is being built for residence. These things are first in time, but are not first in end; and things first in end are primary. For residence in a house is first in end, and first in time is the foundation. Again use is first in end, and knowledge first in time. Likewise the first in end when a tree is planted is the fruit, but the branches and leaves are first in time. [2] It is similar with the understanding which is formed first with a man, but on account of the end that the man should do that which he sees with the understanding; otherwise the understanding is like a preacher who teaches well but lives wickedly. Besides, every truth is sown in the internal man and takes root in the external; and unless therefore the sown truth takes root in the external man, which comes about through the doing [thereof], it becomes like a tree placed not in the ground but on top of it, which instantly withers in the scorching heat of the sun. The man who has been practising truths (veritas) takes this root with him after death, but not the man who had known and acknowledged them only by faith. Now because many of the ancients made what is first in time first in end, and that end is primary, they therefore said that ‘the first-born’ signified truth in a Church from doctrine and faith, being unaware that it is apparently, but not actually, the first-born. [3] But all those who have made truth in doctrine and faith the primary thing have been condemned, because there is nothing of deed or work, or nothing of life, in that truth. Cain, who was the first-born of Adam and Eve, was condemned for that reason: that by him is signified truth in doctrine and faith, may be seen in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE PROVIDENCE (n. 242). For that reason also Reuben, who was the first-born of Jacob, was condemned by his father (Gen. xlix 3, 4), and the birthright (primogenitura) was taken away from him (1 Chron. v 1). That by ‘Reuben’ in the spiritual sense is understood truth in doctrine and faith will be seen in the following [pages]. By ‘the first-born of Egypt’ who were all smitten, because condemned, in the spiritual sense is understood nothing else than truth in doctrine and faith separated from the good of life, which truth in itself is dead. By the ‘goats’ in Daniel [viii] and Matthew [xxv] are understood no others than those who are in a faith separated from life, concerning whom [see] in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING FAITH (n. 61-68). That those who were in a faith separate from life have been rejected and condemned about the time of the last judgment, may be seen in A CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE LAST JUDGMENT (n. 16 seq.). sRef John@3 @21 S4′ [4] From these few things it can be established that truth in doctrine and faith is not the first-born of a Church, but truth in act or work, which is the good of life; for the Church is not with a man until truth becomes of the life, and when truth becomes of the life, then it is good. In fact the thought and memory of the understanding does not inflow into the will, and by means of the will into act, but the will inflows into the thought and memory of the understanding, and does [the deed]; and what proceeds out of the will by means of the understanding proceeds out of the affection that is of the love by means of the thought that is of the understanding, and all this is called good and enters the life. The Lord therefore says:-

He who does the truth, does it in God John iii 21.

sRef John@21 @22 S5′ sRef John@21 @23 S5′ sRef John@21 @22 S5′ sRef John@21 @23 S5′ sRef John@21 @21 S5′ sRef John@21 @20 S5′ sRef John@21 @19 S5′ sRef John@21 @18 S5′ [5] Since John used to represent the good of life, and Peter the truth of faith (see above, n. 5), therefore:-

John leaned on the Lord’s breast, and followed Jesus, but not Peter John xxi 18-23.

The Lord therefore said of John that he would ‘tarry till He came’ (vers. 22, 23), thus to this very day, which is the Lord’s coming. Therefore likewise the good of life is now being taught by the Lord for those who will be of His New Church, which is the New Jerusalem. To sum it all up, that is ‘the first-born’ which the truth first produces out of good, thus what the understanding produces out of the will; because truth is of the understanding and good is of the will. This ‘first’, because it is as the seed out of which the rest of the things proceed, is the primary. sRef Ps@89 @27 S6′ [6] In the case of the Lord, He is ‘Himself the First-born from the dead’ because He is also, as to His Human, the Truth Itself united to the Divine Good, from Whom all men live, who in themselves are dead. The like is understood in David:-

I will make Him the First-born, high above the kings of the earth Ps. lxxxix 27 [H.B. 28].

‘This [is said] concerning the Lord’s Human. It is on this account that Israel is termed ‘the first-born’ (Exod. iv 22, 23). By ‘Israel’ is understood truth in act, and by ‘Jacob’ truth in doctrine; and since no Church is produced out of the latter truth alone, Jacob was therefore named Israel. In the supreme sense, however, by ‘Israel’ is understood the Lord. sRef Ex@13 @2 S7′ sRef Ex@13 @12 S7′ [7] Because of this representation of ‘the first-born’, all the first-born [of men] and all the firstlings [of beasts] (omnes primogeniti et omnia primogenita)* used to be sanctified to Jehovah (Exod. xiii 2, 12; xxii 29, 30 [H.B. 28, 29]). Because of the representation of ‘the first-born’ the Levites were adopted instead of all the first-born in the Israelitish Church, and it is stated that in that way they were Jehovah’s (Num. iii 12, 13, 40-46; xviii 15-18). Indeed by ‘Levi’ is signified truth in act, which is the good of life, and the priesthood was therefore given to his posterity. Concerning this fact [see] in the following [pages] . On account of this also a double portion of an inheritance was given to the first-born, and he was called ‘the beginning (principium) of strength’ (Deut. xxi 15-17). [8] The first-born signifies what is primary of the Church, because in the Word spiritual births are signified by natural births, and then what first brings these to pass with a man Is understood by his ‘first-born’; for the Church is not with him until a truth of doctrine conceived in the internal man is born in the external.
* See AE 865:2.

AR (Coulson) n. 18 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 18. ‘And Himself the Prince of the kings of the land’ signifies from Whom is everything true derived from good in the Church. This follows from earlier statements, since by ‘the Faithful Witness’ is signified the Lord as to Divine Truth, and by ‘the First-born’ Himself as to Divine Good. In the same manner by ‘the Prince [of the kings] of the land’ is signified everything true derived from good in the Church from Himself. This is signified by ‘the Prince of the kings of the land’ because by ‘kings’ in the spiritual sense of the Word are understood those who are in truths derived from good, and abstractly truths derived from good, and by ‘the land’ the Church is understood. That these things are signified by ‘kings’ and ‘the land’ may be seen below (n. 20 and 285).

AR (Coulson) n. 19 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′

19. ‘Loving us and washing us from our sins [in His own blood]’ signifies Who out of love and mercy reforms and regenerates men by means of His Divine Truths out of His Word. That ‘to wash us from our sins’ is to purify from evils, thus to reform and regenerate, is plain, for regeneration is a spiritual washing. That ‘by His own blood’, however, is not understood the passion of the cross, as is believed by many, but the Divine Truth proceeding from Him, can be established from many passages in the Word. It would be too tedious to adduce all of these here, but they will be adduced below (n. 379, 684). Meanwhile the things may be seen that have been stated and demonstrated concerning the signification of the Lord’s blood and flesh in the Holy Supper, in THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, published at London in the year 1758 (n. 210-222); also concerning the spiritual washing that is regeneration (n. 202-209) there.

AR (Coulson) n. 20 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @21 S1′

20. [Verse 6] ‘And He makes us kings and priests’ signifies Who grants that those who are born from Him, that is, regenerated, are in wisdom derived from Divine truths and in love derived from Divine goods. It is known that in the Word the Lord is termed ‘King’ and also ‘Priest’: ‘King’ is said on account of the Divine Wisdom and ‘Priest’ on account of the Divine Love. Those, therefore, who from the Lord are in wisdom are called ‘the king’s sons’ and also ‘kings’, and those who are in love from Him are called ‘ministers’ and ‘priests’; for the wisdom and love with them is not from them, thus it is not their’s but the Lord’s. Consequently such persons are understood in the Word by ‘kings’ and ‘priests’; not that they are [kings and priests], but the Lord in them is such, and causes them to be so named. They are also called born of Him, sons of the kingdom, sons of the Father, and heirs: ‘born of Him’ (John i 12, 13), that is, born anew or regenerated (John iii 1 seq.); ‘sons of the kingdom’ (Matt. viii 12, xiii 38); ‘sons of the Father in heaven’ (Matt. v 45); ‘heirs’ (Ps. cxxvii 3, Sam. ii 8, Matt. xxv 34); and since they are said to be heirs, sons of the kingdom, and born of the Lord as a Father, they are therefore called ‘kings and priests’. Then also it is said that they are ‘going to sit with the Lord in His throne’ (Rev. iii 21).

[2] There are two kingdoms into which the entire heaven is divided the spiritual kingdom and the celestial kingdom. The spiritual kingdom is what is called the Lord’s royalty, and since all who are there are in wisdom derived from truths, therefore they are understood by the ‘kings’, which the Lord will make those who are in wisdom from Him; and the celestial kingdom is what is called the Lord’s priesthood, and since all who are there are in love derived from goods, therefore those are understood by the ‘priests’, which the Lord will make those who are in love from Him. In like manner the Lord’s Church on earth (in terris) is divided into two kingdoms; concerning which two kingdoms [something] may be seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, published at London in the year 1758 (n. 24, 226). sRef Isa@52 @15 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @16 S3′ sRef Dan@11 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @10 S3′ [3] He who does not know the spiritual signification of ‘kings and priests’ can be deluded in regard to many things that are related about them in the Prophets and in the Apocalypse; as in these in the Prophets:-

The sons of the strangers shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee: thou shalt suck the breasts of kings, that thou mayest know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer Isa. lx 10, 16.

Kings shall be thy nursing fathers and their princesses thy nursing mothers Isa. xlix 23,

and elsewhere, as in Gen. xlix 20; Ps. ii 10; Isa. xiv 9, xxiv 21, lii 15; Jer. ii 26, iv 9, xlix 3; Lam. ii 6, 9; Ezek. vii 26, 27; Hosea iii 4; Zeph i 8. By ‘kings’ there, are understood not kings, but those who are in Divine truths from the Lord, and abstractly the Divine Truths from which wisdom is derived. Nor are kings understood by ‘the king of the south’ and ‘the king of the north’ who waged war with each other (Dan. xi seq.), but by ‘the king of the south’ those are understood who are in truths, and by ‘the king of the north’ those who are in untruths.

sRef Rev@21 @24 S4′ sRef Rev@16 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@17 @2 S4′ sRef Rev@18 @3 S4′ sRef Rev@19 @19 S4′ [4] In like manner in the Apocalypse, where ‘kings’ are frequently named, as in these passages:-

The sixth angel poured out his phial upon the great river Euphrates, and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings from the rising of the sun might be prepared Rev. xvi 12.

The kings of the land have committed fornication with the great harlot sitting upon many waters Rev. xvii 2.

All the nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of the whoredom of Babylon, and the kings of the land have committed whoredom with her Rev. xviii 3.

And I saw the beast and the kings of the land, and their armies gathered together to make war with the One sitting upon the white horse Rev. xix 19.

And the nations that are saved shall walk in His light, and the kings of the land shall bring their glory and honour into the New Jerusalem Rev. xxi 24,

and elsewhere, as chaps. xvi 14; xvii 2, 9-14; xviii 9, 10. By the ‘kings’ there are understood those who are in truths and in the opposite sense those who are in untruths, and abstractly things true or false. By the whoredom of Babylon with the kings of the land the falsification of the truths of the Church is understood. It is an established fact that Babylon, or the woman who sat upon the scarlet coloured beast, has not committed whoredom with kings, but has falsified the truths of the Word. sRef Rev@5 @10 S5′ sRef John@18 @38 S5′ sRef John@18 @37 S5′ [5] It is plain from these [considerations] that by the ‘kings’ that the Lord is going to make those who are wise from Him, is not understood that they are going to be kings but that they will be wise. That this is so, even enlightened reason sees. Similarly in the following:-

Thou hast made us unto our God kings and priests, that we may reign over the land Rev. v 10.

That the Lord understood the truth (veritas) by ‘a king’ is plain from His words to Pilate:-

Pilate said unto Him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou hast said. Because I am the King, I was born for this, and came into the world for this, that I should bear witness to the truth (veritas). Everyone who is of the truth (veritas) hears My voice. Pilate said unto Him, What is the truth (veritas)? John xviii 37, 38.

To bear witness to the truth (veritas) is [equivalent to] Himself being the Truth (Veritas); and since He was calling Himself ‘King’ on account of that, Pilate said, ‘What is the truth?’, that is, Is the truth a king? That ‘priests’ signify those who are in the good of love, and abstractly the goods of love, will be seen in the things following.

AR (Coulson) n. 21 sRef John@14 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ sRef John@14 @9 S0′ sRef John@14 @8 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S0′ sRef John@14 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S0′

21. ‘Unto God and His Father’ signifies thus [they are] images of His Divine Wisdom and of His Divine Love. By ‘God and the Father’ in the spiritual sense not two persons are understood, but by ‘God’ the Divine as to wisdom is understood, and by ‘the Father’ the Divine as to love. There are in fact two things in the Lord, Divine Wisdom and Divine Love or Divine Truth and Divine Good. In the Old Testament these two are understood by ‘God’ and ‘Jehovah’; here, by ‘God’ and ‘the Father’. Now since the Lord teaches that He and the Father are one, and that He is in the Father and the Father in Him (John x 30; xiv 10, 11), two persons are not understood by ‘God’ and ‘the Father’, but only the Lord. Also the Divine is one and indivisible; therefore by [the statement] that Jesus Christ has made us kings and priests unto God and His Father is signified in order that in His presence they may appear to be images of His Divine Wisdom and Love. In these two likewise the image of God has its abode with men and angels. That the Divine, which in itself is one, is designated by various names in the Word, may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD. That the Lord Himself is also the Father, is established from these passages. In Isaiah:-

Unto us a Boy is born, unto us a Son is given, Whose Name is Wonderful, GOD, Hero, THE FATHER OF ETERNITY, the Prince of Peace Isa. ix 6 [H.B. 5].

In the same:-

Thou Jehovah art our Father, our Redeemer from an age is Thy Name Isa. lxiii 16.

And in John:-

If you have known Me, you have known My Father also, and from henceforth you have known Him and seen Him. Philip says, Lord, show us the Father. Jesus says to him, He who has seen Me has seen the Father, how then sayest thou, Show us the Father? Believe Me, that I am in the Father and the Father in Me John xiv 7, 8, 9, 11.

No. 960 below may be seen.

AR (Coulson) n. 22 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′

22. ‘To Him be glory and strength for ages of ages’ signifies Who Only has Divine Majesty and Divine Omnipotence to eternity. By ‘glory’ in the Word where [it treats] of the Lord is understood the Divine Majesty, and it is predicated of His Divine Wisdom; and by ‘strength’ the Divine Omnipotence is understood, and it is predicated of His Divine Love; and by ‘ages of ages’ eternity is understood. It can be confirmed from many passages in the Word that these things are understood by ‘glory’, ‘strength’ and ‘ages of ages’.

AR (Coulson) n. 23 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′

23. ‘Amen’ signifies Divine confirmation out of the truth (veritas), thus out of His very Self. ‘Amen’ signifies the truth (veritas), and since the Lord was the Truth (Veritas) itself, therefore He so often said, ‘Verily (Amen) I say unto you’ as in Matt. v 18, 26; vi 16; x 23, 42; xvii 20; xviii 13, 18; xxv 12; xxviii 20; John iii 11; v 19, 24, 25; vi 26, 32, 47, 53; viii 34, 51, 58; x 7 [; xii] 24; xiii 16, 20, 21; xxi 18, 25; and in the things following in the Apocalypse:-

These things says the Amen, the faithful and true Witness Rev. iii 14.

This is the Lord. That the Lord is the Truth (Veritas) itself, He Himself teaches (John xiv 6; xvii 59).

AR (Coulson) n. 24 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @64 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @63 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @30 S0′

24. [verse 7] ‘And He is coming with the clouds of heaven’ signifies that the Lord is going to reveal Himself in the sense of the letter of the Word, and to open its spiritual sense at the end of the Church. He who knows nothing about an internal or spiritual sense of the Word is not able to know what was understood by the Lord by [His saying] that He is going to come in the clouds of heaven; for He said to the high priest, when he adjured Him to say whether He was the Christ the Son of God:

Thou hast said, I am; and you shall see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand sides of power, and coming with the clouds of heaven Matt. xxvi 63, 64; Mark xiv 61, 62.

Also where the Lord speaks to the disciples about the consummation of the age, He said:-

And then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man, and they shall see Him coming in the clouds of heaven with vigour (virtus) and glory Matt. xxiv 30; Mark xiii 26.

By ‘the clouds of heaven’ in which He is going to come, nothing else is understood but the Word in the sense of the letter, and by ‘the glory’ in which they are going to see Him, the Word in the spiritual sense. That this is the case can scarcely be believed by those who do not think beyond the sense of the letter. With them, a cloud is a cloud, and as a result [there is] confidence that the Lord is going to make His appearance in the clouds of heaven while the last judgment is impending. This idea falls to the ground, however, when it is known what ‘a cloud’ is-that it is Divine Truth in ultimates, thus the Word in the sense of the letter. [2] Clouds appear in the spiritual world just as they do in the natural world; but the clouds in the spiritual world appear below the heavens among those who are in the sense of the letter of the Word, darker or brighter in accordance with the understanding of the Word and its reception at the same time. This is because the light of heaven there is Divine Truth, and darkness there is [composed of] untruths. Consequently bright clouds are the Divine Truth veiled over with appearances of truth, such as the Word is in the letter with those who are in truths, while dark clouds are the Divine Truth covered all over with fallacies resulting from confirmed appearances, such as the Word in the letter is with those who are in untruths. I have often seen those clouds, and it has been plain whence and what they are. Now because the Lord, after the glorification of His Human, was made Divine Truth or the Word even in ultimates, He said to the high priest that ‘from now on they were going to see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven’. sRef Rev@14 @14 S3′ sRef Dan@7 @13 S3′ [3] Moreover His saying to the disciples that ‘in the consummation of the age the sign of the Son of Man was going to appear, and they were going to see Him coming in the clouds of heaven with vigour (virtus) and glory’ signifies that, at the end of the Church when there is going to be a last judgment, He is going to make His appearance in the Word and reveal the spiritual sense. And this in fact has been accomplished, because now is the end of the Church, and the last judgment has been completed, as can be established from the little works recently published.** This, therefore, is what is understood here in the Apocalypse by ‘Behold He is coming with clouds’; also in the following statements:-

I saw, and behold a white cloud, and upon the cloud One sitting like unto the Son of Man Rev. xiv 14.

As also in Daniel:-

I was seeing (videns fui) in visions at night, and behold with clouds the Son of Man coming Dan. vii 13.

That by ‘the Son of Man’ is understood the Lord as to the Word may be seen [in] THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 19-28). sRef Ps@18 @10 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @11 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @12 S4′ sRef Ps@68 @4 S4′ sRef Isa@19 @1 S4′ sRef Deut@33 @26 S4′ [4] That also by ‘clouds’ elsewhere in the Word is understood Divine Truth in ultimates, and thence also the Word in the letter, can be seen from the passages there where ‘clouds’ are mentioned, as in these:-

There is none like unto the God of Jeshurun, riding in heaven, and

In magnificence upon the clouds Deut. xxxiii 26, 27.

Sing unto God, praise His Name, extol Him riding upon clouds Ps. lxviii 4 [H.B. 5].

Jehovah riding upon a light cloud Isa. xix 1.

‘To ride upon the clouds’ signifies to be in the wisdom of the Word, for a horse signifies the understanding of the Word. Who does not see that God does not ride upon the clouds? In like manner:-

God has ridden upon a cherub and pitched His tent-the clouds of the heavens Ps. xviii 10-12 [H.B. 11-13].

Cherubs also signify the Word, as maybe seen below (n. 239, 672). A ‘tent’ signifies a habitation.

sRef Job@37 @15 S5′ sRef Ps@104 @3 S5′ sRef Job@26 @8 S5′ sRef Ps@68 @34 S5′ sRef Job@26 @9 S5′ [5] Jehovah joins the beams of His reclining-couches in the waters, He makes a cloud His chariot Ps. civ 3.

‘Waters’ signify truths, ‘reclining-couches’ signify doctrinals, and ‘chariot’ signifies doctrine. All of these are termed ‘clouds’ because they are [derived] from the sense of the letter of the Word. In like manner:-

He binds up the waters in His clouds, and the cloud is not broken under them; and He spreads His cloud over [His] seat Job xxvi 8, 9.

God caused the light of His cloud to shine Job xxxvii 15.

Ascribe strength unto God, strength upon the clouds Ps. lxviii 34 [H.B. 35].

The ‘light of a cloud’ signifies the Divine Truth of the Word, and ‘strength’ signifies the Divine power there.

sRef Jer@51 @9 S6′ sRef Isa@4 @5 S6′ sRef Isa@14 @14 S6′ sRef Isa@14 @13 S6′ sRef Ps@105 @39 S6′ sRef Isa@14 @12 S6′ [6] Thou, Lucifer, hast said in thine heart, I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will become like the Most High Isa. xiv [13,] 14.

Forsake Babel, for she has lifted herself up even to the clouds Jer. li 9.

By ‘Lucifer’ and ‘Babel’ those are signified who profane the goods and truths of the Word, therefore these [goods and truths] are the things understood there by ‘clouds’.

Jehovah spread a cloud for a covering Ps. cv 39.

Jehovah has created upon every dwelling-place of Zion a cloud by day, for [there is] a covering upon all the glory Isa. iv 5.

Here also by ‘cloud’ is understood the Word in the sense of the letter, which sense, since it includes and covers the spiritual sense, is called ‘a covering upon the glory’. That the sense of the letter of the Word is a covering lest its spiritual sense should be injured may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 33), and that it is a guard (n. 97). sRef Ex@19 @9 S7′ [7] The Divine Truth in ultimates, which is like the Word in the sense of the letter, was also represented by the ‘cloud’ in which Jehovah descended upon mount Sinai and promulgated the Law (Exod. xix 9; xxxiv 5). Again [it was represented] by the ‘cloud’ that covered Peter, James and John, when Jesus was transformed, concerning which [we read] these [words]:-

While Peter yet spoke, behold a cloud overshadowed them, and behold a voice out of the cloud saying, This is My beloved Son, hear Him Matt. xvii 5; Mark ix 7; Luke ix 34, 35.

The Lord in this transformation caused Himself to be seen as the Word, on account of which the cloud overshadowed them and the voice out of the cloud was heard [to say] that He is the Son of God. The ‘voice out of the cloud’ is out of the Word. That by ‘cloud’ in an opposite sense is understood the Word as to its sense of the letter falsified, will be seen elsewhere.
* ‘Of heaven’ is not found in the Greek text of the Apocalypse.
** ‘Concerning the Last Judgment etc.’ (London, 1758) and ‘Continuation concerning the Last Judgment etc.’ (Amsterdam, 1763).

AR (Coulson) n. 25 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′

25. ‘And every eye shall see Him’ signifies that all who out of affection are in an understanding of Divine Truth are going to recognise [this]. In the spiritual sense by ‘eye’ is not understood an eye, but understanding, therefore by ‘every eye shall see’ is signified that all who out of affection are in an understanding of Divine Truth are going to acknowledge [this], since they alone understand and acknowledge. The rest indeed see and they also understand, but they do not acknowledge. Those [who also acknowledge] are signified, because it follows, that ‘they who pierced Him’ are also going to see, by whom are understood those who are in untruths. That ‘eye’ signifies understanding will be seen below (n. 48).

AR (Coulson) n. 26 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ sRef John@19 @34 S0′

26. ‘And they who pierced Him’ signifies that those who in the Church are in untruths are also going to see. By ‘to pierce’ Jesus Christ is understood nothing else than to destroy His Divine Truth in the Word. This is also understood by [the statement] that:-

One of the soldiers pierced His side, and there came out blood and water John xix 34.

‘Blood and water’ are spiritual and natural Divine Truth, thus the Word in its spiritual and in its natural sense, and ‘to pierce the Lord’s side’ is to destroy both senses by means of untruths, as indeed was done by the Jews. For all things of the Lord’s passion were representing the state of the Jewish Church as to the Word, on which subject [something] may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 15-17). The reason why by ‘to pierce Him’ is signified to destroy the Word by means of untruths is because this is said of Jesus Christ, Who is presently called the Son of Man, and by ‘the Son of Man’ is understood the Lord as to the Word. ‘To pierce the Son of Man’, therefore, is [to do the same to] the Word.

AR (Coulson) n. 27 sRef Matt@24 @29 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @30 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′

27. ‘And all the tribes of the land shall wail’ signifies that this will be when there are no longer any goods and truths in the Church. That ‘the tribes of the land’ signify goods and truths of the Church will be seen in the Exposition of chapter vii, where it treats of the twelve ‘tribes’ of Israel. By ‘to wail’ is signified mourning on account of their being dead. By those things is understood something like what is meant by the Lord’s words in Matthew:-

After the affliction of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall down from heaven; and then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man, and then shall all the tribes of the land wail Matt. xxiv 29, 30.

These things [are said] of the consummation of the age, which is the end of the Church. ‘The sun shall be darkened’ signifies that love and charity are no more; ‘the moon shall not give her light’ signifies that intelligence and faith are no more; ‘the stars shall fall down from heaven’ signifies that the cognitions of good and truth are no more: ‘all the tribes of the land shall wail’ signifies that goods and truths are no more; the ‘affliction’ signifies that state of the Church.

AR (Coulson) n. 28 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′

28. ‘Even so, Amen’ signifies Divine confirmation that it is going to be so. This is plain from the things expounded above (n. 23).

AR (Coulson) n. 29 sRef Rev@1 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @12 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @11 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @10 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @18 S1′

29. [verse 8] ‘And I am Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the Ending’ signifies Who is the Very and Only One from Primes to Ultimates, from Whom all things are; thus Who is the Very and One Only Love, the Very and One Only Wisdom, and the Very and One Only Life in Itself, and thus the Very and One Only Creator, Saviour, and Enlightener from Himself, and thence the All in all of heaven and the Church. These and more besides are the things that are contained in those words, by means of which the Lord is described. That they have been said concerning the Lord, and indeed concerning His Human, is quite plain, for it follows that [John]:-

heard a voice saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last; and he turned to see the voice that spoke with him, and he saw the Son of Man in the midst of the seven lampstands Rev. i 10-13,

Who [i.e. the Son of Man] also soon after said:-

I am the First and the Last, and am the Living One, and was put to death Rev. i 17, 18; ii 8.

Moreover it is not possible in a few words to confirm that all the things that have been stated above are contained in those words, for to confirm them to the extent that they can be grasped (ad captum) would require many pages. They have, however, been confirmed in part in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM recently published at Amsterdam, which may be seen. The Lord declares Himself to be ‘Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the Ending’, because ‘Alpha and Omega’ have reference to His Divine Love, and ‘the Beginning and the Ending’ have reference to His Divine Wisdom; for there is a marriage of love and wisdom, or of good and truth, in the details (in singulis) of the Word, and concerning this marriage THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 80-90) may be seen. [2] The Lord is called ‘Alpha and Omega’ because Alpha is the first and Omega is the last character in the Greek alphabet, and consequently they signify all things inclusively. This is because any one letter of the alphabet in the spiritual world signifies some particular thing; and a vowel, since it is serviceable for sound, signifies something of affection or love. This is the origin of spiritual and angelic speech, and also writing. Up to this time, however, this arcanum has not been known; for there is a universal language in which all angels and spirits are, and this has nothing in common with any language of men in the world. Every man comes into this language after death, for each man has it implanted as a result of creation, and therefore in the entire spiritual world any one is able to understand another. It has often been granted me to hear that language, and to speak it also, and I have compared it with languages in the world, and found that there is no identity with any natural language on earth (in terris) even in the least thing. It differs from these by virtue of its first principle, which is that each letter of any word is the sign of some meaning both in speech and writing. Now, it is in consequence of this that the Lord is termed ‘Alpha and Omega’, by which is signified that He is the All in all of heaven and the Church; and since these are two vowels, they have reference to love, as has been stated above. In ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (n. 295), some things may be seen concerning this language and its writing flowing out of the spiritual thought of angels.

AR (Coulson) n. 30 sRef Rev@1 @8 S0′

30. That ‘Says the Lord, Who is and Who was and Who is to come’ signifies Who is the Eternal and Infinite, and is Jehovah, may be seen above (n. 13), where this has been expounded.

AR (Coulson) n. 31 sRef Rev@1 @8 S0′ 31. ‘And the Almighty’ signifies Who is, lives, and has power out of His Very Self, and Who rules all things out of primes by means of ultimates. Since all things are out of the Lord, created out of the Primes that are from Him, and there is nothing that does not come into existence as a result of this, as has been shown in many [passages] in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM, it follows that He is ‘the Almighty’. Suppose there to be a One out of which all things are. Are not all things of that One, on which they depend in an order, as the links of a chain on the one at the head, or as the blood-vessels of the whole body on the heart, or as all things and each of the things of the universe on the sun? Thus [are all things] from the Lord, Who is the Sun of the spiritual world, from Whom is all the essence, life, and power which those who are under that Sun have. In a word, from Him we are, we live, and we move (Acts xvii 28). This is the Divine Omnipotence. That the Lord rules all things from primes by means of ultimates is an arcanum not revealed up to this time, but it has been expounded in many places in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD, and CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE also in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE PROVIDENCE (n. 124); and CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE (n. 221). It is known that the Divine, because it is the Infinite, does not fall into the ideas of the thought of any man or angel, because they are finite, and the finite is not capable of perceiving the Infinite; nevertheless, in order that it may in some manner be perceived, it has pleased the Lord to describe His Infinity by these words, ‘I AM ALPHA AND OMEGA, THE BEGINNING AND THE ENDING, WHO IS AND WHO WAS AND WHO IS TO COME, THE ALMIGHTY’. These words therefore include all the things that any angel or man can think spiritually or naturally concerning the Divine; which things are in general those that have been adduced above in a universal way.

AR (Coulson) n. 32 sRef Matt@23 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′

32. [verse 9] ‘I John who also* am your brother and companion’ signifies those who are in the good of charity and thence in the truths of faith. It was said above (n. 5) that the apostle John represented those who are in the good of charity; and since charity is the soul and life of faith, those who are in the good of charity are also in the truths of faith. It is in consequence of this that John calls himself a brother and companion of those in the Church to whom he writes, for he wrote to the seven Churches. By ‘a brother’ in the spiritual sense of the Word is understood one who is in the good of charity, and by ‘a companion’ one who is thereby in the truths of faith. Indeed, all are, as it were, blood-relations through charity, but relations-in-law through faith; for charity joins together, whereas faith does not unless it is from charity. Provided that faith is derived from charity, then charity joins together and faith brings about association, and since they make one, the Lord therefore commanded that all should be brothers, for He says:-

One is your Teacher Christ, but all you are brothers Matt. xxiii 8.

sRef Luke@8 @21 S2′ sRef John@13 @13 S2′ [2] The Lord also calls those ‘brothers’ who are in the good of charity or in the good of life. He said:-

My mother and My brothers are they who hear the Word of God and do it Luke viii 21; Matt. xii 49; Mark iii 33-35.

By ‘mother’ is understood the Church, and by ‘brothers’ those who are in charity. Again, since the good of charity is ‘a brother’, the Lord therefore addresses those who are in it as ‘brothers’, as indeed in Matt. xxv 40, and therefore He also so addresses the disciples (Matt. xxviii 10; John xx 17). We do not, however, read that the disciples addressed the Lord as brother, because ‘brother’ is good that is from the Lord. This is comparatively as it is with a king, a prince, and a great man, who call their blood-relations and relations-in-law brothers, but yet these do not do so in return, for the Lord says:-

One is your Teacher, Christ, but you are all brothers Matt. xxiii 8.

Also:-

You call Me Master and Lord, and you say well, for so I am John xiii 13.

sRef Deut@15 @2 S3′ sRef Deut@15 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@41 @6 S3′ sRef Jer@34 @17 S3′ sRef Ps@122 @8 S3′ sRef Jer@9 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@19 @2 S3′ sRef Jer@23 @35 S3′ [3] The sons of Israel used to call all those brothers who were from their father Jacob, and in a wider sense those also who were from Esau, but those who were not [descended] from them [they called] companions. Since, however, the Word in the spiritual sense treats only of those who are in the Lord’s Church, therefore in that sense by ‘brothers’ are understood those who are in the good of charity from the Lord, and by ‘companions’ those who are in the truths of faith. So in the following:-

Thus shall you say every one to his companion, and every one to his

brother, What has Jehovah answered? Jer. xxiii 35.

You have not proclaimed liberty, every one to his brother, and every one to his companion Jer. xxxiv 17.

Let not [the creditor] urge his companion or his brother Deut. xv 1, 2.

For the sake of my brothers and my companions I will say Ps. cxxii 8.

Every one helps his companion, and says to his brother, Be strong Isa. xli 6.

And in the opposite sense:-

Beware you every one of his companion, and trust not in any brother; every brother supplants, and every companion slanders Jer. ix 4 [H.B. 3].

I will mix Egypt with Egypt, that one may fight against his brother, and against his companion Isa. xix 2,

and elsewhere. These [quotations] have been adduced that it may be known why John terms himself ‘brother and companion’, and that by ‘a brother’ in the Word is understood one who is in charity or good, and by ‘a companion’ one who is in faith or truth. Since however it is charity from which faith is derived, therefore none are called companions by the Lord, but brothers or neighbour. Every one also is a neighbour in accordance with the quality of his good (Luke x 36, 37).
* Reading et (also) instead of est (is).

AR (Coulson) n. 33 sRef Matt@24 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S0′ 33. ‘In affliction, and in the kingdom, and in the patient expectation of Jesus Christ’ signifies those things in the Church which have been infested by evils and untruths, but that those [evils and untruths] are to be removed by the Lord when He comes. By ‘affliction’ is understood the state of the Church when there are no longer any goods of charity and truths of faith, but in place of them evils and untruths. By ‘the kingdom’ is understood the Church; and by ‘the patient expectation of Jesus Christ’ is understood the coming of the Lord. Therefore these words, ‘In affliction, and in the kingdom, and in the patient expectation of Jesus Christ’, when gathered together into a single meaning, signify when the good and true things of the Church have been infested by evils and untruths, which however are to be removed by the Lord when He comes. That by ‘affliction’ is understood the state of the Church when it has been infested by evils and untruths is plain from these [words]:-

In the consummation of the age they shall deliver you up into affliction, and shall kill you. There shall be great affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the world, nor shall be. After the affliction of those days shall the sun be darkened, the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall down from heaven Matt. xxiv 9, 21, 29; Mark xlii 19, 24.

That ‘the kingdom’ signifies the Church, will be seen in the things following.

AR (Coulson) n. 34 sRef Isa@42 @4 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @10 S0′ sRef Zeph@2 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @12 S0′ sRef Isa@49 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@60 @9 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @15 S0′ sRef Isa@51 @5 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′

34. Was in the isle called Patmos’ signifies the state and situation in which he could be enlightened. That the Revelation of John was produced in Patmos was on account of its being an island in Greece, not far from the land of Canaan, and between Asia and Europe; and by ‘isles’ are signified nations more out of the way from the worship of God, but who yet are going to draw near to that worship because they can be enlightened. The like [is signified] by ‘Greece’. But the Church itself [is signified] by ‘the land of Canaan’, by ‘Asia’ those belonging to the Church [are signified] who are in the light of the truth (veritas) out of the Word, and by ‘Europe’ those to whom the Word is going to come. It is in consequence of this that by ‘the isle Patmos’ is signified the state and situation in which he could be enlightened. That by ‘isles’ in the Word are signified nations more remote from the worship of God, but who are yet going to draw near to that worship, is plain from these passages:-

Honour Jehovah in the Urim, the Name of the God of Israel in the isles of the sea Isa. xxiv 15.

He shall not extinguish nor break in pieces, till He set judgment in the earth, and the isles hope in His law. Sing unto Jehovah a new song, the isles and the inhabitants thereof shall propose glory to Jehovah, and they will declare His praise in the islands Isa. xlii 4, 10, 12.

Listen unto Me attentively, O isles and the peoples from afar Isa. xlix 1.

The isles shall hope in Me, and on Mine arm shall they trust Isa. li 5.

The isles shall trust in Me, and the ships of Tarshish Isa. lx 9.

Hear the words of Jehovah, O nations, and declare [them] in the isles from afar Jer. xxxi 10.


That they may worship Jehovah, every one in his place, all the isles of the nations Zeph. ii 11;

and elsewhere. That the like [is signified] by ‘Greece’ is not plain in this manner from the Word, since Greece has only been mentioned by name [in] Dan. viii 21, x 20, xi 2; as also John xii 20; Mark vii 26. That by ‘the land of Canaan’ the Lord’s Church is understood, and this is thence called ‘the Holy Land’ and ‘the heavenly Canaan’, is plain from many passages in the Word. It may be seen above (n. 11) that those in the Church who are in the light of the truth (veritas) out of the Word are understood by ‘Asia’; and it is consistent [with this] that those to whom the Word is going to come are understood by ‘Europe’.

AR (Coulson) n. 35 sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 35. ‘For the Word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ’ signifies so that from the heart and thus in the light Divine Truth may be received out of the Word, and the Lord’s Human acknowledged to be Divine. This has been expounded above (n. 6).

AR (Coulson) n. 36 sRef Rev@1 @10 S0′

36. [verse 10] ‘I came to be in the spirit on the Lord’s day’ signifies the spiritual state then as a result of Divine influx. ‘I came to be in the spirit’ signifies the spiritual state in which he was while in the visions, concerning which state [something] follows. ‘On the Lord’s day’ signifies influx from the Lord then, for on that day there is the presence of the Lord, because the day is holy. It is plain from these [considerations] that ‘I came to be in the spirit on the Lord’s day’ signifies the spiritual state then as a result of Divine influx. Of the prophets we read that they were ‘in the spirit’ or ‘in a vision’, also that the Word was delivered to them by Jehovah. When they were in the spirit or a vision they were not in the body but in their spirit, in which state they saw such things as are in heaven. But when the Word was delivered to them, then they were in the body and heard Jehovah speaking. These two states of the prophets are to be properly distinguished. In the state of vision the eyes of their spirit were opened and the eyes of their body closed, and they then heard things that angels spoke, or that Jehovah spoke through angels, and they also saw the things that were represented to them in heaven; and then sometimes they seemed to be carried from place to place, the body remaining in its own position. sRef Zech@1 @8 S2′ sRef Ezek@3 @14 S2′ sRef Ezek@11 @1 S2′ sRef Ezek@3 @12 S2′ sRef Ezek@8 @3 S2′ sRef Ezek@11 @24 S2′ [2] John was in this state when he wrote the Apocalypse; and sometimes also Ezekiel, Zechariah, and Daniel [were in it]; and then it is said that they were ‘in a vision’ or ‘in the spirit’; for Ezekiel says:-

The spirit took me up, and brought me back into Chaldea to the captivity, in a vision of God, in the spirit of God: so the vision that I had seen went up over me Ezek. xi 1, 24.

He also says that the spirit took him up, and he heard an earthquake behind him, and other things (Ezek. iii 12, 24); also, that the spirit took him up between earth and heaven, brought him into Jerusalem in the visions of God, and he saw abominations (viii 3 seq.). He was in like manner in a vision of God or in the spirit, when he saw the four animals that were cherubs (chaps. i and x), as also when he saw the new land and the new temple, and an angel measuring them (xl-xlviii) . He says that he was in the visions of God (xl 2), and that the spirit took him up (xliii 5). sRef Zech@5 @6 S3′ sRef Zech@1 @18 S3′ sRef Zech@5 @1 S3′ sRef Dan@7 @1 S3′ sRef Zech@2 @1 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @1 S3′ sRef Zech@4 @1 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @1 S3′ sRef Zech@3 @1 S3′ [3] A similar thing was effected in the case of Zechariah, in whom there was an angel at the time, when he saw the man riding among the myrtle trees (Zech. i 8 seq.); when he saw four horns, and afterwards a man in whose hand was a measuring line (i 18, ii 1 seq. [H.B. ii, 5 seq.]); when he saw Joshua the high priest (iii 1 seq.); when he saw the lampstand and the two olive trees (iv 1 seq.); when he saw the flying roll and the ephah (v 1, 6); and when he saw the four chariots coming out from between the two mountains, and the horses (vi 1 seq.). Daniel was in a similar state when he saw the four beasts coming up out of the sea (Dan. vii 1 seq.); and when he saw the battle of the ram and the he-goat (viii 1 seq.). He himself says that he saw these things in visions (vii I, 2, 7, 13; viii 2; x 1, 7, 8), and that the angel Gabriel appeared to him in a vision (ix 25). [4] A similar thing was effected in the case of John, as when he saw the Son of Man in the midst of the seven lampstands (Rev. i); when he saw the throne in heaven, and one sitting thereon, and four animals round about the throne (iv); when he saw the Book sealed with seven seals (v); when he saw the four horses going forth out of the opened Book (vi); when he saw the four angels standing on the four corners of the land (vii); when he saw the locusts going forth out of the pit of the deep (ix); when be saw the angel in whose hand was the little book, which he gave him to eat (x); when he heard the seven angels sounding with the trumpets ([viii, ix] xi); when he saw the dragon and the woman whom the dragon persecuted, and the battle of that dragon with Michael (xii); and afterwards, the two beasts coming up, the one out of the sea, and the other out of the land (xiii); when he saw the seven angels having the seven last plagues (xv, xvi); when he saw the harlot sitting upon the scarlet coloured beast (xvii, xviii); and afterwards a white horse and One sitting upon it (xix); and at last, the new heaven and the new land, and the New Jerusalem coming down then out of heaven (xxi, xxii). That John saw these things in ‘the spirit’ and in ‘vision’, he himself says (i 50, iv 2, ix 17, xxi 10). This is also understood by [the expression] ‘I saw’ wherever [it occurs] in his writings. sRef 2Ki@6 @17 S5′ [5] It is quite plain from these things that to be ‘in the spirit’ is to be ‘in vision’, and this is effected by means of an opening of the sight of a man’s spirit. When this is opened, the things that are in the spiritual world appear just as clearly as do those that are before the sight of the body in the natural world. I can testify that it is so from many years experience. The disciples were in this state when they saw the Lord after the resurrection, and it is therefore said that ‘their eyes were opened’ (Luke xxiv 30, 31). Abraham was in a similar state when he saw the three angels and spoke with them. Likewise Hagar, Gideon, Joshua and others when they saw angels of Jehovah. In like manner when Elisha’s young man saw the mountain full of chariots and horses of fire round about Elisha, for:-

Elisha prayed, and said, Jehovah, I pray Thee open his eyes that he may see, and Jehovah opened the eyes of the young man, and he saw 2 Kings vi 17.

As concerns the Word, however, this was not revealed in the state of ‘the spirit’ or ‘in vision’, but it was dictated by the Lord to the prophets with a living voice. On account of this it is not anywhere said that they spoke the Word out of the Holy Spirit, but out of Jehovah. See THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 53).

AR (Coulson) n. 37 sRef Ps@29 @4 S0′ sRef John@10 @16 S0′ sRef Ps@68 @33 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@68 @32 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @9 S0′ sRef John@10 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @6 S0′ sRef John@10 @27 S0′ sRef John@5 @25 S0′ sRef Joel@3 @16 S0′ sRef John@10 @4 S0′ sRef Joel@2 @11 S0′ 37. ‘And heard behind me a great voice as of a trumpet’ signifies a manifest perception of Divine Truth revealed out of heaven. ‘A great voice’, when it is heard out of heaven signifies Divine Truth, about which [something] follows. It was heard ‘as of a trumpet’ because when Divine Truth is descending out of heaven it is sometimes so heard by angels of the lowest heaven, and is then manifestly perceived. It is in consequence of this that by ‘a voice as of a trumpet’ manifest perception is signified. Something further about the signification of a trumpet will be seen below (n. 397, 519). That ‘a great voice’, when it is heard out of heaven, signifies Divine Truth is plain from these passages:-

The voice of Jehovah upon the waters, the voice of Jehovah in vigour, the voice of Jehovah with honour, the voice of Jehovah breaking the cedars, the voice of Jehovah falling as a flame of fire, the voice of Jehovah makes the wilderness to tremble, the voice of Jehovah makes the hinds to bring forth Ps. xxix 3-9.

Sing psalms to the Lord, O kingdoms of the earth, behold He will give in His voice a voice of strength Ps. lxviii 32, 33 [H.B. 33, 34].

Jehovah uttered His voice in the presence of [His] army, for beyond number it does His Word Joel ii 11.

Jehovah will give forth His voice from Jerusalem Joel iii 16 [H.B. iv 16].

And since ‘voice’ signifies the Divine Truth [coming] out of the Lord, therefore the Lord said that:-

The sheep hear His voice; they know His voice; I also have other sheep which I ought to bring, and they shall hear My voice. My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me John x 3, 4, 16, 27.

And elsewhere:-

The hour is coming when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of Man, and they who hear shall live John v 25.

‘Voice’ here is the Divine Truth of the Lord out of His Word.

AR (Coulson) n. 38 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′

38. [verse 11] ‘Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last’ signifies Who is the Very and Only One from Primes to Ultimates, from Whom all things are; thus Who is the Very and One Only Love, the Very and One Only Wisdom, and the Very and One Only Life in Itself, and thus the Very and One Only Creator, Saviour, and Enlightener from Himself, and thence the All in all of heaven and the Church: Who only is the Infinite and the Eternal, and Jehovah; and that He is the Lord. That all these things are contained in these words, and infinitely more, may be seen above (n. 13, 29). It was said there that all the characters or letters in the alphabet in the spiritual world signify things; and that their speech and writing there exist from this, and that therefore the Lord describes His Divinity and Infinity by ‘Alpha and Omega’, by which is signified that He is the All in all of heaven and the Church. Since any one letter in the spiritual world and in the angelic language thence, signifies a thing, therefore David composed Psalm cxix in an order following the letters of the alphabet, starting from Aleph and finishing with Tau, as can be established from the initial [letters] of the verses there. A similar thing appears in Psalm cxi, but not so obviously. On that account also Abram was called Abraham, and Sarai was called Sarah, which was done so that in heaven by ‘Abraham’ and ‘Sarah’ those [persons] should not be understood, but the Divine; as is also the case, for ‘H’ involves infinity, because it is only an aspirate. More about these matters may be seen above (n. 29).

AR (Coulson) n. 39 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 39. That ‘What thou seest, write in a book’ signifies so that [these truths] may be revealed to posterity is plain without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 40 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 40. ‘And send to these Churches in Asia’ signifies for those in Christendom who are in the light of the truth (veritas) out of the Word. That those are understood by ‘the Churches in Asia’ may be seen above (n. 10, 11).

AR (Coulson) n. 41 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 41. ‘Unto Ephesus and Smyrna, and Pergamum and Thyatira, and Sardis and Philadelphia, and Laodicea’ signifies specifically in accordance with the state of reception of each one. That all the states of reception of the Lord and His Church are signified in the spiritual sense by those seven names will be seen below; for when this was enjoined on him, John was in a spiritual state, and in that state nothing is called by a name that does not signify a thing or a state. These things, therefore, that were written by John were not sent to any Church in those places, but were told to the angels of those Churches, by whom are understood those who receive. That spiritual things are understood by all the names of places and persons in the whole Word, has been shown many times in ARCANA CAELESTIA published at London; as what [is understood] by Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, also by Israel, and by the names of his twelve sons, as also what [is understood] by various places in the land of Canaan, and by places in the neighbourhood of that land, as Egypt, Syria, Assyria and other places. It is similar with these seven names. But let him who wishes to remain in the sense of the letter remain, because that sense conjoins. Only let him know that angels by means of those names perceive the things and states of the Church.

AR (Coulson) n. 42 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @12 S0′ 42. [verse 12] ‘And I turned to see the voice that was speaking with me’ signifies the inversion of the state of those who are in the good of life as to the perception of truth in the Word while they turn to the Lord. John says that he heard the voice behind him (verse 10); and now [he says] that he turned to see the voice; and again, that having turned he saw seven lampstands. By reason of these [statements] it is plain that he heard the voice from the rear and that he turned to see whence it [came]. It is plain that in this there is an arcanum. The arcanum is that before a man turns to the Lord and acknowledges Him as the God of heaven and earth he is not able to see the Divine Truth in the Word. This is because God, in both Person and Essence, is One, in Whom is the Trinity, and that God is the Lord. They, therefore, who acknowledge a Trinity of Persons, look primarily to the Father, and some to the Holy Spirit, and seldom to the Lord, and if to the Lord, they think of His Human as of an ordinary man. When a man does this he is quite unable to be enlightened in the Word, for the Lord is the Word, for it is from Him and concerning Him. On that account they who do not approach the Only Lord look at Him and His Word behind, and not in front of, themselves, or from the back and not from the face. This is the arcanum that lies hidden in the [statement] that

John heard a voice behind him, and he turned to see the voice, and having turned he saw seven golden lampstands, and in the midst of them the SON OF MAN;

for the voice that he heard came from the SON OF MAN, Who is the Lord. sRef Rev@1 @8 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @8 S2′ [2] That the Lord Only is the God of heaven and earth He now teaches with a manifest voice, for He says:-

I am Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the Ending, says the Lord, Who is and Who was and Who is to come Rev. i 8;

and here:-

I am Alpha and Omega, the First and the Last Rev. i 51;

and afterwards:-

I am the First and the Last Rev. i 17; ii 8.

That by a ‘voice’, when from the Lord, Divine Truth is understood, may be seen above (n. 37); and that by ‘John’ are understood those belonging to the Church who are in the good of life (n. 5, 6 above). It can now be established from these things that by the words ‘And I turned to see the voice that was speaking with me’ is signified the inversion of the state of those who are in the good of life, as to the perception of truth in the Word when they turn to the Lord.

AR (Coulson) n. 43 sRef Rev@1 @12 S0′ 43. ‘And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands’ signifies the New Church, which will be in enlightenment from the Lord out of the Word. That the ‘seven lampstands’ are the seven Churches is stated in the last verse of this chapter; and that by ‘the seven Churches’ are understood all who are in Christendom and who accede to the Church may be seen above (n. 10); and specifically in accordance with the state of reception of each one (n. 41). The New Church is understood by the ‘seven lampstands’ because the Lord is in it, and in the midst of it; for it is said that in the midst of the seven lampstands he saw One like unto the SON OF MAN, and by the ‘Son of Man’ is understood the Lord as to the Word. The lampstands were seen ‘golden’ because gold signifies good, and every Church is a Church by virtue of the good that is formed by means of truths. That ‘gold’ signifies good will be seen in the following [pages]. sRef Rev@22 @5 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @23 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @24 S2′ [2] The lampstands were not placed close to one another, or in contact, but standing apart making a kind of ring, as is plain from these words in the following chapter:-

These things says He Who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands Rev. ii 1.

Nothing is said about the lamps of these lampstands, but in the things following it is said that:-

the holy Jerusalem (that is, the New Church) has no need of the sun, neither of the moon, for the Lamp thereof is the Lamb, and the nations that are being saved shall walk in His Light Rev. xxi 23, 24;

and further:-

They need no lamp, for the Lord God enlightens them Rev. xxii 5.

In fact those who will be of the Lord’s New Church (erunt e Nova Ecclesia Domini) are only lampstands that will shine from the Lord. [3] By the ‘golden lampstand’ in the tabernacle nothing else was represented than the Church as to enlightenment from the Lord, concerning which lampstand see Exod. xxv 31-end, xxxvii 17-24; Lev. xxiv 3, 4; Num. viii 2-4. That it represented the Lord’s Church as to spiritual Divine love, which is love towards the neighbour, may be seen in ARCANA CAELESTIA published at London (n. 9548, 9555, 9558, 9561, 9570, 9783); also below (n. 493). In Zechariah chapter iv, by the ‘lampstand’ is signified the New Church about to be set up by the Lord, since it signifies the new house of God or the new temple as is plain from the things following there, and by ‘the house of God’ or ‘the temple’ is signified the Church, and in the supreme sense the Lord’s Divine Human, as He Himself teaches (John ii 19-21, and elsewhere). It will, however, be stated what is signified in order in chapter iv in the case of Zechariah when the ‘lampstand’ was seen by him.

[4] ‘By the things that are contained from verses 1 to 7 is signified the enlightenment of the New Church by the Lord out of the good of love by means of truth. The olive trees there signify the Church as to the good of love. By the things from verses 8 to 10 there is signified that these things are from the Lord. The Lord is represented by Zerubbabel there, who is going to build the house, thus the Church. By the things from verses 11 to 14 is signified that in that Church there will also be truths out of a heavenly source. The exposition of that chapter has been given to me by the Lord through heaven.’

AR (Coulson) n. 44 sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ 44. [verse 13] ‘And in the midst of the seven lampstands One like the SON OF MAN’ signifies the Lord as to the Word, from Whom that Church [will be]. From the Word it is known that the Lord called Himself ‘SON OF GOD’ and also ‘SON OF MAN’. That by ‘Son of God’ He meant Himself as to the Divine Human, and by ‘Son of Man’ Himself as to the Word, has been fully demonstrated in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 19-28); and since it has there been fully confirmed out of the Word, it is unnecessary to confirm it further here. Now, since the Lord in the presence of John represented Himself as the Word, therefore, as seen by him, He is called the SON OF MAN. He represented Himself as the Word, because the New Church is treated of, which is a Church out of the Word and in accordance with the understanding of it. That the Church is out of the Word and that it is of such a quality as is its understanding of the Word, may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 76-79). Since the Church is a Church from the Lord by means of the Word, therefore the SON OF MAN was seen in the midst of the lampstands. ‘In the midst’ signifies in the inmost, out of which the things that are around, or are outside, draw their essence, here their light or intelligence. That the inmost is the all in the things that are around or outside has been shown many times in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM; it is as a light and flame in the midst out of which all the surroundings shine and glow. sRef Isa@12 @6 S2′ sRef Ex@23 @21 S2′ sRef Ps@48 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@23 @20 S2′ sRef Ps@82 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@74 @12 S2′ [2] ‘In the midst’ has a similar significance in the following passages in the Word:-

Cry out and shout, O inhabitress of Zion, for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee Isa. xii 6.

God is my King working salvation in the midst of the land Ps. lxxiv 12.

God working mercy in the midst of the temple Ps. xlviii 9.

God stands in the congregation of God, He will judge in the midst of the gods Ps. lxxxii 1.

They are called ‘gods’ who are in Divine truths from the Lord, and abstractly, the truths themselves.

Behold, I send an Angel before thee; beware of His faces, since My Name is in the midst of Him Exod. xxiii 20, 21.

The ‘Name’ of Jehovah is all the Divine, ‘in the midst’ is in the inmost, and thence in all of it. ‘The midst’ also signifies the inmost, and all thence, in many other passages in the Word, even where evils are treated of, as Isa. xxiv 13; Jer. xxiii 9; Ps. v 9 [H.B. 10]; Jer. ix 5, 6 [H.B. 4, 5]; Ps. xxxvi 1 [H.B. 2], lv 4 [H.B. 5], lxii 4 [H.B. 5]. These passages are adduced so that it may be known that ‘in the midst of the lampstands’ signifies in the inmost, from which the Church and everything of it [exists], for the Church and everything of it is from the Lord by means of the Word. That ‘the lampstands’ signify the New Church may be seen just above (n. 43).

AR (Coulson) n. 45 sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ 45. ‘Clothed with a garment down to the foot’ signifies the Divine proceeding, which is Divine Truth. That ‘a garment down to the foot’ signifies the Divine proceeding, which is Divine Truth, is because garments in the Word signify truths. From this ‘a-garment-down-to-the-foot’ (talaris), which is a general garment, with the Lord signifies the Divine Truth proceeding. Garments signify truths in the Word because in heaven they are clothed in accordance with the truths proceeding out of their good, concerning which fact n. 177-182 in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL, published at London in the year 1758, may be seen. In the following [pages] also it will be seen that nothing else is understood in the Word in its spiritual sense by garments’; accordingly that nothing else [is understood] by the Lord’s garments when He was transformed, which appeared glistening white as the light (Matt. xvii 1-4; Mark ix 2-8; Luke ix 28-36). Nor again is anything else understood by the Lord’s garments that the soldiers divided (John xix 23, 24). That similar things were represented and signified by Aaron’s garments (vestes), may be seen in ARCANA CAELESTIA published at London (n. 9814, 10,068); specifically what [was represented and signified] by ‘the ephod’ (n. 9477, 9824, 10,005); by ‘the robe’ (n. 9825, 10,005); by ‘the tunic’ (n. 9826, 9942); and by ‘the mitre’ (n. 9827); for Aaron was representing the Lord’s priestly function. Concerning the signification of garments (vestes) out of the Word, see below (n. 166, 328).

AR (Coulson) n. 46 sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ sRef Isa@11 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@11 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@3 @24 S0′ 46. ‘And girt about the breasts with a golden girdle’ signifies the Divine proceeding and at the same time conjoining, which is Divine Good. This is what ‘a golden girdle’ signifies, because by the Lord’s chest, and specifically by the breasts there, His Divine love is signified. From this, by the golden girdle ‘that girded them [is signified] the Divine proceeding and at the same time conjoining, which is the Divine good of the Divine Love. Moreover ‘gold’ signifies good, see below (n. 913). A ‘girdle’ or ‘belt’ in the Word also signifies the general bond by which all things are held together in order and connection, as in Isaiah:-

There shall go forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, justice shall be the girdle of His loins, and the truth (veritas) the girdle of His thighs Isa. xi [1,] 5.

The rod going forth out of the stem of Jesse is the Lord. That the girdle of the ephod, and the belt of Aaron’s tunic, signified conjunction, may be seen in ARCANA CAELESTIA published at London (n. 9837, 9944). Since ‘a girdle’ signifies the bond conjoining the goods and truths of the Church, therefore when the Church with the sons of Israel had been destroyed, Jeremiah the prophet was commanded:-

To buy himself a girdle, and put it on his loins, and then to hide it in a hole of the rock near the Euphrates, and at the end of days, when he took it again, behold it was rotten, and not profitable for anything Jer. xiii 1-12.

By this was represented that the good of the Church was then nullified, and as a result the truths had been dissipated. The like is signified by ‘girdle’ in Isaiah:-

Instead of a girdle there shall be a rent Isa. iii 24,

and elsewhere also. That by the ‘breasts’ or ‘teats’ the Divine Love is signified, is plain from the passages in the Word where they are named, as also from their correspondence with love.

AR (Coulson) n. 47 sRef Rev@1 @14 S0′ 47. [verse 14] ‘And His head and hairs were white as wool, like snow’ signifies the Divine Love of the Divine Wisdom in primes and ultimates. By a man’s head all of his life is signified, and all of a man’s life has relation to love and wisdom. By the head, therefore, wisdom is signified, and at the same time love. Because, however, there is no love apart from its own wisdom, nor wisdom apart from its own love, therefore it is the love of wisdom that is understood by ‘head’, and when it concerns the Lord, it is the Divine Love of the Divine Wisdom. But [something] out of the Word about the signification of the head will be seen below (n. 538, 568). Since, then, by ‘head’ is understood love and at the same time wisdom in their primes, and because ‘hairs’ are here mentioned respecting the Son of Man, Who is the Lord as to the Word, by ‘His hairs’ are signified the Divine Good that is of love, and the Divine Truth that is of wisdom, in the ultimates of the Word; and the ultimates of the Word are those that are contained in its sense of the letter. aRef 2Ki@2 @23 S2′ aRef 2Ki@2 @24 S2′ [2] That the Word in this sense is signified by the hairs of the Son of Man or of the Lord seems a paradox, but yet it is true. This can be established from the passages in the Word quoted in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 35-49). There also it has been shown that the Nazirites in the Israelitish Church represented the Lord as to the Word in ultimates, which is its sense of the letter; for ‘Nazirite’ in the Hebrew language is ‘hair’ or ‘a head of hair’ (Capillus seu Coma). As a result of this representation Samson, who was a Nazirite from the womb, had power in his long hair. That the Divine Truth is likewise in power in the sense of the letter of the Word may be seen in the above-mentioned DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 37-49). Moreover, shaving the head was on this account strictly forbidden to the high priest and his sons. For this reason also forty-two children were torn in pieces by two bears because they were calling Elisha bald. Elisha, like Elijah, was representing the Lord as to the Word; ‘bald’ signifies this Word without its ultimate, which, as stated, is the sense of the letter; while the ‘bears’ signify this sense of the Word separated from its internal sense. Those who make this separation also appear in the spiritual world as bears, but from afar. It is plain from this why it was so done with the children. For this reason also, to induce baldness was [a sign of] the utmost disgrace and of extreme sorrow. sRef Lam@4 @8 S3′ sRef Lam@4 @7 S3′ sRef Ezek@7 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@29 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @1 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @2 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @4 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @3 S3′ [3] Therefore, when the Israelitish nation had perverted all the sense of the letter of the Word, this lamentation is made over them:-

[Her] Nazirites were whiter than snow, brighter white than milk; their form has been darkened more than blackness; they are not known in the streets Lam. iv 7, 8;

also:-

Every head made bald, and every shoulder plucked of its hair Ezek. xxix 18.

Shame upon all faces, and baldness upon all heads Ezek. vii 18.

In like manner, Isa. xv 2, Jer. xlviii 37, Amos viii 10. Because the sons of Israel dispersed all the sense of the letter of the Word by means of untruths, therefore the prophet Ezekiel was commanded to represent it by this, that:-

he should shave the head with a razor, and burn a third part of the long hair with fire, thrust through a third part with a sword, and scatter a third part into the wind, and collect some in his skirts, and afterwards cast this also into the fire Ezek. v 1-4 seq.

sRef Lev@10 @6 S4′ sRef Num@6 @11 S4′ sRef Num@6 @10 S4′ sRef Num@6 @16 S4′ sRef Num@6 @1 S4′ sRef Num@6 @3 S4′ sRef Num@6 @17 S4′ sRef Dan@4 @33 S4′ sRef Num@6 @15 S4′ sRef Num@6 @12 S4′ sRef Num@6 @2 S4′ sRef Num@6 @13 S4′ sRef Num@6 @4 S4′ sRef Num@6 @20 S4′ sRef Dan@7 @9 S4′ sRef Num@6 @19 S4′ sRef Num@6 @5 S4′ sRef Num@6 @14 S4′ sRef Num@6 @21 S4′ sRef Num@6 @8 S4′ sRef Num@6 @18 S4′ sRef Num@6 @9 S4′ sRef Num@6 @6 S4′ sRef Num@6 @7 S4′ sRef Micah@1 @16 S4′ [4] On account of this it is also said in Micah:-

Make thee bald and poll thee for the sons of thy delights, enlarge thy

baldness as the eagle, for they are carried away from thee Micah i 16.

The ‘sons of delights’ are the genuine truths of the Church out of the Word. And because Nebuchadnezzar king of Babel represented the Babelish falsification of the Word and the destruction of everything of the Truth there, it consequently came to pass that:-

his long hair grew like eagles’ [feathers] Dan. iv 33.

Since hairs used to signify that holy [power] of the Word, it is therefore said of the Nazirites, that:-

they should not shave the hair of their head, because that is the Naziriteship of God upon their head Num. vi 1-21;

and therefore it was decreed that:-

the high priest and his sons should not shave their head, lest they die, and wrath should come upon the whole house of Israel Lev. x 6.

sRef Isa@9 @6 S5′ sRef Micah@5 @2 S5′ [5] Now because by ‘hairs’ is signified the Divine Truth in ultimates, and in the Church this is the Word in the sense of the letter, the like is also said in Daniel concerning the Ancient of days:-

I saw until the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, His garment white as snow, and the hair of His head like clean wool Dan. vii 9.

That ‘the Ancient of days’ is the Lord is quite plain in Micah:-

Thou Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, out of thee shall go forth to Me He Who shall be Ruler in Israel, and Whose going forth is from the ancient time, from the days of eternity Micah v 2 [H.B. 1];

and in Isaiah, where He is called:-

the Father of Eternity Isa. ix 6 [H.B. 5].

[6] From these passages, and many others which are not adduced on account of their abundance, it can be established that by the ‘head’ and ‘hairs’ of the Son of Man, which were ‘white as wool, like snow’, is understood the Divine Love and Wisdom in primes and in ultimates. And since by ‘the Son of Man’ the Lord is understood as to the Word, it follows that this also in primes and ultimates is understood. Otherwise to what purpose would the Lord here in the Apocalypse, and the Ancient of days in Daniel, be described even with respect to the hairs? That by ‘hairs’ the sense of the letter of the Word is signified is manifestly plain from those who are in the spiritual world. Those who have held the sense of the letter of the Word in contempt appear bald there; while those who have loved the sense of the letter of the Word appear there with becoming hair. It is said as wool’ and ‘as snow’, because wool signifies good in ultimates, and snow truth in ultimates, as also in Isaiah (i 18); for wool is derived from sheep, by which the good of charity is signified, and snow is derived from water, by which the truths of faith are signified.

AR (Coulson) n. 48 sRef Rev@1 @14 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@43 @8 S1′ sRef Isa@29 @18 S1′ sRef Isa@35 @6 S1′ sRef Isa@35 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S1′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S1′

48. ‘And His eyes as a flame of fire’ signifies the Divine Wisdom of the Divine Love. By ‘eyes’ in the Word the understanding is meant, and by the sight of the eyes, intelligence. When, therefore, [this is said] of the Lord, the Divine Wisdom is understood. By ‘a flame of fire’, however, is signified the spiritual love that is charity; therefore the Divine Love is understood when it concerns the Lord. Consequently, then, the Divine Wisdom of the Divine Love is signified by the fact that His eyes were as a flame of fire. That the eye signifies the understanding, is because they correspond; for as the eye sees by virtue of natural light, so the understanding sees by virtue of spiritual light. ‘To see’ is therefore predicated of both. That by ‘eye’ in the Word the understanding is signified is plain from the following passages:-

Bring forth the blind people who have eyes, and the deaf who have ears Isa. xliii 8.

In that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of

the blind shall see out of dense darkness Isa. xxix 18.

Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf
Isa. xxxv 5, 6.

I will give Thee for a light of the Gentiles, for the opening of the eyes of the blind Isa. xlii [6,] 7.

These things [are said] of the Lord, Who when He comes will open the understanding with those who are in ignorance of the truth. sRef Isa@33 @15 S2′ sRef Zech@12 @4 S2′ sRef Ezek@12 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@13 @3 S2′ sRef John@12 @40 S2′ sRef Zech@11 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@29 @10 S2′ sRef Zech@14 @12 S2′ [2] That this is understood by ‘opening the eyes’ is even plainer from these passages:-

Make the heart of this people fat, and smear over their eyes, lest perchance they see with their eyes Isa. vi 9, 10; John xii 40.

Jehovah has poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and has closed your eyes; the prophets and your leaders, the seers has He covered Isa. xxix 10; xxx 10.

Who shuts his eyes lest he should see evil Isa. xxxiii 15.

Hear this, O foolish people, who have eyes and see not Ezek. xii 2.

The punishment of the shepherd deserting the flock; the sword upon [his] right eye, and [his] right eye shall be darkened with dense darkness Zech. xi 17.

The plague wherewith Jehovah will smite all the people that shall fight against Jerusalem; their eyes shall consume away in their sockets Zech. xiv 12.

I will smite every horse with astonishment, and every horse of the people with blindness Zech. xii 4.

A ‘horse’ in the spiritual sense is the understanding of the Word (n. 298).

Give heed to me, Jehovah my God, enlighten my eyes, lest perchance I sleep death Ps. xiii 3 [H.B. 4].

Every one sees that in these passages the understanding is signified by ‘eyes’. sRef Lev@21 @18 S3′ sRef Lev@22 @22 S3′ sRef Matt@6 @23 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @22 S3′ sRef Matt@6 @22 S3′ sRef Matt@5 @29 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @21 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @20 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @19 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @23 S3′ [3] Consequently it is plain what the Lord understood by ‘eye’ in these passages:-

The lamp of the body is the eye; if thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light; if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be darkened. If therefore the light (lumen) that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness Matt. vi 22, 23; Luke xi 34.

If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee, for it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire Matt. v 29, xviii 9.

By ‘eye’ in these passages is not understood an eye, but an understanding of truth. Since by ‘eye’ an understanding of truth is signified, there was therefore among the statutes with the sons of Israel, that:-

out of the seed of Aaron, a blind man, or one with a disordered eye, should not come nigh to offer a sacrifice, nor enter within the veil Lev. xxi 18, 20.

Again that:-

anything blind should not be offered in a sacrifice Lev. xxii 22; Mal. i 8.

sRef Ps@33 @18 S4′ sRef Rev@4 @6 S4′ sRef Ps@11 @4 S4′ sRef Ezek@10 @12 S4′ sRef Jer@24 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@37 @17 S4′ sRef Rev@4 @8 S4′ [4] It is plain from these [passages] what is understood by ‘eye’ when predicated of man: it follows therefrom that by ‘eye’ when predicated of the Lord is understood His Divine Wisdom, also His Omniscience and Providence, as in these passages:-

Open Thine eyes, O Jehovah, and see Isa. xxxvii x 7.

I will set My eye upon them in good, and I will build them Jer. xxiv 6.

Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them who fear Him Ps. xxxiii 18.

Jehovah in the temple of His holiness, His eyes behold, and His eyelids try the sons of man Ps. xi 4.

Since by ‘cherubs’ is signified the Lord’s guarding and providence that the spiritual sense of the Word should not be injured, therefore it is said of the four animals that were cherubs, that:-

They were full of eyes before and behind, and their wings were likewise full of eyes Rev. iv 6, 8.

Again that:-

The wheels, upon which the cherubs were borne along, were full of eyes round about Ezek. x 12.

sRef Ezek@13 @3 S5′ [5] That by ‘a flame of fire’ His Divine Love is understood will be seen in the following pages where ‘flame’ and ‘fire’ are mentioned; and because it is said that ‘His eyes were as a flame of fire’ the Divine Wisdom of the Divine Love is signified. That in the Lord there is the Divine Love of the Divine Wisdom and the Divine Wisdom of the Divine Love, thus a reciprocal union of both, is an arcanum disclosed in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (n. 34-39), and elsewhere.

AR (Coulson) n. 49 sRef Rev@1 @15 S0′

49. [verse 15] ‘And His feet like burnished bronze [as if] burned in a furnace’ signifies natural Divine Good. The Lord’s ‘feet’ signify His natural Divine; ‘fire’ or ‘what is burned’ signifies good, while ‘burnished bronze’ signifies natural good of truth; therefore by ‘the feet of the Son of Man like burnished bronze as if burned in a furnace’ is signified natural Divine Good. That His feet signify this results from correspondence. In the Lord, and consequently from the Lord, there is a CELESTIAL DIVINE, a SPIRITUAL DIVINE, and a NATURAL DIVINE. The celestial Divine is understood by the ‘head’ of the Son of Man, the spiritual Divine by His ‘eyes’ and by the ‘breast’ that was ‘girt with a golden girdle’, and the natural Divine by His ‘feet’. [2] Since these three are in the Lord, therefore those three are also in the angelic heaven. The third or supreme heaven is in the celestial Divine: the second or middle heaven is in the spiritual Divine: while the first or ultimate heaven is in the natural Divine. In like manner the Church on earth (in terris); for the entire heaven is in the presence of the Lord as one Man, in which those who are in the Lord’s celestial Divine make the head, those who are in the spiritual Divine make the body, and those who are in the natural Divine make the feet. Consequently also in any one man, because he has been created into the image of God, there are those three degrees, and as these are opened, that man becomes an angel, either of the third, the second, or the ultimate heaven. It is from this also that there are three senses in the Word, celestial, spiritual, and natural. That this is the case may be seen in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM, specifically in the third part, in which those three degrees have been dealt with. That the feet, the soles, and the heels correspond to the natural things with a man, and in the Word therefore signify natural things, may be seen IN ARCANA CAELESTIA published at London (n. 2162, 4938-4952). sRef Rev@10 @1 S3′ sRef Dan@10 @5 S3′ sRef Dan@10 @6 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @7 S3′ [3] Natural Divine Good is also signified by ‘feet’ in the following places; in Daniel:-

I lifted up mine eyes and saw, behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with gold of Uphaz; his body was beryl-like, and his eyes as torches of fire, his arms and his feet like the lustre of polished bronze Dan. x 5, 6.

In the Apocalypse:-

I saw an angel coming down out of heaven, his fret as pillars of fire Rev. x 1.

And in Ezekiel:-

The feet of the cherubs were glittering like the lustre of polished bronze Ezek. i 7.

It was because the Divine of the Lord was being represented in them that the angels and cherubs were so seen. sRef Ps@132 @7 S4′ sRef Matt@28 @9 S4′ sRef Isa@66 @1 S4′ sRef Lam@2 @1 S4′ sRef Ps@99 @5 S4′ sRef Isa@60 @14 S4′ sRef Isa@60 @13 S4′ sRef Ps@132 @6 S4′ [4] Since the Lord’s Church is under the heavens, thus under the Lord’s feet, it is therefore called His footstool in the following places:-

The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee to beautify the place of My sanctuary; I will render the place of My fret honourable, and they shall bow themselves down at the soles of thy feet Isa. lx 13, 14.

The heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool Isa. lxvi 1.

God remembers not His footstool in the day of anger Lam. ii 1.

Worship Jehovah towards His footstool Ps. xcix 5.

Lo, we heard of it at Ephratah (Bethlehem); we will go up into His dwelling-places; we will bow down at His footstool Ps. cxxxii 6 [,7].

As a consequence of this, those worshipping fell at the Lord’s feet (Matt. xxviii 9; Mark v 22; Luke viii 41; John xi 32). Again, they kissed His feet, and wiped them with their hair (Luke vii 37, 38, 44, 46; John xi 2; xii 3). sRef Luke@7 @46 S5′ sRef John@13 @10 S5′ sRef Luke@7 @37 S5′ sRef John@3 @15 S5′ sRef Luke@7 @38 S5′ sRef John@3 @14 S5′ sRef Luke@7 @44 S5′ [5] Because the Natural is signified by ‘feet’, the Lord therefore said to Peter, when He washed his feet:-

He who is washed needs not save to wash his feet, and the whole is clean John xiii 10.

To ‘wash the feet’ is to purify the natural man, and when this has been purified the whole man also is purified, as has been shown abundantly in ARCANA CAELESTIA, and in THE DOCTRINES OF THE NEW JERUSALEM. The natural man, who is also the external man, is purified whilst he is fleeing from the evil things that the spiritual or internal man sees to be evil and necessary to flee from. sRef Mark@9 @45 S6′ [6] Now since the natural man is understood by ‘feet’, and this, if it has not been washed or purified, perverts all things, therefore the Lord said:-

If thy foot offend thee, cut it off; it is better for thee to enter halt into life, than to have two feet and be cast into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire Mark ix 45.

Here is not understood ‘foot’, but the natural man. The like is understood by ‘trampling the good pasture under foot’, and ‘troubling the waters with the feet’ (Ezek. xxxii 2; xxxiv 18, 19; Dan. vii 7, 19; and elsewhere). [7] Since by the Son of Man the Lord is understood as to the Word, it is plain that by His feet is also understood the Word in the natural sense, which has been much treated of in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE; as also that the Lord came into the world so that He might fulfil all things of the Word, and by this means become the Word even in ultimates (n. 98-100); but this arcanum is for those who will be in the New Jerusalem. [8] The Lord’s Natural Divine was also signified by the bronze serpent set up in the wilderness as a result of a command from Moses, by looking at which all were healed who had been bitten by serpents (Num. xxi 6, 8, 9). That this signified the Lord’s Natural Divine, and that those who look to this will be saved, the Lord Himself teaches in John:-

As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the SON OF MAN be lifted up, so that all who believe in Him may not perish, but have eternal life John iii 14, 15.

It is because ‘bronze’, as also ‘burnished bronze’, signifies the Natural in respect of good, that the serpent was made out of bronze. See below n. 775.

AR (Coulson) n. 50 sRef Ps@147 @19 S0′ sRef John@4 @12 S0′ sRef Ps@23 @2 S0′ sRef Jer@17 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@148 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@63 @1 S0′ sRef Ps@23 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@41 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@41 @17 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @16 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @17 S0′ sRef Isa@58 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@14 @2 S0′ sRef John@4 @10 S0′ sRef Isa@44 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@58 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@147 @18 S0′ sRef Ezek@43 @2 S0′ sRef Isa@41 @20 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @9 S0′ sRef Isa@12 @3 S0′ sRef John@4 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@22 @1 S0′ sRef Amos@8 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@22 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @6 S0′ sRef Amos@8 @13 S0′ sRef Jer@14 @3 S0′ sRef John@3 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@11 @9 S0′ sRef Amos@8 @11 S0′ sRef Jer@2 @13 S0′ sRef John@4 @15 S0′ sRef John@4 @14 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @3 S0′ sRef Zech@14 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @15 S0′ sRef John@4 @13 S0′ sRef John@7 @37 S0′ sRef Isa@33 @15 S0′ sRef John@4 @7 S0′ sRef John@7 @38 S0′ sRef John@4 @9 S0′ sRef John@4 @8 S0′ sRef Isa@33 @16 S0′

50. ‘And His voice as the voice of many waters’ signifies natural Divine Truth. That ‘a voice’, when from the Lord, signifies Divine Truth may be seen above (n. 37) . That ‘waters’ signify truths, and specifically the natural truths that are cognitions out of the Word, is established from many passages in the Word, out of which only the following are adduced:-

The earth is full of the knowledge of Jehovah as the waters cover the sea Isa. xi 9.

Then with joy shall you draw waters out of the fountain of salvation Isa. xii 3.

He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly, bread shall be given [him], and waters that are sure Isa. xxxiii 15, 16.

The poor and needy seeking water, but there is none; their tongue fails for thirst. I will open rivers upon the hillsides, and put fountains in the midst of the valleys: [I will make] the wilderness into a pool of waters, and the dry land into springs of waters, that they may see, acknowledge, pay attention, and understand Isa. xli 17, 18, 20.

I will pour water upon him who is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground, I will pour out My spirit Isa. xliv 3.

Thy light shall arise in the darkness, so that thou shalt be like a watered garden, and like a going forth of waters, whose waters shall not deceive Isa. lviii 10 [11].

My people have committed two evils; they have deserted Me, the Fountain of living waters, to cut out for themselves pits that will not hold waters Jer. ii 13.

The great men sent the little ones for the waters, they came to the pits and found no waters, they returned with their vessels empty Jer. xiv 3.

They have forsaken Jehovah, the Fountain of living waters Jer. xvii 53.

They shall come with weeping, and with weeping will I lead them, I will lead them to the fountain of waters in a straight way Jer. xxxi 9.

I will break the staff of bread, and they shall drink waters by measure and with astonishment, that they may consume away for their iniquities Ezek. iv 16, 17; xii 18, 19; Isa. li 14.

Behold the days shall come in which I will send hunger into the land, not a hunger for bread, nor a thirst for waters, but for hearing the Word of Jehovah; they shall wander from sea to sea, and shall run to and fro to hear the Word of Jehovah, and shall not find it: in that day shall the virgins and the young men faint for thirst Amos viii 11-13.

In that day living waters shall go out from Jerusalem Zech. xiv 8.

Jehovah is my shepherd, He will lead me on to the waters of quietness Ps. xxiii [1,] 2.

They shall not thirst; He will make waters to flow out of the rock for them, and will cleave the rock so that waters may flow forth Isa. xlviii 21.

O God, I seek Thee in the morning, my soul thirsts, weary without waters Ps. lxiii 1 [H.B. 2].

Jehovah sends the Word, He makes the wind to blow, that the waters may flow Ps. cxlvii 18, 19.

Praise Jehovah, O heaven of heavens, and you waters that are above the heavens Ps. cxlviii 4.

Jesus sitting at Jacob’s fountain said to the woman, Whosoever shall drink of this water shall thirst again, but he who shall drink of the water that I shall give shall not thirst to eternity, and the water that I shall give shall be in him a fountain of water springing up into eternal life John iv 7-15.

Jesus said, If any one thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink. He who believes in Me, as the Scripture says, Out of his belly shall flow streams of living water John vii 37, 38.

To the thirsting one will be given of the fountain of the water of life freely. Rev. xxi 6.

He showed him a river of water of life going out from the throne of God and the Lamb Rev. xxii 1.

The Spirit and the Bride are saying, [Come]; and let him who hears say, Come; and let him who thirsts come; and let him who will take of the water of life freely Rev. xxii 17.

By ‘waters’ in these passages truths are understood, whence it is plain that by ‘the voice of many waters’ is understood the Lord’s Divine Truth in the Word. In like manner in these places:-

Behold the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east, and His voice as the voice of many waters, and the land was illuminated by His glory Ezek. xliii 2.

I heard a voice out of heaven, as the voice of many waters Rev. xiv 2.

The voice of Jehovah upon the waters, Jehovah upon many waters Ps. xxix 3.

When it is known that by ‘waters’ in the Word the truths in the natural man are understood, what was signified by the washings in the Israelitish Church can be established, and also what is signified by Baptism; and also by these words of the Lord in John:-

Except a man be born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God John iii 5.

‘Of water’ signifies by means of truths, and ‘of the Spirit’ signifies by means of a life in accordance with them. That waters’ in the opposite sense signify untruths will be seen in the things following.

AR (Coulson) n. 51 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ 51. [verse 16] ‘And having in His right hand seven stars’ signifies all the cognitions of good and truth in the Word that are therefrom with the angels of heaven and the men of the Church. Around angels, when they are below the heavens, appear little stars, as it were, in great abundance. They appear in like manner around spirits who, when they lived in the world, procured cognitions of good and truth, or truths of life and doctrine, for themselves out of the Word. These little stars, however, appear fixed with those who are in genuine truths out of the Word, but wandering with those who are in falsified truths. I am able to relate wonderful things about those little stars, as well as about the stars that appear in the expanse there, but it does not belong to this work. It is plain from these [considerations] that cognitions of good and truth out of the Word are signified by ‘stars’. That the SON OF MAN had them in His right hand signifies that they are seen from the Only Lord by means of the Word. That ‘seven’ signifies all may be seen above (n. 10). sRef Isa@13 @9 S2′ sRef Rev@6 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@32 @7 S2′ sRef Rev@9 @1 S2′ sRef Joel@2 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@13 @10 S2′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S2′ sRef Ezek@32 @8 S2′ [2] That cognitions of good and truth out of the Word are signified by ‘stars’ can also be seen from these passages:-

I will lay the land waste, the stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shall not shine with their light Isa. xiii 10.

The ‘land’ that shall be laid waste is the Church. This having been laid waste, the cognitions of good and truth do not appear in the Word.

When I have extinguished thee, I will cover [the heavens], and make the stars dark: all the luminaries of light I shall make dark over thee, and I will give darkness upon the land Ezek. xxxii 7, 8.

‘Darkness upon the land’ is equivalent to untruths in the Church.

The sun and moon have been darkened, and the stars have diminished their brightness Joel ii 10, 11; iii 15 [H.B. iv 15].

After the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened, the moon shall not give its light, and the stars shall fall down from heaven Matt. xxiv 29; Mark xiii 24.

The stars of heaven fell to earth as a fig tree casts her untimely figs Rev. vi 13.

A star fell from heaven to earth Rev. ix 1.

By ‘stars falling from heaven’ are not understood stars, but cognitions of good and truth that are going to perish. sRef Rev@12 @4 S3′ sRef Dan@12 @3 S3′ sRef Judg@5 @20 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @11 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @10 S3′ sRef Ps@147 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@148 @3 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @9 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @8 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @12 S3′ [3] This is plainer still from the fact that:-

The dragon drew the third part of the stars down from heaven Rev. xii 4.

Also, that:-

The he-goat of the she-goats cast down some of the stars and stamped upon them Dan. viii 9-11.

Therefore in the following verse in Daniel it is said that:-

It cast down the truth to earth Dan. viii 12.

Cognitions of good and truth are also signified by ‘stars’ in these places:-

Jehovah tells the number of the stars; He calls them all by their names Ps. cxlvii 4.

Praise Jehovah all you stars of light Ps. cxlviii 3.

The stars fought down from their courses Judg. v 20.

From these things it is plain what is understood by these words in Daniel:-

The intelligent shalt shine as the brightness of the expanse, the justifying ones [shall be] as many as the stars for ages of ages Dan. xii 3.

The ‘intelligent’ are those who are in truths, and ‘the justifying ones’ those who are in goods.

AR (Coulson) n. 52 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′

52. ‘And out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword (romphaea) going forth’ signifies the dispersion by the Lord of untruths by means of the Word and doctrine. Mention is frequently made in the Word of ‘sword’ (gladius), short sword’ (machoera), and ‘long sword’ (romphaea), and by them nothing else is signified but truth fighting against untruths and destroying them, and also in the opposite sense what is untrue fighting against truths; for by ‘wars’ in the Word spiritual wars are signified, and these are of what is true against what is untrue and of what is untrue against what is true, and therefore by ‘weapons of war’ such things are signified as are fought with in these wars. It is plain that the dispersion by the Lord of untruths is understood here by ‘sword’ (romphaea), because it was seen to go out of His mouth, and to go out of the Lord’s mouth is to go out of the Word, for the Lord has spoken this with the mouth; and because the Word is understood by means of doctrine therefrom, this is signified also. It is said, ‘a sharp two-edged sword’ because it penetrates the heart and soul. sRef Jer@50 @37 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @35 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @36 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @38 S2′ [2] So that it may be known that by ‘sword’ (romphaea) here the dispersion by the Lord of untruths by means of the Word is understood, some passages will be adduced where ‘sword’ (gladius) is mentioned, from which this can be seen viz:-

O sword against Babel, her princes and wise men: O sword against the liars, that they may become foolish: O sword against the mighty, that they may be dismayed: O sword against her horses and chariots. O sword against her treasures, that they may be plundered. A drought upon her waters that they may be dried up Jer. l 35-38.

These things [are said] of Babel, by which those who falsify and adulterate the Word are understood. Consequently by the ‘liars’ who will become foolish, ‘the horses and chariots’ upon which the sword [will fall], and the ‘treasures’ that will be plundered, are signified the untruths of their doctrine. That the waters ‘upon which there is a drought that they may be dried up’ signify truths maybe seen just above (n. 50).

sRef Ezek@21 @20 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@64 @2 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @19 S3′ sRef Ps@59 @7 S3′ sRef Lam@5 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@66 @16 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @14 S3′ sRef Ps@64 @3 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @15 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @13 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @10 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @12 S3′ sRef Zech@11 @17 S3′ sRef Jer@12 @12 S3′ [3] Prophesy and say, The sword is sharpened, and also furbished, sharpened to slaughter a slaughtering; let the sword be repeated the third time, the sword of those who are pierced; the sword of a great piercing, piercing the innermost recesses, that stumbling blocks may be multiplied Ezek. xxi 14-20, 28.

By ‘sword’ here also is understood the laying waste of truth in the Church.

Jehovah will deliver judgment with His sword upon all flesh, and the pierced of Jehovah shall be multiplied Isa. lxvi 16.

Here and elsewhere in the Word, they are said to be ‘pierced of Jehovah’ who perish through untruths.

The spoilers have come upon all the hills in the wilderness; the sword of Jehovah devouring from one end of the land even to the other Jer. xii 12.

We get our bread with the peril of our souls because of the sword of the wilderness Lam. v 9.

Woe to the worthless shepherd who leaves the flock; the sword [shall be] upon his arm, and upon his right eye Zech. xi 17.

The sword upon the shepherd’s right eye is the untruth of his understanding.

The sons of men are set on fire, their tongue is a sharp sword Ps. lvii 4 [H.B. 5].

Behold, they belch out with their mouth, a sword in their lips Ps. lix 7 [H.B. 8].

The workers of iniquity whet their tongue like a sword Ps. lxiv 3 [H.B. 4].

Like things are signified by ‘sword’ elsewhere, as Isa. xiii 13, 15; xxi 14, 15; xxvii 1; xxxi 7, 8; Jer. ii 30; v 12; xi 22; xiv 13-18; Ezek. vii 15; xxxii 10, 11, 12. sRef Matt@26 @52 S4′ sRef Luke@22 @36 S4′ sRef Matt@10 @34 S4′ sRef Luke@21 @24 S4′ sRef Luke@22 @38 S4′ sRef Matt@26 @51 S4′ [4] It can be established from these what was understood by the Lord by means of ‘sword’ in these places:-

Jesus said, He had not come to send peace upon the land, but a sword Matt. x 34.

Jesus said, He who does not have a purse and scrip, let him sell his garments, and buy a sword. The disciples said, Lord, Behold two swords, and He said, It is enough Luke xxii 36, 38.

All they who take the sword, shall perish by the sword Matt. xxvi 51, 52.

Jesus says concerning the consummation of the age:-

They shall fall by the mouth of the sword, and they shall be led away captive among all nations, and at length Jerusalem shall be trodden down Luke xxi 24.

‘The consummation of the age’ is the last time of the Church; the ‘sword’ is what is untrue destroying what is true; the ‘nations’ are evils; the ‘Jerusalem’ that shall be trodden down is the Church. sRef Isa@49 @2 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @21 S5′ sRef Ps@45 @5 S5′ sRef Ps@149 @6 S5′ sRef Ps@149 @5 S5′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S5′ sRef Rev@6 @4 S5′ sRef Ps@45 @3 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @15 S5′ [5] From these things it is now plain that by ‘a sharp sword (machaera) going forth out of the mouth of the Son of Man’ is signified the dispersion of untruths by the Lord by means of the Word. In like manner in the following passages in the Apocalypse:-

A great sword (machaera) was given to the one sitting upon the red horse Rev. vi 4.

Out of the mouth of the One sitting upon the white horse there went out a sharp sword (romphaea), that with it He should smite the nations. The remnant were slain with the sword of Him sitting upon the horse Rev. xix 15, 21.

By ‘the One sitting upon the white horse’ the Lord is understood as to the Word, and this is openly stated there (vers. 13, 16). The like is understood in David:-

Gird thy sword (gladius) upon Thy thigh, O Mighty One. Ride upon the Word of the truth (veritas). Thine arrows are sharp Ps. xlv 3-5 (H.B. 4-6].

These things [are said] concerning the Lord; and elsewhere:-

The saints shall exult, and the sword (gladius) of mouths in their hand Ps. cxlix 5, 6.

And in Isaiah:-

Jehovah has made my mouth a sharp sword (gladius) Isa. xlix 2.

AR (Coulson) n. 53 sRef Matt@17 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′

53. ‘And His face as the sun shining in its power’ signifies the Divine Love and Wisdom, which are Himself, and proceed from Him. That by the ‘face’ of Jehovah or the Lord is understood the Divine Itself in Its Own Essence which is the Divine Love and Wisdom, thus Himself, will be seen below in the Expositions where ‘the face of God’ is mentioned. That in the presence of the angels the Lord is seen as the Sun in heaven, and that His Divine Love together with His Divine Wisdom appear in this manner, may be seen in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL, published at London, 1758 (n. 116-125); and in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (n. 83-172). sRef Ps@89 @36 S2′ sRef Ps@72 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@89 @37 S2′ sRef Isa@60 @20 S2′ sRef Ps@72 @7 S2′ sRef 2Sam@23 @3 S2′ sRef 2Sam@23 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@72 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@30 @26 S2′ [2] Here it remains only to be confirmed out of the Word that ‘the Sun’, when [said] of the Lord, is His Divine Love and at the same time His Divine Wisdom. This can be established from the following passages:-

In that day the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, it

shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days Isa. xxx 25, 26.

‘That day’ is the Lord’s coming, when the old Church has been destroyed, and a new one is going to be set up. ‘The light of the moon’ is faith derived from charity, and ‘the light of the sun’ is intelligence and wisdom derived from love at that time from the Lord.

Thy sun shall no more go down, neither shall thy moon be withdrawn

(colligetur), for Jehovah shall be for a light of eternity Isa. lx 20.

The sun that shall not set is love and wisdom from the Lord.

The Rock of Israel spoke unto me, as the light of the morning when the sun arises 2 Sam. xxiii 3, 4.

‘The Rock of Israel’ is the Lord.

His throne shall be as the sun Ps. lxxxix 36, 37 [H.B. 37, 38].

This is said of David, but by ‘David’ there is understood the Lord.

They shall fear thee along with the suit, and in His days shall the just flourish, and abundance of peace until there is no moon. He shall have the name of the Son in the presence of the sun, and all nations shall be blessed in Him Ps. lxxii 5, 7, 17.

sRef Rev@12 @1 S3′ sRef Rev@10 @1 S3′ [3] These things also [are said] concerning the Lord. Because in heaven in the presence of the angels the Lord appears as the Sun, therefore:-

When He was transformed, His face did shine as the sun, His garments became as the light Matt. xvii 1, 2.

Also it is said of the strong angel coming down out of heaven, that:-

He was encompassed with a cloud, and his face as the sun Rev. x 1.

Also of the woman, that:-

she was seen encompassed with the sun Rev. xii 1.

There also ‘the sun’ is love and wisdom from the Lord; ‘the woman’ is the Church that is called New Jerusalem. sRef Rev@8 @12 S4′ sRef Joel@3 @15 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @10 S4′ sRef Isa@13 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@6 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@9 @2 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @31 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @2 S4′ sRef Joel@3 @14 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @1 S4′ sRef Isa@13 @11 S4′ sRef Ezek@32 @7 S4′ sRef Ezek@32 @8 S4′ sRef Isa@13 @10 S4′ [4] Since by ‘the sun’ is understood the Lord as to Love and Wisdom, what is signified by ‘the sun’ is plain in the following passages:-

Behold the day of Jehovah is coming fierce, the sun shall be darkened in its springing forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine. I will visit upon the world (orbis) its wickedness, and upon the impious their iniquity [Isa. xiii 10, 11.

Jehovah shall visit upon the host of the height in the height, and upon the kings of the land upon the land. Then the moon shall blush and the sun shall be ashamed]* Isa. xxiv 21, 23.

When I have extinguished thee, I will cover the heavens, and I will make the stars thereof dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall make her light to shine not, and I will set darkness upon thy land Ezek. xxxii 7, 8.

The day of Jehovah is coming, a day of darkness, the sun and the moon shall make their light not to shine, and the stars have with drawn their shining Joel ii 10.

The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great day of Jehovah comes Joel ii 31 [H.B. iii 4].

The day of Jehovah is near in the valley of decision. The sun and the moon have been darkened Joel iii 15 [H.B. iv 15].

The fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, the third part of the stars, and the day was not shining for the third part of it Rev. viii 12.

The sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood Rev. vi 12.

The sun was obscured by the smoke of the pit Rev. ix 2.

In these passages by ‘the sun’ the sun of the world is not understood, but the Sun of the angelic heaven, which is the Lord’s Divine Love and Wisdom. These are said to be ‘obscured’, ‘darkened’, ‘covered over’, and ‘blackened’ when there are untruths and evils with man. sRef Micah@3 @6 S5′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S5′ sRef Jer@15 @9 S5′ sRef Micah@3 @5 S5′ sRef Amos@8 @9 S5′ [5] Hence it is plain that the like may be understood by the Lord’s words where He speaks of the consummation of the age, which is the last time of the Church:-

Immediately after the affliction of those days, shall the sun be obscured, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall down from heaven Matt. xxiv 29; Mark xiii 24, 25.

Likewise in these passages:-

The sun shall go down over the prophets, and the day shall grow black over them Micah iii 5, 6.

In that day I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the land in the day of light Amos viii 9.

She who has borne seven shall breathe out her soul; her sun shall go down while it is yet day Jer. xv 9.

These things [are said] of the Jewish Church that will ‘breathe out the soul’, that is, will perish. ‘The sun shall go down’ means that there will no longer be love and charity. sRef Josh@10 @12 S6′ sRef Hab@3 @11 S6′ sRef Hab@3 @10 S6′ sRef Josh@10 @13 S6′ [6] What is said in Joshua, that:-

The sun stood still in Gibeon, and the moon in the valley of Ajalon Josh. x 12, 13

appears as if it were historical, but it is prophetical, for it is [quoted] out of the book of Jasher, which was a prophetical book, for it says:-

Has not this been written in the book of Jasher? (verse 13).

The same book is also mentioned by David as a prophetical book (2 Sam. i 17, 18). A similar thing is said also in Habakkuk:-

The mountains were shaken, the sun and moon stood still in their habitation Hab. iii 10 [,11].

Thy sun shall no more go down, neither shall thy moon be withdrawn (colligetur) Isa. lx 20.

To make the sun and the moon stand still would be to destroy the universe. [7] Since the Lord, as to the Divine Love and Wisdom, is understood by ‘the sun’, therefore the ancients in their holy worship faced towards the rising of the sun, and their temples also [faced in that direction], a custom still persisting. That by ‘the sun’ in these passages the sun of the world is not understood is established from the fact that it was profane and abominable to worship the sun and moon of the world; see Num. xxv 1-4; Deut. iv 19; xvii 3, 5; Jer. viii 1, 2, xliii 10, 13; xliv 17-19, 25; Ezek. viii 16; for by ‘the sun of the world’ is understood the love of self and the pride of one’s own intelligence. Moreover, the love of self is diametrically opposed to Divine Love, and the pride of one’s own intelligence is opposed to Divine Wisdom. To worship the sun of the world is also to acknowledge nature as she who creates and one’s own prudence as she who effects all things; and this involves the denial of God, and the denial of the Divine Providence.
* Cf. AE 401:20.

AR (Coulson) n. 54 sRef John@15 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@33 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ sRef John@14 @21 S0′ sRef John@14 @23 S0′ sRef John@15 @4 S0′ 54. [verse 17] ‘And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead’ signifies a failing of one’s own life as a result of such presence of the Lord. A man’s own life does not endure the presence of the Lord, such as the Lord is in Himself, not even such as He is in the inmosts of His Word; for His Divine Love is altogether like the sun, which no one can bear as it is in itself without being consumed. This is understood by [the statement] that:-

No one can see God and live Exod. xxxiii 20; Judg. xiii 22.

This being the case, the Lord therefore appears to angels in heaven as a Sun, standing apart from them as the sun of the world does from men. This is because the Lord in that Sun is in Himself. Nevertheless the Lord moderates and tempers His Divine so that a man can endure His presence. This is done by means of veilings. It was done in that manner when He revealed Himself to many in the Word. In fact, He is present by means of veilings with any one who worships Him, as He Himself said in John:-

He who does My precepts, with him will I make an abode John xiv

That He will be in them, and they in Him John xv 4, 5.

From these considerations it is plain why John, when he saw the Lord in such glory, ‘fell at His feet as dead’; as also, why the three disciples, when they saw the Lord in glory, were heavy with sleep, and a cloud veiled them over (Luke ix 32, 34).

AR (Coulson) n. 55 sRef Matt@17 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′

55. ‘And He put His right hand upon me’ signifies life then inspired by Him. The Lord put His right hand upon him because a communication is effected by the touch of hands. The cause of this is that the life of the mind and consequently of the body puts itself forth into the arms and through them into the hands. It is in consequence of this that the Lord with His hand touched those whom He revived into life, and healed (Mark i 31, 41; vii 32, 33; viii 22-26; x 13, 16; Luke v 12, 13; vii 14; xviii 15; xxii 51); and that in like manner He touched the disciples, after they saw Jesus transformed, and fell on their face (Matt. xvii 6, 7). The origin itself [of this] is because the presence of the Lord with men is an adjunction, thus a conjunction by means of what is contiguous, and this contiguity becomes nearer and fuller in the proportion that a man loves the Lord, that is, does His precepts. From these few considerations it can be established that by putting His right hand upon him is signified inspiring His own life in him.

AR (Coulson) n. 56 sRef Matt@17 @7 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @7 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @6 S0′ sRef Luke@5 @8 S0′ sRef Luke@5 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @10 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @8 S0′ sRef Luke@5 @9 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @3 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @3 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @4 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @12 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @13 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @5 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @10 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @11 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @30 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @2 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @5 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @9 S0′

56. ‘Saying unto me, Do not be afraid’ signifies revival, and adoration then from profound humiliation. That it is revival into life, follows from the immediately preceding things (n. 55) and that it is adoration from profound humiliation is plain, for he had fallen at the Lord’s feet. And, because holy fear took possession of him when he had been revived, the Lord said, ‘Do not be afraid’. Holy fear, which is sometimes conjoined with a sacred tremor of the interiors that are of the mind and sometimes with the hair standing on end, supervenes when life from the Lord enters in place of one’s own life. One’s own life is to look from oneself to the Lord, but life from the Lord is to look from the Lord to the Lord and yet as if from oneself. Whilst a man is in this life he sees himself as not anything, but he sees the Lord only. Daniel was in this holy fear when he saw the Man (vir) clothed in linen, whose loins had been girded with gold of Uphaz, his body like beryl, his face like lightning, his eyes like torches of fire, his arms and feet as the lustre of polished bronze, upon seeing whom Daniel became as dead, and a hand touched him, and it was said, ‘Do not be afraid, Daniel’ (Dan. x 5-12). Something similar was done to Peter, James and John when the Lord was transformed and seen in face as the sun and in garments as the light, in consequence of which they also fell upon their faces, and were sore afraid. Whereupon Jesus coming near touched them, saying ‘Do not be afraid’ (Matt. xvii 6, 7). Also the Lord said to the women who saw him at the sepulchre, ‘Do not be afraid’. And the angel also, whose face was seen as lightning, and his garment as snow, said to those women, ‘Do not be afraid’ (Matt. xxviii 3-5). An angel also said to Zechariah, ‘Do not be afraid’ (Luke i 12, 13). In like manner an angel said to Mary, ‘Do not be afraid’ (Luke i 30). Also an angel said to the shepherds, round about whom the glory of the Lord shone, ‘Do not be afraid’ (Luke ii 9, 10). A like holy fear laid hold of Simon on account of the draught of fishes, and he therefore said, ‘Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord’. But Jesus said to him, ‘Do not be afraid’ (Luke v 8-10); besides other places. These have been adduced so that it may be known why the Lord said, ‘Do not be afraid’ to John, and that by it revival is understood, and then adoration from profound humiliation.

AR (Coulson) n. 57 sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′

57. That ‘I am the First and the Last’ signifies that He is the Only Infinite and Eternal, therefore the Only God can be established from the things that have been expounded above (n. 13, 29, 38).

AR (Coulson) n. 58 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ sRef John@11 @25 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef John@1 @3 S0′ sRef John@1 @2 S0′ sRef John@1 @4 S0′ sRef John@14 @6 S0′ sRef Isa@38 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@38 @19 S0′ sRef John@14 @19 S0′ sRef John@5 @26 S0′

58. [verse 18] ‘And I am the Living One’ signifies Who Only is Life, and from Whom Only Life is. Jehovah in the Word of the Old Testament calls Himself Alive and Living, because He Only lives; for He is Love Itself and Wisdom Itself, and these are Life. That there is one Life only, which is God, and that angels and men are recipients of life from Him, has been abundantly shown in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM. Jehovah calls Himself Alive and Living (Isa. xxxviii 18, 19; Jer. v 2; xii 16; xvi 14, 15; xxiii 7, 8; xlvi 18; Ezek. v 11). The Lord is Life even as to the Divine Human, because the Father and He are One. Therefore He says:-

In what manner the Father has Life in Himself, so has He given to the Son to have Life in Himself John v 26.

Jesus said, I am the Resurrection and the Life John xi 25.

Jesus said, I am the Way, the Truth (veritas) and the Life John xiv 6.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was God; in Him was Life: and the Word was made flesh John i 1-4, 14.

Because the Lord is the Only Life, it follows that from Him Only there is life, and He therefore says:-

Because I live, you shall live also John xiv 19.

AR (Coulson) n. 59 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′

59. ‘And was put to death’ signifies that [in the Church] He has been disregarded, and His Divine Human has not been acknowledged. By ‘put to death’ is not understood that He has been crucified and so is dead, but that He has been disregarded in the Church, and His Divine Human not acknowledged, for so among men He has died. His Divine from eternity is indeed acknowledged, but this is Jehovah Himself. His Human, however, is not acknowledged to be Divine, although the Divine and Human in Him is like soul and body, and thus are not two but one, yea, one Person, in accordance with the doctrine received in the whole of Christendom, which has its name from Athanasius. When, therefore, the Divine is separated from His Human by saying His Human is not Divine but like the human of another man, then among men He is dead. But concerning this separation, and making the Lord dead in such a manner, more may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD and in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE PROVIDENCE (n. 262, 263).

AR (Coulson) n. 60 sRef John@3 @36 S0′ sRef John@6 @47 S0′ sRef John@11 @25 S0′ sRef John@11 @26 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ sRef John@3 @16 S0′ 60. ‘And behold I am the Living One for ages of ages’ signifies that He is eternal Life. Since ‘I am the Living One’ signifies that He Only is Life, and from Him Only Life is (n. 58 above), it follows that ‘Behold I am the Living One for ages of ages’ signifies that to eternity He Only is Life, and thus eternal life is from Him Only; for He is eternal Life in Himself, and consequently from Himself. ‘Ages of ages’ signifies what is eternal. That eternal life is from the Only Lord is established from the following passages, and others:-

Jesus said, Whosoever believes in Me shall not perish, but shall have eternal life John iii 6

He who believes in the Son has eternal life; but he who believes not in the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abides on him John [iii 36;] vi 40, 47, 48.

Verily I say unto you, He who believes in Me has eternal life John vi 47.

I am the Resurrection and the Life; he who believes in Me, though he should die, shall live: whosoever believes in Me shall not die to eternity John xi 25, 26;

and elsewhere. As a result the Lord is now called ‘the Living One for ages of ages’ also in the following places in the Apocalypse (iv 9, 10; v 14; x 6; Dan. iv 34).

AR (Coulson) n. 61 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′

61. ‘Amen’ signifies Divine confirmation that it is the truth (veritas). That ‘Amen’ is the truth (veritas) which is the Lord, may be seen above (n. 23).

AR (Coulson) n. 62 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′

62. ‘And have the keys of hell and of death’ signifies that He Only can save. By ‘keys’ is signified the power of opening and shutting, here the power of opening hell so that man can be led forth, and of shutting it so that when he has been led out he may not enter again. For man is born into evils of every kind, thus in a hell, for evils are the hell out of which he is led forth by the Lord, Who has the power of opening that hell. The reason why by ‘having the keys of hell and of death’ is not understood the power of casting into hell but the power of saving is because it follows immediately after the words ‘Behold I am the Living One for ages of ages’, by which is signified that He Only is eternal Life (n. 60); and the Lord never casts anyone into hell, but a man casts himself. The power of opening and shutting is signified by ‘keys’ also in chaps. iii 7; ix 1; and xx i, of the Apocalypse; again in Isaiah xxii 21, 22, in Matthew xvi 19, and in Luke xi 52. The Lord’s power is not only over heaven, but also over hell, for hell is kept in order and connection by oppositions against heaven; and therefore He Who rules the one will of necessity rule the other. Otherwise man could not be saved. To be saved is to be led forth from hell.

AR (Coulson) n. 63 sRef Rev@1 @19 S0′

63. [verse 19] That ‘Write the things which thou hast seen, [and the things which are,] and the things which are going to be hereafter’ signifies in order that all the things that are now being revealed may be for posterity is established without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 64 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′

64. [verse 20] ‘The mystery of the seven stars which thou hast seen in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands’ signifies the arcana in the visions concerning a new heaven and a new Church. That by ‘the seven stars’ the Church in the heavens is signified, and by ‘the seven lampstands’ the Church on earth (in terris), will he seen in the things now following.

AR (Coulson) n. 65 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′

65. ‘The seven stars are the Angels of the seven Churches’ signifies the new Church in the heavens, which is the New Heaven. There is a Church in the heavens just as there is a Church on earth (in terris), for in the heavens just as on earth there is the Word, and there are doctrines out of that Word, and there are preachings out of it, on which subject [something] may be seen in [THE DOCTRINE OF] THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 70-75, and 104-113). That Church is the New Heaven, about which something has been said in the Preface. The Church in the heavens, or the New Heaven, is understood by ‘the seven stars’, because it is said that ‘the seven stars are the Angels of the seven Churches’, and by ‘Angel’ is signified a heavenly society. In the spiritual world an expanse full of stars appears as in the natural world, and it appears in consequence of the angelic societies in heaven, any one society there shining as a star in the presence of those who are below. Those there know from this in what situation angelic societies are. That ‘seven’ does not signify seven, but all who belong to the Church there in accordance with the reception of each one, may be seen above (n. 10, 14, 41); therefore by ‘the Angels of the seven Churches’ the entire Church in the heavens is understood, thus the New Heaven in its whole compass.

AR (Coulson) n. 66 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′ 66. ‘And the seven lampstands which thou hast seen are the seven Churches’ signifies the New Church on earth (in terris), which is the New Jerusalem coming down from the Lord out of the New Heaven. That ‘the lampstands’ are the Church may be seen above (n. 43); and because ‘seven’ signifies all (n. 10), by ‘the seven lampstands’ are not understood seven Churches, but the Church in its whole compass; and this in itself is one, but varying in accordance with reception. The variations can be compared to various diadems in a king’s crown, and can also be compared to the various members and organs in a complete body, which yet make one. The perfection of each form comes into existence in consequence of various things being disposed suitably in their order. This is why the entire New Church with its varieties is described by ‘the seven Churches’ in the things now following.

* * * *

AR (Coulson) n. 67

67. THE FAITH OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW CHURCH IN A UNIVERSAL IDEA is this: That the Lord from what is eternal, Who is Jehovah, came into the world in order to subjugate the hells, and glorify His Human; and that without this no mortal (nemo mortalium) could have been saved; and that they are Saved who believe in Him.

[2] ‘In a universal idea’ is said, because this is what is universal of the faith, and what is universal of the faith is that which will be in all things thereof collectively and separately. It is a universal of the faith that God is One in Person and Essence in Whom is the Trinity, and that the Lord is that God. It is a universal of the faith that no mortal could have been saved unless the Lord had come into the world. It is a universal of the faith that He came into the world in order to remove hell from man, and He removed it by means of combats against it and victories over it; in this manner He subjugated it, and brought it back into order, and under His discipline. It is also a universal of the faith that He came into the world in order to glorify the Human that He had assumed in the world, that is, to unite it to the Divine from which it came (Divinum a Quo). In this manner He keeps hell, as subjugated by Himself, in order and under His discipline to eternity. Since each of these two things could only have come to pass by means of temptations even to their utmost limit, and their utmost limit was the passion of the cross, therefore He submitted to that. These are the universals of the faith concerning the Lord.

[3] The universal of the Christian faith on man’s part is, that he should believe in the Lord, for by believing in Him there is a conjunction with Him, through which there is salvation. To believe in Him is to have confidence that He will save, and because a man is not able to have confidence unless he lives well, therefore this also is understood by believing in Him.

[4] Concerning these two universals of the Christian faith there has been specific treatment; of the FIRST, regarding the Lord, in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD; and of the SECOND, regarding man, in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING CHARITY, and CONCERNING FAITH, and in THE DOCTRINE OF LIFE FOR THAT [NEW JERUSALEM]; also [there is] at present [a treatment] of both in the expositions on the Apocalypse (in Explicationibus super Apocalypsin).

AR (Coulson) n. 68 68. THE SECOND CHAPTER

1. To THE ANGEL OF THE EPHESIAN CHURCH WRITE: These things says He Who holds the seven stars in His right hand, Who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands.

2. I know thy works, and thy labour, and thine endurance, and that thou canst not bear them who are evil, and hast examined them who say they are Apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars.

3. And thou hast held out, and hast endurance, and for the sake of My Name hast laboured, and not fainted.

4. But I have against thee that thou hast left thy first charity.

5. Be mindful therefore whence thou hast fallen, and repent, and do the first works, or else I will come unto thee quickly, and remove thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent.

6. But this thou hast that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.

7. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches: To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the tree of life that is in the midst of the paradise of God.

8. And TO THE ANGEL OF THE CHURCH OF THE SMYRNAEANS write: These things says the First and the Last, Who was dead, and is alive.

9. I know thy works, and affliction, and poverty, and the blasphemy of them who say they are Jews, and are not, but are a synagogue of Satan.

10. Fear none of the things that thou art going to suffer. Behold the devil is going to cast some of you into custody, that you may be put to the test; and you shall have affliction ten days: Be thou faithful even unto death, and I will give thee the crown of life.

11. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches: He who overcomes shall not be hurt by the second death.

12. And TO THE ANGEL OF THE CHURCH IN PERGAMUM write: These things says He Who has the sharp two-edged sword.

13. I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, where Satan’s throne is; and thou holdest fast My Name, and hast not denied My faith, even in the days in which Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you where Satan dwells.

14. But I have a few things against thee, that thou hast there those holding the doctrine [of] Balaam, who used to teach Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the sons of Israel, to eat idol-sacrifices and to commit whoredom.

15. So thou hast, even thou, those holding the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate.

16. Repent, or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight with them with the sword of My mouth.

17. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches: To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the hidden manna; and I will give him a little white stone, and in the little stone a new name written, which no one knows except him who accepts it.

18. And TO THE ANGEL OF THE CHURCH IN THYATIRA write: These things says the Son of God, Who has eyes as a flame of fire, and His feet like burnished bronze.

19. I know thy works, and charity, and ministry, and faith, and thine endurance, and thy works, and the last more than the first.

20. But I have a few things against thee, that thou permittest the woman Jezebel, calling herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce My servants to commit whoredom, and to eat idol-sacrifices.

21. And I gave her time to repent of her whoredom, and she repented not.

22. Behold I will cast her into a bed, and those committing adultery with her into great affliction, except they repent of their works.

23. And I will slay her sons with death, and all the Churches shall recognise that I am He Who searches the kidneys and hearts; and I will give to each one of you in accordance with your works.

24. But to you I say, and to the rest in Thyatira, as many as do not have this doctrine, and who have not known the depths of Satan, as they say; I do not put upon you another burden.

25. Nevertheless, what you have, hold fast till I come.

26. And he who overcomes and keeps My works even to the end, to him will I give authority over the nations.

27. And he shall rule them with an iron rod, as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken in pieces; even as I have accepted from My Father.

28. And I will give him the morning star.

29. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches.

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

THE CONTENT OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER

To the Churches in Christendom:
To those there who have the truths of doctrine primarily in view and not the goods of life, who are understood by ‘the Ephesian Church’ (n. 73-90).
To those there who as to life are in goods, and as to doctrine are in untruths, who are understood by ‘the Church of the Smyrnaeans’ (n. 91-106).
To those there who place everything of the Church in good works, and not anything in truths, who are understood by ‘the Church in Pergamum’ (n. 107-123).
And to those there who are in a faith derived from charity, as also to those who are in a faith separated from charity, who are understood by ‘the Church in Thyatira’ (n. 124-152).
All these are called to the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem.


THE CONTENTS OF EACH OF THE VERSES

1. To the Angel of the Ephesian Church write
signifies to and concerning those who have the truths of doctrine primarily in view, and not the good of life.
These things says He Who holds the seven stars in His right hand
signifies the Lord from Whom by means of the Word are all truths.
Who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands
signifies from Whom all enlightenment [comes] to those who belong to His Church.

2. I know thy works
signifies that He sees all the interiors and exteriors of a man at once.
And thy labour, and thine endurance
signifies their devotion and patience.
And that thou canst not bear them who are evil
signifies that they do not support saying evils are goods, and the reverse.
And hast examined them who say they are Apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars
signifies that they scrutinise the things in the Church that are said to be good and true but yet are evil and untrue.

3. And thou hast held out, and hast endurance
signifies the patience with them.
And for the sake of My Name hast laboured and not fainted
signifies devotion and work to furnish themselves with the things that are of religion and its doctrine.

4. But I have against thee that thou hast left thy first charity
signifies that this is against them, that they do not have the goods of life in the first place.

5. Be mindful therefore whence thou hast fallen
signifies recollection of the wandering.
And repent, and do the first works
signifies so that they may invert the state of their life.
Or else I will come to thee quickly, and remove thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent
signifies that otherwise they are sure not to be given enlightenment for seeing truths any more.

6. But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate
signifies that they know this as a result of their truths, and consequently do not wish works to be for the sake of recompense.

7. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches
signifies that he who understands those things, obeys what the Divine Truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church (e nova Ecclesia) that is the New Jerusalem.
To him who overcomes
signifies he who fights against evils and untruths and is reformed.
I will give to eat of the tree of life
signifies the appropriation of the good of love and charity from the Lord.
That is in the midst of the paradise of God
signifies interiorly in the truths of wisdom and faith.

8. And to the Angel of the Church of the Smyrnaeans write
signifies to and concerning those who as to life are in goods, but as to doctrine are in untruths.
These things says the First and the Last
signifies the Lord, that He is the Only God.
Who was dead and is alive
signifies that in the Church He has been disregarded, and His Human has not been acknowledged to be Divine, when yet in respect to that also He Only is Life, and eternal Life is from Him Only.

9. I know thy works
signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once.
And affliction and poverty
signifies that they are in untruths, and consequently not in goods.
And the blasphemy of them who say they are Jews and are not
signifies the false assertion that the goods of love are with them, when they are not.
But are a synagogue of Satan
signifies because as to doctrine they are in untruths.

10. Fear none of the things that thou art going to suffer
signifies be not without hope when you are infested by evils and assailed by untruths.
Behold the devil is going to cast some of you into custody
signifies that their good of life will be infested by evils that are from hell.
That you may be put to the test
signifies a fighting against them by means of untruths.
And you shall have affliction ten days
signifies that this is going to last for a full period.
Be thou faithful even unto death
signifies a receiving of truths (veritas) constantly until untruths have been removed.
And I will give thee the crown of life
signifies their having eternal life, the reward for victory.

11. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches
signifies here as before.
He who overcomes
signifies he who fights against evils and untruths and is reformed.
Shall not be hurt by the second death
signifies that they shall not thereafter yield to evils and untruths from hell.

12. And to the Angel of the Church in Pergamum write
signifies to and concerning those who place everything of the Church in good works, and not anything in the truths of doctrine.
These things says He Who has the sharp two-edged sword
sign flies the Lord as to the truths of doctrine out of the Word, by means of which evils and untruths are dispersed .

13. I know thy works
signifies here as before.
And where thou dwellest [where Satan’s throne is]
signifies their life in dense darkness.
And thou boldest fast My Name, and hast not denied My faith
signifies when yet they have religion and worship in accordance therewith.
Even in the days in which Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you where Satan dwells
signifies when all the truth (veritas) has been extinguished by means of the untruths in the Church.

14. But I have a few things against thee
signifies that against them are the things that follow.
That thou hast there those holding the doctrine [of] Baalam, who used to teach Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the sons of Israel, to eat idol-sacrifices and to commit whoredom
signifies that there are among them those who do hypocritical works, by which means the worship of God in the Church is defiled and adulterated.

15. So thou hast, even thou, those holding the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate
signifies that among them there are also those who do works for the sake of recompense.

16. Repent
signifies so that they may be on their guard against such works.
Or else I will come to thee quickly, and will fight with them with the sword of My mouth
signifies if not, that the Lord will strive with them out of the Word.

17. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches
signifies here as aforesaid.
To him who overcomes
sign flies here as aforesaid.
I will give to eat of the hidden manna
signifies the appropriation then of the good of celestial love, and in this manner the conjunction of the Lord with those who are doing works.
And I will give him a little white stone
signifies truths favouring and united to good.
And in the little stone a new name written
signifies that in this manner they will have good of a quality they did not have before.
Which no one knows except him who receives
signifies that it is not visible to anyone because it is inscribed on their life.

18. And to the Angel of the Church in Thyatira write
signifies to and concerning those who are in a faith derived from charity, and thence in good works; and also to and concerning those who are in a faith separated from charity, and thence in evil works.
These things says the Son of God Who has eyes as a flame of fire
signifies the Lord as to the Divine Wisdom of the Divine Love.
And His feet like burnished bronze
signifies natural Divine Good.

19. I know thy works
signifies here as aforesaid.
And charity, and ministry
signifies the spiritual affection that is called charity, and the working thereof.
And faith, and thy endurance
signifies the truth (veritas), and the endeavour to procure and teach it.
[And thy works,] and the last more than the first
signifies the increases of those things out of the spiritual affection of truth.

20. But I have a few things against thee sign flies the things that follow.
That thou permittest the woman Jezebel
signifies that in the Church with them there are those who separate faith from charity.
Calling herself a prophetess
signifies and who make faith the only doctrine of the Church.
To teach and to seduce My servants to commit whoredom
signifies as a result of which the truths of the Word are falsified.
And to eat idol-sacrifices
signifies the defilement of worship, and profanations.

21. And I gave her time to repent of her whoredom, and she repented not
signifies that those who have confirmed themselves in that doctrine do not withdraw, although they see things against it in the Word.

22. And I will cast her into a bed, and those committing adultery with her into great affliction
signifies that therefore they have to be left in their doctrine with falsifications, and are to be grievously infested by untruths.
Except they repent [of their works]
signifies if they do not wish to desist from separating faith from charity.

23. And I will slay her sons with death
signifies that all the truths out of the Word will be turned into untruths.
So that the Churches may recognise that I am He Who searches the kidneys and hearts
signifies so that the Church may know that the Lord sees what truth and what good anyone has.
And I will give to each one in accordance with his works
signifies that he gives to every one in accordance with the charity and the faith thereof that is in the works.

24. But I say unto you, and to the rest in Thyatira as many as do not have this doctrine
signifies to those with whom the doctrine of faith is separated from charity, and [to those] with whom the doctrine of faith is conjoined with charity.
And who have not known the depths of Satan [as they say]
signifies who do not understand the interiors of those things, which are totally untrue.
I do not put upon you another burden
signifies only so that they may be on their guard against them.

25. Nevertheless, what you have, hold fast till I come
signifies so that they may retain the few things that they know about charity and the faith therefrom out of the Word, and live in accordance with them even to the Lord’s coming.

26. And he who overcomes and keeps My works even to the end
signifies those who are actually in charity and the faith therefrom, and continue in them even to the end of life.
To him will I give authority over the nations
signifies that they shall overcome within themselves the evils that are from hell.

27. And he shall rule them with an iron rod
signifies by means of truths out of the sense of the letter of the Word, and at the same time by means of rational things out of natural light.
As the vessels of a potter shall they be broken in pieces
signifies like little things of no account.
Even as I have accepted from My Father
signifies this from the Lord, Who, when He was in the world, furnished Himself with all power over the hells out of His Own Divine that was in Himself.

28. And I will give him the morning star
signifies intelligence and wisdom then.

29. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches
signifies here as aforesaid.


AR (Coulson) n. 69

69. THE EXPOSITION

In this and the following chapter [the Word] treats of the seven Churches, by means of which are described all those in the Christian Church who have religion, and out of whom the New Church that is the New Jerusalem can be formed; and it is formed from those who COME TO THE ONLY LORD, AND AT THE SAME TIME REPENT OF EVIL WORKS. The rest, who do not come to the Only Lord on account of the confirmed denial that His Human is Divine, and who do not repent of evil works, are indeed in the Church, but they do not have anything of the Church in themselves.

AR (Coulson) n. 70 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @12 S0′

70. Since the Lord Only is acknowledged as the God of heaven and earth by those who are of His New Church (e Nova Ipsius Ecclesia) in the heavens, and by those who will be of it on earth (in terris), therefore in the First Chapter the Apocalypse treats of the Only Lord, and in these two chapters following it is He Only Who speaks to the Churches, and He Only Who will give the fortunate things of eternal life. That it is He Only Who speaks to the Churches is plain from these passages:-

To the Angel of the Ephesian Church write, These things says He Who holds the seven stars in His right hand, Who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands Rev. ii 1.

To the Angel of the Church of the Smyrnaeans write, These things says the First and the Last Rev. ii 8.

To the Angel of the Church that is in Pergamum write, These things says He Who has the sharp two-edged sword Rev. ii 12.

To the Angel of the Church in Thyatira write, These things says the Son of God, Who has eyes as a flame of fire, and feet like burnished bronze Rev. ii 18.

To the Angel of the Church that is in Sardis write, These things says He Who has the seven spirits of God and the seven stars Rev. iii 1.

To the Angel of the Church that is in Philadelphia write, These things says the Holy True One Who has the key of David Rev. iii 7.

And to the angel of the Church in Laodicea write, These things says the Amen, the faithful and true Witness, the Beginning of the creation of God Rev. iii 14.

These are selected from the First Chapter, in which it treats of the Only Lord, and He Himself is described there by all those things.

AR (Coulson) n. 71 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @28 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 71. That the Lord Only will give the fortunate things of eternal life to those who belong and will belong to His Church is plain from these passages:-

The Lord said to the Ephesian Church, To him who overcomes I will give that he may eat of the tree of life that is in the midst of the paradise of God Rev. ii 7.

To the Church of the Smyrnaeans, I will give thee the crown of life; and he who overcomes shall not be hurt by the second death Rev. ii 10, 11.

To the Church in Pergamum, To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the hidden manna, and I will give him a little white stone, and in the little stone a new* name written, which no one knows except him who accepts it Rev. ii 17.

To the Church in Thyatira, To him will I give power over the nations, and I will give him the morning star Rev. ii 26, 28.

To the Church in Philadelphia, Him who overcomes will I make a pillar in the temple of My God, and I will write upon him the name of My God, the name of the New Jerusalem, and My new name Rev. lii 12.

To the Church in Laodicea, To him who overcomes will I give to sit with Me in My throne Rev. iii 21.

From these passages it is also plain that the Lord Only is acknowledged in the New Church. It is in consequence of this that that Church is termed THE LAMB’S WIFE (Rev. xix 7, 9; xxi 9, 10) .
* The Original Edition has Nomen meum (My Name), but this is probably a slip for Nomen novum (a new name), as in n. 122 and elsewhere.

AR (Coulson) n. 72 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @19 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′

72. That the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, will be formed from those who repent of evil works, is also established from the Lord’s words to the Churches:-

To the Ephesian [Church], I know thy works; I have against thee that thou hast left thy first charity. Repent, and do the former works, or else I will remove thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent Rev. ii 2, 4, 5.

To the Church in Pergamum, I know thy works, repent Rev. ii [13,] 16.

To the Church in Thyatira, I will deliver her into affliction, if she does not repent of her works. I will give in accordance with his works, to you, to each one Rev. ii 19, 22, 23.

To the Church in Sardis, I have not found thy works perfect before God, repent Rev. iii 1-3.

To the Church in Laodicea, I know thy works, be zealous, and repent Rev. iii 15, 19.

Now follows the Exposition itself.

AR (Coulson) n. 73 sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′

73. [verse 1] ‘To the Angel of the Ephesian Church write’ signifies to and concerning those who have the truths of doctrine primarily in view, and not the goods of life. It has been shown above (n. 66), that by ‘the seven Churches’ are not understood seven Churches, but the Church in its whole compass; and this in itself is one, but varying in accordance with reception; and that those variations can be compared to the various members and organs in a complete body, which yet make one; or that they can be compared to various diadems in a king’s crown; and that this is why the entire New Church with its varieties is described by ‘the seven Churches’ in the things now following. That by ‘the Ephesian Church’ are understood those in the Church who have the truths of doctrine primarily in view, and not the goods of life, is plain from the things written to that Church understood in the spiritual sense. It is written to the Angel of that Church, because by ‘the Angel’ is understood the angelic society that corresponds to a Church [consisting] of such, as n. 65 above.

AR (Coulson) n. 74 sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′

74. ‘These things says He Who holds the seven stars in His right hand’ signifies the Lord, from Whom by means of the Word are all truths. That ‘He Who holds the seven stars in His right hand’ is the Lord, and that ‘the seven stars in His right hand’ are all the cognitions of good and truth in the Word that are thence from the Lord with the angels of heaven and the men of the Church, may be seen above (n. 51). Cognitions of good and truth out of the Word are truths.

AR (Coulson) n. 75 sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′

75. Who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands’ signifies from Whom all enlightenment [comes] to those who belong to His Church. That ‘the seven lamp- stands’, in the midst of which was the Son of Man, signify the Church that is in enlightenment from the Lord, may be seen above (n. 43 and 66). It is here said ‘Who walks’, because ‘to walk’ signifies to live (n. 167), and ‘in the midst’ signifies in the inmost and thence in all (n. 44, 383).

AR (Coulson) n. 76 sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′

76. [verse 2] ‘I know thy works’ signifies that He sees all the interiors and exteriors of a man at once. ‘Works’ are often mentioned in the Apocalypse, but few know what is understood by ‘works’. This is known, that ten men can do works that appear alike in externals, but which are unlike even with all of them, because they come forth out of a different end and cause, and the end and cause make works to be either good or evil; for every work is a work of the mind, and consequently such as the mind is, such is the work. If the mind is charity, the work becomes charity; but if the mind is not charity, the work does not become charity; yet both can appear alike in externals. Works appear to men in an external, but to angels in an internal, form; while to the Lord they appear such as they are from inmosts to outmosts. Works in an external form appear not unlike fruits on the surface, but works in an internal form appear like fruits inside the surface, where there are countless edible parts, and in the midst seeds in which again are countless things that are quite beyond eyesight, being in fact above the intellectual sphere of a man. Such are all works, which, such as they are within, only the Lord sees, and which, when the man is doing them, the angels perceive from the Lord. But concerning these things more may be seen in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (n. 209-220 and 277-281); and also below (n. 141, 641, 868). From these things it can be established that by ‘I know thy works’ is signified that the Lord sees all the interiors and exteriors of a man at once.

AR (Coulson) n. 77 sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′

77. That ‘And thy labour, and thine endurance’ signifies their devotion and patience is established without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 78 sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′

78. ‘And that thou canst not bear them who are evil’ signifies that they do not support saying evils are goods, and the reverse, because this is against the truths of doctrine. That this is signified by those words is plain from the things just following, by which is signified that they investigate the things in the Church that are said to be good and true, when yet they are evil and untrue. To know goods, whether they are good or evil, is of doctrine, and is among its truths, whereas to do goods or evils is of life. This therefore is said of those who have the truths of doctrine primarily in view, and not the goods of life (n. 73). By ‘them that are evil’ in the spiritual sense is not understood evil men but evils, because that sense is abstracted from persons.

AR (Coulson) n. 79 sRef Matt@19 @28 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @14 S1′ 79. ‘And hast examined them who say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars’ signifies that they scrutinise the things in the Church that are said to be good and true but yet are evil and untrue. That these things are signified can only be seen by means of the spiritual sense, and if it is known therefrom what is understood by ‘apostles’ and ‘liars’. By ‘apostles’ are not understood apostles, but all who teach the goods and truths of the Church, and in the abstract sense the goods and truths themselves of its Doctrine. That by ‘apostles’ are not understood apostles is plainly evident from this [saying] to them:-

When the Son of Man shall sit upon the throne of His glory, you also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel Matt. xix 28; Luke xxii 30.

Who does not see that the apostles are not going to judge anyone, and that they are not able to do so, least of all the twelve tribes of Israel, but that only the Lord can do this in accordance with the goods and truths of the doctrine of the Church out of the Word? Then again from these [words]:-

The wall of the city New Jerusalem had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb Rev. xxi 14,

since by ‘New Jerusalem’ the New Church is signified (n. 880, 881), and by its ‘foundations’ all the goods and truths of its doctrine (n. 902 seq.). sRef Luke@9 @2 S2′ sRef Rev@18 @20 S2′ sRef Luke@9 @1 S2′ sRef Luke@9 @10 S2′ [2] And also from these:-

Exult, O heaven, and the holy apostles and prophets Rev. xviii 20.

What is the exultation of apostles and prophets, unless by them are understood all who are in the goods and truths of the doctrine in the Church? By the Lord’s ‘disciples’ are understood those who are instructed by the Lord in the goods and truths of the doctrine, while by ‘apostles’ are understood those who after having been instructed teach the same, for it is said:-

Jesus sent His twelve disciples to preach the kingdom of God, and the apostles, having returned, told Him all that they had done Luke ix 1, 2,10; Mark vi 7, 30.

That by ‘liars’ are understood those who are in untruths, and abstractly the untruths themselves, can be established from very many places in the Word, where those that lie and lies are mentioned, and if these were cited they would fill pages. ‘Lies’ in the spiritual sense are nothing but untruths. From these considerations it can now be established that by ‘thou hast examined them that say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars’ is signified that they scrutinise the things in the Church that are said to be good and true but yet are evil and untrue.

AR (Coulson) n. 80 sRef Rev@2 @3 S0′ 80. [verse 3] That ‘And thou hast held out, and hast endurance’ signifies the patience with them is plain without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 81 sRef Rev@2 @3 S0′ 81. ‘And for the sake of My Name hast laboured, and not fainted’ signifies devotion and work to furnish themselves with, and also to teach, the things that are of religion and its doctrine. By the ‘Name’ of Jehovah or the Lord in the Word is not understood His Name, but everything by means of which He is worshipped; and because He is worshipped in accordance with the doctrine in a Church, by His ‘Name’ is understood everything of doctrine, and in the universal sense everything of religion. These things are understood by the ‘Name’ of Jehovah because in heaven no other names are given than those involving anyone’s quality, and the quality of God is everything by means of which He is worshipped. He who does not know this signification of ‘name’ in the Word can understand only the name, and in this alone there is nothing of worship and religion. sRef Deut@12 @18 S2′ sRef Deut@12 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @25 S2′ sRef Deut@12 @14 S2′ sRef Mal@1 @12 S2′ sRef Deut@12 @11 S2′ sRef Mal@1 @11 S2′ sRef Deut@12 @13 S2′ sRef Mal@1 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@43 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@12 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @8 S2′ sRef Deut@5 @11 S2′ sRef Micah@4 @5 S2′ [2] Accordingly, he who keeps in mind this signification of the Name of Jehovah in the Word, at the place cited, is going to understand of himself what is signified by it in the following places:-

In that day shall you say, Confess Jehovah, call upon His Name Isa. xii 4.

O Jehovah, we have waited for Thee, the desire of our soul is to Thy Name, by Thee will we make mention of Thy Name Isa. xxvi 8, 13.

From the rising of the sun shall he call upon My Name Isa. xli 25.

From the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same, My Name is great among the nations; and in every place incense is offered unto My Name, for My Name is great among the nations: you profane My Name, when you say the table of Jehovah is polluted; indeed you sniff at My Name, when you bring that which is torn, lame and sick Mal. i 11-13.

All peoples walk in the Name of their God, and we will walk in the Name of Jehovah our God Micah iv 5.

Every one who is called in My Name I have created into My glory, I have formed him Isa. xliii 7.

Thou shalt not bring the Name of thy God to nought, for Jehovah will not hold him innocent who brings His Name to nought Deut. v 11.

They shall worship Jehovah in one place, where He shall put His Name Deut. xii 5, 11, 13, 14, 18; xvi 2, 6, 11, 15, 16;

besides in many other places. Who is unable to see that in these passages it is not only the Name that is understood? sRef John@1 @12 S3′ sRef John@3 @17 S3′ sRef Matt@18 @20 S3′ sRef Matt@21 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@10 @22 S3′ sRef John@3 @18 S3′ sRef John@20 @31 S3′ sRef Matt@19 @29 S3′ sRef John@2 @23 S3′ [3] In like manner [a man can understand of himself what is signified] in the New Testament by the Name of the Lord, as in these places:-

Jesus said, You shall be hated of all [men] for the sake of My Name Matt. x 22; xxiv 9, 10.

Where two or three are gathered together in My Name, there am I in the midst of them Matt. xviii 20.

Everyone who forsakes houses, brothers, sisters for the sake of My Name, shall get an hundredfold, and eternal life Matt. xix 29.

As many as received Him, to them gave He power that they might be the sons of God, to those believing in His Name John i 12.

Many believed in His Name John ii 23.

He who believes not is sentenced already, because he has not believed in the Name of the Only begotten Son of God John iii 17, 18.

They who believe shall have life in His Name John xx 31.

Blessed is He Who comes in the Name of the Lord Matt. xxi 9; xxiii 39; Luke xiii 35; xix 38.

sRef Matt@6 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@3 @4 S4′ sRef John@12 @28 S4′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S4′ sRef John@10 @3 S4′ [4] That the Lord as to the Human is the Name of the Father [may be seen] in these places:-

Father, glorify Thy Name John xii 28.

Hallowed be Thy Name, and Thy kingdom come Matt. vi 9;

also Exod. xxiii 20, 21; Jer. xxiii 6; Micah v 4 [H.B. 3]. That the ‘name’ in the case of others is the quality of worship [may be seen] in these:-

The shepherd of the sheep calls his own sheep by their name John x 3.

Thou hast* a few names in Sardis Rev. iii 4.

I will write upon him the name of My God, and the name of the city of My God, New Jerusalem, and My new name Rev. iii 12,

and elsewhere. From these quotations it can now be established that ‘for the sake of My Name thou hast laboured and not fainted’ signifies devotion and pains to furnish themselves with, and also to teach, the things that are of religion and its doctrine.
* The Original Edition has Habeo (I have), probably a printer’s error for Habes (Thou hast), as in n. 165 and elsewhere.

AR (Coulson) n. 82 sRef Rev@2 @4 S0′ 82. [verse 4] ‘But I have against thee that thou hast left thy first charity’ signifies that this is against them, that they do not have the goods of life in the first place, which nevertheless was and is the case at the beginning of every Church. This is said to the [Ephesian] Church, because by it are understood those in the Church who primarily or in the first place have the truths of doctrine in view and not the goods of life (n. 73); when yet the goods of life ought to be regarded in the first place, that is, primarily, for in so far as a man is in goods of life, so far is he really in truths of doctrine, but not the reverse. This is because the goods of life open the interiors of the mind, and when these have been opened truths appear in their own light, Out of which they are not only understood, but also loved. The case is different when doctrinal matters are in view primarily or in the first place. Then truths can indeed be known, but not seen interiorly nor loved out of a spiritual affection; but this may be seen elucidated above (n. 17). Every Church during its beginning has the goods of life in view in the first place, and in the second the truths of doctrine; but as a Church turns aside, it starts to have these truths of doctrine in view in the first place, and the goods of life in the second; and at length at the end it has faith alone in view. Then it not only separates the goods of charity from faith, but even gives them up. From these considerations it can now be established that by ‘Thou hast left thy first charity’ is signified that they do not have the goods of life in the first place, which nevertheless was and is the case at the beginning of every Church.

AR (Coulson) n. 83 sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ 83. [verse 5] That ‘Be mindful therefore whence thou hast fallen’ signifies recollection of the wandering is plain from the things just now said above.

AR (Coulson) n. 84 sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ 84. ‘And repent, and do the first works’ signifies so that they may invert the state of their life. Every man has the truths of doctrine in view in the first place, but as long as he does this he is like unripe fruit. He who is being regenerated, however, after having absorbed those truths, has the goods of life in view in the first place; and in so far as he does this, he ripens like fruit, and in so far as he ripens, so far the seed in that fruit becomes productive. These two states have been seen by me in the case of men when they have become spirits. In the first state they appeared turned in the direction of the valleys that are above hell; and in the second turned towards the paradises that are in heaven. This turning round of the state of life is what is understood here. That this is effected by means of repentance, and after that by the good of life, is understood by ‘Repent, and do the first works’.

AR (Coulson) n. 85 sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ 85. ‘Or else I will come to thee quickly, and remove thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent’ signifies that otherwise they are sure not to be given enlightenment for seeing truths any more. By ‘quickly’ is signified certainty (n. 4,947), and by ‘lampstand’ the Church as to enlightenment (n. 43, 66). Consequently by ‘remove it out of its place’ is signified to remove enlightenment so that they may not see truths in their own light, and at length that they may see them no more. This follows from the things that have been said above (n. 82), namely that if the truths of doctrine are in view primarily or in the first place, they can indeed be known, but not seen interiorly nor loved by virtue of a spiritual affection, and therefore they fade gradually away; for to see truths out of their own light is to see them out of a man’s interior mind, and this mind is called spiritual, and is opened by means of charity, and when it has been opened a light and an affection of understanding truths inflows out of heaven from the Lord. This results in an enlightenment. A man who is in this enlightenment acknowledges truths as soon as he reads or hears them; but not so the man whose spiritual mind has not been opened, who is one not in the goods of charity, irrespective of his being in the truths of doctrine.

AR (Coulson) n. 86 sRef Rev@2 @6 S0′ sRef Jer@23 @5 S0′ sRef Jer@33 @16 S0′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S0′ sRef Jer@33 @15 S0′ 86. [verse 6] ‘But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate’ signifies that they know this as a result of their truths, and consequently do not wish works to be for the sake of recompense, because this is contrary to the Lord’s merit and justice. That ‘the works of the Nicolaitans’ are works for the sake of recompense it has been given [me] to know as a result of revelation. It is because the Church knows this as a result of the truths of its doctrine, and consequently does not wish [such works], that it is said that they hate those works; and it is therefore said, ‘this thou hast’. Nevertheless all those do works for the sake of recompense who put truths. of faith in the first place and goods of charity in the second; but not those who put goods of charity in the first place. This is because genuine charity does not want to be recompensed, for it loves to do good, for it is in it and acts as a result of it. Also as a result of good it has the Lord in view, and as a result of truths it has in view that every good is from Him, and therefore it has an aversion to recompense. Now, since those who have truths of faith in view in the first place cannot do works except for the sake of recompense, and yet know as a result of their truths that [such works] are to be hated, therefore this follows after it has been said that if they do not have charity in the first place they do works that ought to be held in aversion. It is said that it is contrary to the Lord’s merit and justice, for those who place merit in works claim justice for themselves, for they say that justice is their portion because they have earned it, when yet this is the height of injustice, because the Only Lord has earned it, and He Only does the good pertaining to them. That the Only Lord is Justice is taught in Jeremiah:-

Behold the days shall come when I will raise up a just branch to David, and this is His Name that they shall call Him, Jehovah our Justice Jer. xxiii 5, 6; xxxiii 15, 16.

AR (Coulson) n. 87 sRef Matt@11 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ 87. [verse 7] ‘He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches’ signifies that he who understands those things obeys what the Divine Truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church (e nova Ecclesia) that is the New Jerusalem. By ‘to hear’ is signified both to perceive and to obey, because one pays attention in order to perceive and obey. That the one and the other is signified by ‘to hear’, is plain from common parlance, in which to hear or heed anyone is said, also to hearken or give heed to anyone, the latter signifying to obey and the former to perceive. That ‘to hear’ signifies these two things results from Correspondence, for those who are at the same time in perception and obedience are in the province of the ears in heaven. Since the one and the other is signified by ‘to hear’, therefore the Lord so often said:-

He who has an ear to hear, let him hear Matt. xi 15; xiii 43; Mark iv 9, 23; vii 16; Luke viii 8; xiv 35;

and the like is also said to all the Churches, as is plain from verses 11, 17, and 29 of this chapter, and from verses 6, 13, and 22 of the one following. By ‘the Spirit’, however, ‘that says to the Churches’ is signified the Divine Truth of the Word, and by ‘the Churches’ the entire Church in Christendom. That by ‘the Spirit of God’, which is the Holy Spirit, is understood the Divine Truth (Veritas) proceeding from the Lord, may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 51); and since the entire Church is understood, it is not said what the Spirit says to the Church, but what the Spirit says to ‘the Churches’.

AR (Coulson) n. 88 sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 88. ‘To him who overcomes’ signifies he who fights against his own evils and untruths, and is reformed. Now because in the things written to the seven Churches there is described the state of all in the Christian Church who are able to receive the doctrine of the New Jerusalem and to live in accordance with it, thus all who are able to be reformed by combats against evils and untruths, therefore ‘He who overcomes’ is said to each one; as here to the Ephesian Church:-

To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the tree of life [Rev. ii 7].

To the Church of the Smyrnaeans:-

He who overcomes shall not be hurt by the second death Rev. ii 11.

To the Church in Pergamum

To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the hidden manna Rev. ii 17.

To the Church in Thyatira:-

He who overcomes and keeps My works even to the end, [to him] will I give power over the nations Rev. ii 26.

To the Church in Sardis:-

He who overcomes, the same shall be clothed in white garments Rev. iii 5.

To the Church in Philadelphia:-

He who overcomes, him will I make a pillar in the temple of My God Rev. iii 12.

And to the Church in Laodicea

He who overcomes, to him will I grant to sit with Me in My throne Rev. iii 21.

In these places ‘He who overcomes’ signifies he who fights against evils and untruths and so is reformed.

AR (Coulson) n. 89 sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′

89. ‘I will give to eat of the tree of life’ signifies the appropriation of the good of love and charity from the Lord. By ‘to eat’ in the Word is signified to appropriate, and by ‘the tree of life’ is signified the Lord as to the good of love. Consequently by ‘to eat of the tree of life’ is signified the appropriation of the good of love from the Lord. ‘To eat’ signifies to appropriate, because just as natural food, when it is eaten, is appropriated to the life of a man’s body, so spiritual food, when it is received, is appropriated to the life of his soul. The Lord as to the good of love is signified by ‘the tree of life’ because nothing else is signified by the TREE OF LIFE in the garden of Eden; also because a man’s celestial and spiritual life is the result of the good of love and charity that is received from the Lord. ‘A tree’ is mentioned in many places, and by it is understood a man of the Church, and in the universal sense the Church itself, and by its fruit the good of life. This is because the Lord is the Tree of Life, from Whom is every good with the man of the Church, and in the Church; but of this in its own place. It is said ‘the good of love and charity’ because the good of love is a celestial good that is of love directed to the Lord, and the good of charity is a spiritual good that is of love towards the neighbour. What the one good is and what the other, and the quality of each, will be stated in the things following. Some things about them may be seen in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL (n. 13-19).

AR (Coulson) n. 90 sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ 90. ‘That is in the midst of the paradise of God’ signifies interiorly in the truths of wisdom and faith. ‘In the midst’ signifies the inmost (n. 44, 383), here interiorly. ‘The paradise of God’ signifies the truths of wisdom and faith, and therefore ‘the tree of life that is in the midst of the paradise of God’ signifies the Lord with the good of love and charity interiorly in the truths of wisdom and faith. Good indeed is inwardly in truths, for good is the esse (being) of life, while truth is the existere (existence) of life therefrom, as has been abundantly shown in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM. That ‘the paradise of God’ is the truth of wisdom and faith is plain on account of the signification of ‘garden’ in the Word. ‘Garden’ there signifies wisdom and intelligence, because ‘trees’ signify men of the Church, while their ‘fruits’ signify the goods of life. Nothing else is signified by ‘the garden of Eden’, for by it the wisdom of Adam is described. sRef Ezek@28 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@28 @4 S2′ [2] The like is understood by ‘the garden of God’ in Ezekiel:-

In thy wisdom and intelligence thou hast made wealth for thyself, thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone thy covering Ezek. xxviii 4, 13.

This is concerning Tyre, by which the Church is signified as to the cognitions of good and truth, thus as to intelligence; and therefore it is said ‘In thy wisdom and intelligence thou hast made wealth for thyself’. By the precious stones that are a covering the truths of intelligence are signified. sRef Ezek@31 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@31 @8 S3′ sRef Ezek@31 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@31 @3 S3′ [3] In the same:-

Asshur is a cedar in Lebanon, the cedars in the garden of God have not hidden it: nor was every tree in the garden of God equal to it in beauty: all the trees of Eden in the garden of God strove to equal it Ezek. xxxi 3, 8, 9

This is said of Egypt and Asshur, because by ‘Egypt’ is signified knowledge, and by ‘Asshur’ the rationality through which there is intelligence. Likewise, by ‘a cedar’. But because through his own rationality he came into a state of self-intelligence (in statum propriae intelligentiae), it is therefore said of him (verse 18 of the same chapter)

To whom hast thou thus become alike in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden, since thou shalt he made to go down with the trees of Eden into the lower land, and shalt lie down in the midst of the uncircumcised?

The ‘uncircumcised’ are those who are without the good of charity. sRef Isa@51 @3 S4′ sRef Jer@31 @12 S4′ [4] In Isaiah:-

Jehovah shall comfort Zion; and he shall make her wilderness into Eden, and her desert into the garden of Jehovah Isa. li 3.

‘Zion’ there is the Church; the ‘wilderness’ and ‘desert’ are a deficiency and ignorance of truth; ‘Eden’ and ‘the garden of God’ are wisdom and intelligence. Wisdom and intelligence are also signified by ‘garden’ in Isa. lviii 11, lxi 11; Jer. xxxi 12; Amos ix 14; Num. xxiv 6. [5] The man of the Church is also as to intelligence just like a garden when he is in the good of love from the Lord, because the spiritual heat that causes him to live is love, and the spiritual light is the intelligence therefrom It has been known that gardens in the world bloom as a result of these two [activities], heat and light. In heaven they do so in the same manner. In heaven paradisal gardens are visible with trees bearing fruit in accordance with their [the angels’] wisdom out of the good of love from the Lord; while around those who are in intelligence and not in the good of love are visible, not gardens, but grass; but around those who are in a faith separated from charity there is not even grass, but sand.

AR (Coulson) n. 91 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ 91. [verse 8] ‘And to the Angel of the Church of the Smyrnaeans write’ signifies to and concerning those who as to life are in goods, but as to doctrine are in untruths. That these are understood by ‘the Church of the Smyrnaeans’ is plain by virtue of the things written to it, understood in the spiritual sense.

AR (Coulson) n. 92 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′

92. ‘These things says the First and the Last,’ signifies the Lord, that He is the Only God. That the Lord declares Himself ‘the First and the Last’, also ‘the Beginning and the Ending’, and ‘the Alpha and the Omega’, and ‘He Who is and Who was and Who is to come, may be seen (chap. 4, 8, 11, 17); and what they signify may be seen above (n. 13, 29-31, 38, 57), where it is plain that by those [names] is also understood that He is the Only God.

AR (Coulson) n. 93 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ 93. ‘Who was dead and is alive’ signifies that in the Church He has been disregarded, and His Human has not been acknowledged to be Divine, when yet in respect to that also He Only is Life and eternal life is from Him Only. That by those words these things are understood may be seen above (n. 58-60), where they have been expounded. These and the things just before are said because the primary untruth of those who are described by means of this Church is that they do not acknowledge the Lord’s Divine Human, and therefore do not approach Him.

AR (Coulson) n. 94 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 94. [verse 9] That ‘I know thy works’ signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once is established from the things that have been expounded above (n. 76). Here it signifies that He sees that they are in untruths, and yet as to life are in goods which they believe to be goods of life, when yet they are not.

AR (Coulson) n. 95 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 95. ‘And affliction and poverty’ signifies that they are in untruths, and consequently not in goods. To know their ‘affliction’ signifies to see that they are in untruths, and to know their ‘poverty’ signifies to see that they are not in goods; for in the Word ‘affliction’ is predicated of untruths, as above (n. 33), and ‘poverty’ of things not good, spiritual poverty being nothing else. In the Word one often reads of ‘the poor and the needy’, and by ‘poor’ in the spiritual sense is understood one who is not in truths, while by ‘needy’ one who is not in goods. There are also added the words ‘yet thou art rich’, but in a parenthesis, and this because in certain codices they have been omitted.

AR (Coulson) n. 96 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 96. ‘And the blasphemy of them who say they are Jews, and are not’ signifies the untrue assertion that the goods of love are with them, when yet they are not. ‘Blasphemy’ here signifies an untrue assertion; by ‘Jews’ are not signified the Jews but those who are in the good of love, and abstractly the good of love. Consequently by ‘the blasphemy of them who say they are Jews, and are not’ is signified the untrue assertion that the goods of love are with them, when yet they are not. Those who are in the good of love are understood by ‘Jews’ because by ‘Judah’ in the supreme sense in the Word is understood the Lord as to the Divine Good of the Divine Love, and by ‘Israel’ the Lord as to the Divine Truth of the Divine Wisdom. Consequently by ‘Jews’ are signified those who from the Lord are in the good of love, and by ‘Israel’ those who from the Lord are in Divine truths. That these are understood by ‘Jews’ can be established from many passages therein, which will be adduced below (n. 350). Some things may also be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE* (n. 51). That the goods of love are understood abstractly by ‘Jews’, because the spiritual sense is abstracted from persons, may be seen above (n. 78, 79). He who does not know that by ‘Jews’ in the Word are understood those who belong to the Lord’s celestial Church, who are those who are in a love directed to Him, can be greatly deluded in the reading of the Word in the Prophets; but n. 350 below may be seen.
* The Original Edition has DOMINO (THE LORD), but it is clear that SCRIPTURA SACRA (THE SACRED SCRIPTURE) is intended.

AR (Coulson) n. 97 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 97. ‘But are a synagogue of Satan’ signifies because as to doctrine they are in untruths. ‘Synagogue’ is said because the Jews have been mentioned, and as they used to teach in synagogues, by ‘synagogue’ is signified doctrine; and since by ‘Satan’ is understood the hell [formed] out of those who are in untruths, therefore ‘a synagogue of Satan’ is said. Hell is called ‘the Devil’ and ‘Satan’, and by the hell that is called ‘the Devil’ those are understood who are in evils there, properly those who are in the love of self; and by the hell that is called ‘Satan’ those are understood who are in untruths there, properly those who are in the pride of their own intelligence. Those hells are termed ‘the Devil’ and ‘Satan’ because all who are in them are called devils and satans. From these things it can now be established that by the fact that they ‘are a synagogue of Satan’ is signified that as to doctrine they are in untruths. [2] But as it treats here of those who are in good as to life but in untruths as to doctrine, and these do not know otherwise than that they are in good and that their untruths are true, something will be said about them. Every good of worship is formed by means of truths, and every truth is formed out of good, and therefore good without truth is not good, while truth without good is not true. They appear indeed in external form to be so, but they are not. The conjunction of good and truth is called the heavenly marriage, out of which there is the Church with a man, and heaven with him. If therefore there are untruths instead of truths with a man, then he does the good of untruth, and this is not good, for it is either pharisaical, or for the sake of recompense, or it is connate natural good. sRef John@15 @5 S3′ sRef John@15 @4 S3′ sRef John@15 @6 S3′ [3] But let there be examples for enlightenment. He who is in the untruth that he believes himself to be doing good of himself because he has the faculty of doing good: his good is not good, because he himself and not the Lord is in it. He who is in the untruth that he is able to do a good that is good without acquainting himself with what evil is with him, thus without repentance: he while doing good is not [really] doing good, because without repentance he is in evil. He who is in the untruth that good purifies him from evils, and does not know anything about the evils in which he is: he is doing no other than a spurious good that has been contaminated within by his evils. He who is in the untruth that there are many gods, and confirms himself therein: in his case the good that he is doing is a divided good, and a divided good is not good. He who is in the untruth that he believes that the Lord’s Divine is not in His Human as the soul is in the body, is unable to do good out of Him, and a good not out of the Lord is not good, for it is contrary to these words of the Lord:-

Except anyone abide in Me and I in him, he cannot bear any fruit; for without Me you can do nothing. Except anyone abide in Me, he is cast out of the house as a withered branch, and is cast into the fire and is burned John xv 4-6.

Similarly in many other instances. For good draws its own quality from truths, and truths draw their being (esse) from good. [4] Who does not know that a Church is not a Church without a doctrine, and the doctrine will teach how a man will think about God and out of God, and how he will act out of God and with God? The doctrine will therefore be [formed] out of truths and to act in accordance with these is what is called good. It follows from this that to act in accordance with untruths is not good. It is believed that in the good that a man does there is not anything out of truths or untruths, when yet the quality of the good is from no other source, for they cohere like love and wisdom, and also like love and foolishness. It is the love of the wise that does good, but it is the love of the foolish that does what may be alike in externals, but is altogether unlike in internals. The good of the wise, therefore, is like pure gold, but the good of the foolish is like gold wrapped round about dirt.

AR (Coulson) n. 98 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 98. [verse 10] ‘Fear none of the things that thou art going to suffer’ signifies be not without hope when you are infested by evils and assailed by untruths, inasmuch as those who as to life are in goods and as to doctrine are in untruths cannot otherwise [endure]. This is plain from the things now following.

AR (Coulson) n. 99 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ 99. ‘Behold, the devil is going to cast some of you into custody’ signifies that their good of life will be infested by evils that are from hell. This is signified by being cast into custody or prison by the devil, because by ‘the devil’ is understood the hell where are those who are in evils, and thus abstractly the evil that is therein and therefrom (n. 97). To be sent ‘into custody’ or prison is to be infested, because those who are infested by evils out of hell are as if bound in prison, for they are able to think only evil, when yet they will good. A combat and interior anxiety arises therefrom, and they are unable to be released from this, being almost exactly like those who are in bonds. This is because their good, so far as it coheres with untruths, is not good; and so far as it coheres with untruths, it has evil in it. [2] This, therefore, is what is infested. The infestation takes place, not in the natural world but in the spiritual world, thus after death. To see their infestations has been frequently granted me. They lament, saying that they have done good and wish to do good, and yet now they are unable on account of the surrounding evils. However, they are not all infested in the same manner; but more severely as they have confirmed themselves in untruths, and it is therefore said, ‘the devil will cast some of you into custody’. That the confirmation of untruth is harmful may be seen its THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 91-97). sRef Ps@146 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@61 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@79 @11 S3′ sRef Zech@9 @11 S3′ sRef Ps@68 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S3′ sRef Ps@102 @20 S3′ [3] In the Word the same thing is signified by ‘the bound’ as here by those ‘cast into custody’, as in these passages:-

I will give thee for a covenant of the people to bring out the bound from custody, and those who sit in darkness out of the prison house Isa. xlii 6, 7; xlix 8, 9.

Jehovah has sent me to preach liberty to the captives, and to the bound Isa. lxi 1.

By the blood of thy covenant I will send forth the bound out of the pit Zech. ix 11.

God leads forth those bound with fetters Ps. lxxiii 6 [H.B. 7].

Let the groaning of the bound come before Thee Ps. lxxix 11.

To hear the groaning of the bound, to open to the sons of death Ps. cii 20 [H.B. 21].

Jehovah Who looses the bound Ps. cxlvi 7.

It is plain that in these passages by ‘the bound’ are not understood those bound in the world, but those bound by hell, thus by evils and untruths. The like is signified by these words of the Lord:-

I was in custody, and you came not unto Me Matt. xxv 43.

Since the Lord brings out of custody, or delivers from infestation those who as to life have been in good though as to doctrine in untruths, He says, ‘Fear none of the things that thou art going to suffer’; also, ‘Be thou faithful, and I will give thee a crown of life’.

AR (Coulson) n. 100 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 100. ‘That you may be put to the test’ signifies a fighting against them by means of untruths. This is signified because every spiritual temptation is a combat of the devil and the Lord [as to] who shall take possession of a man. The devil or hell brings out his untruths, and rebukes and condemns, but the Lord brings out truths and leads away out of untruths and delivers. This is a combat that appears to the man as in him, because it is from the evil spirits who are with him; and it is called temptation. I know from experience that spiritual temptation is nothing else, because in my temptations I have seen the infernals who induced them and have seen the influx from the Lord Who delivered me.

AR (Coulson) n. 101 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ sRef Dan@1 @20 S0′ 101. ‘And you shall have affliction ten days’ signifies that this is going to last for a full period, that is, so long as they wish to remain in untruths. ‘Affliction’ here signifies the infestation (of which above, n. 33, 95), thus temptation; and ‘ten days’ signify the duration of that state to repletion; and therefore it follows, ‘Be thou faithful even unto death’, by which is signified a reception and acknowledgment of truths (veritas) until by their means untruths have been removed and, as it were, abolished. ‘Ten days’ signify the duration of the state even to repletion, because ‘days’ signify states, and ‘ten’ what is full; for in the Word times signify states (n. 947), and numbers add their quality (n. 10). sRef Num@14 @22 S2′ sRef Rev@17 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@17 @3 S2′ sRef Dan@7 @7 S2′ sRef Job@19 @3 S2′ sRef Zech@8 @23 S2′ sRef Rev@17 @7 S2′ sRef Rev@13 @1 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @26 S2′ [2] Since ‘ten’ signify what is full, they also signify much and many, also every and all, as can be established from the following passages:-

The men who have seen My glory have tempted Me ten times Num. xiv 22.

You have brought me to dishonour ten times Job xix 3.

Daniel was discovered to be ten times wiser than the astrologers Dan. i 20.

Ten women shall bake bread in one oven Lev. xxvi 26.

Ten men out of all languages of the nations shall take hold of the skirt of a Jewish man Zech. viii 23.

Because ‘ten’ signify many, and also all, therefore the things that were written by Jehovah on the tables of the Decalogue are called TEN WORDS (Deut. iv 13; x 4). ‘Ten words’ are all truths, for they include them. And because ‘ten’ signify all people and all things, the Lord therefore compared the kingdom of the heavens to ‘ten virgins’ (Matt. xxv 1). Moreover in a parable He said of the nobleman that he gave his servants ‘ten minas’ to trade with (Luke xix 12-27). Many things are also signified:-

By the ten horns of the beast coming up out of the sea Dan. vii 7.

And by the ten horns, and the ten diadems upon the horns, of the beast again coming up out of the sea Rev. xiii 1.

Also by the ten horns of the dragon Rev. xii 3.

And by the ten horns of the scarlet-coloured beast on which the woman sat Rev. xvii 3, 7, 12.

[3] By ‘ten horns’ are signified much power. It can be seen from the signification of the number ‘ten’, being what is full, much, and all, why it was arranged that a tenth part of all produce was given to Jehovah, and by Jehovah to Aaron and the Levites (Num. xviii 24, 28; Deut. xiv 22), also, why Abram gave Melchizedek tithes of all (Gen. xiv 18-20). From these things it can now be established that by ‘to have affliction ten days’ is signified that the temptation is going to last for a full period, that is, so long as they wish to remain in untruths. For untruths are never taken away from a man against his will, but with it.

AR (Coulson) n. 102 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 102. Be thou faithful even unto death’ signifies a reception and acknowledgment of truths (veritas) until untruths have been removed and, as it were, abolished. By ‘Be thou faithful unto death’ in the natural sense is understood that to the end of life they are not going to lapse from faithfulness; but in the spiritual sense is understood that they are going to be receiving and acknowledging truths (veritas) until by their means untruths have been removed and, as it were, abolished. For this sense is properly for those who are in the spiritual world, for whom there is not any death, and therefore by ‘death’ here is understood the end of their temptation. It is said ‘until they are, as it were, abolished’, because the untruths and evils with a man are not abolished, but removed; and when they have been removed they appear as though abolished, because when the evils and untruths have been removed the man is kept in goods and truths by the Lord.

AR (Coulson) n. 103 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 103. ‘And I will give thee the crown of life’ signifies their having eternal life, the reward for victory. Since it treats of temptations even to death, it is said that they are to be given the crown of life, such as was given to the martyrs who were faithful even unto death. And because the martyrs used to desire it, crowns were therefore given to them after death, by which was signified the reward for victory. In heaven they still appear in their crowns, and it has been granted me to see this.

AR (Coulson) n. 104 sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ 104. [verse 11] ‘He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches’ signifies that he who understands those things obeys what the Divine Truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church (e Nova Ecclesia) that is the New Jerusalem. This is plain from the things that have been expounded above (n. 87), where the same words occur.

AR (Coulson) n. 105 sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ 105. That ‘He who overcomes’ signifies he who fights against evils and untruths, and is reformed, is plain from the things expounded (n. 88), where the same words occur.

AR (Coulson) n. 106 sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ 106. ‘Shall not be hurt by the second death’ signifies that they shall not thereafter yield to evils and untruths from hell. By the first death is understood the death of the body, and by ‘the second death’ is understood the death of the soul, which is damnation (see below n. 853, 873). And because by ‘Be thou faithful even unto death’ is signified that they are going to acknowledge truths (veritas) until by their means untruths have been removed (n. 102), it follows that by ‘shall not be hurt by the second death’ is signified that they shall not thereafter yield to evils and untruths from hell, for thereby they are released from damnation.

AR (Coulson) n. 107 sRef Rev@2 @12 S0′ 107. [verse 12] ‘And to the Angel of the Church in Pergamum write’ signifies to and concerning those who place everything of the Church in good works, and not anything in the truths of doctrine. That by ‘the Church in Pergamum’ these are understood is plain from the things written to it understood in the spiritual sense. But about these something must be said in advance, so that it may be known who they are in the Church, and what their quality is. There are two kinds of men out of whom for the most part the Christian Church has its existence at the present day. Those who are in works alone, and in no truths, make up the one kind; and those who are in worship alone, and in neither works nor truths make up the other. It treats of the former kind here; of the latter in the things written to the Church in Sardis (n. 154 seq.). They who are in works alone and in no truths are like those who are doing and not understanding, and deeds without understanding are lifeless. In the presence of angels they appear like carvings out of wood, and those who have placed merit in their works appear naked like those carvings without a covering upon their private parts. They appear also as sheep without wool; and those who place merit in their works, like such sheep covered with dung. For all works are done from the will by means of the understanding, and in the understanding they acquire life, and at the same time clothing. Consequently, as has been said, they appear in the presence of the angels as things lifeless and naked.

AR (Coulson) n. 108 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @12 S0′ 108. ‘These things says He Who has the sharp two-edged sword’ signifies the Lord as to the truths of doctrine out of the Word, by means of which evils and untruths are dispersed. In the preceding chapter, where the SON OF MAN is described, Who is the Lord as to the Word, it is said that a sharp two-edged sword was seen to go forth out of His mouth (verse 16). It may be seen above (n. 52) that by this is signified the dispersion by the Lord of untruths by means of the Word and doctrine therefrom. This is said to and concerning those who place everything of the Church in works alone, and not anything in the truths of doctrine. Because they neglect and despise truths of doctrine, and yet these are necessary, it is said to them in the things that follow, ‘Repent, or else I will come to thee quickly, and fight with them with the sword of My mouth’ (verse 6 of this chapter) .

AR (Coulson) n. 109 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 109. [verse 13] That ‘I know thy works’ signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once may be seen above (n. 76), where [these words] have been expounded. Here it signifies that the Lord sees that they are in works alone, and not in doctrinal things.

AR (Coulson) n. 110 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 110. ‘And where thou dwellest, where Satan’s throne is’ signifies their life in dense darkness. It may be seen above (n. 97) that by ‘Satan’ is understood the hell [formed] out of those who are in untruths; and to be in untruths is to be in spiritual dense darkness. ‘Spiritual dense darkness’ ‘the shadow of death’ and ‘darkness’ are nothing else but the states of those in hell who are in untruths of evil, and therefore in the Word by those expressions untruths are described. It can be established from these things that by ‘Satan’s throne’ is signified sheer dense darkness. But here by ‘dense darkness’ is not understood that they are in sheer untruths, but that they are in no truths of doctrine, for the truths of doctrine that are derived from the Word are in light. Resulting from this, not to be in truths is not to be in light, consequently in dense darkness. That truths are in the light of heaven may be seen in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL (n. 126-140), and in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 73, 104-113). [2] In many places in the Word it treats of those who are in ‘darkness’, ‘the shadow of death’ and in ‘dense darkness’ whose eyes the Lord is going to open; and by them are understood the Gentiles who have been in good works, but not in any truths, because they have not known of the Lord, nor had the Word. Exactly like them are those in Christendom who are in works alone and in no truths of doctrine, and they are therefore not to be called anything else but Gentiles. They indeed know of the Lord, but yet they do not approach Him; and they have the Word, but they do not search there for truths. By ‘to know where thou dwellest’ is signified to know what the quality is, since in the spiritual world every one has his dwelling in accordance with the quality of his affection. It can be established from these things that by ‘thou dwellest where Satan’s throne is’ is signified the life of their good in dense darkness. [3] Satanic spirits also are powerful by means of those who are in works alone, but apart from them they are of no avail, for in the spiritual world they adjoin them to themselves, if only one of them says, I am your neighbour, and on this account I must get preferential treatment. On hearing this they approach and are helpful, and they do not inquire who and what he is, because they do not have truths, and only by truths is the difference of one from the other known. This also is signified by ‘Thou dwellest where Satan’s throne is’.

AR (Coulson) n. 111 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 111. ‘And thou holdest fast My Name, and hast not denied My faith’ signifies when yet they have religion, and worship in accordance therewith, and they also acknowledge the Word as being the Divine Truth (veritas). That by the ‘Name’ of Jehovah or the Lord is understood everything by means of which He is worshipped, thus everything of religion, may be seen above (n. 81). Here therefore it signifies that these have religion, and in accordance with religion, worship. Since faith is of truth and truth is of faith, by ‘faith’ here is not understood a faith after the fashion of the faith at present in the Church, but the Divine Truth (veritas). Nothing else is understood in heaven by ‘faith’, nor anything else by ‘the faith of God’ in the Word. Consequently in the Hebrew language faith and truth (veritas) are one word, and are termed Amuna. Now because by ‘the faith of God’ is understood the Divine Truth (veritas), and the Word is Divine Truth Itself, it is plain that by ‘thou hast not denied My faith’ is understood that they acknowledge that the Word is the Divine Truth (veritas).

AR (Coulson) n. 112 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 112. ‘Even in the days in which Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you where Satan dwells’ signifies when all the truth (veritas) has been extinguished by means of the untruths in the Church. By a ‘martyr’ is signified confession of the truth (veritas), the same as is signified by a ‘witness’ (n. 6, 16), because ‘martyr’ and ‘witness’ in the Greek language are one word. It is from spiritual or angelic language that ‘Antipas’ is named. Since by ‘Antipas the martyr’ is signified a confessor of the truth (veritas), and abstractly the truth (veritas) itself, it is plain that by ‘In the days in which Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you where Satan dwells’ is signified when the truth (veritas) has been extinguished by means of the untruths in the Church. That by ‘Satan’ is understood the hell where and whence untruths are may be seen above (n. 97).

AR (Coulson) n. 113 sRef Rev@2 @14 S0′ 113. [verse 14] That ‘But I have a few things against thee’ signifies that against them are the things that follow is plain without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 114 sRef Num@25 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @14 S0′ sRef Num@25 @1 S0′ sRef Num@25 @2 S0′ sRef Num@25 @3 S0′ sRef Num@25 @9 S0′ 114. ‘That thou hast there those holding the doctrine [of] Balaam, who used to teach Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the sons of Israel, to eat idol-sacrifices and to commit whoredom’ signifies that there are among them those who do hypocritical works, by means of which the worship of God in the Church is defiled and adulterated. That by these are understood those who do works by means of which worship is defiled and adulterated is plain from the historical things of the Word concerning Balaam and Balak king of Moab. For Balaam was a hypocrite and a diviner, for he spoke well of the sons of Israel from Jehovah, and yet at heart was in favour of destroying them, and he also did destroy them by the counsel given to Balak. It is plain from this that his works were hypocritical. That he was a diviner is referred to (Num. xxii 7; xxiv 1; Josh. xiii 22); that he spoke in favour of the sons of Israel by blessing them (Num. xxiii 7-15, 18-24; xxiv 5-9, 16-19); but that this was spoken from Jehovah (Num. xxiii 5, 12, 16; xxiv 13); that at heart he was in favour of destroying them, and that he also did destroy them by the counsel given to Balak (Num. xxxi 16); the counsel that he had given (Num. xxv 1, 9, 18). This was the stumbling-block which he cast before the sons of Israel, of which it is thus written:-

In Shittim the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab, and they called the people to the sacrifices of their gods; the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods, especially did [Israel] join himself unto Baalpeor: therefore there were slain of Israel twenty-four thousand Num. xxv 1-3, 9, 18.

By the sons of Israel the Church is signified; by eating of their own sacrifices is signified the appropriation of what is holy; and therefore by eating of the sacrifices of other gods or idol-sacrifices is signified the defilement and profanation of what is holy; by committing whoredom is signified adulterating and perverting worship. That by Moab and consequently by its king and daughters are also signified those who defile and adulterate worship, may be seen in ARCANA CAELESTIA published at London (n. 2468). As a result of these considerations it is now plain that such is the spiritual sense of the words quoted.

AR (Coulson) n. 115 sRef Rev@2 @15 S0′ 115. [verse 15] ‘So thou hast, even thou, those holding the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate’ signifies that among them there are also those who do works for the sake of recompense. That the works ‘of the Nicolaitans’ are works for the sake of recompense may be seen above (n. 86). In the case of those who place everything of the Church and of salvation in good works and not anything in the truths of doctrine, who are those who are understood by ‘the Church in Pergamum’, there are some who do hypocritical works, also works for the sake of recompense, but yet not all. It is therefore said that ‘thou hast there those holding the doctrine [of] Balaam’, also ‘thou hast, even thou, those holding the doctrine of the Nicolaitans’; and all works of worship are either good, or for the sake of recompense, or hypocritical; therefore [something] is said here concerning the latter two and, after those, concerning good works in the things following.

AR (Coulson) n. 116 sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ 116. [verse 16] ‘Repent’ signifies so that they may be on their guard against such works, and do works that are good. These things are signified by ‘repenting’, because it has treated of goods for the sake of recompense, and of hypocritical goods, against which those who place everything of the Church and of salvation in good works and not anything in truths of doctrine will be on their guard; when yet truths of doctrine teach how and of what there must be a willing and thinking, or loving and believing, in order that the works may be good.

AR (Coulson) n. 117 sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ 117. ‘Or else I will come to thee quickly, and will fight with them with the sword of My mouth’ signifies if not, that the Lord will strive with them out of the Word, and prove that their works are evil. These words may, however, be seen expounded above (n. 108).

AR (Coulson) n. 118 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 118. [verse 17] ‘He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches’ signifies that he who understands those things obeys what the Divine Truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church (e Nova Ecclesia) that is the New Jerusalem. This is plain from the things expounded above (n. 87), where they are similar.

AR (Coulson) n. 119 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 119. That ‘To him who overcomes’ signifies he who fights against his own evils and untruths and is reformed is also plain from things expounded above (n. 88).

AR (Coulson) n. 120 sRef John@6 @37 S0′ sRef John@6 @36 S0′ sRef John@6 @38 S0′ sRef John@6 @35 S0′ sRef John@6 @33 S0′ sRef John@6 @34 S0′ sRef John@6 @31 S0′ sRef John@6 @45 S0′ sRef John@6 @44 S0′ sRef John@6 @42 S0′ sRef John@6 @43 S0′ sRef John@6 @50 S0′ sRef John@6 @48 S0′ sRef John@6 @47 S0′ sRef John@6 @46 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef John@6 @49 S0′ sRef John@6 @40 S0′ sRef John@6 @52 S0′ sRef John@6 @53 S0′ sRef John@6 @51 S0′ sRef John@6 @39 S0′ sRef John@6 @41 S0′ sRef John@6 @32 S0′ 120. ‘I will give to eat of the hidden manna’ signifies wisdom, and the appropriation then of the good of celestial love in works, and in this manner the conjunction of the Lord with those who are doing works. By the hidden manna ‘that they will have, who are in good works and at the same time adjoin truths of doctrine to the works, is understood a hidden wisdom such as those have who are in the third heaven. For these, because in the world they have been in good works and in truths of doctrine at the same time, are in a wisdom exceeding that of the rest of the angels. They are, however, in a hidden wisdom, for it has been inscribed on their life and not so much on their memory, and therefore they are such as do not speak about truths but do them, and do them because they know them, and may also see them when others speak them. That the good of love is appropriated to them, and that the Lord conjoins Himself with those who adjoin truths of doctrine to good works, and in that way gives them wisdom in their goods, and that this is ‘to give to eat of the hidden manna can be established from these words of the Lord:-

The bread of God is He Who comes down from heaven, and gives life unto the world. I am the bread of life: your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness and are dead. This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, that he who eats thereof may not die. I am the living bread, Who came down out of heaven; if any one eat of this bread, he shall live forever John vi 31-58.

From these things it is plain that the Lord Himself is ‘the hidden manna’ that will be in their works if they approach Him only. Whether you say ‘the Lord’, or ‘the good of celestial love’, or even the wisdom of that love’, it is the same. But this is an arcanum that scarcely fits in with the natural idea of anyone so long as that is veiled over by a cloud from worldly things, but it does fit in when he has [a mind] unclouded and exposed to the sunshine, as can be seen concerning these things in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM, from beginning to end.

AR (Coulson) n. 121 sRef Jer@31 @34 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @33 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 121. ‘And I will give him a little white stone’ signifies truths favouring and united to good. ‘A little white stone’ has this signification because in trials votes used to be collected by means of little stones, and those that were affirmative by the white ones. Confirming truths are what are signified because white’ is predicated of truths (n. 167, 379). Consequently by ‘a little white stone’ truths favouring good are signified, and those also united to good, because good summons them and unites them to itself. For every good loves truth and conjoins with itself such a truth as is in agreement, especially the good of celestial love: this unites the truth to itself in such a manner that they may altogether make a one. As a result they [who are in such good] see truths from good alone. These are understood by those who have the law inscribed on their hearts, of whom [it is said] in Jeremiah:-

I will put My law in the midst of them, and I will write it upon their heart; and they shall teach no more everyone his companion, or everyone his brother, saying, Know Jehovah, for they shall all know Me Jer. xxxi 33, 34.

Such are all who are in the third heaven. They do not speak of truths out of any memory, but see them clearly while they hear others speaking of them, especially while they are reading the Word. This is because they are in the marriage itself of good and truth. Such do they become in the world, who have approached the Only Lord and done good works because they are in accordance with the truths of the Word; concerning whom some particulars may be seen in the work CONCERNING HEAVEN AND HELL (n. 25, 26, 270, 271).

AR (Coulson) n. 122 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef Mark@9 @50 S0′ sRef Mark@9 @49 S0′ 122. ‘And in the little stone a new name written’ signifies that in this way they will have good of a quality they did not have before. That ‘name’ signifies the quality of a thing may be seen above (n. 81). Here, therefore, it signifies the quality of the good. Every quality of a good results from the truths united thereto; for good without truths is like bread and food without wine and water, and they are not nourishing; and also like fruit in which there is no juice. [Those whose good is without truths] also appear as trees stripped of their leaves, on which dry apples are hanging left over from autumn. This is understood also by these words of the Lord:-

Every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. Salt is good, but if the salt becomes insipid, wherewith will you season it? Have salt in yourselves Mark ix 49, 50.

‘Salt’ there is a longing for truth.

AR (Coulson) n. 123 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 123. Which no one knows except him who receives signifies that it is not apparent to anyone because it is inscribed on their life. That truths united to good are not with those as matters of the memory, but are inscribed on their life, may be seen just above (n. 121, 122), and what has been inscribed on the life only, and not on the memory, is not apparent to anyone, not even to themselves, except as a result of their perceiving whether it is true and what is true, when they are hearing and reading. For the interiors of their minds are opened as far as to the Lord; and because the Lord is in them, and He sees all things, therefore He causes them to see as if from themselves, but yet they know out of their own wisdom that they do not see truths from themselves, but from the Lord. From these things it can now be established what is understood by all these words, ‘I will give him to eat of the hidden manna, and I will give him a little white stone, and in the little stone a new name written, which no one knows except him who receives, by which, to sum up, is signified that they are going to be angels of the third heaven, if they read the Word, draw truths of doctrine therefrom, and approach the Lord.

AR (Coulson) n. 124 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 124. [verse 18] ‘And to the Angel of the Church in Thyatira write’ signifies to and concerning those who are in a faith derived from charity, and thence in good works; and also to and concerning those who are in a faith separated from charity, and thence in evil works. That the latter and the former are described by the Church of the Thyatirans is plain from the things written to it understood in the spiritual sense.

AR (Coulson) n. 125 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 125. ‘These things says the Son of God Who has eyes as a flame of fire’ signifies the Lord as to the Divine Wisdom of the Divine Love. That these things are signified may be seen expounded above (n. 48).

AR (Coulson) n. 126 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 126. That ‘And His feet like burnished bronze’ signifies natural Divine Good is established from the things that have been expounded before (n. 49).

AR (Coulson) n. 127 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 127. [verse 19] That ‘I know thy works’ signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once may be seen above (n. 76), where [these words] have been expounded.

AR (Coulson) n. 128 sRef Ps@104 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ps@103 @22 S0′ sRef Ps@103 @21 S0′ sRef Matt@20 @27 S0′ sRef Isa@61 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@20 @26 S0′ sRef Jer@33 @21 S0′ 128. ‘And charity and ministry’ signifies the spiritual affection that is called charity, and the working thereof. ‘Charity’ is the spiritual affection, because charity is love towards the neighbour, and love towards the neighbour is that affection. ‘Ministry’ is the working thereof, because in the Word they are termed ‘ministers’ who are doing the things that are of charity. A man worshipping God is sometimes called a ‘servant’ and sometimes a ‘minister’, and he who is in truths is termed ‘servant of God’, and he who is in goods ‘minister of God’. This is because truth is of service to good, while good ministers to truth. That he who is in truths is termed a ‘servant’ may be seen above (n. 3); but that he who is in good is termed a minister’ is plain from these passages:-

You shall be called priests of Jehovah, the ministers of your* God Isa. lxi 6.

My covenant shall not become ineffectual with the Levites My ministers Jer. xxxiii 21.

They are called ‘ministers’ because the priests were representing the Lord as to Divine Good.

Bless Jehovah all His hosts, the ministers who do His will Ps. ciii 21, 22.

Jehovah makes His angels spirits, His ministers a flaming fire Ps. civ 4.

‘Angels spirits’ are they who are in truths, and ‘angels ministers’ are they who are in goods; a ‘flaming fire’ also signifies good of love. Jesus said:

Whosoever wishes to be great ought to be your minister, and whosoever wishes to be first ought to be your servant Matt. xx 26, 27; xxiii 11, 12.

‘Minister’ is said there of good, and ‘servant’ of truth. The like is signified by ‘ministering’ and ‘ministry’ in Isa. lvi 6; John xii 26; Luke xii 37; and elsewhere. It is plain from these things that by ‘charity and ministry’ is signified the spiritual affection and the working thereof; for good is of charity, and truth is of faith.
* Hebrew has ‘our’.

AR (Coulson) n. 129 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 129. ‘And faith and thine endurance’ signifies the truth (veritas), and the endeavour to procure and teach it. That ‘faith’ signifies the truth (veritas) may be seen above (n. 111); and it follows then that ‘endurance’ signifies the endeavour and exertion to procure and teach it.

AR (Coulson) n. 130 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 130. ‘[And thy works,] and the last more than the first’ signifies the increments of those things out of the affection of spiritual truth, which is charity. By ‘the last works more than the first’ are understood all the things of their charity and faith, for these are the interior things out of which the works [are done] (n. 72, 76, 94). These get their increments when charity is in the first place and faith in the second; for charity is the spiritual affection of doing good, and derived from that is the spiritual affection of knowing truth, for good loves truth as food does drink, for it wants to be nourished, and it is nourished by means of truths. As a result of this, those who are in genuine charity have continuous increments of truth. These, therefore, are the things signified by ‘I know thy works the last more than the first’.

AR (Coulson) n. 131 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ 131. [verse 20] ‘But I have a few things against thee’ signifies that the things that follow can be a stumbling-block to them. For now follows [something] concerning faith separated from charity, which can be a stumbling-block to those who are in a faith derived from charity.

AR (Coulson) n. 132 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ 132. ‘That thou permittest the woman Jezebel’ signifies that in the Church with them there are those who separate faith from charity, and who make that faith alone saving. That faith separated from charity is understood by ‘the woman Jezebel’ is plain from the things now following, while they are being disclosed in a series by means of the spiritual sense, and when they are compared with that faith. For these were the evil deeds of Ahab’s wife Jezebel:-

That she went away and served Baal, and built him an altar in Samaria, and made a grove 1 Kings xvi 31-33.

That she killed the prophets of Jehovah 1 Kings xviii 4, 13.

That she wanted to kill Elijah 1 Kings xix 1, 2.

That by the treachery of substituting false witnesses she took the vineyard away from Naboth, and killed him 1 Kings xxi 6, 7 seq.

That on account of those evil deeds it was foretold to her by Elijah, that the dogs would eat her 1 Kings xxi 23.

That she was thrown down out of the window where she stood in her make-up, and that some of her blood was sprinkled upon the wall, and upon the horses that trampled on her 2 Kings ix 30-33.

[2] As all the historical as well as the prophetical parts of the Word signify spiritual things, so also do these. That they signify faith separated from charity is established out of the spiritual sense, and from a comparison of passages at the same time; for by ‘going away and serving Baal’, and ‘building him an altar’, and ‘making a grove’, is signified serving all kinds of lusts, or what is the same, the devil, not thinking about a particular evil lust or a particular sin, but only of faith, as they do who have no doctrine of charity and life. By ‘killing the prophets’ is signified destroying the truths of doctrine out of the Word. By ‘wanting to kill Elijah’ is signified wanting the same for the Word itself. By ‘taking away Naboth’s vineyard, and killing him’ is signified [destroying] the Church itself for the ‘vineyard’ is the Church. By ‘the dogs that would eat her’ are signified lusts. By ‘the throwing down out of the window’ ‘the sprinkling of the blood on the wall’, and ‘the trampling by the horses’, is signified their annihilation, for the single things also signify that; the ‘window’ signifying truth in the light; ‘the blood’ untruth; ‘the wall’ truth in ultimates; ‘the horse’ an understanding of the Word. Consequently it can be concluded that these things, when brought together for comparison, coincide with a faith separated from charity, as can be further established from the things following in the Apocalypse, where it treats of that faith.

AR (Coulson) n. 133 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ 133. ‘Calling herself a prophetess’ signifies and who make that faith the doctrine itself of the Church, and found all theology upon it. That by a ‘prophet’ in the Word the doctrine of the Church is signified may be seen above (n. 8); therefore it is in like manner signified by ‘prophetess’. It is known that in the Reformed Christian Church faith alone has been accepted as the one only means of salvation, and that consequently the works of charity, as not saving, have been separated from faith. As a result of this the entire doctrine of the salvation of man, which is called Theology, is at this day such a faith, consequently it is ‘the woman Jezebel’.

AR (Coulson) n. 134 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ sRef Ex@34 @15 S0′ 134. ‘To teach and to seduce My servants to commit whoredom’ signifies as a result of which the truths of the Word are falsified. By ‘to teach and to seduce the Lord’s servants’ is understood [teaching and seducing] those who can be and want to be instructed in truths out of the Word. That they who are in truths are termed ‘the Lord’s servants’ may be seen above (n. 3, 128). And by ‘to commit whoredom’ is signified to adulterate and falsify the Word. This is signified by committing whoredom because in the details of the Word there is the marriage of good and truth, and this marriage is broken up when good is separated and taken away from truth. That in the details of the Word there is the marriage of the Lord and the Church, and the resulting marriage of good and truth, may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 80-90). This is why by ‘to commit whoredom’ is signified to adulterate the goods and falsify the truths of the Word; and because this is spiritual whoredom, therefore also those who by their own special method have falsified the Word are addicted to whoredom when they come into the spiritual world; and, what has till now escaped the world’s notice, those who have confirmed faith alone to the complete exclusion of works of charity are in the lust of the adultery of a son with his mother. That they are in the lust of such an abominable adultery has been often perceived in the spiritual world. Remember this, and inquire after death, and you will be confirmed. I have not dared to reveal this before, because it offends the ears. sRef Gen@49 @4 S2′ sRef 1Chr@5 @1 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @3 S2′ [2] This adultery is signified by the adultery of Reuben with Bilhah his father’s concubine (Gen. xxxv 22); for by ‘Reuben’ that faith is signified, for which cause he was cursed by his father Israel, and afterwards the birthright was taken away from him; for his father Israel, prophesying concerning his sons, said of Reuben:-

Reuben my firstborn, thou art my strength, and the beginning of my vigour, light as water, thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed, then thou didst profane it: he went up to my couch Gen. xlix 3, 4.

Therefore his birthright was taken away from him:-

Reuben was the firstborn of Israel; but because he defiled his fathers couch, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph 1 Chron. v 1.

That by ‘Reuben’ was represented truth derived from good, or faith derived from charity, and afterwards truth separated from good, or faith separated from charity, will be seen in the Exposition at chap. vii 5. sRef Ezek@16 @35 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @15 S3′ sRef 2Ki@9 @22 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @33 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @28 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @26 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @32 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @29 S3′ sRef Lev@20 @6 S3′ sRef Num@14 @33 S3′ [3] That by ‘whoredoms’ are signified adulterations of good and falsifications of truth in the Word can be established from these passages:-

When Joram saw Jehu, he said, Is it peace, Jehu? And he said, What peace, so long as the whoredoms of thy mother Jezebel and her incantations are so many? 2 Kings ix 22.

By ‘the whoredoms of Jezebel’ are not understood any whoredoms, but her deeds, of which above (n. 132).

Your children shall be pasturing in the wilderness 40 years, and shall bear their* whoredoms Num. xiv 33.

I will cut off the soul that looks back to demons (pythones) and soothsayers to go a whoring after them Lev. xx 6.

No covenant is to be ratified with the inhabitants of the land, lest they go a whoring after their gods Exod. xxxiv 15.

Jerusalem, thou didst trust in thine own beauty, and didst commit whoredom because of thy renown, to such a degree that thou pouredst out thy whoredoms on everyone passing by. Thou didst commit whoredom with the sons of Egypt thy neighbours, great of flesh, and didst multiply thy whoredom. Thou didst commit whoredom with the sons of Assyria, with whom thou didst commit whoredom when there was no satisfying thee. Thou didst multiply thy whoredom as far as to Chaldea. A woman, an adulteress, takes strangers instead of her husband. All men give a reward to their harlots; but thou hast given rewards to all men so that they may come to thee in succession in thy whoredom. Wherefore, O harlot, hear the word of Jehovah Ezek. xvi 15, 16, 26, 28, 29, 32, 33, 35 seq.

‘Jerusalem’ there is the Israelitish and Jewish Church; by her ‘whoredoms’ are understood adulterations and falsifications of the Word; and because in the Word by ‘Egypt’ is signified the knowledge of the natural man, by ‘Assyria’ reasoning therefrom, by ‘Chaldea’ the profanation of truth, and by ‘Babel’ the profanation of good, therefore it is said that she has committed whoredom with them.

sRef Ezek@23 @5 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @14 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @8 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @11 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @7 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @16 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @3 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @2 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @17 S4′ [4] Two women the daughters of one mother committed whoredom in Egypt; they committed whoredom in their youth. One committed whoredom under Me, and doted on her lovers, the neighbouring Assynians; she lavished her whoredoms on them; nevertheless she did not forsake her whoredom in Egypt. The other corrupted her love more than she, and her whoredoms over and above the whoredoms of her sister she added to the whoredoms, she loved the Chaldeans; the sons of Babel came to her to the lying together of loves, and defiled her by their whoredom Ezek. xxiii 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 14, 16, 17 seq.

The ‘two daughters of the same mother’ also are the Israelitish and Jewish Church, whose adulterations and falsifications of the Word are described here as above by ‘whoredoms’. sRef Hos@4 @13 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @1 S5′ sRef Hos@6 @10 S5′ sRef Jer@23 @14 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @8 S5′ sRef Jer@29 @23 S5′ sRef Hos@4 @10 S5′ sRef Hos@5 @3 S5′ sRef Jer@5 @1 S5′ sRef Jer@5 @7 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @9 S5′ sRef Hos@4 @7 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @2 S5′ sRef Jer@13 @27 S5′ sRef Hos@4 @11 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @6 S5′ [5] In like manner in these [instances]:-

Thou hast committed whoredom with many companions; thou hast profaned the land with thy whoredoms and wickedness. Hast thou seen what backsliding Israel has done? going up upon every high mountain and committing whoredom. Also treacherous Judah has gone and committed whoredom; to such a degree that by the voice of her whoredom she has profaned the land; she has committed adultery with stone and wood Jer. iii 1, 2, 6, 8, 9.

And elsewhere:-

Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and seek if you can find a man who is doing judgment and seeking the truth (veritas). When I have filled them full, they have committed whoredom, and come crowding into the harlot’s home Jer. v 1, 7.

I have seen thine adulteries, thy neighings, the wickedness of thy whoredom, thine abominations upon the hills in the field. Woe unto thee, O Jerusalem, thou shalt not be cleansed Jer. xiii 27.

In the prophets of Jerusalem I have seen a terrible stubbornness, in committing adultery and walking in lies Jer. xxiii 14.

They have done foolishness in Israel, committed whoredom, and spoken My Word in My Name falsely Jer. xxix 23.

They have sinned against Me, I will turn their glory into disgrace; they were committing whoredom because they have left Jehovah behind. Whoredom has taken possession of their heart. Your daughters commit whoredom, and your young married women commit adultery Hosea iv 7, 10, ii, 53.

I know Ephraim, that he has altogether committed whoredom, and Israel has been defiled Hosea v 3.

I have seen a foul thing in the house of Israel; there Ephraim has committed whoredom, and Israel has been defiled Hosea vi 10.

‘Israel’ there is the Church, while ‘Ephraim’ is the understanding of the Word out of and in accordance with which is the Church, and it is therefore said, ‘Ephraim has committed whoredom, and Israel has been defiled’. sRef Nahum@3 @3 S6′ sRef Nahum@3 @4 S6′ sRef Hos@3 @1 S6′ sRef Nahum@3 @1 S6′ sRef Hos@1 @2 S6′ [6] Since the Church had falsified the Word, the prophet Hosea was commanded to take to himself a harlot as a wife, with the saying:-

Take unto thee a woman of whoredoms and children of whoredoms, for the land in committing whoredom has committed whoredom behind Jehovah Hosea i 2.

Again:-

Love a woman beloved of her companion, yet an adulteress Hosea iii 1.

As the Jewish Church was such, therefore the Jewish nation was called an ‘adulterous generation’ by the Lord (Matt. xii 39; xvi 4; Mark viii 38), and in Isaiah, ‘the seed of the adulterer’ (lvii 3); and in Nahum:-

Woe to the bloody city, all in a lie, a multitude of those pierced above the multitude of the whoredoms of the whore, selling the nations by her whoredoms Nahum iii 1, 3, 4.

sRef Rev@18 @3 S7′ sRef Rev@19 @2 S7′ sRef Rev@14 @8 S7′ sRef Rev@17 @1 S7′ sRef Rev@17 @2 S7′ [7] As Babylon adulterates and falsifies the Word above the rest in Christendom, therefore she is called the ‘great harlot’, and these things are said of her in the Apocalypse:-

Babylon has made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her whoredom Rev. xiv 8.

Babylon has made all nations drink of the wine of the rage of whoredom, and the kings of the land have committed whoredom with her Rev. xviii 3.

The angel said, I will show unto thee the judgment of the great harlot, with whom the kings of the land have committed whoredom Rev. xvii 1, 2.

He has judged the great harlot who did corrupt the land with her whoredom Rev. xix 2.

From these passages it is now quite plain that ‘to commit adultery’ and ‘to commit whoredom’ signify to adulterate and falsify the goods and truths of the Word.
* Hebrew has ‘your’.

AR (Coulson) n. 135 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ 135. That ‘And to eat idol-sacrifices’ signifies the resulting defilement of worship, and profanations, is plain from the things expounded above (n. 114); for they who adulterate goods appropriate to themselves unclean things, and by their means defile and profane worship.

AR (Coulson) n. 136 sRef Matt@22 @40 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @21 S0′ 136. [verse 21] ‘And I gave her time to repent of her whoredom, and she repented not’ signifies that those who have confirmed themselves in that doctrine do not withdraw, although they see things against it in the Word.
By withdrawing from whoredom is understood here withdrawing from falsifying the Word. That they see things contrary to their doctrine is plain from a thousand passages in the Word where it is said that evils are to be shunned and goods to be done; also that they who do goods come into heaven, and they who do evils come into hell, as also that faith without works is dead and devilish. But it may be asked, What have they falsified of the Word, or where have they spiritually committed whoredom with the Word? The answer is that they have falsified the whole of the Word, for the whole Word is nothing but the Doctrine of love [that is] directed to the Lord and love towards the neighbour, for the Lord says that on the commandments concerning those two loves ‘hang all the Law and the Prophets’ (Matt. xxii 38-40). There is also in the Word a doctrine of faith, yet not of such a faith, but of the faith of love.

AR (Coulson) n. 137 sRef John@5 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ sRef John@5 @10 S0′ sRef John@5 @9 S0′ sRef John@5 @11 S0′ sRef John@5 @8 S0′ 137. [verse 22] ‘Behold I will cast her into a bed, and those committing adultery with her into great affliction’ signifies that therefore they have to be left in their doctrine with falsifications, and are to be grievously infested by untruths. That by a ‘bed’ doctrine is signified will be seen presently; that by ‘those committing adultery’ falsifications of truth are signified may be seen above (n. 134, 136); and that by ‘affliction’ is signified infestation from untruths (n. 35, 95, 101), consequently by ‘great affliction’ a severe infestation is signified. That a ‘bed’ signifies doctrine results from correspondence, for as the body takes repose in its own bed so does the mind in its own doctrine; but by the bed is signified the doctrine that everyone acquires for himself either out of the Word or his own intelligence, for his mind rests and, as it were, sleeps therein. The beds in which its repose is taken in the spiritual world are of no other origin. Everyone there has a bed in accordance with the quality of his knowledge and intelligence, sumptuous for the wise, tawdry for the unwise, and dirty for falsifiers. sRef Luke@17 @34 S2′ sRef Mark@2 @5 S2′ sRef Mark@2 @12 S2′ sRef Mark@2 @11 S2′ sRef Mark@2 @9 S2′ [2] This is signified by ‘bed’ in Luke:-

I tell you, In that night there shall be two in one bed; the one shall be taken, the other left Luke xvii 34-36.

This has to do with the last judgment. ‘Two in one bed’ are two in one doctrine, but not in a similar life. In John:-

Jesus said to the sick man, Rise, take up thy bed, and walk; and he took up his bed, and walked John v 8-12.

And in Mark:-

Jesus said to the paralytic, Son, thy sins have been forgiven thee; and He said to the scribes, Which is easier to say, thy sins have been forgiven thee, or to say, take up thy bed and walk? then He said, Take up thy bed and walk; and he took up the bed and went forth from them Mark ii 5, 9, 11, 12.

That something is signified here by ‘bed’ is plain, for Jesus said, ‘Which is easier to say, thy sins have been forgiven thee, or to say, take up thy bed and walk?’ By ‘carrying the bed and walking’ is signified meditating on doctrine. In heaven it is understood in that way. sRef Amos@3 @12 S3′ sRef Gen@47 @31 S3′ sRef Gen@49 @33 S3′ sRef Gen@48 @2 S3′ [3] Doctrine is signified by ‘bed’ also in Amos:-

As the shepherd rescues out of the lion’s mouth, so shall the sons of Israel be rescued that dwell in Samaria in the corner of a bed and in the end of a bedstead Amos iii 12.

‘In the corner of a bed and in the end of a bedstead’ is out of the way of the truths and goods of doctrine. By ‘bed’ and ‘bedstead’, and by ‘couch’, the like is signified elsewhere, as in Isa. xxviii 20; lvii 2, 7, 8; Ezek. xxiii 41; Amos vi 4; Micah ii 1; Ps. iv 4; xxxvi 4; xli 3 [H.B. 4]; Job vii 13; Lev. xv 4, 5. Since by ‘Jacob’ in the prophetical books of the Word is signified the Church as to doctrine, it is therefore said of him that:-

He bowed himself upon the head of the bed Gen. xlvii 31.

When Joseph came, he sat upon the bed Gen. xlviii 2.

He gathered up his feet upon the bed, and expired Gen. xlix 33.

Since the doctrine of the Church is signified by Jacob, therefore sometimes when I have thought of Jacob a man lying in a bed has appeared to me above in front.

AR (Coulson) n. 138 sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ 138. That ‘Except they repent of their works’ signifies if they do not wish to desist from separating faith from charity, and from falsifying the Word can be established without further exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 139 sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ 139. [verse 23] ‘And I will slay her sons with death’ signifies that all the truths with them out of the Word will be turned into untruths By ‘sons’ in the Word are signified truths, and in the opposite sense untruths; therefore ‘to slay sons’ signifies to turn truths into untruths, for in that manner they perish; nor is anything else understood by ‘the slain and pierced of Jehovah’. By ‘to slay her sons with death’ is also signified to condemn their untruths. ‘Sons’ signify truths, and in the opposite sense untruths, because in the spiritual sense of the Word by ‘generations’ spiritual generations are understood. In like manner [spiritual equivalents are understood] by blood-relationships and relationships by marriage, thus by the names of these, as by ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘sons’, ‘daughters’, ‘brothers’, ‘sisters’, ‘sons-in-law’, ‘daughters-in-law’, and the rest; and out of spiritual generation are born no sons and daughters other than truths and goods. Let n. 542, 543* below be seen.
* The Original Edition has 512, 546, probably a printer’s error.

AR (Coulson) n. 140 sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ sRef Ps@7 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@26 @2 S0′ 140. ‘So that all the Churches may recognise that I am He Who searches the kidneys and hearts’ signifies so that the Church may know that the Lord sees what truth and what good anyone has. By ‘the seven Churches’ the entire Church is signified, as before; and by ‘searching the kidneys and hearts’ is signified seeing all that a man believes and loves, thus what truth and what good he has. That this is signified by ‘searching the kidneys and hearts’ results from correspondence, for the Word in the sense of the letter of the Word consists of pure correspondences. The correspondence is from this, that as the kidneys purify the blood from the impurities that are called urinous, and the heart purifies the blood from the unclean things that are called filthy, so the truth of faith purifies a man from untruths, and the good of love purifies him from evils. sRef Ps@139 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@139 @15 S2′ sRef Ps@51 @6 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @3 S2′ sRef Jer@11 @20 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@73 @21 S2′ sRef Ps@73 @22 S2′ sRef Jer@17 @10 S2′ [2] Consequently the Ancients placed love and its affections in the heart, and intelligence and its perceptions in the kidneys, as can be established from these passages its the Word:-

Behold thou desirest truth (veritas) in the kidneys, and in what is hidden Thou makest wisdom known to me Ps. li 6.

Thou possessest the kidneys, my love was not hid from Thee when I was made in secret Ps. cxxxix 13, 15.

My heart is provoked, and I excite myself in my kidneys; but I am a dolt, I do not learn Ps. lxxiii 21, 22.

I Jehovah, searching the heart, and trying the kidneys, even to give each one according to his ways Jer. xvii 10.

Thou art near in their mouth, and far from their kidneys; Thou, O Jehovah, wilt see me and try my heart Jer. xii 2, 3.

Jehovah, judge of justice, trying the kidneys and the heart Jer. xi 20; xx 12.

Confirm the just, for it is the just God Who tries the heart and the kidneys Ps. vii 9 [H.B. 10].

Try me, O Jehovah, and test me, examine my kidneys and my heart Ps. xxvi 2.

By ‘kidneys’ in these places are signified the truths of intelligence and faith, and by ‘heart’ is signified the good of love and charity. That the heart signifies love and the affections thereof may be seen in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM* (n. 371-393).
* The Original Edition has DIVINA PROVIDENTIA (Divine Providence) but DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM is evidently intended.

AR (Coulson) n. 141 sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ 141. ‘And I will give to each one in accordance with his works’ signifies that He gives to every one in accordance with the charity and the faith thereof that is in the works. That works are a container of charity and faith, and that charity and faith without works are only like airy phantoms, vanishing as soon as they have appeared, may be seen above (n. 76).

AR (Coulson) n. 142 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 142. [verse 24] That ‘But I say unto you, and to the rest in Thyatira, as many as do not have this doctrines signifies to those with whom the doctrine of faith is separated from charity, and [to those] with whom the doctrine of faith is conjoined with charity is plain from the things said above, thus without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 143 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 143. ‘And who have not known the depths of Satan, as they say’ signifies who do not understand the interiors of those things, which are totally untrue. That by ‘Satan’ is understood the hell [formed] out of those who are in untruths, and abstractly the untruths, may be seen above (n. 97). Consequently by its ‘depths’ are signified the interiors of the doctrine separated from charity, and these are totally untrue. The depths and interiors of that doctrine are the things that are given out in their books, also in lectures in the colleges, and thence in preachings. Of what quality these are may be seen in the things premised to Chapter 1, where their Doctrinal Tenets have been quoted, particularly there [the section treating] of JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH, and OF GOOD WORKS. There it may be seen stated that only the clergy are acquainted with the mysteries of that doctrine, but not the laity, and therefore chiefly the latter are understood by those ‘who have not known the depths’.

AR (Coulson) n. 144 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 144. ‘I do not put upon you another burden’ signifies only so that they may be on their guard against them. This is because they confirm their untruths by reasonings derived from the natural man, and by some things out of the Word which they falsify, for by means of these they are able to seduce. They are like snakes in the grass that bite passers-by, or like concealed poisons that kill the unwary.

AR (Coulson) n. 145 sRef Rev@2 @25 S0′ 145. [verse 25] ‘Nevertheless, what you have, hold fast till I come’ signifies so that they may retain the few things that they know as a result of charity and faith therefrom out of the Word, and live in accordance with them, even till the New Heaven and the New Church, which are the Lord’s coming, are brought into being. For these, and no others, receive the things that the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem teaches concerning the Lord and charity.

AR (Coulson) n. 146 sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 146. [verse 26] ‘And he who overcomes and keeps My works even to the end’ signifies those who fight against evils and untruths and are reformed, and are actually in charity and faith therefrom, and continue in them even to the end of life. That ‘to overcome’ is to fight against evils and untruths may be seen above (n. 88); and that the ‘works’ are charity and faith therefrom in act (n. 76, 141). It is plain that ‘to keep them even to the end’ is to be in them and continue in them even to the end of life.

AR (Coulson) n. 147 sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 147. ‘To him will I give authority over the nations’ signifies that they shall overcome within themselves the evils that are from hell. That by ‘nations’ in the Word are understood those who are in good, and in the Opposite sense those who are in evil, thus abstractly goods and evils, may be seen below (n. 483). Here, therefore, by ‘giving authority over the nations’ is signified giving them [the ability] to overcome within themselves evils from hell.

AR (Coulson) n. 148 sRef Rev@19 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@12 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ sRef Isa@11 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@2 @9 S0′ 148. [verse 27] ‘And he shall rule them with an iron rod’ signifies by means of truths out of the sense of the letter of the Word, and at the same time by means of rational things out of natural light. These things are signified by a rod or staff of iron, because by a ‘rod’ or ‘staff’ in the Word power is signified, and by ‘iron’ is signified natural truth, consequently the natural sense of the Word, and at the same time a man’s natural light. The power of the Word resides in these two. That the Divine Truth is in its power in the natural sense of the Word, which is the sense of its letter, may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 37-49). This is because the sense of the letter is the basis, containant, and support of its spiritual sense (n. 27-36). That all power is in the ultimates that are called natural, may be seen also Its ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM (n. 205-221); consequently [it is in] the natural sense of the letter of the Word, and in a man’s natural light. These, therefore, are the ‘iron rod’ with which ‘he shall rule the nations’, that is, shall overcome the evils that are from hell. Similar things are signified by ‘iron rod’ in these passages:-

Thou shalt bruise the nations with an iron rod, thou shalt shatter them like the vessel of a potter Ps. li 9.

The woman brought forth a male [who was] going to rule all nations with an iron rod Rev. xii 5.

Out of the mouth of Him Who sat upon the white horse went a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations; but He shall rule them with an iron rod Rev. xix 15.

Jehovah shall smite the wicked with the rod of His mouth Isa. xi 4.

AR (Coulson) n. 149 sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ sRef Ps@2 @9 S0′ 149. ‘As the vessels of a potter shall they be broken in pieces signifies like little things of no account. ‘The vessels of a potter’ is said because by them are signified the things that are of one’s own intelligence, which are all untrue and in themselves of no account. Likewise in David:-

Thou shalt bruise the nations with an iron rod, thou shalt shatter them like the vessel of a potter Ps. ii 9.

AR (Coulson) n. 150 sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ 150. ‘Even as I have accepted from My Father’ signifies that they shall have this from the Lord, Who, when He was in the world, furnished Himself with all power over the hells out of His Own Divine that was in Himself. That the Lord, when He was in the world, by means of the temptations admitted into Himself, and at last by means of the utmost limit thereof, which was the passion of the cross, subjugated the hells and glorified His Human, may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 29-36); also above in n. 67. From these things it can be established that ‘to accept from His Father’ is from the Divine that was in Himself; for He said that the Father is in Him and He in the Father [John xiv 11], that the Father and He are One [John x 30]; also, ‘The Father, Who is in Me’ [John xiv 10]; and more.

AR (Coulson) n. 151 sRef Rev@2 @28 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @25 S1′ 151. [verse 28] ‘And I will give him the morning star’ signifies intelligence and wisdom then. That cognitions of good and truth are signified by ‘stars’ may be seen above (n. 51); and because by means of them there is intelligence and wisdom, therefore these cognitions are signified by ‘the morning star’. ‘Morning star’* is said because intelligence and wisdom will be given by the Lord when He comes for the setting up of the New Church that is the New Jerusalem, for He says, ‘What you have, hold fast till I come’ (verse 25), by which is signified so that they may retain the few truths that they know about charity and the faith therefrom out of the Word, and live in accordance with them, even till the New Heaven and the New Church, which are the Lord’s coming, are brought into being (n. 145). sRef Isa@21 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@7 @7 S2′ sRef Ezek@7 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@21 @12 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @7 S2′ sRef Dan@8 @26 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @8 S2′ sRef Dan@8 @14 S2′ sRef Zeph@3 @5 S2′ sRef Ezek@7 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @5 S2′ [2] ‘Morning star’ is said, because by ‘morning’ or ‘dawn’ is signified the Lord’s coming, when there is a New Church. That this is understood by ‘morning’ in the Word is plain from the following passages:-

Until the evening and the morning two thousand three hundred; then shall the sanctuary be justified; the vision of the evening and the morning, is truth Dan. viii 14, 26.

Calling to me out of Seir, Watchman, watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning comes, and also the night Isa. xxi 11, 12.

By ‘evening’ and ‘night’ is signified the last time of an old Church, and by ‘morning’ the first time of a new Church.

The end is come, the morning is come upon thee, O inhabitant of the land; behold the day is come, the morning is gone forth Ezek. vii 6, 7, 10.

Jehovah in the morning, in the morning He will give His judgment into the light, and will not be absent Zeph. iii 5.

God is in the midst of her, God shall help her when morning appears Ps. xlvi 5 [H.B. 6].

I have waited for Jehovah, my soul waits for the Lord more than they that watch for the morning, they that watch for the morning, for with Him is plenteous redemption, and He shall redeem Israel Ps. cxxx 5-8;

and elsewhere. sRef 2Sam@23 @4 S3′ sRef 2Sam@23 @3 S3′ sRef Rev@22 @16 S3′ [3] By ‘morning’ in these passages is understood the Lord’s coming, when He came into the world and set up a new Church. In like manner now. And because the Only Lord gives those who will be of His New Church (e Nova Ipsius Ecclesia) intelligence and wisdom, and all things that the Lord gives are Himself because they are His, therefore the Lord says that He is ‘the morning Star’:-

I am the root and offspring of David, the bright and the morning Star Rev. xxii 16.

He is also called ‘the morning’ in 2 Samuel:-

The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me, He is as the light of the morning, a morning without clouds 2 Sam. xxiii 3, 4.

* In view of the repetition of this phrase later in the paragraph, it seems probable that the exposition here applies to the phrase ‘And I will give’.

AR (Coulson) n. 152 sRef Rev@2 @29 S0′

152. [verse 29] ‘He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches’ signifies that he who understands these things obeys what the Divine Truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church (e Nova Ecclesia) that is the New Jerusalem, as above (n. 87).

* * * *

AR (Coulson) n. 153 153. To these things I will add something MEMORABLE about the lot, after their passing on, of those who in both doctrine and life have confirmed themselves in faith alone even to justification.

1. When they are deceased and live again as to the spirit, which is generally brought about on the third day after the heart has stopped beating, they appear to themselves in a body like the one they were in before in the world, so much like it that they do not know otherwise than that they are living in the previous world. They are not, however, in a material body, but in a spiritual body, presenting to their senses, which also are spiritual, the appearance of being like what is material, although this is not the case.

[2] 2. A few days later they see that they are in a world where various societies have been established. This world is called the world of spirits, and it is midway between heaven and hell. All the societies there, which are innumerable, are arranged wonderfully in accordance with the natural affections, good and evil. The societies arranged in accordance with the good natural affections are in communication with heaven, and the societies arranged in accordance with the evil affections are in communication with hell.

[3] 3. The newly arrived spirit or spiritual man is conducted and conveyed into the various societies, both good and evil, and examined to find out whether and in what way he is affected by truths, or whether and in what way he is affected by untruths.

[4] 4. If he is affected by truths, he is led away from the evil societies and into the good ones, and is also led into various societies until he comes into the one corresponding to his own natural affection, and there he has the enjoyment of the good agreeing with that affection; and this continues until he has put off the natural affection and put on a spiritual one, and he is then raised into heaven. But this takes place with those who in the world have lived a life of charity, and thus also a life of faith, and this implies their having believed in the Lord and shunned evils as sins.

[5] 5. Because those, however, who in doctrine and life have confirmed themselves in faith even to justification by it alone, are not affected by truths but by untruths, and because they have rejected the goods of charity that are good works from being a means of salvation, they are led away from the good societies and into the evil ones, and are also led into various societies until they come into the one corresponding to the lusts of their own love. For he who loves untruths cannot do otherwise than love evils.

[6] 6. But because in the world they have pretended to good affections in the externals, although in their internals they were nothing but affections of evil or lusts, they are at first kept by turns in the externals; and those who in the world have presided over meetings are set in authority here and there in the world of spirits over societies in general or in part in accordance with the importance of the duties they had discharged. Because, however, they neither love truth nor justice, and are not capable of being enlightened so as to know what truth and justice are, after some days they are therefore dismissed. I have seen such persons transported from one society to the next and an administrative post given them wherever they might be, but in ever case after a short while they were dismissed.

[7] 7. After repeated refusals, some out of weariness will not, others for fear of losing reputation dare not, solicit executive offices any more. Therefore they withdraw and sit about in sadness, and are then led away into a lonely place where there are huts. They enter these, and some work is given them to do there, and as they do it they receive food. If they do not do this they are hungry and do not receive any, and by this means necessity compels [them to work]. The foods there are like those in our world, but they come from a spiritual origin and are given by the Lord out of heaven to all in accordance with the uses they perform. They are not given to the idle, because they are useless.

[8] 8. After a while they loathe work, and then they go out of the huts; and if they have been priests they want to erect a building, and instantly there appear piles of hewn stones, of bricks, of wooden posts and boards, also heaps made up of reeds and rushes, of clay, lime, and pitch. When they see these, they are inflamed by an inordinate lust for building, and start constructing a house by taking now a stone, then wood, now a reed, then some mud, and they place the one upon the other in disorder, yet in their sight well ordered. But what they build by day falls apart at night, and on the day following they gather up some of the fallen rubble and build again, and they go on doing this until they are tired of building. This comes to pass because they have brought untruths together to confirm salvation by faith alone, and those untruths do not build a Church in any other way.

[9] 9. Afterwards from weariness they go away and sit about lonely and idle; and because, as was said, food out of heaven is not given to the idle, they begin to be hungry and to think of nothing else but how they are going to get food and appease their hunger. When they are in this condition some persons come to them from whom they beg alms; and they say, ‘Why do you sit idle like this? Come into our houses with us, and we will give you work to do, and feed you.’ Whereupon they get up joyfully and go off with these into their houses, and there each has his work given him, and food for his work. But because all who have confirmed themselves in untruths of faith are unable to do works of good use, but [do works] of evil use-and they do not do these faithfully, but only for the sake of appearances on account of honour or gain-they therefore give up their works and love only a round of talking, walking about, and sleeping. And then because they cannot any longer be persuaded by the householders to work, they are for that reason cast out as useless.

[10] 10. When they have been cast out they have their eyes opened and they see a path going towards a certain cave, the entrance to which is opened when they get there. And they enter and ask if there is any food there, and when a reply is given that there is food there they beg leave to stay there, and it is said that they may do so. And they are led in, and the entrance is closed behind them. And then the officer in charge of that cave comes and says to them, ‘You cannot go out any more. Behold your comrades! They all labour, and as they labour food is given them out of heaven. I am telling you this so that you may know.’ And the comrades also say, ‘Our officer in charge knows what work each is fitted for, and every day he imposes such work on each one. Every day you finish it food is given you, but if you do not, neither food nor clothing is given. And if one does evil to his fellow, he is thrown towards a corner of the cave into a certain bed of accursed dust where he is miserably tortured, and this goes on till the officer in charge sees a sign of repentance on his part, whereupon he is released and commanded to do his work.’ in addition he is told that after his work every one is allowed to walk about, to converse, and afterwards to sleep. And he is conducted further into the cave, where there are harlots from among whom each one is permitted to take one to be his woman, and promiscuous whoredom is forbidden under a penalty. [11] Of such caves, which are nothing but eternal workhouses, the entire hell consists. For the purpose of making it known, it has been granted me to enter some of them and see and all the people seemed worthless, and not one of them knew who, or in what office, he had been in the world. But the angel who was with me told me: In the world this one had been a servant, this a soldier, this a governor, this a priest, this one in dignity, that one in wealth. And yet they all know no otherwise than that they have been slaves like their comrades. This is because they had been interiorly alike although exteriorly unlike, and the Interiors associate all in the spiritual world. Such is the lot of those who have set aside a life of charity, and consequently have not lived that life in the world.

[12] Regarding the hells in general, they consist purely of such caves and workhouses, but of dissimilar ones where the satans and where the devils are. The satans are those who have been in untruths and the evils therefrom, while the devils are those who have been in evils and the untruths therefrom. The satans appear in the light of heaven as corpses, and some of them black like a mummy; and the devils appear in the light of heaven duskily burnt, and some of them jet black like soot; but all of them with monstrous faces and bodies. In their own light, however, which resembles the light of a coal fire, they appear not as monsters but as men. This has been granted them so that they might be able to associate.

AR (Coulson) n. 154 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 154. THE THIRD CHAPTER

1. And to the Angel of the Church in Sardis write: These things says He Who has the seven spirits of GOD, and the seven stars: I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead.

2. Be watchful, and strengthen the things remaining that are ready to die; for I have not found thy works full before GOD.

3. Remember therefore how thou hast accepted and heard, and observe and repent. If therefore thou dost not watch, I will come on thee like a thief, and thou shalt not know at what hour I will come upon thee.

4. Thou hast a few names even in Sardis, which have not defiled their garments, and they shall walk with me in white, for they are worthy.

5. He who overcomes shall be clothed with white garments; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life; and I will confess his name before My Father, and before His angels.

6. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches.

7. And to the Angel of the Church in Philadelphia write:
These things says the Holy True One, having the key of David, opening and no one shuts, and shutting and no one opens.

8. I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no one is able to shut it, because thou hast a little power, and hast observed My Word, and hast not denied My Name.

9. Behold, I will make (dabo) those of the synagogue of Satan, declaring themselves to be Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make (faciam) them to come and worship at thy feet, and to know that I have chosen thee.

10. Because thou hast kept the word of My endurance, I also will keep thee safe from the hour of temptation that is going to come upon the entire world (orbis) to try those dwelling upon the land.

11. Behold, I am coming quickly; hold that fast which thou hast, that no one may get thy crown.

12. Him who overcomes will I make a pillar in the temple of My God, and he shall go no more out, and I will write upon him the Name of My God, and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God, and My new Name.

13. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches.

14. And to the Angel of the Church of the Laodiceans write: These things says the Amen, the faithful and true Witness, the Beginning of the work of God.

15. I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou wert cold or hot.

16. So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I am going to spew thee out of My mouth.

17. Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and do not need anything, and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked.

18. I counsel thee to buy from Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white garments that thou mayest be clothed, and the shame of thy nakedness may not appear; and anoint thine eyes with eye salve, that thou mayest see.

19. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten; be zealous therefore, and repent.

20. Behold I stand at the door (janua) and knock: if any one hears My voice, and opens the door (ostium), I will enter in to him, and will sup with him and he with Me.

21. To him who overcomes will I grant to be seated with Me in My throne, as I have overcome, and am seated with the Father in His throne.

22. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches.


THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

THE CONTENT OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER
It treats of those in Christendom who are in dead worship that is without charity and faith; who are described by ‘the Church in Sardis’ (n. 154-171)
Of those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord; who are described by ‘the Church in Philadelphia’ (n. 172-197).

Of those who have a belief derived alternately from themselves and from the Word, and who in this manner profane holy things; who are described by ‘the Church in Laodicea’ (n. 198-223).

Even the latter, as well as the former, are called to the Lord’s New Church.

THE CONTENTS OF EACH OF THE VERSES

1. To the Angel of the Church in Sardis write
signifies to and concerning those who are in dead worship, or in worship that is without the goods that are of charity and the truths that are of faith.
These things says He Who has the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars
signifies the Lord from Whom [come] all truths (veritas), and all the cognitions of good and truth.
I know thy works
signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once.
That thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead
signifies that by themselves and by others it seems and is believed that they are spiritually alive, when yet they are spiritually dead.

2. Be watchful
signifies so that they may be in truths and in a life in accordance with them.
Strengthen the things remaining that are ready to die
signifies so that the things that pertain to their worship may get life.
For I have not found thy works full before God
signifies that the interiors of their worship have not been conjoined with the Lord.

3. Remember therefore how thou hast accepted and heard
signifies so that they may think about all worship being natural to begin with, and afterwards becoming spiritual by means of truths, besides many [other things].
And observe and repent
signifies so that they may pay attention to those things, and vivify their dead worship.
If therefore thou dost not watch
signifies here [the same] as above.
I will come on thee like a thief, and thou shalt not know at what hour I will come upon thee
signifies that the things that pertain to worship shall be taken away, and that when and how this happens shall not be known.

4. Thou hast a few names even in Sardis
signifies that among them there are also those who do have life in their worship.
Which have not defiled their garments
signifies who are in truths, and have not polluted worship by evils of life and the untruths therefrom.
And they shall walk with Me in white [for they are worthy]
signifies that they are going to be living with the Lord, because they are in truths from Him.

5. He who overcomes shall be clothed in white garments
signifies that he who is reformed becomes spiritual.
And I will not blot out his name out of the book of life
signifies that he shall be saved.
And I will confess his name before the Father and before His angels
signifies that they who are in Divine Good and in Divine truths from the Lord are to be received.

6. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches signifies here, as before.

7. And to the Angel of the Church in Philadelphia write
signifies to and concerning those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord.
These things says the Holy True One
signifies the Lord as to Divine Truth.
Having the key of David, and opening and no one shuts and shutting and no one opens
signifies Who Only has the Omnipotence to save.

8. I know thy works
signifies here, as above.
Behold, I have set before thee an open door
signifies that heaven has been opened to those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord.
And no one is able to shut it
signifies that hell does not prevail against them.
Because thou hast a little power
signifies because they know that of themselves they are powerless.
And hast observed My Word
signifies because they are living in accordance with the precepts of the Lord in His Word.
And hast not denied My Name
signifies that they are in the worship of the Lord.

9. And I will make (dabo) those of the synagogue of Satan
signifies those who as to doctrine are in untruths.
Declaring themselves to be Jews, and are not, but do lie
signifies who say that the Church is with them, and yet it is not.
Behold I will make them to come and worship at thy feet
signifies that many who as to doctrine are in untruths are going to receive the truths of the New Church.
And to know that I have chosen thee
signifies that they are going to see that they are loved and received into heaven by the Lord.

10. Because thou hast kept the word of My endurance
signifies because they have fought against evils.
I also will keep thee safe from the hour of temptation that is going to come upon the entire world (orbis), to try those dwelling upon the land
signifies that they are to be protected and kept safe in the day of the last judgment.

11. Behold, I am coming quickly
signifies the Lord’s coming.
Hold that fast which thou hast
signifies so that in the meantime they should remain in their truths and goods.
That no one may get thy crown
signifies lest the wisdom out of which eternal happiness [comes] should perish.

12. He who overcomes
signifies those who continue steadfastly in truths derived out of good.
Him will I make a pillar in the temple of My God
signifies that truths derived out of good from the Lord, with those who have them, sustain the Church.
And he shall go no more out
signifies that they are going to stay there to eternity.
And I will write upon him the Name of My God
signifies that Divine Truth shall be inscribed on their hearts.
And the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem
signifies that the doctrine of the New Church shall be inscribed on [their] hearts.
Which comes down out of heaven from My God
signifies which [doctrine] shall be out of the Lord’s Divine truth, such as it is in heaven.
And My new Name
signifies the worship of the Only Lord with new things that have not been in the former Church.

13. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches
signifies here, as before.

14. And to the Angel of the Church of the Laodiceans write
signifies to and concerning those in the Church who believe alternately out of themselves and out of the Word, and in this manner profane holy things.
These things says the Amen, the faithful and true Witness
signifies the Lord as to the Word, which is Divine Truth from Himself.
The Beginning of the work of God
signifies the Word.

15. I know thy works
signifies here, as before.
That thou art neither cold nor hot
signifies that they who are such at one time deny that the Word is Divine and Holy, and at another time acknowledge it.
I would thou wert cold or hot
signifies that it is better that they should whole-heartedly deny the holy things of the Word and the Church, or whole-heartedly acknowledge them.

16. So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I am going to spew thee out of My mouth
signifies profanation, and separation from the Lord.

17. Because thou sayest, I am rich and increased with goods
signifies that they believe themselves to possess the cognitions of good and truth that are of heaven and the Church in great abundance.
And do not need anything
signifies that they do not need to discern anything more.
And knowest not that thou art wretched
signifies that all the things that they know of those [cognitions] have no coherence at all.
And miserable and poor
signifies that they are without [truths and goods.
And blind and naked
signifies that they are without] an understanding of truth and a will of good.

18. I counsel thee to buy from Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich
signifies an admonition to acquire for themselves the good of love from the Lord by means of the Word, so that they may be wise.
And white garments that thou mayest be clothed
signifies that they may acquire for themselves genuine truths of wisdom.
And the shame of thy nakedness may not appear
signifies so that the good of celestial love may not be profaned and adulterated.
And anoint thine eyes with eye-salve that thou mayest see
signifies so that the understanding may be healed.

19. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten
signifies that because they are loved at that time, they cannot but be let into temptations.
Be zealous therefore and repent
signifies so that this [healing] may result from an affection of truth.

20. Behold I stand at the door (janua) and knock
signifies that the Lord is present with every one in the Word, and draws nigh there to be received, and teaches how.
If anyone hears My voice and opens [the door (ostium)]
signifies he who believes in the Word and lives in accordance with it.
I will enter in to him, and will sup with him and he with Me
signifies that the Lord conjoins Himself with them and them with Himself.

21. To him who overcomes will I grant to be seated with Me in My throne
signifies that they shall have conjunction with the Lord in heaven.
As I have overcome and am seated with the Father in His throne
signifies as He and the Father are one, and are heaven.

22. He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches
signifies here, as before.


THE EXPOSITION

[verse 1] ‘And to the Angel of the Church in Sardis write’ signifies to and concerning those who are in dead worship, or in worship that is without the goods that are of charity and the truths that are of faith. That those who are in this worship are understood by ‘the Church in Sardis’ is plain from the things written to it understood in the spiritual sense. By dead worship is understood worship alone, which is that they go to church, hear preachings, attend the Holy Supper, read the Word and books of piety, talk of God, of heaven and hell, of life after death, especially of piety, say prayers morning and evening, and yet do not desire to know the truths of faith nor wish to do the goods of charity, believing that they have salvation by means of worship alone. When in fact worship without truths, and without a life in accordance with them, is only the outward sign of charity and faith, within which there can lie hidden evils and untruths of every kind, unless charity and faith are within. Genuine worship is [the result] of these. Otherwise the worship is like the skin or surface of some fruit, within which the rotten worm-eaten flesh lies hidden; and such a fruit is dead. That such worship is reigning in the Church at this day, is known.

AR (Coulson) n. 155 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′

155. ‘These things says He Who has the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars’ signifies the Lord from Whom [come] all truths (veritas), and all the cognitions of good and truth. That by ‘the seven spirits of God’ is understood Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord, or the Divine Truth (veritas), may be seen above (n. 14); and that by ‘the seven stars’ are understood all the cognitions of good and truth out of the Word (n. 51), out of which cognitions the Church in heaven is [formed] (n. 65). These things are now said by the Lord because it treats of dead worship and living worship; and worship is living as a result of truths and a life in accordance with them.

AR (Coulson) n. 156 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 156. ‘I know thy works’ signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, as above (n. 76).

AR (Coulson) n. 157 sRef Luke@13 @26 S0′ sRef Luke@13 @27 S0′ sRef Luke@13 @25 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′

157. ‘That thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead’ signifies that by themselves and by others it seems and is believed that they are spiritually alive, when yet they are spiritually dead. By ‘to have a name’ is signified to seem and to be believed that they are such; here, that they are alive, when yet they are dead. For spiritual life, which is properly life, is not of worship only, but it is within worship, and within it there must be Divine truths out of the Word, and when a man lives these truths, life is in the worship. This is because the external derives its quality from internal things, and the internal things of worship are truths of life. These are they who are understood by means of these words of the Lord:

Then shall you begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord open to us, but answering He shall say, I know you not whence you are. And you shall begin to say, We have eaten in Thy presence, and have drunk in Thy presence, and Thou hast taught in our streets; but I will say to you, I know you not whence you are; depart from Me all you workers of iniquity Luke xiii 25-27.

[2] It has been granted [me] also to hear many saying in the spiritual world that they have frequently attended Holy Communion, and thus eaten and drunk what is holy, and as often been absolved from [their] sins; that every Sabbath day they have listened to their teachers, and have said their prayers devoutly at home morning and evening; and more besides. But when the interiors of their worship have been laid open, these have appeared full of iniquities and as infernal things, and they have therefore been rejected. And when they have said, ‘What is the reason for this?’ they have obtained the answer that they have not cared at all about Divine truths. And yet a life not in accordance with Divine truths is not a life such as they who are in heaven have, and they who are not in the life of heaven are unable to endure the light of heaven, which is Divine Truth proceeding there from the Lord as the Sun. Still less are they able to endure the heat of heaven, which is Divine Love. But although they have heard and also understood those things, they have nevertheless said, when let back into themselves and their own worship, ‘What need is there for truths, and what are truths?’ Because, however, they have not been able to receive truths, they have been left to their own lusts which have been within their worship, and these at length have rejected all their worship of God from them. So the interiors accommodate the exteriors to themselves, and reject the things that do not agree with themselves; for with all after death the exteriors are rendered analogous to the interiors.

AR (Coulson) n. 158 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ sRef Luke@12 @40 S0′ sRef Luke@12 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @42 S0′ sRef Mark@13 @35 S0′ sRef Isa@26 @19 S0′ sRef Mark@13 @36 S0′ sRef Mark@13 @37 S0′ 158. [verse 2] ‘Be watchful’ signifies that they may be in truths, and in a life in accordance with them. Nothing else is signified by ‘to watch’ in the Word; for he who learns truths and lives in accordance with them is like one who is wakened out of a sleep and is alert. Whereas he who is not in truths, but only in worship, is like one who is asleep and dreaming. Natural life regarded in itself, or without spiritual life, is nothing else but a sleep; but natural life in which there is spiritual life is watchfulness; and this can be achieved by no other means than truths, which are in their own light and their own day when a man is in a life in accordance with them. This is signified by ‘to watch’ in these passages:-

Watch, for you know not what hour the Lord is going to come Matt. xxiv 42.

Blessed are those servants whom the Lord when He comes shall find watching. Be ready, for the Son of Man shall come at an hour when you think not Luke xii 37, 40.

Watch, for you know not when the Lord of the house shall come, lest when He suddenly comes, He find you sleeping. What I say unto you, I say unto you all, Watch Mark xiii 35-37.

While the bridegroom tarried the virgins slumbered and slept, and the five foolish came and said, Lord open to us, but the Lord shall answer, I know you not. Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of Man shall come Matt. xxv 1-13.

Because the Lord’s coming is called ‘morning’ (n. 151), and then truths are opened and there is light, therefore that time is called ‘the beginning of the watches’ (Lam. ii 19), and the Lord is called ‘a Watcher’ (Dan. iv 13); and it is said in Isaiah:-

Thy dead shall live, Awake you that dwell in the dust Isa. xxvi 19.

But that the state of a man who is not in truths is termed a ‘slumber’ and ‘sleep’ may be seen (Jer. li 39, 57; Ps. xiii 3 [H.B. 4]; Ps. lxxvi 6 [H.B. 7]; Matt. xiii 25, and elsewhere).

AR (Coulson) n. 159 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′

159. ‘And strengthen the things remaining that are ready to die’ signifies so that the things that pertain to their worship may accept life, and not be extinguished. How these things are to be understood shall be stated. Dead worship is in external form absolutely like living worship, for those who are in truths do similar things, for they listen to sermons, go to the Holy Supper, say prayers kneeling morning and evening, besides the rest of the things of worship that are general and customary. Those, therefore, who are in dead worship have need of no more than to learn truths (veritas) and live them. In this way are ‘strengthened the things remaining that are ready to die’.

AR (Coulson) n. 160 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ 160. ‘For I have not found thy works full before God’ signifies that the interiors of their worship have not been conjoined with the Lord. That by ‘works’ the interiors and exteriors are understood, and that by ‘I know thy works’ [is signified] that the Lord sees all the interiors and exteriors of man at once, may he seen above (n. 76). These works are called ‘full before God’ when they have been conjoined with the Lord. It should be known that dead worship or worship only external does effect the Lord’s presence, but not conjunction. But external worship in which the interiors are living effects both presence and conjunction; for the conjunction of the Lord is with the things with a man that are from the Lord, which are the truths resulting from good, and unless these are in the worship, the works are not full before God, but are empty. ‘Empty’ in the Word is said of the man in whom there are purely and simply untruths and evils (as Matt. xii 44, and elsewhere). ‘Full’ is therefore said of the man in whom there are truths and goods.

AR (Coulson) n. 161 sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ 161. [verse 3] ‘Remember therefore how thou hast accepted and heard’ signifies so that it may come into the thought that all worship is natural to begin with, and afterwards becomes spiritual by means of truths out of the Word and a life in accordance with them, besides many [other things]. These are the things that are understood by means of these words; then also that every one has knowledge out of the Word, and out of sermons, that truths ought to be learned, and that men have faith, charity, and everything of the Church by means of truths. [2] That this is the case has been shown frequently in ARCANA CAELESTIA published at London; as that by means of truths there is faith (n. 4353, 4977, 7178, 10,367); that by means of truths there is love towards the neighbour, or charity (n. 4368, 7623, 7624, 8034); that by means of truths there is love directed to the Lord (n. 10,143, 10,153, 10,310, 10,578, 10,645); that by means of truths there is intelligence and wisdom (n. 3182, 3190, 3387, 10,064); that by means of truths there is regeneration (n. 1555, 1904, 2046, 2189, 9088, 9959, 10,028); that by means of truths there is power against evils and untruths, and against hell (n. 3091, 4015, 10,488); that by means of truths there is purification from evils and untruths (n. 2799, 5954, 7044, 7918, 10,229, 10,237); that by means of truths there is the Church (n. 798, 1799, 3963, 4468, 4672); that by means of truths there is heaven (n. 6690, 9832, 9931, 10,303); that by means of truths there is the innocence of wisdom (n. 3183, 3494, 6013); that by means of truths there is conscience (n. 1077, 2053, 9113); that by means of truths there is order (n. 3316, 3417, 3570, 4704*, 5339, 5343, 6028, 10,303); that by means of truths angels have beauty, and men also as to the interiors that are of their spirit (n. 553, 3080, 4985, 5199); that by means of truths a man is a man (n. 3175, 3387, 8370, 10,298): nevertheless all these things are by means of truths derived from good, and not by means of truths without good, and good is from the Lord (n. 2434, 4070, 4736, 5147). That every good is from the Lord (n. 1614, 2016, 2904, 4151, 9981, 5147). [3] But who thinks this? At this day is it not a matter of indifference whether a man knows one set of truths or another, provided he is in worship? And because few search the Word with the purpose of learning truths and living them, therefore nothing is known about the worship, whether it is dead or alive; and yet in accordance with the quality of the worship a man himself is dead or alive. Otherwise what [use] would the Word be, and the doctrine therefrom? What [use] would sabbaths be, and sermons, as well as dogmatical books? In fact, what would the Church and religion be otherwise? That all worship is natural to begin with, and that it afterwards becomes spiritual by means of truths out of the Word and a life in accordance with them, is known; for a man is born natural, but is educated to become civil and moral, and afterwards spiritual, for in such a manner he is reborn. These latter things therefore, and the former, are signified by ‘Remember how thou hast accepted and heard’.
* This number is incorrect. Probably it should be 4104, or possibly 5704.

AR (Coulson) n. 162 sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′

162. ‘And observe and repent’ signifies so that they may pay attention to those things, and vivify their dead worship. It is plain that ‘to observe’ is to pay attention to the things that are understood by ‘Remember how thou hast accepted and heard’; and it consequently follows that ‘to repent’ is to vivify dead worship by means of truths out of the Word and a life in accordance with them.

AR (Coulson) n. 163 sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ 163. That ‘If therefore thou dost not watch’ signifies if they are not in truths and a life in accordance with them is established from the things expounded above (n. 158).

AR (Coulson) n. 164 sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ 164. ‘I will come on thee like a thief, and thou shalt not know at what hour I will come upon thee’ signifies that the things that pertain to worship shall be taken away, and that when and how this happens shall not be known. It is said that the Lord ‘will come like a thief’ because the external good of worship is taken away from the man who is in dead worship; for in dead worship there is something of good, because they think about God and eternal life. Nevertheless good without its own truths is not good, except what is for the sake of recompense or hypocritical, and evils and untruths take this away like a thief. This taking away is done successively in the world, and completely after death, also while the man does not know when and how. That He is going to come like a thief is ascribed to the Lord, but in the spiritual sense it is understood that hell will take and steal it away. This is like its being said in the Word that God does evil to a man, vastates him, takes vengeance, burns with anger, and leads into temptation, when yet hell does these things; for it is so said on account of its appearing in that way before the man. That a man has the talent and pound (mina) for his trading taken away from him if nothing is gained, may be seen (Matt. xxv 26-30; Luke xix 24-26). ‘To trade and to gain’ signifies to furnish oneself with truths and goods. sRef Matt@24 @43 S2′ sRef Obad@1 @5 S2′ sRef Rev@16 @15 S2′ sRef Hos@7 @1 S2′ sRef Matt@6 @19 S2′ sRef Matt@6 @20 S2′ sRef Joel@2 @9 S2′ sRef Matt@24 @42 S2′ [2] Since the taking of good and truth away from those who are in dead worship is like [something done] by a thief in the dark, therefore in the Word this is sometimes likened to a thief as in the following:-

Behold I come as a thief Blessed is he who watches and keeps his garments, lest he walk naked Rev. xvi 15.

Watch therefore, for you know not what hour your Lord is going to come. Be sure of this, if the householder should know at what hour the thief is going to come, he would certainly be watching, and not suffer his house to be broken into Matt. xxiv 42, 43.

If thieves come to thee, if destroyers by night (how thou art cut off!), will they not steal till they have enough? Obad. Verse 5

They shall run to and fro in the city, they shall run upon the wall, they shall climb up upon the houses, they shall enter in through the windows like a thief Joel ii 9.

They fabricate falsehood, and the thief comes, and the troop melts away outside Hosea vii 1

Lay up treasures not upon earth but in heaven, where thieves do not come and shall not steal Matt. vi 19, 20.

The reason why a man is going to be watchful and not know the hour at which the Lord comes, is that he may think and act as of himself thus in freedom in accordance with his own reason and that no fear may obtrude, for every one would have fear if he should know; and what the man does of himself in freedom remains to eternity, but what is done as a result of fear does not remain.

AR (Coulson) n. 165 sRef Rev@3 @4 S0′ 165. [verse 4] ‘Thou hast a few names even in Sardis’ signifies that among them there are those who do have life in their worship. By ‘a few names’ are signified some who are such, as now follows; for a ‘name’ signifies someone quality. This is because in the spiritual world each one is named in accordance with his own quality (n. 81). The quality of those who are now mentioned is that they may have life in their worship.

AR (Coulson) n. 166 sRef Rev@3 @4 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @2 S0′ 166. ‘Which have not defiled their garments’ signifies who are in truths, and have not polluted worship by evils of life and the untruths therefrom. By ‘garments’ in the Word are signified the truths that clothe good, and in the opposite sense the untruths that clothe evil; for a man is either his own good or his own evil, the truths or untruths therefrom being his garments. All angels and spirits appear clothed in accordance with the truths of their good, or the untruths of their evil, on which subject [something] may be seen in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL, published at London (n. 177-182).

Consequently it is plain that by ‘not defiling their garments’ is signified to be in truths, and not to pollute worship by evils of life and untruths therefrom. sRef Ezek@16 @16 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @12 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @17 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @10 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @15 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @14 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@52 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @14 S2′ [2] That ‘garments’ in the Word signify truths, and in the opposite sense untruths, is plain from these passages:-

Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Zion; put on the garments of thy beauty, O Jerusalem Isa. lii 1.

Jerusalem, I have clothed thee with broidered work, and shod thee with badger’s skin, I have girded thee about with fine linen, and adorned thee with apparel; thou hast been decked with gold and silver, and thy garments are fine linen, silk, and broidered work, whence thou hast become exceeding beautiful. But of thy garments thou hast taken and made for thyself high places of divers colours, that thou mightest commit whoredom upon them; thou hast also taken thy broidered garments, and hast made images of a male, with which thou wast committing whoredom Ezek. xvi 10-18.

There the Jewish Church is described, that truths have been given to it, because [it had] the Word, but that they have falsified them. ‘To commit whoredom’ is to falsify (n. 134).

sRef Matt@22 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @26 S3′ sRef Zeph@1 @8 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @12 S3′ sRef Zech@3 @4 S3′ sRef Zech@3 @5 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @13 S3′ sRef Zech@3 @3 S3′ sRef 2Sam@1 @24 S3′ [3] The king’s daughter is all glorious within, and her clothing is of weavings of gold. She shall be brought unto the king in [raiment of] needlework Ps. xlv 13, 14 [H.B. 14, 15].

The ‘king’s daughter’ is the Church as to the affection of truth.

O daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you in double-dyed [scarlet and purple] with luxuries, and put an embellishment of gold upon your clothing 2 Sam. 24.

These things are said of Saul because the Divine Truth is signified by him as a king (n. 20).

I will make a visitation upon the princes and upon the king’s sons, and upon all who are clothed in the garments of the stranger Zeph. i 8.

Enemies shall strip off the clothes from thee, and take away the instruments of thine adornment Ezek. xxiii 26.

Joshua had been clothed with filthy garments, and was standing so in the presence of the angel, who said, Take away the filthy garments from upon him, and clothe him with other garments Zech. iii 3-5.

The king came in and saw those who were reclining, and he saw a man not clothed with a wedding garment, and he said to him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? Matt. xxii 11-13.

A ‘wedding garment’ is Divine Truth out of the Word.

sRef Matt@7 @15 S4′ sRef Rev@4 @4 S4′ sRef Rev@6 @11 S4′ sRef Luke@5 @36 S4′ sRef Rev@7 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@7 @14 S4′ sRef Rev@19 @14 S4′ sRef Rev@7 @13 S4′ [4] Beware of false prophets, who come unto you in sheep’s clothing Matt. vii 15.

No one puts a piece of a new garment upon an old garment, otherwise the new will rend the old, and the piece out of the new does not agree with the old Luke v 36, 37.

Because a garment signifies truths, the Lord therefore compares the truths of the previous Church, which were external and representative of spiritual things, to a piece of an old garment, and the truths of the new Church, which were internal and spiritual, to a piece of a new garment.

Upon the thrones were sitting twenty-four elders, clothed with white garments Rev. iv 4.

Those who were standing before the throne in view of the Lamb had been clothed with white robes; who washed their robes and made their robes white in the blood of the Lamb Rev. vii 9, 13, 14.

White robes were given to each one under the altar Rev. vi 11.

The armies of the One sitting upon the white horse were following Him clothed in fine linen white and clean Rev. xix 14.

sRef Dan@7 @9 S5′ sRef Luke@9 @29 S5′ sRef Mark@9 @3 S5′ sRef Gen@49 @11 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @13 S5′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @16 S5′ sRef Matt@28 @3 S5′ sRef Isa@63 @2 S5′ sRef Isa@63 @3 S5′ [5] Because ‘angels’ signify Divine Truths, therefore the angels seen in the Lord’s sepulchre appeared in white and shining garments (Matt. xxviii 3; Luke xxiv 4). Because the Lord is Divine Good and Divine Truth, and by ‘garments’ Truths are understood, therefore when He was transformed:-

His face did shine as the sun, and His garments became as the light Matt. xvii 2.

And glistering white Luke ix 29.

And shining white as snow, such as no fuller upon earth can whiten Mark ix 3.

It is said of the Ancient of Days, Who indeed is the Lord, that:-

His garment was white as snow Dan. vii 9.

And these things are said of the Lord besides:-

He has anointed all thy garments with myrrh, and aloe, and cassia Ps. xlv 8 [H.B. 9].

He washes his garments in wine, and his clothing (velamen) in the blood of grapes Gen. xlix 11.

Who is this one who comes out of Edom, [with His] garments be-spattered out of Bozrah, this one who is honourable in His apparel? Wherefore [art Thou] red as to thy garment? Thy garments are as of one who treads in the wine-press. Victory has been sprinkled upon My garments, and I have soiled all My raiment Isa. lxiii 1-3.

This also is said of the Lord. His ‘garments’ there are the Truths of the Word.

The One sitting upon the white horse was clothed about with a garment dipped in blood, and His Name is called the Word of God Rev. xix 13, 16.

sRef Ps@22 @18 S6′ sRef Matt@21 @8 S6′ sRef Matt@21 @9 S6′ sRef John@19 @24 S6′ sRef John@19 @23 S6′ sRef Matt@21 @7 S6′ [6] In consequence of the signification of ‘garments’ it can be seen why the Lord’s disciples laid their garments upon the ass and the colt when the Lord would enter into Jerusalem, and why the people strewed their garments in the way (Matt. xxi 7, 8, 9; Mark xi 7, 8; Luke xix 35, 36); and what is signified by the soldiers having divided the Lord’s garments into four parts (John xix 23, 24); thus what is signified by these [words] in David:-

They have parted my garments, and upon my vesture they have cast a lot Ps. xxii 18 [H.B. 19].

sRef Ps@104 @2 S7′ sRef Isa@37 @1 S7′ [7] In consequence of the signification of ‘garments’ it is also plain why they rent their garments when anyone spoke against the Divine Truth of the Word (Isa. xxxvii 1, and elsewhere); plain again that they washed their garments so that they [themselves] might be purified (Exod. xix 14; Lev. xi 25, 40; xiv 8, 9; Num. xix 11 to the end). And it is plain that, on account of transgressions against Divine Truths, they put their garments off, and put on sackcloth (Isa. xv 3; xxii 12; xxxvii 1, 2; Jer. iv 8; vi 26; xlviii 37; xlix 3; Lam. ii 10; Ezek. xxvii 31; Amos viii 10; Jonah iii 5, 6, 8). He who has become acquainted with what ‘garments’ signify, in general and in each case (in specie), is able to get to know what the garments of Aaron and his sons signified. These were the ephod, the robe, the checkered coat, the girdle, the breeches, and the mitre. Because ‘light’ signifies Divine Truth, and ‘a garment’ likewise, therefore it is said in David:-

Jehovah covers Himself with light as with a garment Ps. civ 2.

AR (Coulson) n. 167 sRef Rev@3 @4 S0′ sRef Mark@7 @1 S0′ 167. ‘And they shall walk with Me in white [for they are worthy]’ signifies that they are going to be living with the Lord in His spiritual kingdom, because they are in truths from Him. This is the meaning of these words because ‘to walk ‘in the Word signifies to live, and ‘to walk with God’ signifies to live from Him, also because ‘in white’ signifies in truths. For in the Word white is predicated of truths because it derives its origin from the sun’s light, and red is predicated of goods because it derives its origin from the sun’s heat, while black is predicated of untruths because it derives its origin from the darkness of hell. Those are called ‘worthy’ who are in truths from the Lord, for all worthiness in the spiritual world is the result of conjunction with the Lord. It is plain from these considerations that by ‘they shall walk with Me in white for they are worthy’ is signified that they are going to be living with the Lord, because they are in truths from Him. It is said that they are going to be living with the Lord in the spiritual kingdom because the entire heaven has been distinguished into two kingdoms, the celestial and the spiritual, and those who are in good of love from the Lord are in the celestial kingdom, and in the spiritual kingdom are those who are in truths of wisdom from the Lord; and the latter are said to walk with the Lord in white; also they are clothed with white garments. sRef Lev@26 @23 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @28 S2′ sRef Isa@38 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @24 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @27 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @24 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @11 S2′ sRef Ps@56 @13 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @12 S2′ sRef Mark@7 @5 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @1 S2′ sRef Micah@4 @5 S2′ sRef John@12 @36 S2′ sRef John@12 @35 S2′ sRef 1Ki@14 @8 S2′ [2] That ‘to walk’ signifies to live, and that ‘to walk with God’ signifies to live with Him because from Him, is established from the following passages:-

They walk* with Me in peace and rectitude [Mal. ii 6.

Let us walk in the light of Jehovah] Isa. ii 5.

Thou hast delivered my feet from stumbling, for walking before God in the light of the living Ps. lvi 13 [H.B. 14].

David has kept My commandments, and has walked after Me with all his heart 1 Kings xiv 8.

Remember, O Jehovah, that I have walked before thee in the truth (veritas) Isa. xxxviii 3.

If you walk contrary to Me, and do nor obey My voice, then will I also walk contrary to you Lev. xxvi 23, 24, 27.

They would not walk in the ways of Jehovah Isa. xlii 24. [See also] Deut. xi 22; xix 9; xxvi 17.

All peoples walk in the name of their God, and we will walk in the Name of Jehovah Micah iv 5.

Yet a little while is the light with you; walk while you have the light; believe in the light John xii 35, 36; viii 12.

The scribes asked, Why do not the disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders? Mark vii 5.

‘To walk ‘is also said of Jehovah, that He walks among them, that is, lives in them and with them:-

I will give My dwelling in the midst of them**, and I will walk in the midst of you, and I will be unto you for God Lev. xxvi 11, 12.

From these passages it is plain what is understood above by:-

These things says He Who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands Rev. ii 1.
* Hebrew has ‘He has walked’.
** Hebrew has ‘you’.

AR (Coulson) n. 168 sRef Rev@3 @5 S0′ 168. [verse 5] ‘He who overcomes shall be clothed with white garments’ signifies that he who is reformed becomes spiritual. That ‘he who overcomes’ signifies he who is reformed may be seen above (n. 88); and that ‘to be clothed with white garments’ signifies to become spiritual by means of truths (n. 166, 167). All those become spiritual who are in truths and in a life in accordance with them.

AR (Coulson) n. 169 sRef Rev@3 @5 S0′

169. ‘And I will not blot out his name out of the book of life’ signifies that he shall be saved. What ‘name’ signifies has been stated before, and what ‘the book of life’ signifies will be stated below. It is plain to any one that ‘not to blot out his name out of the book of life’ is to be saved.

AR (Coulson) n. 170 sRef Rev@3 @5 S0′

170. ‘And I will confess his name before the Father, and before His angels’ signifies that they who are in Divine Good and in Divine truths from the Lord are to be received, thus those who have the life of heaven in themselves. That ‘to confess a name’ is to acknowledge the quality of anyone, or that he is such, is established from the signification of ‘name’, which is treated of above (n. 81, 122). By ‘the Father ‘is understood Divine Good and by ‘angels’ are understood Divine truths, both out of the Lord. In the Word of the Evangelists ‘the Father’ is often mentioned by name, and wherever this occurs Jehovah is understood, from Whom and in Whom He was, and Who was in Himself, and any Divine separate from Himself is never understood. That this is the case has been frequently shown in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD; and also in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE PROVIDENCE (n. 262, 263). That the Lord Himself is ‘the Father’ may be seen (n. 21, 960 [of this work]). The Lord referred to ‘the Father’ because by ‘Father’ in the spiritual sense good is signified, and by ‘God the Father’ the Divine Good of the Divine Love. The angels never understand anything else by ‘the Father’ when it is read in the Word; nor are they able to understand anything else, because no one in heaven knows any Father, from Whom they are said to be born, and Whose sons and heirs they are called, except the Lord. This is understood by the Lord’s words, Matt. xxiii 9. It is plain from these considerations that by ‘confess his name before the Father’ is signified that they are to be received among those who are in Divine Good from Himself. Because angels are the recipients of Divine Good in the Divine truths that are from the Lord with them, by ‘angels’ those who are in Divine truths from the Lord are understood, and abstractly Divine Truths.

AR (Coulson) n. 171 sRef Rev@3 @6 S0′ 171. [verse 6] ‘He who has an ear let him hear what the spirit says to the Churches’ signifies that he who understands those things obeys what the Divine Truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church (e Nova Ecclesia) that is the New Jerusalem, as above (n. 87).

AR (Coulson) n. 172 sRef Rev@3 @7 S0′ 172. [verse 7] ‘And to the Angel of the Church in Philadelphia write’ signifies to and concerning those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord.
That by ‘the Church in Philadelphia’ these are understood is plain from the things written to them understood in the spiritual sense.

AR (Coulson) n. 173 sRef Rev@3 @7 S0′ 173. ‘These things says the Holy True One’ signifies the Lord as to Divine Truth. That it is the Lord is plain. ‘The Holy True One’ is the Lord as to Divine Truth. This is because the Lord is called ‘Holy’ on account of His Divine Truth, and ‘Just’ on account of His Divine Good. This is why His Divine proceeding, which is the Divine Truth (veritas), is termed ‘the Holy Spirit’, and the Holy Spirit here is ‘the Holy True One’. [2] ‘Holy’ is frequently said in the Word, and wherever it occurs it is said of Truth, and because every truth that in itself is truth is derived out of good and is from the Lord, it is that truth that is called ‘Holy’. But the Good out of which is truth, is called ‘Just’. Consequently the angels who are in truths of wisdom and are called spiritual are termed ‘holy’, and the angels who are in the good of love and are called celestial are termed ‘just’; in like manner men in the Church. It is from this also that the prophets and the apostles are termed ‘holy’, for by the prophets and the apostles the truths of the Doctrine of the Church are signified. Furthermore it is from this that the Word is termed ‘holy’, for the Word is Divine Truth; and again, that the Law in the ark in the tabernacle was termed ‘the holy of holies’, and also ‘the sanctuary’. Likewise from this, Jerusalem is termed ‘holy’, for by ‘Jerusalem’ is signified the Church that is in Divine truths. It is in consequence of this also that the altar, the tabernacle, and the garments of Aaron and his sons were said to be ‘holy’ after they had been anointed with oil, for ‘oil’ signifies the good of love, and this makes holy, and everything made holy has relation to truth. sRef Isa@45 @11 S3′ sRef John@17 @19 S3′ sRef Isa@47 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@10 @20 S3′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @15 S3′ sRef John@17 @17 S3′ [3] That the Lord is the Only Holy One, because He is the Divine Truth Itself is plain from these passages:-

Who shall not glorify Thy Name, O Lord? for only Thou art Holy Rev. xv 4.

Thy Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel, the God of the whole earth shall He be called Isa. liv 5.

Thus says Jehovah, the Redeemer of Israel, His Holy One Isa. xlix 7.

As for our Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth is His Name, the Holy One of Israel Isa. xlvii 4.

Thus says Jehovah your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel Isa. xliii 14.

In that day they shall lean upon Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, in the truth (veritas) Isa. x 20.

Besides elsewhere, as Isa. i 4; v 19; xii 6; xvii 7; xxix 19; xxx 11, 12; xli 16; xlv 11, 15; xlviii 17; lv 5; lx 9; Jer. l 29; Dan. iv 13, 23 [H.B. 10, 20]; Ps. lxxviii 41. Since the Lord is Himself the Holy One, therefore the angel said to Mary:-

The Holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God Luke i 35.

And the Lord said concerning Himself:-

Father, sanctify them in the truth (veritas), Thy Word is the Truth (veritas); for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also may be sanctified in the truth (veritas) John xvii 17, 19.

It is plain from these things that the Truth (veritas) that is from the Lord is Holiness itself, because He is the Only Holy One, about which the Lord [speaks] thus:-

When the Spirit of the Truth (veritas) shall have come, He will lead you into all the truth (veritas); He shall not speak out of Himself, He shall take of Mine and proclaim to you John xvi 13-15.


The Comforter, the Holy Spirit, shall teach you all things John xiv 26.

That the Holy Spirit is the Life of the Lord’s Wisdom, thus the Divine Truth (veritas), may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 51). From these things it can be established that ‘the Holy True One’ is the Lord as to Divine Truth. That ‘holy’ is said of truth, while ‘just’ is said of good, is plain from the passages in the Word where both [expressions occur], as from these:-

He who is just, let him be justified still, he who is holy, let him be sanctified still Rev. xxii 11.

Just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of saints Rev. xv

For the purpose of serving Him in holiness and justice Luke i 75.

Herod was afraid of John, knowing that he was a just and holy man Mark vi 20.

The just [acts] of saints are fine linen Rev. xix 8.

AR (Coulson) n. 174 sRef Matt@18 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@22 @21 S0′ sRef Isa@22 @22 S0′

174. ‘Having the key of David, and opening and no one shuts, and shutting and no one opens’ signifies Who Only has the Omnipotence to save. By ‘David’ is understood the Lord as to Divine Truth; by ‘the key’ is signified the Lord’s Omnipotence over heaven and hell; and by ‘opening that no one may shut’ and by ‘shutting that no one may open’ is signified to lead forth out of hell and introduce into heaven thus to save in like manner as above (n. 62), where it has been expounded. That by ‘David’ is understood the Lord as to Divine Truth may be seen [in] THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 43, 44). Something similar to what is here signified by the key of David is signified by ‘Peter’s keys’ (Matt. xvi 15-19), which passage may be seen expounded below (n. 798), as also by these words to all the disciples:-

Whatsoever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven Matt. xviii 18.

For the twelve disciples were representing all things of the Church as to its good and truths, while Peter was representing it as to truth, and truths and goods save man, thus the Only Lord from Whom they are. A similar thing is understood also by the ‘key of David’ given to Eliakim, of which it is thus [written]:-

I will give the dominion into his hand, that he may become a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and the house of Judah, and I will give the key of the house of David upon his shoulder, that he may open and none shall shut, and shut and none shall open Isa. xxii 21, 22.

He was over the king’s house, and by ‘the king’s house’ is signified the Church as to Divine Truth.

AR (Coulson) n. 175 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′

175. [verse 8] ‘I know thy works’ signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, as above (n. 76).

AR (Coulson) n. 176 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′

176. ‘Behold, I have set before thee an open door’ signifies that heaven has been opened to those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord. It is plain that by ‘an open door’ is signified admission. The door is said to be open to those who belong to the Church in Philadelphia, because by that Church are understood those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord, and the Lord opens heaven to them. But on this matter something not previously known shall be said. The Only Lord is the God of heaven and earth (Matt. xxviii 18); those therefore who do not approach Him directly do not see the way to heaven, nor consequently do they see the door, and if perchance they are allowed to reach it, it is shut, and not opened by knocking. In the spiritual world there actually are ways that lead to heaven, and here and there are gates, and those who are led by the Lord to heaven go along the ways leading thither, and enter through the gates. That there are ways there may be seen in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL (n. 479, 534, 590); and gates also (n. 429, 430, 583, 584); for all the things that are observed in the heavens are correspondences, consequently also the ways and the gates; for ways correspond to truths, and consequently signify them, and gates correspond to entry, and consequently signify that. sRef Matt@25 @11 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @25 S2′ sRef Ps@24 @9 S2′ sRef Matt@25 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@24 @7 S2′ sRef Matt@25 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @2 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @24 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @12 S2′ sRef John@14 @6 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @25 S2′ sRef John@10 @7 S2′ sRef John@10 @9 S2′ [2] Since the Only Lord leads a man to heaven, and opens the door, He therefore calls Himself ‘the Way’ and also ‘the Door’; ‘the Way’ in John:-

I am the Way, the Truth (veritas), and the Life John xiv 6.

‘The Door’ in the same [gospel]:-

I am the door of the sheep; by Me if any one enters in, he shall be saved John x 7, 9.

Since there are both ways and doors in the spiritual world, and angelic spirits actually go along the ways, and enter through the doors while going into heaven, therefore ‘doors’, ‘gates’ and ‘entrances’ are frequently mentioned in the Word, and by them entry is signified, as in these places:-

Lift up your heads, O gates, lift them up, O doors of the world, that the King of glory may come in Ps. xxiv 7, 9.

Open the gates, that the just nation practising fidelities (faciens fidetitates) may enter in Isa. xxvi 2.

The five prudent virgins went in to the wedding, and the door was shut; and the five foolish virgins came and knocked, but it was not opened Matt. xxv 10-12.

Jesus said, Strive to enter in through the strait gate, for many will seek to enter in, and shall not be able Luke xiii 24, 25,

besides elsewhere. Since a ‘door’ signifies entry, and ‘the New Jerusalem’ signifies the Church [formed] from those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord, therefore the New Jerusalem also is described as to ‘gates’, upon which are angels, and it is said that they shall not be shut (Rev. xxi 12, 13, 25).

AR (Coulson) n. 177 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′

177. ‘And no one is able to shut it’ signifies that hell does not prevail against them. For the Only Lord opens and shuts the doors to heaven, and the door that He opens is perpetually open to those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord, and perpetually shut to those who are in untruths derived out of evil; and since the Only Lord opens and shuts, it follows that hell does not prevail against them. More may be seen above concerning these things (n. 174).

AR (Coulson) n. 178 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′

178. ‘Because thou hast a little power’ signifies because they know that of themselves they are powerless. Those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord know that they do not have any power of themselves against evils and untruths, thus against hell. And they know also that they are not able to do good derived from any power of themselves, or to introduce themselves into heaven, but that the Lord has all the power, and so they have it from the Lord, and in so far as they are in truths derived from good, so far they are in the power from the Lord, which yet appears to them as their own. These, therefore, are the things understood by ‘because thou hast a little power’.

AR (Coulson) n. 179 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′

179. That ‘And hast observed My Word’ signifies because they are living in accordance with the precepts of the Lord in His Word is plain without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 180 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′ 180. ‘And hast not denied My Name’ signifies that they are in the worship of the Lord. That in the Word the Name of Jehovah or the Lord signifies everything by means of which He is worshipped, thus everything of the doctrine of the Church, and universally everything of religion, may be seen above (n. 81). What is here signified by ‘Thou hast not denied My Name’ is established therefrom.

AR (Coulson) n. 181 sRef Rev@3 @9 S0′ 181. [verse 9] ‘And I will make (dabo) those of the synagogue of Satan’ signifies those who as to doctrine are in untruths, [as] may be seen above (n. 97).

AR (Coulson) n. 182 sRef Rev@3 @9 S0′

182. ‘Declaring themselves to be Jews, and are not, but do lie’ signifies who say that the Church is with them, when yet there is no Church with them. Here by ‘Jews’ are understood those who belong to the Church, because the Church had been established with them. Therefore also by their ‘Jerusalem’ the Church as to doctrine is still understood. But by ‘Jews’ in a special [sense] those are understood who are in the good of love, as above (n. 96), thus also the Church, for the Church exists out of the good of love. That, however, there is no Church with them, is signified by ‘and are not, but do lie’.

AR (Coulson) n. 183 sRef Rev@3 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@99 @5 S0′

183. ‘Behold I will make them to come and worship at thy feet’ signifies that those who as to doctrine are in untruths, provided they are not in untruths derived from evil, are going to receive the truths of the New Church, and acknowledge them. This is said of those who are ‘out of the synagogue of Satan, and declare themselves to be Jews, and are not, but do lie’, by whom are understood those who are in untruths as to doctrine but yet not in untruths derived from evil, in untruths as to doctrine indeed, but in good as to life. The latter, and not the former, receive and acknowledge truths when they hear them. This is because good loves truth, while truth derived from good rejects untruth. To receive and acknowledge truths is signified by ‘come and worship at thy feet’; not at their feet, but at the feet of the Lord, from Whom they have the truths derived from good. Something similar to this is signified by these [words] in David:-

Worship Jehovah our God, worship at His footstool Ps. xcix 5.

AR (Coulson) n. 184 sRef Rev@3 @9 S0′

184. ‘And to know that I have chosen thee’ signifies that they are going to see that those who are in truths derived from good are loved and received into heaven by the Lord. This follows in a series out of the things preceding.

AR (Coulson) n. 185 sRef Rev@3 @10 S0′

185. [verse 10] ‘Because thou hast kept the word of My endurance’ signifies because they have fought against evils, and rejected untruths while doing so. That by ‘the word of My endurance’ is signified the spiritual fight that is called temptation is plain from the words that now follow, ‘I also will keep thee safe from the hour of temptation that is going to come’; for he who is tempted in the world is not tempted after death. The spiritual fight that is temptation is termed ‘the word of the Lord’s endurance or patience’, because the Lord fights for man in temptations, and He fights by means of truths out of His Word.

AR (Coulson) n. 186 sRef Rev@3 @10 S0′ 186. ‘I also will keep thee safe from the hour of temptation that is going to come upon the entire world (orbis), to try those dwelling upon the land’ signifies that they are to be protected and kept safe in the day of the last judgment. That their protection and safe-keeping in the day of the last judgment is understood by these words can be seen from the things that have been written and related concerning THE LAST JUDGMENT in a special little work, and afterwards in the CONTINUATION CONCERNING IT; from which things it is established that they who have undergone that [judgment] have been let into temptation and had their qualities investigated, and that those who interiorly were evil have been rejected, while those who interiorly were good have been saved; and they were interiorly good who were in truths derived out of good from the Lord.

AR (Coulson) n. 187 sRef Matt@24 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @11 S0′

187. [verse 11] ‘Behold I am coming quickly’ signifies the Lord’s coming, and a new Church then [formed] out of them. Here the Lord says, ‘Behold I am coming quickly’, because by the words just preceding the last judgment is understood, and the last judgment is also called the Lord’s coming, as in Matthew:-

The disciples said to Jesus, What is the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age? Matt. xxiv 3.

‘The consummation of the age’ is the last time of the Church, when there is a last judgment. The New Church is also understood by the words ‘Behold I am coming quickly’, because after a last judgment a Church is set up by the Lord. That Church now is the New Jerusalem, into which are going to come those who are in truths derived out of good from the Lord, to whom this saying is addressed.

AR (Coulson) n. 188 sRef Rev@3 @11 S0′ 188. That ‘Hold that fast which thou hast’ signifies so that in the meantime they should remain in their truths and their good is established without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 189 sRef Rev@3 @11 S0′ 189. ‘That no one may get thy crown’ signifies lest the wisdom, out of which eternal happiness [comes], should perish. A man’s wisdom is from no other source than out of good by means of truths from the Lord. It is because the Lord conjoins Himself with the man and the man with Himself by means of these, that through them the man has wisdom, and the Lord is Wisdom Itself. On account of this, wisdom perishes with a man when he ceases to do truths, that is, to live in accordance with them. In that event he also ceases to love wisdom, and hence the Lord. By ‘wisdom’ is understood wisdom in things spiritual. Out of this as a fountain is derived wisdom in the other things, which is called intelligence, and through intelligence knowledge, which exists out of the affection of knowing truths. It is because wisdom holds the supreme place with a man, and so crowns him, that a ‘crown’ signifies wisdom. Nothing else is signified by a king’s crown, for a ‘king’ in the spiritual sense is Divine Truth (n. 20), and all wisdom exists out of Divine Truth. sRef Isa@28 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@132 @18 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @12 S2′ sRef Ps@132 @17 S2′ [2] Wisdom is signified by ‘crown’ in the following places also:-

I will make the horn of David to bud, and upon it shall his crown flourish Ps. cxxxii 17, 18.

Jehovah has put earrings upon thine ears, and a crown of decoration upon thine head Ezek. xvi 12.

This [is said] of Jerusalem, by which the Church as to doctrine is signified, and therefore a ‘crown of decoration’ is wisdom out of Divine Truth or the Word.

In that day shall Jehovah Zebaoth be for a croon of decoration, and for a mitre of beauty unto the residue of His people Isa. xxviii 5.

This [is said] of the Lord, because ‘in that day’ is said. The crown of decoration ‘for which He will be’ is wisdom, and the ‘mitre of beauty’ is intelligence. The ‘residue of the people’ are they with whom His Church will be. sRef Job@19 @9 S3′ sRef Lam@5 @15 S3′ sRef Lam@5 @16 S3′ sRef Ps@89 @39 S3′ sRef Jer@13 @18 S3′ [3] The like is signified by ‘crown’ and ‘mitre’ (Isa. lxii 1, 3); also by the ‘plate of gold’ upon Aaron’s mitre (Exod. xxviii 36, 37), which was also called a ‘coronet’. Again in these:-

Say unto the king and to [his] lady, Lower yourselves, sit down, for the decoration of your head is come down, the crown of your beauty Jer. xiii 18.

The joy of our heart is ceased, the crown is fallen from our head Lam. v 15, 16.

He has stripped me of my glory, and taken away the crown from my head Job xix 9.

Thou hast cast the crown of Thine Anointed to the earth Ps. lxxxix 39 [H.B. 40].

In these places by ‘crown’ is signified wisdom.

AR (Coulson) n. 190 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′

190. [verse 12] That ‘He who overcomes’ signifies those who continue steadfastly in truths derived out of good from the Lord is plain from the series, and thus without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 191 sRef Matt@23 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @16 S0′ sRef John@2 @19 S1′ sRef Mal@3 @1 S1′ sRef John@2 @21 S1′ sRef Rev@21 @22 S1′ sRef Jonah@2 @7 S1′ sRef Jonah@2 @4 S1′ sRef Ps@138 @2 S1′ 191. ‘Him will I make a pillar in the temple of My God’ signifies that truths derived out of good from the Lord, with those who have them, sustain the Lord’s Church in heaven. By a ‘temple’ the Church is signified, and by ‘the temple of My God’ the Lord’s Church in heaven. It is plain from this that by a ‘pillar’ is signified that which sustains the Church and makes it firm, and this is the Divine Truth of the Word. By ‘temple’ is signified in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine Human, in a special sense as to Divine Truth; but in a representative sense by ‘temple’ is signified the Lord’s Church in heaven; then also the Lord’s Church in the world. That by ‘temple’ in the supreme sense is signified the Lord as to the Divine Human, and in a special sense as to Divine Truth, is plain from these passages:-

Jesus said to the Jews, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up: He was speaking of the temple of His body John ii 18-21.

I saw no temple in the New Jerusalem, for the Lord God Omnipotent is the temple thereof and the Lamb Rev. xxi 22.

Behold, the Lord shall suddenly come to His temple, and the angel of the covenant whom you seek Mal. iii 1.

I will bow down towards the temple of Thy holiness Ps. cxxxviii 2.

Yet will I look again toward the temple of thy holiness; and my prayer came unto Thee, to the temple of Thy holiness [Jonah ii 4, 7.

Jehovah is in the temple of His holiness] Hab. ii 20.

The ‘temple of the holiness’ of Jehovah or the Lord is His Divine Human, for to that there is bowing down, looking, and praying, and not to the temple only, for this in itself is not holy. It is called ‘the temple of holiness’ because holiness is predicated of Divine Truth (n. 173). By ‘the temple that sanctifies the gold’ (Matt. xxiii 16, 57) nothing else but the Lord’s Divine Human is understood. sRef Rev@15 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @6 S2′ sRef Rev@15 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@66 @6 S2′ sRef Rev@15 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@11 @19 S2′ [2] That by ‘temple’ in a representative sense is signified the Lord’s Church in heaven, is plain from these passages:-

The voice of Jehovah out of the temple Isa. lxvi 6.

There came a great voice out of the temple of heaven Rev. xvi 17.

The temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in the temple the ark of His covenant Rev. xi 19.

The temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened; and the seven angels came out of the temple; and the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God Rev. xv 5, 6, 8.

I called upon Jehovah, and cried unto my God; He heard a voice out of His temple Ps. xviii 6 [H.B. 7].

I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple Isa. vi 1.

sRef Hag@2 @7 S3′ sRef Hag@2 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @2 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@64 @11 S3′ [3] That ‘temple’ signifies the Church in the world, is plain from these:-

Our house of holiness is set on fire Isa. lxiv 11 [H.B. 10].

I will shake all the nations, that I may fill this house with glory; the glory of the latter house shall be greater than that of the former Hag. ii 7, 9.

The Church to be set up by the Lord is described by the ‘new temple’ in Ezekiel chaps. xl to xlviii; and is understood by the ‘temple’ that the angel was measuring (Rev. xi 1); as well as elsewhere (Isa. xliv 28; Jer. vii 2-4, 9-11; Zech. viii 9).

The disciples approached Jesus to show Him the buildings of the temple, and Jesus said to them, Verily I say unto you, there shall not be left one stone upon another that shall not be demolished Matt. xxiv 1-2; Mark xiii 1-5; Luke xxi 5-7.

Here by ‘the temple’ is signified the Church of the present day, and by its demolition so that there is ‘not one stone upon another’ is signified the end of that Church, that then there would not be any truth left. For when the disciples spoke with the Lord about the temple, the Lord foretold the successive states of that Church, even to its end, [that is to say, He spoke] of the consummation of the age, and by ‘the consummation of the age’ is understood its last time, which is today. This was represented by the temple’s being destroyed from the foundations. [4] The temple signifies these three, namely the Lord, the Church in heaven, and the Church in the world. Since these three make one, they cannot be separated; consequently one cannot be understood without the other. Therefore he who separates the Church in the world from the Church in heaven, and these from the Lord, is not in the truth (veritas). Because [something] concerning the Church in the world now follows (n. 194), here by ‘the temple’ the Church in heaven is understood.

AR (Coulson) n. 192 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′

192. That ‘And he shall go no more out’ signifies that they are going to stay there to eternity is plain without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 193 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′

193. ‘And I will write upon him the Name of My God’ signifies that Divine Truth shall be inscribed on their hearts. ‘To write upon’ anyone signifies to inscribe so that it may be in him as though his; and ‘the Name of My God’ signifies Divine Truth. Here something shall be said of the fact that ‘My God’ is Divine Truth. In the Word of the Old Testament in innumerable places JEHOVAH GOD is mentioned, as also separately sometimes JEHOVAH and sometimes GOD, and by ‘JEHOVAH’ is understood the Lord as to Divine Good, and by ‘GOD’ the Lord as to Divine Truth, or, what is the same, by ‘JEHOVAH’ is understood the Lord as to Divine Love, and by ‘GOD’ the Lord as to Divine Wisdom, and each of them is mentioned on account of the heavenly marriage in the details of the Word. This is a marriage of Love and Wisdom, or a marriage of good and truth, concerning which marriage [something] may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 80-90). sRef John@12 @28 S2′ [2] In the Word of the New Testament, however, ‘Jehovah God’ is not mentioned, but ‘Lord God’, for ‘Lord’, like ‘Jehovah’, signifies Divine Good or Divine Love. From these [considerations] it can be established that by ‘the Name of My God’ is signified the Lord’s Divine Truth. That ‘Name’, when said of the Lord, is everything by means of which He is worshipped may be seen above (n. 81); and everything by means of which He is worshipped relates to Divine Good and Divine Truth. As it is not known what is understood by these words of the Lord:-

Father, glorify Thy Name; and there came a voice out of heaven, I have glorified it, and will glorify it again John xii 28,

it shall be stated. When the Lord was in the world He made His Human Divine Truth, which also is the Word; and when He went out of the world He fully united Divine Truth to the Divine Good that was in Him from conception; for the Lord glorified His Human, that is, made it Divine, as He makes a man spiritual; for first He imparts truths out of the Word to the man, and afterwards He unites them to good, and by means of that uniting the man is made spiritual.

AR (Coulson) n. 194 sRef Isa@24 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@12 @25 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ 194. ‘And the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem’ signifies that the doctrine of the New Church shall be inscribed on [their] hearts. By ‘the New Jerusalem’ is signified the New Church, and by it when called ‘the city’ is signified the New Church as to doctrine; and therefore by ‘write upon him the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem’ is signified that the doctrine of the New Church shall be inscribed in them. That by ‘Jerusalem’ the Church is signified, and by it as a ‘city’ the Church as to doctrine, may be seen below (n. 880, 881). Doctrine is signified by a ‘city’ because by ‘land’, and in a special sense by ‘the land of Canaan’, is signified the Church in its whole compass; and consequently by the ‘inheritances ‘into which the land of Canaan had been divided were signified the various [qualities] of the Church, and by the ‘cities in them’, doctrinal things. It is in consequence of this that by ‘cities’ where they are named in the Word, nothing else is understood by the angels; which indeed has been proved to me by much experience. Similarly with the signification of mountains, hills, valleys, fountains and rivers, which all signify such things as are of the Church. sRef Ps@46 @4 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @28 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @7 S2′ sRef Rev@16 @19 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @26 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @27 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @29 S2′ sRef Jer@1 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@24 @12 S2′ sRef Jer@48 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@24 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@24 @10 S2′ sRef Ezek@40 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @2 S2′ [2] That ‘cities’ signify doctrinal things can be established in some measure from the following passages:-

The land shall be evacuated, the land shall be thrown into disorder, the land shall be desecrated, the empty city shall be broken, what is left in the city is a waste, and the gate shall be broken down even to devastation Isa. xxiv 3, 4, 10-12.

The lion has come up out of the thicket to reduce the land to a waste, thy cities shall be destroyed; I saw Carmel a wilderness, and the cities thereof desolate: the land shall mourn, the whole city forsaken shall flee Jer. iv 7, 26-29.

‘The land’ here is the Church, and ‘the city’ is the doctrine thereof. In this way is described the devastation of the Church by means of untruths of doctrine.

The spoiler shall come upon every city, so that no city shall escape, the valley also shall perish, and the plain shall be destroyed Jer. xlviii 8.

In like manner:

Behold, I have given thee for a city fortified against the entire land Jer. i 18.

These [words were said] to the prophet because by a ‘prophet’ is signified the doctrine of the Church (n. 8):-

In that day it shall be sung in the land of Judah, We have a strong city; He will put salvation for walls and bulwark Isa. xxvi 1, 2.

The great city has been broken into three parts, and the cities of the nations have fallen down Rev. xvi 18, 19.

The prophet saw upon a high mountain the structure of a city from the south, and an angel measured the wall, the gates, the chambers, and the porch of the gate, and the name of the city was Jehovah there Ezek. xl 1 seq.

A river, the streams whereof make glad the city of God Ps. xlvi 4, 5, [H.B. 5, 6].

I will mix Egypt up with Egypt, so that city shall fight against city, and kingdom against kingdom Isa. xix 2.

Every kingdom divided against itself is desolated, and every city divided against itself shall not stand Matt. xii 25.

In these places by ‘cities’ in the spiritual sense are understood doctrines, as also [in] Isa. vi 11; xiv 12, 17, 21; xix 18, 19; xxv 1-3; xxxiii 8, 9; liv 3; lxiv 10 [H.B. 9]; Jer. vii 17, 34; xiii 18, 19; xxxii 42, 44; xxxiii 4; Zeph. iii 6; Ps. xlviii 1, 8 [H.B. 2, 9]; cvii 2, 4, 5, 7; Matt. v 14, 15; and elsewhere. sRef Luke@19 @18 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @19 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @13 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @14 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @16 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @17 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @12 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @15 S3′ [3] From the signification of ‘city’ can be established what is understood by ‘cities’ in this parable of the Lord:-

A nobleman going away to get himself a kingdom gave his servants pounds (mina) to trade with: when he returned, he called the servants: the first approached saying, Thy pound has gained ten pounds; to whom he said, Good servant, thou shalt have authority over ten cities; and the second came, saying, Thy pound has gained five pounds, to whom he said, Be thou over five cities Luke xix 12-19.

Here also by ‘cities’ are signified doctrinal tenets or the truths of doctrine, and ‘being over them’ is being intelligent and wise, thus ‘to give authority over them’ is to give intelligence and wisdom. ‘Ten’ signify much, and ‘five’ something. It is plain that by ‘trading’ and ‘gaining’ is understood to furnish oneself with intelligence by making use of one’s opportunities. [4] That ‘the holy city Jerusalem’ signifies the doctrine of a new Church, is manifestly plain from the description of it (Rev. xxi), for it is described as to its measurements, also as to its gates, and as to the wall and its foundations, which, when ‘Jerusalem’ signifies the Church, cannot signify any other things than those that are of its doctrine. A Church is a Church from no other source. Since by ‘the city of Jerusalem’ is understood the Church as to doctrine, it is therefore called ‘a city of truth’ (Zech. viii 3, 4), and in many places the ‘holy city’, and this because ‘holy’ is predicated of truths derived from the Lord (n. 173).

AR (Coulson) n. 195 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ 195. ‘Which comes down out of heaven from My God’ signifies which shall be out of the Lord’s Divine Truth, such as it is in heaven. Since by ‘My God’ the Divine Truth is signified (n. 193), it follows that by ‘coming down out of heaven from My God’, when this is said by the Lord, and concerning the doctrine of the New Church, is signified which shall be out of the Lord’s Divine Truth, such as it is in heaven.

AR (Coulson) n. 196 sRef Rev@21 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ 196. ‘And My new Name’ signifies the worship of the Only Lord with new things that have not been in the former Church. That by the Lord’s ‘Name’ is signified everything by means of which He is worshipped may be seen above (n. 81). Here therefore [it signifies] the worship of the Only Lord with new things that were not in the former Church. That in the New Church there is worship of the Only Lord is plain from chap. xxi 9, 10, where that Church is called THE LAMB’S WIFE. That there are new things in that Church is plain from chap. xxi 5, where it is said, ‘BEHOLD I AM MAKING ALL THINGS NEW’. These [new] things are therefore signified by ‘My new Name’, which will be written upon them.

AR (Coulson) n. 197 sRef Rev@3 @13 S0′ 197. [verse 13] ‘He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches’ signifies that he who understands obeys what the Divine Truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church (e Nova Ecclesia) that is the New Jerusalem, as above (n. 87).

AR (Coulson) n. 198 sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′ 198. [verse 14] ‘And to the Angel of the Church of the Laodiceans write’ signifies to and concerning those in the Church who believe alternately out of themselves and out of the Word, and in this manner profane holy things.
But concerning these something shall be said to begin with. In a Church there are to be found (dantur) those who [both] believe and disbelieve [such things] as, that God exists, that there is the holy Word, that there is eternal life, and many other things that are of the Church and its doctrine. Nevertheless they do not believe. They believe such things when in their natural sensual, but they disbelieve them when in their natural rational thus they believe them when they are in externals, therefore when they are in association and conversation with others, but they disbelieve them when they are in internals, therefore when they are not in association with others, and are then in conversation with themselves. Of these it is said that they are ‘neither cold nor hot’ and are to be ‘spewed out’.

AR (Coulson) n. 199 sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′

199. ‘These things says the Amen, the faithful and true Witness’ signifies the Lord as to the Word, which is the Divine Truth from Himself. That ‘Amen’ is Divine confirmation out of the Truth (veritas) Itself, which is the Lord, thus out of the Lord, may be seen above (n. 23); and that ‘the faithful and true Witness’, when [said] of the Lord, is the Divine Truth (veritas) that is from Him in the Word (n. 6, 16). Whether you say that the Lord bears witness concerning Himself or that the Word bears witness concerning Him, it is the same, since the SON OF MAN, Who is here speaking to the Churches, is the Lord as to the Word (n. 44). These things are put forward first to this Church, because here [the Word] treats of those in the Church who believe both out of themselves and out of the Word, and those who believe out of the Word believe out of the Lord.

AR (Coulson) n. 200 sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′ sRef John@1 @6 S1′ sRef John@1 @3 S1′ sRef John@1 @11 S1′ sRef John@1 @4 S1′ sRef John@1 @10 S1′ sRef John@1 @5 S1′ sRef John@1 @9 S1′ sRef John@1 @8 S1′ sRef John@1 @2 S1′ sRef John@1 @1 S1′ sRef John@1 @14 S1′ sRef John@1 @7 S1′ sRef John@1 @12 S1′ sRef John@1 @13 S1′

200. ‘The Beginning of the work of God’ signifies the Word. That the Word is ‘the beginning of the work of God’ has not yet been known in the Church, because these words in John have not been understood:-

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God; all things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. He was in the world, and the world was made by Him, but the world knew Him not. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father John i 1-14.

He who understands these words as to their interior sense, and compares them at the same time with the things that have been written in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE, as also with some things that have been written in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD, is able to see that the Divine Truth itself in the Word, which had been in this world before, of which n. it [treats], and which again is in the Word that exists at the present day, is understood by ‘the Word that was in the beginning with God, and was God’. Yet it is not the Word viewed in the words and letters of languages, but viewed in its own essence and life, which is from the inmost in the meanings of its words and letters. Out of this life the Word enlivens the affections of the will of the man who reads it in a holy manner, and out of the light of that life it enlightens the thoughts of his understanding; and it is therefore said in John:-

In the Word was life, and the life was the light of men John i 4.

This [life and light] makes the Word, because the Word is out of the Lord, and concerning the Lord, and thus is the Lord. Every thought, speech and writing draws its essence and life from him who thinks, speaks and writes. Therein is the man with his own quality. But in the Word there is the Only Lord. No one, however, feels and perceives the Divine Life in the Word but he who, when reading it, is in a spiritual affection of truth, for he is in a conjunction with the Lord through the Word, there being something inmostly affecting the heart and spirit which inflows with light into the understanding, and bears witness. sRef Gen@1 @3 S2′ sRef Gen@1 @1 S2′ sRef Gen@1 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@33 @6 S2′ sRef John@1 @4 S2′ [2] Something similar to what is in John is signified by these words in the first chapter of Genesis:-

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth, and the spirit of God moved upon the faces of the waters, and God said, Let it become light, and it became light Gen. i 1-3.

‘The spirit of God’ is Divine Truth, so equally is ‘light’. Divine Truth is the Word, and therefore when the Lord calls Himself ‘the Word’ He calls Himself ‘the Light’ also (John i 4, 8, 9). A similar thing also is understood by these words in David:-

By the Word of Jehovah were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breaths (spiritus) of His month Ps. xxxiii 6.

To sum up, without the Divine Truth of the Word, which in its own essence is the Lord’s Divine Good of Divine Love and Divine Truth of Divine Wisdom, a man cannot have life. By means of the Word there is a conjunction of the Lord with the man, and of the man with the Lord, and by means of that conjunction there is life. There has to be something from the Lord which can be received by the man, through which there is a conjunction and eternal life therefrom. sRef John@6 @63 S3′ [3] From these considerations it can be established that by ‘the Beginning of the work of God’ is understood the Word; and, if you are willing to believe it, the Word such as it is in the sense of the letter, for this sense is the complex of its interior sanctities, as has been shown frequently in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE. And what is wonderful, the Word has been so written that it has communication with the entire heaven, and separately with each single society there, which has been granted me to know through living experience, of which elsewhere. That the Word is such in its own essence is still more plain from these words of the Lord:-

The words that I speak unto you, they are Spirit, and they are life John vi 63.

AR (Coulson) n. 201 sRef Rev@3 @15 S0′

201. [verse 15] ‘I know thy works’ signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, as above (n. 76).

AR (Coulson) n. 202 sRef Rev@3 @15 S0′

202. ‘That thou art neither cold nor hot’ signifies that they who are such at one time deny that the Word is Divine and Holy, and at another time acknowledge it. At one time to deny within themselves (apud se) the holiness of the Word, and at another time to acknowledge it, is to be ‘neither cold nor hot’, for they are against the Word and also in favour of it. Such persons are also the same [in their feelings] concerning God, acknowledging Him at one time and denying Him at another; and likewise concerning all things of the Church. Therefore they are sometimes with those who are in hell and at other times with those who are in heaven, flying as it were upwards and downwards between the two, and in whatever direction they fly, thither they turn the face. Such do they become who have confirmed with themselves [the belief] that there is a God, a heaven and a hell, and eternal life, and afterwards go back [on this]. In their case, when the first confirmation returns, they acknowledge, but when it does not return, they deny. Their going back is because afterwards they think only of themselves and the world, seeking unceasingly to achieve supereminence, by which means they immerse themselves in their proprium. In this way hell swallows them up.

AR (Coulson) n. 203 sRef Rev@3 @15 S0′

203. ‘I would thou wert cold or hot’ signifies that it is better that they should wholeheartedly deny the holy things of the Word and the Church, or wholeheartedly acknowledge them. The reason will be stated in the paragraph that now follows.

AR (Coulson) n. 204 sRef Hab@2 @16 S0′ sRef Isa@28 @8 S0′ sRef Jer@48 @26 S0′ sRef Isa@28 @9 S0′ sRef Hab@2 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @16 S0′

204. [verse 16] ‘So because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I am going to spew thee out of My mouth’ signifies profanation, and thereby separation from the Lord. By ‘spew out of My month’ is signified to be separated from the Lord, and to be so separated from the Lord is to be neither in heaven nor in hell, but in a place apart, deprived of human life, where there are nothing but phantasies. This is because they have mixed up truths with untruths and goods with evils, thus things holy with things profane, to such an extent that they cannot be separated. And since a man cannot then undergo preparation to be either in heaven or in hell, everything of his rational life is torn out, leaving the ultimates of life, which, separated from the interiors of life, are nothing but phantasies. More [details] about the condition and lot of these may be seen in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE PROVIDENCE (n. 226-228, 231), which are sufficient for acquiring knowledge about them. It is said of these that they are ‘spewed out’, because the world of spirits, which is midway between heaven and hell where every man first comes and undergoes preparation after death, corresponds to the stomach. In this all things put in undergo preparation either to become blood and flesh, or to become excrement and urine, the latter having correspondence with hell, but the former with heaven. But the things that are spewed out of the stomach are those that have not been separated, but are mixed together. On account of this correspondence ‘to be spewed out’ and ‘spewing’ are mentioned in the following places:-

Drink and be drunken, that thy foreskin may be uncovered: the cup of Jehovah shall come round to thee that there may be shameful spewing on the glory Hab. iii 15, 16.

Make Moab drunken, that he may applaud in his vomit Jer. xlviii 26.

All the tables are full of the vomit of emptying. Whom shall he teach knowledge? Isa. xxviii 7-9

besides elsewhere, as Jer. xxv 27; Lev. xviii 24, 25, 28. That lukewarm water excites vomiting also results from correspondence.

AR (Coulson) n. 206 sRef Zech@9 @4 S0′ sRef Ezek@28 @4 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @25 S0′ sRef Isa@10 @13 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @24 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @23 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @25 S0′ sRef Ps@112 @1 S0′ sRef Ezek@26 @12 S0′ sRef Ezek@28 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@10 @14 S0′ sRef Luke@16 @19 S0′ sRef Ps@112 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@45 @12 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @53 S0′ sRef Isa@45 @3 S0′ 206.* [verse 17] ‘Because thou sayest, I am rich and increased with goods’ signifies that they believe themselves to possess in great abundance the cognitions of truth and good that are of the Church and heaven. To be ‘rich and increased with goods’ here signifies nothing else than fully to know and understand such things as are of the Church and heaven, which are called spiritual and theological, because here [the Word] treats of those things. Spiritual riches and plenty are nothing else. Those whose belief is derived from themselves and not from the Lord through the Word, also believe themselves to know and understand all things. This is because their spiritual mind has been closed and only the natural mind opened, and without spiritual light this mind does not see otherwise. That by ‘riches’ and ‘wealth’ in the Word are signified spiritual riches and wealth, which are cognitions of good and truth, is plain from these passages:-

In thy wisdom and in thy understanding thou hast made wealth for thyself, gold and silver in thy treasure-chambers; by the great Increase of thy wisdom thou hast greatly increased wealth for thyself Ezek. xxviii 4, 5.

These things [are said] of Tyre, by which is signified the Church as to cognitions of truth and good. In like manner:-

The daughter of Tyre shall bring thee a gift; O daughter of the king, the rich peoples shall entreat thy faces Ps. xlv 12 [H.B. 13].

Jehovah will impoverish Tyre, He will shake off her wealth in the sea Zech. ix 4.

O Tyre, they shall plunder thy wealth Ezek. xxvi 12.

Asshur has said, By the strength of my hand have I done it, and through my wisdom, because I am intelligent; whence I will plunder the treasures of the peoples, my hand shall find the wealth of the peoples Isa. x 13, 14.

By ‘Asshur’ is signified the rational, here that it perverts the goods and truths of the Church, which are the ‘treasures’ and ‘wealth’ of the peoples, which he shall plunder.

I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and the hidden wealth of the hiding-places Isa. xlv 3.

Blessed is the man who fears Jehovah, wealth and riches are in his house, and his justice stands for ever Ps. cxii 1, 3.

God has filled the hungry with good things, and the rich He has sent empty away Luke i 53.

Woe to you that are rich, for you have taken your joy; woe to you that have been filled, for you shall hunger Luke vi 24, 25.

By ‘the rich’ here are understood those who were in possession of cognitions of good and truth, because in possession of the Word, and these were the Jews. In like manner [they are understood] by the rich man who was clothed with purple and fine linen (Luke xvi 19). Likewise by ‘the rich’ and ‘riches’ elsewhere (as Isa. xxx 6; Jer. xvii; Micah iv 13; vi 12; Zech. xiv 14; Matt. xii 35; xiii 44; Luke xii 21).
* Number 205 is missing in the Original text.

AR (Coulson) n. 207

207. That ‘And do not need anything’ signifies that they do not need to know or discern anything more or from any other source is plain from the things said above, because it is the consequence.

AR (Coulson) n. 208 sRef Isa@47 @11 S0′ sRef Ezek@7 @26 S0′ sRef Ezek@7 @27 S0′ sRef Isa@47 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@5 @9 S0′

208. ‘And knowest not that thou art wretched’ signifies that they do not know that all the things that they know and think concerning the truths and goods of the Church have no coherence at all, and are fences (maceria). By wretchedness here is signified no coherence; thus by ‘wretched’ one who thinks incoherently about the things of the Church. This is because those of whom these things are said, at one time deny God, heaven, eternal life and the holiness of the Word, and at another time acknowledge them. Therefore what they build up with one hand they pull down with the other. Thus they are like those who build a house and presently demolish it; or like those who clothe themselves with beautiful garments and presently strip them off. Their houses therefore are rubble, and their garments are rags. Although they are ignorant of the fact, all the things that they think about the Church and heaven are like that. These things are understood by ‘wretchedness’ in the following places also:-

Thy wisdom and knowledge has led thee aside, when thou hast said in thy heart, I and none besides me; therefore shall wretchedness fall upon thee Isa. xlvii 10, 11.

Wretchedness shalt come upon wretchedness, the king shall mourn, and the prince shall be clothed with stupefaction Ezek. vii 26, 27.

The ‘king’ who ‘shall mourn’, and the ‘prince’ who ‘shall be clothed with stupefaction’, are those who are in the truths of the Church.

What is right is not in their mouth, wretchedness is in the midst of them Ps. v 10.

Similar things are signified by fences (maceria) (Jer. xlix 3 [AV hedges]; Ezek. xiii 10-12; Hos. ii 6 [H.B. 8]).

AR (Coulson) n. 209 sRef Ps@86 @1 S0′ sRef Ps@37 @14 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @13 S0′ sRef Isa@29 @19 S0′ sRef Ps@40 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@5 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@32 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@35 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@109 @16 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @4 S0′

209. ‘And miserable and poor’ signifies that they are without truths and goods. By the ‘miserable and poor’ in the spiritual sense of the Word are understood those who are without cognitions of truth and good, for they are spiritually miserable and poor. Those are understood by them also in the following places:-

I am miserable and poor, O Lord. Remember me Ps. xl 17 [H.B. 18]; lxx 5 [H.B. 6].

Bow down thine ear, O Jehovah, and answer, for I am miserable and poor Ps. lxxxvi 1.

The wicked lay the sword bare, and bend their bow, to cast down the miserable and poor Ps. xxxvii 14.

The wicked pursued the miserable and poor [man], for the slaying of the dejected in heart Ps. cix 16.

God shall judge the miserable of the people, He shall save the sons of the poor: He shall deliver the poor [man] who cries, and the miserable Ps. lxxii 4, 12, 13.

Jehovah rescues the miserable from him who is stronger than he, and the poor from those who spoil him Ps. xxxv 10.

The wicked [man] devises crimes to destroy the miserable by lying words, even when the poor [man] speaks judgment Isa. xxxii 7.

The miserable shalt have joy in Jehovah, and the poor among men shall exult in the Holy One of Israel Isa. xxix 19.

Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven Matt. v 3;

besides elsewhere, as Isa. x 2; Jer. xxii 16; Ezek. xvi 49; xviii 12; xxii 29; Amos viii 4; Ps. ix 18 [H.B. 19]; lxix 32, 33 [H.B. 33, 34]; lxxiv 21; cix 22; cxl 12 [H.B. 13]; Deut. xv 11; xxiv 14; Luke xiv 13, 21, 23. By the ‘miserable and poor’ are understood chiefly those who are not in cognitions of truth and good and yet desire them, since by the ‘rich’ are understood those who possess cognitions of truth and good (n. 206).

AR (Coulson) n. 210 sRef John@9 @41 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S0′ sRef Deut@27 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@56 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@15 @14 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @16 S0′ sRef Isa@35 @4 S0′ sRef Isa@35 @5 S0′ sRef John@9 @39 S0′ sRef John@9 @40 S0′ sRef Isa@56 @10 S0′ sRef John@12 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @24 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @17 S0′ sRef Isa@29 @18 S0′ sRef Lev@19 @14 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @16 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @19 S0′ sRef Lev@21 @18 S0′

210. ‘And blind and naked’ signifies that they are without an understanding of truth and a will of good. By ‘the blind’ in the Word are understood those who are without truths as a result either of a lack thereof in the Church, or of ignorance, or of not understanding them; and by ‘the naked’ are understood those who are consequently without goods; for every spiritual good is furnished by means of truths. No others are understood by ‘the blind’ in the following passages:-

Then in that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of dense darkness Isa. xxix 18.

Behold, your God will come; then the eyes of the blind shall be opened Isa. xxxv 4-6.

I will give thee for a light of the nations, to open the blind eyes Isa. xlii 6-8.

I will lead the blind into a way that they have not known, I will turn their darkness into light Isa. xlii 16.

Bring forth the blind people who have eyes, and the deaf who have ears Isa. xliii 8.

His watchmen are all blind, and do not know to understand Isa. lvi 10, 11.

He has blinded their eyes, and closed up their heart, that they may not see with the eyes, nor understand with the heart John xii 40.

Jesus said, For judgment have I come into the world, that they who see not may see, and that they who see may become blind John ix 39-41.

Blind guides, stupid and foolish Matt. xxiii 16, 17, 19, 24.

Blind leaders of the blind Matt. xv 14; Luke vi 39.

On account of the signification of ‘blind’ and ‘blindness’ it was forbidden to offer what was blind for a sacrifice (Lev. xxi 18; Deut. xv 21). They should not put a stumbling-block before the blind (Lev. xix 14). He would be cursed who should make the blind go astray (Deut. xxvii 18). Concerning the signification of ‘naked’ and ‘nakedness’ [something] may be seen below (n. 213).

AR (Coulson) n. 211 sRef Dan@2 @33 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @18 S0′ sRef Dan@2 @32 S0′

211. [verse 18] ‘I counsel thee to buy from Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich’ signifies an admonition to acquire for themselves the good of love from the Lord by means of the Word, so that they may be wise. For ‘to buy’ signifies to acquire for oneself; ‘from Me’ signifies from the Lord by means of the Word; ‘gold’ signifies good, and ‘gold tried in the fire’ the good of celestial love; and to be enriched thereby signifies to understand and be wise. ‘Gold’ signifies good, because the metals in their order signify such things as are of good and truth; gold, celestial good and spiritual good; silver, the truth of those loves*; bronze, natural good; and iron, natural truth. These things are signified by the metals out of which Nebuchadnezzar’s statue [was made], of which:-

The head was gold, the breast and arms silver, the belly and thighs bronze, the legs iron, and the feet part of iron and part of clay Dan. ii 32, 33.

By this the successive states of the Church as to the good of love and the truth of wisdom were signified. Because the states of the Church had followed one after another in this manner, the Ancients therefore gave like names to times, calling them golden, silver, bronze, and iron ages, and by the ‘golden age’ they understood a first time when the good of celestial love was ruling. Celestial love is a love [progressing] into the Lord from the Lord. They had their wisdom then out of this love. ‘Gold’ signifies the good of love, as may be seen below (n. 913).
* The Original Edition has amorum (of loves), which may be a slip for bonorum (of goods).

AR (Coulson) n. 212 sRef Rev@3 @18 S0′

212. ‘And white garments that thou mayest be clothed’ signifies that they may acquire for themselves genuine truths of wisdom. That ‘garments’ signify the truths clothing good may be seen above (n. 166); and that ‘white’ is said of truths (n. 167). Consequently ‘white garments’ signify genuine truths of wisdom, and this because gold purified by fire signifies the good of celestial love, and the truths of this love are the genuine truths of wisdom.

AR (Coulson) n. 213 sRef Rev@3 @18 S0′

213. ‘And the shame of thy nakedness may not appear’ signifies so that the good of celestial love may not be profaned and adulterated. No one can know what ‘the shame of nakedness’ signifies, unless he knows that the organs (membra) of generation in each sex, which are also called the genitals, correspond to celestial love. That there is a correspondence of man and all his members with heaven, may be seen in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL, published at London in the year 1758 (n. 87-102); and that the genital organs (membra) correspond to celestial love, in ARCANA CAELESTIA, also published at London (n. 5050-5062). Since those organs (membra) correspond to celestial love, which is the love of the third or inmost heaven, and a man from his parents is born into loves opposite to that love, it is plain that if he does not acquire for himself from the Lord the good of love and the truths of wisdom, which are signified by ‘gold tried in the fire’ and by ‘white garments’, he will make his appearance in the opposite love, which in itself is profane. sRef Nahum@3 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @3 S2′ sRef Nahum@3 @4 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @6 S2′ sRef Rev@16 @15 S2′ sRef Hab@2 @15 S2′ sRef Nahum@3 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @1 S2′ sRef Hab@2 @16 S2′ sRef Lam@1 @8 S2′ [2] This is signified by ‘uncovering nakedness’ and ‘making one’s shame visible’ in the following places:-

Blessed is he who is awake and takes care of his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame Rev. xvi 15.

Daughter of Babel and of Chaldea, sit on the earth, uncover thy hair, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers, let thy nakedness be revealed, and let thy reproach also be seen Isa. xlvii 1-3.

Woe to the city of bloods; because of the multitude of her whoredoms, I will uncover the extremities upon thy faces, and I will show the nations thy nakedness, and the kingdoms thy disgrace Nah. iii 1, 4, 5.

Plead with your mother, lest perchance I lay her naked Hos. ii 2-4.

When I have passed by thee, I have covered thy nakedness, and washed thee, and clothed thee, but then thou hast committed whoredom, not remembering thy youth, when thou wast naked and stripped bare; on that account thy nakedness has been revealed Ezek. xvi 6 seq.

Jerusalem has sinned a sin, therefore all despise her, because they have seen her nakedness Lam. i 8.

By ‘Jerusalem’, of which these things have been said, the Church is understood; and by ‘to commit whoredom’ is signified to adulterate and falsify the Word (n. 134).

Woe to him who makes his companion drink, making him drunken, that thou mayest look upon his nakedness: drink thou also that thy foreskin may be revealed Hab. ii 15, 16.

sRef Gen@9 @21 S3′ sRef Ex@28 @42 S3′ sRef Ex@28 @43 S3′ sRef Ex@20 @26 S3′ sRef Gen@9 @23 S3′ sRef Gen@9 @22 S3′ [3] He who knows what ‘nakedness’ signifies is able to understand what is signified by [the statement] that:-

Noah, when drunk from wine, was lying naked in the midst of his tent, and Ham saw and laughed at his nakedness, and Shem and Japheth covered his nakedness, turning away their faces lest they should see it Gen. ix 21-23:

and why it was commanded that:-

Aaron and his sons should not go up by steps upon the altar, lest their nakedness should be revealed Exod. xx 26 [H.B. 23]

as also that:-

They should make for them linen breeches to cover the flesh of their

nakedness, and they should be upon them when they were coming near the altar, and that otherwise they should bear iniquity and die Exod. xxviii 42, 43.

By ‘nakedness’ in these passages the evils into which man is born are signified, which, because they are opposed to the good of celestial love, are in themselves profane, and are not removed except by means of truths and a life in accordance with them. ‘Linen’ also signifies truth (n. 671). INNOCENCE also is signified by ‘nakedness’, and also IGNORANCE or GOOD AND TRUTH; innocence by these [words]:-

They were both naked, the man and his wife, and had no cause for shame Gen. ii 25.

Ignorance of good and truth by these:-

This is the fast that I choose, to break bread to the hungry, and when thou seest the naked, to cover him Isa. lviii 6, 7.


Let him give his bread to the hungry, and cover the naked with a garment Ezek. xviii 7.

I was hungry and you gave Me to eat, naked and you clothed Me Matt. xxv 35, 36.

AR (Coulson) n. 214 sRef Rev@3 @18 S0′

214. ‘And anoint thine eyes with eye-salve that thou mayest see’ signifies so that the understanding may be healed lest the genuine truths of wisdom be profaned and falsified. That the understanding is signified by ‘eyes’, and intelligence and wisdom by ‘the sight of the eyes’ may be seen (n. 48); and when by ‘eye-salve’ a remedy for it is signified, it follows that by ‘anoint the eyes with eye-salve’ is signified to heal the understanding, so that it may see truths and be wise; and unless this takes place, the genuine truths of the Word are profaned and adulterated.

AR (Coulson) n. 215 sRef Rev@3 @19 S0′

215. [verse 19] ‘As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten’ signifies that those of them who act in such a way are loved by the Lord, and that then they cannot but be let into temptations in order to fight against themselves. It is plain that this is the sense of these words, for it is said ‘As many as I love’, by whom are understood those who ‘buy gold purified in the fire’ from the Lord, and who ‘anoint the eyes with eye-salve that they may see’. It is said ‘I rebuke and chasten’ them, by which is understood temptation as to untruths and evils; by ‘rebuke’ temptation as to untruths, and by ‘chasten’ temptation as to evils. Those of whom [the Word] treats here cannot but be let into temptations, because without them denials and confirmations against Divine truths cannot be eradicated. Temptations are spiritual combats against the untruths and evils with oneself, thus against oneself. Moreover, what temptations are, whence they are, and what good they effect, may be seen in the work CONCERNING THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, published at London in the year 1758 (n. 187-201).

AR (Coulson) n. 216 sRef Rev@3 @19 S0′

216. ‘Be zealous therefore and repent’ signifies that this [healing through temptations] may result from an affection of truth and a turning away of untruth. Here, ‘Be zealous’ is said, because above (verse 15) it was said, ‘I would thou wert cold or hot’, here that he may be hot, for zeal is spiritual heat, and spiritual heat is an affection of love, here the affection of the love of truth; and he who acts out of an affection of the love of truth, acts also out of an aversion to untruth. These things are therefore signified by ‘repent’. ‘Zeal’ in the Word, where [it treats] of the Lord, signifies love and wrath. Love (John ii 17; Ps. lxix 9 [H.B. 10]; Isa. xxxvii 32; lxiii 15; Ezek. xxxix 25; Zech. i 14; viii 2). Wrath (Deut. xxxii 16, 21; Ps. lxxix 5, 6; Ezek. viii [3, 5; xvi] 42; xxiii 25; Zeph. i 18; iii 8). ‘Zeal’ with the Lord, however, is not wrath. It only appears like it in externals. Interiorly it is love. In externals it appears like wrath, because the Lord seems to be angry while He is reproving a man, especially when his evil is punishing him. The fact that leave is given by love that his evil may be removed, is just like the case of a parent who, if he loves the children, allows chastising for the purpose of removing their evils. It is plain from these [considerations] why Jehovah says He is ‘zealous’ (Deut. iv 24; v 9, 10; vi 14, 15).

AR (Coulson) n. 217 sRef Luke@12 @36 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @20 S0′

217. [verse 20] ‘Behold I stand at the door (janua) and knock’ signifies that the Lord is present with every one in the Word, and draws nigh there to be received, and teaches how [this may come to pass]. [Words] similar to these are said by the Lord in Luke:-

You shall be like unto men who wait for their Lord, when He is going no return from the wedding, so that when He comes and knocks, they may open to Him immediately Luke xii 36.

That a ‘door’ signifies admission and entrance may be seen above (n. 176).

AR (Coulson) n. 218 sRef John@14 @24 S0′ sRef John@14 @23 S0′ sRef John@14 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @20 S0′ sRef John@14 @21 S0′

218. ‘If anyone hears My voice and opens [the door]’ signifies he who believes in the Word and lives in accordance with it. ‘To hear the voice’ is to believe in the Word, for the Divine truth of the Word is ‘the voice of Jehovah’ (n. 37, so); and ‘to open the door (ostium)’ is to live in accordance with it, since the door is not opened, nor is the Lord received, by only hearing the voice, but by living in accordance with it, for the Lord says:-

He who has My commandments and does them, I will manifest Myself to him, and come unto him, and make an abode with him John xiv 21-24.

That a man ought to open the door as from himself, by fleeing from evils as sins and by doing goods, has been shown in THE DOCTRINE OF LIFE FOR THE NEW JERUSALEM; and that it is in such a manner is plain also from the Lord’s words here, ‘If any one opens’, and again from His words [in] Luke xii 36.

AR (Coulson) n. 219 sRef Rev@3 @20 S0′

219. ‘I will enter in to him, and will sup with him and he with Me’ signifies that the Lord conjoins Himself with them and them with Himself. ‘To enter in and sup with him’ signifies to conjoin Himself with him, and since there must be reciprocity for conjunction to take place, it is also said ‘and he with Me’. That being conjoined is signified by ‘to enter in and sup’ is plain from the HOLY SUPPER instituted by the Lord, by means of which there is the Lord’s presence with those who hear His voice, that is, who believe in the Word, but conjunction with those who live in accordance with the Word. To live in accordance with the Word is to practise repentance, and to believe in the Lord. ‘Sup’ is said, and ‘the Lord’s Supper’, because a supper takes place in the evening, and by ‘evening’ the last time of the Church is signified. Therefore when the Lord departed out of the world, and it was then the last time of the Church, he supped with the disciples and instituted the Holy Supper. That ‘evening’ signifies the last time of an old Church, and ‘morning’ the first of a new Church, may be seen above (n. 151).

AR (Coulson) n. 220 sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′

220. [verse 21] That ‘To him who overcomes’ signifies those who are in conjunction with the Lord by means of a life in accordance with His commandments in the Word is plain from things said above.

AR (Coulson) n. 221 sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′

221. ‘Will I grant to be seated with Me in My throne’ signifies that their conjunction with the Lord will be in heaven. That the Lord’s ‘throne’ is heaven may be seen above (n. 14), therefore ‘to be seated with the Lord in His throne’ signifies conjunction with Him in heaven.

AR (Coulson) n. 222 sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ sRef John@15 @5 S0′

222. ‘As I have overcome, and am seated with the Father in His throne’ signifies as He and the Father are one, and are heaven. That the Father and the Lord are one has been fully shown in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD; again elsewhere, that heaven is not heaven out of the propria of the angels, but out of the Divine of the Lord that is in the angels and with them; therefore by this [saying] ‘as I am seated with the Father in His throne’ is signified as He and the Father are one, and are heaven. The ‘throne is heaven (n. 14, 221). ‘As I have overcome’ signifies that by means of the temptations admitted into His Human, and by means of the utmost limit thereof which was the passion of the cross, also by the fulfilling of all things of the Word, He has overcome the hells and glorified His Human; that is, He has united it to His own Divine that was in Him as a result of the conception, and is called Jehovah the Father. Concerning which things [something] may be seen in THE DOCTRINE or THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD mentioned above (n. 8-11, 12-14, 29-36), and also above (n. 67). sRef John@1 @18 S2′ sRef John@14 @6 S2′ [2] The Lord says ‘To him who overcomes will I grant to be seated with Me in My throne, as I have overcome and am seated with the Father in His throne’, because the Lord’s uniting with the Father, that is, with His own Divine in Himself, has as an end the possibility of a man’s being conjoined in the Lord to the Divine that is called the Father since it is not possible that a man can be conjoined immediately to the Divine of the Father, but [only] mediately by means of His Divine Human, which is the Natural Divine. And therefore the Lord says:-

No man has seen God at any time, the Only-begotten Son Who is in the bosom of the Father, He has set [Him] forth John i 18;

and elsewhere:-

I am the Way, the Truth (veritas) and the Life, no man comes unto the Father but by Me John xiv 6.

sRef John@14 @20 S3′ sRef John@17 @17 S3′ sRef John@17 @21 S3′ sRef John@17 @23 S3′ sRef John@17 @19 S3′ [3] The conjunction of the Lord with a man is by means of His Divine Truth, and this in the man is of the Lord, thus the Lord, and not at all of the man, thus not the man. The man feels this indeed as his own, but still it is not his, for it is not united to him, but adjoined. The Divine of the Father is otherwise. This is not adjoined but united to the Lord’s Human, as the soul is united to its own body. He who understands these things is able to understand the following words of the Lord:-

He who abides in Me, and I in him, the same bears much fruit, for without Me you can do nothing John xv 4, 5.

At that day, you shall know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you John xiv 20.

Also these:-

Sanctify them in Thy truth (veritas); Thy word is the truth (veritas) for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also may he sanctified in the truth (veritas); that they all may be one, as Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us; I in them and Thou in Me John xvii 17, 19, 21, 23.

AR (Coulson) n. 223 sRef Rev@3 @22 S0′

223. [verse 221 ‘He who has an ear let him hear what the Spirit says to the Churches’ signifies that he who understands obeys what the Divine Truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church (e Nova Ecclesia) that is the New Jerusalem, as above (n. 87).


* * * * *

AR (Coulson) n. 224

224. To these things I will add this MEMORABLE OCCURRENCE. I saw a group of spirits, all on their knees, praying to God to send them angels, with whom they might speak face to face and open up the thoughts of their hearts. And when they stood up, three angels in white linen were seen standing in full view of them. And the angels said, ‘The Lord Jesus Christ has heard your prayers, and has therefore sent us to you. Open to us the thoughts of your hearts.’ [2] And they replied, ‘The priests have told us that in theological matters it is not the understanding that counts, but faith; and that in those matters an intellectual faith is of no use to anyone, because it is derived from the man. We are Englishmen, and we have heard many things from our sacred ministry, which we have believed; but when we have spoken with some calling themselves the Reformed, and with others calling themselves Roman Catholics, and with dissenters as well, they all seemed to us to be learned, and yet in many things one did not agree with the other. Yet they all said, “Believe us”, and some of them said, “We are God’s ministers and we know”. Because, however, we have come to know that the Divine truths that are called truths of faith, and are the truths of the Church, are not with anyone the result merely of birth, nor of what is hereditary, but are from God out of heaven; and because these truths show the way to heaven, and enter into the life together with the good of charity and so lead to eternal life, we have become anxious and have prayed to God on our knees.’ [3] Then the angels replied, ‘Read the Word, and believe in the Lord, and you will see the truths that will be of your faith and life. In Christendom all draw their doctrinal tenets out of the Word as out of the one and only fountain.’ But two of the group said, ‘We have read but have not understood.’ [4] And the angels answered, ‘You have not approached the Lord, and you have also confirmed yourselves in untruths.’ And the angels said further, ‘What is faith without light, and what is thinking without understanding? It is not human. Even ravens and magpies can learn to speak without an understanding. We can positively assert that any individual whose soul longs for it is able to see truths of the Word in the light; for there is not an animal that does not know its own life’s food when it sees it, and a man is a rational and spiritual animal. Such an animal, if he hungers for it and seeks it from the Lord, sees the food not of the body but of the soul; and this is the truth of faith. Whatever is not being received also in the understanding, is not being lodged in the memory as regards the thing itself but only as regards the words. Therefore when we have looked down out of heaven into the world, we have not seen anything, but have only heard sounds, mostly disharmonious. [5] However, we shall mention some things that the learned among the clergy have withdrawn from the understanding, not knowing that there are two ways into the understanding, one from the world and the other from heaven, and that the Lord, when He is enlightening it, lifts the understanding up out of the world. If, however, the understanding is closed up as a result of religion, the way from heaven is closed to it, and in that case a man sees in the Word no more than a blind person sees. We have seen many such who fell into pits, out of which they have not risen. Let there be examples for enlightenment. You are able, are you not, to understand what charity is, and faith, that charity is to act well with the neighbour, and that faith is to think well about God and the essentials of the Church, and consequently that he who acts well and thinks well, that is, lives well and believes well, is saved.’ [In response] to these things, they declared that they did understand them. [6] The angels said further, ‘Do you not understand that a repentance from sins is to be practised in order that a man may be saved, and that unless the man practises repentance he continues in the sins into which he has been born; and that to practise repentance is not to will evils because they are sins against God, and to examine oneself once or twice a year to see one’s own evils, to confess them in the presence of God, to pray earnestly for help, to desist from the evils, and enter on a new life; and that in the measure that he is doing this, and believing in the Lord, his sins are being remitted.’ Then some of the group said, ‘We understand these things, and so we also understand what the remission of sins is.’ [7] ‘And then they asked the angels to give them further information, and this time about God, the immortality of the soul, regeneration, and baptism. To these requests the angels replied, ‘We shall say nothing that you do not understand. Otherwise our discussion is falling as rain upon sand, and upon the seeds there, which, however watered from heaven, still wither away and perish. ‘And concerning GOD they said, ‘All who come into heaven are allotted a place there, and eternal joy, in accordance with an idea of God, because this idea reigns throughout us all things of worship. An idea of God [as] invisible is not directed to anyone, nor is it defined in terms of anything, and therefore it ceases and perishes. An idea of God as a Spirit, when a spirit is believed to be like ether or wind, is an empty idea: but an idea of God as a Man is a just idea, for God is Divine Love and Wisdom with every quality thereof, and the subject of these is a Man, and not ether or wind. In heaven the idea of God is an idea of the Lord. He Himself is the God of heaven and earth, as He Himself taught. Let your idea of God be like ours, and we shall be associated together. ‘When they had said these things their faces became radiant. [8] Concerning THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL they said, ‘A man lives to eternity, because he can be conjoined to God by means of love and faith. This is possible with each individual. If you think about this a little more deeply you can understand that this “possibility” brings about the immortality of the soul.’ [9] Concerning REGENERATION; ‘Who does not see that every man has the freedom to think about God or not to think about Him, provided he has been instructed that God exists. So everyone has freedom in spiritual things, just as in things civil and moral. The Lord gives this continually to all, and therefore [a man] becomes guilty if he does not think. A man is a man as the result of his being able to do this, while a beast is a beast as the result of its inability to do so. A man, therefore, is able to reform and regenerate himself as from himself, provided he acknowledges at heart that it is from the Lord. Everyone who practises repentance and believes in the Lord is being reformed and regenerated; the man will do both as from himself, but the ‘as from himself’ is from the Lord. It is true that the man cannot contribute anything to this [process], nothing at all, nevertheless you have not been created statues, but you have been created men so that you might do this from the Lord as from yourselves. This is the one and only reciprocation of love and faith that the Lord expressly wills to be made to Him by a man. In a word, do it from yourselves, and believe that it is from the Lord. In this way you do it as from yourselves.’ [10] But then the Englishmen inquired whether to do as from oneself was imparted to the man from creation. An angel replied, ‘It has not been imparted, because doing from Self is of the Only God, but it is being given continually, that is, being adjoined continually. And then in the measure that the man does good and believes what is true as from himself he is an angel of heaven, but in the measure that he does evil and believes what is untrue, this being also as from himself, he is an angel of hell. You are astonished that this also is as from oneself, but still you see it while you are praying that you may be protected from the devil, lest he should seduce you and enter into you as he did into Judas, fill you with all iniquity, and destroy both soul and body. Everyone becomes guilty, however, who believes that he is doing anything from himself, whether it is good or evil, but he who believes that he is doing it as from himself it does not become guilty. [11] ‘Concerning BAPTISM they said that it is a spiritual washing, which is reformation and regeneration, and that a little child will be reformed and regenerated when, having grown up, he does the things that his sponsors promised on his behalf, which are two, repentance and faith in God; for they promise first that he shall renounce the devil and all his works, and second that he shall believe in God. All the little children in heaven are being initiated into these two, but to them the devil is hell, and God is the Lord. Besides, baptism is a sign in the presence of angels that a man belongs to the Church. [12] On hearing these things some of the group said, ‘We understand’; but a voice was heard from one side complaining, ‘We do not understand’, and another voice, ‘We do not want to understand’; and an inquiry was made as to whom these voices came from, and it was discovered that they came from those who had confirmed themselves in untruths of faith, and who wanted to be believed as oracles, and so to be adored. The angels said, ‘Do not be astonished. There are very many like this at the present day. From heaven they appear to us like graven images, so skilfully made that they can move the lips, and sound like organs, without knowing whether the breath causing them to sound is out of hell or heaven, because they do not know whether it is untruth or truth. They go on reasoning and confirming without seeing whether it is so at all. But you should realise that human nature is able to confirm whatever it wishes, even so that it appears as if it were so. Therefore heretics can do this. So can the wicked. Indeed even atheists [can prove] that there is no God, but nature only.’ [13] Afterwards the group of Englishmen, fired with a longing to become wise, said to the angels, ‘So many diverse things are said concerning the HOLY SUPPER, tell us what the truth (veritas) is.’ The angels said, ‘The truth is that a man who has the Lord in view and practises repentance is conjoined with the Lord and introduced into heaven by means of that most holy [sacrament].’ But some of the group said, ‘This is a mystery’; and the angels replied, ‘It is a mystery, but yet such as can be understood. The bread and wine do not bring this to pass, nor is there anything holy in them, but material bread and heavenly bread correspond one to the other, also material wine and heavenly wine; and heavenly bread is the holy of love, and heavenly wine is the holy of faith, each of them from the Lord, and each of them being the Lord. Resulting from this there is a conjunction of the Lord with the man, and of the man with the Lord, not with the bread and wine, but with the love and faith of the man who practises repentance; and conjunction with the Lord is also introduction into heaven.’ And after the angels taught them something about correspondence and its effect, some of the group said, ‘Now for the first time we understand.’ And when they said, ‘We understand’, behold a flame descending out of heaven with light associated them with the angels, and they loved each other.

AR (Coulson) n. 225 sRef Rev@4 @1 S0′ 225. THE FOURTH CHAPTER

1. After these things I saw, and behold an open door in heaven; and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was saying, Come up hither, and I will show thee things which must come to pass hereafter.
2. And immediately I came to be in the spirit, and behold a throne set in heaven, and upon the throne One sitting.
3. And the One sitting looked like a stone of jasper and sardius, and the rainbow round about the throne looked like an emerald.
4. And around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and upon the thrones I saw twenty-four elders sitting wrapped around with white garments, and on their heads they had golden crowns.
5. And out of the throne were going forth lightnings and thunderings and voices; and seven lamps of fire blazing before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God.
6. And in full view of the throne a sea of glass like unto crystal. And in the midst of the throne and around the throne, four animals full of eyes before and behind.
7. And the first animal was like a lion, and the second animal like a calf, and the third animal having a face as a man, and the fourth animal was like a flying eagle.
8. And the four animals, each separately, had six wings round about, and within they were full of eyes, and had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty, Who was and Who is and Who is to come.
9. And when the animals gave glory, and honour, and thanks to the One sitting upon the throne, to Him living for ages of ages,
10. The twenty-four elders were falling prostrate before the One sitting upon the throne, and adoring the One living for ages of ages, and were casting their crowns away before the throne saying,
11. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to take to Thyself glory and honour and power, for Thou hast created all things, and by Thy will they exist and have been created.


THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

THE CONTENT OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER

It treats of the setting in order and preparation of all in heaven for the judgment that is going to be out of the Word and in accordance therewith; then of the recognition that the Lord is the only Judge.


THE CONTENTS OF EACH OF THE VERSES

1. After these things I saw, and behold an open door in heaven
signifies manifestation concerning the setting of the heavens in order by the Lord for the last judgment, about to come to pass in accordance with His Divine truths in the Word.
And the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was saying, Come up hither
signifies Divine influx, and the resulting elevation of mind, and a manifest perception then.
And I will show thee things which must come to pass hereafter
signifies revelations of things to come before the last judgment, also of the last judgment itself, and after it.

2. And immediately I came to be in the spirit
signifies that he was admitted into a spiritual state, in which the things that come into existence in heaven are clearly visible.
And behold a throne set [in heaven]
signifies judgment in a representative form.
And upon the throne One sitting
signifies the Lord.

3. And the One sitting looked like a stone of jasper and sardius
signifies the appearing of the Lord’s Divine Wisdom and Divine Love in ultimates.
And the rainbow round about the throne looked like an emerald
signifies the appearing of these also around the Lord.

4. And around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and upon the thrones I saw twenty-four elders sitting
signifies the setting of all in heaven in order for judgment.
Wrapped around with white garments
signifies out of the Divine truths of the Word. And on their heads they had golden crowns
signifies which are of wisdom derived from love.

5. And out of the throne were going forth lightnings and thunderings and voices
signifies enlightenment, perception, and instruction from the Lord.
And seven lamps of fire [blazing] before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God
[signifies the New Church resulting therefrom in heaven and on earth from the Lord by means of the Divine Truth proceeding from Himself.

6. And in full view of the throne a sea of glass like unto crystal]
signifies the New Heaven [formed] out of Christians who were in general truths out of the sense of the letter of the Word.
And in the midst of the throne and around the throne four animals
signifies the Lord’s Word from firsts in ultimates, and its guards.
Full of eyes before and behind
signifies Divine Wisdom therein.

7. And the first animal was like a lion
signifies the Divine Truth of the Word as to power. And the second animal like a calf
signifies the Divine Truth of the Word as to affection. And the third animal having a face as a man
signifies the Divine Truth of the Word as to wisdom.
And the fourth animal was like a flying eagle
signifies the Divine Truth of the Word as to cognitions, and the resulting understanding.

8. And the four animals, each separately, had six wings round about
signifies the Word as to power and as to its guards.
And within they were full of eyes
signifies the Divine Wisdom in the Word in the natural sense out of its spiritual and celestial sense.
And had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty
signifies that the Word is continually teaching [the doctrine of] the Lord, and that He Only is God, and consequently that He Only is to be worshipped.
Who was and Who is and Who is to come
signifies the Lord.

9. And when the animals gave glory and honour and thanks to the One sitting upon the throne
signifies that the Word awards all truth and good and all worship to the Lord about to judge.
To Him living for ages of ages
signifies that the Lord Only has life, and eternal life is from Him Only.

10. The twenty-four elders were falling prostrate before the One sitting upon the throne, and adoring the One living for ages of ages
signifies the humbling of all in heaven before the Lord.
And were casting their crowns away before the throne
signifies the recognition that their wisdom is from Him Only.

11. Saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to take to Thyself glory and honour and power
signifies the confession that the Lord, because He is Divine Truth and Divine Good, has the kingdom by virtue of merit and justice.
For Thou hast created all things, and by Thy will they exist and have been created
signifies that all things of heaven and the Church have been made and formed, and that men are reformed and regenerated, out of Divine Good by means of the Divine Truth that is also the Word.


THE EXPOSITION

[verse 1] ‘After these things I saw, and behold an open door in heaven’ signifies manifestation concerning the setting of the heavens in order by the Lord for the last judgment, about to come to pass in accordance with His Divine truths in the Word. By ‘an open door’, when [said] of heaven, is signified entry, as above (n. 176); here also manifestation, because he says, ‘I saw, and behold’. And because the things that are mentioned in this chapter were seen then, and these are concerned with the setting of the heavens in order by the Lord for the last judgment about to come to pass in accordance with His Divine truths in the Word, therefore by ‘I saw, [and] behold an open door in heaven’ is signified manifestation concerning these things.

AR (Coulson) n. 226 sRef Num@10 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @1 S0′ sRef Num@10 @8 S0′ sRef Num@10 @6 S0′ sRef Num@10 @7 S0′ sRef Num@10 @3 S0′ sRef Num@10 @2 S0′ sRef Num@10 @9 S0′ sRef Num@10 @4 S0′ sRef Num@10 @11 S0′ sRef Num@10 @10 S0′ sRef Num@10 @1 S0′

226. ‘And the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was saying, Come up hither’ signifies Divine influx, and the resulting elevation of mind, and a manifest perception then. It may be seen above (n. 37, 50) that a ‘voice’, when it is heard out of heaven, is Divine Truth inflowing, thus a Divine influx; and that by a voice ‘like a trumpet’ is signified a manifest perception (also above n. 37); and by ‘Come up hither’ an elevation of mind is signified; for in the spiritual world the higher one goes up, the purer the light one comes into, by which means the understanding is opened by degrees, that is, the mind is elevated. It follows also, therefore, that he then ‘came to be in the spirit’. By this is understood that he was let into a spiritual state in which the things that are in heaven appear manifestly. Because it treats of the setting of the heavens in order for the last judgment, the voice was heard ‘like a trumpet’; and voices as of a trumpet are heard in heaven when assemblies and arrangements in order take place. Therefore also with the sons of Israel, among whom all things were representative of heaven and the Church, it was a statute that

they should make trumpets out of silver, and that the sons of Aaron should make a sound with them for assemblies, for departures, in days of gladness, at festivals, in the beginnings of months, over the sacrifices, for a memorial, and for war Num. x 1-10.

But [something] will be said about ‘trumpets’ and ‘sounding’ through them, in the exposition of chap. viii 6, where it treats of the seven angels to whom seven trumpets were given.

AR (Coulson) n. 227 sRef Rev@4 @1 S0′

227. ‘And I will show thee things which must come to pass hereafter’ signifies revelations of things to come before the last judgment, also of the last judgment itself, and after it. These things are signified because in the Apocalypse it treats of nothing else but the state of the Church at its end, thus of the things to come before the last judgment, also of that judgment, and after it, as was said above (n. 2).

AR (Coulson) n. 228 sRef Rev@4 @2 S0′

228. [verse 2] ‘And immediately I came to be in the spirit’ signifies that he was admitted into a spiritual state, in which the things that come into existence in heaven are clearly visible. At n. 36 above it may be seen that ‘to come to be in the spirit’ is to be admitted into a spiritual state as a result of a Divine influx, also what the spiritual state is, and the quality thereof, and that in that state a man sees the things that are in the spiritual world as clearly as in the natural state of the body he sees the things that are of this world.

AR (Coulson) n. 229 sRef Ps@122 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@9 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@9 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@122 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @2 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@122 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@9 @7 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @31 S0′

229. ‘And behold a throne set [in heaven]’ signifies judgment in a representative form. That a ‘throne’ signifies heaven may be seen (n. 14). That a ‘throne’ also signifies judgment is plain from these passages:-

When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He shall sit upon the throne of His glory Matt. xxv 31 seq.

It treats there of the last judgment.

O Jehovah, Thou hast made my judgment, Thou hast sat upon the throne, a Judge of justice. Jehovah will prepare His throne for judgment Ps. ix 4, 5, 7 [H.B. 5, 6, 8].

I saw when the Ancient of days did sit, His throne as a flame of fire; a thousand and thousands were ministering to Him, and a myriad of myriads were standing before Him: the judgment was in session, and the books were opened Dan. vii 9, 10.

Jerusalem has been built, thither the tribes go up, and there thrones are set for judgment Ps. cxxii 3, 5.

I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given to them Rev. xx 4.

The throne built by Solomon (1 Kings x 18-20) used to signify both royalty and judgment, since the kings, when they gave judgments, used to sit upon thrones. It is said that a ‘throne’ signifies judgment in a representative form, because the things that John saw were visions that were representing. They were seen as he has described, but they were forms representative of future things, as can be established from the things following, as that animals, the dragon, beasts, the temple, the tabernacle, the ark, and other things besides, were seen. The things that were seen by the prophets were similar, of which above (n. 36).

AR (Coulson) n. 230 sRef Rev@4 @2 S0′

230. That ‘And upon the throne One sitting’ signifies the Lord is quite plain from the things following, and from the places in the Word where it is said that the Lord is going to execute judgment, as Matt. xxv 31 seq., John v 22, 27, and elsewhere.

AR (Coulson) n. 231 sRef Rev@4 @3 S0′

231. [verse 3] ‘And the One sitting looked like a stone of jasper and sardius’ signifies the appearing of the Lord’s Divine Wisdom and Divine Love in ultimates. A ‘stone’ in the Word signifies truths in ultimates, and a ‘precious stone’ truth transparent from good (n. 915). Of the rest of the colours in the spiritual world two are fundamental, the colour white and the colour red. The colour white originates out of the light of the Sun in heaven, thus out of the spiritual light that is gleaming white; and the colour red originates out of the fire of the Sun there, thus out of the celestial light that is flaming. Spiritual angels, because they are in truths of wisdom derived from the Lord, are in the gleaming white light, and are therefore clothed in white; and celestial angels, because they are in goods of love from the Lord, are in the flaming light, and are therefore clothed in red. Consequently these two colours are also in the precious stones in heaven, where they are very plentiful. This is why precious stones in the Word signify such things as are either of the truth of wisdom, or the good of love; and a ‘jasper’, because it gleams white, signifies the things that are of the truth of wisdom, while a ‘sardius’, because it glows red, signifies the things that are of the good of love. These stones signify the appearing of Divine Wisdom and Divine Love in ultimates, because all the precious stones in heaven originate out of the ultimates of the Word, and are transparent out of the spiritual sense of the ultimates there. That this is the case may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 44, 45). The ultimates of the Word are the truths and goods of its sense of the letter. It can hardly be believed by anyone in our world that this is the origin of the precious stones in heaven, because he does not know that all the things that come into existence in the spiritual world are correspondences, and that all the things that come into existence in the natural world originate therefrom. It has been granted me to know as a result of speaking with angels, and to see also with my eyes, that this is the origin of the precious stones in heaven, but the formation of them is from the Only Lord. Black colours, however, originate out of hell. There are two of these also. One of them is in opposition to white-this blackness being with those who have falsified the truths of the Word; and the other is in opposition to red-this blackness being with those who have adulterated the goods of the Word. The latter blackness is diabolical, but the former is satanic. What ‘jasper’ and ‘sardius’ signify may be seen [in] more [detail] in the exposition of chap. xxi 11, 18-20.

AR (Coulson) n. 232 sRef Rev@4 @3 S0′

232. ‘And the rainbow round about the throne looked like an emerald’ signifies the appearing of these also around the Lord. In the spiritual world rainbows of many kinds appear. They appear of diverse colours as on earth, and they appear of one colour. Here it is one colour, because ‘like an emerald’ is said. This appearance was around the Lord, because it is said ’round about the throne’. [What is] around Him is also in the angelic heaven. The Divine sphere that encompasses the Lord is out of His Divine Love and at the same time out of His Divine Wisdom, and when this Divine Wisdom is represented in heaven, it appears in the celestial kingdom becoming red like a ruby, in the spiritual kingdom becoming azure like a ligure (cyanus), and in the natural kingdom becoming green like an emerald; everywhere with ineffable splendour and radiance.

AR (Coulson) n. 233 sRef Rev@4 @4 S0′ sRef John@5 @27 S1′ sRef John@12 @47 S1′ sRef John@5 @22 S1′ sRef John@12 @48 S1′

233. [verse 4] ‘And around the throne were twenty-four thrones, and upon the thrones I saw twenty-four elders sitting’ signifies the setting of all in heaven in order for the last judgment. He who is not acquainted with the spiritual sense of the Word, and genuine truths of the Church at the same time, is able to believe that when the last judgment comes, the Lord will be seated upon a throne, and that other judges will also be on thrones around Him. He, however, who is acquainted with the spiritual sense of the Word and genuine truths of the Church at the same time, knows that the Lord will not then be seated upon a throne, nor will there be other judges around Him. On the contrary, he knows that the Lord is not going to judge anyone to hell, but that He is going to cause the Word to judge each one, Himself controlling all things so that they are effected in accordance with justice. In fact the Lord says:-

The Father does not judge anyone, but has given all judgment to the Son: He has given [Him] the ability to effect judgment, because He is the Son of Man John v 22, 27.

But elsewhere He says:-

I have not come to judge the world, but to save the world: the Word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day John xii 47, 48.

These two [statements] agree, when it is known that the Son of Man is the Lord as to the Word (see above, n. 44). Therefore the Word is going to judge, with the Lord controlling. sRef Ps@122 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@122 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@3 @14 S2′ sRef Matt@19 @28 S2′ sRef Rev@20 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@122 @3 S2′ [2] That by the twelve tribes of Israel and their elders are signified all who belong to the Lord’s Church in the heavens and on earth (in terris), and abstractly all the truths and goods there, may be seen (n. 251, 349, 369, 808); and that similar things are signified by the apostles (n. 79, 790, 903). From these considerations it is plain what is signified by these words of the Lord:-

Jesus said unto the disciples, You who have followed Me, when the Son of Man sits upon the throne of His glory, you also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel Matt xix 28; Luke xxii 30.

By ‘twelve’ are signified all, and they are predicated of the goods and truths of heaven and the Church (n. 348); likewise ‘twenty-four’. The ‘twelve apostles’ and the ‘twenty-four elders’ therefore signify all things of the Church, and the ‘twelve’ as well as the ‘twenty-four thrones’ signify everything of judgment. Who is unable to understand that the apostles and elders are not going to judge, and that they cannot do so? From these considerations it can now be established why ‘thrones’ and ‘elders’ are mentioned where [the Word treats of] judgment, as also in Isaiah:-

Jehovah will come to judgment with the elders of the people Isa. iii 14.

In David:-

Jerusalem has been built, and thither the tribes go up, and thrones are set there for judgment Ps. cxxii 3-5.

And in the Apocalypse:-


I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them Rev. xx 4.

AR (Coulson) n. 234 sRef Rev@4 @4 S0′

234. ‘Wrapped around with white garments’ signifies out of the Divine truths of the Word. That ‘white garments’ signify genuine truths of the Word may be seen above (n. 166, 212).

AR (Coulson) n. 235 sRef Rev@4 @4 S0′

235. ‘And on their heads they had golden crowns’ signifies which are of wisdom derived from love. That a crown’ signifies wisdom may be seen above (n. 189), and that ‘gold’ signifies the good of love (n. 211, 913); consequently a ‘golden crown’ signifies wisdom derived from love. Since all the things of heaven and the Church, that are signified by the twenty-four elders (n. 233), are derived from that wisdom, therefore ‘golden crowns’ were seen upon their heads. It is to be known that the spiritual sense is abstracted from persons, as above (n. 78, 79, 96), so also here.

AR (Coulson) n. 236 sRef Rev@4 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@97 @3 S1′ sRef Ps@97 @4 S1′ sRef Ps@81 @7 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @6 S1′ sRef Ps@77 @15 S1′

236. [verse 5] ‘And out of the throne were going forth lightnings and thunderings and voices’ signifies enlightenment, perception, and instruction, from the Lord. ‘Lightnings’, by reason of the flash striking the eyes, signify enlightenment, while ‘thunderings’, by reason of the crash striking the ears, signify perception, and when these two signify enlightenment and perception, then ‘voices’ signify instruction. These were seen to be going forth ‘out of the throne’ because they go forth from the Son of Man, or from the Lord as to the Word; and all enlightenment, perception, and instruction comes from the Lord by means of the Word. Similar things are signified by ‘lightnings’, ‘thunderings’ and ‘voices’ elsewhere in the Word, as in these passages:-

Thou hast with [Thine] arm redeemed Thy people, the ethers gave forth a voice, a voice of thunder into the world; the lightnings enlightened the world Ps. lxxvii 15, 17, 18 [H.B. 16, 18, 19].

The lightnings of Jehovah shall enlighten the world Ps. xcvii 3, 4.

Thou didst call upon Me in straitness, and I rescued thee, I answered thee in the secret place of thunder Ps. lxxxi 7 [H.B. 8].

I heard the sound of a great crowd, as the sound of powerful thunderings, saying, Hallelujah, for our Omnipotent Lord God has taken the kingdom Rev. xix 6.

sRef Rev@10 @3 S2′ sRef John@12 @29 S2′ sRef Rev@14 @2 S2′ sRef Ex@19 @16 S2′ sRef John@12 @28 S2′ sRef Rev@11 @19 S2′ sRef Rev@10 @4 S2′ sRef Rev@6 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@8 @5 S2′ [2] Because enlightenment, perception and instruction are signified by ‘lightnings’, ‘thunderings’ and ‘voices’, therefore when Jehovah came down upon mount Sinai and announced the Law, there were ‘lightnings’ and ‘voices’ (Exod. xix 16). And when a voice was sent out of heaven to the Lord, it was heard as ‘thunder’ (John xii 28, 29). And because James and John were representing charity and the works thereof, and every perception of truth and good is out of these, they were called ‘Boanerges’ by the Lord, that is, ‘sons of thunder’ (Mark iii 17). It is plain from these considerations that similar things are signified by ‘lightnings’, ‘thunderings’ and ‘voices’ in the following passages in the Apocalypse:-

I heard one of the four animals as it were the voice of thunder Rev. vi 1.

I heard a voice out of heaven as it were the voice of a great thunder Rev. xiv 2.

When the angel cast the censer upon the land, there were thunderings, voices, and lightnings Rev. viii 5.

When the angel cried out, seven thunders uttered their voices Rev. x 3, 4.

When the temple of God in heaven was opened, there were lightnings and voices and thunderings Rev. xi 19.

Similarly elsewhere.

AR (Coulson) n. 237 sRef Rev@4 @5 S0′

237. ‘And seven lamps of fire [blazing] before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God’ signifies the New Church resulting therefrom in heaven and on earth from the Lord by means of the Divine Truth proceeding from Himself. A similar thing is signified here by the ‘seven lamps’ as by the ‘seven lampstands’, and also by the ‘seven stars’ above. It may be seen above that by the ‘seven lampstands’ is understood a New Church on earth (in terris) which will be in enlightenment from the Lord (n. 43); and by ‘the seven stars’ the New Church in the heavens (n. 65); and because the Church is a Church out of the Divine that proceeds from the Lord, which is the Divine Truth (veritas) and is called the Holy Spirit, it is therefore said, ‘which are the seven spirits of God’. It may be seen above that by the ‘seven spirits of God’ is signified that Divine proceeding (n. 14, 155).

AR (Coulson) n. 238 sRef Ps@77 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@77 @17 S0′

238. [verse 6] ‘And in full view of the throne a sea of glass like unto crystal’ signifies the New Heaven [formed] out of Christians, who were in general truths out of the sense of the letter of the Word. In the spiritual world atmospheres and also waters appear just as in our world; atmospheres like ethers, where the angels of the highest heaven are, atmospheres like airs, where the angels of the middle heaven are, and atmospheres like waters, where the angels of the ultimate heaven are. The latter are the seas that appear in the boundaries of heaven, and those who are in general truths out of the sense of the letter of the Word are there. That waters signify truths may be seen above (n. so). Consequently a ‘sea’ in which waters cease [to flow] and are gathered together signifies Divine Truth in the boundaries. Since, therefore, by the ‘One sitting upon the throne’ is understood the Lord (n. 230), and by ‘the seven lamps, which are the seven spirits of God before the throne’ is understood a New Church which will be in Divine Truth from the Lord (n. 237), it is plain that by the ‘sea of glass’ that was ‘in full view of the throne’ is understood the Church with those who are in the boundaries. [2] It has indeed been given me to see the seas in the boundaries of the heavens, and to speak with those who were there, and so to become acquainted with the truth (veritas) of this matter by experience. They were seen by me as if in a sea, but they said that they were not in a sea but in an atmosphere. Consequently it was plain to me that a sea is the appearance of Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord in the boundaries. That there are seas in the spiritual world is clearly evident from the fact that they were often seen by John, as here, also chaps. v 13; vii 1-3; viii 8, 9; x 2, 8; xii 18*; xiii 1; xiv 7; xv 2; xvi 3; xviii 17, 19, 21; xx 13. It is said ‘a sea of glass like unto crystal’ on account of the transparency of the Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord. sRef Ps@24 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@104 @6 S3′ sRef Zech@14 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@104 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@43 @16 S3′ sRef Ps@77 @19 S3′ [3] Since the Divine Truth in the boundaries in the spiritual world presents the appearance of a sea, therefore by ‘sea’ elsewhere in the Word the like is signified, as in these places:-

In that day living waters shall go forth out of Jerusalem, part of them toward the eastern sea, and part of them toward the hinder sea Zech. xiv 8.

‘Living waters out of Jerusalem’ are Divine Truths of the Church from the Lord. The ‘sea ‘therefrom is where they cease [to flow].

Jehovah, Thy way is in the sea, and Thy path in many waters Ps. lxxvii 19 [H.B. 20].

Thus has Jehovah said, Who has put a way in the sea, and a path in many waters Isa. xliii 16.

Jehovah has founded the world upon the seas, and established it upon the floods Ps. xxiv 2.

Jehovah has founded the land upon its bases, so that to eternity it should not be moved away. With the deep or the sea as a garment hast Thou covered it Ps. civ 5, 6.

The land having been founded upon the sea is [equivalent to] the Church, which is understood by ‘the land’, having been founded upon general truths; for these are its bases and foundations.

sRef Ps@33 @7 S4′ sRef Amos@9 @6 S4′ sRef Jer@51 @42 S4′ sRef Isa@50 @2 S4′ sRef Jer@51 @36 S4′ sRef Hos@11 @10 S4′ sRef Ps@33 @6 S4′ [4] I will dry up the sea of Babel, and make her spring dry; the sea shall come up upon Babel, she shall be covered with the multitude of its waves Jer. li 36, 42.

By ‘dry up the sea of Babel’ and ‘make her spring dry’ is signified to extinguish every truth of the Church thereof from firsts to ultimates.

They shall go after Jehovah, and the sons shall approach with honour from the sea Hos. xi 9-11.

The ‘sons from the sea’ are they who are in general or ultimate truths.

Jehovah Who builds His steps in the heavens, and calls the waters of the sea, and pours them out upon the faces of the land Amos ix 6.

By the Word of Jehovah were the heavens made. He gathers the waters of the sea as a heap, putting the deeps in storehouses Ps. xxxiii 6, 7.

By My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness Isa. i 2;

besides in other places. [5] Since by ‘sea’ is signified the Divine Truth with those who are in the boundaries of heaven, therefore by ‘Tyre and Sidon’, because they were near the sea, is signified the Church as to cognitions of good and truth; and therefore also by ‘islands of the sea’ are signified those who are in a more remote Divine worship (n. 34). And therefore in the Hebrew language ‘sea’ is ‘the west’, that is, where the light of the sun declines to its evening or truth into obscurity. That ‘sea ‘also signifies the natural of man separated from what is spiritual, thus also hell, will be seen in the things following.
* AV chap. xiii 1, but see text of chap. xii below.

AR (Coulson) n. 239 sRef 1Ki@6 @28 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @24 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @26 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @25 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @27 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @23 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@26 @31 S0′

239. ‘And in the midst of the throne and around the throne four animals’ signifies the Lord’s Word from firsts in ultimates, and its guards. I know that they are going to be astonished because it is said that ‘four animals’ signify the Word. It will be seen in the things that follow that they do signify it. These ‘animals’ are the same as the cherubs in Ezekiel. There they are also called ‘animals’ in the first chapter, but ‘cherubs’ in the tenth chapter, and they were as here, a lion, an ox, a man, and an eagle. In the Hebrew language they are called ‘chajoth’, and this word indeed signifies ‘animals’, but it is derived from ‘chaja’, which is ‘life’, in consequence of which also Adam’s wife was called ‘Chaja’ (Gen. iii 20). ‘Animal’ in the singular is also called ‘chaja’ in Ezekiel, and therefore those animals also can be called ‘living’. Nor does it matter that the Word is described by means of ‘animals’, since the Lord Himself in the Word is sometimes called a ‘Lion’, and frequently a ‘Lamb’, and those who are in charity from the Lord are called ‘sheep’. Moreover the understanding of the Word in the following [pages] is called a ‘horse’. That the Word is signified by those ‘animals’ or ‘cherubs’ is plain from the fact that they were seen ‘in the midst of the throne and around the throne’, and in the midst of the throne was the Lord. And because the Lord is the Word, they could not be seen anywhere else. That they were also ‘around the throne’ was because they were in the angelic heaven, where the Word also is. sRef Gen@3 @24 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @23 S2′ [2] That the Word and its guards is signified by ‘cherubs’ has been shown in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 97), where are these words:-

The sense of the letter of the Word is a guard for the genuine truths that lie hidden within; and it is a guard on account of its being possible for that sense to be turned this way and that, that is, to be expounded in accordance with [the way] it has been taken, and by this means for the internal of the Word not to be injured or violated. For it is not harmful that the sense of the letter should be understood by one person differently than by another, but it is harmful if the Divine truths that lie hidden within are perverted, for by this means violence is done to the Word. Lest this should occur, the sense of the letter guards, and it guards in the case of those who are in untruths derived from a religion, and who do not confirm those untruths, for these do not occasion any violence. This ‘guard’ is signified by ‘cherubs’, and in the Word is also described by means of them. This guard is signified by the ‘cherubs’ which, after Adam was cast out of the garden of Eden with his wife, were placed at its entrance, concerning which these words are selected:-

When Jehovah God had driven out the man, He made to dwell from the east of the garden of Eden cherubs, and the flame of a sword turning itself from this direction and that, to guard the way of the tree of life Gen. iii 23, 24.

By ‘cherubs’ is signified a guard. By ‘the way of the tree of life’ is signified the entrance to the Lord, which men have by means of the Word. By ‘the flame of a sword turning itself from this direction and that’ is signified Divine Truth in ultimates, which is just like the Word in the sense of the letter, which can be turned in such a manner as has been stated. sRef Ps@18 @10 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @32 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @35 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @29 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @19 S3′ sRef Ps@18 @9 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @21 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @18 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @20 S3′ [3] A similar thing is signified by the ‘cherubs’ made of gold placed the two extremities of the propitiatory that was above the in the tabernacle (Exod. xxv 18-21); and because this is signified by the ‘cherubs’, therefore Jehovah spoke between them with Moses (Exod. xxv 22; xxx 6; Num. vii 89). Nothing else was signified by the ‘cherubs ‘upon the curtains of the tabernacle and upon the veil there (Exod. xxvi 31); for the curtains and the veils of the tabernacle used to represent the ultimates of heaven and the Church, thus also the ultimates of the Word. Nor was anything else signified by the ‘cherubs’ in the midst of the Jerusalem temple (Templi Hierosolymitani) (1 Kings vi 23-28); and by the ‘cherubs’ carved upon the walls and doors of the temple (1 Kings vi 29, 32, 35); likewise by the ‘cherubs ‘in the new temple (Ezek. xli 18-20). sRef Ezek@28 @16 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @12 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @13 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @14 S4′ [4] Since by ‘cherubs’ was signified a guard, so that the Lord, heaven, and the Divine Truths such as is inside the Word, should not be approached immediately but mediately through the ultimates it is therefore said of the king of Tyre:-

Thou, sealing up the measure, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty, hast been in the garden of Eden, every precious stone thy covering; thou, O cherub, the out-spreading of him who covers; I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, in the midst of the stones of fire Ezek. xxviii 12-14, 16.

By ‘Tyre’ the Church is signified as to cognitions of truths and good; and consequently by its king is signified the Word, where and whence are these cognitions. It is plain that here the Word in its ultimate, which is the sense of the letter, is signified by him [the king of Tyre], and a guard by the ‘cherub’, for it is said ‘Thou, sealing up the measure, every precious stone thy covering’ and ‘thou, O cherub, the outspreading of him who covers’. By the ‘precious stones’ which are indeed named there, are signified the truths of the sense of the letter of the Word (n. 231 [AR]). sRef Ps@99 @1 S5′ sRef Ps@80 @1 S5′ [5] Since by ‘cherubs’ is signified Divine Truth in ultimates as a guard, it is therefore said in David:-

Shepherd of Israel, Who art seated upon the cherubs, shine forth Ps. lxxx 1 [H.B. 2].

Jehovah sits upon the cherubs Ps. xcix 1.

Jehovah bowed the heavens, and came down, and rode upon the cherubs Ps. xviii 10, 11 [H.B. 9, 10].

‘To ride upon the cherubs’, ‘to be seated’, and ‘to sit upon them’, is [to be] upon the ultimate of the Word. The Divine Truth in the Word, and its quality, is described by the ‘cherubs’ in Ezekiel in the first, ninth, and tenth chapters. But as no one is able to know what is signified by the details of the description of them, except one to whom the spiritual sense has been opened, and as this has been uncovered to me, it will be stated what in the main is signified by all the things that are recorded about the four ‘animals’ or ‘cherubs’ in the first chapter of Ezekiel, which are the following:-

[6] The external Divine sphere of the Word is described (verse 4).
It is represented as a man (verse 5).
The conjunction with things spiritual and celestial (verse 6).
The natural of the Word, what its quality is (verse 7).
The spiritual and celestial of the Word conjoined with the natural, what its quality is (vers. 8, 9).
The Divine love of good and truth, celestial, spiritual, and natural therein, distinctly and together (vers. 10, 11).
That they look to a one (verse 12).
The sphere of the Word out of the Lord’s Divine Good and Divine Truth, as a result of which the Word is alive (vers. 13, 14).
The doctrine of good and truth in the Word and [derived] out of it (vers. 15-21).
The Lord’s Divine above and in it (vers. 22, 23); also [proceeding] out of it (vers. 24, 25).
That the Lord is above the heavens (verse 26).
That Divine Love and Divine Wisdom are His (vers. 27, 28)

These are summaries.*
* SS 97 has ‘These summaries have indeed been compared with the Word in heaven, and are in conformity therewith’.

AR (Coulson) n. 240 sRef Rev@4 @6 S0′ sRef Ezek@10 @12 S0′

240. ‘Full of eyes before and behind’ signifies Divine Wisdom therein. By ‘eyes’, when [said] concerning man, the understanding is signified, and when concerning the Lord, the Divine Wisdom (n. 48, 125). In like manner, when [said] concerning the Word, as here, since the Word is from the Lord and concerning the Lord, and so is the Lord. The like is said concerning the cherubs in Ezekiel, that they ‘were full of eyes’ (chap. x 12). [By] ‘before and behind’, when [said] concerning the Word from the Lord, is signified the Divine Wisdom and Divine Love therein.

AR (Coulson) n. 241 sRef Rev@4 @7 S0′ sRef Micah@5 @8 S0′ sRef Amos@3 @8 S1′ sRef Rev@5 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@31 @4 S1′ sRef Gen@49 @9 S1′

241. [verse 7] ‘And the first animal was like a lion’ signifies the Divine Truth of the Word as to power. That a ‘lion’ signifies Truth in its own power, here the Divine Truths of the Word as to power, can be established from the power of the lion compared with every animal of the land, also by reason of the lions in the spiritual world, which are images representative of the power of Divine Truth. It can also be established out of the Word, where they signify Divine Truth in its own power. What is the nature of the power of Divine Truth in the Word may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 49), and in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL (n. 228-233). This is why Jehovah or the Lord is compared to a ‘lion’ and is also said to be a ‘Lion’ as in the following passages:-

The lion has roared, who should not fear? The Lord Jehovah has spoken, who should not prophesy? Amos iii 8.

I will not turn back to destroy Ephraim, they shall go after Jehovah, He roars like a lion Hos. xi 9, 10.

Like as the lion roars, and the young lion, so shall Jehovah come down to serve [as a soldier] upon mount Zion Isa. xxxi 4.

Behold the Lion has overcome, Who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David Rev. v 5.

Judah is a lion’s whelp, he crouched down, he lay down as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? Gen. xlix 9.

sRef Ps@58 @7 S2′ sRef Hos@11 @10 S2′ sRef Ps@58 @6 S2′ sRef Num@24 @9 S2′ sRef Hos@11 @9 S2′ sRef Rev@10 @3 S2′ sRef Num@23 @24 S2′ [2] In these places by a ‘lion’ is described the power of the Divine Truth that is from the Lord. ‘To roar’ signifies to speak and act powerfully against the hells desirous of carrying man away. The Lord snatches him out from them as a lion [seizes] its prey. ‘To crouch down ‘is to put oneself into power. ‘Judah’ in the supreme sense signifies the Lord (n. 96, 266).

The angel cried with a loud voice as a lion roars Rev. x 3.

He crouches, he lies down as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? Num. xxiv 9.

Lo! the people is rising up as an old lion, and lifting itself up as a young* lion Num. xxiii 23, 24.

This is [said] of Israel, by whom the Church is signified, its power which is in Divine truths being thus described. In like manner:-

The remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of the peoples, as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep** Micah v 7, 8 [H.B. 6, 7].

Besides in many other places, as Isa. xi 6, xxi 6-9, xxxv 9; Jer. ii 15, iv 7, v 6, xii 8, l 17, li 38; Ezek. xix 3, 5, 6; Hos. xiii 7, 8; Joel i 6, 7; Nahum ii 12; Ps. xvii 12, xxii 13 [H.B. 14], lvii 4 [H.B. 5], lviii 6, 7 [H.B. 7, 8], xci 13, civ 21, 22; Deut. xxxiii 20.
* Original Edition has ‘old lion’, apparently an erroneous repetition of the previous phrase. AV and AE 278:3 have ‘young lion’.
** Original Edition has ‘the peoples’ but Hebrew has ‘sheep’. So has AE 278:5.

AR (Coulson) n. 242 sRef Isa@27 @10 S0′ sRef Hos@14 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@27 @11 S0′ sRef Mal@4 @2 S1′ sRef Ps@29 @6 S1′

242. ‘And the second animal like a calf’ signifies the Divine Truth of the Word as to affection. By the beasts of the land the various natural affections are signified, and indeed exist; and by a ‘calf’ is signified the affection of knowing. In the spiritual world this affection is represented by a calf, and therefore it is also signified by a ‘calf’ in the Word, as in Hosea:-

We will repay to Jehovah the calves of our lips Hos. xiv 2 [H.B. 3].

‘Calves of the lips’ are confessions resulting from the affection of truth. In Malachi:-

The sun of justice shall arise unto you who fear My Name, and healing in the wings, so that you may grow like fatted calves Mal. iv 2 [H.B. iii 20].

A comparison is made with fatted calves, because by them are signified those who are filled with cognitions of truth and good resulting from the affection of knowing them. In David:-

The voice of Jehovah makes the cedars of Lebanon to skip like a calf Ps. xxix 6.

By ‘cedars of Lebanon’ the cognitions of truth are signified. It is consequently said that ‘the voice of Jehovah makes them to skip like a calf’. The ‘voice of Jehovah’ is Divine Truth, here affecting [them]. sRef Hos@13 @2 S2′ [2] Since the Egyptians loved knowledges, they therefore made calves for themselves as a sign of the affection thereof; but after they began to worship the calves as gods, then by ‘calves’ in the Word are signified the affections of knowing untruths, as in Jer. xlvi 20, 21; Ps. lxviii 30 [H.B. 31], and elsewhere. A similar thing is therefore signified by the ‘calf’ that the Sons of Israel made for themselves in the wilderness (Exod. xxxii), likewise by the ‘calves’ of Samaria (1 Kings xii 28-32; Hos. viii 5, 6; x 5). Therefore it is said in Hosea:-

They are making a molten thing for themselves out of silver, they are sacrificing a man, they are kissing calves Hos. xiii 2.

To ‘make a molten thing for themselves out of silver’ signifies to falsify truth, to ‘sacrifice a man’ signifies to destroy wisdom, and to ‘kiss calves’ signifies out of affection to acknowledge untruths. In Isaiah:-

There shall the calf feed, there shall he lie down, and consume the branches thereof Isa. xxvii 10.

A similar thing is signified by ‘calf’ [in] Jeremiah xxxiv 18-20. [3] Since all Divine worship is derived from affections of truth and good and the cognitions therefrom, therefore the sacrifices, in which the worship of the Church among the sons of Israel used chiefly to consist, were made of various beasts, as of lambs, she-goats, kids, sheep, he-goats, calves, oxen; and [they were made] of ‘calves’, because they used to signify the affection of knowing truths and goods, which is the first natural affection. This was signified by ‘sacrifices of calves’ (Exod. xxix 11, 12; Lev. iv 3, 13 seq., viii 14 seq., ix 2, xvi 3, xxiii 18; Num. viii 8 seq., xv 24, xxviii 19, 20; Jud. vi 25-29; 1 Sam. i 25, xvi 2; 1 Kings xviii 23-26, 33.) The second animal was seen like a ‘calf’, because the Divine Truth of the Word, which is signified thereby, affects minds (animus), and so instructs and imbues.

AR (Coulson) n. 243 sRef Ezek@34 @31 S0′ sRef Jer@4 @23 S0′ sRef Jer@4 @25 S0′ sRef Hos@13 @2 S0′ sRef Ezek@36 @38 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @17 S0′ sRef Isa@13 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @7 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @27 S0′

243. ‘And the third animal having a face as a man’ signifies the Divine Truth of the Word as to wisdom. By ‘a man’ in the Word is signified wisdom, because he is born to receive wisdom from the Lord and become an angel. Consequently in so far as anyone is wise, so far he is a man. Truly human wisdom is to discern that God exists, what God is, and what relates to God. The Divine Truth of the Word teaches this. That wisdom is signified by ‘a man’ is plain from these places:-

I will render a man (vir homo) scarcer than pure gold, and a man (homo) than the gold of Ophir Isa. xiii 12.

‘A man’ (vir homo) is intelligence, and ‘a man’ (homo) is wisdom.

The inhabitants of the land shall be burned, and the remnant shall be a scarce man Isa. xxiv 6.

I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast Jer. xxxi 27.

You My flock, you are man, I am your God Ezek. xxxiv 31.

The devastated cities shall be full with the flock of man Ezek. xxxvi 38.

I beheld the land, when lo it was vacant and empty, and towards the heavens and they had no light; I beheld, when In there was no man Jer. iv 23, 25.

They are sacrificing a man, they are kissing calves Hos. xiii 2.

He measured the wall of the holy Jerusalem 144 cubits, the measure of a man, that is, of an angel Rev. xxi 17.

Besides in many other places, in which by ‘a man’ is signified one who is wise, and in the abstract sense wisdom.

AR (Coulson) n. 244 sRef Ezek@17 @4 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @7 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @5 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @6 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @8 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @3 S0′ sRef Job@39 @27 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @7 S0′ sRef Job@39 @29 S0′ sRef Job@39 @26 S0′ sRef Ps@103 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@40 @31 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @1 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @2 S0′

244. ‘And the fourth animal was like a flying eagle’ signifies the Divine Truth of the Word as to cognitions and the resulting understanding. By ‘eagles’ various things are signified, and by ‘flying eagles’ are signified the cognitions out of whirls understanding [is derived], because when they are flying they are recognising and seeing. They have sharp eyes also for penetrating vision (ut perspiciant), and by ‘eyes’ understanding is signified (n. 48, 214). By ‘flying’ is signified comprehending and instructing, and in the highest sense, in which the Lord is treated of, looking forward and providing. That ‘eagles’ in the Word signify such things is plain from these places:-

Those awaiting Jehovah are renewed in strength, they shall mount up with wings as eagles Isa. xl 31.

‘To mount up with wings as eagles’ is to be elevated into cognitions of truth and good, and thereby into intelligence.

Is it by thine intelligence and according to thy mouth that the eagle lifts itself and searches out food; its eyes look out into the distance Job xxxix 26 [, 27, 29].

The faculty of recognising, understanding, and looking out is here described by the ‘eagle’, and that this is not done out of one’s own intelligence.

Jehovah Who fills thy mouth with good, so that thou mayest be renewed in thy youth like the eagle Ps. ciii 5.

‘To fill the mouth with good’ is to give understanding by means of cognitions. From this a comparison is made with the eagle.

A great eagle, with great wings, long-feathered, came upon Lebanon, and took to itself a twig of a cedar, and planted it in a field of growing crops, and it sprouted. And there was another great eagle, to which a vine applied its roots Ezek. xvii 1-8.

By the two ‘eagles’ is there described the Jewish and the Israelitish Churches, both of them in respect of cognitions of truths and intelligence therefrom. But ‘eagles’ in the opposite sense signify cognitions of what is untrue, in consequence of which the understanding is perverted (as Matt. xxiv 28; Jer. iv 53; Hab. i 8, 9; and elsewhere).

AR (Coulson) n. 245 sRef Rev@4 @8 S0′

245. [verse 8] ‘And the four animals, each separately, had six wings round about’ signifies the Word as to power and as to its guards. That by ‘the four animals’ the Word is signified, has been shown above; that by ‘wings ‘are signified powers, and also guards, will be seen below. By ‘six’ is signified all as to truth and good, for six comes into existence out of 3 and 2 multiplied together, and by ‘three’ is signified all as to truths (n. 505), and by ‘two’ all as to good (n. 762). Powers are signified by the ‘wings’, because by means of them [birds] raise themselves upwards, and wings with birds are in place of arms with a man, and by ‘arms’ powers are signified. Since powers are signified by the ‘wings’, and each animal had six wings, it is plain from the things said above what kind of power is signified by the ‘wings’ of each, namely, that by the ‘wings of a lion’ is signified the power of fighting against evils and untruths out of hell. This is the power of the Divine Truth of the Word from the Lord. [It is plain also] that by the ‘wings of a calf’ is signified the power of affecting the mind (animus), for the Divine Truth of the Word affects those who read it in a holy manner (sancte); that by the ‘six wings of a man’ is signified the power of discerning what God is, and what is of God, for this is properly man’s in reading the Word, and that by the ‘wings of an eagle’ is signified the power of recognising what is true and good, and thus of furnishing oneself with intelligence. sRef Ezek@1 @23 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @2 S2′ sRef 2Sam@22 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@1 @24 S2′ sRef Rev@14 @6 S2′ [2] Concerning the wings of the cherubs [we] read in Ezekiel that:-

The wings were kissing each other, and were also covering their bodies, and the likeness of hands was under them Ezek. i 23, 24; iii 13; x 5, 21.

By ‘kissing each other’ is signified conjoint and unanimous action; by ‘covering the bodies’ is signified guarding lest the interior truths that are of the spiritual sense of the Word should be violated; and by ‘hands under the wings’ are signified powers. Concerning the ‘seraphs’ it is also said that:-

They had six wings, with two of which they were covering the face, with two the feet, and with two they were flying Isa. vi 2.

By ‘seraphs’ in like manner is signified the Word, properly doctrine out of the Word, and by the ‘wings with which they were covering faces and feet’ guards likewise are signified, and by the ‘wings with which they were flying’ powers, as above. That by ‘flying’ is signified to perceive and instruct, and in the highest sense to look out and provide, is established also from these passages:-

God rode upon a cherub, He did fly, He sailed upon the wings of the wind Ps. xviii 10 [H.B. 11]; 2 Sam. xxii 11.

I saw an angel flying through the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel Rev. xiv 6.

That guards are signified by ‘wings’ is plain from these passages:-

Jehovah shall cover thee under His wing Ps. xci 4.

To be hid under the shadow of God’s wings Ps. xvii 8.

To put trust in the shadow of His wings Ps. xxxvi 7 [H.B. 8], lvii 1 [H.B. 2], lxiii 7 [H.B. 8].

I stretched out a wing over thee, and covered thy nakedness Ezek. xvi 8.

Unto you shall be healing in His wings Mal. iv 2 [H.B. iii 20].

As an eagle stirs up her nest, flutters over her young, spreads abroad her wings, bears them on her wings, so Jehovah leads him Deut. xxxii 10-12.

Jesus said:-

O Jerusalem, how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen [gathers] her chickens under her wings Matt. xxiii 37; Luke xiii 34.

AR (Coulson) n. 246 sRef Rev@4 @8 S0′

246. ‘And within they were full of eyes’ signifies the Divine Wisdom in the Word in the natural sense out of its spiritual and celestial sense. That by the ‘animals full of eyes before and behind’ is signified the Divine Wisdom in the Word may be seen above (n. 240); and in like manner here by [the statement] that the wings were ‘full of eyes’. Because also the Divine Wisdom of the Word in the natural sense results from the spiritual and celestial sense that lies hidden within, it is therefore said that ‘within they were full of eyes’. Concerning the spiritual and celestial senses that are within the details of the Word, THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 5-26) may be seen.

AR (Coulson) n. 247 sRef Rev@4 @8 S0′

247. And had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty’ signifies that the Word is continually teaching [the doctrine of] the Lord, and that He Only is God, and consequently that He Only is to be worshipped. That the animals ‘had no rest day and night’ signifies that the Word is teaching continually and without intermission, and that it is teaching what the animals say. [The words] are ‘Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty’ that is, that the Lord Only is God, and consequently that He Only is to be worshipped. ‘Holy’ thrice mentioned signifies this, for the triplication involves all the ‘holy’ in Him Only. That the Divine Trinity is in the Lord has been fully shown in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD, as also that the Word treats of the Only Lord, and that its sanctity is therefrom. That the Lord Only is holy may be seen above (n. 173).

AR (Coulson) n. 248 sRef Rev@4 @8 S0′ sRef Deut@1 @23 S0′

248. ‘Who was and Who is and Who is to come’ signifies the Lord. That it is the Lord is quite plain in the First Chapter, verses 4, 8, 11, 17, where it treats of the Son of Man, Who is the Lord as to the Word; and there it says openly that HE IS ALPHA AND OMEGA, THE BEGINNING AND THE ENDING THE FIRST AND THE LAST, WHO IS, AND WHO WAS, AND WHO IS TO COME, AND THE ALMIGHTY. But what is signified by those words has been expounded (n. 13, 29, 30, 31, 38, 57). Here now [is expounded] that the Lord is understood by ‘Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty, Who was and Who is and Who is to come.

AR (Coulson) n. 249 sRef Ps@45 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S0′

249. [verse 9] ‘And when the animals had given glory and honour and thanks to the One sitting upon the throne’ signifies that the Word awards all truth and all good and all worship to the Lord about to judge. The ‘animals’ are the Word, as has been shown; ‘glory and honour’, when said of the Lord, are [equivalent to saying] that all truths and good are of and from Him; the giving of ‘thanks’ is all worship; the ‘One sitting upon the throne’ is the Lord as to judgment, as above. It is plain from this that by ‘when the animals had given glory and honour and thanks to the One sitting upon the throne’ is signified that the Word awards all truth and all good and all worship to the Lord about to judge. By ‘giving the Lord glory and honour’ nothing else is understood in the Word than to acknowledge and confess that all truths and all good is from Him, thus that He Only is God, for ‘glory’ is His out of Divine Truths, and ‘honour’ out of Divine Good. sRef Ps@8 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@21 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@21 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@96 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@104 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@96 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@111 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@35 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@111 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@35 @2 S2′ [2] These things are signified by ‘glory and honour’ in the following places:-

Jehovah made the heavens, glory and honour [are] before Him Ps. xcvi 5, 6.

Jehovah God. [Thou hast been] very great, Thou hast put on glory and honor Ps. civ 1.

The works of Jehovah are great. His work is glory and honour Ps. cxi 2, 3.

Glory and honour Thou layest upon Him, blessings for ever Ps. xxi 5, 6 [H.B. 6, 7]-[said] of the Lord.

Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O Mighty in glory and honour, in Thine honour mount up, ride upon the Word of the truth (veritas) Ps. xlv 3, 4 [H.B. 4. 5].

Thou hast made him to lack very little compared with angels, Thou hast crowned him with glory and honor Ps. viii 5 [H.B. 6].

The glory of Lebanon has been given to Him, the honour of Carmel and Sharon: they shall see the glory of Jehovah, and the honour of our God Is. xxxv 1, 2.

All these things (haec et illa) [are said] of the Lord; besides elsewhere, as Ps. cxlv 4, 5, 12; Rev. xxi 24, 26. Moreover, ‘glory’ is said in the Word where it treats of Divine Truth (n. 629) and ‘honour’ is said where it treats of Divine Good.

AR (Coulson) n. 250 sRef Rev@4 @9 S0′

250. That ‘To Him living for ages of ages’ signifies the Lord, that He Only has life, and eternal life is from Him Only may be seen above (n. 58, 60).

AR (Coulson) n. 251 sRef Rev@4 @10 S0′

251. [verse 10] ‘The twenty-four elders were falling prostrate before the One sitting upon the throne, and adoring the One living for ages of ages’ signifies the humbling of all in heaven before the Lord. That by ‘the twenty-four elders’ are understood all who belong to the Lord’s Church may be seen above (n. 233), here all who belong to the Church in heaven. The ‘elders’ as heads were representing all. That it is a humbling before the Lord, and adoration as a result of the humbling, is plain without an exposition.

AR (Coulson) n. 252 sRef Rev@4 @10 S0′

252. ‘And were casting their crowns away before the throne’ signifies the recognition that their wisdom is from Him Only. That a ‘crown’ signifies wisdom may be seen above (n. 189, 235). Consequently, by ‘casting the crowns away before the throne’ is signified the recognition that wisdom is not theirs, but the Lord’s with them.

AR (Coulson) n. 253 sRef Rev@4 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @11 S0′

253. [verse 11] ‘Saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to take to Thyself glory and honour and power’ signifies the confession that the Lord, because He is Divine Truth and Divine Good, has the kingdom by virtue of merit and justice. ‘Confession’ is signified by ‘saying’; that it is ‘by virtue of merit and justice’ is signified by ‘Thou art worthy, O Lord’; that He is Divine Truth and Divine Good is signified by ‘glory and honour’, as above (n. 249); that He has the kingdom is signified by ‘take to Thyself power’. Accordingly, these things gathered together into one meaning signify the confession that the Lord, because He is Divine Truths and Divine Good, has the kingdom by virtue of merit and justice.

AR (Coulson) n. 254 sRef Rev@4 @11 S0′

254. ‘For Thou hast created all things, and by Thy will they exist and have been created’ signifies that all things of heaven and the Church have been made and formed, and that [men] are reformed and regenerated, out of Divine Good by means of the Divine Truth that is also the Word. This is the spiritual sense of these words, because by ‘to create’ is signified to reform and regenerate by means of Divine Truth, and by ‘the Lord’s will’ is signified Divine Good. Whether ‘Divine Good and Divine Truth’ is said, or ‘Divine Love and Divine Wisdom’, it is the same, because all good is of love and all truth is of wisdom. That all things of heaven and the Church exist out of Divine Love and Wisdom, indeed, that the world has been created out of them, has been abundantly shown in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM also that love and good is of the will, while wisdom and truth is of the understanding. From this it is plain that by ‘the Lord’s will’ is understood His Divine Good or Divine Love. sRef Isa@43 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@43 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@65 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@65 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@104 @28 S2′ sRef Ezek@28 @15 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@104 @30 S2′ sRef Ezek@28 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @20 S2′ sRef Ps@51 @10 S2′ sRef Ps@102 @18 S2′ [2] That ‘to create’ in the Word signifies to reform and regenerate, is plain from these places:-

Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a steadfast spirit in the midst of me Ps. li 10 [H.B. 12].

Thou openest Thine hand, they are filled with good, Thou sendest forth Thy spirit, they are created Ps. civ 28, 30.

The people that shall be created shall praise Jah Ps. cii 18 [H.B. 19].

Behold, I create a new heaven and a new land, rejoice for ever in that which I am creating: behold, I am going to create Jerusalem an exultation Isa. lxv 17, 18.

Jehovah creating the heavens, stretching out the land, giving soul to the people upon it, and spirit to those walking therein Isa. xlii 5, xlv 12, 18.

Thus has Jehovah said, thy Creator, O Jacob, thy Former, O Israel, I have redeemed thee, I have called thee with My Name; everyone called by My Name, in My glory I have created him Isa. xliii 1, 7.

In the day that thou wast created, they were prepared; thou wast perfect in thy ways in the day that thou wast created, until perversity was found in thee Ezek. xxviii 13, 15.

These things are concerning the king of Tyre, by whom those are signified who by means of Divine Truth are in intelligence.

That they may see, recognise, pay attention to, and understand, that the hand of Jehovah has done this, and the Holy One of Israel has created this Isa. xli 19, 20.

* * * * *

AR (Coulson) n. 255

255. To these things I will add this MEMORABLE OCCURRENCE. Lest anyone should enter into the spiritual sense of the Word and pervert the genuine truths pertaining to that sense, guards have been placed by the Lord, and these are understood by the cherubs, which here are the ‘four animals’. The fact that guards have been placed has been represented to me in this manner:-

[2] It was granted to see large purses appearing like sacks, in which silver was stowed away in great abundance; and as they had been opened, it seemed as if any one was able to take out the silver stored there, even to snatch it away. But close by the purses were sitting two angels, who were guards. The place where they had been stored appeared like a manger in a stable. In the next compartment modest virgins were seen with a chaste wife, and near that compartment two little children were standing, and it was said that they were to be played with, not childishly but wisely. Also afterwards a harlot appeared, then a horse lying dead. [3] When I had seen these things, I was instructed that by means of them was represented the sense of the letter of the Word, in which is the spiritual sense. The large purses filled with silver signified cognitions of truth and good in great abundance. The fact that they had been opened and yet were guarded by the angels signified that every one was able to take the cognitions therefrom for himself, but that care is taken lest any one should falsify the spiritual sense, in which naked truths (veritas) are. The manger in the stable, in which the purses were lying, signified spiritual instruction for the understanding. A manger signifies this, so does the manger in which the infant Lord lay, because the horse that eats therefrom signifies the understanding of the Word. [4] The modest virgins who were seen in the next compartment signified affections of truth, and the chaste wife the conjunction of good and truth. The little children signified the innocence of the wisdom in the Word. They were angels out of the third heaven, who all appear as little children. The harlot with the dead horse signified the falsification of the Word by many at this day, whereby all understanding of truth is perishing. A harlot signifies falsification, and a dead horse no understanding of truth.

[5] It was given [me] to speak with many after death who believed they were going to shine in heaven like stars, because, as they said, they held the Word to be holy, read it through very often, gathered many things therefrom by which they confirmed the dogmas of their faith, and on this account were celebrated in the world as learned men, as a result of which they believed that they were going to be Michaels and Raphaels. But many of them were examined as to the love out of which they studied the Word, and it was found that some [did so] out of the love of self so that they might appear great in the world and he worshipped as primates of the Church, but others [did so] out of the love of the world in order to gain wealth. When these were examined as to what they knew of the Word, it was discovered that they knew nothing therefrom of genuine truth, but only such truth as is called falsified, which in itself is untrue, and this in the spiritual world stinks in the nostrils of the angels. And it was told them that this [condition] was theirs on account of themselves and the world being their ends, or, what is the same, their loves, and not the Lord and heaven. And when their ends are themselves and the world, then, while they are reading the Word, their mind is fixed upon themselves and the world, and consequently they are always thinking out of their own proprium, and this is in thick darkness as to all the things that are of heaven. In this state a man cannot be withdrawn from his own light (ex lumine proprio), and so be elevated into the light (lux) of heaven, nor is he able thence to receive any influx from the Lord through heaven. [6] I also saw these persons admitted into heaven, and when they were found to be without truths they were stripped of their garments and appeared in a shameful condition (in pudendis); and those who falsified truths were cast out, because they stank, but there still remained with them pride and confidence that they were deserving. It happened otherwise with those who studied the Word out of the affection of knowing the truth because it is true, and because it is serviceable for the uses of a spiritual life, not only their own, but their neighbour’s also. I saw these raised up into heaven, and so into the light in which the Word there is, and at the same time exalted into angelic wisdom, and its happiness, which is eternal life.


AR (Coulson) n. 256 sRef Rev@5 @1 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S1′ 256. THE FIFTH CHAPTER

1. And I saw in the right hand of the One Sitting upon the throne a book written on the inside and on the back (a tergo), sealed with seven seals.

2. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a great voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof?

3. And in one in heaven, nor upon the land, nor yet under the land, was able to open the book, and to look into it.

4. And I was weeping much, because no one was found to open and to read the book, and to look into it.

5. And one of the elders says unto me, Do not weep; behold the Lion has prevailed, Who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, to open the book and to loose the seven seals thereof.

6. And I saw, and behold in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders a LAMB standing as if slain, having seven horns, and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into every land.

7. And He came and took the book out of the right hand of the One sitting upon the throne.

8. And when He had taken the book, the four animals and the twenty-four elders fell prostrate before the LAMB, each one of them having harps, and golden phials full of incense-offerings, which are the prayers of the saints.

9. And they were singing a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof, because Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to GOD in Thy blood, out of every tribe and tongue, and people and nation.

10. And Thou hast made us to our GOD kings and priests, and we shall reign over the land.

11. And I saw and heard the voice of many angels around the throne, and the animals, and the elders, and the number of them was myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands.

12. Saying with a great voice, Worthy is the slain LAMB to take power, and riches, and wisdom, and honour and glory, and blessing.

13. And every created thing that is in heaven and in the land, and under the land, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, To the One sitting upon the throne and to the Lamb, blessing and honour and glory and strength for ages of ages.

14. And the four animals were saying, Amen; and the twenty-four elders fell prostrate and adored the One living for ages of ages.


THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

THE CONTENT OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER

That the Lord in the Divine Human is going to make a judgment out of the Word and in accordance therewith, because He is the Word; and that this is acknowledged by all in the three heavens.


THE CONTENTS OF EACH OF THE VERSES

1. And I saw in the right hand of the One sitting upon the throne a book written on the inside and on the back (a tergo)
signifies the Lord as to His Divine Itself from eternity, Who has Omnipotence and Omniscience, and Who is the Word.
Sealed with seven seals
signifies this altogether hidden away from angel and man.

2. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a great voice
signifies Divine Truth from the Lord inflowing inwardly with angels and men.
Who is worthy to open the book and to loose the seals thereof?
signifies Who is in the power of getting to know the states of life of all in the heavens and on earth (in terris), and of judging each one in accordance with his own [state]?

3. And no one in heaven, nor upon the land, nor yet under the land, was able
signifies that none in the higher heavens and in the lower heavens was able.
To open the book
signifies to get to know the states of life of all, and to judge each one in accordance with his own [state].
Nor to look into it
signifies not at all.

4. And I was weeping much, because no one [worthy] was found to open the book, nor to look into it
signifies grief of heart because if there should not be anyone able [to do this] all would perish.

5. And one of the elders says unto me, Do not weep
signifies consolation.
Behold, the Lion has overcome, Who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David
signifies the Lord, that out of His own power He subjugated the hells, and brought all things back into order when He was in the world, by means of Divine Good united with Divine Truth in His Human.
To open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.
signifies here as before.

6. And I saw, and behold in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders
signifies from the inmosts, and thence in all things of heaven, of the Word, and of the Church.
A Lamb standing as if slain
signifies the Lord as to the Human not acknowledged in the Church to be Divine.
Having seven horns
signifies His Omnipotence.
And seven eyes
signifies His Omniscience and Divine Wisdom.
Which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into every land
signifies that out of that [Divine Wisdom] there is Divine Truth throughout all the lands where there is religion.

7. And He came and took the book out of the right hand of the One sitting upon the throne
signifies that the Lord as to His Divine Human is the Word, and that He is this out of His Divine in Itself, and that therefore He is going to effect the judgment out of the Divine Human.

8. And when He had taken the book
signifies when the Lord set about making the judgment, and bringing all things in the heavens and upon earth back into order by means of it.
The four animals and the twenty-four elders fell prostrate before the Lamb
signifies a humbling, and the adoration of the Lord out of the higher heavens.
Each one of them having harps
signifies the confession of the Lord’s Divine Human out of spiritual truths.
And golden phials full of incense-offerings
signifies the confession of the Lord’s Divine Human out of spiritual goods.
Which are the prayers of the saints
signifies the thoughts that are of faith derived from the affections that are of charity with those who worship the Lord out of spiritual goods and truths.

9. And they were singing a new song
signifies an acknowledgment and glorification of the Lord, because He Only is the Judge, Redeemer, and Saviour thus the God of heaven and earth.
Saying, Thou art worthy to take the book and to open the seals thereof
signifies here as before.
Because Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God in Thy blood
signifies liberation from hell, and salvation by means of conjunction with Himself.
Out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation
signifies that those who, in the Church or any religion, are in truths as to doctrine and in goods as to life, have been redeemed by the Lord.

10. And Thou hast made us to our God kings and priests
signifies that from the Lord they are in wisdom out of Divine truths, and in love out of Divine goods.
And we shall reign over the land
signifies that they will be in His kingdom, He in them and they in Him.
11.
And I saw and heard the voice of many angels around the throne, and the animals and the elders
signifies a confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lower heavens.
[And the number of them was myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands
signifies all in truths and in goods.]

12. Saying with a great voice, Worthy is the slain Lamb to take power and riches and wisdom and honour and glory
signifies confession out of the heart, that the Lord as to the Divine Human has Omnipotence, Omniscience, Divine Good and Divine Truth.
And blessing
signifies all these in Him, and from Him in those [angels].

13. And every created thing that is in heaven and in the land, and under the land, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying
signifies a confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lowest heavens.
To the One sitting upon the throne and to the Lamb, blessing and honour and glory and strength for ages of ages
signifies that in the Lord from eternity, and consequently in His Divine Human, is everything of heaven and the Church, Divine Good and Divine Truth, and Divine Power, and from Him in those [who are in heaven and the Church].

14. And the four animals were saying, Amen
signifies Divine confirmation out of the Word.
And the twenty-four elders fell prostrate and adored the One living for ages of ages
signifies a humbling before the Lord, and as a result of the humbling the adoration by all the heavens, of Him from Whom and in Whom is eternal life.


THE EXPOSITION

[verse 1] ‘And I saw in the right hand of the One sitting upon the throne a book written on the inside and on the back (a tergo)’ signifies the Lord as to His Divine Itself from eternity, Who has Omnipotence and Omniscience, and Who is the Word, Who also of Himself (ex Se ipso) has knowledge of the states of life of all in the heavens and on earth (in lerris), in everything particular and in everything general. By ‘the One sitting upon the throne’ is understood the Lord as to the Divine Itself, out of which is His Human, for it follows on (verse 7) that ‘the Lamb took the book out of the right hand of the One sitting upon the throne’; and by ‘the Lamb’ is understood the Lord as to the Divine Human. By ‘a book written on the inside and on the back’ is understood the Word in everything particular and in everything general; by ‘on the inside’ in everything particular, and by ‘on the back’ in everything general. By ‘on the inside and on the back’ is understood also the Word’s interior sense which is spiritual, and its exterior sense, which is natural. By the right hand’ is understood Himself as to Omnipotence and Omniscience, because it treats of the examination of all, in the heavens and on earth (in terris), upon whom there will be a last judgment, and of their separation. The Lord as the Word from Himself (a Se Ipso) knows the states of all in the heavens and on earth, because He is Divine Truth Itself, and Divine Truth Itself has knowledge of all things of Itself (ex Se ipso). But this is an arcanum which has been uncovered in ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM. That the Lord as to the Divine Itself from eternity was the Word, that is, Divine Truth, is plain from these [words] in John:-

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God John ii;

also that the Lord was made the Word even as to His Human in the same:-

And the Word was made flesh John i 14.

From this it can be established what is understood by [the statement] that the book was ‘in the right hand of the One sitting upon the throne’, and that the Lamb ‘took the book’ therefrom (verse 7). sRef Rev@21 @27 S2′ sRef Rev@20 @15 S2′ sRef Dan@7 @10 S2′ sRef Dan@7 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@32 @32 S2′ sRef Luke@3 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@139 @16 S2′ sRef Ex@32 @33 S2′ sRef Rev@13 @8 S2′ sRef Rev@20 @12 S2′ sRef Ps@69 @28 S2′ sRef Luke@20 @42 S2′ sRef Ps@40 @7 S2′ sRef Ezek@2 @9 S2′ sRef Dan@12 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@139 @15 S2′ sRef Ezek@2 @10 S2′ [2] Since the Lord is the Word, and the Word is Divine Truth, which in general makes heaven and the Church, and in particular makes an angel so that heaven may be in him, and a man so that the Church may be in him; and because the Word is here understood by ‘the book’ out of which and in accordance with which all are to be judged, it is therefore said in different places ‘to be written in the book’, ‘to be judged out of the book’, ‘to be blotted out of the book’, where it treats of anyone’s eternal life; as in these places:-

The Ancient of days did sit in judgment, and the books were opened Dan. vii 9, 10.

Every people shall be delivered that shall be found written in the book Dan. xii

My bone was not hid from Thee; upon Thy book all the days have been written, and not one of them is missing Ps. cxxxix 15, 16.

Moses said, Blot me, I pray Thee, out of the book which Thou hast written, and Jehovah said, Him who has sinned against Me, will I blot out of the book Exod. xxxii 32, 33.

Let them be blotted out of the book of life, and not be written with the just Ps. lxix 28.

I saw that the books were opened, and another book was opened, which is of life, and the dead were judged according to the things that were written in the book according to their works, and if anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was cast out into the lake of fire Rev. xx 12-15.

None shall enter into the New Jerusalem, unless they are written in the Lamb’s book of life Rev. xxi 27 [Schm. 26].

All shall adore the beast, whose names have not been written in the Lamb’s book of life Rev. xiii 8; xvii 8.

That by ‘the book ‘is understood the Word [may be seen] in David:-

In the roll of the book it has been written of Me Ps. xl 7 [H.B. 8].

And in Ezekiel:-

I saw and behold a hand sent forth unto me, and in it the roll of a book written on the front and the back Ezek. ii 9, 10.

The book of the words of Isaiah Luke iii 4.

The book of Psalms Luke xx 42.

AR (Coulson) n. 257 sRef Rev@5 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @3 S0′

257. Sealed with seven seals’ signifies this altogether hidden away from angel and man. That ‘sealed with a seal’ signifies what is hidden away is plain. Consequently ‘sealed with seven seals’ signifies what is altogether hidden away, for ‘seven’ signifies all (n. 10), thus also altogether. That it is altogether hidden away from angel and man is said soon afterwards in these words:-

And no one in heaven, nor upon the land, nor yet under the land, was able to open and to read the book, nor to look into it (vers. 3, 4).

Such is the Word to all to whom the Lamb, that is, the Lord does not open it. Here, because it treats of the examination of all before the last judgment, the states of life of all in general and particular, which are altogether hidden away, are referred to.

AR (Coulson) n. 258 sRef Rev@5 @2 S0′

258. [verse 2] ‘And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a great voice’ signifies Divine Truth from the Lord inflowing inwardly into the thought of angels and men, and investigation. By ‘an angel proclaiming’ the Lord is understood in the spiritual sense, because an angel does not proclaim and teach from himself but from the Lord, but still as if from himself. ‘Strong angel’ is said because it is with power, and what is proclaimed with power inflows inwardly into the thought. ‘A great voice’ signifies Divine Truth from the Lord in power or vigour. It also signifies investigation, because he asks, ‘Who is worthy to open the book?’, as now follows.

AR (Coulson) n. 259 sRef Rev@5 @2 S0′

259. Who is worthy to open the book and to loose the seals thereof?’ signifies Who is in the power of getting to know the states of life of all in the heavens and on earth (in terris), and of judging each one in accordance with his own [state]? ‘Who is worthy?’ signifies who is able or who is in the power? ‘To open the book and to loose the seals thereof’ here signifies to get to know the states of life of all in the heavens and on earth, and also to judge each one in accordance with his own state, for when the book is opened there is an inquiry regarding their quality, and then the sentence or judgment, comparatively as a judge gives judgment (agit) with and out of a book of law. That by ‘to open the book’ is signified an inquiry regarding the quality of the states of life with all and with each one is plain from the following chapter, where what was seen when the Lamb opened the seven seals thereof in their order is described.

AR (Coulson) n. 260 sRef Isa@44 @23 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @13 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @3 S0′

260. [verse 3] ‘And no one in heaven, nor upon the land nor yet under the land’ signifies that none in the higher heavens and in the lower heavens was able. By ‘in heaven, upon the land, and under the land’ is understood in the higher and lower heavens, as also below (verse 13) where there are these [words]:-

And every created thing that is in heaven, in the land, and under the hand, and such as are in the sea, and all [that are] in them, heard I saying.

Since he heard all those (hos et illos) ‘saying’, it is plain that they were angels and spirits who were speaking. Indeed John was in the spirit, as he himself says in the preceding chapter (iv 2), and in this state no land appeared to him other than the land of the spiritual world; for there are lands there just as in the natural world, as can be established from the description of that world in the work Concerning HEAVEN AND HELL, as well as in the CONTINUATION [CONCERNING THE LAST JUDGMENT AND] CONCERNING THE SPIRITUAL WORLD (n. 32-38). There, the higher heavens appear upon mountains and hills, the lower heavens upon the lands below, and the ultimate heavens as it were under the lands; for the heavens are expanses, one above the other, and each expanse is as the land under the feet of those who are there. The highest expanse is like a mountain top; the next expanse is below it, but extending itself more widely on all sides round about; while the lowest expanse extends itself still more widely, and because this is below that [middle expanse], those there are ‘under the land’. The three heavens also appear in this manner to the angels who are in the higher heavens, because to them two [heavens] appear below them. They therefore appeared in like manner to John, since he was with them, for he had gone up to them, as is plain from chapter iv 1, where it is said, ‘Come up hither, and I will show thee the things which must come to pass hereafter’. He who knows nothing about the spiritual world and the lands there is quite unable to know what is understood by ‘under the land’, likewise by ‘lower lands’ in the Word, as in Isaiah:-

Sing, O heavens; shout for joy, O lower lands; resound with a song, O mountains; for Jehovah has redeemed Jacob Isa. xliv 23;

and elsewhere. Who does not see that the lands of the spiritual world are understood there, for no one dwells under the lands in the natural world?

AR (Coulson) n. 261 sRef Rev@5 @13 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @3 S0′ 261. That ‘to open the book’ signifies to get to know the states of life of all, and to judge each one in accordance with his own [state] is plain from the things expounded above (n. 259).

AR (Coulson) n. 262 sRef Rev@5 @3 S0′

262. ‘Nor to look into it’ signifies not at all. Since by ‘to open the book’ is signified to get to know the states of life of all, by ‘to look into it’ is signified to see the quality of the states of life of this person and that; and therefore by ‘no one being able to open the book nor to look into it’ is signified that it is not at all possible. For the Only Lord sees anyone’s state from inmosts to outmosts, as well as what a man has been from infancy onwards to old age, and what he is going to be to eternity, as also what place will be obtained in heaven or in hell, and the Lord sees this in an instant, and of Himself, because He is Divine Truth Itself or the Word. Angels and men, however, do not see this at all, because they are finite, and the finite see only a few external things, and these they do not see from themselves but from the Lord.

AR (Coulson) n. 263 sRef Rev@5 @4 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @22 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S0′

263. [verse 4] ‘And I was weeping much because no one [worthy] was found to open and read the book, nor to look into it’ signifies grief of heart, because if there should not be any one able [to do this] all would perish. That ‘to weep much’ is to grieve at heart is plain. The reason why he was grieving at heart was because otherwise all would be about to perish; for if all things in the heavens and on earth (in terris) were not brought back into order, it could not [happen] otherwise; for in the Apocalypse it treats of the last state of the Church, when its end occurs, the nature of which is described by the Lord in these words:-

There shall be such a great affliction as has not been from the beginning of the world up till now, nor shall be; wherefore except those days should be shortened, no flesh would be preserved Matt. xxiv 21, 22.

These things are concerned with the last time of the Church when the judgment occurs. [2] That such is the state of the Church at this day can be recognised on account of these considerations only; that in the greatest part of Christendom are persons who have transferred the Lord’s Divine power to themselves and want to be worshipped as gods, and who invoke dead men and scarcely anyone there invokes the Lord; and that the rest belonging to the Church make God three, and the Lord two, and place salvation not in amendment of life but in certain words uttered with a devout tone of voice; thus not in repentance but in the confidence that they are justified and sanctified if they only fold their hands and look upwards and pray in the established mode.

AR (Coulson) n. 264 sRef Rev@5 @5 S0′

264. [verse 5] That ‘And one of the elders says unto me, Do not weep’ signifies consolation is plain.

AR (Coulson) n. 265 sRef Rev@5 @5 S0′

265. ‘Behold the Lion has prevailed’ signifies the Lord, that out of His own power He subjugated the hells, and brought all things back into order when He was in the world. That a ‘lion’ signifies the Divine Truth of the Word as to power maybe seen above (n. 24t); and since the Lord is Divine Truth Itself or the Word, therefore He is called ‘the Lion’. That the Lord, when He was in the world, subjugated the hells and brought all things in the heavens back into order, and also glorified His Human, may be seen above (n. 67); and how [this was done], in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 12-14). It is consequently plain what is understood by ‘the Lion has prevailed’.

AR (Coulson) n. 266 sRef Rev@5 @5 S0′

266. ‘Who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David’ signifies by means of Divine Good united with Divine Truth in His Human. By ‘Judah ‘in the Word is understood a Church that is in the good of love directed to the Lord, and in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine Good of Divine Love, and by ‘David ‘is understood the Lord as to the Divine Truth of Divine Wisdom. That this is understood by ‘David ‘may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 43, 44); and that the former is understood by ‘Judah’ may be seen (n. 96, 350). In consequence of these things it is plain that by ‘Behold the Lion has overcome Who is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David’ is signified that the Lord overcame the hells and brought all things back into order by means of Divine Good united with Divine Truth in His Human. That this is the sense of those words cannot be seen in the sense of the letter, but only that it is He Himself Who was born in the world of the tribe of Judah and of the lineage of David. Nevertheless these same words contain in themselves a spiritual sense in which things are understood by means of the names of persons, as has been said here and there above; thus, by ‘Judah’ is not understood Judah, nor David by ‘David’, but by ‘Judah’ the Lord as to Divine Good, and by ‘David’ the Lord as to Divine Truth. That [spiritual] sense results as a consequence of this. That sense is set out here, because the Apocalypse as to its spiritual sense is now being opened.

AR (Coulson) n. 267 sRef Rev@5 @5 S0′

267. ‘To open the book, and to loose the seals thereof’ signifies to get to know the states of life of all in the heavens and on earth (in terris), and to judge each one in accordance with his own [state], as above (n. 258, 259).

AR (Coulson) n. 268 sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′

268. [verse 6] ‘And I saw, and behold in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders’ signifies from the inmosts, and thence in all the things of heaven, of the Word, and of the Church. ‘In the midst’ signifies in the inmosts, and thence in all things (n. 44); ‘the throne’ signifies heaven (n. 14); ‘the four animals’ or cherubs signify the Word (n. 239); and the twenty-four ‘elders’ signify the Church as to all things thereof (n. 233, 251). It follows in consequence of these things that by ‘in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders’ is signified from the inmosts in all the things of heaven, of the Word, and of the Church.

AR (Coulson) n. 269 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′

269. ‘A Lamb standing as if slain’ signifies the Lord as to the Human not acknowledged in the Church to be Divine. By the ‘Lamb’ in the Apocalypse is understood the Lord as to the Divine Human, and by ‘a Lamb slain’ that His Human has not been acknowledged in the Church to be Divine; in like manner as [in] chapter i verse 18, where it is said, ‘I was put to death, and behold I am the Living One for ages of ages’, by which is understood that the Lord has been disregarded in the Church, and His Human not acknowledged to be Divine (n. 59). That this is the case may be seen below (n. 294). Since, therefore, the Lord as to the Divine Human is understood by the ‘Lamb’, and it is said of Him that He took the book out of the right hand of the One sitting upon the throne, and afterwards that he opened it and loosed the seven seals thereof, and since no mortal (nemo mortalium) was able [to do this], but God Only, it follows that by ‘a Lamb ‘is understood the Lord as to the Divine Human, and by ‘slain’ that He is not acknowledged to be God as to His Human.

AR (Coulson) n. 270 sRef Ps@89 @24 S0′ sRef Ps@89 @21 S0′ sRef Ps@89 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@89 @20 S0′ sRef Ps@89 @8 S0′ sRef Lam@2 @17 S0′ sRef Amos@3 @14 S0′ sRef Hab@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@148 @14 S0′ sRef Jer@48 @25 S0′ sRef Lam@2 @3 S0′ sRef Lam@2 @2 S0′ sRef Ps@18 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@17 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@17 @12 S0′ sRef Micah@4 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@18 @1 S0′ sRef Ps@75 @10 S0′ sRef Amos@6 @13 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@17 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@75 @5 S0′ sRef Ezek@34 @21 S0′ sRef Ps@75 @4 S0′

270. ‘Having seven horns’ signifies His Omnipotence. Frequently in the Word there is mention of a ‘horn’, and by it everywhere power is signified. Therefore where ‘horn’ is said of the Lord it signifies Omnipotence. There are said to be ‘seven horns’ because ‘seven’ signifies all (n. 10), thus All-power. That ‘horn’ signifies power and, when [said] of the Lord, Omnipotence, can be established from the following passages:-

They who rejoice over a thing of nought, who say, Have we not taken us horns by our own strength? Amos vi 13.

I said unto the wicked, Lift not up the horn, lift nor rip your horn on high: all the horns of the wicked I will cut off, but the horns of the just shall be exalted Ps. lxxv 4, 5, 10 [H.B. 5, 6, 11].

Jehovah has exalted the horn of thine adversaries Lam. ii 17.

The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken Jer. xlviii 25.

You thrust with side and with shoulder, and strike all the feeble sheep with your horns Ezek. xxxiv 21.

Jehovah has exalted the horn of His people Ps. cxlviii 14.

Jehovah God Zebaoth, the ornament of our* strength, has exalted our horn Ps. lxxxix 17 [H.B. 18].

The brightness of Jehovah God shall be as the light, having horns out of His hand, and there the concealing of His strength Hab. iii 4.

Mine arm shall invigorate David, and in My Name shall his horn be exalted Ps. lxxxix 20, 21, 24 [H.B. 21, 22, 25].

Jehovah is my strength, my rock, my horn Ps. xviii 2; 2 Sam. xxii 2, 3.

Arise, O daughter of Zion, for I will make thine linen iron, so that thou shalt break in pieces many peoples Micah iv 13.

Jehovah** has destroyed in His wrath the rampart of the daughter of Judah, and has cut off every horn of Israel Lam. ii [2,] 3.

Powers are also signified by:-

The horns of the dragon Rev. xii 3.

The horns of the beast coming up out of the sea Rev. xiii 1.

The horns of the scarlet-coloured beast, upon which the woman sat Rev. xvii 3, 7, 12.

The horns of the ram and the he-goat Dan. viii 3-12, 21, 25.

The horns of the beast coming up out of the sea Dan. vii 3, 7, 8, 20, 21, 23, 24.

The four horns which scattered Judah and Israel Zech. 18-20 [H.B. ii 1-4].

The horns of the altars of burnt-offering and incense Exod. xxvii 2; xxx 2, 3, 10.

By these last the power of Divine Truth in the Church was signified; and, on the other hand, that the power is about to perish, by ‘the horns of the altars at Bethel’, in Amos:-

I will make a visitation upon the transgressions of Israel, I will make a visitation upon the altars of Bethel, so that the horns of the altar may be cut off, and fall to the earth Amos iii 14.
* Hebrew and AE 316:5 have ‘their’.
** Hebrew has ‘Adonai’. AE 316:14 has ‘The Lord’.

AR (Coulson) n. 271 sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@5 @37 S0′

271. ‘And seven eyes’ signifies His Omniscience and Divine Wisdom. That ‘eyes’, when [said] of the Lord, signify His Divine Wisdom may be seen above (n. 48, 125), thus also Omniscience; and that ‘seven’ signify all, and are said of what is holy (n. 10). Consequently by the ‘seven eyes’ of the Lamb is signified the Divine Wisdom of the Lord, which also is Omniscience.

AR (Coulson) n. 272 sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′

272. ‘Which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into every land’ signifies that out of that [Divine Wisdom] there is Divine Truth throughout all the lands where there is religion. ‘The seven spirits of God’ are the Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord, as above (n. 14, 155). It is plain that ‘sent forth into every land’ is into the whole region (orbem) where there is religion. For where there is religion, it is taught that God exists and that the devil exists, and that God is Good Itself and that good is from Him, and that the devil is evil itself and that evil is from him; and, because they are opposed, that evil, which is from the devil, is to be shunned, and that good, because it is from God, is to be done; and therefore that in so far as anyone does evil, so far he is loving the devil, and acting against God. Such Divine Truth exists throughout all the lands where there is any religion; and therefore there is need of no more than to know what is evil. Indeed, all who have a religion know this, for the precepts of all religions are such as are in the Decalogue, that there must not be killing, whoredom, stealing, nor bearing false witness. These are in general the Divine Truths ‘sent forth’ by the Lord ‘into every land’: see THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 101-118). He, therefore, who lives in accordance with them because they are Divine Truths, or the precepts of God and consequently of religion, is saved; but he who lives in accordance with them only because they are civil and moral truths is not saved, for an atheist also can live in such a manner, but not one who acknowledges God.

AR (Coulson) n. 273 sRef Matt@24 @30 S0′ sRef Luke@21 @36 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @7 S0′ sRef John@5 @27 S0′ sRef John@5 @22 S0′ sRef Matt@16 @27 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @28 S0′

273. [verse 7] ‘And He came and took the book out of the right hand of the One sitting upon the throne’ signifies that the Lord as to His Divine Human is the Word, and that He is this out of His Divine Itself, and that on this account He is going to effect the judgment out of the Divine Human. Here it is quite plain that ‘the One sitting upon the throne’ and ‘the Lamb’ are one Person, and that by ‘the One sitting upon the throne’ is understood His Divine from which [are all things], and by ‘the Lamb’ His Divine Human for in the preceding verse it is said that he saw ‘a Lamb standing in the midst of the throne’, and in this that ‘He took the book’ from ‘the One sitting upon the throne’. That the Lord is going to make the judgment out of His Divine Human, because He is the Word, is established from these passages:-

Then shall they see the sign of the Son of Man; and they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with vigor (virtus) and glory Matt. xxiv 30.

When the Son of Man shall sit upon His throne He is going to judge the twelve tribes of Israel Matt. xix 28.

The Son of Man is going to come in the glory of His Father, and then He shall make a return to each one according to his deeds Matt. xvi 27.

Watch always, that you may be accounted worthy to stand before the Son of Man Luke xxi 36.

In such an hour as you think not, the Son of Man comes Matt. xxiv 44.

The Father does not judge anyone, but has given all judgment to the Son, because He is the Son of Man John v [22,] 27.

‘The Son of Man’ is the Lord as to the Divine Human, and this is ‘the Word’, which ‘was God’ and ‘was made flesh’ (John 5,14).

AR (Coulson) n. 274 sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′

274. [verse 8] ‘And when He had taken the book’ signifies when the Lord set about making the judgment, and bringing all things in the heavens and upon earth back into order by means of it. By ‘to take’ the book and ‘to open it’ is signified to examine the states of life of all, and to judge each one in accordance with his own [state], as above. Here, therefore, by [the statement] that ‘he had taken the book’ is signified to have the intention of making the last judgment, and because a last judgment is brought about so that all things may be brought back into order in the heavens, and on earth by means of the heavens, this also is signified.

AR (Coulson) n. 275 sRef Rev@4 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′

275. ‘The four animals and the twenty-four elders fell prostrate before the Lamb’ signifies a humbling, and as a result of the humbling the adoration of the Lord out of the higher heavens. Now follows a glorification of the Lord on account of [the intended judgment], for, as was said above (n. 263), unless the Lord should now effect the last judgment, and by means of it bring all things in the heavens and on earth (in terris) back into order, they would all perish. The glorification of the Lord which now follows is made first from the higher heavens, afterwards from the lower heavens, and only then from the lowest heavens; glorification from the higher heavens (vers. 8-10), from the lower heavens (vers. 11, 12), and from the lowest heavens (verse 13), and at length confirmation and adoration from the higher heavens (verse 14). The higher heavens, therefore, are signified by ‘the four animals and the twenty-four elders’; for, by the cherubs which the four animals are ‘in the midst of the throne’ is signified the Lord as to the Word, while by the cherubs or four animals ‘around the throne’ is signified heaven as to the Word, for it is said that ‘in the midst of the throne and around the throne’ were seen ‘four animals, full of eyes before and behind’ (chap. iv 6); for the heavens are heavens by virtue of the reception of Divine Truth by means of the Word from the Lord. By ‘the twenty-four elders’ also are signified the angels in the higher heavens, because those elders were nearest around the throne (chap. iv 4). That ‘to fall prostrate before the Lamb’ is a humbling, and as a result of the humbling an adoration, is plain.

AR (Coulson) n. 276 sRef Ps@92 @2 S0′ sRef Ps@92 @1 S0′ sRef 1Sam@16 @23 S0′ sRef 1Sam@16 @16 S0′ sRef Ps@147 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@92 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@71 @22 S0′ sRef 1Sam@16 @15 S0′ sRef Ps@33 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@98 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@43 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@43 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@57 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@57 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@57 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@33 @2 S0′ sRef 1Sam@16 @14 S0′ sRef Ps@98 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@98 @4 S0′ 276. ‘Each one of them having harps’ signifies the confession of the Lord’s Divine Human out of spiritual truths. It is known that the confessions of Jehovah made in the temple of Jerusalem were by means of songs accompanied by musical instruments, which used to correspond. The instruments were chiefly trumpets and timbrels, psalteries and harps. The trumpets and timbrels used to correspond to celestial goods and truths, and the psalteries and harps to spiritual goods and truths. The correspondences were with their sounds. What celestial good and truth, and what spiritual good and truth are may be seen in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL (n. 13-19, and 20-28). That ‘harps’ signify confessions of the Lord out of spiritual truths can be established from these passages:-

Confess unto Jehovah with the harp, sing praises unto Him with the psaltery of ten strings Ps. xxxiii 2, 3.

I will confess unto Thee on the harp, O God, my God Ps. xliii 3, 4.

I will confess unto Thee on an instrument of the psaltery, I will sing unto Thee with the harp, O Thou Holy One of Israel Ps. lxxi 22.

Arouse me, psaltery and harp, I will confess unto Thee among the nations, O Lord Ps. lvii 7-9 [H.B. 8-10]; cviii 2-4.

Answer unto Jehovah by confession, sing praises upon the harp unto our God Ps. cxlvii 7.

It is good to confess unto Jehovah upon the psaltery, and upon higgajon* on the harp (super higgajon in CITHARA) Ps. xcii 1-3 [H.B. 2-4].

Resound unto Jehovah every land, sing unto Jehovah with the harp, with the harp and the voice of a song Ps. xcviii 4-6;

and in many other places, as Ps. xlix 3, 4 [H.B. 4, 5]; Ps. cxxxvii 1, 2; Job xxx 31; Isa. xxiv 7-9, xxx 31, 32; Rev. xiv 2, xviii 22. Because the ‘harp’ used to correspond to confession of the Lord, and evil spirits do not endure that [confession], therefore David by means of a ‘harp’ drove an evil spirit away from Saul (1 Sam. xvi 14-16, 23). That they were not harps but confessions of the Lord that were heard as harps by John, may be seen below (n. 661).
* A Hebrew word meaning perhaps a soft tone.

AR (Coulson) n. 277 sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′ 277. ‘And golden phials full of incense-offerings’ signifies the confession of the Lord’s Divine Human out of spiritual goods. ‘Incense’ [signifies] worship out of spiritual goods, but here confession out of those goods, because the original worship in the Jewish and Israelitish Churches was established in sacrifices and incense-offerings. There were, therefore, two altars, one for the sacrifices and the other for the incense-offerings. The latter altar was in the tabernacle and was called the golden altar, but the former was outside the tabernacle and was called the altar of burnt offering. This was because there are two kinds of goods out of which all worship is made, celestial good and spiritual good. Celestial good is the good of a love directed to the Lord, and spiritual good is the good of a love towards the neighbour. The worship by sacrifices was a worship out of celestial good, and the worship by incense-offerings was a worship out of spiritual good. Whether you call it worship or confession it is the same, for all worship is confession. What is signified by the ‘incense-offerings’ is also in like manner signified by the ‘phials’ in which the incenses were, inasmuch as the thing containing and the thing contained, like the instrumental and the principal, have one thing in view. sRef Ps@66 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@66 @15 S2′ sRef Deut@33 @10 S2′ sRef Matt@2 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@60 @6 S2′ sRef Mal@1 @11 S2′ sRef Jer@17 @26 S2′ [2] Worship out of spiritual good is signified by the ‘incense-offerings’ in the following passages:-

From the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My Name shall be great among the nations, and in every place an incense-offering shall be brought unto My Name Mal. i 11.

They shall teach Jacob Thy judgments, they shall put an incense-offering in Thy nose, and a burnt offering upon Thine altar Deut. xxxiii 10.

I will offer unto Thee burnt offerings of fatlings with incense Ps. lxvi 13, 15.

They shall come out of the circut of Judah offering a burnt offering, a meal-offering (mincha) and frankincense Jer. xvii 26.

They shall come out of Sheba, they shall bring gold and frankincense, and they shall declare the praises of Jehovah Isa. lx 6.

A similar thing is signified by ‘frankincense’ as by ‘incense’, because frankincense was the special spice out of which the incense used to be made. In like manner in Matthew:-

Wise men from the east opened their treasures, and offered to the newly born Lord, gold, frankincense and myrrh Matt. ii 11.

They offered these three things because ‘gold’ signifies celestial good, ‘frankincense’ spiritual good, and ‘myrrh’ natural good and out of these three all worship is made.

AR (Coulson) n. 278 sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@8 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@141 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@8 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@141 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@8 @4 S0′

278. ‘Which are the prayers of the saints’ signifies the thoughts that are of faith derived from the affections that are of charity, with those who worship the Lord out of spiritual goods and truths. By ‘prayers’ are understood the things that are of faith, and at the same time the things that are of charity, with those who pour forth prayers, since prayers without those things are not prayers but empty sounds. That saints signify those who are in spiritual goods and truths may be seen above (n. 173). ‘Incense-offerings’ are said to be ‘the prayers of the saints’ because fragrant odours correspond to affections of good and truth. This is why it is said so often in the Word ‘a grateful odour’, and ‘an odour of rest to Jehovah’, as Exod. xxix 18, 25, 41; Lev. i 9, 13, 17; ii 2, 9, 12; iii 5; iv 31; vi 15, 21 [H.B. 8, 14]; viii 28; xxiii 13, 18; xxvi 31; Num. xv 3, 7; xxviii 6, 8, 13; xxix 2, 6, 8, 13, 36; Ezek. xx 41; Hos. xiv 7. Similar things are signified by the ‘prayers’ that are called ‘incense-offerings’ in the following passages, in the Apocalypse:-

An angel standing at the altar, having a golden phial, and there was given to him many incense-offerings, that he should offer with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar; and the smoke of the incense-offerings with the prayers of the saints ascended up out of the angel’s hand in full view of God Rev. viii 3-5;

and in David:-

Give ear unto my voice; my prayers have been accepted as incense before Thee Ps. cxli 1, 2.

AR (Coulson) n. 279 sRef Rev@5 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @14 S1′

279. [verse 9] ‘And they were singing a new song’ signifies an acknowledgment and glorification of the Lord because He Only is the Judge, Redeemer, and Saviour, thus the God of heaven and earth. These things are contained in the song that they were singing, and the things that are contained are also signified: as an acknowledgment that the Lord is the judge, in the things now following:-

Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof;

that He is the Redeemer, in these:-

Because Thou wast slain and hast redeemed us in Thy blood;

that He is the Saviour in these:-

Thou hast made us to our God kings and priests, and we shall reign over the land;

that He is the God of heaven and earth, in these:-

They fell prostrate and adored the One living for ages of ages (verse 14).

Since the acknowledgment that the Only Lord is the God of heaven and earth, and that His Human is Divine, and that in no other way could He be said to be the Redeemer and Saviour, was not in the Church before, therefore it is termed ‘a new song’. [2] A ‘song’ also signifies a glorification that is a confession out of joy of heart, because singing exalts, and causes the affection to burst forth out of the heart into sound and show itself intensely in its life. Nor are the Psalms of David any other than songs, for they were played on the psaltery and sung, and therefore in many places were called ‘songs’, as Ps. xviii 1; Ps. xxxiii 2, 3; Ps. xlv 1; Ps. xlvi 1; Ps. xlviii 1; Ps. lxv 1; Ps. lxvi 1; Ps. lxvii 1; Ps. lxviii 1; Ps. lxxv 1; Ps. lxxvi 1; Ps. lxxxvii 1; Ps. lxxxviii 1; Ps. xcii 1; Ps. xcvi 1; Ps. xcviii 1; Ps. cviii 1; Ps. cxx 1; Ps. cxxi 1; Ps. cxxii 1; Ps. cxxiii 1; Ps. cxxiv 1; Ps. cxxv 1; Ps. cxxvi 1; Ps. cxxvii 1; Ps. cxxviii 1; Ps. cxxix 1; Ps. cxxx 1; [Ps. cxxxi 1;] Ps. cxxxii 1; Ps. cxxxiv 1. sRef Ps@81 @2 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @2 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@81 @3 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @11 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@44 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @6 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @9 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @8 S3′ sRef Isa@52 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @7 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@52 @8 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @12 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @10 S3′ sRef Ps@81 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@149 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@149 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@149 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@51 @3 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @1 S3′ [3] That the songs were for the sake of an exaltation of the life of love, and of the joy therefrom, is plain from these passages:-

Sing unto Jehovah a new song, make a joyful noise unto Jehovah every land, make a loud noise, rejoice Ps. xcviii 1, 4-8.

Sing unto Jehovah a new song, let Israel he glad in his Maker, sing psalms unto Him Ps. cxlix 1-3.

Sing unto Jehovah a new song, lift up the voice Isa. xlii 10-12.

Sing O heavens, shout O lower lands, resound O mountains with a song Isa. xliv 23, xlix 13.

Shout unto God our strength, cry out to the God of Jacob, lift up a song Ps. lxxxi 1-3 [H.B. 2-4].

Gladness and joy shall be found in Zion, confession and the voice of a song Isa. li 3, lii 8, 9.

Sing unto Jehovah, cry out and shout, O daughter of Zion, for great in the midst of thee is the Holy One of Israel Isa. xii 1-6.

My heart is ready, I will sing and sing psalms. Arouse thee, my glory, I will confess Thee among the nations, O Lord, I will sing Psalms unto Thee among the peoples Ps. lvii 7-9 [H.B. 8-10];

and very many elsewhere.

AR (Coulson) n. 280 sRef Rev@5 @9 S0′

280. ‘Saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof’ signifies that He Only is able to recognise the states of life of all, and to judge each one in accordance with his own [state], as above (n. 256, 259, 261, 267, 273).

AR (Coulson) n. 281 sRef Rev@5 @9 S0′

281. ‘Because Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God in Thy blood’ signifies liberation from hell, and salvation by means of conjunction with Himself. There is no need to disclose by means of the spiritual sense what is signified by each of the things separately, as what by ‘to have been slain’, ‘to redeem us to God’, and what by ‘His blood’ for they are arcana that do not appear in the sense of the letter. Suffice it [to say] that it is redemption that is described in this manner; and since redemption is liberation from hell, and salvation by means of conjunction with the Lord, these are the things that are signified. Here it shall be confirmed out of the Word, only that Jehovah Himself came into the world, was born Man, and became the Redeemer and Saviour of all who by a life of charity and the faith thereof are conjoined with His Divine Human, and that Jehovah is the Lord from eternity, consequently that the Lord’s Divine Human, with which the conjunction will be, is the Divine Human of Jehovah Himself. sRef Isa@49 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@55 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@55 @18 S2′ sRef Ps@31 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@44 @26 S2′ sRef Isa@54 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @7 S2′ sRef Ps@19 @14 S2′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@49 @26 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @34 S2′ sRef Isa@48 @17 S2′ sRef Hos@13 @14 S2′ sRef Hos@13 @4 S2′ [2] Here therefore the passages will be adduced that confirm that Jehovah and the Lord are one; and, since they are one and not two, that the Lord from eternity Who is Jehovah Himself became the Redeemer and Saviour by the assumption of the Human. This is plain from these statements:-

Thou, O Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer from an age is Thy Name Isa. lxiii 16.

Thus says the king of Israel, and His Redeemer Jehovah Zebaoth, I am the First and the Last, and besides Me there is no God Isa. xliv 6.

Thus says Jehovah thy Redeemer and thy Former, I am Jehovah, making all things, and Only by Myself Isa. xliv 24.

Thus says Jehovah thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am Jehovah thy God Isa. xlviii 17.

O Jehovah, my Rock and my Redeemer Ps. xix 14 [H.B. 15].

Their Redeemer is strong, Jehovah Zebaoth is His Name Jer. i 34.

Jehovah Zebaoth is His Name, and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel, the God of the whole land shall He be called Isa. liv 5.

That all flesh may know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the Strong One of Jacob Isa. xlix 26, lx 16.

As for our Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth is His Name Isa. xlvii 4.

With everlasting mercy will I have mercy, thus says thy Redeemer Jehovah Isa. liv 8.

Says Jehovah your Redeemer the Holy One of Israel Isa. xliii 14.

Says Jehovah the Holy One of Israel your Redeemer Isa. xlix 7.

Thou hast redeemed me, O Jehovah of truth Ps. xxxi 5 [H.B. 6].

Let Israel hope in Jehovah, for with Him there is plenteous redemption,

He shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities Ps. cxxx 7, 8.

Arise, O Lord, for our help, and redeem us for Thy mercy’s sake Ps. xliv 26 [H.B. 27].

Says Jehovah God, I will redeem them out of the hand of hell, I will

redeem them out of death Hos. xiii 4, 14.

O Jehovah, hear my voice, He shall redeem my soul Ps. lv 17, 18 [H.B. 18. 19].

Also, Ps. xlix 15 [H.B. 16], lxix 18 [H.B. 19], lxxi 23, ciii 1, 4, cvii 2; Jer. xv 20, 21. sRef Luke@1 @68 S3′ sRef Isa@62 @12 S3′ sRef Isa@62 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S3′ [3] That the Lord as to His Human is the Redeemer is not denied in the Church, because it is according to Scripture, and also this:-

Who is coming out of Edom, marching along in the multitude of His strength? The year of His redeemers is come. This One redeemed them Isa. lxiii 1, 4, 9.

Say to the daughter of Zion, Behold thy Salvation comes, behold His reward is with Him, and they shall call them the people of holiness, the redeemed of Jehovah Isa. lxii 11, 12.

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for He has visited and made a redemption for His people Luke i 68;

besides elsewhere. Still more passages, confirming that the Lord from eternity Who is Jehovah Himself came into the world and took to Himself a Human for the purpose of redeeming men, may be seen in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE LORD (n. 37-46). Jehovah is also said to be the ‘Saviour’ in many passages, which there is not time to quote by reason of their abundance.

AR (Coulson) n. 282 sRef Rev@5 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@35 @28 S0′

282. ‘Out of every tribe and tongue, and people and nation’ signifies that those who, in the Church or any religion, are in truths as to doctrine and in goods as to life have been redeemed by the Lord. By ‘tribe’ is signified the Church as to religion; by ‘tongue’ is signified its doctrine, of which [more will be said] presently; by ‘people’ are signified those who are in truths of doctrine, and abstractly the truths of doctrine (n. 483); and by ‘nations’ are signified those who are in goods of life, and abstractly the goods of life (n. 483). It is plain from these considerations that by ‘out of every tribe and tongue, and people and nation’ such things as have been said are signified, as also (n. 627). sRef Zech@8 @23 S2′ sRef Isa@35 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@32 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@66 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@45 @23 S2′ [2] Here it shall now be confirmed that by ‘tongue’ in the spiritual sense is signified the doctrine that is of the Church, and that of any religion. This is plain from these passages:-

My tongue shall meditate on Thy justice, on Thy praise all the day Ps. lxxi 24.

Then shall the lame man leap as a stag, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing, for in the wilderness shall waters break out Isa. xxxv 6.

The tongue of the stammerers shall be swift to speak Isa. xxxii 4.

It appears there as if by ‘tongue’ speech may be understood, but in the spiritual sense that which is spoken is understood and this is all the truth of doctrine which will be with them from the Lord. In like manner:-

I have, sworn that unto Me every knee is going to bow, and every tongue is going to swear Isa. xlv 23.

The time shall come for gathering all nations and tongues, that they may come and see My glory Isa. lxvi x8.

In those days ten men out of all the tongues of the nations shall take hold of the skirt of a man that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you, because We have heard God is with you Zech. viii 23.

These passages also are concerned with the conversion of the nations by the Lord to what is true of doctrine. sRef Jer@5 @15 S3′ sRef Isa@33 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@3 @6 S3′ sRef Ps@31 @20 S3′ sRef Ps@140 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@3 @5 S3′ [3] By ‘tongues’ in the opposite sense, however, are signified untrue doctrines, in these passages:-

A man of tongue* shall not continue to exist in the land Ps. cxl 11 [H.B. 12].

Thou hidest them in Thy tabernacle from the strife of tongues Ps. xxxi 20 [H.B. 21].

I will bring upon you a nation, whose tongue thou shalt not recognise
Jer. v 15, 16.

Sent to peoples harsh of tongue Ezek. iii 5, 6.

To a people barbarous of tongue Isa. xxxiii 19.

It is to be known that ‘tongue’ as an organ signifies doctrine, while as speech it also signifies religion. sRef Luke@16 @24 S4′ [4] He who knows that ‘tongue’ signifies doctrine is able to understand what is signified by the words of the rich man in hell to Abraham,

that he would send Lazarus that he might dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool his tongue, that he should not be tormented in the flame Luke xvi 24.

‘Water’ signifies truth, and ‘tongue’ doctrine, by the untruths of which he was tormented, and not by a flame; for no one in hell is in a flame, but the flame there is the appearance of a love of what is untrue and fire is the appearance of a love of evil.
* AV ‘an evil speaker’.

AR (Coulson) n. 283 sRef Rev@5 @10 S0′

283. [verse 10] ‘And Thou hast made us to our God kings and priests’ signifies that from the Lord they are in wisdom out of Divine truths and in love out of Divine goods, and thus are images of His Divine Wisdom and His Divine Love; as above (n. 20, 21).

AR (Coulson) n. 284 sRef John@17 @23 S0′ sRef John@17 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @6 S0′ sRef John@17 @22 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @28 S0′ sRef John@17 @21 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@22 @5 S0′ sRef John@17 @24 S0′

284. ‘And we shall reign over the land’ signifies and they will be in His kingdom, He in them and they in Him. By ‘reign over the land’ nothing else is understood than to be in the Lord’s kingdom and to be one with Him there in accordance with these words of the Lord:-

That all who believe in Me may be one; and may be one as Thou Father art in Me and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us. The glory which Thou hast given Me I have given them, that they may be one as We are One, I in them and Thou in Me, that where I am, they also may be with Me John xvii 20-24.

Since, therefore, they are in this manner one with the Lord and, together with the Lord, make the kingdom that is called the kingdom of God, it is plain that nothing else is signified by ‘reign’. ‘Reign’ is said because it was before said, ‘Thou hast made us kings and priests’, and by ‘kings’ are signified those who are in wisdom out of Divine Truths from the Lord, and by ‘priests’ those who are in love out of Divine Good from Him (n. 20). In consequence of this the Lord’s kingdom is also said to be a ‘kingdom of the saints’ (Dan. vii 18, 27); and it is said of the Apostles, that ‘with the Lord they are going to judge the twelve tribes of Israel’ (Matt. xix 28); although the Only Lord judges and reigns, for He judges and reigns out of the Divine Good by means of the Divine Truth that is also in them from Himself. He, however, who believes that what is in them from the Lord is theirs is cast out of the kingdom, that is, out of heaven. The like is signified by ‘reign’ in the following statements in the Apocalypse:-

They shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years Rev. xx 4, 6;

and concerning those who are going to be in the New Jerusalem:-

The Lamb shall enlighten them, and they shall reign for ages of ages Rev. xxii 5.


AR (Coulson) n. 285 sRef Isa@45 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@75 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @3 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @13 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @7 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @10 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @16 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @6 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @14 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @4 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @15 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @17 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @22 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @11 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @12 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @23 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @9 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @19 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @2 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @21 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @1 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @20 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @18 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @8 S1′

285. It is said ‘they shall reign over the land’ because by ‘land’ here and elsewhere is understood the Lord’s Church in the heavens and on Earth (in terris). The Church in both of these is the Lord’s kingdom. Therefore, in case anyone should believe that all who have been redeemed by the Lord become kings and priests, and that they are going to reign over a land, it is important that it should be demonstrated out of the Word that ‘land’ signifies the Church. It is possible for this to be seen from the following passages:-

Behold Jehovah emptying the land, and stripping the land bare, and He shall turn over the face thereof; emptying, the land shall be emptied; the habitable land shall mourn and be confounded; the land shall be profaned under its inhabitants; therefore shall the curse devour the land, and the inhabitants of the land shall be burnt up, scarcely a man shall be left; there shall be in the midst of the land as the plucking of an olive tree. The cataracts from on high are opened, and the foundations of the land are shaken; breaking in pieces, the land is broken in pieces: bursting asunder, the land is burst asunder: disturbing, the land is disturbed: staggering, the land staggers as if drunk Isa. [xxiv] 1-23.

sRef Ps@18 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@28 @22 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @28 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @7 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@33 @9 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @23 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @21 S2′ sRef Isa@13 @9 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @6 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @12 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @11 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @27 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @4 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @23 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @7 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@60 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@34 @9 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@60 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@13 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@34 @10 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @25 S2′ sRef Isa@28 @2 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @24 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @26 S2′ [2] The lion has come up out of the thicket to reduce thy land to a waste; I saw the land when, behold, it was empty and void; Jehovah said, The whole land shall be a waste, therefore the land shall mourn Jer. iv 7, 23-28.

How long shall the land mourn? The whole land is desolate, because there is no man laying [it] to heart Jer. xii 4, 11-13.

The land mourns and languishes, Lebanon has blushed and withered away Isa. xxxiii 9.

The land shall be turned into burning pitch, and be laid waste Isa. xxxiv 9, 10.

I have heard from the Lord a consummation and cutting short upon the whole land Isa. xxviii 2, 22.

Behold the day of Jehovah shall come to lay the land waste, and the land shall be shaken out of its place Isa. xiii 9-13.

The land was disturbed and it trembled, and the foundations of the mountains quaked Ps. xviii 6, 7 [H.B. 7, 8].

We will not fear when the land is moved; when He shall have uttered [His] voice, the land shall melt Ps. xlvi 2, 3, 6, 8 [H.B. 3, 4, 7, 9].

Do you not understand the foundations of the land? Isa. xl 21, 23.

O God, Thou hast forsaken us, Thou hast made the land begin to tremble; heal the breaches thereof, for it has been disturbed Ps. lx 1, 2 [H.B. 3, 4].

sRef Isa@45 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @25 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @27 S3′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S3′ sRef Isa@44 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@27 @13 S3′ sRef Isa@18 @2 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @26 S3′ sRef Isa@18 @1 S3′ sRef Matt@5 @5 S3′ sRef Mal@3 @12 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @24 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @13 S3′ sRef Isa@9 @19 S3′ sRef Ps@75 @2 S3′ sRef Isa@38 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@75 @3 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@65 @17 S3′ [3] The land and all its inhabitants shall melt; I will strengthen the pillars of it Ps. lxxv 2, 3 [H.B. 3, 4].

Woe to the land shadowed with wings. Go, O ambassadors to a nation trodden down, whose land the rivers have spoiled Isa. xviii 1, 2.

In the wrath of Jehovah Zebaoth is the land darkened Isa. ix 19 [H.B. 18].

You shall be a land of good pleasure Mal. iii 11, 12.

I have given thee for a covenant of the people to restore the land; sing, O heavens, and exult, O land Isa. xlix 8, 13.

Thou shalt not* see Jah in the land of the living ones Isa. xxxviii 11.

Who gave terror in the land of the living ones Ezek. xxxii 23-27.

Unless I had believed to see good in the land of life Ps. xxvii 13.

Blessed are the gentle, for they shall accept the inheritance of the land Matt. v 5.

I am Jehovah, making all things, the Only One spreading out the heavens, extending the land by Myself Isa. xliv 23, 24; Zech. xii 1; Jer. x 11-13, li 15; Ps. cxxxvi 6.

Let the land open itself, let it bring forth (fructificare) health; thus

said Jehovah, creating the heavens, forming the land Isa. xlv 8, 12, 18, 19.

Behold, I create new heavens, and a new land Isa. lxv 17, lxvi 22;

besides in many other places which, if they were quoted, would fill a page. [4] The reason why the Church is signified by ‘land’ is because very often by ‘land’ is understood the land of Canaan, and in that land was the Church, the ‘heavenly Canaan’ being nothing else. It is also because when a land is named, angels, who are spiritual, do not think of the land but of the human race that is upon it and its spiritual state, and the spiritual state is the state of the Church. ‘Land’ also has an opposite sense, and in that it signifies damnation, for where there is no Church with a man there is damnation. ‘Land’ is named in this sense [in] Isa. xiv 12; xxi 9; xxvi 19, 21; xxix 4; xlvii 1; lxiii 6; Lam. ii 2, 10; Ezek. xxvi 20; xxxii 24; Num. xvi 29-33; xxvi 10; and elsewhere.

AR (Coulson) n. 286 sRef Rev@5 @11 S0′

286. [verse is] ‘And I saw and heard the voice of many angels around the throne, and the animals, and the elders’ signifies a confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lower heavens. That a confession and glorification of the Lord was made by the angels of the three heavens may be seen above (n. 275); and that [one was made] by the angels of the higher heavens (from vers. 8 to 10); and consequently now by the angels of the lower heavens (vers. 11, 12). Therefore by ‘the voice of angels around the throne’ is understood a confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lower heavens. He then also saw ‘the animals and the elders’ together with those [angels], because by ‘the animals and the elders’ the angels of the higher heavens are signified (n. 275), and the lower heavens never act separately from the higher heavens, but conjointly with them. For the Lord inflows out of Himself, without mediation, into all the heavens, thus also into the lower ones, and at the same time He inflows mediately through the higher heavens into the lower ones. This therefore is the reason why he ‘saw and heard the animals and the elders’ first by themselves, and then together with those [lower angels].
* Hebrew has ‘I shall not’.

AR (Coulson) n. 287 sRef Ps@144 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@68 @17 S0′ sRef Micah@6 @7 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@91 @5 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @10 S0′ sRef Num@10 @36 S0′ sRef Deut@33 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@91 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@91 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @11 S0′

287. ‘And the number of them was myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands’ signifies all in truths and in goods. By ‘number’ in the natural sense is understood that which relates to measure or weight, but by ‘number’ in the spiritual sense is understood that which relates to quality; and here their quality is described by [the statement] that there were ‘myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands’, for ‘a myriad’ is predicated of truths, and ‘a thousand’ of goods. ‘Myriad’ is predicated of truths and ‘thousand’ of goods, because a myriad is the greater and a thousand is the lesser, and truths are manifold but goods are simple; also because in the Word where it treats of truths it also treats of goods, on account of the marriage of truth and good in the details of the Word. In the absence of this, ‘myriads of myriads’ only would have been said. Because those two numbers signify such things they are therefore also mentioned elsewhere, as in these places:-

The chariots of God are two myriads, thousands of angels of peace, the Lord in them, Sinai in the sanctuary Ps. lxviii 17 [H.B. 18].

I saw when the Ancient of days did sit, thousands of thousands were

ministering unto Him, and myriads of myriads were standing before Him Dan. vii 9, 10.

Moses [said] of Joseph:-

His horns the horns of a unicorn, with them he shall carry the peoples

together to the borders of the land, and they the myriads of Ephraim and the thousands of Manasseh Deut. xxxiii 17.

Thou shalt not be afraid for thyself on account of the pestilence that creeps in thick darkness, nor of the death that wastes at midday, a thousand shall fall at thy side, and a myriad at thy right hand Ps. xci 5-7.

Our flocks thousands, myriads in our streets Ps. cxliv 13.

Is Jehovah delighted with thousands of rams, with myriads of rivers of oil? Micah vi 7.

When the ark was resting, Moses said:-

Return, O Jehovah, the myriads of the thousands of Israel Num. x 36.

In all these places the ‘myriads’ are said of truths, and the ‘thousands’ of goods.

AR (Coulson) n. 288 sRef Rev@5 @12 S0′

288. [verse 12] ‘Saying with a great voice, Worthy is the slain Lamb to take power and riches and wisdom, and honour and glory’ signifies confession out of the heart, that the Lord as to the Divine Human has Omnipotence, Omniscience, Divine Good and Divine Truth. ‘Saying with a great voice’ signifies confession out of the heart ‘Thou art worthy’ signifies that in Him are the things that follow; ‘the Lamb’ signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human; ‘power’ signifies the Divine power, which is Omnipotence; ‘riches and wisdom’ signify the Divine knowledge and wisdom, which are Omniscience; ‘honour and glory’ signify Divine Good and Divine Truth. That ‘riches’ signify the cognitions of good and truth, and thus knowledge, may be seen above (n. 206); consequently, when [predicated] of the Lord, they signify Omniscience; and that ‘honour and glory’, when [predicated] of the Lord, signify Divine Good and Divine Truth, [see] above n. 249.

AR (Coulson) n. 289 sRef Rev@5 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @39 S0′ sRef Ps@31 @21 S1′ sRef Ps@28 @6 S1′ sRef Ps@21 @5 S1′ sRef Ps@21 @6 S1′ sRef Gen@14 @19 S1′ sRef Ps@41 @13 S1′ sRef Gen@14 @18 S1′ sRef Gen@9 @26 S1′ sRef Mark@14 @61 S1′ sRef Luke@1 @68 S1′ sRef Gen@14 @20 S1′

289. ‘And blessing’ signifies all these in Him, and from Him in those [angels]. By ‘blessing’ is understood every good that a man has from the Lord, as power and wealth and the things pertaining thereto; but chiefly every spiritual good, as love and wisdom, charity and faith, and the joy and happiness therefrom, which are of eternal life; and because all these are from the Lord it follows that they are in Him, for if they were not in Him they could not be in others from Him. This is why the Lord is said in the Word to be BLESSED, and also BLESSING, that is, BLESSING ITSELF. That Jehovah, that is, the Lord is termed ‘Blessed’ is plain from these places:-

The chief of the priests asked Jesus, Art Thou the Christ the Son of the Blessed? Mark xiv 61.

Jesus said, You shall not see Me henceforth, till you shall say, The Blessed One coming in the Name of the Lord Matt. xxiii 39; Luke xiii 35.

Melchizedek blessed Abram, and said, Blessed be the Most High God, Who has given thine enemies into thy hand Gen. xiv 18-20.

Blessed be Jehovah, the God of Shem Gen. ix 26.

Blessed be Jehovah, Who has heard my voice Ps. xxviii 6.

Blessed be Jehovah, for He has made wonderful His kindness Ps. xxxi 21 [H.B. 22].

Blessed be Jehovah from age to age Ps. xli 13 [H.B. 14].

Likewise, Ps. lxvi 20; lxviii 19, 35 [H.B. 20, 36]; lxxii 18, 19; lxxxix 52 [H.B. 53]; cxix 12; cxxiv 6; cxxxv 21; cxliv 1; Luke i 68. It is in consequence of this that it is here said ‘Blessing’, as also verse 12, and chap. vii 12; also in David:-

Glory and honour dost Thou set over Him, for Thou settest Him a Blessing* for ever Ps. xxi 5, 6 [H.B. 6, 7].

sRef Ps@96 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@96 @3 S2′ sRef Luke@2 @28 S2′ sRef Ps@16 @7 S2′ sRef Luke@1 @64 S2′ sRef Ps@96 @2 S2′ [2] This is concerning the Lord. From these [quotations] it can be seen what is understood in the Word by ‘blessing God’, that it is to ascribe all blessing to Him, also to pray that He may bless and to give thanks that He has blessed, as can be established from the following places:-

The mouth of Zacharias was opened, and he spoke, blessing God Luke i 64, 68.

Simeon took the infant Jesus up in his arms, and blessed God Luke ii 28, 30, 31.

Bless** Jehovah, Who has given me counsel Ps. xvi 7.

Bless the Name of Jehovah, show forth His salvation from day to day Ps. xcvi 1-3.

Blessed be the Lord from day to day, bless God in the congregations, the Lord out of the fountain of Israel Ps. lxviii 19, 26 [H.B. 20, 27].
* Hebrew and AV margin have ‘blessings’.
** Hebrew has ‘I will bless’.

AR (Coulson) n. 290

290. [verse 13] ‘And every created thing that is in heaven and in the land, and under the land, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying’ signifies a confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lowest heavens. It is plain from the series that this confession and glorification of the Lord is by the angels of the lowest heavens, because the confessions and glorifications that precede were made by the angels of the higher and the lower heavens (n. 275 seq., 286 seq.); for there are three heavens and innumerable communities in each, any of which is called a heaven. That by ‘every created thing, that is in heaven, and in and under the land, and in the sea’ angels are understood is plain, for it says, ‘heard I saying’, and they said, ‘To the One sitting upon the throne and to the Lamb, blessing and honour and glory and strength for ages of ages.’ sRef Ps@148 @7 S2′ sRef Ps@69 @34 S2′ sRef Mark@16 @15 S2′ sRef Ps@69 @35 S2′ sRef Zeph@1 @3 S2′ sRef Zeph@1 @2 S2′ sRef Job@12 @9 S2′ sRef Job@12 @8 S2′ sRef Job@12 @7 S2′ [2] That they are said to be ‘created’ is in accordance with the style of the Word, in which, by all the things created, both those that are of the animal kingdom and those that are of the vegetable kingdom, are signified the various things with a man, in general those that are of the will or affection, and those that are of the understanding or thought. They signify because they correspond. And because the Word has been composed by means of pure correspondences similar things are said there of the angels of heaven and the men of the Church. To confirm this, a few passages only shall be adduced, and these are:-

Jesus said to the disciples, Going into all the world, preach the gospel to every creature Mark xvi 15.

Pray ask the beasts, and they shall teach; and the birds of heaven, and they shall make known to thee; or the shrub of the land, and it shall teach thee; and the fishes of the sea shall tell unto thee. Who does not know from all these, that the hand of Jehovah has done this? Job xii 7-10.

Let heaven and the land praise Jehovah, the seas and everything that creeps therein, for God will save Zion Ps. lxix 34, 35 [H.B. 35, 36].

Praise Jehovah from the land, O whales and all deeps Ps. cxlviii 7.

Consuming, I will consume all things from upon the faces of the land, I will consume man and beast, I will consume the birds of the heavens and the fishes of the sea Zeph. 2, 3 (likewise Isa. i 2, 3; Ezek. xxxviii 19, 20; Hos. iv 2, 3; Rev. viii 7-9).

The heavens shall rejoice, the land shall be glad, the sea shall shake itself and the fullness thereof, the field shall exult and everything that is therein, then shall all the trees of the wood sing before Jehovah; for He is coming, for He is coming to judge the land Ps. xcvi 11-13;

and in many other places. [3] It is said ‘every created thing’, and by this is understood every reformed thing, or all the reformed, for by ‘to create’ is signified to reform and regenerate (n. 254). What is understood by ‘in heaven’, ‘upon the land’, and ‘under the land’, may be seen above (n. 260); and what by ‘sea’ (n. 238); from which it is plain what is signified by ‘such as are in the sea and all that are in them’. These are the things that are understood in the Word by ‘the fishes of the sea’, which are the sensual affections that are the lowest of the natural man; for the affections of such people appear in the spiritual world from afar off as fishes, and as if in the sea, because the atmospheres in which they are appear as watery, and consequently as a sea in the eyes of those who are in the heavens and upon the lands there, [as] may be seen above (n. 238), and concerning fishes (n. 405).

AR (Coulson) n. 291 sRef Micah@5 @2 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @13 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @14 S0′

291. ‘To the One sitting upon the throne and to the Lamb, blessing and honour and glory and strength for ages of ages’ signifies that in the Lord from eternity, and consequently in His Divine Human, is everything of heaven and the Church, Divine Good and Divine Truth, and Divine Power, and from Him in those who are in heaven and the Church. That the Lord from eternity is Jehovah Who in time took upon Himself the Human so that He might redeem and save men, may be seen above (n. 281). Consequently by ‘the One sitting upon the throne’ is understood the Lord from eternity, Who is called the Father; and by ‘the Lamb’ the Lord as to the Divine Human, which is the Son. And because the Father is in the Son, and the Son in the Father, and they are one, it is established that by both ‘the One sitting upon the throne’ and ‘the Lamb’ the Lord is understood; and because they are one, it is said also ‘the Lamb in the midst of the throne’ (verse 6, also chap. vii 17). That ‘blessing’ when [said] of the Lord is everything of heaven and the Church in Him, and from Him in those who are in heaven and the Church, may be seen above (n. 289); that ‘honour and glory’ are Divine Good and Divine Truth, also above (n. 249); and that ‘strength’ when [said] of the Lord is Divine Power is plains That the Lord has all these can be established from these [words] in Daniel:-

Behold with the clouds of heaven came One like the Son of Man, and [came] even to the Ancient of days: and there was given Him dominion and glory and the kingdom, and all peoples, nations and languages shall worship Him; His dominion is the dominion of an age that shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not perish Dan. vii 13, 14.

That ‘the Ancient of days’ is the Lord from eternity is plain from these [words] in Micah:-

Thou Bethlehem Ephratah, little though thou be among the thousands

Of Judah, out of thee shall come forth unto Me One Who shall be the Ruler in Israel, and Whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from the days of eternity Micah v 2 [H.B. 1].

Again from these in Isaiah:-

Unto us a Boy is born, unto us a Son is given, upon Whose shoulder [shall be] the government: and His Name shall be called Counsellor, God, Hero, the Father of Eternity, the Prince of Peace Isa. ix 6 [H.B. 5].

AR (Coulson) n. 292 sRef Rev@5 @14 S0′

292. [verse 14] ‘And the four animals were saying, Amen’ signifies Divine confirmation out of the Word. That ‘the four animals’ or cherubs signify the Word may be seen above (n. 239); and that ‘Amen’ signifies Divine confirmation out of the truth (verias) itself (n. 23, 28, 61), thus out of the Word.

AR (Coulson) n. 293 sRef Rev@5 @14 S0′ 293. ‘And the twenty-four elders fell prostrate and adored the One living for ages of ages’ signifies a humbling before the Lord, and as a result of the humbling the adoration by all in the heavens, of Him in Whom and from Whom is eternal life, as above (n. 251, and n. 58, 60).

* * * * * * * * * *

AR (Coulson) n. 294 sRef Matt@28 @18 S0′ sRef Matt@11 @27 S0′

294. To these things I will add this MEMORABLE OCCURRENCE.

In the natural world a man has a two-fold way of speaking, because he has a two-fold thought, exterior and interior. For a man is able to speak out of the interior thought and at the very same time out of the exterior thought, and he is able to speak out of the exterior thought and not out of the interior, in fact, contrary to the interior thought. This is the origin of pretences, flattering assents, and hypocrisies. In the spiritual world, however, a man does not have a two-fold but a straightforward way of speaking, for he speaks as he is thinking, otherwise the sound is harsh and offends the ears. Nevertheless he can be silent, and so not divulge the thoughts of his mind; and therefore the hypocrite, when he comes among the wise, either goes away, or hastens to a corner in the room and makes himself inconspicuous and sits silent.

[2] Once there were many people assembled in the world of spirits, and they were discussing this subject, saying that being unable to speak except as one is thinking is hard on those in the company of the good when they have not thought rightly of God and the Lord. In the midst of the assembly were the Reformed, and many of the clergy, and near them the followers of the Pontiff (Pontificii) with some monks. Both of these groups at first said that it was not hard. ‘What need is there to speak otherwise than as one is thinking, and if perchance one should not be thinking aright, can he not close the lips and keep silence?’ And one of the clergy said, ‘Who does not think rightly of God and the Lord?’ But some of those assembled said, ‘All the same let us put it to the test.’ And those who had confirmed themselves concerning a GOD in a Trinity of Persons, especially as a result of the words in the Athanasian doctrine, ‘There is One Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy
Spirit: and as the Father is God, so also the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God’, were told to say ‘One God’ But they were not able. They twisted and folded their lips into many curves and could not articulate a sound into any other words than were consonant with the ideas of their thought, which were ideas of three Persons and consequently of three Gods. [3] Then it was said to those who had confirmed a faith separated from charity that they should pronounce the name ‘JESUS’, but they could not; yet they could all say ‘Christ’, and also ‘God the Father’. They marvelled at this, and sought out the cause, and found it to be that they had prayed to God the Father for the sake of the Son, and had not prayed to the Saviour Himself; for ‘Jesus’ signifies Saviour. sRef John@17 @2 S4′ sRef John@3 @35 S4′ [4] Again it was said to them that out of thought concerning the Lord’s Human they should say ‘DIVINE HUMAN’; but none of the clergy who were present could do so though some of the laity were able, and so the subject was submitted to a serious discussion; and then,

I. These statements in the Evangelists were read in their presence:

The Father has given all things into the hand of the Son John iii 35.

The Father has given the Son authority over all flesh John xvii 2.

All things are delivered unto Me by the Father Matt. xi 27.

All authority is given unto Me in heaven and on earth Matt. xxviii 18

and it was said to them, ‘Keep therefrom in the thought [the idea] that Christ both as to His Divine and His Human is the God of heaven and earth, and so pronounce ‘DIVINE HUMAN’. But still they could not do so, and they said that they had indeed kept from the statements some [idea] of thought out of the understanding concerning it, but yet there was not anything of acknowledgment, and that therefore they were unable.

[5] II. Afterwards, out of Luke (chap. 32, 34, 35) there was read to them that the Lord as to the Human was the Son of Jehovah God, and that everywhere in the Word He as to the Human is said to be ‘Son of God’ and also ‘Only-begotten and they were asked to hold this in the thought, and also that the Only-begotten Son of God born in the world cannot but be God, as the Father is God, and to utter DIVINE HUMAN’. But they said, ‘We cannot, because our spiritual thought, which is interior, does not admit other than similar ideas into the thought nearest to speech’; and [they said] that as a result they perceive that it is not permitted them now to divide their thoughts, as in the natural world.

sRef John@14 @10 S6′ sRef John@10 @30 S6′ sRef John@14 @9 S6′ sRef John@14 @11 S6′ sRef John@14 @8 S6′ [6] III. Then the words of the Lord to Philip were read to them:-

Philip said, Lord, show us the Father, and the Lord said, He that sees Me, sees the Father; believest thou not that I am in the Father and the Father in Me? John xiv 8-11

and also in another place that:-

The Father and Himself are One John x 30;

and elsewhere; and it was said to them that they should keep this in the thought and so say ‘DIVINE HUMAN’; but as that thought was not rooted in the acknowledgment that the Lord was God even as to the Human, therefore they could not. They twisted the lips into folds till they were angry and wanted to compel their mouth to litter and force it out, but all to no purpose. This was because the ideas of a thought that flows out of acknowledgment make one with the words of the tongue in the case of those who are in the spiritual world, and where such ideas do not exist there are no words, for the ideas become words in the speaking.

[7] IV. Moreover, these [words] were read to them out of the Doctrine of the Church received throughout all the world:-

That the Divine and the Human in the lord are not two, but one, indeed one Person, united altogether like soul and body.

They are out of the Athanasian Creed. And it was said to them, ‘Undoubtedly you are able therefrom to have an idea [derived] out of the acknowledgment that the Lord’s Human is Divine because His Soul is Divine, for [such an idea] is from the doctrine of your Church, which you acknowledged in the world. Moreover the soul is the essence itself and the body is the form and the essence and the form make one, as being (esse) and existing (existere), and as the efficient cause of an effect and the effect itself’. They held on to that idea and wished as a result to pronounce ‘DIVINE HUMAN’, but were not able; for the interior idea concerning the Lord’s Human drove out and expunged this new additional idea, as they called it.

sRef Colo@2 @9 S8′ [8] V. Further, there was read to them this [statement] out of John:-

The Word was with God, and the Word was God; and the Word was made flesh John ii, 14;

and this of Paul,

In Christ Jesus dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily Coloss. ii 9;

and it was said to them that they should think firmly that God, Who was the Word, was made flesh, and that all the Divine dwells in Him bodily. ‘Perhaps in this manner you can pronounce DIVINE HUMAN’. But still they were not able, openly saying that they could not have the idea of a Divine Human, ‘because God is God, and man is man, and God is a Spirit, and we have not thought of a spirit otherwise than as of wind or ether’.

sRef John@15 @4 S9′ sRef John@15 @5 S9′ [9] VI. At length it was said to them, You know that the Lord said,

Abide in Me, and I in you. He that abides in Me and I in him bears much fruit, for without Me you cannot do anything John xv 4, 5;

and because some of the English clergy were present there was read to them out of an exhortation of theirs before the Holy Communion,

For when we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ, and drink the blood, then we dwell in Christ, and Christ in us.*

‘If now you think this cannot come about unless the Lord’s Human is Divine, pronounce “DIVINE HUMAN” accordingly out of the acknowledgment in thought.’ But still they were unable, so deeply impressed upon them was the idea that the Lord’s Divine was one thing and His Human another, so that His Divine was like the Divine of the Father, and the Human like the human of another man. It was, however, said to them, ‘How can you think so? Is it possible for a rational mind ever to think of God being three, and the Lord two?’

[10] VII. Afterwards they turned to the Lutherans, saying that the Augustan [Augsburg] Confession and Luther taught that the Son of God and the Son of Man in Christ are one Person, and that He even as to the Human Nature is the True, Omnipotent and Eternal God, and that as to that Nature also, being present at the right hand of God Almighty, He directs all things in the heavens and on earth, fills all things, is with us, and dwells and works in us; and that there is no difference of adoration, because by means of the Nature that is discerned the Divinity that is not discerned is adored, thus that in Christ God is Man and Man God. Having heard these things, they [the Lutherans] replied, ‘Is it so?’ And they looked around and presently said, ‘We did not know these things before, and therefore we were not able.’ But one and another said, ‘We have read it, and written it, but when we thought about it in and from ourselves they were only words of which we had no interior idea.’

[11] VIII. At length, having turned to the followers of the Pontiff (ad Pontificos), they said, ‘Perhaps you can name the DIVINE HUMAN, because you believe that in your Eucharist, in the bread and the wine and in every part thereof, is the whole Christ, and also you adore Him as God when you show the host and bear it about, also because you call Mary the mother (genetrix) of God, consequently you acknowledge that she brought forth God, that is, the Divine Human.’ And these then wished to pronounce it out of those ideas of thoughts about the Lord, but were not able on account of a material idea about His body and blood, and on account of the assertion that the Human and not the Divine power has been transferred by Him to the Pope. And a monk then rose up and said that he could think ‘Divine Human’ of the most holy virgin Mary, mother of God, and also of the saint of his monastery. And another monk approached saying, ‘I am able out of the idea of my thought to say “Divine Human” of His Holiness the Pope rather than of Christ.’ But then other monks pulled him back and said, ‘You should be ashamed of yourself.’ [12] After these things heaven was seen opened, and tongues like little flames were seen coming down and inflowing with some; and these then celebrated the LORD’S DIVINE HUMAN, saying, ‘Remove the idea of three Gods, and believe that in the Lord dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily, and that the Father and He are one as soul and body are one, and that God is not wind or ether, but that He is a Man, and then you will be conjoined to heaven, and through that you will from the Lord be able to name “JESUS”, and to say “DIVINE HUMAN”‘.
* In the Original Edition these words are quoted in English.

AR (Coulson) n. 295 sRef Rev@6 @1 S0′ 295. THE SIXTH CHAPTER


1. And I saw when the Lamb had opened the first of the seals, and I heard one of the four animals saying as with a voice of thunder, Come and look.

2. And I saw, and behold a white horse, and the one sitting upon it having a bow, and a crown was given unto him, and he went forth conquering and to conquer.

3. And when He had opened the second seal, I heard the second animal saying, Come and look.

4. And there went forth another horse, red, and it was given to the one sitting upon it to take away peace from the land, so that they should slay one another, and there was given unto him a great sword (machaera).

5. And when He had opened the third seal, I heard the third animal saying, Come and look. And I saw, and behold a black horse, and the one Sitting upon it having a balance in his hand.

6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four animals saying, A measure (chaenix) of wheat for a penny (denarius), and three measures of barley for a penny, and do not hurt the oil and the wine.

7. And when He had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth animal saying, Come and look.

8. And I saw, and behold a pale horse, and the one sitting upon it, whose name was death, and hell was following with him, and there was given unto them the power of putting to death over a fourth part of the land, with the sword (romphaea), with famine, with death, and by the beasts [of the land].

9. And when He had opened the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those slain for the Word of God, and for the testimony that they held.
10. And they were crying out with a great voice, saying, How long, O Lord, Who art Holy and True, dost Thou not judge and avenge our blood on those dwelling upon the land?

11. And white robes were given to each one; and it was said unto them that they should rest yet a little while, until both their fellow-servants and their brothers, who were going to be slain as they had been, are made up to the full extent.

12. And I saw when He had opened the sixth seal, and behold a great earthquake was brought about, and the sun became black as a hairy sack, and the moon became as blood.

13. And the stars of heaven fell to earth, as a fig-tree shaken by a great wind casts its unripe figs.

14. And the heaven departed as a book rolled up, and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.

15. And the kings of the land and the great men, and the rich men and the rulers of thousands, and the mighty men, and every bondman and every freeman hid themselves away in the caves, and in the rocks of the mountains.
16. And they were saying to the mountains and the rocks, Fall upon us, and hide us away from the face of the One sitting upon the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb.

17. Because the great day of His wrath is coming, and who is able to stand?

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

THE CONTENT OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER

It treats of the examination of those upon whom there is going to be the last judgment; and an examination as to what kind of an understanding of the Word there had been with them, and from this what the state of their life was.

That there were those who were in truths derived from good (vers. 1, 2); those who were without good (vers. 3, 4); those who were in contempt of truth (vers 5, 6); and those who were altogether vastated as to good and as to truth (vers. 7, 8).

Of the state of those who, having been protected by the Lord in the lower land on account of the evil, were to be set free at the time of the last judgment (vers. 9, 10, 11).

Of the state of those who were in evils and the untruths therefrom; what it is like at the day of the last judgment (vers. 12-17).


THE CONTENTS OF EACH OF THE VERSES

1. And I saw when the Lamb had opened the first of the seals
signifies the examination by the Lord of all upon whom there is going to be the last judgment, as to the understanding of the Word, and from this as to the states of their life.
And I heard one of the four animals saying as with a voice of thunder
signifies in accordance with the Divine Truth of the Word.
Come and look
signifies the manifestation concerning those first in order.

2. And I saw and behold a white horse
signifies the understanding of truth and good out of the Word with these.
And the one sitting upon it having a bow
signifies that with these there is a doctrine of good and truth out of the Word, out of which they have fought against the untruths and evils that are from hell.
And a crown was given unto him
signifies their badge of combat.
And he went forth conquering and to conquer
signifies victory over evils and untruths for ever.

3. And when He had opened the second seal, and I heard the second animal saying, Come and look
signifies the same here as above.

4. And there went forth another horse, red
signifies the understanding of the Word utterly lost as to good, and consequently as to life with these.
[And] it was given to the one sitting upon it to take away peace from the land
signifies the abolition of charity, spiritual security, and internal rest.
So that they should slay one another
signifies intestine hatreds, infestations from the hells, and eternal unrests.
And there was-given unto him a great sword
signifies the destruction of truth by means of the untruths of evil.

5. And when He had opened the third seal, and I heard the third animal saying, Come and look
signifies the same here as above.
And I saw and behold a black horse
signifies the understanding of the Word utterly lost as to truth, thus as to the doctrine with these.
And the one sitting upon it having a balance in his hand
signifies the evaluation of good and truth, what it was like with these.

6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four animals saying
signifies the Divine protection of the Word by the Lord.
A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny
signifies because the evaluation of good and truth is so very little as to be scarcely anything.
And do not hurt the oil and the wine
signifies that it is provided by the Lord that the holy goods and truths that lie hidden interiorly in the Word should not be violated and profaned.

7. And when He had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth animal saying, Come and look
signifies the same as above.

8. And I saw and behold a pale horse
signifies the understanding of the Word utterly lost as to both good and truth.
And the one sitting upon it, whose name was death, and hell was following with him
signifies the extinction of spiritual life and the resulting damnation.
And there was given unto them the power of putting to death over a fourth part of the land
signifies the destruction of every good of the Church.
With the sword and with famine and with death and by the beasts of the land
signifies by means of untruths of doctrine, evils of life, love of proprium, and lusts.

9. And when He had opened the fifth seal
signifies examination by the Lord of the states of life of those who were to be saved at the day of the last judgment, and were reserved in the meantime.
I saw underneath the altar the souls of those slain for the Word of God and for the testimony that they held
signifies those who, having been rejected by the evil on account of a life in accordance with the truths of the Word and the acknowledgment of the Lord’s Divine Human, have been protected by the Lord lest they should be led astray.

10. And they were crying out with a great voice
signifies grief of heart.
Saying, How long, O Lord, [Who art Holy and True,] dost Thou not judge and avenge our blood on those dwelling upon the land?
signifies over the fact that the last judgment is deferred, and that those who inflict violence on the Word and the Lord’s Divine are not being removed.

11. And white robes were given to each one
signifies the communication and conjunction of these with angels who are in Divine truths.
And it was said [unto them] that they should rest yet a little while, until both their fellow-servants and their brothers who were going to be slain as they had been, are made up to the full extent
signifies that the last judgment would be deferred a little longer, until those who were in like manner rejected by the evil should be gathered together.

12. And I saw when He had opened the sixth seal
signifies the examination by the Lord of the states of life of those who were interiorly evil, upon whom there is going to be the judgment.
And behold a great earthquake was brought about
signifies the state of the Church with those entirely changed, and terror.
And the sun became black as a hairy sack, and the moon became as blood
signifies with those every good of love adulterated, and every truth of faith falsified.

13. And the stars [of heaven] fell to earth
signifies all the cognitions of good and truth detached (disparatus).
As a fig-tree shaken by a great wind casts its unripe figs
signifies by means of the reasonings of the natural man separated from the spiritual.

14. And the heaven departed as a book rolled up
signifies separation from heaven and conjunction with hell. And every mountain and island were moved out of their places
signifies that every good of love and truth of faith receded.

15. And the kings of the land and the great men and the rich men and the rulers of thousands and the mighty men and every bondman and [every] freeman
signifies those who before the separation were in an understanding of truth and good, in a knowledge of the cognitions thereof, and in erudition, from others or from themselves, and yet were not in a life in accordance with them.
Hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains
signifies those now in evils and in the untruths of evil.

16. And they were saying to the mountains and the rocks, Fall upon us, and hide us away from the face of the One sitting upon the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb
signifies confirmations of evil by means of untruths derived from evil, until they should not acknowledge any Divine of the Lord.

17. Because the great day of His wrath is coming, and who is able to stand?
signifies that they became such from themselves through separation from the good and the faithful on account of the last judgment, which they would not otherwise endure.

THE EXPOSITION

[verse 1] ‘And I saw when the Lamb had opened the first of the seals’ signifies the examination by the Lord of all upon whom there is going to be the last judgment, as to the understanding of the Word, and as a consequence as to the states of their life. These things are signified because there now follows in order the examination of all upon whom there is going to be the last judgment, as to the state of their life, and this by the Lord in accordance with the Word. This, therefore, is what is signified by the Lamb’s having opened the seals of the book. That ‘to open the book’ and ‘to loosen the seals thereof’ signifies to get to know the states of the life of all, and to judge each one in accordance with his own [state], may be seen above (n. 259, 265-267, 273, 274).

AR (Coulson) n. 296 sRef Rev@6 @1 S0′

296. ‘And I heard one of the four animals saying as with a voice of thunder’ signifies in accordance with the Divine Truth of the Word. That by ‘the four animals’ or cherubs is understood the Word may be seen above (n. 239, 275, 286); and by ‘a voice of thunder’ the perception of Divine Truth (n. 236). ‘A voice of thunder’ is said here because by this ‘animal’ is understood the lion, by which the Divine Truth of the Word as to power is signified (n. 241). This is why this animal is said to have spoken ‘as with a voice of thunder’, for afterwards it is said that the second animal spoke, then the third, and the fourth.

AR (Coulson) n. 297 sRef Rev@6 @1 S0′

297. ‘Come and look’ signifies a manifestation concerning those first in order. It has been said above that in this chapter is described the examination of all those upon whom there is going to be the judgment, as to the states of their life, and this by the Lord in accordance with the Word (n. 295). Here therefore is described the examination of those first in order, what they are like as to the understanding of the Word, and as a consequence the states of their life. That the Church has existence out of the Word, and that it is such as is the understanding it has of the Word, may be seen shown in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE (n. 76-79).

AR (Coulson) n. 298 sRef Rev@6 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@19 @11 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @16 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @13 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @14 S1′

298. [verse 21 ‘And I saw and behold a white horse’ signifies the understanding of truth and good out of the Word, with these. By ‘a horse’ is signified the understanding of the Word, and by ‘a white horse’ the understanding of truth out of the Word; for ‘white’ is predicated of truths (n. 167). That ‘a horse’ signifies the understanding of the Word has been shown in a separate little work concerning THE WHITE HORSE, but because some passages only have been quoted there, more shall be quoted here in confirmation. This is quite plain from the fact that ‘horses’ were seen to go out of the book that the Lamb had opened, and that the animals said ‘Come and look’, for by ‘the animals’ the Word is signified (n. 239, 275, 286), by ‘the book’ likewise (n. 256), and by the ‘Son of Man’, Who here is ‘the Lamb’, the Lord as to the Word (n. 44). From these things it is at once plain that nothing else but the understanding of the Word is understood here by ‘a horse’. This can be more manifestly established from these things below in the Apocalypse:-

I saw heaven opened, until I beheld (dum ecce) a white horse, and the One sitting upon it is called the Word of God, and He has upon His raiment and upon His thigh a Name written, King of kings and Lord of lords: and His armies in heaven were following Him upon white horses Rev. xix 11, 13, 14, 16.

sRef Deut@32 @12 S2′ sRef Zech@14 @20 S2′ sRef Ezek@39 @21 S2′ sRef Ezek@39 @20 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @13 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @18 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @10 S2′ sRef Rev@19 @17 S2′ sRef Rev@19 @18 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @17 S2′ sRef Zech@12 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @1 S2′ sRef Hag@2 @22 S2′ sRef Hab@3 @15 S2′ sRef Job@39 @17 S2′ sRef Jer@51 @20 S2′ sRef Jer@51 @21 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@58 @14 S2′ sRef Hos@10 @11 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S2′ sRef Job@39 @18 S2′ sRef Zech@9 @10 S2′ sRef Hab@3 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@76 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @33 S2′ sRef Ezek@39 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @32 S2′ [2] That ‘a horse’ signifies the understanding of the Word can be established further from the following passages:-

Is Thy growing anger against the sea, O Jehovah, that Thou dost ride upon Thy horses? Thy chariot is safety, Thou hast furnished shoes to Thy horses with the sea, the mud of the waters Hab. iii 8, 15.

The hooves of Jehovah’s horses are counted as pieces of rock Isa. v 28.

In that day I will smite every horse with astonishment, and its rider with madness, and will smite every horse of the people, with blindness Zech. xii 4.

In that day there shall be upon the bells of the horse, Holiness to Jehovah Zech. xiv 20.

Because God has made her to forget wisdom, neither has imparted intelligence, what time she lifts up herself on high, she laughs at the horse and its rider Job xxxix 17, 18 seq.

I will cut off the horse from Jerusalem, until (contra) he shall speak peace to the nations Zech. ix 10.

At Thy rebuke, O Jehovah*, both the chariot and the horse have fallen asleep Ps. lxxvi 5, 6 [H.B. 6, 7].

I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will overthrow the chariot and those who ride in it, and the horses and their riders shall come down Hag. ii 22.

By Thee will I scatter the kingdom, by Thee will I scatter the horse and its rider Jer. li 20, 21.

Gather yourselves on every side upon My sacrifice, you shall be satisfied upon My table with horse and chariot, thus will I give My glory among the nations Ezek. xxxix 17, 20, 21.

Gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God, and you shall eat the flesh of horses and of those sitting upon them Rev. xix 17, 18.

Dan shall be a viper upon the way, biting the horse’s heels, and its rider** shall fall backwards, I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah Gen. xlix 17, 18.

Gird on Thy sword, O Mighty One, mount, ride upon the Word of truth (veritas) Ps. xlv 3, 4 [H.B. 4, 5].

Sing unto God, extol the One riding upon the clouds Ps. lxviii 4 [H.B. 5].

Behold Jehovah riding upon a cloud Isa. xix 1, 2.

Sing psalms unto the Lord, riding upon the heaven of the heaven of antiquity Ps. lxviii 33 [H.B. 34].

God rode upon a cherub Ps. xviii 10 [H.B. 11].

Then shalt thou delight thyself in Jehovah, and I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the land Isa. lviii 14.

Jehovah alone did lead him, and made him ride upon the high places of the land Deut. xxxii 12, 53.

I will make Ephraim to ride Hos. x ii.

sRef Zech@6 @4 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @3 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @2 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @5 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @7 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @8 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @6 S3′ sRef 2Ki@2 @12 S3′ sRef 2Ki@6 @17 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @15 S3′ sRef 2Ki@13 @14 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @1 S3′ [3] ‘Ephraim’ also signifies the understanding of the Word. Since Elijah and Elisha used to represent the Lord as to the Word, they were therefore called ‘the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof’. Elisha said to Elijah:-

My father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof 2 Kings ii 12;

and king Joash said to Elisha:-

O my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof 2 Kings xiii 14.

Jehovah opened the eyes of Elisha’s boy, and he saw, and behold the mountain was full of horses and fiery chariots around Elisha 2 Kings vi 17.

A ‘chariot’ signifies a doctrine out of the Word, and a ‘horseman’ the wisdom therefrom. Similar things are signified by:-

The four chariots coming out from between the mountains of bronze, and by the four horses harnessed to them, which were red, black, white, and grizzled, which are also called four spirits, and are said to have gone forth from standing beside the Lord of the whole earth Zech. vi 1-8, 15.

By ‘horses’ in these places is signified the understanding of the Word, or the understanding of truth out of the Word; equally so in other places. sRef Ps@33 @17 S4′ sRef Zech@10 @3 S4′ sRef Zech@10 @4 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @7 S4′ sRef Ps@147 @10 S4′ sRef Isa@31 @1 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @11 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @9 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @10 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @8 S4′ sRef Isa@31 @3 S4′ sRef Zech@10 @5 S4′ sRef Hos@14 @3 S4′ sRef Isa@30 @16 S4′ sRef Isa@30 @15 S4′ sRef Ps@20 @7 S4′ sRef Isa@5 @28 S4′ sRef Nahum@3 @2 S4′ sRef Nahum@3 @1 S4′ sRef Nahum@3 @3 S4′ sRef Deut@17 @15 S4′ sRef Deut@17 @16 S4′ [4] This can be further established from ‘horses’ mentioned in the opposite sense, in which they signify the understanding of the Word and of truth falsified by reasonings, and destroyed likewise, also one’s own intelligence, as in the following:-

Woe to those going down to Egypt for help; and they lean upon horses, and look not unto the Holy One of Israel, for Egypt is man and not God, and the horses thereof are flesh and not spirit Isa. xxxi 1, 3.

Thou shalt set a king over Israel, whom Jehovah shall choose, only let him not multiply horses to himself, lest he lead the people back into Egypt, so that he may multiply horses Deut. xvii 14-16.

These things were said because by ‘Egypt’ is signified knowledge and reasoning out of one’s own intelligence, whence there is a falsification of the truth of the Word, which here is ‘a horse’.

Asshur will not preserve us, we will not ride upon a horse Hos. xiv 3 [H.B. 4].

Some [trust] in chariots, and some in horses, but as for us we shall glory in the Name of our God Ps. xx 7, 8 [H.B. 8, 9].

A horse is a lying creature (mendacium) for safety Ps. xxxiii 17.

Jehovah delights not in the strength of the horse Ps. cxlvii 10.

The Holy One of Israel says, In confidence shall be your strength, but you said, No, we will flee upon a horse, and we will ride upon a swift one Isa. xxx 15, 16.

Jehovah will set Judah as a horse of glory; the riders on horses shall be ashamed Zech. x 3-5.

Woe to the city of bloods, all full of lying, and the horse neighing, and the chariot leaping, the horseman making to mount Nah. iii 1-4.

I will bring against Tyre the king of Babel with horse and with chariot and with horsemen, by reason of the abundance of the horses their dust shall cover thee, by reason of the voice of the horseman and the chariot thy walls shall be shaken, with the hoofs of his horses shall he tread down all thy streets Ezek. xxvi 7-11.


By ‘Tyre’ is signified the Church as to cognitions of truth, here cognitions falsified therein, which are ‘horses of Babel’; besides in other places, as Isa. v 26, 28; Jer. vi 22, 23; viii 16; xlvi 4, 9; l 37, 38, 42; Ezek. xvii 15; xxiii 6, 20; Hab. i 6, 8-10; Ps. lxvi 11, 12. The understanding of the Word destroyed is also signified by the red, black, and pale ‘horse’ in the things now following. That ‘horse’ signifies the understanding of truth out of the Word is on account of appearances in the spiritual world. This may be seen in the little work concerning THE WHITE HORSE.
* So in the Original Edition; but Hebrew and AE 355:11 have ‘O God of Jacob’.
** Reading eques instead of equus (horse).

AR (Coulson) n. 299 sRef Job@38 @22 S0′ sRef Job@38 @23 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@19 @15 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @14 S1′

299. ‘And the one sitting upon it having a bow’ signifies that with these there is a doctrine of truth and good out of the Word, out of which they have fought against the untruths and evils that [come] out of hell, thus against hell. By the ‘One sitting upon a white horse’, of Whom Rev. xix 13 [treats], is understood the Lord as to the Word, but by the ‘one sitting’ upon this ‘white horse’ is understood a man [who is] an angel as to the doctrine of truth and good out of the Word, thus out of the Lord, in like manner as by the Lord’s army in heaven, which ‘was following the Lord upon white horses’ (Rev. xix 14). Of the One sitting upon the white horse (Rev. xix) it is said that ‘out of His mouth there went forth a sharp sword that with it He should smite the nations’, and by the ‘sword out of His mouth’ is signified the Divine Truth of the Word fighting against untruths and evils (n. 52, 108, 117). Here, however, it is said that the one sitting on this white horse had ‘a bow’, and by ‘a bow’ is signified a doctrine of truth and good out of the Word fighting against evils and untruths. To fight against untruths and evils is also to fight against the hells, because evils and untruths are therefrom, and therefore this also is signified. sRef Gen@49 @24 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @18 S2′ sRef Hab@3 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @2 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @17 S2′ sRef Hab@3 @8 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @14 S2′ sRef Zech@9 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @28 S2′ sRef Jer@9 @3 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @23 S2′ sRef Ps@11 @2 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @29 S2′ [2] That ‘a bow’ in the Word signifies a doctrine fighting in either [a good sense or an opposite] sense can be confirmed from these passages:-

The darts of Jehovah are sharp, and all His bows bent, the hooves of His horses are accounted as rocks Isa. v 28.

The Lord has bent His bow like an enemy Lam. ii 4.

Thou, O Jehovah, ridest upon Thy horses, Thy bow shall be made naked Hab. iii 8, 9.

He gave the nations before Him, and made Him to rule over kings, He gave [them] as dust to His sword, as stubble to His bow Isa. xli 2.

In these passages ‘a bow’, because it [is said] of Jehovah or the Lord, signifies the Word, out of which the Lord with a man fights against evils and untruths.

I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and the bow of war shall be cut off, until (contra) He shall speak peace to the nations Zech. ix 10.

They bend their tongue, their bow is a lie, and not the truth (veritas)
Jer. ix 3 [H.B. 2].

Lo the wicked bend the bow, they make ready the arrows upon the string, to aim in the darkness at the upright in heart Ps. xi 2.

They shall provoke Joseph and take aim, the archers shall hate him, but he shall sit in the firmness of his bow from the hands of the strong Jacob Gen. xlix 23, 24.

Put yourselves in array against Babel, all bending the bow shoot at her, do not spare the dart for she has sinned against Jehovah Jer. l 14, 29.

David lamented over Saul, to teach the sons of Judah the bow 2 Sam. i 17 [,18].

In that lamentation it treats of the combat of truth against untruths.

sRef Ps@127 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@127 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@127 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@76 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@46 @9 S3′ sRef Ps@76 @3 S3′ sRef Lam@2 @4 S3′ [3] Jehovah Zebaoth says, Behold I am breaking the bow of Elam, the beginning of his might Jer. xlix 35.

Jehovah has made me into a cleansed dart, in His quiver has He hidden me Isa. xlix 2.

Behold, sons are an heritage of Jehovah, blessed is he who has filled his quiver with them Ps. cxxvii 3-5.

‘Sons’ here, as elsewhere, signify truths of doctrine.

In Salem shall be the tabernacle of Jehovah, there broke He the strings of the bow, the shield, the sword, and the war Ps. lxxvi 1-3 [H.B. 2-4].

Jehovah will make wars to cease, He will break the bow, He will cut the spear asunder, He will burn up the chariot with fire Ps. xlvi 9 [H.B. 10]; Ezek. xxxix 8, 9; Hos. ii 18.

In these places a ‘bow’ signifies a doctrine of truth fighting against untruths, and in the opposite sense a doctrine of untruth fighting against truths. Consequently ‘arrows’ and ‘darts’ signify truths or untruths. Since a ‘war’ in the Word signifies a spiritual war, therefore the weapons of war, as sword, spear, buckler (clypeus), shield (scutum), bow, arrows, signify such things as belong to that war.

AR (Coulson) n. 300 sRef 2Sam@1 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @2 S0′ 300. ‘And a crown was given unto him’ signifies his badge of combat. A ‘crown’ signifies a badge of combat because in ancient times the kings in battles used to wear crowns, as can be established from the histories, and somewhat from 2 Sam. i 10 where

the man said to David concerning Saul, that when he had died in the battle, he took the crown that was upon his head, and the bracelets that were upon his arm.

Then also, from the things that are related of the king of Rabbah and David (2 Sam. xii 29, 30). And as temptations are spiritual combats, and the martyrs sustained these, therefore crowns were given to them as badges of victory (n. 103). It is plain from these considerations that by ‘crown’ here is signified their badge of combat, and therefore it follows ‘And he went forth conquering and to conquer’.

AR (Coulson) n. 301 sRef Rev@6 @2 S0′

301. ‘And he went forth conquering and to conquer’ signifies victory over untruths and evils for ever. ‘Conquering and to conquer’ is said, because he who in the spiritual combats that are temptations conquers in the world, conquers for ever, for the hells are unable to approach anyone who has conquered.

AR (Coulson) n. 302 sRef Rev@6 @3 S0′

302. [verse 3] ‘And when He had opened the second seal’ signifies the examination by the Lord of those upon whom there is going to be the last judgment, as to the states of their life. Here are signified things similar to those before (n. 295), with a difference, about which [the exposition] follows.

AR (Coulson) n. 303 sRef Rev@6 @3 S0′

303. ‘And I heard the second animal saying’ signifies in accordance with the Divine Truth of the Word, as above (n. 296).

AR (Coulson) n. 304 sRef Rev@6 @3 S0′

304. That ‘Come and look’ signifies a manifestation concerning those second in order can be established from the things expounded above (n. 297), but there concerning the first in order, here, however, the second.

AR (Coulson) n. 305 sRef Rev@6 @4 S0′ sRef Lam@4 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@49 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@49 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@1 @18 S0′ sRef Zech@1 @8 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S0′ sRef Nahum@2 @3 S0′ sRef Nahum@2 @4 S0′

305. [verse 4] ‘And there went forth another horse, red (rufus)’, signifies the understanding of the Word utterly lost as to good, and consequently as to life with these. By ‘a horse’ the understanding of the Word is signified (n. 298), and by ‘red’ is signified good utterly lost. That the colour white is predicated of truths because it is derived from the light of the Sun of heaven, and the colour red of goods because it is derived from the fire of the Sun of heaven, may be seen above (n. 167, 231). ‘Red’, however, is predicated of good utterly
lost, because by ‘red’ an infernal red is understood, and this is derived from the fire of hell, which is the love of evil. The redness that is the infernal red is hideous and abominable because there is nothing alive in it, but it is all dead. It is in consequence of this that by the ‘red horse’ is signified the understanding of the Word utterly lost as to good. This can also be established from the description thereof, as it follows that ‘it was given him to take away peace from the land, so that they should slay one another’. Moreover, the second animal which was like a calf, by which is signified the Divine Truth of the Word as to affection (n. 242), said, ‘Come and look’, thus showing that there was no affection of good, thus no good with them. That ‘red’ (rubrum) is said of the love of good as well as of evil, can be established from the following passages:-

Who washed his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes, with eyes redder than wine, and teeth whiter than milk Gen. xlix 11, 12.

These things are said of the Lord. Also concerning the Lord:-

Who is this coming out of Edom, red as to garment, and a garment as of those treading in the winepress? Isa. lxiii 1, 2.

The Nazirites were whiter than snow, more bright than milk, they were redder as to bones than rubies Lam. iv 7

In these passages ‘red’ is predicated of the love of good: in the following it is predicated of the love of evil:-

The shield was made ruddy, and the men dressed in purple, in a fire of little torches were their chariots, their aspect as of torches Nah. ii 3, 4 [H.B. 4, 5].

If your sins have been as scarlet, they shall become white as snow; if they have been red as purple, they shall be as wool Isa. i 18.

Nor is anything else signified by the ‘red dragon’ (Rev. xii 3); and by the ‘red horse standing among the myrtle trees’ (Zech. i 8). Similar things are predicated of the colours that are derived from red, as of scarlet and purple.

AR (Coulson) n. 306 sRef Luke@1 @79 S0′ sRef Ps@55 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@38 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@34 @14 S0′ sRef Lam@3 @15 S0′ sRef Isa@32 @17 S0′ sRef Lam@3 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@85 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@85 @10 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @78 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@119 @165 S0′ sRef Ps@119 @166 S0′ sRef Isa@54 @10 S0′ sRef John@16 @33 S0′ sRef Ezek@34 @25 S0′ sRef Ezek@34 @27 S0′ sRef Luke@10 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@52 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @4 S0′ sRef John@14 @27 S0′ sRef Num@6 @24 S0′ sRef Luke@10 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@48 @22 S0′ sRef Num@6 @26 S0′ sRef Num@6 @25 S0′ sRef Isa@54 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@32 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@48 @18 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @3 S0′

306. ‘It was given to the one sitting upon it to take peace away from the land’ signifies the abolition of charity, spiritual security, and internal rest. By ‘peace’ are signified all things in a complex whole that are from the Lord, and consequently all the things of heaven and the Church; also the blessedness of life in them. These are of peace in the supreme or inmost sense. It follows, therefore, that charity, spiritual security and internal rest are ‘peace’, for when a man is in the Lord he is in the peace with the neighbour that is charity, in the protection against the hells that is spiritual security; and when he is in peace with the neighbour and in protection against the hells, he is in internal rest from evils and untruths. Since therefore all these things are derived from the Lord, what is signified by ‘peace’ in general and in each case can be established in the following passages:-

For unto us a Boy is born, unto us a Son is given, upon Whose shoulder [shall be] the government, His Name shall be called God, Hero, the Father of eternity, the Prince of Peace. To the increase of His government and peace there shall not be an end Isa. ix 6, 7 [H.B. 5, 6].

Jesus said, Peace I leave with you, My Peace I give unto you John xiv 27.

Jesus said, These things have I spoken, that you might have peace in Me John xvi 33.

In His days shall the just flourish, and much peace Ps. lxxii 3, 7.

Then I will make a covenant of peace Ezek. xxxiv 25, 27; xxxvii 25, 26; Mal. ii 4, 5.

How pleasant upon the mountains are the feet of One bringing good tidings, making to hear peace, saying unto Zion, Thy King* reigns Isa. lii 7.

Jehovah bless thee, and lift up His faces upon thee, and give thee peace Num. vi 24-26.

Jehovah will bless His people in peace Ps. xxix 11.

Jehovah will redeem my soul in peace Ps. lv 18 [H.B. 19].

The work of Jehovah** is peace, the labour of justice is quietness, and security for ever: so that they may dwell in the tabernacle of peace, and in the tents of security, and in tranquil quiet places Isa. xxxii 17, 18.

Jesus said unto the seventy whom He sent out, Into whatsoever house you enter, first say, Peace be to the house, and if there is the son of peace, your peace shall rest upon it Luke x 5, 6; Matt. x 12-14.

The miserable shall possess the land, and shall delight themselves over the multitude of peace; see the upright, for the end of the man is peace Ps. xxxvii 11, 37.

Zechariah prophesying said, The Dayspring from on high has appeared, to direct our feet into the way of peace Luke i 78, 79.

Depart from evil, and do good, seek peace, and pursue it Ps. xxxiv 14 [H.B. 15].

Much peace to those loving Thy law Ps. cxix 165, 166.

O that thou hadst hearkened to My commandments, and thy peace shall be as a river. There is no peace, says Jehovah, to the wicked Isa. xvliii 18, 22.

Jehovah will speak peace unto His people: justice and peace shall kiss each other Ps. lxxxv 8, 10 [H.B. 9, 11].

There is no peace in my bones because of my sin Ps. xxxviii 3 [H.B. 4].

He has filled me with bitterness, my soul has been removed from peace, I have forgotten good Lam. iii 15, 17;

besides in many other places, from which it can be seen that the aforesaid things are understood by ‘peace’. Keep the mind on spiritual peace and you will see clearly. Likewise in these places (Isa. xxvi 12; liii 5; liv 10, 13; Jer. xxxiii 6, 9; Hag. ii 9; Zech. viii 16, 19; Ps. iv 6-8 [H.B. 7-9]; cxx 6, 7; cxxii 6-9; cxxviii 5, 6; cxlvii 14. That peace is an inmost affecting of every good with blessedness may be seen in the work concerning HEAVEN AND HELL (n. 284-290).
* So also AE 365:30 and other places; but Hebrew has ‘God’.
** So also have AE 365:40 and TCR 303; but AC 3780 and HH 287 have ‘justice [or righteousness]’ as in Hebrew.

AR (Coulson) n. 307 sRef Rev@6 @4 S0′ 307. ‘So that they should slay one another’ signifies intestine hatreds, infestations from the hells, and internal unrests. These things are signified when by ‘to take away peace’ is signified to take away charity, spiritual security, and internal rest, and when by a ‘red horse’ is signified the understanding of the Word utterly lost as to good; for those [states] exist when there is no longer any good, and there is no longer any good when it is not known what good is. That intestine hatreds exist when there is no charity, also infestations from the hells when there is no spiritual security, and that internal unrests exist when there is no rest from evils and their lusts, is plain; at least, this is the case after death, if not in the world. That ‘to slay’ signifies those things is established from the signification of the ‘sword’ concerning which [something] follows.

AR (Coulson) n. 308 sRef Rev@6 @4 S0′ 308. ‘And there was given unto him a great sword’ signifies the destruction of truth by means of the untruths of evil. That a ‘sword’ (gladius), a ‘short sword’ (machaera), and a ‘long sword’ (romphaea) signify truth fighting against untruths and destroying them, and in the opposite sense untruth fighting against truths and destroying them, may be seen above (n. 52). Here ‘a great sword’ signifies untruths of evil destroying truths of good. They are termed ‘untruths of evil’ because there are untruths not of evil, and these do not destroy truths but the former do. What is signified here by ‘a great sword’ is plain from the fact that presently ‘a black horse’ was seen, by which is signified the understanding of the Word utterly lost as to truth, and truth is not utterly lost except by means of evil.

AR (Coulson) n. 309 sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′ 309. [verse 5] ‘And when He had opened the third seal’ signifies the examination by the Lord of those upon whom there will be the last judgment, as to the states of their life. By these [words] are signified things similar to those before (n. 295), with a difference, about which [the exposition] follows.

AR (Coulson) n. 310 sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′

310. ‘And I heard the third animal saying’ signifies in accordance with the Divine Truth of the Word, as above (n. 296).

AR (Coulson) n. 311 sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′

311. That ‘Come and look’ signifies a manifestation concerning those third in order can be established from the things expounded above (n. 297), but there concerning the first in order, here, however, the third.

AR (Coulson) n. 312 sRef Micah@3 @6 S0′ sRef Jer@4 @27 S0′ sRef Ezek@31 @15 S0′ sRef Jer@4 @28 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @12 S0′ sRef Lam@4 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′ sRef Lam@4 @7 S0′

312. ‘And I saw, and behold a black horse’ signifies the understanding of the Word utterly lost as to truth, thus as to the doctrine with those. That a ‘horse’ signifies the understanding of the Word has been shown above; that ‘black’ signifies what is not true, thus untruth, is because black is opposite to white, and white is predicated of truth (n. 167, 231, 232); white in fact draws its origin out of light, whereas black does so out of darkness, thus out of an absence of light, and light is truth. In the spiritual world, however, blackness exists out of a two-fold origin, one out of an absence of the flamy light that is the light with those who are in the Lord’s celestial kingdom, and the other out of an absence of the shining white light that is with those who are in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom. The latter blackness signifies that which is like darkness, but the former that which is like thick-darkness. These blacknesses differ from each other. The one is abominable, the other not so. The untruths that they signify differ in like manner. In the abominable blackness appear those who are called devils. Indeed they abhor truth as horned-owls abhor the light of the sun. In the non-abominable darkness, however, appear those who are called satans. These do not abhor truth, but are averse to it. Therefore the latter can be compared to night-owls, when the former are compared to horned-owls. That ‘black’ in the Word is said of untruth, can be established from these passages:-

Her Nazirites were whiter than snow, their form has been darkened more than blackness Lam. iv 7, 8.

The day shall grow black over the prophets Micah iii 6.

In the day in which thou art about to go down into hell, I will make Lebanon black over thee Ezek. xxxi 15.

The sun became black as a goat-hair sack Rev. vi 12.

The sun, the moon, the stars, became black Jer. iv 27, 28; Ezek. xxxii 7; Joel ii 10; iii 15 [H.B. iv 15];

and elsewhere. The ‘third animal’ exposed the ‘black horse’ to view, because that animal had a face like a man, by which the Divine Truth of the Word as to wisdom is signified (n. 243). Therefore this animal exposed to view the fact that there was no longer any truth of wisdom with those who were the third in order.

AR (Coulson) n. 313 sRef Dan@5 @27 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@40 @12 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @2 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @26 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @28 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @25 S0′

313. ‘And the one sitting upon it having a balance in his hand’ signifies the evaluation of good and truth, what it was with these. By ‘a balance in [his] hand’ is signified the evaluation of truth and good; for all measures as well as weights in the Word signify the evaluation of the thing of which it treats. That measures and weights signify such things is plain from these things in Daniel:-

A writing appeared before Belshazzar the king of Babel, when he was drinking wine Out of the vessels of gold and silver taken away from the Jerusalem temple, Mene, Mene, Tekel, Perizin, that is, Numbered, Numbered, Weighed, Divided; the interpretation of which is this: Mene, God has numbered thy kingdom and finished it; Tekel, Thou hast been weighed in the balance and found wanting; Perez, the kingdom is divided, and given to the Mede and the Persian Dan. v 1, 2, 25-28.

By ‘to drink out of the vessels of gold and silver in the Jerusalem temple’ and at the same time ‘to worship other gods’ is signified the profanation of good and truth, as also by ‘Babel’. By mene or to number is signified to get to know his quality as to truth; by ‘tekel’ or to weigh is signified to get to know his quality as to good; by ‘perez’ or to divide is signified to disperse. That the quality of truth and good is signified by measures and scales [of a balance] in the Word, is plain in Isaiah:-

Who has measured the waters in the hollow of a hand, and has levelled out the heavens with a span, and has embraced the dust of the earth in a third of a foot (trientalis), and weighed the mountains in a balance (fibra), and the hills in scales (lances)? Isa. xl 12;

and in the Apocalypse:-

The angel