‘Wrath’ and ‘anger’ are mentioned many times in the Word, but in the internal sense they do not mean wrath or anger but that which is antagonistic. The reason for this is that whatever is antagonistic towards any affection produces wrath or anger; so that in the internal sense simply forms of antagonism are meant by those two expressions. ‘Wrath’ is used to describe that which is antagonistic towards truth and ‘anger’ that which is antagonistic towards good; but in the contrary sense ‘wrath’ describes that which is antagonistic towards falsity or the affection for it, that is, towards false assumptions, while ‘anger’ describes that which is antagonistic towards evil or the desire for it, that is, towards self-love and love of the world. Also, in this contrary sense actual wrath is meant by ‘wrath’, and actual anger by ‘anger’; but when those expressions are used in reference to good and truth the wrath and anger which are manifestations of zeal are meant. And because this zeal is to outward appearance like wrath and anger it is called such in the sense of the letter.
sRef Isa@42 @24 S3′ sRef Isa@34 @2 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @25 S3′  As regards ‘wrath’ or ‘anger’ in the internal sense meaning simply forms of antagonism, this may be seen from the following places in the Word: In Isaiah,
Jehovah’s indignation is against all the nations, and wrath against all their host. Isa. 34:2.
‘Jehovah’s indignation against the nations’ stands for antagonism towards evil – ‘the nations’ meaning evils, see 1259, 1260, 1849, 1868, 2588 (end). ‘Wrath against all their host’ stands for antagonism towards falsities derived from that evil, for by ‘the stars’ – here called ‘the host of heaven’ – are meant cognitions, and so truths, and in the contrary sense falsities, see 1128, 1808, 2120, 2495, 2849. In the same prophet,
Who gave Jacob over to plunder, and Israel to spoilers? Was it not Jehovah against whom we have sinned? And He poured out upon him the wrath of His anger. Isa. 42:24, 25.
‘Wrath of anger’ stands for antagonism towards falsity stemming from evil, ‘Jacob’ for people under the influence of evil, and ‘Israel’ for those under the influence of falsity.
sRef Jer@7 @20 S4′ sRef Isa@63 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@63 @3 S4′  In the same prophet,
I have trodden the winepress alone, and from the peoples there was no man (vir) with Me. I trod them in My anger, and destroyed them in My wrath. And I trod down the peoples in My anger, and made them drunk in My wrath. Isa. 63:3, 6.
This refers to the Lord and His victories in temptations. ‘Treading’ and ‘treading down in anger’ stand for victories over evils, ‘destroying’ and ‘making drunk in wrath’ for victories over falsities. In the Word ‘treading down’ has reference to evil, and ‘making drunk’ to falsity. In Jeremiah,
Thus said the Lord Jehovih. Behold, My anger and My wrath have been poured out on this place, on man, and on beast, and on the tree of the field, and on the fruit of the ground; and it will burn and not be quenched. Jer. 7:20.
Both are mentioned – ‘anger’ and ‘wrath’ – because both evil and falsity are the subject.
sRef Jer@21 @6 S5′ sRef Jer@21 @5 S5′  In the Prophets, whenever evil is mentioned so also is falsity, even as whenever good is mentioned so also is truth, the reason being the heavenly marriage, which is the marriage of good and truth in every detail of the Word, 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712. It is also why ‘anger’ and ‘wrath’ are both mentioned; otherwise one of them would be enough. In the same prophet,
I Myself will fight against you with outstretched hand and strong arm, and in anger, and in wrath, and in great indignation; and I will smite the inhabitants of this city, both man and beast. Jer 21:5, 6.
Here in a similar way ‘anger’ has reference to the punishment of evil, ‘wrath’ to the punishment of falsity, and ‘indignation’ to that of both. Since anger and wrath describe antagonism they also mean punishment, for things antagonistic to one another also clash with one another; and in that case evil and falsity suffer punishment. For evil holds within itself antagonism towards good, and falsity holds within itself antagonism towards truth. And because there is antagonism a clash also occurs; and from this punishment results, see 696, 967.
sRef Deut@29 @20 S6′ sRef Deut@29 @24 S6′ sRef Ezek@5 @13 S6′ sRef Deut@29 @21 S6′ sRef Ezek@5 @15 S6′ sRef Deut@29 @23 S6′ sRef Deut@29 @22 S6′  In Ezekiel,
And My anger will be accomplished, and I will make My wrath on them die down, and I will be comforted; and they will know that I Jehovah have spoken in My zeal, when accomplishing My wrath on them – when executing judgements on you in anger and in wrath and in wrathful rebukes. Ezek. 5:13, 15.
Here also ‘anger’ stands for the punishment of evil, and ‘wrath’ for the punishment of falsity, that result from antagonism and consequent aggression. In Moses,
Jehovah will not be pleased to pardon him, for then the anger of Jehovah, and His zeal, will smoke against that man, and Jehovah will separate him as evil from all the tribes of Israel. The whole land will be brimstone and salt, a burning; it will not be sown, and it will not sprout, nor will any plant come up on it, as at the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, of Admah and Zeboiim, which Jehovah overthrew in His anger and His wrath. And all the nations will say, Why has Jehovah done this to this land? What means the heat of this great anger? Deut. 29:20, 21, 23, 24.
Since ‘Sodom’ means evil, and ‘Gomorrah’ falsity deriving from this, 2220, 2246, 232, and the nation to which Moses is referring here is compared to those nations as regards evil and falsity, the expression ‘anger’ is used in reference to evil, ‘wrath’ in reference to falsity, and ‘the heat of anger’ to both. Such passions as these are attributed to Jehovah or the Lord according to the appearance, for the Lord does seem to man to display such when man enters into evil and evil punishes him, see 245, 592, 696, 1093, 1683, 1874, 2335, 2395, 2447, 3605.
‘Rebekah said to Isaac’ means the Lord’s perception from Divine Truth. ‘I loathe my life on account of the daughters of Heth’ means a connection with natural truth from some other source. ‘If Jacob takes a wife from the daughters of Heth’ means that natural truth ought not to be associated with them. ‘Like these of the daughters of the land’ means because they are not from that ground. ‘What would life hold for me?’ means, and so there would not be any conjunction.
They went in to Noah into the ark, two by two from all flesh in which there is the spirit of life. Gen. 7:15 (in 780).
Everything which had the breath of the spirit of life in its nostrils breathed its last. Gen. 7:12.
I believe [I am going] to see the goodness of Jehovah in the land of the living. Ps. 27:13.
In the same author,
Who is the man who desires life, who loves [many] days, that he may see good? Ps. 34:12
In the same author,
With You, O Jehovah, is the fountain of life; in Your light do we see light. Ps. 36:9.
My covenant with Levi was [a covenant] of life and peace. Mal. 2:5.
Thus said Jehovah, Behold, I set before you the way of life and the way of death. Jer. 21:8.
To love Jehovah your God, to obey His voice, and to cling to Him, for He is your life and the length of your days, so that you may dwell in the land. Deut. 30:20.
In the same author,
It is not an empty word from you; for it is your life, and through this word you will prolong your days in the land. Deut. 32:47.
And in other places too the plural form of the noun ‘life’ is used in the original language because, as has been stated, there are two kinds of life which yet make one. It is similar with the word ‘heavens’ in the Hebrew language, in that the heavens are many and yet make one, or like the expression ‘waters’ above and below, in Gen. 1:7-9 , by which spiritual things in the rational and in the natural are meant which ought to be one through being joined together. As for the plural form of ‘life’, when this is used both the life of the will and that of the understanding are meant, and therefore both the life of good and that of truth are meant. For man’s life consists in nothing else than good and truth which hold life from the Lord within them. Devoid of good and truth, and of the life which these hold within them, no one is human. For devoid of these no one would ever have been able to will or to think anything. Everything that a person wills originates in good or in that which is not good, and everything he thinks originates in truth or in that which is not truth. Consequently man possesses two kinds of life and these make one when his thinking flows from his willing, that is, when truth which is the truth of faith flows from good which is the good of love.
Let me now tell of and describe marvels which, so far as I know, have not as yet been known to anyone, nor has even the idea of them entered anyone’s head – the marvel that the whole of heaven has been formed in such a way that it corresponds to the Lord, to His Divine Human; also the marvel that the human being has been formed in such a way that every single part of him corresponds to heaven, and through heaven to the Lord. This is a great mystery which is now to be revealed, it being the subject here and at the ends of chapters that follow this.
 There are always two forces which, as stated above, serve to hold everything together in its own proper connection and proper form. That is to say, there is a force acting from without and a force acting from within, and in the midst of these is the object itself which is being held together by them. The same is also true of the human being as regards every individual part of him, even the tiniest part. It is well known that the surrounding atmospheres hold the whole body in a state of cohesion by their constant pressure or bearing down on it from without, and therefore by their acting as a force upon it. It is also well known that the atmosphere, entering as air into the lungs, keeps these in a state of cohesion, as it also does its own particular organ, the ear, together with its forms which are designed for the changes that take place in it. It is well known too that the subtler etherical atmosphere in a similar way holds interior things in connection, for it flows in freely through all the pores of the skin, and by means of an almost identical pressure, bearing down, and therefore force acting upon them, keeps intact each of the internal organs of the whole body. This finer atmosphere too has its own particular organ, the eye, together with its forms which are equipped for changes that take place in this atmosphere. Unless these had internal forces corresponding to them which reacted against those external forces and in so doing held together and placed in equilibrium those intermediate forms, the latter would not remain in being for a single moment. From this it is evident that two forces have to be at work if anything is to come into being and be kept in being.
 The forces flowing and acting from within originate in heaven, and in the Lord by way of heaven; and they have life within them. This is evident quite clearly from the organ of hearing. Except for interior changes, which are those of life, and to which exterior changes correspond, which are those of the air, hearing would never become a reality. It is likewise evident from the organ of sight. Except for interior light, which is that of life and to which exterior light, which is that of the sun, corresponds, sight would never become a reality. The same is so with all the other organs and limbs in the human body. There are forces at work outwardly, which are natural and in themselves do not possess any life, and forces at work inwardly which do in themselves have life. These forces hold everything together and cause them to have life, doing so in accordance with the nature of the form conferred on them for the purpose they serve.
 For the souls of human beings exist on a higher level and in a more perfect state, and are such that they are able to look upwards, and so to heaven and the Lord. Consequently the Lord is able to join them to Himself and grant them eternal life. But the souls of animals are such that they cannot do other than look downwards, thus merely to earthly things, and so can be joined only to these. This is also why they perish together with the body. It is their ends in view that show what the life possessed by man is like and what that possessed by a beast is like. Man is able to have spiritual and celestial ends in view, and to see, acknowledge, and believe them, and to have an affection for them. But beasts can have none but natural ends in view. Thus man is able to dwell in the Divine sphere of ends and purposes which exist in heaven and which constitute heaven, whereas beasts can dwell in no other sphere than that of ends and purposes which exist on earth. Ends are nothing else than loves, for the things which people love they have as an end in view.
 The reason why most people do not know how to distinguish their own life from that of beasts is that the two are externally alike. Both are interested in and set their hearts solely on earthly, bodily, and worldly objects. Such people also believe that their life is similar to the life which beasts possess and that like these they are going to become nothing at all when they die. For what spiritual and celestial things may be they do not know because they are not interested in them. From this comes the insanity of our own times of people comparing themselves to animals and not recognizing any internal distinction. But anyone who believes in the existence of celestial and spiritual things, that is, who allows spiritual light to flow in and influence him, sees quite the reverse, and also sees the extent to which he is superior to animals. The life of animals however will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be dealt with as a separate subject.
 This endeavour is inherent in every seed. Yet man attributes all those things that are so wondrous to natural forces themselves, not believing in any influx from the spiritual world since at heart he denies its existence. He does so even though he possibly knows that nothing can continue in existence apart from that which comes into existence, that is, he knows that a continuing in existence is a perpetual coming into existence, or what amounts to the same, reproduction is constant creation. Consequently the whole natural order is a theatre representative of the Lord’s kingdom, see 3483. But these objects too, and their correspondence with the Grand Man, will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be discussed elsewhere.
The preliminary section of the previous chapter, paragraphs 3486-3489, explained what the Lord has taught and foretold about the Last Judgement or last days of the Church in Matthew 24:8-14. In the preliminary section of the present chapter there now follows, in the section-by-section method of presentation that has been adopted, the explanation of verses 15-18 of that chapter in Matthew,
When therefore you see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by the prophet Daniel, standing in the holy place – let him who is reading this take note – then let those who are in Judea flee into the mountains. Let him who is on the roof of the house not go down to take anything out of his house; and let him who is in the field not turn back to get his clothing.
When therefore you see the abomination of desolation means when the Church has undergone vastation, which is the situation when the Lord is acknowledged no longer, and therefore when there is no love of Him nor any belief in Him; also when there is no longer any charity towards the neighbour nor consequently any belief in what is good and true. When these conditions exist in the Church, or rather in the area where the Word is, that is to say, in the thoughts of the heart though not in the doctrine on the lips, it is a case of desolation, and the circumstances that have just been mentioned constitute ‘the abomination of that desolation’. Consequently ‘when you see the abomination of desolation’ means when anyone witnesses such conditions. And what he is to do when he does witness them follows in verses 16-18.
 Spoken of by the prophet Daniel means, in the internal sense, spoken of by the Prophets, for when any prophet is mentioned by name in the Word it is not simply that prophet who is meant but the whole prophetical part of the Word, the reason being that names do not ever come through into heaven, 1876, 1888. Even so, one prophet does not have the same meaning as another. For what Moses, Elijah and Elisha mean, see the Preface to Chapter 18, and 2762. By ‘Daniel’ however is meant every prophetical statement concerning the Lord’s coming and the state of the Church, in this case its final state. Much reference is made in the Prophets to vastation, and by the reference to it here in Daniel is meant in the sense of the letter the vastation of the Jewish and Israelitish Church, but in the internal sense the vastation of the Church in general, and thus also the vastation of it which is now at hand.
 Standing in the holy place means a vastation involving everything that forms part of what is good and true. ‘The holy place’ is a state of love and faith, for by ‘a place’ in the internal sense is meant a state, see 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387. The ‘holy’ element of that state consists in the good of love and in the truth of faith grounded in this. Nothing else is meant in the Word by the expression ‘holy’, for goodness and truth originate in the Lord, who is Holiness itself or the Sanctuary.
Let him who is reading this take note means that these matters are to be thoroughly understood by those within the Church, especially by those who have love and faith, to whom the present words refer.
sRef Luke@21 @21 S4′ sRef Luke@21 @20 S4′  Then let those who are in Judea flee into the mountains means that members of the Church are to fix their attention solely on the Lord and so on love to Him and on charity towards the neighbour. For ‘Judea’ means the Church, as will be shown below, while ‘a mountain’ means the Lord Himself but ‘the mountains’ love to Him and charity towards the neighbour, see 795, 796, 1430, 2722. According to the sense of the letter when Jerusalem was besieged, as was done by the Romans, they were not to resort to that city but to go onto the mountains, according to the following in Luke,
When you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its devastation is near. Then let those who are in Judea flee onto the mountains, and let those who are in the midst of it* depart, but those who are out in the country let them not enter it. Luke 21:20, 21.
 The same applies to this reference to Jerusalem; that is to say, in the sense of the letter it is the city of Jerusalem that is meant, but in the internal sense the Lord’s Church, see 402, 2117. For every single thing mentioned in the Word concerning the Jewish and Israelitish people is representative of the Lord’s kingdom in heaven and of the Lord’s kingdom on earth, which is the Church, as has been shown often. Consequently nowhere in the internal sense is ‘Jerusalem’ used to mean Jerusalem, or ‘Judea’ to mean Judea. But every single thing so mentioned was such that by means of it the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom were able to be represented. It was for the sake of what they represented that the events which have been recorded took place. Thus the Word was able to be written in such a way that it lay both within the mental grasp of people reading it, and within the understanding of angels who were present with them. This was also the reason why the Lord spoke in a similar way. Indeed if He had spoken in any other way it would not have come within the mental grasp of those reading it, especially at that time, nor simultaneously within the angels’ power of understanding. Thus it would not have been accepted by man, nor understood by angels.
 Let him who is on the roof of the house not go down to take anything out of his house means that those in whom the good of charity is present should not therefore resort to matters of doctrine concerning faith. ‘The roof of the house’ in the Word means a person’s higher state, and so his state as regards good, whereas what is below means a person’s lower state, and so his state as regards truth. For what ‘house’ is, see 710, 1708, 2233, 2331, 3142, 3538. With regard to the state of a member of the Church, while he is undergoing regeneration he is at that time learning truth for the sake of good; for he possesses an affection for truth for the sake of that good. But once he has been regenerated truth and good are the basis of his actions. Once he has reached this state he ought not to go back to the previous state, for if he did he would then reason from truth about the good which is present with him and in so doing would pervert his present state. For all reasoning does and must come to an end when a person’s state is one in which he wills what is true and good, for in that case the will and therefore conscience are the source of his thought and action, and not the understanding, as it had been previously. If he went back to the understanding as the source of his thought and action he would encounter temptations in which he would go under. These are the considerations meant by the statement ‘let him who is on the roof of the house not go down to take anything out of his house’.
 And let him who is in the field not turn back to get his clothing (or tunic) means that neither should those in whom good that resides in truth is present forsake such good and resort to doctrine concerning truth. ‘The field’ in the Word means this state of man as regards good; for what ‘field’ means, see 368, 2971, 3196, 3310, 3317, 3500, 3508. And ‘clothing’ or tunic means that which clothes good, namely doctrine concerning truth, such being like clothing for good; for ‘clothing’ has that meaning, see 297, 1073, 2576, 3301. Anyone may see that deeper things lie concealed in these words than are visible in the letter; for the Lord Himself spoke them.
* i.e. Jerusalem
sRef Isa@5 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @6 S2′  The truth of this will be evident from those things which in the Lord’s Divine mercy will be stated later on regarding Judah and the land of Judah. For the present it will be evident from the following few examples in the Prophets: In Isaiah,
My beloved had a vineyard on a very fertile hill.* He surrounded it [with an
enclosure] and gathered out the stones, and planted it with the choicest vine and built a tower in the midst of it, and also hewed out a winepress in it. And he looked for it to yield grapes, but it yielded wild grapes. And now, O inhabitant of Jerusalem and man of Judah, judge, I pray you, between Me and My vineyard. I will make it a desolation, for the vineyard of Jehovah Zebaoth is the house of Israel, and the man of Judah His pleasant plant.** And He looked for judgement, but behold, festering; for righteousness, but behold, a cry. Isa. 5:1-3, 6, 7.
Here the subject in the sense of the letter is the perverted state of the
Israelites and Jews, but in the internal sense it is the perverted state of the Church represented by Israel and Judah. ‘Inhabitant of Jerusalem’ is the Church’s good – ‘inhabitant’ meaning good, or what amounts to the same, those with whom good is present, see 2268, 2451, 2712, 3613, and ‘Jerusalem’ the Church, 402, 2117. ‘The house of Israel’ has a similar meaning – ‘house’ meaning good, 710, 1708, 2233, 2331, 3142, 3538, and ‘Israel’ the Church, 3305. ‘The man of Judah’ also is very similar, for ‘a man’ means truth, 265, 749, 1007, 3134, 3310, 3459, and Judah good. The difference however is that ‘the man of Judah’ means truth grounded in the good of love to the Lord, which is called celestial truth, that is, those governed by that kind of truth are meant.
sRef Isa@11 @15 S3′ sRef Isa@11 @13 S3′ sRef Isa@11 @16 S3′ sRef Isa@11 @12 S3′  In the same prophet,
He will raise an ensign for the nations, and will gather the outcasts of Israel, and will assemble the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. Then the rivalry of Ephraim will depart, and the enemies of Judah be cut off. Ephraim will not vie with Judah, and Judah will not harass Ephraim. Jehovah will utterly destroy the tongue of the sea of Egypt, and will shake His hand over the River with the might of His spirit. Then there will be a highway for the remnant of His people which will remain from Asshur. Isa. 11:12, 13, 15, 16.
Here the subject in the sense of the letter is the bringing back of the Israelites and Jews from captivity, but in the internal sense it is a new Church in general and with each person in particular who is being regenerated or becoming the Church. ‘The outcasts of Israel’ stands for their truths, ‘the dispersed of Judah’ for their goods. ‘Ephraim’ stands for the understanding part of their minds, which will no longer offer any resistance. ‘Egypt’ stands for facts, and ‘Asshur’ for reasoning based on these, which they have perverted. ‘The outcasts’, ‘the dispersed’, ‘the remnant’, and ‘those who remain’ stand for truths and goods which survive. For ‘Ephraim’ means the understanding part of the mind, as will be shown elsewhere, while ‘Egypt’ means factual knowledge, see 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 2588, 3325, ‘Asshur’ reasoning, 119, 1186, and ‘remnant’ the goods and truths that the Lord has stored away in the interior man, 468, 530, 560, 561, 660, 661, 798, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284.
sRef Isa@48 @1 S4′ sRef Isa@48 @2 S4′  In the same prophet,
Hear this, O house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel and who came out of the waters of Judah. For they are called after the city of holiness, and upon the God of Israel they place their reliance. Isa. 48:1, 2.
‘The waters of Judah’ stands for truths which spring from the good of love to the Lord. The truths from that source are actually the goods of charity, which are called spiritual goods and constitute the spiritual Church, the internal of this Church being meant by ‘Israel’ and the external by ‘the house of Jacob’. This shows what is meant by ‘the house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel and who came out of the waters of Judah’.
sRef Isa@65 @9 S5′  In the same prophet,
I will bring forth seed from Jacob, and from Judah the heir of My mountains, and My chosen ones will possess it, and My servants will dwell there. Isa. 65:9.
‘From Judah the heir of mountains’ stands in the highest sense for the Lord, and in the representative sense for those in whom love to Him is present and so the good of love to Him and the good of love towards the neighbour. As regards ‘mountains’ meaning these forms of good, this has been shown above in 3652.
sRef Ps@114 @2 S6′ sRef Ps@114 @1 S6′ sRef Gen@49 @9 S6′  In Moses,
A lion’s whelp is Judah; from the prey you have gone up, my son. He crouched, he lay down like a lion, and like an old lion; who will rouse him up? Gen. 49:9.
Here it is quite evident that in the highest sense ‘Judah’ is used to mean the Lord, and in the representative sense those with whom the good of love to Him is present. In David,
When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a foreign people, Judah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominions. Ps. 114:1, 2.
Here also ‘Judah’ stands for celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord, while ‘Israel’ stands for celestial truth, which is spiritual good.
sRef Jer@23 @5 S7′ sRef Jer@50 @5 S7′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S7′ sRef Jer@50 @4 S7′ sRef Jer@33 @7 S7′ sRef Jer@3 @17 S7′ sRef Jer@3 @18 S7′  In Jeremiah,
Behold, the days are coming, says Jehovah, and I will raise up for David a righteous branch, who will reign as king, and will prosper, and execute judgement and righteousness in the land. In His days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is His name which they will call Him, Jehovah our Righteousness. Jer. 23:5, 6; 33:15, 16.
This refers to the Coming of the Lord. ‘Judah’ stands for those with whom the good of love to the Lord is present, ‘Israel’ for those with whom the truth that goes with that good is present. For ‘Judah’ is not used to mean Judah, nor ‘Israel’ to mean Israel, as may be seen from the fact that neither Judah nor Israel was actually preserved any longer. Similarly in the same prophet,
I will bring back the captivity of Judah, and the captivity of Israel, and build them as they were previously. Jer. 33:7.
The like may be seen here also. In the same prophet,
In those days and at that time, says Jehovah, the children of Israel will come, they and the children of Judah together, weeping as they come; and they will seek Jehovah their God; and they will seek Zion on the way, their faces towards it. Jer. 50:4, 5.
In the same prophet,
At that time they will call Jerusalem the throne of Jehovah, and all the nations will be gathered to it, to Jerusalem, because of the name of Jehovah; and they will go no more after the stubbornness of their own evil heart. In those days the house of Judah will go to the house of Israel, and together they will come over the land out of the land of the north. Jer. 3:17, 18.
sRef Jer@31 @33 S8′ sRef Jer@31 @31 S8′ sRef Jer@31 @27 S8′  In the same prophet,
Behold, the days are coming, said Jehovah, in which I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man and the seed of beast; and I will make with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah a new covenant. This is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days: I will put My law in the midst of them, and will write it on their heart. Jer. 31:27, 31, 33.
This shows plainly that Israel or the house of Israel was not meant, for once dispersed among the gentiles they were never brought back from captivity. Nor consequently was Judah or the house of Judah meant. Instead Israel and Judah meant in the internal sense members of the Lord’s spiritual and celestial kingdoms. It is with these people that the new covenant is made, and in whose hearts the law is written. ‘The new covenant’ stands for being joined to the Lord by means of good, 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 2037. ‘The law written in their heart’ stands for a perception of good and of truth springing from that good, and also for conscience.
sRef Joel@3 @18 S9′ sRef Joel@3 @19 S9′ sRef Joel@3 @20 S9′  In Joel,
It will happen on that day that the mountains will drip new wine, and the hills will flow with milk, and all the streams of Judah will flow with water; and a spring will come forth from the house of Jehovah and will water the river of Shittim. Egypt will become a waste, and Edom a desolate wilderness,*** on account of the violence done to the children of Judah whose innocent blood they have shed in their land. And Judah will abide for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation. Joel 3:18-20.
From every detail here also it is evident that ‘Judah’ is not used to mean Judah, nor ‘Jerusalem’ to mean Jerusalem, but those in whom the holiness of love and charity dwells, for they are ‘to abide for ever’ and ‘from generation to generation’.
sRef Mal@3 @1 S10′ sRef Mal@3 @4 S10′  In Malachi,
Behold, I am sending My angel, who will prepare the way before Me; and suddenly there will come to His temple the Lord whom you are seeking, and the angel of the covenant in whom you delight. Then the minchah**** of Judah and Jerusalem will be acceptable to Jehovah, as in the days of eternity, and as in former years. Mal. 3:1, 4.
This refers to the Coming of the Lord, at which time, it is clear, the minchah of Judah and Jerusalem was not acceptable to Jehovah. From this it is evident that Judah and Jerusalem mean such things as constitute the Lord’s Church. The same applies wherever else Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem are mentioned in the Word. From this one may now see what is meant in Matthew by ‘Judea’, namely the Lord’s Church, in that case when vastated.
* lit. on a horn of a son of oil
** lit. the young plant of His delights
*** lit. the wilderness of a waste
**** Generally rendered ‘offering’ in English versions of the Scriptures. It is a Hebrew word. The ‘ch’ in it has a hard or guttural pronunciation, as in German buch or Scottish loch.
1 And Isaac called to Jacob, and blessed him, and commanded him, and said to him, You shall not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan.
2 Rise up, go to Paddan Aram, to the home of Bethuel your mother’s father, and take for yourself from there a wife from the daughters of Laban your mother’s brother.
3 And God Shaddai will bless you, and make you fruitful and multiply you; and you will be an assembly of peoples.
4 And He will give you the blessing of Abraham, you and your seed with you, to inherit the land of your sojournings, which God gave to Abraham.
5 And Isaac sent Jacob away; and he went to Paddan Aram, to Laban the son of Bethuel the Aramean, the brother of Rebekah, Jacob and Esau’s mother.
6 And Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and had sent him away to Paddan Aram to take a wife for himself from there, and in blessing him had commanded him, saying, You shall not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan;
7 And that Jacob had listened to his father and to his mother, and had gone to Paddan Aram.
8 And Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan were evil in the eyes of Isaac his father.
9 And Esau went to Ishmael, and took Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth, as a wife (mulier) in addition to the wives (femina) he had.
10 And Jacob went out from Beersheba and went to Haran.
11 And he came upon a place, and spent the night there because the sun had gone down. And he took one of the stones of the place and placed it as his headrest, and lay down in that place.
12 And he dreamed, and behold, a stairway set up on the earth, and its top reaching to heaven; and behold, the angels of God going up and coming down on it.
13 And behold, Jehovah was standing above it, and He said, I am Jehovah, the God of Abraham your father, and the God of Isaac; the land on which you are lying I will give to you and to your seed.
14 And your seed will be as the dust of the earth, and you will break forth towards the sea, and towards the east, and towards the north, and towards the south; and in you will all the families of the ground be blessed – and in your seed.
15 And behold, I am with you, and will guard you wherever you go, and will bring you back to this ground; for I will not leave you until I have done what I have spoken about to you.
16 And Jacob awoke from his sleep and said, Surely Jehovah is in this place and I did not know it.
17 And he was afraid and said, How awesome is this place! This is nothing other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.
18 And in the morning Jacob rose up early, and took the stone which he had placed as his headrest, and placed it as a pillar and poured oil on the top of it.
19 And he called the name of that place Bethel, though Luz was the name of the city previously.
20 And Jacob made a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and guard me on this road on which I am walking, and will give me bread to eat and clothing to wear,
21 And I come back in peace to my father’s house, then Jehovah will be my God.
22 And this stone which I have placed as a pillar will be God’s house; and of all that You give me I will surely give You a tenth.
The subject here in the highest sense is the way in which the Lord began to make Divine both the truth and the good of His Natural, a general description being given of the means by which He accomplished this. But in the representative sense the subject is the way in which the Lord regenerates or makes new both the truth and the good of the natural man, a general description likewise being given of the process by which He accomplishes it, verses 1-9.
Verses 1, 2 And Isaac called to Jacob, and blessed him, and commanded him, and said to him, You shall not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan. Rise up, go to Paddan Aram, to the home of Bethuel your mother’s father, and take for yourself from there a wife from the daughters of Laban your mother’s brother.
‘Isaac called to Jacob’ means perception by the Lord regarding the nature of the good of truth. ‘And blessed him’ means that this good was accordingly joined [to the rational]. ‘And commanded him, and said to him’ means reflection and consequent perception. ‘You shall not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan’ means provided it was not joined to affections for falsity and evil. ‘Rise up’ means provided it raised up that good from these. ‘Go to Paddan Aram’ means the cognitions of such truth. ‘To the home of Bethuel your mother’s father, and take for yourself from there a wife from the daughters of Laban your mother’s brother’ means a parallel external good, and the truth which sprang from this good and was to be joined [to the good of the natural].
 The reason why ‘Jacob’ here represents the good of that truth is that by now he had taken Esau’s birthright, and also his blessing, and in so doing had assumed Esau’s identity; yet it was still no more than the good of that truth, which truth he had represented previously. For every kind of truth that exists holds good within it, because truth is not truth unless it arises out of good and for this reason is called truth. By means of the birthright which he took, and by means of the blessing, Jacob acquired for his descendants, in precedence over Esau, a succession to the promise made to Abraham and Isaac concerning the land of Canaan. In so doing he represented the Lord’s Divine Natural, even as ‘Isaac’ represented the Divine Rational, and ‘Abraham’ His Divine itself. In order therefore that the representative might rest on one person he was thus allowed to take away the birthright from Esau, and after that the blessing. This is why Jacob now represents the good of the natural, though at first in this chapter he represents the good of that truth, which truth he represented immediately before. Esau is also dealt with further still, as in verses 6-9 below, to the end that the good of truth and the interior truth of good of the Lord’s Natural – which cannot as yet be represented by ‘Jacob’ – may nevertheless be represented. What the good of truth, represented here by ‘Jacob’ is, and the nature of it, will be clear from what follows.
 But what the expression being joined to, or conjunction, describes, meant in the internal sense by ‘being blessed’, has been stated already, namely this: Both the good and the truth of the natural were to be linked to the rational, or what amounts to the same, the external man to the internal. For to make His Natural Divine, the Lord imparted such good and truth to it as could correspond to the good and truth of the Divine Rational. Unless goods and truths in the one correspond to those in the other no conjunction is possible. The goods and truths of the natural, that is, those proper to the natural man, are countless, so countless that a person can hardly know the most general kinds of them, though when natural good and truth are referred to these are seen by him as a simple whole; for the entire natural, and everything there, is nothing else. This being so one may see that goods and truths of the natural exist which are able to accommodate the goods and truths of the rational, and goods and truths of the natural exist which are not able to do so; consequently that goods and truths of the natural exist which, by means of correspondence, are able to be linked to the goods and truths of the rational. It is the latter that are referred to in this chapter and those that follow.
 The ability to know those goods and truths and to distinguish one from another, and also to see the nature of them and so to see how suited they are for conjunction, can hardly exist in anyone as long as he does not think from what is interior, that is, from the enlightenment provided by the light of heaven. For at this time such things seem to him to be both obscure and joyless. But such things are nevertheless suited to the mental grasp and understanding of angels, and also to the mental grasp of spirits; for their thoughts are not interspersed with concerns about worldly, bodily, and earthly things, as they had been previously when they lived as men in the world. They – that is to say, angels and spirits – receive the delight of intelligence and the blessedness of wisdom when they have such things from the internal sense of the Word. Indeed the Divine is in that case shining on them, for in the highest sense the Lord is the subject, and in the representative sense the Church and regeneration. They come consequently within the Divine sphere of the Lord and of His ends and purposes.
 The implications of this are that when a person is being regenerated the Lord leads him first of all as an infant, then as a child, after that as a young person, and at length as an adult. The truths which he learns as a small child are totally external and bodily, for he is not yet capable of grasping more interior things. Those truths are no more than cognitions of such things as inmostly contain Divine things within them. For there are some cognitions of things which do not inmostly contain anything Divine and there are other cognitions which do. Cognitions that do contain the Divine inmostly are such that they can receive interior truths into themselves, increasingly so, one after another in their proper order, whereas cognitions that do not contain the Divine are such that they do not so receive them but spurn them. For the cognitions of external and bodily good and truth are like the soil which, depending on its own particular nature, receives into itself one kind of seed but not another, and is productive of one variety of seed but is destructive of another. Cognitions which inmostly contain the Divine receive spiritual and celestial truth and good into themselves, for it is by virtue of the Divine within, bringing order to them, that makes them what they are. But cognitions that do not contain the Divine receive only falsity and evil, such being their nature. Those cognitions of external and bodily truth which do receive spiritual and celestial truth and good are meant here by ‘the daughters of Laban from the home of Bethuel’, while those that do not receive them are meant by ‘the daughters of Canaan’.
 The cognitions which people learn from infancy onwards into childhood are like very general vessels, which exist to be filled with goods. And as they are filled a person is enlightened. If the vessels are such that they can contain genuine goods within them, the person is in that case enlightened, step by step and increasingly so from the Divine that is within them. But if they are such that they cannot contain genuine goods within them he is not in that case enlightened. He may indeed give the appearance of being enlightened, but this comes about from the illusory light that goes with falsity and evil. Indeed those cognitions place him all the more in obscurity as regards good and truth.
 Such cognitions are manifold, so manifold that one can hardly count even the genera of them, let alone identify their species. For they derive in their multiplicity from the Divine and then pass by way of the rational into the natural. That is to say, certain of them flow in directly by way of the good of the rational, and from there into the good of the natural, and also into the truth that goes with that good, and again from there into the external or bodily natural, where also they depart into various channels; but others flow in indirectly by way of the truth of the rational into the truth of the natural, and also into the good that goes with this truth, and again from there into the external or bodily natural, see 3573, 3616. All this is like nations, families, and houses, in which there are blood relatives and relatives by marriage; that is to say, there are those in the direct line of descent from the chief ancestor and there are those belonging to an increasingly indirect or parallel line. In the heavens these things are quite distinct and separate, for all the communities there are distinguished according to genera and species of good and truth, and so according to how near they are in relation to one another, 685, 2508, 2524, 2556, 2739, 3612. The most ancient people, being celestial, also represented those communities by their dwelling as distinct and separate nations, families, and houses, 470, 471, 483, 1159, 1246. This was also the reason why members of the representative Church were commanded to contract marriages within the families which made up their own nation; for by so doing they could represent heaven and the interconnection of its communities as regards good and truth. That representation is exemplified here by Jacob’s going to the home of Bethuel his mother’s father and his taking a wife for himself from there from the daughters of Laban his mother’s brother.
 As regards cognitions themselves of external or bodily truth which come from a parallel good and, as has been stated, contain the Divine and so are able to receive genuine truths within them, they are like cognitions present with small children who at a later time undergo regeneration. They are in general such as those that are found in the historical narratives of the Word, for example, in what is said there about Paradise, about the first human being in Paradise, about the tree of life in the middle of it, and about the tree of knowledge where the deceiving serpent was. These are cognitions which contain the Divine and which receive spiritual and celestial goods and truths into themselves because they represent and mean these. Such cognitions also constitute all the other descriptions in historical narratives of the Word, for example, those in the Word concerning the Tabernacle, concerning the Temple, and concerning the construction of these; likewise what is said about Aaron’s vestments and those of his sons; also about the feasts of tabernacles, of first fruits, and of unleavened bread, and about other matters of a similar nature. When these and similar details are known and thought about by a small child, the thoughts of the angels residing with him at that time are concerned with the Divine things which they represent and mean. And because the angels are stirred by an affection for these things, that affection is communicated. This produces the joy and delight that the child gets out of them, and it prepares his mind for the reception of genuine truths and goods. These and very many others are the cognitions of external and bodily truth that come from a parallel good.
‘God Shaddai will bless you’ means the temptations to which that truth and good was subjected and by means of which the joining together was effected. ‘And make you fruitful and multiply you’ means the goods and truths deriving from that joining together. ‘And you will be an assembly of peoples’ means abundance. ‘And He will give you the blessing of Abraham’ means the joining of the Divine itself to the good and truth of the natural. ‘You and your seed with you’ means to the good and the truth born from this good. ‘To inherit the land of your sojournings’ means the life acquired through receiving instruction. ‘Which God gave to Abraham’ means which is received from the Divine. ‘And Isaac sent Jacob away’ means the beginning of the manifestation [of the Divine Natural]. ‘And he went to Paddan Aram’ means here, as previously, the cognitions of that truth. ‘To Laban the son of Bethuel the Aramean’ means a parallel good. ‘The brother of Rebekah, Jacob and Esau’s mother’ means the relationship through the mother of the good of truth, represented by ‘Jacob’, with the truth of good, represented by ‘Esau’.
sRef Ex@6 @3 S2′ sRef Gen@28 @20 S2′ sRef Gen@28 @21 S2′ sRef Gen@17 @1 S2′ sRef Gen@28 @13 S2′  The same happened in the family of Terah, Abraham’s father, and also in Abraham’s house. The fact that they worshipped other gods, see 1356, 2559, and in particular God Shaddai, 1992. And the fact that the worship of that God persisted in that house is also clear from the following places in Moses,
I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as God Shaddai, and by My name Jehovah I was not known to them. Exod. 6:3.
This explains why Abraham was told, I am God Shaddai; walk before Me and be blameless. Gen. 17:1.
And in the present case Isaac told Jacob, ‘God Shaddai will bless you’. The truth of this is also quite evident from this chapter in which, after the Lord had said in a dream, ‘I am Jehovah, the God of Abraham your father, and the God of Isaac’, in verse 13, Jacob then said,
If God will be with me, and guard me on this road on which I am walking, and will give me bread to eat and clothing to wear, and I come back in peace to my father’s house, then Jehovah will be my God. Verses 20, 21.
From this it is evident that neither did the house of Jacob acknowledge Jehovah, but that Jacob would acknowledge Him as his God if He conferred benefits on him. It was just the same as it is in Christian Gentilism at the present day.
 But as regards the specific name God Shaddai, the Lord had been called by this in the Ancient Church in respect to temptations, and to the blessings and benefits following temptations, as shown in Volume Two, in 1992. This is why here in the internal sense ‘God Shaddai’ means temptations. Temptations are the means by which the conjunction of good and truth is effected – see what has been stated and shown already about temptations, in the paragraphs referred to in 2819.
 The same may be seen from the representatives which also exist at the present day. For all kings, no matter who they are or what they are like, represent the Lord through the kingly office itself residing with them; and in like manner all priests, no matter who they are or what they are like, do so through their priestly office. The kingly office itself and the priestly office itself are sacred, no matter who serves in them. Consequently the Word taught by someone evil is no less sacred; nor is the Sacrament of Baptism, or the Holy Supper, or similar ministrations any less so. From this it may also be seen that no king can possibly claim as his own the sacredness that goes with his kingly office, nor any priest the sacredness that goes with his priestly office. Insofar as he does claim it or attribute it to himself he brands himself with the sign of a spiritual thief, or the mark of spiritual theft. And insofar as he commits what is evil, that is, acts contrary to what is right and fair, and contrary to what is good and true, a king throws off his representation of the sacred kingly office, and a priest his representation of the sacred priestly office, and then represents the reverse of this. This explains why so many laws were laid down in the Jewish representative Church concerning the sacredness which was to be attached in particular to priests when ministering. More on this matter will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be stated later on.
 Understanding good and truth and willing them is the function of the rational, and perceptions of good and truth resulting from this are like seeds; but knowing them and doing them is the function of the natural. Facts and deeds are like the soil. When a person has an affection for the facts that corroborate what is good and true, the more so when he experiences joy in acting them out, those facts are seeds that are present and growing in the natural as their own proper soil; and there they grow. As a consequence good is made fruitful and truth is multiplied, and they are constantly springing up out of that soil into the rational and perfecting it. The situation is different when a person understands what is good and true, and also interiorly perceives that he wills something, and yet does not desire to know these things, let alone do them. In that case good cannot be made fruitful nor truth be multiplied within the rational.
 The external truth from which good springs, meant by ‘Jacob’ here, is nothing else than cognitions, for cognitions are the truths that are absorbed first by anyone. Cognitions are also what people in the earliest stage of regeneration possess instead of truths. Cognitions however are not in themselves truths, yet they are such by virtue of the Divine things present within them; and only when these shine through them are they first made truths. Till then they are no more than general vessels by means of which and within which truths can be received, as those cognitions are which have been referred to already at the end of 3665, and as all the facts are that one learns at first.
 But to explain these things intelligibly is extremely difficult, the reason being that the most general features of this matter are not known at the present day, such as what spiritual good is and what the truth that goes with it is, and that there are countless genera of good and accompanying truth, and still more countless species, and also that there are degrees of them which are interconnected like those of blood relationships and relationships by marriage. While these very general features remain unknown a description of degrees and relationships would not be at all clear to anyone, especially at the present day when the learned have no wish to know those things. For these do not like to go beneath the surface of these matters and discuss the nature of them, only whether they exist or not. And as long as that is their state they have no wish at all to know anything about those countless kinds of good and truth.
‘Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob’ means the thought which natural good had regarding the joining [to the Divine Rational] through the good of truth, represented by ‘Jacob’. ‘And had sent him away to Paddan Aram’ means the beginning of the manifestation [of the Natural] through cognitions of that good. ‘To take a wife for himself from there’ means a joining together thereby through the affection for truth. ‘In blessing him had commanded him, saying’ means reflection and consequent perception so that the joining together might be effected. ‘You shall not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan’ means that it had not to be joined to affections for falsity and evil. ‘And that Jacob had listened to his father and to his mother’ means obedience and affection. ‘And had gone to Paddan Aram’ means here, as previously, so as to be furnished with those cognitions of good and truth. ‘And Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan were evil in the eyes of Isaac his father’ means the Lord’s foresight and provision that the affections for that truth – the affections to which natural good had been joined until then – would not be suitable for such conjunction. ‘And Esau went to Ishmael, and took Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham’s son’ means the joining of that good to truth from a Divine source. ‘The sister of Nebaioth, as a wife in addition to the wives he had’ means an affection for celestial truth more internally.
 But as to what thought which natural good had regarding the joining through the good of truth may be, no wholly intelligible explanation is possible. Even so, let a brief explanation be given. The thought which natural good has is the thought which exists in the rational or internal man and from there in the natural or external man, in particular from the good of the rational man. It is the rational or internal man which thinks, not the natural or external; for the rational or internal man dwells in the light of heaven, a light which holds intelligence and wisdom from the Lord within it, 3195, 3339, 3636, 3643, whereas the external man dwells in the light of the world, a light which does not hold any intelligence or indeed life within it. Consequently unless the internal man thought within the external no thought at all could ever exist. Yet to the person himself it seems as though his thought were located within his external, for it is from things which have come in by way of the senses and belong to the world that he thinks.
 This matter is like the sight of the eye. A sensory-minded person imagines that the eye sees of itself, when in fact the eye is no more than an organ in the body by means of which the internal man sees things outside of the body, that is, things in the world. The same matter is also like speech. The sensory-minded person might imagine that the mouth and tongue spoke of themselves, and anyone who thinks somewhat more deeply that the larynx and interior organs activated by the lungs did so, when in fact it is the thought which speaks by means of those organic parts – for speech is nothing else than thought expressed in speech. Such delusions of the senses are very many. The matter under consideration is also similar to all the life manifested in the external man, in that the life of the internal is within it, as within its own material or physical organ. The same is so with thought.
 As long as he is living in the body a person thinks from the rational within the natural; but it is one thing when the natural corresponds to the rational, quite another when the natural does not correspond. When the natural does correspond a person is rational and thinks spiritually; but when the natural does not correspond, he is not rational, and is unable to think spiritually. For with one whose natural does correspond to his rational, a line of communication is open enabling the light of heaven to flow in from the Lord by way of the rational into the natural, and to enlighten it with intelligence and wisdom. As a consequence he is rational and thinks spiritually. But with one whose natural does not correspond to his rational the line of communication is closed, and no more than a limited amount of light exists in general round about which enters in through chinks by way of the rational into the natural. Consequently he is not rational and does not think spiritually. For as is the influx of the light of heaven into a person, so is his thinking. From this it is evident that the nature of every person’s thought is determined by the way in which, as regards good and truth, the natural corresponds to the rational.
 But spirits and angels scarcely think in the same way as men do. Their
thought, it is true, is likewise based ultimately in the natural; for they have with them the whole natural memory and its affections, though they are not allowed to use that memory, 2475-2479. But although they are not allowed to use this, it nevertheless serves them as the ground-work or foundation for the ideas comprising their thought. Consequently the ideas which comprise their thought are interior, and their speech does not take the form of verbal expressions as with men but the form of real things. From this it is evident that with them also the nature of their thought is determined by that of the correspondence of their natural with their rational. Evident also is the fact that there are some spirits who are rational and think spiritually, and others who are not rational and do not think spiritually, the difference between the two depending entirely on the nature of their affections and consequent thoughts of things during their lifetime, that is, depending on the state of the life which they have acquired to themselves in the world.
 Therefore what thought may be which natural good possesses is evident to some extent from what has just been said above. That is to say, it is thought existing within the good of the natural. (According to spirits’ way of thinking it is called the thought which natural good has, but according to men’s it is called thought within the good of the natural.) It is within the latter – within the good of the natural – that the rational thinks. When good is the end in view, the thought which natural good has regarding the joining through the good of truth is accordingly thought within the natural – regarding the end in view. That is to say, it is thought about how truth can be joined to it, and joined according to Divine order, by the ordinary way, which, as often stated already, comes from the kinds of things that are external and therefore exist – in the ordered sequence of things – as those that are last or outermost. The entire regeneration of the natural begins with these. These outermost or last things are initial cognitions, such as those learned by infants and children, dealt with in 3665 (end).
 At first the truth of good, represented by ‘Esau’, is not in outward form joined to the good of truth, represented by ‘Jacob’, for in relation to the truth of good the good of truth exists inversely, 3669. Nevertheless they are joined together inmostly, that is, as regards ends in view. For the end that truth springing from good has in view is, as has been stated that truths may be joined according to order to itself, while the end in view of good springing from truth is the same. And since it is the end in view that joins them together, those two also are therefore so joined together, 3562, 3565. The inversion of order in the early stages is merely the means to an attainment of the end in view.
 The Most Ancient Church which was celestial and existed before the Flood was situated in the land of Canaan, see 567. The Ancient Church which existed after the Flood was also situated there, as well as in many other countries, 1238, 2385. This was how it came about that all the gentile nations there, and also all the territories there, and all the rivers there, served as representatives. For the most ancient people, who were celestial, perceived through all the objects they beheld the kind of things that belong to the Lord’s kingdom, 920, 1409, 2896, 2897, 2995, and so beheld the same through the territories and the rivers there.
 After their times those representatives survived in the Ancient Church, including the representatives related to the places there. Furthermore the Word that existed in the Ancient Church, dealt with in 2897-2899, contained place-names which were for the same reason representative; and the Word existing after their times, which is called Moses and the Prophets, also contains them. This was why Abraham was commanded to go there, and the promise was made to him that his descendants would possess that land. That promise was not made because they were any better than all the other nations, for they were the worst of them all, 1167, 3373. But it was made so that through them the representative Church might be established, in which no attention was paid to representative persons and places themselves but to the actual things which these represented, 3670, and thus also so that the names existing in the Most Ancient and the Ancient Churches might be preserved.
 The actuality of these matters is indeed as stated already, yet they are of such a nature that they can hardly be understood at all as long as the most general features of the subject remain unknown. Furthermore they are the kind of things in which the world of today does not have any interest, for it is earthly things, not heavenly ones, in which it is interested, for the reason, as people even say, that they see and know earthly things, but they do not see or know the heavenly. Now because what is contained in the internal sense of the Word has to be not merely disclosed but also explained, let an example be taken to show what the expressions the truth of good, which ‘Esau’ represents, and the good of truth, which ‘Jacob’ represents, are used to mean. At the same time the example will clarify the point that until a person has been regenerated the good of truth in relation to the truth of good exists inversely, but after he has been regenerated they are joined together. This example will accordingly illustrate the matters stated so far.
 Take as our example the kind of person who can be regenerated; for the Lord foresees that he can be, and because He foresees it He also makes provision for it. At the outset while a young child he does not yet know what the works of charity towards the neighbour are, for he does not yet know what charity is or what the neighbour is. Consequently because he knows from the Word that one ought to give to the poor and that anyone who does so has his reward in heaven he helps beggars more than all others for he believes that these are the poor who are meant in the Word. He does not take into account the fact that the kind of people who beg on the streets for the most part lead godless and even criminal lives, despise everything associated with Divine worship, and surrender themselves completely to laziness and inactivity. Nonetheless a person in the first stages of regeneration helps those people with all his heart. These good actions are examples of the good which springs from external truth and with which his regeneration begins. The truth of good, which is more internal, flows accordingly into those actions, fashioning these as directed by the cognitions which the child knows?
 At a later stage however, when more enlightened, he is willing to do good to all he believes to be poor and needy, but he still makes scarcely any distinction between the godly poor and needy and the ungodly poor and needy. He believes that all are to be regarded and rated equally as the neighbour. But when he becomes more enlightened in these matters he does make a distinction and provides help only to the good and upright. He knows that providing help to the evil does harm to many, for by the aid and support these get he gives them the opportunity to harm others. At length when he is being regenerated he does not do good to any but the good and the godly, for at this point he is not stirred by an affection simply for the person he does good to but by the good itself residing with that person. And since the Lord is present within all good and godliness he accordingly bears witness also, through his affection towards what is good, to his love to the Lord. When he is at heart moved by charity such as this he can become regenerate.
 From this it is evident that in relation to this state his previous state was an inverse one, that is to say, he believed that to be good which was not in fact good. Nevertheless at the beginning of regeneration he still had to put into practice that which, though not in fact good, he believed to be so since what he knew went no further and since more interior good that flows from charity was not able to enter into any truth apart from that of which he actually knew. It is also evident that more interior good was always present and fashioning it, and this good could not have manifested itself previously until by means of cognitions he had been gradually enlightened about the nature of goods and truths. From this it is evident to some extent what is meant by the good of truth, which ‘Jacob’ represents here, what is meant by the truth of good, which ‘Esau’ represents, and that at first these exist inversely but subsequently are joined together.
‘Jacob went out from Beersheba’ means life more remote from matters of doctrine that are Divine. ‘And went to Haran’ means closer to that degree of good and truth. ‘And he came upon a place’ means a state. ‘And spent the night there because the sun had gone down’ means life enveloped in obscurity. ‘And he took one of the stones of the place’ means the truths belonging to that state. ‘And placed it as his headrest’ means a very general communication with the Divine. ‘And lay down in that place’ means the serenity of that state.
 To demonstrate more fully what that life is, and what it is like, let a further brief statement be made about it. All the details of the historical tales contained in the Word are truths more remote from the actual matters of doctrine that are Divine. Nevertheless they are of service to young and older children in that by means of those tales they are led gradually into more interior matters of doctrine concerning what is true and good, and at length into Divine ones; for inmostly those tales hold what is Divine within them. When young children read them and in innocence are filled with affection for them, the angels present with them experience a delightful heavenly state, for the Lord fills those angels with affection for the internal sense and so for the things which the events of the historical tales represent and mean. It is that heavenly delight experienced by angels which flows in and causes the young children to take delight in those tales. In order that this first state may exist, that is, the state in early and later childhood of those who are to be regenerated, the historical tales in the Word have therefore been provided and written in such a way that every single detail there contains that which is Divine within them.
 How remote they are from matters of doctrine that are Divine may be seen from an example taken from those historical tales. When at first someone knows merely that God came down on Mount Sinai and gave Moses the tablets on which the Ten Commandments were written, and that Moses smashed them and God wrote similar commandments on another set of tablets, and this historical description in itself delights him, his life is governed by external truth and is remote from matters of doctrine that are Divine. Later on however when he starts to take delight in and have an affection for the commands or precepts there, and lives according to them, his life is now governed by actual truth; yet his life is still remote from matters of doctrine that are Divine. For the life he leads in keeping with those commands is no more than a morally correct life, the precepts of which are well known to everyone living in human society from the life of the community and from the laws existing there, such as worship of the Supreme Being, honouring parents, not committing murder, not committing adultery, and not stealing.
 But a person who is being regenerated is gradually led away from this more remote or morally correct life to life that comes closer to matters of doctrine that are Divine, that is, closer to spiritual life. When this happens he starts to wonder why such commands or precepts were sent down from heaven in so miraculous a fashion and why they were written on tablets with the finger of God, when they are in fact known to all peoples and are also written in the laws of those who have never heard anything from the Word. When he enters into this state of thinking he is then led by the Lord, if he belongs among those who are able to be regenerated, into a state more interior still, that is to say, into a state when he thinks that deeper things lie within which he does not as yet know. And when he reads the Word in this state he discovers in various places in the Prophets, and especially in the Gospels, that every one of those precepts contains within it things more heavenly still.
 In the commandment about honouring parents, for example, he discovers that when people are born anew, that is, are being regenerated, they receive another Father, and in that case become His sons, and that He is the one who is to be honoured, thus that this is the meaning which lies more interiorly in that commandment. He also gradually learns who that new Father is, namely the Lord, and at length how He is to be honoured, that is to say, worshipped, and that He is worshipped when He is loved. When a person who is being regenerated possesses this truth and lives according to it, a matter of doctrine that is Divine exists with him. His state at that time is an angelic state, and from this he now sees the things he had known previously as things which follow in order one after another and which flow from the Divine, like the steps of a stairway, at the top of which is Jehovah or the Lord, and on the steps themselves His angels going up and coming down. So he sees things that had previously delighted him as steps more remote from himself. The same may be said of the rest of the Ten Commandments, see 2609. From this one may now see what the life more remote from matters of doctrine that are Divine is, meant by the statement that Jacob went out from Beersheba.
 The reason why the phrase ‘that degree of good and truth’ is used is that goods and truths are quite distinct and separate from one another according to the degrees they belong to. Interior goods and truths exist in a higher degree, exterior goods and truths in a lower one. In a higher degree are the goods and truths which belong to the rational, in a lower one the goods and truths that belong to the natural, and in the lowest degree are the sensory goods and truths that belong to the body. Interior goods and truths, or those which exist in the higher degree, flow into exterior goods and truths, or those existing in the lower degree, and present an image of themselves there, almost as a person’s interior affections present themselves in his face and in the changing expressions seen there. From this it is evident that interior goods and truths are entirely separate from exterior goods and truths, or what amounts to the same, those which exist in the higher degree are entirely separate from those in the lower one, so separate that those which are interior or existing in the higher degree are able to manifest themselves independently of those that are exterior or existing in the lower one. Anyone who does not have a clear-cut idea of degrees cannot have a clear-cut idea of interior and exterior goods and truths, or of how a person’s soul or spirit and his body are related to each other, or of how in the next life the heavens are related to one another.
 It is well known that there are three heavens, that one heaven is interiorly within another, and that the third heaven is the inmost. These heavens are utterly distinct and separate, each a separate degree from the others. Members of the inmost or third are closer to the Lord; members of the less interior or second are more remote; and members of the exterior or first are more remote still. No communication between those heavens is possible other than a communication like that of the inmost parts of the human being with the exterior parts of him, for anyone who is governed by love to the Lord and by charity towards the neighbour is a miniature heaven, corresponding in image to the three heavens. In addition, he receives from those three heavens an influx, in three similar degrees, of good and truth from the Lord. What each of these is like compared with the other two becomes clear from the two examples introduced above in 3688 and 3690.
 Those who are governed by true love to the Lord, so much so that they have a perception of that love, are in the higher degree of good and truth. They are in the inmost or third heaven, thus closer to the Lord, and are called celestial angels. Those however who are governed by charity towards the neighbour, so much so that they have a perception of that charity but not so much a perception of love to the Lord, are in a lower degree of good and truth. They are in the interior or second heaven, accordingly more remote from the Lord, and are referred to as spiritual angels. Those however who are governed by charity towards the neighbour that arises solely from an affection for truth, so much so that they do not have any perception of that charity towards the neighbour except from the truth for which they have an affection, are in a still lower degree of good and truth. They are in the exterior or first heaven, accordingly more remote still from the Lord, and are termed good spirits.
 This shows to some extent the relationship of these degrees to one another, that is to say, it shows that things existing in a higher degree present an image of themselves that is formed from the things belonging to the degree immediately below them. Love to the Lord contains the closest image of the Lord. That image is called a likeness and therefore people who are governed by true love to the Lord are called likenesses of Him. Charity too contains an image of the Lord, though in a more remote way – for within genuine charity the Lord is present – and therefore people who are governed by such charity are referred to as His images, see 50, 51, 1013. But those who are governed by the affection for truth and consequently by a certain kind of charity towards the neighbour are also images of the Lord, yet in a more remote way still. Into these separate degrees the three heavens are distinguished, and in accordance with those same degrees the Lord flows in with Divine Good and Truth, and so with wisdom and intelligence, together with heavenly joy and happiness.
sRef Micah@3 @6 S2′ sRef Amos@8 @9 S2′ sRef Amos@8 @10 S2′  ‘Sundown’ in the Word means the falsity and evil in which those people are immersed with whom no charity or faith is present, and so means the last period of the Church – see 1837. Also it means obscurity as regards things that belong to good and truth, the kind of obscurity which envelops people who are in a degree more remote from matters of doctrine that are Divine – see 3691. For ‘sundown’ or ‘the sun went down’ means these things, as becomes clear from the following places in the Word: In Micah,
It will be night for you instead of vision, and darkness for you instead of divination; and the sun will go down over the prophets, and the day will become black over them. Micah 3:6.
‘The sun will go down over the prophets’ stands for their not possessing truth and an understanding of it any longer – ‘the prophets’ standing for people who teach the truths of doctrine, 2534. In Amos,
It will happen on that day, that I will make the sun go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in broad daylight; and I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation. Amos 8:9, 10.
‘Making the sun go down at noon’ stands for obscurity as regards truth with people who possess cognitions of good and truth – ‘noon’ being a state of light or of cognitions of truth, see 1458, 3195.
sRef Isa@60 @20 S3′  In Isaiah,
Your sun will no longer go down, and your moon will not be withdrawn, for Jehovah will be to you an everlasting light. Isa. 60:20.
This refers to the Lord’s kingdom. ‘The sun will no longer go down’ stands for those who will be provided with the life of good and with wisdom because the Lord’s celestial love and light will be with them. ‘The moon will not be withdrawn’ stands for those who will be provided with the life of truth and with intelligence because the Lord’s spiritual love and light will be with them. For in the next life the Lord is to celestial angels a sun, and to spiritual a moon, and from that sun and moon they receive wisdom and intelligence, see 1053, 1521, 1529-1531, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643. From this it is evident what is meant in the internal sense of the Word by ‘sunrise’ and ‘sundown’.
sRef Ps@104 @19 S4′ sRef Ps@104 @20 S4′ sRef Ps@104 @1 S4′ sRef Ps@104 @2 S4′  In David,
O Jehovah my God, You are very great! You are clothed with glory and honour – He who covers Himself with light as with a garment, [who] stretches out the heavens like a curtain, [Who] made the moon for established festivals – the sun knows its going down. You dispose the darkness, and it becomes night. Ps. 104:1, 2, 19, 20,
Here similarly ‘the moon’ stands for intelligence, and ‘the sun’ for wisdom from the Lord, while ‘sundown’ stands for obscurity in both. ‘Disposing the darkness so that it becomes night’ stands for lessening the state of obscurity. For angels experience changes of state, ranging from a great profusion of light to a smaller amount of light, or from a great profusion of wisdom to a smaller amount of wisdom, and those changes of state are like morning, when the sun rises, noon when at its highest point, evening when it goes down, and then morning once again, as will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be stated elsewhere.
sRef Josh@1 @4 S5′  In Joshua,
From the wilderness and Lebanon as far as the great river, the River Euphrates all the land of the Hittites, and as far as the Great Sea, the going down of the sun, will be your boundary. Josh. 1:4.
This is describing the full extent of the land of Canaan, which in the internal sense is the Lord’s kingdom, see 1607, 3038, 3481. ‘The River Euphrates’ is one boundary of this, that is to say, of spiritual and celestial things, 1866, while ‘the Great Sea’ and ‘the going down of the sun’ are the other boundary, by which their furthest limit – which is obscurity compared with all else – is represented. For all the boundaries and all the places in that land have a representation, see 1585.
sRef Deut@24 @13 S6′ sRef Ex@22 @26 S6′ sRef Ex@22 @27 S6′ sRef Deut@24 @12 S6′  In Moses,
If you take your neighbour’s clothing as a pledge you shall restore it to him before the sun goes down; for this is his only covering; it is his clothing for his skin, in which he will lie down. Exod. 22:26, 27.
And elsewhere in the same author,
If the man is poor you shall not lie down upon his pledge; you shall surely restore the pledge to him before the sun goes down, and let him lie on his own clothing and bless you; and it shall be righteousness to you before Jehovah your God. Deut. 24:12, 13.
This law, like every other, holds within it that which is a representative and a meaningful sign of Divine Law, which has to do with that which is good and true in the Lord’s kingdom; and, as every detail shows, that which is held within it is also the origin of it. The goodness and truth held within it and from which the law springs is the precept that companions are not to be cheated out of external truths, which consist both in the matters of doctrine on which they base their lives and in their religious practices – ‘clothing’ meaning such truths, see 297, 1073, 2576, and the requirement to restore it [to the one who is poor] before the sun went down meaning before truth present with him perished. And since that truth is external it is said that that clothing is for his skin, in which he will lie down.
sRef Deut@23 @10 S7′ sRef Lev@22 @7 S7′ sRef Lev@22 @6 S7′ sRef Deut@23 @11 S7′  In the same author,
The soul which has touched anything unclean shall be unclean until the evening and shall not eat any of the holy things; but when he has bathed his flesh with water, and the sun has gone down, he will be clean; and afterwards he shall eat from the holy things. Lev. 22:6, 7.
And elsewhere in the same author,
The person who is not clean – towards evening he shall bathe himself with water; and when the sun goes down he shall enter the midst of the camp. Deut. 23:10, 11.
This law also, it is clear, has its origin in the laws of good and truth, or the laws of order, existing in the Lord’s kingdom, for why else would it have been commanded that the unclean person was to wait until evening when he was to bathe himself with water, and after the sun had gone down would be clean? The law of order existing in the Lord’s kingdom from which the law stated above derives is this: When good and angelic spirits sink into a state of self-love and consequently into a state of falsity, they are returned for a brief while into their own natural or lower state and there they are equipped with cognitions of good and truth that relate to that matter. This is what is meant by ‘bathing themselves with water in the evening’, for ‘bathing oneself with water’ means being purified from falsities, see 3147, 3148, and ‘water’ means cognitions of truth, 28, 680, 739, 2702, 3058. And after being in that state of obscurity meant by ‘sundown’ they return to their previous state, meant by their then being clean and entering into the midst of the camp. This matter will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be described from experience elsewhere. From all these places that have been quoted it is evident that ‘sundown’ in the Word means a state of obscurity as regards truth in the case of those who are good and a state of falsity in the case of those who are evil.
 Something very similar to this occurs with the new life with one who is being regenerated. At first he experiences a state of serenity, but as he moves on into the new life so he moves into a state that is not serene. For evils and falsities which he has taken into himself previously now emerge and show themselves, and these trouble him, so much so at length that he undergoes temptations and trials from the devil’s crew who try all the time to destroy his state of new life. But despite this a state of peace exists with him inmostly. But for its presence inmostly he would not put up any fight at all, for in all the conflicts he experiences he sees that state as the end in view. If that end were not in view he would never have the power and strength to fight. And this is also what enables him to overcome. And since it is the end in view he also enters that state once conflict or temptations are past. It is like the state of spring which follows that of autumn and winter, or like the state of dawn following evening and night. Regarding the resemblance of the state of peace in spiritual things to spring and dawn in natural ones, see 1726, 2780; and as regards peace being the result of goodness and truth, but unrest the result of evil and falsity, 3170.
sRef Lev@26 @3 S3′ sRef Lev@26 @6 S3′  That ‘lying down’ in the Word means a state of serenity may be seen from the following places: In Moses,
If you walk in My statutes and observe My commandments and do them, I will give peace in the land, and you will lie down, and none will make you afraid. And I will cause evil wild animals to cease from the land, and the sword will not pass through your land. Lev. 26:3, 6.
‘Lying down’ clearly applies to a state of peace and serenity. ‘Evil wild animals’ stands for desires for evil, 45, 46, 908, which ‘are going to cease’. ‘The sword’ stands for falsity in conflict with truth, 2799, which ‘is not going to pass through the land’. From this it is also evident that peace and the serenity of peace is the result of goodness and truth, and the destruction of it is the result of evils and falsities.
sRef Isa@11 @7 S4′ sRef Isa@11 @6 S4′ sRef Hos@2 @18 S4′  In Isaiah,
The wolf will dwell with the lamb, and the leopard will lie down with the kid, and the calf and the young lion together; and a little child will lead them. And the young cow and the beer will feed; their young will lie down together. Isa. 11:6, 7.
This refers to the Lord and to the state of peace existing in His kingdom. ‘They will lie down together’ stands for their being unable to be infested by anything evil or false. In Hosea,
I will make for them a covenant on that day with the wild beasts of the field, and with the birds of the air, and with the creeping things of the earth. And I will abolish* the bow, and the sword, and war from the land, and I will make them lie down in safety. Hosea 2:18.
Here likewise ‘lying down’ stands for a state of serenity following the removal of falsities and evils which are responsible for unrest.
sRef Ps@4 @8 S5′ sRef Ps@23 @2 S5′ sRef Ps@3 @6 S5′ sRef Ps@23 @3 S5′ sRef Ps@3 @5 S5′  In David,
I will lie down and sleep, and will awake again, for Jehovah sustains me. I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people, who set themselves against me round about. Ps. 3:5, 6.
‘Lying down and sleeping’ stands for a state of serenity and security. In the same author,
In peace I will both lie down and sleep, because You, O Jehovah, alone make me dwell with confidence. Ps. 4:8.
And in the same author,
He will make me to down in green pastures; He will lead me to still waters; He will restore my soul. Ps. 23:2, 3.
From these places it is evident that a state of peace and serenity is described by ‘lying down’, and that ‘lying down in that place’ means the serenity of the state – for ‘place’ in the internal sense is state, 3692.
* lit. break
‘He dreamed’ means foresight. ‘And behold, a stairway set up on the earth’ means a communication of lowest truth and of good derived from this truth. ‘And its top reaching to heaven’ means with the Divine. ‘And behold, the angels of God going up and coming down on it’ means an infinite and eternal communication and the consequent joining together – a going up, so to speak, from what is lowest, and after that, when order has been inverted, a coming down to it. ‘And behold, Jehovah was standing above it’ means the Lord at the highest point. ‘And He said, I am Jehovah, the God of Abraham your father’ means the Lord in whom that good originated. ‘And the God of Isaac’ means the Lord’s Divine Human. ‘The land on which you are lying I will give to you’ means that the good on which the Natural rested was His own in origin. ‘And to your seed’ means truth also. ‘And your seed will be as the dust of the earth’ means that Divine natural Truth would be as natural good. ‘And you will break forth towards the sea, and towards the east’ means infinite extension of good, while ‘and towards the north, and towards the south’ means infinite extension of truth – thus every state of good and truth. ‘And in you will all the families of the ground be blessed’ means that all truths taught by doctrine which look to good will be joined to good. ‘And in your seed’ means and to truth. ‘And behold, I am with you’ means the Divine. ‘And will guard you wherever you go’ means Divine Providence. ‘And will bring you back to this ground’ means conjunction with doctrine that is Divine. ‘For I will not leave you until I have done what I have spoken about to you’ means that nothing would be missing to prevent its actually happening.
When a prophet has spoken in the name of Jehovah but that event has not happened or taken place it was not Jehovah who spoke. The prophet spoke it presumptuously. Deut. 18:22.
sRef Deut@13 @3 S2′ sRef Deut@13 @2 S2′ sRef Deut@13 @1 S2′  And even the foretellings of events which did take place may have been made by evil people and worshippers of another god, as stated in the same book,
If a prophet or the dreamer of a dream arises in the midst of you, and gives you a sign or else a wonder, and the sign or wonder he has told you comes to pass, and he says, Let us go after other gods which you have not known, and let us serve them; you shall not obey the words of that prophet or the dreamer of that dream; for Jehovah your God is testing you. Deut. 13:1-3.
From these words it is evident that the actual foretelling originated in the Divine but the incitement to worship other gods in the proprium of the prophet, who was allowed to make such a suggestion to people so that they could be tested, as is stated. This among other reasons is also why on many occasions in former times people who worshipped the baals and other gods even prophesied, saw visions, and dreamed dreams, and also why what they uttered actually happened, so that they frequently led others astray. These people are referred to in Jeremiah 23. And besides these there were others called diviners, soothsayers, sorcerers, familiar spirits, among those who applied themselves to natural magic, from which nothing at all Divine could be foretold, only what was contrary to the Divine, that is, to the Lord, and contrary to the good of love and to the truth of faith in Him. This is magic, no matter what it looks like in outward appearance.
 In the original language the word for a stairway is derived from a word meaning a pathway or highway, which is used in reference to truth, see 627, 2333. Furthermore when angels are discussing truth their discussion manifests itself representatively in the world of spirits as pathways, see 189, 3477. From this it is evident what ‘a stairway’ means, one end of which is set up on the earth while the other reaches up to heaven. That is to say, it means a communication of truth in the lowest place with truth in the highest place, a communication dealt with below. For there are lowest truths and goods and highest truths and goods, and degrees of them in between like a stairway, see 3691.
 The nature of this going up and coming down becomes clear from what has been stated and shown above in 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3607, 3610, 3665, 3690. But because this order – which comes into effect when a person is being regenerated and which is described in the internal sense here and in what follows – is completely unknown in the Church, let the nature of it be illustrated further: It is well known that a person is born into the same disposition as his parents, grandparents, and great grandparents, going back for centuries, and so into hereditary evil gradually accumulated by all those before him, so much so that there is nothing but evil in what he does when he acts from himself. As a consequence both his understanding and his will have been totally spoiled and of himself he does not will anything good at all and therefore does not understand anything true at all. That which he calls good, indeed believes to be good, is in fact evil, and that which he calls the truth, indeed believes to be the truth, is in fact falsity. Take, for example, loving himself more than others, wanting things to be better for himself than for others, desiring what belongs to someone else, and considering only himself and not others unless he himself will benefit. Because he desires these things of himself he indeed calls them good and also true. And what is more, if anyone harms or tries to harm these things which by him are called good and true, he hates him and is also filled with thoughts of revenge. He desires and also seeks that person’s ruin, and takes delight in this insofar as he actually strengthens such intentions in himself, that is, as frequently as he actually puts them into effect.
 When such a person enters the next life his desires remain the same. The actual disposition which he has acquired in the world by the life he led remains, and that delight is perceived plainly by others. Consequently he is unable to be in any heavenly community where everyone wants things to be better for others than for himself; but he is in some community of hell whose delight is similar to his own. It is that disposition of his which needs to be rooted out while he is living in the world, something that cannot possibly be achieved except through regeneration from the Lord, that is, through receiving quite another will and therefore quite another understanding – by becoming a new person so far as both those powers of mind are concerned. But for this to come about he must first of all be born like a young child again, learn what evil and falsity are, and learn what good and truth are, for without knowledge or awareness of these he is unable to have any good conferred on him. Indeed of himself he does not acknowledge anything else as good except that which is evil, nor anything else as truth except that which is false.
 To make a person new, cognitions are instilled into him such as are not completely contrary to those he has already – for example, the idea that all love starts in himself; the idea that one should consider oneself first and others only after that; the idea that those people who are outwardly poor and wretched should be helped irrespective of what they are like inwardly; and that similarly widows and orphans should be helped solely because they are called such; and at length the idea that enemies in general should be helped irrespective of who they may be; and also the idea that by acting in these ways one is able to merit heaven. These and other ideas like them are the cognitions proper to the early childhood of his new life. They are such that because they derive to some extent from his previous life, or the disposition belonging to his previous life, they also derive to some extent from his new life into which he is being led in this way. They are consequently such as allow into themselves things that contribute towards the formation of a new will and of a new understanding. They are the lowest forms of good and truth, and it is with these that people who are being regenerated start out. And because these lowest forms of good and truth allow more interior truths into themselves, that is, truths closer to Divine truths, falsities which a person had previously believed to be truths are also rooted out.
 People who are being regenerated however do not learn such things simply as matters of knowledge but as matters of life, for they practice those truths. But their practice of them has its beginnings in the new will which the Lord is instilling, though they are totally unaware of it. And to the extent they welcome that new will they also welcome those cognitions, put them into practice, and believe them. But to the extent they do not welcome that new will they are indeed able to learn such truths but not to put them into effect since they consider them purely as matters of knowledge and not of life.
 That state is the state of early and later childhood as regards the new life which is to replace the previous life, but the state of the early and later youth of that life is a state when no attention is paid to any person’s outward presentation of himself but to what he is like with regard to good – first of all with regard to it in public affairs, then in private affairs, and at length in spiritual, at which point he starts to possess and to love good first and foremost, and from good the person. And when after that he is more perfect still his concern is to aid those who are governed by good, his help depending on the kind of good present with those whom he helps. At length he takes delight in helping them. And because he takes delight in good he also takes pleasure in ideas that support it. Those supporting ideas he acknowledges as truths, which also constitute the truths of his new understanding which flow from the forms of good which belong to his new will.
 To the same extent as he takes delight in that good and takes pleasure in those truths he also feels an aversion to the evils of his previous life and a displeasure in its falsities. This is why things belonging to the previous will are now separated from those belonging to the new will, and those belonging to the previous understanding from those belonging to the new understanding. The determining factor in this separation is not the affection for knowing them, but the affection for doing them. As a consequence he now sees that the truths belonging to his early childhood in relation one to another have existed inversely and that those same truths have been reorganized little by little into another order, that is to say, their interrelationship has been changed so that those which initially occupied the first place now occupy the last. In this way he sees that by means of those truths which belonged to his early and later childhood the angels of God so to speak went up by means of a stairway from earth to heaven, whereas now by means of the truths belonging to his adult life the angels of God so to speak come down by means of the stairway from heaven to earth.
 The creation of the human being in this particular form is evident from the fact that his body is a world in miniature, because every arcanum that is part of the natural world is also stowed in the body. Each arcanum present in the ever-changing sky is also stowed in the eye; and each one in the air is also stowed in the ear. Anything floating unseen and active in the air is stowed – where it is detected – in the organ of smell, anything unseen that is present in water or any other fluid is stowed in the organ of taste. And actual changes of state likewise occur in the sense of touch throughout the body. Besides these even further arcana are stored away in the body which could be detected by a person within his interior organs if his life accorded with order. From this it is evident that a descent of the Divine through the human being into the lowest degree of the natural order would take place, and from the lowest degree of the natural order an ascent to the Divine, if only the human being with heartfelt faith, that is, with love, acknowledged the Lord as his Final and Primary end.
 A state such as this existed with the most ancient people, who were celestial, for whatever they discerned with any of their senses was to them a means to thought about things which are the Lord’s, and so about the Lord and His kingdom. This was the source of the delight they gained from worldly and earthly things, see 1409, 2896, 2897, 2995. Furthermore whenever these people contemplated in this fashion the lower and the lowest things of the natural order, such things appeared to them to have life in them; for the life from which these came down existed in those people’s internal sight and perception. The objects which they saw with their eyes were so to speak images of that life, and although those images were inanimate they were nevertheless animate to those people. This is the kind of perception that celestial angels have of every thing in the world, as I have often been allowed to perceive, and it is also the source of the kind of perception which young children have, see 2297, 2298. This shows what those people are like through whom Divine things that are the Lord’s come right down to the lowest things of the natural order, and from the lowest things of the natural order rise up to Him – people that represent Divine communication and the consequent joining together, meant in the highest sense by ‘the angels going up and coming down the stairway set up on the earth, and its top reaching to heaven, with Jehovah standing above it’.
 The whole natural order also in every single part has reference to what is good and what is true. In it, that is, the natural order, the celestial and spiritual goods and truths that belong to heaven are represented, and in heaven Divine Goods and Truths that are the Lord’s are represented. From this it becomes clear that good is like the father and truth is like the mother, and that therefore ‘father’ in the internal sense of the Word means good, and ‘mother’ truth. Indeed they mean the goodness and truth in which lower or derived goods and truths originate, which in relation to them are as daughters and sons, and are also consequently called daughters and sons in the Word, 489-491, 2362. They are also in relation to that good and truth as brothers and sisters, as grandchildren and great grandchildren, as sons-in-law, fathers-in-law, and daughters-in-law; in short they are as every degree of blood relationship and relationship by marriage. And all these relationships stem from the marriage of good, which is the father, to truth, which is the mother. For all things – every single one – in heaven exist as in blood relationships of love to and faith in the Lord, or what amounts to the same, of good and truth, see 685, 917, 2739, 3612, and the most ancient people therefore compared all these things to marriages, 54, 55. See also 718, 747, 1432, 2508, 2516, 2524, 2556.
sRef Isa@51 @2 S3′ sRef Isa@51 @3 S3′ sRef Isa@51 @1 S3′  That ‘father’ in the internal sense of the Word means good may be seen from very many places, as from the following: In Isaiah,
Pay attention to Me, you who are pursuing righteousness, who are seeking Jehovah; look to the rock from which you were hewn; and to the hole of the pit from which you were dug; look to Abraham your father and to Sarah who bore you, for when he was but one I called him; and I blessed him, and I will multiply him. For Jehovah will comfort Zion, He will comfort all her waste places, and will make her wilderness like Eden and her desert like the garden of Jehovah. Isa. 51:1-3.
This refers to the Lord and His Coming, as is evident from every detail. As regards Divine Truth He is called ‘a rock’ and ‘a pit’, and as regards Divine Good ‘Abraham your father’. And because the Divine marriage of Good and Truth is represented by Abraham and Sarah, see 1468, 1901, 1965, 1989, 2011, 2063, 2065, 2172, 2173, 2198, 2507, 2833, 2836, 2904, 3245, 3251, 3305 (end), the expressions ‘Abraham your father’ and ‘Sarah who bore you’ are used. This explains why it is said that they were to look to the rock and to the pit, and to Abraham their father and to Sarah. It also explains why the promises follow immediately after, declaring that ‘Jehovah will comfort Zion’, which is the celestial Church, see 2362, and that ‘He will comfort her waste places, and will make her wilderness like Eden and her desert like the garden of Jehovah’.
sRef Matt@3 @10 S4′ sRef John@8 @38 S4′ sRef John@8 @39 S4′ sRef Matt@3 @9 S4′ sRef John@8 @41 S4′  Abraham has a similar meaning when elsewhere in the Word he is called ‘father’, as in John,
Jesus said, I speak what I have seen with My Father, and you also do what you have seen with your father. They answered and said to Him, Our father is Abraham. Jesus said to them, If you were Abraham’s sons, you would do the works of Abraham. You do the works of your father. John 8:38, 39, 41.
And in Matthew,
Do not presume to say within yourselves, We have Abraham as our father. I tell you that God is able from these stones to raise up children to Abraham. Even now the axe is laid to the root of the trees; every tree not bearing good fruit will be cut down and cast into the fire. Matt. 3:9, 10.
And in Luke,
When the poor man Lazarus died he was carried by the angels into Abraham’s bosom. The rich man also died and was buried; and when he was in hell he raised his eyes and saw Abraham far off, and Lazarus in his bosom. Calling out he said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me. I ask you, father, to send him to my father’s house. Luke 16:19-end.
In these places it is evident that Abraham was not meant but the Lord as regards Divine Good. For Abraham is unknown in heaven, and when his name is used in the Word the Lord is meant, see 1834, 1876, 1989, 3305 (end).
sRef Ex@20 @12 S5′  That ‘father’ means good in the internal sense becomes clear from the following places: In Moses,
Honour your father and your mother, that your days may be prolonged on the land which Jehovah your God gives you. Exod. 20:12; Deut. 5:16.
This commandment, like the rest of the Ten Commandments, is true in both senses – in the internal sense ‘honouring father and mother’ is loving what is good and true, and in what is good and true loving the Lord, see 2609, 3690. ‘Days on the land’ means resulting states of good within the Lord’s kingdom, as is clear from the meaning of ‘days’ as states, 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, and from the meaning of Canaan, to which ‘the land’ refers here, as the Lord’s kingdom, 1607, 3038, 3481, and from ‘being prolonged’ haying reference to good, 1613.
sRef Deut@27 @16 S6′ sRef Deut@21 @18 S6′ sRef Deut@21 @19 S6′ sRef Ex@21 @15 S6′ sRef Ezek@22 @7 S6′ sRef Ex@21 @17 S6′ sRef Deut@21 @21 S6′ sRef Ezek@22 @6 S6′ sRef Lev@20 @9 S6′  Since ‘father and mother’ had these meanings many laws were therefore laid down in the Jewish representative Church relating to parents and sons. In every case good and truth were meant in the internal sense, and in the highest sense the Lord as regards Divine Good and Divine Truth, as in Moses,
Whoever strikes his father and his mother shall surely die. If anyone curses his father or his mother he shall surely die. Exod. 21:15, 17.
In the same author,
Any man who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death; he who curses his father and his mother, his blood shall be on him. Lev. 20:9.
Cursed is he who treats his father and his mother with contempt; and all the people shall say, Amen. Deut. 27:16, 17.
Behold, the princes of Israel, every one according to his power,* have in you been intent on shedding blood; in you they have treated father and mother with contempt. Ezek. 22:6, 7.
When a man has a stubborn and rebellious son, in no way obeying the voice of his father or the voice of his mother, and though they correct him he still does not obey them, his father and his mother shall take hold of him and bring him to the elders of the city, and to the gateway of their place. And all the men of that city shall stone him with stones so that he dies. Deut. 21:18, 19, 21.
sRef Matt@12 @49 S7′ sRef Matt@23 @8 S7′ sRef Matt@12 @50 S7′ sRef Matt@23 @9 S7′  In all these places ‘father and mother’ in the sense of the letter is used to mean father and mother, but in the internal sense good and truth are meant, and in the highest sense the Lord as regards Divine Good and Divine Truth. This is also the Lord’s own teaching in Matthew,
Jesus stretching out His hand over His disciples said, Beyond My mother and My brothers; whoever does the will of My Father who is in heaven is My brother, and sister, and mother. Matt. 12:49, 50.
And in the same gospel,
Refuse to be called master, for one is your Master, Christ; but all you are brothers. And call nobody your father on earth, for one is your Father who is in heaven. Matt. 23:8, 9.
It is not being called master or being called father on earth that is forbidden here, but acknowledging in the heart any other father than the Lord. That is, when the names master and father are used one should understand the Lord whom in the highest sense they represent, in the same way, as stated just above in 3702, as anything perceived on earth by the most ancient people who were celestial was to them the means for thought concerning the Lord.
sRef Matt@8 @21 S8′ sRef Matt@8 @22 S8′ sRef 1Ki@19 @19 S8′ sRef 1Ki@19 @20 S8′  Much the same is embodied in what the Lord told one of the disciples who said,
Lord, let me first go away and bury my father. Jesus said to him, Follow Me; leave the dead to bury the dead. Matt. 8:21, 22.
Indeed the relationship of father on earth to Father in heaven, who is the Lord, is as one who is dead to one who is living, even as the law itself about honouring parents is so to speak dead unless it holds honour, worship, and love to the Lord within it. For that law about honouring parents comes down from the latter Divine law. And because it comes down from the latter, the living element which exists within the law about honouring parents is received from this Divine law. This is why the Lord said, ‘Follow Me, leave the dead to bury the dead’. What Elijah told Elisha is also similar in meaning,
Elijah passed beside Elisha and cast his mantle over him, and he left the oxen and ran after Elijah, and said, Let me kiss, I beg you, my father and mother; then I will go after you. He therefore said to him, Go away; go back again; for what have I done to you? 1 Kings 19:19, 20.
Elijah represented the Lord – see Preface to Chapter 18, and 2762.
sRef Mal@4 @6 S9′ sRef Luke@1 @17 S9′ sRef Mal@4 @5 S9′  In Malachi,
Lo, I am sending you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of Jehovah comes. And he will turn the heart of the fathers to the sons, and the heart of the sons to their fathers lest I come and smite the earth with a ban. Mal. 4:5, 6.
And in Luke where the angel addresses Zechariah regarding his son John,
He will go before the Lord in the spirit and power of Elijah to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children. Luke 1:17.
From these places it is evident that ‘fathers’ and ‘sons’ are not used to mean fathers and sons but the goods and truths of the Church which the Lord is going to restore.
sRef Mal@1 @5 S10′ sRef Mal@1 @6 S10′  In Malachi,
May Jehovah be magnified upon the border of Israel! A son should honour his father, and a servant his lord. If I am a Father, where is My honour? If I am a Lord, where is the fear of Me? Mal. 1:5, 6.
‘A son’ stands for those who are governed by the good of the Church, ‘a servant’ those who are governed by its truth. Here ‘a Father’ clearly stands for the Lord as regards Divine Good, and ‘a Lord’ as regards Divine Truth.
sRef Ps@27 @10 S11′  In David,
My father and my mother have forsaken me, and Jehovah welcomes me. Ps. 27:10.
‘Father and mother’ stands for good and truth which are said to have forsaken a person when it is realized that of himself he is unable to perform anything good or to know anything true. For the meaning, it is evident, is not that David’s mother and father forsook him.
sRef Ps@45 @2 S12′ sRef Ps@45 @13 S12′ sRef Ps@45 @16 S12′  In the same author,
You are more beautiful by far than the sons of men. All glorious is the king’s daughter within, in her clothing with gold interweavings. Instead of your fathers will be your sons; you will make them into princes in all the earth. Ps. 45:2, 13, 16.
This refers to the Lord. ‘Instead of your fathers will be your sons’ stands for Divine Truths becoming as Divine Goods. ‘The king’s daughter’ stands for the love of truth; ‘clothing with gold interweavings’ for the nature of that truth grounded in good. Since the subject is the Lord and His Divine Human, as is evident from this Psalm as a whole and in every part, every single phrase clearly has reference to one and the same thing. So the phrase ‘the king’s daughter’ is not used to mean the daughter of the king, nor are the phrases ‘clothing with gold interweavings’, ‘instead of your fathers will be your sons’, and ‘their being made into princes in all the earth’ to be taken literally, but each phrase means Divine celestial and spiritual things. ‘A daughter’ means affection or love, see 490, 491, 2362; ‘the king’ Divine Truth, 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009; ‘gold’ good, 113, 1551, 1552. ‘That which is interwoven’ has reference to natural knowledge, 2831, in this case therefore to Divine natural truth. ‘Clothing’ means such truths as clothe good, 297, 2576; ‘sons instead of fathers’ truths begotten from good, in this case Divine Truths being as Divine Goods, 264, 489, 491, 533, 1147, 1729, 1733, 2159, 2623, 2803, 2813. ‘Princes in all the earth’ are the first and foremost things of the Lord’s kingdom and Church – ‘princes’ being the things that are first and foremost, 1482, 2089, ‘the earth’ the Lord’s kingdom and Church, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118 (end), 3355.
sRef Deut@10 @15 S13′ sRef Deut@10 @16 S13′  In Moses,
Your fathers Jehovah delighted to love, and He chose their seed after them, even you out of all peoples, as at this day. Therefore circumcise the foreskin of your heart and be stiff-necked no longer. Deut. 10:15, 16.
‘Fathers’ here in the internal sense stands for the Ancient and Most Ancient Churches, whose members were so called by virtue of the love they had of good and truth – the most ancient people, who were celestial, by virtue of their love of good, the ancients, who were spiritual, by virtue of their love of truth. The goods and truths existing in the Church are referred to as ‘the seed Jehovah chose’. Clearly Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and the latter’s twelve sons are not meant by the fathers referred to here, nor the Israelite and Jewish people by ‘the seed’. Rather the statement is made regarding them and addressed to them in order that the internal sense may be given some external form and so be intelligible to men.
sRef Isa@3 @6 S14′ sRef Isa@3 @5 S14′ sRef Isa@3 @7 S14′  In Isaiah,
The boy will uplift himself against the old man, and the base fellow against the honourable; for a man will take hold of his brother in his father’s house, [saying,] You have clothing, you will be leader for us. He will say, In my house there is neither bread [nor clothing]. Do not make me a leader** of the people. Isa. 3:5-7.
This refers in the internal sense to a perverted state of the Church when truth is no longer acknowledged as truth, and it is not known what good is. ‘A man will take hold of his brother in his father’s house’ stands for acknowledging everything as good. ‘Clothing’ stands for truth, 1073, 2576, ‘a leader (or prince)’ for a first and foremost matter of doctrine drawn from truth, 1482, 2089. ‘In the house there is neither bread nor clothing’ stands for neither good nor truth – ‘bread’ meaning good, 276, 680, 3478, and ‘clothing’ truth, 297, 2576.
sRef Lev@21 @9 S15′ sRef Lev@22 @13 S15′  Because father and mother, and also daughters and sons, represented goodness and truth in the representative Churches many laws existed which possessed from those representatives that which was Divine within them, such as the following,
If a priest’s daughter has acted profanely by committing whoredom, she is profaning her father; she shall be burnt with fire. Lev. 21:9.
‘A priest’s daughter’ stands for the affection for good, ‘father’ for the good from which that affection springs. ‘Committing whoredom’ stands for profaning what is good. What ‘committing whoredom’ is, see 2466, 2729, 3399, and what ‘acting profanely’, 1008, 1010, 1059, 2051, 3398, 3399. Also,
If a priest’s daughter has been made a widow or divorced and has no seed she shall return to her father’s house, as in her youth; she shall eat of her father’s bread. No stranger shall eat of it. Lev. 22:13.
sRef Deut@21 @11 S16′ sRef Deut@21 @12 S16′ sRef Deut@21 @13 S16′  And this law also,
If you see among the captives a wife with a beautiful form and you desire her to take her for yourself as wife you shall bring her inside your home; and she shall shave her head and pare her nails; and she shall take off the clothing of her captivity born upon her, and shall sit in your house and lament her father and her mother a hill month; and after that you shall go in to her and know her, and she shall be your wife. Deut. 21:11-13.
Every single detail in this law is representative of natural truth, which is adopted by good once it has been purified from falsities. Such truth is meant by ‘a wife beautiful in form among the captives’; purification from falsities by ‘bringing her inside your home’, and by her ‘shaving her head, paring her nails, taking off the clothing of her captivity, and lamenting her father and mother’; and adoption by ‘after that going in to her, knowing her, and taking her as a wife’.
 The Marriage Laws requiring marriages to be contracted within the tribe and the family, and also the Inheritance Laws forbidding the transfer of inheritances from one tribe to another, which are written in the Word, also had the same origins, that is to say, in the celestial and spiritual marriage in the Lord’s kingdom, or the marriage of good and truth, which are meant by ‘father and mother’. The same applies to the laws laid down relating to the permissible and the forbidden degrees of affinity. Each law in the Word concerning those matters has reference inwardly to the law of the affiliation and joining together of good and truth in heaven, and to the affiliations of evil and falsity in hell, which are separated from the former. For laws to do with permissible and forbidden degrees, see Lev. 20; for laws forbidding the transfer of inheritances from one tribe to another, and for those requiring marriages to be contracted within the tribe, see Num. 27:7-9, and elsewhere. In heaven the position of every single thing is fixed according to blood relationships of good and truth and to relationships of them through marriage, see 685, 917, 2739, 3612.
sRef Num@24 @2 S18′ sRef Num@24 @3 S18′ sRef Num@2 @2 S18′ sRef Num@24 @5 S18′ sRef Num@24 @6 S18′ sRef Num@2 @34 S18′  Since the Israelitish people represented the Lord’s kingdom in heaven and so the heavenly order existing there, the command was also given for them to be singled out according to tribes, according to families, and according to the houses of their fathers, see Num. 26:1-end. In addition to this they were required to pitch camp around the tent of meeting in conformity with that heavenly order, and also to journey in conformity with it, as stated in Moses,
Each one of the children of Israel shall pitch camp beneath his own standard, by the ensigns of his father’s house, at a distance around the tent of meeting. And in the same formations they also set out. Num. 2:2, 34.
This was why, when Balaam saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, the Spirit of God came upon him and he delivered this utterance, How good your tabernacles are, O Jacob, your dwelling-places, O Israel? They are like valleys that are planted, like gardens beside a river, etc., etc. Num. 24:2, 5, 6, and following verses.
From every word used here it is evident that not Jacob or Israel were meant but the Lord’s kingdom in heaven and His Church on earth, which were represented by that order in which he saw them spread out at that time.
sRef Deut@24 @17 S19′ sRef Deut@24 @19 S19′  From these examples one may also know what is meant in the internal sense of the Word by orphans! that is, the fatherless, namely people whose state is a state of innocence and charity and who wish to know and put into effect what is good but are not able to do so. Such a state exists in particular with those outside the Church whom the Lord cares about and adopts in the next life as His sons. And since those people are meant by ‘orphans’, when these are mentioned in the Word, sojourners and widows are in many instances mentioned too. For ‘sojourners’ means those who are receiving instruction in goods and truths, 1463, and ‘widows’ those whose state is one of good but not so much of truth, or those whose state is one of truth but not so much of good, and who yet desire what they lack. Since these three – orphans, sojourners, and widows – belong to a very similar line of meaning, therefore all three are in most places mentioned together, as has been stated, see Deut. 14:29; 16:11, 14; 24:17, 19; Jer. 7:6; 22:3; Ezek. 22:6, 7; Zech. 7:10; Ps. 94:6; 146:9. From these considerations one may now see what ‘father’ means in the genuine sense, namely good, and in the highest sense the Lord.
sRef Ps@78 @57 S20′ sRef Ps@109 @14 S20′ sRef Lev@26 @39 S20′ sRef Isa@14 @21 S20′ sRef Isa@65 @7 S20′  Now because most things in the Word also have a contrary sense, so has the word ‘father’. In that sense it means evil. Equally so ‘mother’, which in the genuine sense means truth, in the contrary sense means falsity. The contrary meanings may be seen from the following places: In David,
The iniquity of his fathers will be remembered before Jehovah, and the sin of his mother will not be wiped out. Ps. 109:14.
In the same author,
They drew back and acted treacherously like their fathers; they turned about like a deceitful bow. Ps. 78:57.
Until the remainder of you waste away in their iniquity in the lands of your enemies: and they will also waste away in their fathers’ iniquities with them. Lev. 26:39. In Isaiah,
Prepare slaughter for his sons because of the iniquity of their fathers, and let them not rise up again and possess the earth, and fill the face of the earth with cities. Isa. 14:21.
In the same prophet, I will repay your iniquities, and the iniquities of your fathers together. Isa. 65:7.
sRef Jer@2 @26 S21′ sRef Jer@7 @18 S21′ sRef Jer@2 @27 S21′ sRef Ezek@16 @3 S21′ sRef Jer@6 @21 S21′ sRef Ezek@5 @9 S21′ sRef Ezek@5 @10 S21′  In Jeremiah,
The house of Israel is ashamed, they, their kings, their princes, and their priests, and their prophets, who say to wood, You are my father, and to a stone, You gave birth to me. For they have turned their neck to Me and not their face. Jer. 2:26, 27.
In the same prophet,
Behold, I am laying before this people stumbling-blocks, and fathers and sons together will stumble against them, neighbour and his friend, and they will perish. Jer. 6:21.
In the same prophet,
The sons gather pieces of wood, and the fathers kindle fire, and the women knead dough to make cakes for Melecheth.*** Jer. 7:18.
I will do in you that which I have not done, and such things as I will not do any longer, because of your abominations. Therefore fathers will eat their sons, and sons will eat their fathers; and I will execute judgements on you, and I will scatter the whole remnant of you to every wind. Ezek. 5:9, 10.
This refers to the profanation of what is holy. In the same prophet,
Thus said the Lord Jehovih to Jerusalem, Your tracings and your births are of the land of the Canaanite. Your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. Ezek. 16:3.
sRef Matt@10 @21 S22′ sRef Matt@10 @37 S22′ sRef Matt@19 @29 S22′ sRef Matt@10 @36 S22′ sRef Matt@10 @22 S22′ sRef Luke@14 @26 S22′ sRef Matt@10 @35 S22′  In Matthew,
Brother will deliver up brother to death, and father the son; and children will rise up against parents and put them to death. And so you will be hated by everyone for My name’s sake. I have come to set a man (homo) against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; and a man’s (homo) foes will be those in his own household. Whoever loves father and mother more than Me is not worthy of Me, and whoever loves son and daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me. Matt. 10:21, 22, 35-37; Luke 12:49, 52, 53.
In the same gospel,
Everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or wife or children or fields for My name’s sake will receive a hundredfold and will be allotted the inheritance of eternal life. Matt. 19:29; Luke 18:29, 30; Mark 10:29, 30.
If anyone comes to Me and does not hate his father and his mother and wife and children and brothers and sisters, yes, and even his own soul, he cannot be My disciple. Luke 14:26.
sRef Mark@13 @12 S23′ sRef John@8 @39 S23′ sRef John@8 @38 S23′ sRef John@8 @41 S23′ sRef John@8 @42 S23′ sRef Mark@13 @13 S23′ sRef John@8 @44 S23′  In Mark,
Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his children, and children will rise up together against parents and will kill them; for you will be hated by all for My name’s sake. Mark 13:12, 13; Luke 21:16, 17.
This refers to the close of the age and is describing the state of the Church when perverted as regards good and truth, that is to say, when evil rises up against truth, and falsity against good. The meaning of ‘father’ in the contrary sense as evil is evident from the places just quoted and also from the following in John,
Jesus said, If God were your father you would love Me, for from God I went forth and now come. You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father’s desire. He was a murderer from the beginning and took no stand on the truth because the truth is not in him. When he speaks a lie he speaks from what are his own, for he is the teller of a lie and the father of it. John 8:42, 44.
* lit. arm
** or a prince
*** melecheth is a Hebrew word for a queen.
 So essentially the Lord is nothing else than Divine Good, and this applies to both essentials – to the Divine itself and to the Divine Human. Divine Truth however does not exist within Divine Good but flows from it, for as stated above, Divine Truth is the Divine Good presenting itself visually in heaven. Now because Divine Good presents itself as Divine Truth, therefore the Lord’s Divine is distinguished, to enable man to grasp it mentally, into Divine Good and Divine Truth, Divine Good being called in the Word ‘the Father’ and Divine Truth ‘the Son’. This is the arcanum that lies behind the Lord Himself on so many occasions speaking of His Father as though He were separate from and so to speak One other than Himself, and yet at other times speaking of His being one with Himself. The fact that in the internal sense ‘father’ means good, and in the highest sense the Lord as regards Divine Good, has been shown just above in 3703, and the fact that ‘son’ means truth while ‘the Son of God’ and ‘the Son of Man’ mean the Lord as regards Divine Truth, in 1729, 1733, 2159, 2803, 2813. The matter is also clear from all those places where the Lord uses the name Father and calls Himself the Son.
sRef Isa@63 @16 S3′ sRef Jer@31 @9 S3′ sRef Mal@2 @10 S3′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S3′  Not only in the Old Testament Word is the Lord called Jehovah – see 1343, 1736, 2921 – but He is also referred to there as ‘Father’, as is clear from the following places: In Isaiah,
To us a Boy is born, to us a Son is given; and the government will be upon His shoulder, and His name will be called, Wonderful, Counsellor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace. Isa. 9:6.
From this it is quite evident that ‘the Boy born to us and me Son given to us’ is the Lord, and so it is He who is called ‘the Father of Eternity’. In Jeremiah,
I will be a Father to Israel, and Ephraim will be my firstborn. Jer. 31:9.
This refers to the Lord, who, being the God of Israel and me Holy One of Israel, see 3305, is here ‘a Father to Israel’. In Malachi,
Have we not all one Father? Has not one God created us? Mal. 2:10.
‘Creating’ here in the internal sense stands for regenerating, as it also does elsewhere in the Word, see 16, 88, 472. And since me Lord alone is Regenerator and Redeemer it is He who is here called ‘Father’ and ‘God’, as also in Isaiah,
You are our Father, for Abraham does not know us and Israel does not acknowledge us. You, O Jehovah, are our Father, our Redeemer; from eternity is Your name. Isa. 63:16.
sRef Isa@22 @21 S4′ sRef Isa@22 @22 S4′ sRef Isa@22 @24 S4′ sRef Isa@22 @23 S4′  In the same prophet,
I will clothe him with your robe and strengthen him with your girdle, and will commit your dominion into his hand, so that he may be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah. And I will place the key of the house of David on his shoulder; and he will open and none will shut, and he will shut and none will open. And I will fasten him like a peg in a sure place, so that he may be the throne of his father’s glory, and on him they may hang all the glory of his father’s house, of sons and grandsons, every small vessel – from the vessels of bowls even to all the vessels of stringed instruments. Isa. 22:21-24.
From this it is quite evident that it is the Lord who in the internal sense here is represented and meant, and who is called ‘a father to me inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah’. For He is the one ‘on whose shoulder the key of the house of David is placed, who opens and none shuts, and who shuts and none opens’ – see the Preface to Chapter 22. And to Him belongs ‘the throne of His Father’s glory’, and on Him all holy things are based and from Him they are derived. Those holy things are here called ‘vessels’ celestial ones being called ‘vessels of bowls’, and spiritual ones ‘vessels of stringed instruments’.
sRef 2Ki@6 @22 S5′ sRef Judg@18 @19 S5′ sRef 2Ki@13 @14 S5′ sRef 2Ki@6 @21 S5′ sRef Judg@17 @10 S5′  Since kings and priests represented the Lord – ‘kings’ through their kingship representing the Lord as regards Divine Truth, and ‘priests’ the Lord as regards Divine Good, 3670 – priests were therefore called ‘fathers’, as may be seen in the Book of Judges,
Micah said to the Levite, Stay with me, and be to me a father and a priest. Judg. 17:10.
The children of Dan spoke to the same man in a similar way,
Keep quiet, put your hand over your mouth, and come with us, and be to us a father and a priest. Judg. 18:19.
Even kings called them the same, in the second Book of Kings,
The king of Israel said to Elisha, My father, shall I smite them? He said, You shall not smite them. 2 Kings 6:21, 22.
And King Joash’s words to Elisha when the latter was dying,
King Joash wept before him and said, My father, my father! The chariot of Israel and its riders! 2 Kings 13:14.
Kings called a priest ‘father’ because ‘kings’ represented the Lord as regards Divine Truth, ‘priests’ as regards Divine Good, and also because truth in relationship to good is as son to father, for truth stems from good.
 This matter is very well known in the next life, and for this reason those in heaven call no one other than the Lord ‘Father’, and by ‘Father’ mentioned in the Gospels they perceive no one other than Him, see 15, 1729. All young children there, when being introduced to the good that flows from love and to the truth partnering that love, are taught to acknowledge the Lord alone as Father. And newcomers to heaven also are taught with utmost care that God is one; and if they have been from within the Church they are taught that the whole of the Trinity resides in the Lord – for almost everybody from the Christian world possesses the idea of three Gods, even though with the lips they used to declare that there is only one God. For once the idea of three has entered in, and each one of these is called God and is also distinguished from the other so far as attributes and functions are concerned, and are even worshipped individually, it is no longer humanly possible to think of one God. Consequently there is in the heart a worship of three Gods but on the lips that of only one.
 The truth that the whole of the Trinity resides in the Lord is well known in the Christian world, and yet among Christians in the next life little thought takes place regarding the Lord. Indeed His Humanity is to many people a stumbling-block, for they distinguish the Human from the Divine and do not believe that it is Divine. A person will declare himself to be righteous and so made pure and almost sanctified; but to the idea that the Lord has been glorified, that is, His Human has been made Divine, they do not give any thought. But in fact He was conceived from Jehovah Himself, and in any case nobody can be made righteous, let alone be sanctified, except from the Divine, and especially from the Lord’s Divine Human, which is represented and meant in the Holy Supper, where it is explicitly stated that the bread is His body and the wine His blood.
sRef John@5 @32 S8′ sRef John@5 @18 S8′ sRef John@5 @19 S8′ sRef John@5 @28 S8′ sRef John@5 @25 S8′ sRef John@5 @22 S8′ sRef John@5 @27 S8′ sRef John@5 @26 S8′ sRef John@1 @18 S8′ sRef John@5 @20 S8′ sRef John@5 @34 S8′ sRef John@5 @33 S8′ sRef John@5 @36 S8′ sRef John@5 @21 S8′ sRef John@5 @35 S8′ sRef John@5 @29 S8′ sRef John@5 @30 S8′ sRef John@5 @24 S8′ sRef John@5 @31 S8′ sRef John@5 @23 S8′ sRef John@5 @38 S8′ sRef John@5 @39 S8′ sRef John@5 @37 S8′  The truth that the Lord is one with the Father and that He has existed from eternity, rules over all, and so is Divine Good itself and Divine Truth itself, is quite clear from the Word:
The Lord is One with the Father In John,
Nobody has ever seen God; the only begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father, [He has made Him known.] John 1:18.
In the same gospel,
The Jews sought to kill Jesus because He had called God His Father, making Himself equal to God. Jesus answered and said, Truly, truly, I say to you, the Son cannot do anything by Himself except what He will have seen the Father doing, for that which He does the Son also does likewise. For as the Father raises the dead and quickens them, so also does the Son quicken whom He will. For the Father does not judge anyone, but has given all judgement to the Son, so that all may honour the Son even as they honour the Father. He who does not honour the Son does not honour the Father who sent Him. As the Father has life in Himself, so He has granted the Son also to have life in Himself. The Father who sent Me has Himself borne witness to Me. You have never heard His voice nor seen His shape. Search the Scriptures; it is they that bear witness to Me. John 5:18-39.
‘The Father’ is used here, as has been stated, to mean the Divine Good and ‘the Son’ the Divine Truth, both being within the Lord. From Divine Good, which is ‘the Father’, nothing but what is Divine is able to proceed or come forth, and that which proceeds or comes forth is Divine Truth, which is ‘the Son’.
sRef John@6 @45 S9′ sRef John@6 @46 S9′ sRef John@6 @44 S9′ sRef John@12 @45 S9′ sRef John@12 @44 S9′ sRef John@12 @46 S9′ sRef John@10 @30 S9′ sRef John@6 @48 S9′ sRef John@6 @47 S9′ sRef John@8 @19 S9′ sRef John@8 @18 S9′ sRef John@10 @38 S9′  In the same gospel,
Everyone who has heard from the Father and has learned comes to Me. No one has seen the Father except Him who is with the Father, He has seen the Father. John 6:44-48.
In the same gospel,
They said to Him, Where is your Father? Jesus answered, You know neither Me nor My Father; if you knew Me you would know My Father also. John 8:18, 19.
In the same gospel,
I and the Father are one. Even though you do not believe Me, believe the works, that you may know and believe that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father. John 10:30, 38.
In the same gospel,
Jesus said, He who believes in Me believes not in Me but in Him who sent Me; and he who sees Me sees Him who sent Me. I have come as light into the world in order that everyone who believes in Me may not remain in darkness. John 12:44-46.
‘The Father sent Him’ means in the internal sense that He proceeds from the Father. This is so in this and other places where the Lord says that the Father sent Him. ‘Light’ means Divine Truth, see above.
sRef John@14 @23 S10′ sRef John@14 @6 S10′ sRef John@14 @7 S10′ sRef John@14 @9 S10′ sRef John@14 @21 S10′ sRef John@14 @13 S10′ sRef John@14 @11 S10′ sRef John@14 @10 S10′ sRef John@14 @8 S10′  In the same gospel,
I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but by Me. If you know Me you know My Father also; and from now on you know Him and have seen Him. Philip said to Him, Lord, show us the Father. Jesus said, Have I been with you so long, and yet you do not know Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father. So why do you say, Show us the Father? Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in Me? The words that I speak to you I do not speak from Myself, the Father who dwells in Me, He does the works. Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father is in Me. Whatever you ask in My name I will do it, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. John 14:6-11, 13.
In the same gospel,
He who has My commandments and does them, he it is who loves Me; but he who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and will manifest Myself to him. If anyone loves Me he will keep My word, and My father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our home with him. John 14:21, 23.
sRef John@14 @20 S11′ sRef John@17 @11 S11′  Those governed by Divine Truth are meant by the ones who ‘have His commandments and do them’, while those governed by Divine Good are meant by the ones who ‘love Him’. This is why it is said that ‘he will be loved by the Father’, and ‘We will come to him and make Our home with him’, that is to say, Divine Good and Divine Truth will come and dwell in him. It is also the reason why the following is said in the same chapter,
On that day you will know that I am in My Father, and you in Me. John 14:20.
And elsewhere in the same gospel,
Holy Father, keep them in Your name, that they may be one as We are one. John 17:11.
From these places it is clear that the Lord talks of the Father by virtue of the Divine Good that is His, and of the Son by virtue of the Divine Truth which springs from the Divine Good. And so they are not two but one. The Lord spoke in this fashion however in order that the Word might be received both on earth and in heaven, and also because prior to His glorification the Lord was Divine truth that sprang from Divine Good, but once He had been glorified He was as to both Essences Divine Good itself in which all Divine Good and Divine Truth have their origin.
sRef John@1 @3 S12′ sRef John@1 @1 S12′ sRef John@1 @14 S12′ sRef John@1 @4 S12′ sRef John@1 @2 S12′  The Lord has existed from Eternity
This becomes clear from the fact that it was the Lord who spoke through the prophets, and that both for this reason and the fact that Divine Truth came from Him He was called the Word, which is spoken of in John,
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of the Only Begotten from the Father. John 1:1-4, 14.
‘The Word’ stands for all truth in heaven and on earth which comes
from the Divine.
sRef John@1 @26 S13′ sRef John@16 @27 S13′ sRef John@8 @58 S13′ sRef John@17 @5 S13′ sRef John@17 @4 S13′ sRef John@6 @62 S13′ sRef John@1 @30 S13′ sRef John@16 @28 S13′ sRef John@13 @3 S13′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S13′ sRef John@17 @24 S13′ sRef John@1 @27 S13′ sRef John@1 @15 S13′  His existence from eternity is explicitly taught by Him elsewhere in John,
John said, This was He who though coming after me was before me, for He was before me. Among you stands one whom you do not know. He it is who is to come after me, who was before me. John 1 :15, 26, 27, 30.
In the same gospel,
What if you were to see the Son of Man ascending to where He was before? John 6:62.
In the same gospel,
Jesus said, Truly, truly, I say to you, Before Abraham was, I am. John 8:58.
In the same gospel,
He knew that He had come from God and was going to God. John 13:3.
In the same gospel,
The Father Himself loves you because you have loved Me and have believed that I came from God. I came from the Father and have come into the world; again I am leaving the world and am going to the Father. John 16:27, 28.
In the same gospel,
I have glorified You on earth; I have accomplished the work which You gave Me to do. Now therefore, Father, glorify Me in Your Own Self with the glory I had with You before the world was, that they may behold My glory which You have given Me, because You loved Me before the foundation of the world. John 17:4, 5, 24.
To us a Boy is born, to us a Son is given; and His name will be called Wonderful Counsellor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace. Isa. 9:6.
sRef Luke@10 @22 S14′ sRef John@16 @15 S14′ sRef John@3 @36 S14′ sRef John@3 @35 S14′ sRef Matt@11 @27 S14′ sRef John@17 @2 S14′ sRef John@17 @10 S14′ sRef John@17 @11 S14′ sRef John@17 @1 S14′ sRef John@13 @3 S14′ sRef John@5 @22 S14′  The Lord rules over All
This is clear in Matthew,
All things have been delivered to Me by My Father. Matt. 11:27.
In the same gospel, Jesus said to the disciples, All power in heaven and on earth has been given to Me. Matt. 28:18.
The Father has given all things into the hand of the Son. He who believes in the Son has eternal life. John 3:35, 36.
The Father does not judge anyone, but has given all judgement to the Son. John 5:22.
In the same gospel,
Jesus knew that the Father had given all things into His hands. John 13:3.
In the same gospel, All that the Father has is Mine. John 16:15.
In the same gospel,
Jesus said, Glorify Your Son, that Your Son also may glorify You, as You have given Him power over all flesh. John 17:1, 2.
In the same gospel,
All Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine, and I am glorified in them. I am no longer in the world, for I am coming to You. John 17:10, 11.
All things have been delivered to Me by My Father. Luke 10:22.
 From all these places it is clear that it is Divine Good which is called ‘the Father’ and Divine Truth ‘the Son’, and that the Lord governs every single thing in all creation from Divine Good by means of Divine Truth. This being so, manifestly so from the Word, it is astounding that people in the Christian world know and teach that the whole of the Trinity resides in the Lord, and yet they do not, as those in heaven do, acknowledge and adore the Lord alone, and so one God. The truth that the Holy Spirit, who also is worshipped as God distinct and separate from Father and Son, is the holiness of the spirit – or the holiness that proceeds from the Lord through spirits or angels, that is, from His Divine Good through the Divine Truth – will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be made plain elsewhere.
 Furthermore the word ‘land’ has various meanings, see 620, 636, 1066, 2571, 3368, 3379, the reason being that Canaan, which is called the Holy Land, means the Lord’s kingdom in general; and when ‘heaven’ is mentioned together with ‘earth’, ‘heaven’ in that case means, as has been stated, that which is interior, ‘earth’ that which is exterior. This being so it also means the Lord’s kingdom on earth, that is, the Church; and having that meaning, it also means a person who is the Lord’s kingdom or who is the Church. With that person ‘heaven’ accordingly means that which is interior, ‘earth’ that which is exterior; or what amounts to the same, ‘heaven’ is the rational and ‘earth’ the natural since the rational exists more interiorly with man and the natural more exteriorly. And since ‘land’ [or ‘earth’] has all these meanings it also means that which a person puts into effect – namely the good of love which he receives from the Divine – so that he may become the Lord’s kingdom. From this it is evident in what way the meaning of ‘land’ in the Word varies.
sRef John@17 @1 S3′ sRef John@17 @2 S3′ sRef John@17 @6 S3′ sRef John@17 @9 S3′ sRef John@17 @7 S3′ sRef John@17 @8 S3′ sRef John@17 @10 S3′ sRef John@17 @4 S3′  ‘I will give to you’ means that in origin it was His own. This becomes clear from the meaning of ‘giving’ in the Word when used in reference to the Lord, for as shown just above, the Lord is Divine Good and also Divine Truth, the former being called ‘the Father’ and the latter ‘the Son’. Now because Divine Good is His and consequently that which is His own, it follows that ‘giving to you’, when spoken by Jehovah and used in reference to the Lord, means that which was His own in origin. From this one may see what is meant in the internal sense by the Lord’s frequent reference to the Father’s having given to Him – that is to say, to Himself, the Lord – as in John,
Father, glorify Your Son, that Your Son also may glorify You, as You have given Him power over all flesh, in order that all You have given Him, to them He may give eternal life. I have glorified You on earth; I have accomplished the work which You gave Me to do. I have manifested Your name to the men whom You gave Me out of the world; Yours they were, and You gave them to Me. Now they know that everything which You have given Me is from You; for the words which You gave Me I have given to them. I am praying for those whom You have given Me, for they are Yours; for all things that are Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine. John 17:1, 2, 4, 6-10.
Each reference here to the Father’s giving means originating in the Divine Good that was His, and so in that which was His own.
 From this one may see how great an arcanum lies within the particular words spoken by the Lord, and also how greatly different the sense of the letter is from the internal sense, and more so from the highest sense. The Lord spoke in this fashion in order that mankind which at that time had no knowledge at all of any Divine truth might nevertheless be enabled in its own way to grasp and so accept the Word, while angels did so in theirs, for the angels knew that Jehovah and He were one and that the Father was Divine Good. For this reason also they knew that when He spoke of the Father giving to Him He would be giving to Himself and so drawing on what was His own.
* or land
 Many references are made in the Word to the sea or west, the east, the north, and the south. But because nobody up to now has known that, as with every other single expression, these possessed an internal sense in which they did not mean things to do with the world, as they do in the sense of the letter, but spiritual and celestial things, and that in the highest sense those expressions meant Divine things belonging to the Lord Himself, what else could people have known therefore other than that west, east, north, and south are used in the Word simply to mean the four quarters? What else other than that ‘breaking forth’ towards those four quarters means a multiplying? But the fact that they do not mean the four quarters or the multiplying of any group of people, but states of good and truth, and the extension of these, may become clear from all the places in the Word, especially those in the Prophets, where reference is made to them. For what west, east, north, or south are is totally unknown in heaven. There the Sun, which is the Lord – unlike the sun of this world which rises and sets, reaching its highest point at midday and its lowest at night – is visible all the time, though how visible depends on the states of those receiving its light; for the light from it holds wisdom and intelligence within it, see 1619-1632, 2776, 3138, 3167, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3339, 3341, 3485, 3636, 3643. Consequently it is visible to each individual according to the wisdom and intelligence existing with him. Among those with whom good and truth are present – which are warmth and light, but of the celestial and spiritual kind – the sun is as it is when rising and at midday; but among those with whom good and truth are not present the sun is as it is when setting and at night. From this it is evident that in the internal sense of the Word ‘east, south, west, and north’ means states of good and truth.
 It should be recognized that the Word does not use only the four quarters, as indicated, to describe states of good and truth. It also uses both the annual seasons or states of spring, summer, autumn, and winter, and the daily times or states of morning, midday, evening, and night. These are used for a similar purpose; but when the subject is the extension of good and truth, the four quarters are employed to describe it. What each one means specifically however may be seen from the places where they are mentioned in the Word. ‘East’ means the Lord and also the good of love and charity, which comes from the Lord, as shown already in 101, 1250, 3249, and ‘south’ means the truth bathed in light, in 1458, 3195.
sRef Isa@43 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@43 @5 S4′  But what ‘west’ and what ‘north’ mean in the genuine sense, and what they mean in the contrary sense, may be seen from the following places: In Isaiah,
Fear not, for I am with you; from the east I will bring your seed, and from the west I will gather you. I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Do not withhold. Bring My sons from afar and My daughters from the end of the earth. Isa. 43:5, 6
This refers to a new spiritual Church, meant here by Jacob and Israel. ‘Bringing the seed from the east and gathering from the west’ stands for people governed by good; ‘saying to the north, Give up; and to the south, Do not withhold’ stands for those governed by truth.
sRef Ps@107 @4 S5′ sRef Ps@107 @3 S5′ sRef Ps@107 @2 S5′  In David,
The redeemed of Jehovah will speak, whom He has redeemed from the hand of the enemy and gathered together out of the lands, from the east and from the west, from the north and from the sea. They wandered in the wilderness, in a desolate way; they did not find an inhabited city.* Ps. 107:2-4.
This refers to people who are without knowledge of good and truth. ‘From the east and from the west’ stands for those without knowledge of good, ‘from the north and from the sea’ for those without knowledge of truth. Those without knowledge of good are referred to as ‘wandering in the wilderness’, and those without knowledge of truth as doing so ‘in a desolate way’. And those without knowledge of both are referred to as their not finding an inhabited city – ‘a city’ meaning doctrinal teaching consisting of truth, see 402, 2449, 2943, 3216, and ‘a habitation’ being used in reference to good, 268, 2451, 2712.
sRef Isa@49 @12 S6′  In Isaiah,
Behold, these will come from afar, and behold, those from the north and from the west, and those from the land of Sinim. Isa. 49:12.
‘The north’ stands for people in obscurity as regards truth, ‘the west’ for those in obscurity as regards good. They are said ‘to come from afar’ because they are remote from the light which flows from the Lord.
sRef Amos@8 @11 S7′ sRef Amos@8 @12 S7′  In Amos,
Behold, the days are going to come in which I will send a famine on the land. And they will wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east they will run to and fro to seek the Word of Jehovah, and will not find it. Amos 8:11, 12.
‘A famine’ stands for a lack and absence of cognitions, 1460, 3364. ‘Wandering from sea to sea’ stands for searching for the place where cognitions may be found – ‘seas’ meaning cognitions in general, 28, 2850. ‘Running to and fro from the north even to the east’ stands for going from those cognitions that are in obscurity to cognitions that are in the light. As regards cognitions being meant, this is evident because the words ‘to seek the Word of God and will not find it’ are used.
sRef Jer@3 @18 S8′ sRef Jer@3 @12 S8′  In Jeremiah,
Proclaim these words towards the north, and say, Return, backsliding Israel; I will not cause My face to fall upon you, for I am merciful. In those days the house of Judah will go to the house of Israel, and together they will come out of the north land over the land I gave as a heritage to your fathers. Jer. 3:12, 18.
This refers to the restoration of the Church from among the gentiles. ‘The north’ stands for people without knowledge of truth but who lead a good life. It is evident that neither the north nor the north land is meant here for the reason that Israel did not exist any longer.
sRef Jer@31 @8 S9′ sRef Jer@16 @15 S9′  In the same prophet,
The living Jehovah who caused the children of Israel to come up out of the north land. Jer. 16:15.
‘North’ in a similar way stands for being without knowledge of truth. In the same prophet,
Behold, I am bringing them from the north land, and I will gather them from the furthest parts of the earth, among them the blind one and the lame. Jer. 31:8.
The ‘north land’ stands for no knowledge of good because of no knowledge of truth. Now because the land of Canaan represented the Lord’s kingdom – and therefore also represented good, see above in 3705 – and places within that land, such as Zion and Jerusalem, represented inmost good to which truth was joined, the places which lay away from that land consequently represented obscurity so far as good and truth were concerned. Everything that lies in obscurity is called ‘the north land’ and also ‘the furthest parts of the earth’.
sRef Ps@89 @12 S10′ sRef Isa@45 @6 S10′ sRef Ps@89 @11 S10′ sRef Ps@48 @2 S10′ sRef Isa@14 @13 S10′ sRef Isa@41 @25 S10′ sRef Isa@14 @31 S10′ sRef Ps@48 @1 S10′  In addition to this, since all good that flows in with light from the Lord is confined within man’s obscurity, the north is also called ‘an assembly’ as in Isaiah,
You said in your heart, I will go up the heavens, above the stars of God I will raise my throne, and I will sit on the mount of assembly, in the furthest parts of the north. Isa. 14:13.
In the same prophet,
Wail, O gate; cry, O city; you have melted away, O Philistia, all of you, for smoke comes from the north, and not a solitary person in the assemblies. Isa. 14:31.
Great is Jehovah and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, the mountain of His holiness – the joy of all the earth, Mount Zion, the furthest parts of the north, the city of the great King. Ps. 48:1, 2.
And again in the same author,
The heavens are Yours, the earth also is Yours. The world and the fullness of it You have founded; the north and the right hand** You have created. Ps. 89:11, 12.
‘The north’ here stands for those who are more remote from the light of good and truth, ‘the right hand’ for those who are closer to them. For the latter are on the Lord’s right hand, see 1274, 1276.
sRef Zech@6 @5 S11′ sRef Zech@6 @6 S11′ sRef Zech@6 @4 S11′ sRef Zech@6 @8 S11′ sRef Zech@6 @7 S11′ sRef Zech@6 @3 S11′ sRef Zech@6 @2 S11′ sRef Zech@6 @1 S11′  In Zechariah,
He saw four chariots coming out between two mountains of bronze. The horses coupled to them were reddish, black, white, and mottled – strong ones. The angel said, These are the four winds of heaven, which go forth from standing before the Lord of the whole earth, the black horses going into the north land; and the white have gone out after them, and the mottled have gone out into the south land. Those going towards the north land have caused My spirit to rest on the north land. Zech. 6:1-8.
‘Chariots coming out between two mountains of bronze’ stands for matters of doctrine concerning good. For ‘chariots’ means matters of doctrine, as will be shown elsewhere, while ‘a mountain’ means love, see 795, 1430, 2722, and two mountains therefore two kinds of love – celestial love, which is love to the Lord, and spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbour. ‘Bronze’ is good originating in those loves as it exists within the natural, 425, 1551; ‘horses’ things of the understanding, and so an understanding of matters of doctrine concerning good, 2760-2762, 3217; ‘the south land’ stands for people who possess cognitions of good and truth, 1458, 3195, ‘the north land’ for those who are without knowledge of good and truth but who lead a good life, as upright gentiles do among whom, when a new Church is established, God’s Spirit is said to rest.
sRef Jer@15 @12 S12′ sRef Jer@23 @8 S12′  In Jeremiah,
Jehovah who brought up and led back the seed of the house of Israel out of the land towards the north and out of all the lands to where I have driven them, so that they might dwell on their own land. Jer. 23:8.
‘Out of the land towards the north’ stands for away from the obscurity that is due to a lack of knowledge about what is good and true. In the same prophet,
Can one break iron, iron from the north, and bronze? Jer. 15:12.
‘Iron’ stands for natural truth, 425, 426, ‘bronze’ for natural good, 425, 1551. These are said to come ‘from the north’ because they derive from the natural which, though lying in obscurity compared with other degrees, serves as the outer limit of these. It is evident without explanation that this prophetic utterance does not mean the use of iron and bronze from the north, for what would be Divine about that, indeed what connection would it have with what goes before and after if no more than iron and bronze from there were meant?
sRef Isa@43 @5 S13′ sRef Isa@59 @19 S13′ sRef Matt@8 @11 S13′  In Matthew,
I tell you that many will come from the east and from the west and will recline with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Matt. 8:11; Luke 13:29.
‘Many from the east and from the west’ stands for those who possess cognitions and lead a good life, and also for those who are in obscurity and have no knowledge of such cognitions; and so it stands for people inside the Church and those outside it. It has been stated above that states of good are meant by the east and the west. ‘Reclining with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob’ means being with the Lord, see 3305 (end). And the Prophets in a similar way speak of people coming from east and west who are going to be with the Lord in His kingdom or Church, as in Isaiah,
From the east I will bring your seed, and from the west I will gather you. Isa. 43:5.
Elsewhere in the same prophet,
They will fear the name of Jehovah from the west, and His glory from the east. Isa. 59:19.
Elsewhere in the same,
From the rising of the sun and from its setting they will know that there is none besides Me; I am Jehovah and there is no one else. Isa. 45:6.
Elsewhere in the same,
I will stir up one from the north, and he will come; from the rising of the sun he will call on My name. Isa. 41:25.
aRef Ex@38 @9 S14′ aRef Ex@38 @13 S14′ aRef Ex@38 @11 S14′ aRef Ex@38 @12 S14′ aRef Ex@38 @10 S14′  In addition one may see that east, west, south, and north have these meanings from the following: The Construction of the Tabernacle; The Children of Israel when they were encamped and when they journeyed; The Description of the Land of Canaan; also, The Description of the New Temple, New Jerusalem, and New Land:
THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE TABERNACLE
Everything in it was positioned according to the four quarters, see Exod. 38 – what went on the east and west sides, and what on the south and north, is stated in Exod. 26:18, 20, 22, 27; 27:9, 12, 13; and the requirement that the lampstand was to be placed towards the south across from the table, the table itself being on the north side, Exod. 26:35; 40:22.
 THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL WHEN THEY WERE ENCAMPED AND WHEN THEY JOURNEYED
Here also positions were determined according to the four quarters. That is to say, they encamped around the Tent of Meeting, with the tribes of Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun towards the east; the tribes of Reuben, Simeon, and Gad towards the south; the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin towards the west; and the tribes of Dan, Asher, and Naphtali towards the north, Num. 2:1- end. In addition to this, the Levites encamped with the Gershonites towards the west, the Kohathites towards the south, the Merarites towards the north; and Moses, Aaron and his sons in front of the Tabernacle towards the east, Num. 3:23-38. In this way the heavenly order which in the Lord’s kingdom exists in accordance with states of good and truth was represented. Towards the south side also they were to sound the call for them to begin their journeys, Num. 10:6. And even as they took up specific positions when they encamped, so they did when they journeyed, Num. 2:34.
 THE DESCRIPTION OF THE LAND OF CANAAN
First Moses described its border lands – those indeed in the south, those in the west, those in the north, and those in the east, Num. 34:2-12, as they were again described when the land had been apportioned to the tribes by lot, in Chapters 15-19 of Joshua. From these circumstances, and also from the most ancient people who dwelt in the land of Canaan, all places in that land became representatives and meaningful signs determined by their position, distance, and boundaries in relation to the four quarters, 1607, 1866.
 THE DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW TEMPLE, NEW JERUSALEM, AND NEW LAND
These also are described in Ezekiel in relation to the four quarters. The structure of the city, for example, started from the south. When dealing with the gateway to the building he says that its sides faced towards the east, towards the north, and towards the south, Ezek. 40:2, 6, 19, 20-46. When dealing with the measurement of the Temple, he says that its doors looked towards the north and the south, Ezek. 41:11, while the outer court looked towards the north, the east, the south, and the west, Ezek. 42:1, 4, 11, 16-19. He also says that the glory of Jehovah the God of Israel came in from the way of the east, Ezek. 43:1, 2, 4. The gates to the outer court are dealt with in Ezek. 44:1, 2, 4; 46:1, 9, 10, 19, 20; and the boundaries of the Holy Land in Chapter 47 – towards the north in verses 15-17, towards the east in verse 18, towards the south in verse 19, towards the west in verse 20; while Chapter 48 specifies in relation to the four quarters the territories allotted to each tribe. And in the description of the Holy Jerusalem it is said that the gates were on the east, north, south, and west, Rev. 21:13. From these references it is quite evident that the four quarters of the world in relation to which those holy things, or representatives of what is holy, were arrayed do not mean in the internal sense the four quarters but states of good and truth within the Lord’s kingdom.
sRef Jer@25 @26 S18′ sRef Jer@6 @1 S18′ sRef Jer@25 @24 S18′ sRef Jer@25 @18 S18′ sRef Jer@25 @17 S18′ sRef Jer@4 @6 S18′ sRef Jer@25 @19 S18′ sRef Jer@25 @20 S18′ sRef Jer@1 @13 S18′ sRef Jer@1 @15 S18′ sRef Jer@6 @22 S18′ sRef Jer@10 @22 S18′ sRef Jer@1 @14 S18′  In the contrary sense ‘the north’ and ‘the west’ mean falsity and evil, as may be seen from the following places: In Jeremiah,
The word of Jehovah came to me a second time, saying, What do you see? I said, I am seeing an open pot with it’s face towards the north. And Jehovah said, From the north evil will be opened over all the inhabitants of the land. Lo, I am calling all the families of the north to come. Jer. 1:13-15.
In the same prophet,
Set up a standard towards Zion; assemble, stay not, for I am bringing evil from the north, and a great destruction. Jer. 4:6.
In the same prophet,
The sound of crashing; behold, it is coming, and a great commotion out of the land of the north to reduce the cities of Judah into a waste. Jer. 10:22.
In the same prophet,
In Tekoa sound the trumpet, for evil stares from the north, and great destruction. Behold, a people coming from the land of the north, a mighty nation will be stirred up from the furthest parts of the earth. Jer. 6:1, 22.
In the same prophet,
I took the cup from Jehovah’s hand and made all the nations drink it – Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, and its kings, Pharaoh king of Egypt, and the whole western crowd; all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the west, dwelling in the wilderness, and all the kings of the north, far and near. Jer. 25:17-26.
sRef Jer@46 @7 S19′ sRef Jer@46 @8 S19′ sRef Jer@46 @20 S19′ sRef Jer@46 @10 S19′ sRef Jer@47 @2 S19′ sRef Jer@46 @6 S19′ sRef Jer@46 @24 S19′  In the same prophet,
The swift will not flee away, nor the strong man escape. Northwards on the bank of the River Euphrates they have stumbled and fallen. Who is this coming up like a river? Egypt comes up like the river, for he said, I will go up, I will cover the earth, I will destroy the city and those who dwell in it. But that day is to the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth a day of vengeance – for the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth holds a sacrifice in the land of the north by the River Euphrates. A very beautiful heifer is Egypt, but destruction from the north has come. The daughter of Egypt has been put to shame; she has been delivered into the hand of a people from the north. Jer. 46:6-10, 20, 24.
In the same prophet,
Thus said Jehovah, Behold, waters rising out of the north which are like a deluging stream, and they will deluge the land and all that fills it, the city and those who dwell in it. Jer. 47:2.
sRef Ezek@39 @5 S20′ sRef Ezek@39 @2 S20′ sRef Jer@51 @48 S20′ sRef Ezek@39 @4 S20′ sRef Ezek@38 @14 S20′ sRef Jer@50 @41 S20′ sRef Jer@50 @9 S20′ sRef Ezek@38 @15 S20′ sRef Ezek@38 @16 S20′ sRef Jer@50 @3 S20′ sRef Ezek@39 @1 S20′ sRef Zech@2 @7 S20′ sRef Zech@2 @6 S20′  In the same prophet,
[The word which] Jehovah spoke against Babel: There will come up against her a nation from the north, which will make her land a desolation so that none may dwell in it. Jer. 50:1, 3.
In the same prophet,
Behold, I am stirring up and bringing up against Babel an assembly of great nations out of the north land, and they will array themselves against her; from there she will be taken. Behold, a people coming out of the north, a mighty nation, and many kings will be stirred up from the furthest parts of the earth. Jer. 50:9, 41.
In the same prophet,
Then the heavens and the earth, and all that is in them, will sing over Babel, because those who lay waste will come out of the north. Jer. 51:48.
Say to Gog, You will come out of your place from the furthest parts of the north, you and many peoples with you. You will come up against My people Israel, like a cloud to cover the land. Ezek. 38:14-16.
In the same prophet,
Behold, I am against you, O Gog, the prince. I will make you turn back and will split you into six, and make you come up from the furthest parts of the north and bring you onto the mountains of Israel. On the mountains of Israel you will fall. On the surface of the field you will fall. Ezek. 39:1, 2, 4, 5.
Ho! Flee from the land of the north, says Jehovah, for like the four winds of the heavens I will spread you abroad. Ho, Zion! escape, you who dwell with the daughter of Babel. Zech. 2:6, 7.
 These quotations show what ‘the north’ means in the contrary sense, namely falsity which is the source of evil, or falsity which is the result of evil. Because falsity which is the source of evil originates in reasoning about Divine things and against Divine things, which reasoning is based on factual knowledge belonging to the natural man, it is called ‘a people from the north out of Egypt’ – ‘Egypt’ meaning such factual knowledge, see 1164, 1165, 2588 (end). And because falsity which is the result of evil originates in worship which to outward appearance is holy but interiorly is unholy, it is called ‘a nation from the north out of Babel’ – ‘Babel’ meaning such, see 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306- 1308, 1321, 1322, 1326, as well as that which lays waste, 1327. Both types of falsity – that which is the source of evil, and that which is the result of evil – are said to come out of Gog, for ‘Gog’ is worship consisting in external observances devoid of anything internal, which is idolatrous worship, as at all times was that of the Jews. That ‘Gog’ means such worship, see 1151.
 Out of the obscurity in which the natural man dwells either truth can arise or falsity can do so. When anyone allows himself to be enlightened by means of the Word from the Lord his obscurity is turned into brightness, for the internal path is opened and so influx and communication from the Lord by way of heaven takes place. But when he does not allow himself to be enlightened by means of the Word from the Lord, but by his own intelligence, his obscurity is turned into darkness and so into falsity, for the internal path is closed and no influx and communication from the Lord by way of heaven takes place, apart from such as enables him to be seen outwardly to be human, when he thinks and so speaks from evil and falsity. This is why ‘the north’ means truth with those who allow themselves to be enlightened, falsity with those who do not. For the former come up from obscurity, that is, they are raised up to light, but the latter go down from obscurity, that is, remove themselves from light. The former are accordingly brought into [the light of] the south, the latter into [the gloom of] Tartarus.
sRef Dan@11 @40 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @41 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @30 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @42 S23′ sRef Dan@8 @4 S23′ sRef Dan@8 @5 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @31 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @39 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @35 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @33 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @34 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @36 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @37 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @38 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @29 S23′ sRef Dan@8 @9 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @15 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @16 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @14 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @1 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @13 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @20 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @21 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @19 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @17 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @18 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @2 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @7 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @6 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @8 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @10 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @9 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @12 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @3 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @4 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @11 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @5 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @22 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @26 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @25 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @32 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @27 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @28 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @43 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @23 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @44 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @24 S23′ sRef Dan@11 @45 S23′  The fact that ‘the north’ means the thick darkness of falsity and ‘the south’ the light of truth is quite evident in Daniel where the ram and the he-goat are the subject, and also where the king of the south and the king of the north are. Referring to the ram and the he-goat it is said that the ram butted with his horns towards the west and towards the north and towards the south, so that none of the beasts could stand before him, and that a he-goat came from the west across the surface of the whole earth, and out of one of his horns there came forth a [little] horn which grew exceedingly towards the south, and towards the east, and towards the glorious [land], Dan. 8:4, 5, 9. And referring to the king of the south and the king of the north in the place where ‘the king of the south’ means those possessing cognitions of truth, and ‘the king of the north’ those who are governed by falsity, it is said that
After some years they will make an alliance, as a result of which the daughter of the king of the south will come to the king of the north to negotiate equitable terms but her arm will not gain strength. One will rise from that stem who will enter into the fortress of the king of the north and will prevail and will carry [the gods] they have captured into Egypt. The king of the south will come into the kingdom and fight with the king of the north, and the king of the north will return and raise a multitude greater than the former. Many will stand up against the king of the south. The king of the north will come and take the fortified city and destroy much. The king of the south will be stirred up to battle with a great army, but he will not stand, for they will devise plots against him. After that he will return, but it will not be as previously. The people consisting of those who know their God will stand firm. At length, at the time of the end, the king of the south will clash with him; therefore the king of the north will rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen. In the glorious land many will fall. But rumours will terrify him from the east and from the north, so that he goes forth with great fury. He will come to his end, with none to help him. Dan. 11:1-end.
The fact that ‘the king of the south’ means those who dwell in the light of truth, ‘the king of the north’ those who first dwell in shade and then in the thick darkness of falsity, may become clear from the details in that chapter. So it is a description of how the state of the Church is in course of time perverted. They are called kings of the south and of the north because ‘kings’ in the internal sense of the Word means truths, and in the contrary sense falsities, 1672, 2015, 2069, while ‘kingdoms’ means things that belong to truth, and in the contrary sense those that belong to falsity, 1672, 2547.
* lit. city of habitation
** i.e. the south
 Divine doctrine constitutes in addition the Word in the literal sense, in which things in the world and on earth are the subject. Now because the literal sense contains the internal sense, and this in turn contains the highest sense, and because the literal corresponds entirely by means of representatives and meaningful signs, doctrine drawn from that sense too is therefore Divine. Since ‘Jacob’ represents the Lord’s Divine Natural he also represents the literal sense of the Word, for as is well known the Lord is the Word, that is, Divine Truth in its entirety. The natural degree of the Word does not present itself as anything other than the literal sense of the Word, for in relation to the other senses the literal is the cloud, see the Preface to Chapter 18. The rational degree of the Word however, that is, the interior spiritual degree of it, presents itself as its internal sense; and insomuch as the Lord is the Word it may be said that this sense is represented by ‘Isaac’. But the highest sense is represented by ‘Abraham’. This shows what conjunction with Divine doctrine is where the Lord’s Divine Natural which is represented by ‘Jacob’ is concerned. These distinct degrees of truth do not however exist in the same way within the Lord because everything in Him is Divine Good, not Divine Truth, still less Divine Natural Truth. Divine Truth is the manifestation of Divine Good to angels in heaven and to men on earth. Though only the manifestation it is nonetheless Divine Truth because it flows from Divine Good, even as light is a manifestation of the sun because it flows from the sun, see 3704.
‘Jacob awoke from his sleep’ means enlightenment. ‘And said, Surely Jehovah is in this place’ means the Divine present within this state. ‘And I did not know it’ means being in obscurity. ‘And he was afraid’ means a holy change. ‘And said, How awesome is this place’ means the holiness of the state. ‘This is nothing other than the house of God’ means the Lord’s kingdom as it exists in the ultimate degree of order. ‘And this is the gate of heaven’ means that which serves as the ultimate degree of order, through which there is, so to speak, a way in from the natural creation.
 These meanings that ‘pieces of wood’ and ‘stones’ possess are clear not only from the Word where they are mentioned but also from representatives in the next life. For people who assume that merit lies in good works seem to themselves to be cutting wood, and those who assume that it lies in truths, that is to say, people who have believed that they knew more truths than anybody else and yet have lived wickedly, seem to themselves to be breaking up stones. I have often seen such people wood-cutting or stone-breaking, from which the meaning of ‘wood’ and of ‘stone’ was made clear to me – that good is meant by ‘wood’ and truth by ‘stone’. It has in like manner been made clear to me from the fact that when I have seen a wooden house the concept of good has instantly presented itself, and when I have seen a stone house the concept of truth has done so. And I have also learned from angels about this matter. This is why, when in the Word ‘the House of God’ is mentioned, the concept of good presents itself to angels, the kind of good depending on the nature of the subject that is being dealt with. And when ‘the Temple’ is mentioned, the concept of truth presents itself, the kind of truth depending on the subject that is being dealt with. From this one may also deduce how deeply and inwardly concealed the heavenly arcana lie in the Word.
 The reason ‘the House of God’ here means the Lord’s kingdom as it exists in the ultimate degree of order is that the subject is Jacob who, as often shown already, represents the Lord’s Divine Natural. The natural exists in the ultimate degree of order, for the natural encompasses all interior degrees and includes them all together within itself. And since they are included all together within the natural, and so countless things are beheld as a single whole, obscurity exists there compared with other degrees. This obscurity too has been dealt with frequently.
 It seems to man as though worldly objects enter in through his physical or external senses and affect interior things, and so that there is an entrance from the ultimate degree of order into things that are within. But this is an appearance and illusion, as is evident from the general rule that what is secondary cannot flow into what is primary, or what amounts to the same, what is lower cannot flow into what is higher, or what is also the same, what is exterior into what is interior, or what is still the same, things of the world and the natural creation into those of heaven and of the spirit. For the former are grosser, the latter purer, and the grosser things that belong to the external or natural man come into being and are kept in being from those belonging to the internal or rational man. Those grosser things are unable to have any effect on the purer things but are affected by them. The nature of this influx however, seeing that appearance and illusion itself convince people that the reverse is true, will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be discussed separately, where influx is the subject. This then is why it is said that through the ultimate degree of order there is, so to speak, a way in from the natural creation.
‘In the morning Jacob rose up early’ means a state of enlightenment. ‘And took the stone’ means truth. ‘Which he had placed as his headrest’ means with which communication took place with the Divine. ‘And placed it as a pillar’ means a holy boundary. ‘And poured oil on the top of it’ means holy good in which it originated. ‘And he called the name of that place Bethel’ means the nature of the state. ‘Though Luz was the name of the city previously’ means the nature of the previous state.
 Good with a person which is devoid of truth, that is, which is not joined to any truth, is like the good which exists with young children, with whom as yet no wisdom at all is present because no intelligence at all is there. But as a young child grows older so he receives truth stemming from good, that is, as in his case truth is joined to good, so he becomes more truly human. From this it is evident that good is the primary degree of order and truth the ultimate. Consequently from facts which are the truths of the natural man, and then from matters of doctrine which are the truths of the spiritual man within its natural, a person must start to be introduced into the intelligence that leads to wisdom, that is, he must start to enter into spiritual life which makes a person human, 3504. For example, to be able to love the neighbour as a spiritual man does, a person must first learn what spiritual love or charity is, and who the neighbour is. Until he knows these things, he is indeed able to love the neighbour, but only as a natural man, not as a spiritual man does; that is, his love towards the neighbour is a product of natural good, not of spiritual good, see 3470, 3471. But once he does know those things spiritual good from the Lord may be implanted within cognitions concerning love towards the neighbour. The same applies to all other things that are called cognitions, matters of doctrine, or truths in general.
 Reference is being made here to good from the Lord that may be implanted within cognitions, and also to truth that is the recipient of good. But people who have no other conception of cognitions, and also of truths, than that these exist as mere abstractions – which is most people’s conception too of thoughts – cannot possibly grasp what is meant by good implanted within cognitions or by truth that is the recipient of good. But it should be recognized that cognitions and truths no more exist in isolation from the purest substances belonging to the interior man or man’s spirit than sight exists in isolation from its own organ, which is the eye, or hearing from its own organ, which is the ear. There are purer substances, which have real existence, and it is from these that cognitions and truths are brought into actual being. The variations in form taken by those substances are such that they give life to and modify those cognitions through the influx of life from the Lord and enable them to be apprehended. And it is the agreements and harmonious relationships of those substances, whether these exist consecutively or simultaneously, that stir people’s affections and constitute that which is called beautiful, pleasant, and delightful.
 Spirits themselves are forms, that is, they consist, as much as men do, of a whole combination of forms. But those forms consist of purer substances not visible to the sight of the body, that is, of the eye. Now because those forms or substances are not visible to the eye of the body mankind today inevitably conceives of cognitions and thoughts as mere abstractions. This is also the reason for the insanity of our times, in that people do not believe that they have a spirit within them which will live after the body has died – yet the spirit is a substance far more real than the material substance constituting the body. Indeed, if you can believe it, following its release from bodily things the spirit is the purified body itself, which many say they will possess at the time of the last judgement when, they believe, they will first be resurrected. The fact that spirits, or what amounts to the same, souls, are endowed with a body, see one another in broad daylight, talk to one another, hear one another, and actually have far keener senses than when they were in the body or the world, becomes quite clear from what I have told so abundantly from experience.
sRef Gen@31 @52 S2′ sRef Gen@31 @51 S2′ sRef Gen@31 @45 S2′ sRef Gen@31 @44 S2′  The fact that pillars were erected as a sign and a witness, and were also introduced into worship, and that in the internal sense they mean a holy boundary, or truth within man’s natural, which is the ultimate degree of order, becomes clear from other places in the Word, as in the following verses where the subject is the covenant made between Laban and Jacob,
Now come, let us make a covenant, I and you, and let it be a witness between me and you. And Jacob took a stone and erected it as a pillar. Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold the pillar which I have erected between me and you. This heap is a witness and the pillar is a witness, that I will not pass beyond this heap to you, and that you will not pass beyond this heap and this pillar to me, to do harm. Gen. 31:44, 45, 51, 52.
Here ‘pillar’ means truth, as will be seen in the explanation of those verses.
sRef Isa@19 @18 S3′ sRef Isa@19 @19 S3′ sRef Isa@19 @20 S3′  In Isaiah,
On that day there will be five cities in the land of Egypt which speak with the lips of Canaan and swear to Jehovah Zebaoth. On that day there will be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at its border to Jehovah, which will be a sign and a witness to Jehovah Zebaoth in the land of Egypt. Isa. 19:18-20.
‘Egypt’ stands for facts which belong to the natural man, ‘an altar’ for Divine worship in general, for in the second Ancient Church that began with Eber the altar became the first and foremost representative in its worship, 921, 1343, 2777, 2811. ‘The midst of the land of Egypt’ stands for the primary and inmost aspect of worship, 2940, 2973, 3436. ‘Pillar’ stands for truth as it exists in the ultimate degree of order in the natural. The fact that it stood at the border as a sign and a witness is quite evident.
sRef Ex@24 @4 S4′  In Moses,
Moses wrote down all the words of Jehovah and rose up in the morning and built an altar beside Mount Sinai, and twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel. Exod. 24:4.
Here similarly ‘an altar’ was the representative of all worship, and indeed was the representative of good present in worship. ‘The twelve pillars’ however were the representative in worship of truth that stems from good – ‘twelve’ meaning every aspect of truth in its entirety, see 577, 2089, 2129 (end), 2130 (end), 3272; and the twelve tribes likewise meaning every aspect of truth in the Church, as in the Lord’s Divine mercy will be shown in the next chapter.
sRef Deut@16 @21 S5′ sRef Deut@16 @22 S5′  Because altars were representative of all good in worship, and the Jewish Church was established so as to represent the celestial Church which acknowledged no other truth than truth stemming from good, which is called celestial truth (for the celestial Church was totally unwilling to separate truth from good, so much so that it was unwilling even to refer to anything of faith or truth without thinking about good, and doing so from good, see 202, 337, 2069, 2715, 2718, 3246), truth was therefore represented by the stones of the altar. And they were forbidden to represent it by means of pillars lest in so doing they separated truth from good and by representation worshipped truth instead of good. This accounts for the following prohibition in Moses,
You shall not plant for yourself a grove of any kind of tree beside the altar of Jehovah your God which you shall make for yourself. And you shall not erect for yourself a pillar, which Jehovah your God hates. Deut. 16:21, 22.
For worshipping truth separated from good, or faith separated from charity, is contrary to the Divine since it is contrary to order, meant by ‘you shall not erect for yourself a pillar, which Jehovah your God hates’.
sRef Hos@10 @2 S6′ sRef 1Ki@14 @23 S6′ sRef 1Ki@14 @22 S6′ sRef 2Ki@17 @10 S6′ sRef Hos@10 @1 S6′ sRef 2Ki@18 @4 S6′  Despite this they did erect them and so represented things that are contrary to order, as is clear in Hosea,
Israel, according to the multiplying of his fruit, multiplies altars; according to the goodness of their land they make well their pillars. But He will overturn their altars, and lay waste their pillars. Hosea 10:1, 2.
In the first Book of Kings,
Judah did what was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and they built for themselves high places and pillars and groves on every high hill, and under every green tree. 1 Kings 14:22, 23.
In the second Book of Kings,
The children of Israel set up pillars for themselves and groves on every high hill and under every green tree. 2 Kings 17:10.
In the same book,
Hezekiah removed the high places, and broke down the pillars, and cut down the grove, and smashed the bronze snake which Moses had made, because they had been burning incense to it. 2 Kings 18:4.
sRef Ex@34 @13 S7′  Since gentile nations too derived through tradition the idea that the holiness of worship was to be represented by means of altars and pillars, and yet they were under the influence of evil and falsity, the altars among the nations therefore mean the evils of worship and the pillars the falsities. This was why the command was given for them to be destroyed. In Moses,
The altars of the nations you shall overthrow, and you shall break down their pillars and tear down their groves. Exod. 34:13; Deut. 7:5; 12:3.
In the same author,
You shall not bow down to the gods of the nations, or worship them, or do according to their works, for you shall utterly destroy them, and utterly break down their pillars. Exod. 23:24.
‘The gods of the nations’ stands for falsities, ‘their works’ for evils, ‘breaking down their pillars’ for destroying worship arising out of falsity.
sRef Ezek@26 @11 S8′ sRef Jer@43 @13 S8′  In Jeremiah,
Nebuchadnezzar king of Babel will break down the pillars of the house of the sun that is in the land of Egypt, and the houses of the gods of Egypt he will burn with fire. Jer. 43:13.
By means of the hoofs of his horses Nebuchadnezzar king of Babel will trample all your streets, slay the people with the sword, and cause your mighty pillars to come down to the ground. Ezek. 26:11.
This refers to Tyre. ‘Nebuchadnezzar king of Babel’ stands for that which lays waste, 1327 (end). ‘The hoofs of horses’ stands for the lowest form of intellectual concepts, such as facts based on mere sensory impressions – ‘hoofs’ meaning lowest concepts, as will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be confirmed elsewhere. ‘Horses’ stands for matters of the understanding, 2760-2762, ‘streets’ for truths, and in the contrary sense for falsities, 2336. ‘trampling’ on them is destroying cognitions of truth, which are meant by ‘Tyre’ – ‘Tyre’, the subject here, meaning cognitions of truth, 1201. ‘Slaying the people with the sword’ stands for destroying truths by means of falsity – ‘people’ being used in reference to truths, 1259, 1260, 3295, 3581, and ‘sword’ meaning falsity engaged in conflict, 2799. From this one may see what ‘causing your mighty pillars to come down to the ground’ means – ‘might’ being used in reference either to truth or to falsity, as is also clear from the Word.
sRef Gen@35 @14 S2′ sRef Gen@31 @13 S2′  Consequently the Church is not the Church by virtue of truth separated from good, nor therefore by virtue of faith separated from charity, but by virtue of truth that is grounded in good, or faith that is grounded in charity. The same is also meant by what the Lord said to Jacob,
I am the God of Bethel, where you anointed a pillar, where you made a vow to Me. Gen. 31:13
Jacob again set up a pillar, a stone pillar, and poured out a drink-offering over it, and poured oil over it. Gen. 35 :14.
‘Pouring out a drink-offering over the pillar’ means the Divine good of faith, and ‘pouring oil over it’ the Divine good of love. Anyone may see that unless it meant something celestial and spiritual, pouring oil over a stone would be a ridiculous and idolatrous action.
‘Jacob made a vow, saying’ means a state of Providence. ‘If God will be with me, and guard me on this road on which I am walking’ means the ever-present Divine. ‘And will give me bread to eat’ means even to the point of being joined to Divine Good. ‘And clothing to wear’ means being joined to Divine Truth. ‘And I come back in peace to my father’s house’ means even to the point of perfect union. ‘Then Jehovah will be my God’ means that the Divine Natural also is Jehovah. ‘And this stone which I have placed as a pillar’ means truth as it exists in the ultimate degree. ‘Will be God’s house’ means here, as previously, the Lord’s kingdom as it exists in the ultimate degree of order where higher things are accommodated as in their own house. ‘And of all that You give me I will surely give You a tenth’ means that by His own Divine power He made every single thing Divine.
 That state of affairs shows quite clearly what the fathers of the Jewish nation were like. They were like Jacob here, who did not as yet acknowledge Jehovah and was still at the stage of choosing whether to acknowledge Him or some other as his own God. It was a special feature of that nation, even of their fathers, that everyone wished to have his own God; and anyone who worshipped Jehovah worshipped Him merely as some god called Jehovah, the name which distinguished Him from the gods of other nations. Accordingly their worship even in this respect was idolatrous, for the worship of the name only, even of Jehovah’s, is nothing but idolatrous, 1094. This is like people who call themselves Christians and say that they worship Christ, but do not live according to His commandments. They worship Him in an idolatrous way since they worship only His name, it being a false Christ whom they worship; reference to that false Christ is made in Matthew 24:23, 24 – see 3010.
 So when with holiness of mind a person thinks about bread – for example, when he thinks about the bread in the Holy Supper, or about the daily bread in the Lord’s Prayer – that thought which he has about bread serves the angels present with him as an object for thought regarding the good of love which comes from the Lord. For the angels do not take hold of anything at all of the person’s actual thought concerning bread, but instead their thought concerns good; for such is the correspondence between the two. It is similar when with holiness of mind a person thinks about clothing. The angels’ thought in that case concerns truth. So it is with everything else in the Word. From this the nature of the joining together of heaven and earth by means of the Word becomes clear; that is to say, the joining together is such that when with holiness of mind anyone reads the Word he is joined by means of such correspondences more closely to heaven, and through heaven to the Lord, even though that person’s thought is concerned solely with things in the Word which are stated in the sense of the letter. His holiness of mind at that time is the product of the influx of celestial and spiritual thoughts and affections such as exist with angels.
 So that such influx might exist and from that influx man might be joined to the Lord, the Lord has instituted the Holy Supper where it is explicitly stated that the Lord is the bread and wine. For the Lord’s body means His Divine love, and the reciprocal love in man, love such as exists with celestial angels, while His blood in a similar way means His Divine love, and the reciprocal love in man, but love such as exists with spiritual angels. From this it is evident how much of the Divine there is within every individual part of the Word, though man does not know what that Divine content is or the nature of it. People however who, while in the world, have led a good life enter after death into cognitions and a perception of all those things, for at that time they cast off earthly and worldly things and take to themselves heavenly ones, and have, like angels, spiritual and celestial ideas.
What if you were to see the Son of Man ascending to where He was before? John 6:62.
In the same gospel,
Jesus knew that the Father had given all things into His hands and that He had come forth from God and was going to God. My children, yet a little while I am with you. Where I am going you cannot come. John 13:3, 33.
In the same gospel,
Now I am going away to Him who sent Me; but none of you asks Me, Where are you going away? It is to your advantage that I go away, for if I did not go away the Paraclete would not come to you; but if I go away I will send Him to you. A little while, and you will not see Me, and again a little while, and you will see Me [because I am going away to the Father. Some of His disciples said to one another, What is this that He says to us, A little while, and you will not see Me, and again a little while, and you will see Me,] and, Because I am going away to the Father? John 16:5, 7, 10, 16, 17.
In the same gospel,
I came forth from the Father and have come into the world; again, I am leaving the world and going to the Father. John 16:28.
‘Going away to the Father’ in these places means uniting the Human Essence to the Divine Essence.
 A similar situation exists with man, in that he has been created and formed in such a way that he resembles the three heavens. That which is inmost in him flows in a similar way into that which is lower, and this in a similar way flows into what is lowest or last. The natural and bodily degree is established by such an influx and coming together of higher things within lower ones, and at length within those that are last ones. In this way the latter are linked to Him who is First, and but for this link with Him that which is last in order could not continue to exist for one single moment. This shows what is meant by the statement that higher things are accommodated in the ultimate degree of order as in their own house. Whether you speak of higher and lower or of interior and exterior things it amounts to the same, since by man interior things are seen as those that are higher; and this is why he places heaven on high when in fact it is something internal.
The heavenly kingdom resembles one human being since every specific thing in it corresponds to the only Lord – that is to say, to His Divine Human – who alone is Man, 49, 288, 565, 1894. By virtue of its correspondence with Him, and of its being the image and likeness of Him, heaven is called the Grand Man. The Lord’s Divine is the source in heaven of everything celestial, which in essence is good, and of everything spiritual, which in essence is truth. Every angel there is a form, that is, every angel is substance taking a form that is determined by his reception of Divine qualities flowing from the Lord. These Divine qualities which are the Lord’s and are received by the angels are called celestial and spiritual because Divine life, and from this Divine light, manifests itself and is modified in them as the recipients.
 In addition therefore the forms and material substances with man too are of a similar nature, though they exist in a lower degree since they are grosser and more composite. The fact that these too are recipient forms of celestial and spiritual qualities is quite evident from the plainly visible signs of them – for example, from thought which flows into the organic forms of the tongue and produces speech; from the feelings of mind which manifest themselves visibly in the face; or from the will which passes through the muscles of the body into actions; and so on. The thought and will which produce these activities are spiritual and celestial entities, whereas the forms or substances which receive them and carry them into effect are material. These material substances, it is clear, have been used to produce forms solely for the reception of those spiritual and celestial entities. From this it is evident that spiritual and celestial qualities are the source of the material forms, and that if they were not, such forms could not come into being at all.
 Consequently the evil make evil their own because they do not believe that evils originate in hell; and they are incapable of making good their own because they believe that good begins in themselves and not from the Lord. Even so, the evil, as also those in hell, are recipient forms of life from the Lord, but they are forms such as either reject, or stifle, or pervert what is good and true; and so with them goods and truths, which come with the Lord’s life, are turned into evils and falsities. It is like the light of the sun. Although that light is one alone and white it is nevertheless made varied as it strikes different objects, that is, flows into them, producing colours that are beautiful and pleasant, and also those that are hideous and unpleasant.
 It has been added that the learned more than the simple equate themselves with animals, ascribing all things to natural forces and scarcely anything to the Divine. Nor do they stop to reflect that man, unlike animals, is able to think about heaven and about God, and in so doing to be raised above himself, and consequently to be joined to the Lord by means of love; and that for these reasons they must inevitably live for ever after death. We have gone on to refer to their particular ignorance of the fact that every single thing with man traces back to the Lord through heaven, and that heaven is the Grand Man to which every single thing in man corresponds, as does everything in the natural system. And when perhaps they hear or read of these things they will be to them so paradoxical that unless experience proved the truth of them they would reject them as something delusive. It is similar when they hear that there are three degrees of life in man just as there are three degrees of life in heaven, that is, there are three heavens, and that man corresponds to the three heavens in such a way that in image he is a small-scale heaven when he leads the life of good and truth and through that life is an image of the Lord.
 I have been told the following about those degrees of life: The ultimate degree of life is that which is called the external or natural man, which makes man similar to animals so far as his pressing desires and his delusions are concerned. The second degree is that which is called the internal or rational man which makes man superior to animals. For by means of the internal man he is able to think and to will what is good and true and to govern the natural man by controlling his desires and disregarding his resulting delusions, and on top of this by reflecting within himself about heaven, indeed about the Divine, which animals are quite incapable of doing. I have been told that the third degree of life is one which is totally unknown to man, and yet it is the degree through which the Lord enters into the rational mind, from which he has the ability to think as a human being, to have conscience, to have perception of what is good and true, and to be raised up by the Lord towards Himself. These considerations however are remote from the ideas of the learned of this present age, who do no more than dispute whether the internal man exists at all. And as long as they cannot be sure that it exists they are even less able to know what it is.
 Then he wanted to reason about the Grand Man and about the influx from it into every individual part of a human being. But since he understood nothing at all about it I asked him how he understood the idea that thought, which belongs to the spirit, moves the whole face and expresses itself in the countenance, and also sets in motion all the organs of speech, and doing this so accurately as to lead to a spiritual perception of that thought. Then how he understood the idea that the will sets in motion the muscles of the whole body and the thousands of fibres spread throughout it, to perform a single activity. What belongs to the spirit therefore is that which sets in motion, and what belongs to the body is that which is set in motion. But he did not know what to say in reply. I then went on to speak about intention. Did he know that intention produced activity and motion, and that intention is present within activity and motion, so that it manifests itself and continues to do so within them? He said that he did not know this. I therefore asked him how in that case could he want to reason about something when he did not even know the first thing about it. And I went on to say that such reasoning is like loose dust scattered about, which falsities drive away until at length nothing is known and so nothing believed.
 One of them brought himself down to me, who, I was told by others, had been Pope when in the world. He spoke to me very courteously, first of all about Peter and his keys which he imagined that he had held. But when I asked him about the power of letting into heaven whomever he liked he had so crude an idea about heaven that he represented it as a door through which entrance was gained. He said that he opened the door to the poor for nothing, but that the rich were assessed according to their means, and that what they gave was holy. I asked whether he believed that those he let in remained there. He said that he did not know; if they did not, then they went away. I went on to say that he could not know those persons interiorly – whether they were worthy persons or possibly robbers who should be in hell. He said that this was no concern of his; if they were not worthy they could be sent away. But he was told what was meant by Peter’s keys, namely faith rooted in love and charity; and because the Lord alone confers such faith the Lord alone is the one who lets people into heaven. He was also told that Peter does not appear to anyone but is a simple ordinary spirit who has no more power than anyone else. Concerning the Lord this former Pope held no other opinion than that He ought to be worshipped insofar as He confers such power; and that if He did not confer it, he thought – as I perceived – that He ought not to be worshipped any longer. I then went on to talk to him about the internal man, of which he had a foul idea.
 I was shown visually the nature of the freedom, fullness, and delight of the respiration he enjoyed when seated on his throne in his consistory and believed that he spoke under the influence of the Holy Spirit. He was taken back into a similar state he had passed through there – for in the next life anyone can be taken back without difficulty into the state of life which he had passed through in the world, because the state of his life remains with him after death – and the nature of his respiration in that state was conveyed to me. It was free and attended with delight, slow, regular, deep, and filling the whole breast. But when he was contradicted there was in the abdomen, into which his respiration extended, something that seemed to be turning over and crawling about. And when he imagined that what he pronounced was Divine he perceived it from his respiration, which was more soundless and so to speak in harmony with it.
 I was then shown who the spirits are who direct Popes like this one, namely the horde of sirens overhead who have acquired that disposition and life by which they worm their way into every kind of affection with the intention of ruling over others and subjecting them to themselves, and of destroying for selfish reasons whomever they can, employing holiness and innocence as the means. They fear for themselves and so act cautiously; but given the opportunity they plunge for selfish reasons into merciless acts of cruelty.
But woe to those who are with child or giving suck in those days! Pray that your flight may not take place in winter or on a sabbath. For then there will be great affliction, unlike any from the beginning of the world until now, or any in the future. And unless those days were cut short, no flesh would be saved; but for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short.
 Pray that your flight may not be in winter or on a sabbath means removal from those things to prevent it happening rapidly during a state of excessive cold or a state of excessive heat. ‘Flight’ is removal from a state of good stemming from love and from innocence, dealt with just above. ‘Flight in winter’ is a removal from these during a state of excessive cold – cold being a time when there is an aversion to those things, which is caused by all kinds of self- love. ‘Flight on a sabbath’ is removal from them during a state of excessive heat – heat being external holiness when self-love and love of the world exist inwardly.
 For then there will be great affliction, unlike any from the beginning of the world until now, or any in the future means the furthest degree of the perversion and vastation of the good and truth of the Church, which is profanation. For the profanation of that which is holy leads to eternal death, a death far more serious than that to which any other states of evil lead, and which is all the more serious insofar as they are interior goods and truths which are made profane. And since they are interior goods and truths that have been disclosed and made known in the Christian Church and have then been made profane it is said that ‘then there will be great affliction, unlike any from the beginning of the world until now, or any in the future’.
 And unless those days were cut short, no flesh would be saved; but for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short means the removal of those who belong to the Church from interior goods and truths to exterior in order that those who lead lives that are good and true may nevertheless be saved. ‘Cutting days short’ means a state of such removal; ‘no flesh being saved’ means that otherwise nobody could be saved; ‘the elect’ means those who lead lives that are good and true.
Those who know, acknowledge, and are endowed with good and truth are able to profane these, but not those who have not acknowledged them, still less those who do not know them, 593, 1008, 1010, 1059, 3398.
So it is possible for those inside the Church to profane holy things but not those outside it, 2051.
It is possible for members of the celestial Church to profane any holy good, and for members of the spiritual Church to profane any holy truth, 3399.
To the Jews therefore interior truths were not disclosed, lest they profaned them, 3398.
Least of all are gentiles able to profane them, 2051.
Profanation is mixing and linking good and evil together, and also truth and falsity together, 1001, 1003, 2426.
It was meant by eating blood, something strictly forbidden in the Jewish Church, 1003.
People are therefore withheld as far as possible from an acknowledgement of and a faith in what is good and true if they are unable to remain steadfast in the same, 3398, 3402, and are therefore kept in ignorance, 301-303; and their worship also becomes external, 1327, 1328.
Internal truths are not revealed until the Church has undergone vastation, for at that point it is no longer possible for good and truth to be rendered profane, 3398, 3399.
As soon as this was the case therefore the Lord came into the world, 3398.
How much danger lies in profaning the Word and that which is holy, 571, 582.
1 And Jacob lifted up his feet and went to the land of the sons of the east.
2 And he saw, and behold, a well in the field, and behold, three droves of a flock there, lying nearby it; for out of that well they watered the droves; and there was a large stone over the mouth of the well.
3 And all the droves would be gathered there; and they would roll the stone from over the mouth of the well and water the flock; and they would put the stone back in its place over the mouth of the well.
4 And Jacob said to them, My brothers, where are you from? And they said, We are from Haran.
5 And he said to them, Do you know Laban the son of Nahor? And they said, We do.
6 And he said to them, Does he have peace?* And they said, [He has] peace; and behold, Rachel his daughter is coming with the flock.
7 And he said, Behold, it is still high day; it is not time for the cattle to be gathered together; water the flock, and go and pasture them.
8 And they said, We cannot until all the droves are gathered together, and they have rolled the stone from over the mouth of the well, and we water the flock.
9 While he was still speaking to them Rachel came with the flock which was her father’s, for she was a shepherdess.
10 And so it was, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother’s brother, and the flock of Laban his mother’s brother, that Jacob came near and rolled the stone from over the mouth of the well, and watered the flock of Laban his mother’s brother.
11 And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice and wept.
12 And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father’s brother, and that he was Rebekah’s son; and she ran and told her father.
13 And so it was, when Laban heard the news about Jacob his sister’s son, that he ran to meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house. And he told Laban all these things.
14 And Laban said to him, Surely you are my bone and my flesh. And he dwelt with him for a full month.
15 And Laban said to Jacob, Because you are my brother should you serve me for nothing? Tell me, what shall your reward be?
16 And Laban had two daughters; the name of the elder was Leah, and the name of the younger Rachel.
17 And Leah’s eyes were weak; and Rachel was beautiful in form and beautiful in appearance.
18 And Jacob loved Rachel and said, I will serve you seven years for Rachel your younger daughter.
19 And Laban said, It is better for me to give her to you than to give her to
another man; remain with me.
20 And Jacob served seven years for Rachel; and they were in his eyes like a few days, because of his love for her.
21 And Jacob said to Laban, Give me my wife, for my days are completed, and I will go [in] to her.
22 And Laban gathered together all the men of the place and made a feast.
23 And so it was in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter and brought her to him; and he came [in] to her.
24 And Laban gave to her Zilpah his servant-girl – to Leah his daughter to be her servant-girl.
25 And so it was in the morning, that behold it was Leah. And he said to Laban, What is this you have done to me? Was it not for Rachel that I served with you? And why have you cheated me?
26 And Laban said, It is not done that way in our place, to give the younger
before the firstborn.
27 Complete this week, and we will give you this one also for the service which you render with me for another seven years.
28 And Jacob did so and completed this week, and he gave him Rachel his
daughter for his wife.
29 And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his servant-girl, to her to be a servant-girl.
30 And he came [in] also to Rachel, and he loved Rachel also, more than Leah; and he served with him yet another seven years.
31 And Jehovah saw that Leah was hated, and He opened her womb; and Rachel was barren.
32 And Leah conceived and bore a son; and she called his name Reuben, for she said, Because Jehovah has seen my affliction; for now my husband (vir) will love me.
33 And she conceived again and bore a son, and she said, For Jehovah has heard that I was hated and has given me this one also; and she called his name Simeon.
34 And she conceived again and bore a son, and she said, Now this time my
husband (vir) will cling to me, because I have borne him three sons; therefore she called his name Levi.
35 And she conceived again and bore a son, and she said, This time I will
confess Jehovah; therefore she called his name Judah. And she left off bearing.
* A Hebrew idiom used in inquiring after a person’s welfare
In this chapter ‘Jacob’ refers, in the internal sense, to the Lord’s Natural, the subject being how the Good of Truth in His Natural was joined to a kindred good from a Divine source, meant by ‘Laban’. First these were so joined through the affection for external truth, meant by ‘Leah’, and then through the affection for internal truth, meant by ‘Rachel’.
Verse 1 And Jacob lifted up his feet and went to the land of the sons of the east.
‘Jacob lifted up his feet’ means a raising up of the natural. ‘And went to the land of the sons of the east’ means towards truths that relate to love.
 Because the subject here is the natural, and the latter is represented by ‘Jacob’, it is not said that he rose up and went to the land of the sons of the east but that ‘he lifted up his feet’. Both these expressions mean a raising up. As regards ‘rising up’ haying this meaning, see 2401, 2785, 2912, 2927, 3171; and as regards the expression ‘lifting up the feet’ which occurs here, this is used in reference to the natural – ‘the feet’ meaning the natural, see 2162, 3147. ‘The feet’ means the natural or natural things because of their correspondence with the Grand Man – currently the subject at the ends of chapters. In the Grand Man those belonging to the province of the feet are those who dwell in natural light and little spiritual light. This also is why the parts beneath the foot – the sole and the heel – mean the lowest natural things, see 259, and why ‘a shoe’, which is also mentioned several times in the Word, means the bodily-natural, which is the lowest part of all, 1748.
 These truths, that is to say, those concerning charity towards the neighbour and concerning love to the Lord, must first be learned before a person can be regenerated, and must also be acknowledged and believed. And insofar as those truths are acknowledged and believed, and are endowed with life, that person is also regenerated and those truths are implanted in his natural, where they exist as in their own soil. They are first implanted there through the instruction received from parents and teachers, then from the Word of the Lord, and after that from personal reflection on them. But all of this does no more than to deposit those truths in the person’s natural memory and so to place them among the cognitions there. They are still not acknowledged, believed, and received unless life is led in accordance with them, in which case the person enters into an affection for them; and insofar as he enters into an affection for them because his life accords with them, those truths are implanted in his natural as their own soil. Things that are not so implanted do indeed remain with that person, but only in his memory as some item of knowledge or historical fact which does no more than enable him to talk about such things, to further his reputation by means of them, and in so doing to grow in wealth and position. When this is the case truths have not been implanted within him.
sRef 1Ki@4 @30 S3′  As regards the meaning of ‘the land of the sons of the east’ as truths relating to love, and so as cognitions of truth leading the way to good, this may be seen from the meaning of ‘sons’ as truths, dealt with in 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, and from the meaning of ‘the east’ as love, dealt with in 101, 1250, 3249. Their land is the soil in which they exist. For ‘the sons of the east’ are those who possess cognitions concerning truth and good and therefore the truths that relate to love. This may be seen further from other places in the Word, as in the first Book of Kings,
The wisdom of Solomon surpassed the wisdom of all the sons of the east and all the wisdom of the Egyptians. 1 Kings 4:30.
Here ‘the wisdom of the sons of the east’ means interior cognitions concerning truth and good, and so means people who possess them. ‘The wisdom of the Egyptians’ however means knowledge of the same things as they exist in a lower degree -‘the Egyptians’ meaning factual knowledge in general, see 1164, 1165, 1462.
sRef Jer@49 @29 S4′ sRef Jer@49 @28 S4′  In Jeremiah,
Thus said Jehovah, Arise, go up against Kedar; lay waste the sons of the east. They will take their tents and flocks, their curtains and all their vessels, and will take their camels. Jer. 49:28, 29.
Here ‘the sons of the east’ is used to mean those who possess cognitions concerning good and truth. This is clear from the fact that ‘they will take their tents and flocks, also their curtains and all their vessels, as well as their camels’. For ‘tents’ means holy forms of good, 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3312; ‘flocks’ the goods that flow from charity, 343, 2566; ‘curtains’ holy truths, 2576, 3478; ‘vessels’ the truths of faith, and facts, 3068, 3079; ‘camels’ factual knowledge in general, 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145. Thus ‘the sons of the east’ means those who possess these, that is, cognitions concerning what is good and what is true.
sRef Num@24 @17 S5′ sRef Matt@2 @2 S5′ sRef Matt@2 @1 S5′  The wise men from the east who came to Jesus when He was born belonged to those people called the sons of the east. This becomes clear from the fact of their awareness that the Lord was to be born, and that they knew of His Coming from the star which appeared to them in the east. These matters are described in Matthew as follows,
When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, behold wise men from the east came into Jerusalem, saying, Where is He born King of the Jews? for we have seen His star in the east and have come to worship Him. Matt. 2:1, 2.
The fact that such a prophecy existed from of old among the sons of the east, who were from Syria, is clear from Balaam’s prophecy concerning the Lord’s Coming, in Moses,
I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not near. A star will arise out of Jacob and a sceptre will rise up out of Israel. Num. 24:17.
The fact that Balaam was from the land of the sons of the east, that is, from Syria, is evident from the following in Moses,
Balaam uttered his declaration and said, From Syria has Balak, the king of Moab, brought me, from the mountains of the east. Num. 23:7.
The wise men who came to Jesus when He was born are called the magi, but this expression was used for wise men at that time, as is clear from many places, such as Gen. 41:8; Exod. 7:11; Dan. 2:27; 4:6, 7; 1 Kings 4:30; and in various places in the Prophets.
sRef Ezek@25 @4 S6′ sRef Ezek@25 @2 S6′ sRef Isa@11 @14 S6′ sRef Isa@11 @13 S6′ sRef Ezek@25 @10 S6′ sRef Judg@6 @3 S6′  ‘The sons of the east’ in the contrary sense means cognitions concerning evil and falsity, and so means those who possess these. This is clear in Isaiah,
The envy of Ephraim will depart, and the enemies of Judah will be cut off. They will fly down onto the shoulder of the Philistines towards the sea, and together they will plunder the sons of the east. Isa. 11:13, 14.
In Ezekiel, when prophesying against the sons of Ammon,
Behold, I have handed you over to the sons of the east as an inheritance, and they will station their ranks among you. Ezek. 25:4, 10.
In the Book of Judges,
When Israel put in seed, Midian came up and Amalek, and the sons of the east; and they came up upon them. Judg. 6:3.
‘Midian’ stands for those under the influence of falsity because the good of life does not exist with them, 3242; ‘Amalek’ for those under the influence of falsities with which they assail truths, 1679; ‘the sons of the east’ for those who possess cognitions that support what is false.
‘He saw’ means perception. ‘Behold, a well’ means the Word. ‘In the field’ means provided for the Churches. ‘And behold, three droves of a flock there, lying nearby it’ means the holy things that constitute the Churches and their matters of doctrine. ‘For out of that well they watered the droves’ means knowledge obtained from there. ‘And there was a large stone over the mouth of the well’ means that it was closed up. ‘And all the droves would be gathered there’ means that all the Churches and their doctrinal teaching come from there. ‘And they would roll the stone from over the mouth of the well’ means that they opened it up. ‘And water the flock’ means that the doctrine was drawn from it. ‘And they would put the stone back in its place over the mouth of the well’ means that it was closed up for the time being.
 This is why it is stated many times that names mean real things and also the people with whom these real things exist. For example, ‘Tyre and Sidon’ means cognitions concerning what is good and true and also the people who possess those cognitions. ‘Egypt’ means knowledge and ‘Asshur’ reasoning, but these names are used at the same time to mean people with whom that knowledge or reasoning is present. And the same is so with every other name. But speech among angels in heaven is composed of real things that do not involve any concept of persons, and so is composed of universal ideas. The reason for this is that in this way they include countless things in what they say, and in particular for the reason that they attribute everything good and true to the Lord and nothing to themselves. Consequently the ideas which compose their kind of speech know no limits except insofar as those ideas involve the Lord. From these considerations it is now evident why ‘a flock’ is said to mean the Churches and also their matters of doctrine. ‘Droves of a flock’ are said to be ‘lying nearby the well’ because the Word is the source of matters of doctrine – ‘a well’ meaning the Word, as stated just above in 3765.
 The natural man, it is true, can know and also perceive what good and truth are, but only the natural and social variety of good and truth. Spiritual good and truth he cannot know or perceive. Knowledge of these has to come from revelation, and so from the Word. For example, from the rational present in everyone a person may know that he ought to love his neighbour and to worship God; but how he ought to love his neighbour and worship God, and so what constitutes spiritual good and truth, he cannot know except from the Word. Except from the Word he cannot know that good itself is the neighbour, and that consequently those governed by good are the neighbour and in the measure that it governs them. Nor can he know that good is therefore the neighbour because the Lord is present in good, and that accordingly when good is loved the Lord is loved.
 In the same way those who do not possess the Word cannot know that all good comes from the Lord, and that it flows in with man and forms his affection for good, and that that affection is called charity. Those who do not possess the Word cannot know who is the God of the universe. The truth that He is the Lord is hidden from them, yet the inmost part of affection or charity, and therefore the inmost part of good must have Him in view. From this one may see what spiritual good is and that there can be no knowledge of it except from the Word. As regards gentiles, as long as they are in this world they do not indeed know that good. Yet when they lead charitable lives one with another they thereby have an ability to learn such things in the next life, and also do receive them and adopt them without difficulty, see 2589-2604.
sRef Isa@6 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @11 S2′ sRef Matt@13 @14 S2′ sRef Matt@13 @15 S2′  What is meant by the Word’s being closed up becomes particularly clear from the Jews who explain every single thing literally, and as a consequence believe that they have been chosen in preference to everybody else in all the world, and that the Messiah is coming who will lead them into the land of Canaan and will exalt them above all nations and peoples of the world. For the Jews are governed by loves of an earthly and bodily nature, which are such that they close the Word altogether so far as interior teachings are concerned. What is more, they do not even know whether any heavenly kingdom exists, whether they are going to live after death, what the internal man is, or even the existence of anything spiritual, let alone that the Messiah has come to save souls. The fact that the Word is in their case closed up may also be seen quite clearly from the consideration that although they live among Christians they nevertheless accept nothing whatever of Christian teaching, in accordance with the following words in Isaiah,
Say to this people, Hearing hear, and do not understand; and seeing see, and do not comprehend. Make the hearts of this people fat and their ears heavy, and plaster over their eyes. And I said, How long, O Lord? And He said, Until cities have been laid waste till no inhabitant [is left], and houses till no man [is left], and the land has been laid waste as a desolation. Isa. 6:9-11; Matt. 13:14, 15; John 12:40, 41.
 To the extent that someone is under the influence of self-love and love of the world, and of the desires that go with these loves, the Word is to him closed up. For those loves have self as the end in view, an end which fosters natural light but extinguishes heavenly light. As a result people see clearly the things that belong to self and the world but nothing whatever of those that belong to the Lord and to His kingdom. When this is so they may indeed read the Word, but their end in view is the increase of personal position and wealth, or that they may be seen by others; or else they read it because it is the done thing and therefore merely from force of habit, or they read it as a religious duty, but without any amendment of life in view. To these people the Word has in different ways become closed up, for some so closed that they do not wish to know anything at all apart from that which their own teachings – whatever these may be – declare.
 If anyone were to say, for example, that the power of opening and of shutting heaven has not been granted to Peter but to faith rooted in love, which faith is meant by Peter’s keys, they would never acknowledge it because self-love and love of the world stand in the way. Or if anyone were to say that the saints ought not to be worshipped but the Lord alone, they would not accept that either. Nor would they believe it if someone were to say that the bread and wine in the Holy Supper mean the Lord’s love towards the whole human race and man’s love for the Lord in return. And if anyone were to say that faith – other than the good of faith, which is charity – does not achieve anything, they would give a completely contrary explanation. And so it would be with everything else. People like these can see nothing at all of the truth contained in the Word and do not wish to see it. Instead they adhere rigidly to their own doctrinal opinions. They do not even wish to hear of the existence of the internal sense in which the holiness and the glory of the Word reside. Indeed when they hear about the existence of it they are revolted because of their detestation of the mere mention of it. So the Word has been closed up. Yet the Word is such that it is open right into heaven, and through heaven towards the Lord, and is closed only in relation to man, that is, insofar as he is subject to the evils of self-love and love of the world where the ends in view of his life are concerned, and is subject to false assumptions resulting from those evils. From this one may see what is meant by ‘a large stone over the mouth of the well’.
 This may also be seen from the consideration that in their infancy all Churches have been such, and have from love worshipped the Lord, and have from the heart loved the neighbour. But in course of time Churches have moved away from these two commandments, and have turned away from good flowing from love and charity towards those things called matters of faith, and so have turned away from life towards doctrine. And to the extent this happens the Word is closed up. These are the factors meant in the internal sense by the words, ‘Behold, a well in the field, and behold, three droves of a flock there, lying nearby it; for out of that well they watered the droves; and there was a large stone over the mouth of the well. And all the droves would be gathered there; and they would roll the stone from over the mouth of the well and water the flock; and they would put the stone back in its place over the mouth of the well’.
‘Jacob said to them’ means the truth of good. ‘My brothers, where are you from?’ means, What is the origin of the charity there? ‘And they said, We are from Haran’ means good that springs from a common stock. ‘And he said to them, Do you know Laban the son of Nahor?’ means, Did they possess good from that stock? ‘And they said, We do’ means, Yes, they did. ‘And he said to them, Does he have peace?’ means, Does it come from the Lord’s kingdom? ‘And they said, [He has] peace’ means, Yes, it does. ‘And behold, Rachel his daughter’ means the affection for interior truth. ‘Is coming with the flock’ means interior matters of doctrine.
* A Hebrew idiom used in inquiring after a person’s welfare
 This then is why Nahor, his son Bethuel, and Bethuel’s son Laban represent a parallel good that springs from a common stock, that is, the good which exists with people who belong to the Lord’s Church among the gentiles. This good differs from good coming in a direct line from the common stock, in that those gentiles do not have genuine truths which are joined to their good. Instead they have for the most part external appearances which are called illusions of the senses, for they do not possess the Word from which they may receive light. Actually good is in essence a single entity, but it acquires a specific character from the truths implanted in it and in this way is made various. The truths that are seen by gentiles as truths are in general the idea that they should worship some God from whom they seek their own good and to whom they attribute it – though they do not know so long as they live in this world that that God is the Lord; also the idea that they should adore their God under images which they hold sacred; besides many other ideas. But these ideas do not make it any less possible for them to be saved than for Christians, provided that they lead lives in which love to their God and love towards the neighbour are present. For by leading such lives they have the ability to receive interior truths in the next life, see 932, 1032, 1059, 2049, 2051, 2284, 2589-2604, 2861, 2863, 3263. This shows what is meant by a parallel good that springs from a common stock. For Nahor represents those outside the Church who by virtue of good are bound together as brethren, see 2863, 2864, 2868; Bethuel represents good as it exists with those who make up a first group of gentiles, 2865, 3665; and Laban represents the affection for external or bodily good, strictly speaking a parallel good springing from a common stock, 3612, 3665.
 This good is such that first of all it serves a person as a means for acquiring spiritual good, for it is external and bodily and derives from external appearances which in themselves are illusions of the senses. In childhood a person acknowledges nothing other than these as truth and good, and although taught what internal good and truth are he still has no more than a bodily concept of it. This being his concept at first, this kind of good and truth is the initial means by which interior truths and goods are brought in. This is the arcanum which Jacob and Laban represent here.
sRef Isa@32 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@32 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @7 S2′  As regards ‘peace’, this means in the highest sense the Lord Himself, and from this in the internal sense His kingdom. Peace is also the Lord’s Divine affecting inmostly the good which governs people there. The fact that these things are meant in the Word by ‘peace’ becomes clear from many places, as in Isaiah,
To us a Boy is born, to us a Son is given, whose government will be upon His shoulder; and His name will be called, Wonderful, Counsellor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and of peace there will be no end, upon the throne of David and over His kingdom. Isa. 9:6, 7.
Here ‘Prince of Peace’ clearly stands for the Lord, ‘the increase of government and of peace’ for the things that exist in His kingdom, and so it stands for the kingdom itself. In the same prophet,
The work of righteousness will be peace, and the labour of righteousness quietness and security for ever. And My people will abide in a habitation of peace. Isa. 32:17, 18.
This refers to the Lord’s kingdom, where ‘peace’, ‘quietness’, and ‘security’ follow consecutively. ‘A habitation of peace’ stands for heaven.
sRef Isa@33 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@52 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@54 @10 S3′ sRef Isa@33 @8 S3′ sRef Isa@59 @8 S3′  In the same prophet,
The angels of peace weep bitterly. The highways have been laid waste, the wayfarer has ceased. Isa. 33:7, 8.
‘The angels of peace’ stands for members of the Lord’s kingdom, and so ‘peace’ stands for the kingdom itself, and in the highest sense for the Lord. ‘The highways have been laid waste and the wayfarer has ceased’ stands for the fact that truth existed nowhere any longer – ‘highways’ and ‘ways’ meaning truths, see 627, 2333. In the same prophet,
How beautiful on the mountains are the feet of Him who is bringing good tidings, causing peace to be heard, bringing good tidings of good, causing salvation to be heard, saying to Zion, Your God reigns. Isa. 52:7.
‘Bringing good tidings and causing peace to be heard’ stands for the Lord’s kingdom. In the same prophet,
The mountains will depart and the hills be removed, but My mercy will not depart from you, and the covenant of My peace will not be removed. Isa. 54:10.
In the same prophet,
The way of peace they have not known, and there is no judgement in their tracks. Isa. 59:8.
sRef Jer@25 @37 S4′ sRef Zech@8 @12 S4′ sRef Ps@37 @37 S4′ sRef Luke@10 @6 S4′ sRef Luke@10 @5 S4′ sRef Jer@16 @5 S4′ sRef John@14 @27 S4′ sRef Hag@2 @9 S4′ sRef Jer@29 @11 S4′ sRef John@16 @33 S4′ sRef Jer@28 @9 S4′  In Jeremiah,
I will assemble My peace from this people, said Jehovah, pity and mercy. Jer. 16:5.
In the same prophet, The folds of peace have been laid waste, because of the fierce anger of Jehovah. Jer. 25:37.
In the same prophet,
The prophet who prophesies of peace, when the word of the prophet comes to pass, the prophet will be known, that Jehovah has in truth sent him. Jer. 28:9.
In the same prophet,
I know the thoughts that I am thinking towards you, said Jehovah, thoughts of peace. Jer. 29:11.
The glory of this latter house will be greater than that of the former, for in this place I will give peace. Hagg. 2:9.
They will be the seed of peace; the vine will give its fruit, and the land will give its increase, and the heavens will give their dew. Zech. 8:12.
Care for the blameless one, and behold the upright, for the latter end of that man is peace. Ps. 37:37.
Jesus said to the disciples, Whatever house you enter, first say, Peace be to this house! And if a son of peace is there, your peace shall rest on it; but if not, it shall return to you. Luke 10:5, 6.
Peace I leave with you; My peace I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you. John 14:27.
In the same gospel,
Jesus said, These things I have said to you, that in Me you may have peace. John 16:33.
sRef Num@6 @26 S5′  In all these places ‘peace’ in the highest sense means the Lord, in the representative sense His kingdom and good from the Lord in that kingdom, and so means the Divine which flows into good or into affections for good, which also, from what is inmost, brings feelings of joy and happiness. This shows what is meant by the words of the blessing,
Jehovah will lift up His face upon you and give you peace. Num. 6:26.
It also shows what is meant by the customary greeting received from ancient times, Peace to you, the same words as were used by the Lord to greet the apostles, John 20:19, 21, 26. See also about ‘peace’ in 92, 93, 1726, 2780, 3170, 3696.
‘He said, Behold, it is still high day’ means that the state was now in progress. ‘It is not time for the cattle to be gathered together’ means that goods and truths constituting the Churches and their matters of doctrine were not yet gathered into one. ‘Water the flock, and go and pasture them’ means instruction from these was nevertheless to be given to a few. ‘And they said, We cannot until all the droves are gathered together’ means that they ought to be all together. ‘And they have rolled the stone from over the mouth of the well’ means that in this way things of the Word are disclosed. ‘And we water the flock’ means that at that point they receive instruction.
 It is in general the same with the Church. When this is being re-established matters of doctrine concerning good and truth have first to be gathered into one since they are the base on which it is built. Matters of doctrine also have connections one with another and relate one to another. Consequently unless they are first gathered into one a defect would exist and things that are missing would have to be supplied from the person’s rational. And how blind and deluded the rational is so far as spiritual and Divine things are concerned when it relies on itself in the conclusions it reaches has been shown in various places already. To the Church therefore the Word has been given which contains all matters of doctrine concerning good and truth. In this respect the Church answers in a general way to what exists in particular with the individual who is being regenerated, for he is the Church in particular. The point that with any person matters of doctrine concerning good and truth which are the Church’s ought first to be gathered together in him before regeneration takes place has been stated above. It is those goods and truths that are meant in the internal sense by ‘Behold, it is still high day; it is not time for the cattle to be gathered together’.
‘While he was still speaking to them’ means thought during that time. ‘Rachel came with the flock’ means the affection for interior truth belonging to the Church and to doctrine. ‘Which was her father’s’ means from good in origin. ‘For she was a shepherdess’ means that the affection for interior truth contained in the Word is that which teaches. ‘And so it was, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother’s brother’ means an acknowledgement of the affection for that truth as to its origin. ‘And the flock of Laban his mother’s brother’ means the Church and doctrine from that origin. ‘That Jacob came near and rolled the stone from over the mouth of the well’ means that the Lord, by virtue of natural good, disclosed the interior contents of the Word. ‘And watered the flock of Laban his mother’s brother’ means instruction. ‘And Jacob kissed Rachel’ means love directed towards interior truths. ‘And lifted up his voice and wept’ means the warmth of love.
 These are the matters represented by Jacob and his two wives, Rachel and Leah. ‘Jacob’ now takes on the representation of natural good therefore, and ‘Rachel’ that of truth. But since all joining of truth to good is effected through affection, it is the affection for truth coupled to good that ‘Rachel’ represents. Furthermore the natural, like the rational, has an interior and an exterior. ‘Rachel’ represents the affection for interior truth, and ‘Leah’ the affection for exterior truth. ‘Laban’, who is their father, represents a good that springs from a common stock, but is a parallel good, as has been stated. That good is the good which in the parallel line corresponds to the truth of the rational, which is ‘Rebekah’, 3012, 3013, 3077. Daughters descended from that good therefore represent affections existing within the natural, for these are like daughters fathered by that good. And because those affections are to be coupled to natural good they consequently represent affections for truth – the first representing the affection for interior truth, the second the affection for exterior truth.
 The regeneration of a person’s natural is altogether like Jacob and Laban’s two daughters, Rachel and Leah. Anyone therefore who can see and understand the internal sense of the Word sees this arcanum which has been disclosed to him, but no one else is able to see it except him in whom good and truth are present. No others, no matter how good a perception they may have of the things to do with personal life and life in society and may seem to be highly intelligent, are able to see and then to acknowledge anything at all of that arcanum. Indeed they do not know what good and truth are, for they imagine evil to be good, and falsity to be truth. For this reason the moment good is mentioned the idea of evil presents itself, and the moment truth is mentioned the idea of falsity does so. Consequently they perceive nothing of the things contained in the internal sense, but as soon as they hear anything of it darkness descends which extinguishes the light.
* The Latin word pastor, translated shepherdess above, is used of anyone – male or female – who tends a flock or herd. But in the original Hebrew the word is taken to be feminine.
 As regards affections for truth and good, genuine affections for truth and good which are perceived by a person all have a Divine origin since they come from the Lord. But as they come down they branch off into various and different streams where they form new origins for themselves. For as they flow into affections which are not genuine but spurious, and into affections for evil and falsity present with a person, so they become varied. Affections which often have a similar outward appearance to genuine ones present themselves, but these are nevertheless not genuine inwardly. The only way to establish their true identity is to discover the end they have in view. If that end is selfish or worldly those affections are not genuine. But if the end is the good of the neighbour, the good of the community, the good of the country, and more still if it is the good of the Church and the good of the Lord’s kingdom, they are genuine, for in that case the Lord is their end, since the Lord is within those varieties of good.
sRef Luke@6 @37 S3′  But it is the mark of someone wise to be aware of which ends are present in himself. Sometimes it does seem as though his ends are selfish when in fact they are not, for the human being is such that in everything he considers how it affects himself. This he does regularly and habitually. But if anyone wishes to know the ends he himself has in view he has merely to take note of his feeling of delight – whether it is on account of his receiving praise and glory, or whether it is on account of his performing some unselfish service. If it is the latter delight which he feels, genuine affection is present in him. He ought also to take note of the varying states he passes through, for those states cause his feelings to vary considerably. A person is able to find these things out in himself, but not in others, for the ends in view to anyone’s affection are known to the Lord alone. This is why the Lord said,
Do not judge, lest you are judged; do not condemn, lest you are condemned. Luke 6:37.
For a thousand people may apparently share the same affection for truth and goodness, and yet the affection in each of them may have a different origin, that is, each may have a different end in view.
 The reason the end makes the affection what it is – that is to say, genuine, spurious, or false – is that the end is the person’s actual life. Indeed a person has as his end in view that which constitutes his life, or what amounts to the same, his love. When the good of the neighbour, the common good, the good of the Church and of the Lord’s kingdom is the end in view, a person’s soul is in the Lord’s kingdom and so abides with the Lord. For the Lord’s kingdom is nothing else than a kingdom of ends and purposes directed towards the good of the human race, 3645. Angels themselves present with a person are nowhere else than within his ends in view. To the extent that someone’s end in view is such as that which exists in the Lord’s kingdom, angels take delight in him and join themselves to him as a brother. But to the extent a person’s end is himself, angels depart and evil spirits from hell draw near, for in hell no other end in view reigns. From these considerations one may see how important it is to find out and to know where one’s affections originate; these can be known from nothing else than one’s end in view.
 It is plainly evident that the Word is disclosed by virtue of good. Everyone looks from the love present in him at the things that belong to that love; and what he sees he calls truths because these are in harmony with it. Everyone’s love holds the light of his life within it, for love is like a flame which radiates light. The nature of a person’s love or flame therefore determines that of the light of truth with him. Those who are stirred by a love of good are able to see the things belonging to that love, and so to see the truths that are in the Word. They do so according to the amount and the quality of their love of good, for light or intelligence flows in from heaven, that is, from the Lord by way of heaven. This is why, as already stated, no one is able to see and acknowledge the interior contents of the Word except one whose life is governed by good.
 The reason why Jacob calls himself Laban’s brother when he was in fact his sister’s son is that by virtue of good all are brothers. This also is why Laban in turn calls Jacob ‘brother’ in verse 15. For it is good that constitutes blood-relationship and which effects any joining together, since good is an attribute of love, and love is a spiritual joining together. This also was the reason why in the ancient Churches all who were governed by good were called brothers. The same happened in the Jewish Church, but because that Church despised everybody else and imagined that they alone were the elect it spoke only of those who had been born Jews as brothers. The rest it called companions or foreigners. The primitive Christian Church also referred to as brothers all who were governed by good, but later on it confined the term to those inside its own group. But the name brother disappeared from among Christians when good did so. And when truth took the place of good, or faith the place of charity, none was able any longer to call another brother by virtue of good, only neighbour. This is also a feature of the doctrine of faith when devoid of the life of charity, in that it seems to be beneath them to exist as a brotherhood when this includes any of lower rank than themselves. For being brothers in their case does not have its origin in the Lord, and therefore in good, but in themselves, and therefore in position and gain.
[3803a] ‘And that he was Rebekah’s son’ means the link between these kindred varieties of good. This becomes clear without explanation, for Rebekah, who was Jacob’s mother and Laban’s sister, was the one in whom the link existed.
 This is why one person’s good, though seemingly just the same, is not however like another’s, for the good in every single human being throughout the whole world is different from that in any other. It is like human faces in which for the most part affections present themselves, in that none throughout the whole human race is exactly like another. Truths themselves compose so to speak the face of good, whose beauty arises from the form which truth takes; but it is good that produces the affections there. All angelic forms are such, and man would be such if from interior life he were ruled by love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbour. Man was created into forms such as these because he was created in the likeness and image of God, and forms such as these are the ones whose spirits have been regenerated, whatever appearance their bodies present. From this one may see what is meant by the statement that good is acknowledged by means of interior truths.
‘Laban said to him, Surely you are my bone and my flesh’ means joined together as regards truths and as regards goods. ‘And he dwelt with him for a full month’ means a new state of life. ‘And Laban said to Jacob, Because you are my brother’ means, because they are kindred, by virtue of good. ‘Should you serve me for nothing? Tell me, what shall your reward be?’ means that there must be a means by which they are joined together.
 As regards the proprium in general there are two kinds, the first being the hellish proprium, the second the heavenly. The hellish proprium is acquired by a person from hell, the heavenly from heaven, that is, from the Lord through heaven. For all evil and all falsity from evil enter in from hell, and all good and all truth from good do so from the Lord. People know this from the doctrine of faith, but scarcely one in a million believes it. Consequently a person appropriates – that is, makes his own – evil entering in from hell; but good entering in from the Lord does not move him and cannot therefore be said to have a place in him. The reason why a person does not believe that evil enters in from hell and good from the Lord is that he is governed by self-love, a love which carries such unbelief with it and which goes so far as to be highly indignant when that person is told that everything comes into him from somewhere else. This then is why a person’s entire proprium is nothing but evil, see 210, 215, 694, 731, 874-876, 987, 1023, 1044, 1047. But the belief that evil is from hell and good from the Lord exists with him when he is not governed by self-love but by love towards the neighbour and love to the Lord; for this love carries such belief with it. So it is that a person receives from the Lord the heavenly proprium referred to in 155, 164, 731, 1023, 1044, 1937, 1947, 2882, 2883, 2891.
sRef Isa@66 @14 S3′ sRef Isa@58 @11 S3′  In both senses this proprium is meant by ‘bone and flesh’. Consequently ‘bones’ in the Word means truth and in the contrary sense falsity, and ‘flesh’ good and in the contrary sense evil. As regards truth being meant by ‘bones’, this may be seen from the following places: In Isaiah,
Jehovah will guide you all the time, and will satisfy your soul in arid places, and will render your bones free, so that you are like a watered garden. Isa. 58:11.
‘Rendering bones free’ stands for bringing life to the understanding side of the proprium, that is, enlightening it with intelligence. Hence the statement ‘so that you are like a watered garden’ – ‘a garden’ meaning intelligence, see 100, 108, 1588. In the same prophet,
Then you will see, and your heart will be joyful, and your bones will flourish like the grass. Isa. 66:14.
‘Bones flourishing like the grass’ has a similar meaning.
sRef Lam@4 @8 S4′ sRef Lam@4 @7 S4′  In Jeremiah,
[Her] Nazirites were brighter than snow, they were whiter than milk. Their bodies* were ruddier than gem stones, polished like sapphire.** Their form is darker than black; they are not recognized in the streets; their skin has stuck to their bone; it has dried up; it has become like wood. Lam. 4:7, 8.
‘Nazirite’ stands for a celestial man, 3301. ‘Brighter than snow and whiter than milk’ stands for his possession of celestial truth. And because this truth derives from the love of good, it is said that ‘their bodies were ruddier than gem stones’. ‘Brightness’ and ‘whiteness’ have reference to truth, 3301, ‘ruddiness’ to good, 3300, ‘gem stones’ to truths stemming from good, 114. ‘Their skin stuck to their bone’ describes a changed state as regards the celestial things of love, which is to say, that there was no flesh on the bones, that is, there was no longer any good, for in that case all truth comes to be like skin which sticks to the bone, dries up, and becomes like wood.
sRef Micah@3 @3 S5′ sRef Micah@3 @2 S5′ sRef Ezek@24 @3 S5′ sRef Micah@3 @1 S5′ sRef Ezek@24 @10 S5′ sRef Ezek@24 @4 S5′ sRef Ezek@24 @5 S5′  In Ezekiel,
Tell a parable against the house of rebellion, and say to them, Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Put on the pot, put it on, and also pour water into it; gather the pieces of it into it – every good piece, the thigh and the shoulder. Fill it with the choice of the bones by taking the choice of the flock, and let there be a hearth of bones under it. Let the bones also be cooked in the midst of it. Ezek. 24:3-5, 10.
‘The pot’ stands for violence offered to good and truth, which is why it is called ‘the city of bloodshed’ in verse 6. ‘The pieces’, ‘the good piece, the thigh and the shoulder’ gathered into it are pieces of flesh, which are items of good. ‘The choice of the bones’ with which the pot was filled stands for truths, ‘the hearth of bones’ for the affection for truth. ‘Let the bones be cooked in the midst of it’ stands for violence offered to them. Anyone may see that this parable conceals arcana that are Divine, and also that these can in no way be known unless one knows what is meant in the internal sense by ‘a pot’, by ‘pieces, the thigh and the shoulder’, by ‘the choice of the bones’, by ‘a hearth of bones’, and by ‘cooking’. In Micah,
Is it not for you to know judgement – you who hate the good and love the evil, who tear their skin from upon them and their flesh from upon their bones; who have eaten the flesh of My people and flayed their skin from upon them and broken their bones in pieces, and divided them as into a pot and like flesh into the middle of the cauldron? Micah 3:1-3.
Here the meaning is similar.
sRef Ezek@37 @1 S6′  In Ezekiel,
He brought me out in the Spirit of Jehovah and set me down in the midst of the valley, which was full of bones. He said to me, Will these bones live? He said to me, Prophesy over these bones and say to them, O dry bones, hear the word of Jehovah: Thus said the Lord Jehovih to these bones, Behold, I am bringing spirit into you that you may live. I will lay sinews upon you and cause flesh to come over you and cover you with skin, and I will put spirit within you so that you may live. I prophesied, and the bones came together, bone to its bone. I looked, and behold, there were sinews upon them, and flesh came up, and skin covered them above, but there was no spirit in them. And spirit entered into them, and they were alive again and stood upon their feet. Ezek. 37:1 and following verses.
This refers in general to the re-establishment of the Church among gentiles, and in particular to the regeneration of the individual. ‘Dry bones’ stands for the understanding side of the proprium, which is lifeless until it receives the life of good from the Lord. The latter life is what quickens it or brings life to it. The flesh which the Lord causes to come up over the bones is the will side of the proprium, which is called the heavenly proprium, and so means good. ‘Spirit’ means the Lord’s life, and when this flows into a person’s good which he seems to himself to will and perform from his proprium, the good is in that case made alive, and from that good the truth also; and out of the dry bones a human being is made.
sRef Ps@35 @9 S7′ sRef Ps@22 @18 S7′ sRef Ps@35 @10 S7′ sRef Ps@51 @8 S7′ sRef Ps@22 @14 S7′ sRef Ps@22 @17 S7′  In David,
All my bones have been disconnected; my heart has become like wax. I can count all my bones. They have divided my garments among them, and for my clothing have cast lots. Ps. 22:14, 17, 18.
This refers to the Lord’s temptations as regards Divine Truths, which, being the Lord’s own, are consequently called ‘my bones’, and as regards Divine Good, which, being the Lord’s own, is consequently called ‘my heart’. For ‘heart’ means good, see 3313, 3635. And because ‘bones’ means those truths, ‘counting’ them is wishing to get rid of them by means of reasonings and falsities. This is also the reason for the statement immediately following about their dividing garments and casting lots for clothing, for ‘garments’ also means truths, though a more external variety, 297, 1073, 2576. ‘Dividing garments and casting lots for clothing’ has the same meaning as it does also in Matthew 27:35. In the same author,
Let my soul exult in Jehovah, let it be glad in His salvation. Let all my bones say, Who is like You? Ps. 35:9, 10.
‘Bones’ in the spiritual sense clearly means the understanding side of the proprium. In the same author,
You shall cause me to hear joy and gladness; the bones You have broken will be exultant. Ps. 51:8.
‘The bones which You have broken will be exultant’ stands for a re-creation by means of truths following temptations.
sRef Ex@12 @46 S8′ sRef Num@9 @12 S8′  Because ‘bone’ meant the understanding side of the proprium, or the proprium as regards truth, and in the highest sense meant Divine Truth, which was the Lord’s Proprium, it was therefore required at the Passover not to break any bone of the paschal lamb. This is referred to in Moses as follows,
It shall be eaten in one house; you shall not bring any of the flesh outside the house; and you shall not break a bone in it. Exod. 12:46.
And elsewhere in Moses,
They shall not leave any of it until morning, and they shall not break a bone of it. Num. 9:12.
‘Not breaking a bone’ stands in the highest sense for not offering violence to Divine truth, and in the representative sense for not offering violence to the truth connected with any good at all, for the nature of good and the form it takes depend on truths, and truth is the mainstay of good, as the bones are of the flesh.
sRef Jer@8 @2 S9′ sRef Jer@8 @1 S9′ sRef Num@24 @8 S9′ sRef Num@19 @16 S9′ sRef Num@19 @18 S9′ sRef Ezek@6 @5 S9′ sRef 2Ki@13 @21 S9′  The fact that the Word, which is Divine truth itself, gives life to the dead was represented by the revival and the standing on his feet of the man who, having been cast into the grave of Elisha, touched his bones, 2 Kings 13:21. Elisha represented the Lord as regards Divine truth or the Word, see 2762.
‘Bones’ in the contrary sense means falsity which springs from the proprium, as is evident from the following places: In Jeremiah,
At that time they will bring the bones of the kings of Judah, and the bones of its princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets, and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem out of their tombs, and they will spread them before the sun and the moon, and all the host of heaven, which they have loved and which they have served. Jer. 8:1, 2.
I will lay the corpses of the children of Israel before their idols, and I will scatter your bones around your altars. Ezek. 6:5.
God who brought him out of Egypt has as it were the strength of a unicorn. He will eat up the nations, his enemies, and will break their bones, and smash their weapons. Num. 24:8.
In the second Book of Kings,
King Josiah broke in pieces the pillars, and cut down the groves, and filled their places with the bones of people. He took the bones out of the graves and burned them on the altar to render it unclean. He sacrificed all the priests of the high places who were there, on the altars, and burned the bones of people on them. 2 Kings 23:14, 16, 20.
The soul which has touched on the surface of the field anyone slain with the sword, or one dead, or a human bone, or a sepulchre, will be unclean for seven days. Num. 19:16, 18.
sRef Matt@23 @28 S10′ sRef Matt@23 @27 S10′  Since ‘bones’ means falsities, and ‘sepulchres’ evils containing them, and since hypocrisy is evil which on the outside looks like good but is inwardly rotten from things that are false and unholy, the Lord therefore says the following in Matthew,
Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you make yourselves like white-washed sepulchres, which outwardly appear beautiful, but within are full of dead people’s bones and of all uncleanness. So too do you outwardly appear just to men (homo) but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. Matt. 23:27, 28.
From all these quotations it is now evident that ‘bones’ means the understanding side of the proprium either as regards truth or else as regards falsity.
* lit. bones
** lit. sapphire their polishing
sRef John@6 @56 S2′ sRef John@6 @57 S2′ sRef John@6 @55 S2′ sRef John@6 @52 S2′ sRef John@6 @53 S2′ sRef John@6 @54 S2′ sRef John@6 @58 S2′ sRef John@6 @51 S2′  That ‘flesh’ in the highest sense means the Proprium of the Lord’s Divine Human, and so His Divine Good, is clear from the Lord’s words in John,
Jesus said, I am the living bread which came down from heaven; if anyone eats of this bread he will live for ever. The bread which I will give is My flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. The Jews disputed with one another, saying, How can this man give his flesh to eat? Jesus therefore said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you, Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you will have no life in yourselves. He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day; for My flesh is truly food, and My blood is truly drink. He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him. This is the bread which came down from heaven. John 6:51-58.
Here it is quite evident that ‘flesh’ means the Proprium of the Lord’s Divine Human, and so the Divine Good – His flesh in the Holy Supper being called ‘the body’. His body or flesh in the Holy Supper is the Divine Good, and His blood the Divine Truth, see 1798, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3735. And since bread and wine have the same meaning as flesh and blood – that is to say, ‘bread’ is the Lord’s Divine Good, and ‘wine’ His Divine Truth – bread and wine were commanded in place of flesh and blood. This is why the Lord says, ‘I am the living bread; the bread which I will give is My flesh; he who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me and I in him; this is the bread which came down from heaven’. ‘Eating’ means being communicated, being joined to, and being made one’s own, see 2187, 2343, 3168, 3513 (end), 3596.
 The same was represented in the Jewish Church by the law that the flesh of sacrifices was to be eaten by Aaron and his sons, by those persons who brought the sacrifice, and by others who were clean; and that this flesh was holy, see Exod. 12:7-9; 29:30-34; Lev. 7:15-21; 8:31; Deut. 12:27; 16:4. That being so, if any unclean person ate some of that flesh he was to be cut off from his people, Lev. 7:21. The fact that these sacrifices were called ‘bread’, see 2165, and that that sacrificial flesh was called ‘holy flesh’, Jer. 11:15; Hagg. 2:12. And in Ezek. 40:43 where the new Temple is the subject, it is called ‘the flesh of the offering which is on the tables in the Lord’s kingdom’, by which clearly worship of the Lord in His kingdom is meant.
sRef Ps@63 @1 S4′ sRef Ps@84 @2 S4′ sRef Ezek@11 @19 S4′  That ‘flesh’ in the relative sense means the will side of man’s proprium when made alive by the Lord is Divine Good is clear also from the following places: In Ezekiel,
I will give them one heart, and will put a new spirit in your midst; and I will remove the heart of stone out of their flesh and will give them a heart of flesh. Ezek. 11:19; 36:26.
‘The heart of stone out of their flesh’ stands for a will and proprium when not made alive, ‘a heart of flesh’ for a will and proprium when made alive; for ‘the heart’ is a representative of good in the will, see 2930, 3313, 3635. In David,
O God, You are my God; in the morning I seek You. My soul thirsts for You, my flesh in a dry land longs for You, and I am weary without water. Ps. 63:1.
In the same author,
My soul longs for the courts of Jehovah; my heart and my flesh shout for joy to the living God. Ps. 84:2.
sRef Job@19 @26 S5′ sRef Job@19 @27 S5′ sRef Job@19 @25 S5′  In Job,
I have come to know my Redeemer; He is alive; and at the last He will rise above the dust; and afterwards these things will be encompassed by my skin, and out of my flesh shall I see God, whom I shall see for myself; and my eyes will behold, and no other. Job 19:25-27.
‘Being encompassed by skin’ stands for the natural, such as a person possesses after death, dealt with in 3539. ‘Out of his flesh seeing God’ stands for the proprium when made alive, which is why Job says, ‘Whom I shall see for myself; and my eyes will behold, and no other’. Since it was well known in the ancient Churches that ‘flesh’ meant the proprium, and since the Book of Job is a book of the Ancient Church, 3540 (end), he accordingly followed the custom of the day and drew on meaningful signs to speak of these, as of many other matters. Those therefore who conclude from what Job said that their dead body is going to be reassembled from the four winds and is going to rise again do not know the internal sense of the Word. Those who are conversant with that sense know that they will enter the next life in a body, but in a purer one. In that life people have purer bodies, for they behold one another, talk to one another, and are endowed with each of the senses, which though like those in the physical body are now keener. The body which a person carries around on earth is designed for activities on earth and therefore consists of flesh and bones, whereas the body that a spirit carries around in the next life is designed for activities in that life and does not consist of flesh and bones but of such things as correspond to these, see 3726.
sRef Zech@11 @9 S6′ sRef Isa@49 @26 S6′ sRef Isa@9 @20 S6′ sRef Lev@26 @28 S6′ sRef Lev@26 @29 S6′ sRef Jer@19 @9 S6′  That ‘flesh’ in the contrary sense means the will side of the human proprium which in itself is nothing but evil is clear from the following places: In Isaiah,
Every man will eat the flesh of his own arm. Isa. 9:20.
In the same prophet,
I will feed your oppressors with their own flesh, and they will be drunk with their blood as with new wine. Isa. 49:26.
I will feed them with the flesh of their sons and with the flesh of their
daughters, and every man will eat the flesh of his companion. Jer. 19:9.
Those that are left will eat, every one the flesh of another. Zech. 11:9.
I will chastise you seven times for your sins, and you will eat the flesh of your sons: and the flesh of your daughters will you eat. Lev. 26:28, 29.
The will side of the human proprium, or man’s own natural inclinations, is described in this way because it is nothing but evil and consequent falsity, and so hatred against every form of truth or good, that are meant by ‘eating the flesh of their own arm’, ‘the flesh of sons and daughters’, and ‘the flesh of another’.
sRef Rev@19 @17 S7′ sRef Rev@19 @18 S7′  In John,
I saw an angel standing in the sun, who called out with a loud voice, saying to all the birds flying in mid-heaven, Come and gather yourselves to the supper of the great God, so that you may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses and those seated on them, and the flesh of all free men and slaves, both small and great. Rev. 19:17, 18; Ezek. 39:17-20.
Anyone may see that the flesh of kings, captains, mighty men, horses and those seated on them, free men and slaves, is not meant by such expressions. ‘Flesh’ accordingly has another meaning which has not been known up to now. The fact that evils resulting from falsities, and evils producing falsities, are meant – which evils originate on the will side of the human proprium – is evident from each expression used here.
sRef John@1 @12 S8′ sRef John@1 @13 S8′  Since falsity which springs from the understanding side of man’s proprium is meant by ‘blood’ in the internal sense, and evil which springs from the will side of his proprium by ‘flesh’, the Lord speaks of the person who is to be regenerated as follows,
As many as received Him, to them He gave power to be sons of God, to those believing in His name, who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. John 1:12, 13.
For this reason ‘flesh’ is used to mean in general all mankind, see 574, 1050 (end). For whether you speak of man or of man’s proprium it amounts to the same.
 That ‘flesh’ in the highest sense means the Lord’s Divine Human is evident from the verses quoted above, as well as from the following in John,
The Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of the Only Begotten from the Father. John 1:14.
It is by virtue of this flesh that all other flesh is made alive, that is, by virtue of the Lord’s Divine Human, every human being is made alive, through making His love his own, which is meant by ‘eating the flesh of the Son of Man’, John 6:51- 58, and by eating the bread in the Holy Supper – for the bread is His body or flesh, Matt. 26:26, 27.
At length from month to its month, and from sabbath to sabbath, all flesh will come to bow down before Me, said Jehovah. Isa. 66:23.
He showed me a pure river of the water of life, bright as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the middle of its street, and of the river, on this side and on that, was the tree of life bearing twelve fruits, yielding its fruit each month. Rev. 22:1, 2.
‘Yielding its fruit each month’ stands for a state for ever new as regards the reception of good and the consequent practice of it. In Moses, Count the sons of Levi according to their father’s house and according to their families. Every male a month old and over shall you count. Count every firstborn male of the children of Israel, a month old and over, and take the number of their names. Num. 3:15, 40.
sRef Deut@21 @13 S2′ sRef Deut@21 @11 S2′  It was because the end of the previous state and the beginning of the next, that is, a new state, was meant by ‘a month’ that they were ordered to count those who were ‘a month old and over’. In the same author,
If you see among captives a beautiful woman, and have a desire for her so that you would take her to yourself for a wife, she shall remove the clothing of her captivity from upon her, and she shall sit in your house and lament her father and her mother for a full month. After that you shall go in to her and know her, and she shall be your wife. Deut. 21:11, 13.
Here ‘a full month’ clearly stands for the end of the previous and the beginning of the next or new state.
 This has also been made clear to me by the fact that in heaven they do not acknowledge one another because of any family relationship that had been theirs during their lifetime but solely on the basis of good and attendant truth. A father does not acknowledge a son or daughter, a brother does not acknowledge a brother or sister, and even a husband does not acknowledge his wife, unless they have been governed by similar good. They do, it is true, meet when they first enter the next life, but they part company after that; for good itself – that is, love and charity – determines whichever community a person is sent to. Kinship begins in the community in which each person belongs and spreads from there into all places round about.
 But reward serves as a means to join together in the case of those who have not yet reached that point; for those who have not yet been brought into good and the affection for it, that is, who are not yet wholly regenerate, inevitably think of reward as well; for they do not do the good they do from an affection for good but from an affection for their own blessedness and happiness, and at the same time from fear of hell. But when a person is being regenerated this is reversed and becomes an affection for good. And when it is an affection for good he no longer has reward in view.
 This may be illustrated from aspects of public life. Someone who loves his country and is so governed by an affection for it that he desires out of goodwill to further its welfare would be hurt if prevented from doing so and would plead to be given an opportunity to further its welfare. For such is the object of his affection and consequently of his desire and blessedness. Indeed such a person receives honours and is promoted to important positions because these are the means by which he serves his country even though those honours and positions are called rewards. But people who have no affection for their country, only for themselves and for the world, act for the sake of position and wealth, which are also their ends in view. Such people put themselves before their country, that is, their own good before the common good, and in comparison with the others are sordid. And yet more than all others they want it to be seen that they do what they do from a love that is sincere. But when they think about this on their own they deny that anyone acts from such love, and are amazed that anyone is able to do so. Those whose attitude during their lifetime is such towards their country or the public good have the same attitude in the next life towards the Lord’s kingdom, for a person’s affection or love follows him, since affection or love constitute the life of everyone.
‘Laban had two daughters’ means affections for truth from the good which springs from a common stock. ‘The name of the elder was Leah’ means the nature of the affection for external truth. ‘And the name of the younger Rachel’ means the nature of the affection for internal truth. ‘And Leah’s eyes were weak’ means that the affection for external truth is weak so far as the understanding of it is concerned. ‘And Rachel was beautiful in form and beautiful in appearance’ means that the affection for interior truth is beautiful so far as what is spiritual is concerned.
 Let the following example show what is meant by external truths and the affections for them, and what by internal truths and the affections for these, and the fact that the former are ‘weak eyed’ in comparison with the latter, which are ‘beautiful in form and appearance’: Those governed by external truths know no more than the general truth that good should be done to the poor. They do not know how to tell who are truly the poor, let alone know that in the Word the expression ‘the poor’ is used to mean those who are so spiritually. Consequently they do good to bad persons and to good ones alike, without realizing that doing good to bad people is doing bad to good, for the bad are then given the opportunity to do bad to those who are good. This is why people possessing this kind of simple zeal are infested so strongly by the crafty and deceitful. But those governed by internal truths know who the poor are, tell one poor person from another, and do good to each according to his individual character.
 Take another example. Those governed by external truths know no more than the general truth that the neighbour ought to be loved. They as a consequence believe that every individual is the neighbour in the same degree, and so every individual ought to be embraced with the same love. Believing this, they allow themselves to be misguided. Those however who are governed by internal truths know which degree of the neighbour each person belongs to and that any one person is the neighbour in a different degree from another. Consequently they are aware of countless things which those governed by external truths do not know. They do not therefore allow themselves to be led astray by the mere name of neighbour, or to do what is evil by performing that good which the name alone persuades them to do.
 Take yet another example. Those governed by external truths alone imagine that the learned will shine like stars in the next life, and that all who have worked in the Lord’s vineyard will have a greater reward than others. But those governed by internal truths know the expressions ‘learned’, ‘wise’, and ‘intelligent’ are used to mean those in whom good is present, whether they possess any human wisdom and intelligence or not, and that it is these who will shine like stars. They also know that those who work in the vineyard receive a reward, each according to the affection for good and truth which motivated him in his work, and that those who work from selfish and worldly motives, that is, from self-aggrandizement and enrichment as motives, have their reward during their lifetime, but in the next life their lot is with the evil there, Matt. 7:22, 23.
From these examples it is evident how weak in understanding those people are who are governed by external truths alone, and that internal truths are what give them essence and form, and also what determine the character of the good with them. Nevertheless people governed by external truths, and at the same time when in the world simple good was present in them, receive internal truths and resulting wisdom in the next life, for by virtue of that simple good they are in the right state and have the capacity to receive them.
‘Jacob loved Rachel’ means the love which good has for internal truth. ‘And said, I will serve you seven years for Rachel your younger daughter’ means a diligent effort to be made during a holy state, to the end that it might be joined to internal truth. ‘And Laban said, It is better for me to give her to you than for me to give her to another man; remain with me’ means the means by which interior truth is joined to that good. ‘And Jacob served seven years for Rachel’ means the fulfilment. ‘And they were in his eyes like a few days, because of his love for her’ means a state of love.
 Internal truths are said to be joined to the natural when they are learned, acknowledged, and believed. Within man’s natural, that is, within his natural memory, both external and internal truths are present. These reside there as religious knowledge, but they have not been joined to the natural man until that person has an affection for them because they have application to his life, that is, life is the reason why he loves them. For when this stage is reached good is coupled to those truths, and by means of that good they are joined to the rational and so to the internal man. By this route life enters into them from the Lord.
 Let it be stated briefly that with everyone who is being regenerated the good of his natural, like that represented here by ‘Jacob’, is first of all joined to good like that represented here by ‘Laban’, through the affection for interior truth, which is represented here by ‘Rachel’, and subsequently together with the good of the rational and its truth, which are ‘Isaac and Rebekah’. By means of that initial conjunction a person is in a right state for receiving internal or spiritual truths, which are the means by which the natural is joined to the rational, that is, the external man to the internal.
‘Jacob said to Laban, Give me my wife’ means that general good was now to be joined to the affection for interior truth. ‘For my days are completed, so that I may go [in] to her’ means that that state had now been reached. ‘And Laban gathered together all the men of the place’ means all the truths belonging to that state. ‘And made a feast’ means the introduction. ‘And so it was in the evening’ means when the state was still obscure. ‘That he took Leah his daughter and brought her to him; and he came [in] to her’ means that as yet it was a joining merely to the affection for external truth. ‘And Laban gave to her Zilpah his servant-girl – to Leah his daughter to be her servant-girl’ means external affections or external bonds which are subservient means.
sRef Matt@26 @29 S2′ sRef Matt@8 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @9 S2′  This being the meaning of ‘feasts’ the Lord also spoke in the same vein,
Many will come from the east and from the west and will recline with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. Matt. 8:11.
And elsewhere He said to the disciples,
That you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom. Luke 22:30.
And when He instituted the Holy Supper He said,
I tell you that I shall not drink from now on of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom. Matt. 26:29.
Anyone may see that ‘reclining’, ‘eating’, and ‘drinking’ in the Lord’s kingdom do not mean reclining, eating, and drinking, but the kind of thing that exists in that kingdom; that is to say, these experiences are used to mean making the good of love and the truth of faith one’s own, and so to mean that which is called spiritual food and celestial food. The quotations given above also show plainly that there is an internal sense within words spoken by the Lord, and that without an understanding of that sense one cannot know what is meant by reclining with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, by eating and drinking at the Lord’s table in His kingdom, and by drinking of the fruit of the vine with them in the Father’s kingdom. Nor indeed can one know what is meant by eating bread and drinking wine in the Holy Supper.
 Once a person has reached this state he starts to know countless things, for he now proceeds from the good and truth which he believes and perceives. He proceeds so to speak from the central point out to the peripheral regions; and in the measure that he proceeds from such good and truth, he sees in the same measure the things round about, and gradually more and more widely since he is constantly pushing out and extending the boundaries. Thereafter he also begins from each subject situated in the space within those boundaries, and from those subjects as new centres he pushes out new peripheral regions; and so on in the spaces within these. Consequently the light of truth radiating from good increases enormously and becomes one expanse of light, for he is now bathed in the light of heaven which shines from the Lord. But to people who are prone to doubt and who question whether something exists and is true, those countless, indeed limitless things are not visible at all. To them every single one is totally obscure. Those things are scarcely seen by them as a single whole which definitely exists, only as a single whole whose very existence they are uncertain of. Such is the condition into which human wisdom and intelligence has fallen at the present day. Being able to reason cleverly whether something exists is now the mark of a wise man, and being able to reason that it does not exist is the mark of one wiser still.
 Take for example the question whether in the Word an internal sense exists which such people call the mystical sense. Until they believe in the existence of it they cannot know a single one of the countless things existing within that sense, so many that they fill the whole of heaven in unending variety. Take as another example one who reasons about whether Divine Providence is merely universal and does not extend to specific details. That person cannot know the countless arcana which have to do with Providence, as many in number as the occurrences in everyone’s life from start to finish and in the world from its creation to its end, and even for ever. Take as yet another example one who reasons whether good can exist in anyone, seeing that the will of man is fundamentally depraved. He cannot possibly be aware of all the arcana that have to do with regeneration, nor even that a new will is implanted by the Lord and the arcana concerning this. And the same is so with everything else. From this one may recognize what obscurity surrounds such people and that they do not even see, let alone reach, the outskirts of wisdom.
 Indeed the Lord provides against celestial and spiritual truths, such as all interior truths are, being joined to any affections other than genuine ones. This is why the general affection for truth deriving from good comes first and why truths that are implanted in it are none but general truths. States of truth are altogether what they are by virtue of states of good, that is, a state of faith is what it is by virtue of a state of charity. For example, even the evil are able to know that the Lord rules the whole of heaven, and also that heaven consists in mutual love and love to the Lord, as well as that these loves enable those in heaven to be joined to the Lord, and to receive wisdom and happiness there. The evil can indeed be convinced that all this is true. But the truth of faith has not been joined to them, still less the good of love. It is from the life that one knows whether these have been joined to a person, as a tree is known from its fruit. In the case of the evil it is like grapes containing no pips. When these are cast into the soil, no matter how fertile this is, they turn into mere compost. It is also like the glow at night of an ignis fatuus which vanishes the moment the sun comes up. But in the Lord’s Divine mercy further discussion of this matter will appear later on.
‘So it was in the morning’ means enlightenment in that state. ‘That behold it was Leah’ means that it was a joining to external truth. ‘And he said to Laban, What is this you have done to me?’ means indignation. ‘Was it not for Rachel that I served with you?’ means that it was a diligent effort made for the affection for internal truth. ‘And why have you cheated me?’ means greater indignation. ‘And Laban said, It is not done that way in our place’ means that the state is not such…… ‘To give the younger before the firstborn’ means, that the affection for interior truth should precede the affection for external truth.
 There are principally two kinds of affections which shine out of the Word for angels to see – affections for truth and affections for good. Affections for truth reveal themselves to spiritual angels, affections for good to celestial angels. The latter, namely affections for good, which belong to love to the Lord, are altogether indescribable to man and are consequently incomprehensible too. But affections for truth, which belong to mutual love, are to some extent comprehensible in their most general aspects, though only to people in whom mutual love is present. And even those general aspects are not comprehensible to them from any internal perception except one that is obscure.
 Take for example the affection or feeling of indignation referred to in this verse. Anyone who does not know what charitable affection is, for the reason that this is not present in him, can have no other idea of what it is but the kind of indignation that is aroused in a person when some wrong is done to him – which in reality is a feeling of anger. But that kind of indignation does not exist with angels but an altogether different kind, which is not the expression of anger but of zeal, and holds nothing evil in it at all. This indignation is as far away from hatred, or revenge, or repaying evil with evil, as heaven is from hell; for it wells up out of good. But the nature of that indignation, as has been stated, cannot be expressed by any words. The situation is similar with all other affections which originate in good and truth and which belong to good and truth.
 This is also evident from the fact that angels are concerned solely with ends in view, and with the purposes engendered by those ends, 1317, 1645, 3645. Ends in view are nothing else than loves or affections, 1317, 1568, 1571, 1909, 3425, 3796; for what a person loves he has as his end in view. This being so, angels are acquainted with the affections enclosed in the subject-matter of the Word; and this entails every variation according to the types of affections present in the angels. From this it becomes quite clear how holy the Word is, for Divine love, that is, love coming from the Divine, has holiness within it, and so therefore do the subjects within the Word.
 The same applies to everything implanted in someone since childhood. It does not become his own until he acts according to it, and does so from affection. For when he acts from affection that which has been implanted in him passes into his will. Then it is no longer put into practice by him simply because he knows that he should or because he has been taught to do it, but because some delight unknown to himself and so to speak his own disposition or nature lead him to do so. For everyone acquires such a disposition or nature from frequent practice or habit, and that practice or habit from the things he has learned. This does not come about until the things he has absorbed through his being taught them have been passed through from the external man to the interior; for when they exist in the interior man he no longer acts from the sensory memory but from his acquired disposition, till at length they flow into action spontaneously. For in this case they have been inscribed on the person’s interior memory, and the things that proceed from this give the appearance of being innate. This may be recognized from the languages a person has learned in childhood, also from the ability to reason, and from conscience too. From these considerations it is evident that the truths of doctrine, even those that are interior, are not joined to a person until they are matters of life. But further information on these points will in the Lord’s Divine mercy appear elsewhere.
‘Complete this week’ means the continuance of the diligent effort. ‘And we will give you this one also for the service which you render with me for another seven years’ means that in that case it would be a complete state of diligent effort. ‘And Jacob did so, and completed this week’ means the fulfilment of these things. ‘And he gave him Rachel his daughter for his wife’ means the joining of good at that point to the affection for interior truth. ‘And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter, Bilhah his servant-girl – to her to be a servant-girl’ means exterior affections which are subservient bonds or means. ‘And he came [in] also to Rachel’ means a joining to the affection for internal truth. ‘And he loved Rachel also, more than Leah’ means greater love for internal truth than for external. ‘And he served with him yet another seven years’ means holy diligent effort.
 Anyone who gives the matter any consideration may also be aware of the same point from the fact that the human understanding is no understanding unless the will is present in it, for the life of the understanding is received from the will. This consideration too shows what truths are without good, namely that they are not truths at all, and that good is the source from which they draw their life; for truths belong to the understanding part of the mind and good to the will part. From this anyone is able to judge for himself what faith, which essentially is truth, is when devoid of charity, which essentially is good, and to judge that the truths of faith when devoid of the good of charity are dead, for as has been stated, the amount of affection present in truths, and the nature of it, determine the amount and nature of the life present there. But what give truths the appearance of still possessing life even when the good of charity is absent are the affections that go with self-love and love of the world, which possess no other life than that which in the spiritual sense is called death and is the life of hell. The word affection is used, and by that is meant that which is an extension from some love.
 From these considerations it may now be seen that affections are meant that serve in the joining of truth and good, and that affections are the means by which truths are introduced and also by which these are arranged into order. Genuine affections which go with love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbour bring them into a heavenly order, but evil affections which go with self-love and love of the world bring them into a hellish order, that is, into that which is the contrary of heavenly order.
 The most external affections of all are those which belong to the body and are called appetites and desires. Those immediately interior to these belong to the lower mind (animus) and are called natural affections. But internal affections belong to the rational mind find are called spiritual affections. To the latter, that is to say, to spiritual affections which belong to the higher mind (mens), truths expressed in matters of doctrine are introduced by means of the more external and the most external affections, that is, by natural and bodily ones. These are consequently subservient means and are meant by the servant-girls given by Laban to Rachel and to Leah. When they are called Laban’s servant-girls the meaning is that those affections had their origin in the good represented by Laban, a good dealt with already. For the truths that are learned first cannot at first be instilled by means of any other affections. Genuine affections arrive in the process of time, but not until a person is acting from good.
‘Jehovah saw’ means the Lord’s foresight and providence. ‘That Leah was hated’ means that the affection for external truth was not so dear because it was further away from the Divine. ‘And He opened her womb’ means that this affection gave rise to the doctrines taught by the Churches. ‘And Rachel was barren’ means that interior truths were not received.
 As regards foresight and providence in general, foresight has reference more to man, providence more to the Lord. The Lord foresaw from eternity what the human race was going to be like in the future and what every member of it was going to be like, and that evil was going to increase all the time, so that at length man, of himself, would rush headlong into hell. That being so, the Lord has provided not only the means by which He makes it possible for him to be diverted from hell and led towards heaven, but also does in His providence divert and lead him all the time. The Lord also foresaw that it would be impossible for any good to take root in man except in his freedom, for that which does not take root in freedom is dispelled at the first sign of evil and of temptation. This the Lord foresaw, as well as the fact that of himself, that is, from his own freedom, man would be inclined towards the deepest hell. That being so, the Lord provided that if he would not allow himself to be led in freedom towards heaven he could still be diverted towards a milder hell; but if he would allow himself to be led in freedom towards good then he could be diverted towards heaven. From these considerations one may see what foresight is and what providence is, and that appropriate provisions are made for things that are foreseen.
 From this it may be seen how far someone errs who believes that the Lord has not foreseen and does not see the smallest individual thing with man, or that within the smallest individual thing He does not foresee and lead, when in fact the Lord’s foresight and providence are present within the tiniest details of all the smallest individual things with him, and in details so tiny that it is impossible to comprehend in any manner of thought one in many millions of them. For every smallest fraction of a moment of a person’s life entails a chain of consequences extending into eternity. Indeed every one is like a new beginning to those that follow, and so every single moment of the life both of his understanding and of his will is a new beginning. And since the Lord foresaw from eternity what man was going to be like in the future and even into eternity it is clear that providence is present in the smallest individual things, and, as has been stated, is governing him and diverting him so that he may be such, this being achieved by constant re-shaping of his freedom. But this subject will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be discussed further later on.
 It is like seeds, which are more perfect inwardly than they are outwardly, so perfect inwardly that from within they are able to bring forth a whole young plant or a whole tree in its own ordered way, together with leaves and fruit, whose outward forms can easily suffer all kinds of damage, more so than the internal and inmost forms of the seeds which are by their very nature more interior and perfect. It is similar with the internal and external parts of man. Consequently when a person is being regenerated, the rational is regenerated before the natural, 3493. The regeneration of the natural comes later and is more difficult because many things remain unordered there and are subject to damage from the body and the world. That being so, it is said that these are not so dear. But to the extent that they agree with internal things and contribute to the life and to a sight of the internal things within them, as well as to the regeneration of man, they too are dear.
 For example, it is an interior truth that intervals of time and of space do not exist in the next life, but states instead. Man who is within time and space while he lives in the world forms all his ideas from these, so much so that he cannot have any thought without them, 3404. Consequently unless the states which exist in the next life were described by means of the intervals of time and space which man experiences, that is, by means of the kind of things that are moulded by time and space, he would perceive nothing and so believe nothing, and as a consequence would receive nothing. Doctrine would in that case be barren and no Church would arise from it.
 Take another example. Unless celestial and spiritual affections were described by means of such things as constitute worldly and bodily affections man would not perceive anything, for these are the affections he experiences, and it is from them that he is able to have notions about celestial and spiritual affections. Yet the two types of affections are as different from each other, or as far apart, as heaven from earth. Take for example the glory of heaven, that is, of the angels in heaven, 3839. Unless man modelled his idea of the glory of heaven on the idea of the glory which exists in the world he would not grasp it at all and so would not acknowledge it. The same applies to all other interior or heavenly things.
 For this reason the Lord has spoken in the Word in accordance with man’s own ability to grasp things and with the appearances that go with that grasp of them. The literal sense of the Word is such, yet at the same time is of such a nature that it holds within it the internal sense which contains interior truths. This then explains why it is said in reference to Leah that ‘Jehovah opened her womb’, and that ‘Rachel was barren’; for as has been stated, ‘Leah’ represents the affection for exterior truth, ‘Rachel’ the affection for interior truth. But because exterior truths are the first truths which a person learns, the Lord has provided that by means of them he can be introduced into interior truths. This provision is meant by the statement in Gen. 30:22 that God at last remembered Rachel, hearkened to her, and opened her womb.
 The truth of all this may be seen from the Churches which existed in ancient times, and from their doctrinal teachings, namely that their teachings were formed from external truths. With the Ancient Church which existed after the Flood their doctrinal teachings were for the most part external representatives and meaningful signs which had internal truths stored within them. For the majority of its members holy worship consisted in those external representatives and signs. If anyone had told them that the essential ingredients of Divine worship were not those representatives and meaningful signs but the spiritual and celestial realities represented and meant by these, they would have rejected them altogether, and so the Church would have ceased to exist. This applied even more to the Jewish Church. If anyone had told them that their religious observances received their holiness from the Divine things that were the Lord’s within them they would not have acknowledged them at all.
 Such also was mankind when the Lord came into the world. They had grown even more bodily-minded, especially so those who were members of the Church. This is quite evident even from the disciples who, though with the Lord constantly and hearing so many things about His kingdom, were as yet unable to perceive interior truths. They were still unable to have any other concept of the Lord than such as exists with the Jews at the present day about the Messiah whom they are still awaiting. They imagined that He would promote that people to a position of dominion and glory over all nations throughout the world. And after hearing so many things from the Lord about the heavenly kingdom the disciples were still unable to think anything else than that the heavenly kingdom would be like an earthly kingdom, where God the Father would be supreme, after Him the Son, and then themselves the twelve, and so would reign in this order. For the same reasons also James and John asked to sit one on His right and the other on the left, Mark 10:35-37; and the rest of the disciples were angry at these two wishing to be greater than the rest, Mark 10:41; Matt. 20:24. For the same reason also, after teaching them what it was to be greatest in heaven, Matt. 20:25-28; Mark 10:42-45, the Lord still spoke in the way that they themselves thought. That is to say, He spoke of them sitting on twelve thrones and judging the twelve tribes of Israel, Luke 22:24, 30; Matt. 19:28.
 If they had been told that the word ‘disciples’ was not used to mean themselves but all people in whom the good of love and faith dwells, 3354, 3488, and also that in the Lord’s kingdom there are no thrones, nor positions of government and dominion, as in the world, and that they would not be able to pass judgement on even the smallest aspect of any one person, 2129, 2553, they would have rejected that saying, and each would have left the Lord and gone back to his own employment. The reason why the Lord spoke in the way He did was so that they would receive those things and through them be introduced into internal truths. For within the external truths which the Lord spoke internal truths lay stored away which in course of time are laid bare. And when these are laid bare those external truths are dispelled and serve solely as the objects or the means for thought about internal ones. From these considerations one may recognize what is meant by the fact that Jehovah opened Leah’s womb first and she bore sons to Jacob, and that Rachel did so subsequently.
sRef Rev@21 @16 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @21 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @17 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @14 S2′  Twelve means all things in general, as shown already in 577, 2089, 2129, 2130 (end), 3272, while ‘tribes’ means matters of truth and good, or of faith and love, so that ‘the twelve tribes’ means all of these. Let this meaning of ‘the twelve tribes’ be substantiated here from the Word before each one is dealt with individually. In John,
The holy city New Jerusalem, having twelve gates, and above the gates twelve angels, and names written which are those of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel. The wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. He measured the city with the measuring rod, twelve thousand stadia. And he measured its wall, a hundred and forty-four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel. The twelve gates were twelve pearls. Rev. 21:12, 14, 16, 17, 21.
‘The holy city’, or the New Jerusalem, means the Lord’s new Church, as is evident from each detail of this description. Previous chapters refer to what the condition of the Church was going to be like before its end; this chapter refers to a new Church. That being so, ‘the gates’, ‘the wall’, ‘the foundations’ mean nothing else than things constituting the Church, which are those of charity and faith since these constitute the Church.
 From this it may be clear to anyone that ‘twelve’ used so many times in that description, also ‘tribes’, and ‘apostles’ too, are not used to mean twelve, or tribes, or apostles, but that ‘twelve’ is used to mean all things in their entirety; see what has been shown in 577, 2089, 2129, 2130 (end), 3272. The same is true of the number ‘a hundred and forty-four’, for this is twelve twelves. And since ‘twelve’ means all things it is evident that ‘the twelve tribes’ means all things constituting the Church, which, as stated above, are truth and good, or faith and love. The same is also true of ‘the twelve apostles’ who as well represented all things constituting the Church, that is, all things of faith and love, see 2129, 3354, 3488, 3857. That number is therefore called ‘the measure of a man, that is, of an angel’, by which is meant a state of truth and good. For ‘measure’ means state, see 3104, and ‘man’ means that which constitutes the Church, as is evident from things said about the meaning of ‘man’ in 478, 479, 565, 768, 1871, 1894, and also from the fact that the Lord’s kingdom is called the Grand Man, which it is called by virtue of good and truth which come from the Lord, dealt with at the ends of chapters in 3624-3649, 3741-3750. And ‘angel’ has the same meaning, 1705, 1754, 1925, 2821, 3039.
sRef Ezek@47 @13 S4′ sRef Ezek@47 @21 S4′ sRef Ezek@47 @23 S4′ sRef Ezek@47 @22 S4′ sRef Ezek@45 @8 S4′  As in John, so also in the Prophets, in the Old Testament Word, is the new Jerusalem referred to, where in a similar way the Lord’s new Church is meant, as in Isaiah 65:18, 19, and following verses; in Zechariah 14; and in particular in Ezekiel, Chapters 40-48, where the new Jerusalem, the new Temple, and a new earth describe in the internal sense the Lord’s kingdom in heaven, and the Lord’s kingdom on earth, which is the Church. The contents of those chapters, plainer than anywhere else, show what ‘earth’, ‘Jerusalem’, ‘Temple’, and everything in them meant, and also what ‘the twelve tribes’ means. For the subject of those chapters is the division of the land and the inheritance of it according to tribes, as well as the city and its walls, foundation, and gates, and everything that was to go with the Temple there. From those chapters let simply matters relating to the tribes be quoted here,
The Lord Jehovih said, This is the boundary of your inheritance of the land, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. You shall divide this land according to the tribes of Israel. But you shall divide it by lot as an inheritance, and for sojourners sojourning in your midst. They shall cast lots with you for an inheritance in the midst of the tribes of Israel. Ezek. 47:13, 21-23.
As regards the land, it will be for the prince as a possession in Israel. And the princes will no longer oppress My people, and the land they will give to the house of Israel according to their tribes. Ezek. 45:8.
Concerning inheritances and how they were assigned to individual tribes which are also referred to there by name, see Ezek. 48:1 and following verses; and concerning the gates of the city which are named after the tribes of Israel, verses 31-34 of the same chapter.
 Quite plainly, when the tribes are spoken of here it is not the tribes who are meant, for by that time ten tribes had long since been scattered throughout the whole world, and had not subsequently returned. Nor can they possibly return, for they have become gentiles. And yet reference is made to each individual tribe, and to how it was to inherit the land and what its boundary was to be. What the boundary for the tribe of Dan was to be is stated in verse 2; what the boundary for the tribe of Asher was to be in verse 3; what those of Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben, and Judah were to be, and concerning the inheritance of the Levites; and what the boundaries of Benjamin, Simeon, Issachar, Zebulun, and Gad were to be in verses 4-29. In addition to all this that chapter declares that the city was to have twelve gates named after the tribes of Israel – three gates facing north, those of Reuben, Judah, and Levi; three gates facing east, those of Joseph, Benjamin, and Dan; three gates facing south, those of Simeon, Issachar and Zebulun; and three gates facing west, those of Gad, Asher, and Naphtali, in verses 31-34.
sRef Num@24 @3 S6′ sRef Num@24 @2 S6′ sRef Num@24 @5 S6′ sRef Num@24 @6 S6′  From all this it is evident that ‘the twelve tribes’ means all things that belong to the Lord’s kingdom, and so all that are matters of faith and love, for these constitute the Lord’s kingdom, as stated above. Because the twelve tribes meant all things of the Lord’s kingdom they also represented that kingdom by their encampments and by their travellings. In Moses it is said that they were to encamp according to the tribes around the Tent of Meeting – to the east, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun; to the south, Reuben, Simeon, and Gad; to the west, Ephraim Manasseh, and Benjamin; and to the north, Dan, Asher, and Naphtali, and as they were encamped so they travelled, Num. 2:1-end. In all this they represented the Lord’s kingdom, as is quite evident from Balaam’s prophecy,
When Balaam lifted up his eyes and saw Israel dwelling according to tribes, the Spirit of God came upon him and he delivered his utterance, and said, How good your tabernacles are, O Jacob; your dwelling-places, O Israel! They are like valleys that are planted, like gardens beside a river, like aloes Jehovah has planted, like cedars beside the waters. Num. 24:2, 3, 5, 6.
The fact that Balaam received from Jehovah these words spoken by him is explicitly stated in Num. 22:8, 18, 19, 35, 38; 23:5, 12, 16, 26; 24:2, 13.
sRef Num@26 @41 S7′ sRef Num@26 @9 S7′ sRef Num@26 @44 S7′ sRef Num@26 @8 S7′ sRef Num@26 @42 S7′ sRef Num@26 @43 S7′ sRef Num@26 @39 S7′ sRef Num@26 @31 S7′ sRef Num@26 @38 S7′ sRef Num@26 @40 S7′ sRef Num@26 @55 S7′ sRef Num@26 @54 S7′ sRef Num@26 @50 S7′ sRef Num@26 @53 S7′ sRef Num@26 @51 S7′ sRef Num@26 @52 S7′ sRef Num@26 @46 S7′ sRef Num@26 @7 S7′ sRef Num@26 @45 S7′ sRef Num@26 @56 S7′ sRef Num@26 @49 S7′ sRef Num@26 @47 S7′ sRef Num@26 @48 S7′ sRef Num@26 @22 S7′ sRef Num@26 @23 S7′ sRef Num@26 @14 S7′ sRef Num@26 @13 S7′ sRef Num@26 @24 S7′ sRef Num@26 @27 S7′ sRef Num@26 @28 S7′ sRef Num@26 @25 S7′ sRef Num@26 @26 S7′ sRef Num@26 @18 S7′ sRef Num@26 @17 S7′ sRef Num@26 @16 S7′ sRef Num@26 @21 S7′ sRef Num@26 @15 S7′ sRef Num@26 @19 S7′ sRef Num@26 @20 S7′ sRef Num@26 @29 S7′ sRef Num@26 @10 S7′ sRef Num@26 @36 S7′ sRef Num@26 @37 S7′ sRef Num@26 @12 S7′ sRef Num@26 @11 S7′ sRef Num@26 @30 S7′ sRef Num@26 @34 S7′ sRef Num@26 @35 S7′ sRef Num@26 @32 S7′ sRef Num@26 @33 S7′  From this also it is evident what the inheritances of the land of Canaan according to tribes represented, in connection with which it is said in Moses that he was to take a census of the congregation of the children of Israel, according to their fathers’ houses; a census of those twenty or more years old, everyone going into the army of Israel. The land was to be distributed by lot; according to the names of their fathers’ tribes they were to receive an inheritance, Num. 26:2, 7-56; 33:54; 34:19-29. And Joshua’s actual division of the land by lot according to tribes is described in Chapters 13, 15-19 of the Book of Joshua. From these particular details it is evident that the Lord’s kingdom was represented, as has been stated; for the land of Canaan meant that kingdom, see 1585, 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705.
 The reason why they are called ‘armies’ and why it is said that ‘they encamped according to their armies and travelled according to their armies’, Num. 2:4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 19, 21-23, 26, 28, 30, is that ‘an army’ had the same meaning [as ‘a tribe’], namely truths and goods, see 3448. And the Lord is called Jehovah Zebaoth or ‘Jehovah of Armies (or Hosts)’ 3448. They were for these reasons called ‘the armies of Jehovah’ when they departed from Egypt, as in Moses,
It happened at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, on that same day it happened that all the armies of Jehovah were to come out of the land of Egypt. Exod. 12:41.
Anyone may recognize that such people in Egypt, and after that in the wilderness, were not called ‘the armies of Jehovah’ except in a representative sense, for no good or truth was present in them, the worst of all nations.
sRef Ex@28 @21 S9′  From this it is also quite evident what was meant by the names of the twelve tribes on Aaron’s breastplate, which was called the Urim and Thummim. Concerning the breastplate the following is said in Moses,
There shall be four rows in it and twelve stones. These stones shall be according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve according to their names. The engravings of a signet, for each one over its name, there shall be for the twelve tribes. Exod. 28:17, 21; 39:14.
For ‘Aaron’ represented the Lord’s Divine priesthood, and therefore all the vestments worn by him as high priest meant Divine celestial and spiritual things. But the exact meaning of those vestments will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be clear where they are the subject. Since the breastplate itself was most holy, the names of it were representations of all the essential characteristics of love and faith in the Lord. These are the Urim and Thummim. The reason why the names were engraved on the precious stones was that ‘stones’ in general meant truths, 1298, 3720, and ‘precious stones’ truths shining through from good, 114. And because the name of each individual tribe meant some essential characteristic, a specific stone was also allocated for each tribe, Exod. 28:17-20; 39:10-13, which expressed by means of its colour and transparence the characteristic meant by that tribe. This was how Jehovah or the Lord gave answers by means of the Urim and Thummim.
sRef Ex@28 @9 S10′ sRef Ex@28 @12 S10′ sRef Ex@28 @10 S10′  The two shoham stones which were on the two shoulder-pieces of the ephod had a similar representation but in a lesser degree than the twelve stones on the breastplate. For ‘the shoulders’ meant all power, and so the Lord’s omnipotence, 1085, whereas ‘the breast’ or heart and lungs meant Divine celestial and spiritual love – ‘the heart’ Divine celestial love, ‘the lungs’ Divine spiritual love, see 3635 and the end of the present chapter where the Grand Man and its correspondence with the province of the heart and the province of the lungs is the subject. The two stones on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod are referred to in Moses as follows,
You shall take two shoham stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel, six of the names on one stone and the remaining six names on the other stone, according to their births. You shall put two stones on the shoulder-pieces of the ephod, stones of remembrance for the sons of Israel. Exod. 28:9-12; 39:6, 7.
sRef Num@17 @6 S11′ sRef Num@17 @4 S11′ sRef Num@17 @7 S11′ sRef Num@17 @5 S11′ sRef Num@17 @2 S11′ sRef Num@17 @8 S11′ sRef Num@17 @3 S11′  Because ‘the tribes’ meant what are essentially matters of truth and good, or faith and love, and each tribe meant some universal aspect of these, and since the tribe of Levi meant love, as will be evident from the explanation at verse 34 below, one can therefore recognize what was meant by their placing rods, one for each tribe, in the Tent of Meeting and by Levi’s rod alone blossoming with almonds. All this is described in Moses as follows,
He was told to take twelve rods, one rod for each head of their fathers’ houses, and these were to be left in the Tent of Meeting, the name of Aaron being written on the rod of Levi. Aaron’s rod was placed in the middle of them. And the next day, behold, Aaron’s rod for the tribe of Levi had blossomed; it had produced buds,* so that it flowered and produced almonds. Num. 17:2-8.
These occurrences meant that love was the essential, also the first and foremost, thing of all in the Lord’s kingdom and that love is the source of all fruitfulness. And the reason why Aaron’s name was on the rod was that Aaron represented the Lord as regards His Divine priesthood. For by the Lord’s priesthood is meant Divine Good, which essentially is His love and mercy, and by the Lord’s kingship is meant Divine Truth which stems from Divine Good, see 1728, 2015 (end), 3670.
sRef Rev@7 @5 S12′ sRef Rev@7 @4 S12′ sRef Deut@32 @8 S12′ sRef Rev@7 @7 S12′ sRef Deut@32 @7 S12′ sRef Rev@7 @6 S12′ sRef Ps@122 @4 S12′ sRef Ps@122 @3 S12′ sRef Rev@7 @8 S12′  From what has been introduced so far one may now see what ‘tribes’ and ‘the twelve tribes’ mean in the following places: In John,
I heard the number of the sealed, a hundred and forty-four thousand sealed out of every tribe of Israel – twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Judah, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Reuben, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Gad, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Asher, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Naphtali, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Manasseh, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Simeon, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Levi, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Issachar, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Zebulun, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Joseph, twelve thousand sealed out of the tribe of Benjamin. Rev. 7:4-8.
Remember the days of old, understand the years of generation after generation.
When the Most High gave to the nations an inheritance, when He separated the sons of man, He fixed the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel. Deut. 32:7, 8.
Jerusalem, built as a city which is closely compacted together, to which the tribes go up, the tribes of Jah, a testimony to Israel, to confess the name of Jehovah. Ps. 122:3, 4.
sRef Josh@4 @1 S13′ sRef 1Ki@18 @32 S13′ sRef Josh@4 @3 S13′ sRef Josh@4 @4 S13′ sRef 1Ki@18 @31 S13′ sRef Josh@4 @2 S13′ sRef Josh@4 @5 S13′ sRef Josh@4 @6 S13′ sRef Josh@4 @9 S13′ sRef Josh@3 @14 S13′ sRef Josh@3 @13 S13′ sRef Josh@4 @7 S13′ sRef Josh@3 @11 S13′ sRef Josh@3 @17 S13′ sRef Josh@3 @16 S13′ sRef Josh@3 @15 S13′ sRef Josh@4 @8 S13′ sRef Josh@3 @12 S13′  In Joshua, who was told,
The Ark of the Covenant of the Lord of all the earth is going to pass over before you into the Jordan. Take twelve men from the tribes of Israel, one man from each tribe. And it will happen when the soles of the feet of the priests bearing the Ark of Jehovah, the Lord of all the earth, rest in the waters of the Jordan, that the waters of the Jordan will be cut off. They will stand in one heap. Josh. 3:11-17.
Take out of the midst of the Jordan, from the places where the priests’ feet stood, twelve stones which you are to prepare and carry with you. And let each man take a stone on his shoulder, according to the number of the tribes of Israel, that it may be a sign that the waters of the Jordan were cut off. Moreover Joshua set up twelve stones in the middle of the Jordan, beneath the places where the feet of the priests bearing the Ark of the Covenant had stood. Josh. 4:1-9.
Also in the description about Elijah,
Elijah took twelve stones, according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Jacob, to whom the word had come, Israel shall be your name; and he built an altar to the name of Jehovah. 1 Kings 18:31, 32.
sRef Matt@24 @30 S14′ sRef Rev@1 @7 S14′  That ‘the tribes’ means the goods of love and the truths of faith is also clear from the Lord’s words in Matthew,
Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory. Matt. 24:30.
Here ‘all the tribes of the earth will mourn’ means that the acknowledgement of truth and the life of good will not exist any longer, for the subject in that chapter is the close of the age. Similarly in John,
Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him, and those who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth will wail over Him. Rev. 1:7.
What ‘coming in the clouds of heaven’ means, see Preface to Gen. 18. See in addition what I have been shown from experience about the number ‘twelve’, in 2129, 2130.
 The reason why all things of faith and love are called ‘tribes’ is that the same expression in the original language also means a sceptre and a rod. For ‘a sceptre’ and also ‘a rod’ mean power, as will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be shown elsewhere. For this reason the noun ‘tribe’ entails the idea that forms of good and truth possess within them all power from the Lord. And angels too are therefore referred to as ‘powers’ and also ‘principalities’, for ‘princes’ means the first and foremost aspects of charity and faith, such as the twelve princes descended from Ishmael, Gen. 25:16, see 2089, as well as the princes who were leaders of the tribes, Num. 7:1-end; 13:4-16.
 From what has been said up to now about the twelve tribes one can recognize why the Lord’s disciples, who later on were called apostles, were twelve in number, and that like the tribes they represented the Lord’s Church as regards goods and truths, 2129, 3354, 3488, 3857. ‘Peter’ represented faith, ‘James’ charity, and ‘John’ the works that flow from charity, see the Prefaces to Gen. 18 and 22, and also 3750. This is also quite evident from the things which the Lord said about them and to them.
* lit. flower
‘Leah conceived and bore a son’ means spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is internal. ‘And she called his name Reuben’ means the essential nature of it, which is described. ‘For she said, Because Jehovah has seen’ in the highest sense means foresight, in the internal sense faith, in the interior sense understanding, and in the external sense sight – faith received from the Lord being meant here. ‘My affliction’ means a state of arriving at good. ‘For now my husband will love me’ means that from this state would come the good of truth.
 So that these things might be manifested in a representative way in the world names were given to each of the sons of Jacob which meant the universal divisions of good and truth, or of love and faith, and so the universal manifestations of variation in celestial and spiritual warmth and of variation in light from that source. What determines the intensity of the flame and the brightness from it is the actual order of those universal manifestations. When love comes first in such order, everything which follows within genuine order from that love is flaming, but when faith comes first everything which follows within genuine order is full of light, yet with all the differences that the things which follow entail. If however they do not follow according to genuine order everything is obscure, and in ever differing ways. But this order and resulting differences will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be discussed later on. This then is how the Lord gave answers by means of the Urim and Thummim and how according to the state of the actual thing in question they received answers by means of lights and their flashes from the precious and transparent stones on which the names of the twelve tribes had been inscribed. For as has been stated, inscribed on the names were the universal divisions of love and faith which exist in the Lord’s kingdom and so the universal manifestations of flame and light by which those divisions of love and faith are represented in heaven.
 First therefore let evidence from the Word be presented to confirm that the order of the names in which the tribes are mentioned varies in the Word, and that each variation of their order is determined by the particular state of the subject under discussion there. And from such evidence one may see that the answers from the Lord given by means of the Urim and Thummim were radiations of light determined by the particular states of the thing – such variations being due to the order of all that was involved. For the entire light of heaven is made to vary by the different states which that thing passes through, and those states are made to vary by the order in which good and truth come. But which aspect of truth or good is meant by each name will be evident from the explanation that is being given. That is to say, Reuben means faith from the Lord; Simeon faith possessed by the will which is received from the Lord; Levi spiritual love, which is charity; Judah the Divinity of love, and the Lord’s heavenly kingdom. What the other eight mean will be stated in the next chapter. Described here is the order in which they were born, which was as follows: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin – see verses 32-35 of the present chapter, and then 30:6, 8, 11, 13, 18, 20, 24; 35:18. This order is determined by the state of the subject that is being dealt with at this point, which is that of the regeneration of man, for this starts with the truth of faith, meant by ‘Reuben’, progresses from this towards the willing of truth, meant by ‘Simeon’, and from this to charity, meant by ‘Levi’, and so on to the Lord, who is meant in the highest sense by ‘Judah’. The progression of spiritual conception and birth, or regeneration, from what is external to what is internal has been stated immediately above in 3860; that is, the progression is from the truth of faith to the good of love.
 Before Jacob came to Isaac his father in Mamre, or Kiriath Arba, his sons are mentioned in Gen. 35:23-26 in the following order: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher. In this case those by Leah and Rachel come first, and those by the servant-girls last, this being determined by the state of the subject dealt with at that point. They are listed in yet another order when they travelled and came into Egypt, in Gen. 46:9-19; in another when before his death they were blessed by Jacob, who by then was Israel, in Gen. 49:3-27; and in another again when blessed by Moses, in Deut. 33:6-24. And when they encamped around the Tent of Meeting they did so in the following order: To the east Judah, Issachar, Zebulun; to the south Reuben, Simeon, Gad; to the west Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin; to the north Dan, Asher, Naphtali, Num. 2:1-end. In what order they stood on Mount Gerizim to bless the people, or on Mount Ebal to curse them, see Deut. 27:12, 13. When the princes chosen from each tribe were sent to spy out the land they are listed in Num. 13:4-16 in the following order: Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Issachar, Ephraim, Benjamin, Zebulun, Joseph or Manasseh, Dan, Asher, Naphtali, Gad. But there is a different order to the princes who were to divide the land for inheritance, Num. 34:19-29. In what order the lot fell when it was cast, at the time that the land was divided for inheritance, see Chapters 13-19 of Joshua.
sRef Ezek@48 @25 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @23 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @24 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @26 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @34 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @4 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @33 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @5 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @31 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @8 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @7 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @3 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @2 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @6 S5′ sRef Ezek@48 @32 S5′  When the boundaries of the new or holy land which the tribes were to inherit are referred to in Ezekiel the tribes are mentioned in the following order: Dan, Asher, Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben, Judah, Benjamin, Simeon, Issachar, Zebulun, Gad. All are described from the corner pointing east to the corner pointing to the sea or west, except Gad which was situated at the south corner pointing towards the south, Ezek. 48:1-7, 23-26. And where the gates of the new or holy city are referred to they are mentioned in the following order: Facing north the three gates of Reuben, Judah, and Levi; facing east the three gates of Joseph, Benjamin, and Dan; facing south the three gates of Simeon, Issachar, and Zebulun; facing west the three gates of Gad, Asher, and Naphtali, Ezek. 48:31-34. For the order of those sealed, twelve thousand from each tribe, see Rev. 7:5-8. In all these places the listing of the tribes depends completely on the state of the subject dealt with, to which the order corresponds. That particular state is evident from what comes before and after.
 The order of the precious stones in the Urim and Thummim is mentioned and described in the Word, but which tribes individual stones corresponded to is not mentioned. For those stones represented all things belonging to the light shed by heavenly flame, that is, all aspects of truth originating in good, or of faith originating in charity. And because they represented these things heavenly light itself shone through them in a miraculous way in accordance with the state of the subject concerning which a question was asked and an answer was given. Flashing and bright light stood for a positive answer concerning good and truth, which light was accompanied by variations of the stones’ colours according with the differences of the state of good and truth, as in heaven where all celestial and spiritual things are expressed by means of lights and their differences, and in a way beyond description and completely incomprehensible to man. For as has been shown frequently, heavenly light includes life from the Lord, and so includes wisdom and intelligence. Consequently the differences in light include everything that constitutes the life, that is, everything that constitutes wisdom and intelligence, while the differences in flaming, flashing, and shining include everything that constitutes the life of good and the life of truth received from good, that is, of love to the Lord and of faith derived from that love. Such then were the Urim and Thummim which were on the breastplate of the ephod and were over Aaron’s heart. The nature of them is also evident from the fact that the terms Urim and Thummim mean lights and perfections, and that the breastplate in which they were set is called the breastplate of judgement, because judgement consists in intelligence and wisdom, 2235. The reason it was worn over Aaron’s heart was that ‘the heart’ means Divine love, see 3635 and the section at the end of the present chapter. For this reason also those precious stones were placed in settings of gold, for ‘gold’ in the internal sense means good which is an attribute of love, 113, 1551, 1552, and ‘precious stone’ truth which shines through from good, 114.
sRef Ex@28 @28 S7′ sRef Num@27 @18 S7′ sRef Num@27 @21 S7′ sRef Num@27 @20 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @29 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @18 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @30 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @19 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @17 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @16 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @15 S7′ sRef 1Sam@28 @6 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @20 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @21 S7′  The Urim and Thummim are spoken of in Moses as follows,
You shall make the breastplate of judgement, the work of designing, like the work of the ephod you shall make it; out of gold, violet, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and of fine-twined linen you shall make it. It shall be square when doubled. And you shall set within it stone-settings, four rows of stones shall there be. There shall be sockets of gold in their settings. And the stones shall be according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve according to their names. The engravings of a signet, each one according to its name, there shall be for the twelve tribes. Exod. 28:15-21; 39:8-14.
Which stones had to be set in each row is also specified in those chapters. And further,
The breastplate shall not come away from the ephod. And Aaron shall bear the names of the sons of Israel on the breastplate of judgement over his heart when he goes into the holy place, for a remembrance before Jehovah continually. And you shall put into the breastplate of judgement the Urim and Thummim, and they shall be over Aaron’s heart when he goes in before Jehovah. And Aaron shall bear the judgement of the sons of Israel over his heart before Jehovah continually. Exod. 28:28-30; Lev. 8:7, 8.
The fact that Jehovah or the Lord was inquired of and gave answers by means of the Urim is seen in Moses,
Jehovah said to Moses, Take Joshua the son of Nun. You shall place some of your glory on him, so that all the congregation of the children of Israel may be obedient. He shall stand before Eleazar the priest, and he shall inquire for him in the judgement of the Urim before Jehovah. Num. 27:18, 20, 21.
And in Samuel,
Saul inquired of Jehovah, but Jehovah did not answer him by dreams, or by the Urim, or by prophets. 1 Sam. 28:6.
 Controversy existed among the ancients over which was the firstborn of the Church, whether it was the truth of faith or whether it was the good of love. Those who said that the truth of faith was the firstborn based their conclusions on the outward appearance and decided that such truth was the firstborn because it is and must be learned first and because a person is led by means of it into good. But they did not know that good is essentially the firstborn and that it is instilled by the Lord through the internal man so that he may adopt and accept the truth which is brought in by way of the external. They did not know that good holds life from the Lord within it, or that truth does not possess any life except that which comes through good, so that good is the soul of truth by making truth its own and clothing itself with it as the soul does the body. From this it may be seen that to outward appearance truth occupies first place and is so to speak the firstborn while a person is being regenerated, though essentially good occupies first place and is the firstborn, and does actually come to occupy it once he has been regenerated. For the truth of this, see 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701.
 The subject in this and previous chapters being the regeneration of the natural – at this point its first state, which is a state of being led by means of truth into good – the first son of Jacob, who was Reuben, was so named from the phrase Jehovah seeing, which in the internal sense means faith originating in the Lord. Regarded in itself faith consists in faith in the understanding and faith in the will. Knowledge and understanding of the truth of faith is called faith in the understanding, but willing the truth of faith is called faith in the will. The former – faith in the understanding – is the faith meant by ‘Reuben’, but the latter – faith in the will – is that meant by ‘Simeon’. It may be seen by anyone that faith existing in the understanding, or the ability to understand truth, comes before faith existing in the will, or the actual willing of it. For when a person does not know of something, such as heavenly good, he must first come to know of its existence and then to understand what it is before he is able to will it.
 ‘Seeing’ in the external sense means sight, as is clear without explanation. ‘Seeing’ in the interior sense means the understanding, as is likewise clear, for the sight that the internal man has is nothing else than the understanding, which also is why in everyday speech the understanding is called internal sight, and the word light is used in reference to it as well as to external sight and is called the light of the understanding. ‘Seeing’ in the internal sense means faith received from the Lord, as is clear from the consideration that interior understanding has no other objects than those of truth and good, for these are the objects of faith. This interior understanding, or internal sight, which has truths of faith as its objects, does not show itself so plainly as the understanding does which has truths to do with public and private life as its objects, the reason being that it exists inside this latter understanding and dwells in the light of heaven, which light is in obscurity as long as a person dwells in the light of the world. Nevertheless it does reveal itself with those who are regenerate, in particular by means of conscience. ‘Seeing’ in the highest sense clearly means foresight, for the intelligence spoken of in reference to the Lord is an infinite intelligence, which is nothing else than foresight.
sRef Num@21 @9 S5′ sRef John@3 @14 S5′ sRef Num@21 @8 S5′ sRef John@3 @15 S5′  That ‘seeing’ after which Reuben was named means in the internal sense faith received from the Lord is evident from very many places in the Word, of which let the following be brought forward: In Moses,
Jehovah said to Moses, Make a serpent and set it on a standard, and it will be that everyone who has been bitten, when he sees it, will live. And Moses made a serpent of bronze and set it on a standard. And so it was, if a serpent had bitten a man, when he looked at the serpent of bronze, that he was restored to life again. Num. 21:8, 9.
‘The bronze serpent’ represented the Lord’s external sensory perception, which is natural, see 197 – ‘bronze’ meaning that which is natural, 425, 1551. Faith in Him was represented by the restoration to life again of those who saw it, that is, looked at it, as the Lord Himself teaches in John,
As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, that everyone who believes in Him may not perish but have eternal life. John 3:14, 15.
sRef Isa@6 @10 S6′ sRef Isa@6 @9 S6′  In Isaiah,
The Lord said, Go and say to this people, Hearing, hear – but do not understand; and seeing, see – but do not comprehend. Make the heart of this people fat and their ears heavy, and plaster over their eyes, lest they see with their eyes and hear with their ears, and their heart understands. Isa. 6:9, 10.
Here it is quite evident that ‘seeing, see – but do not comprehend’ means understanding what is true and yet not acknowledging. The words ‘plastering over their eyes, lest they see with their eyes’ means depriving them of the understanding of truth, faith in the Lord being meant in this case by ‘seeing’, as is clear from the Lord’s words in Matthew 13:13, 14, and in John 12:36, 37, 39, 40.
sRef Isa@9 @2 S7′ sRef Isa@30 @9 S7′ sRef Ezek@12 @2 S7′ sRef Isa@30 @10 S7′  In Ezekiel,
Son of man, you are dwelling in the midst of a rebellious house, who have eyes to see but they do not see, who have ears to hear but they do not hear. Ezek. 12:2
‘Eyes to see but they do not see’ stands for their being able to understand the truths of faith but not willing them. They do not will them on account of evils, meant by ‘a rebellious house’, which bring an untrue light to falsities and darkness to truths, in accordance with the following in Isaiah,
They were a rebellious people, lying sons, sons who did not wish to hear the law of Jehovah, who said to the seers, Do not see; and to those who had visions, Do not see for us things that are right, tell us smooth things, see illusions. Isa. 30:9, 10.
This people walking in darkness have seen a great light; those dwelling in the land of the shadow of death, upon them has the light shone out. Isa. 9:2.
‘Seeing a great light’ stands for receiving and believing the truths of faith. It is over those who have faith that heavenly ‘light’ is said ‘to shine out’, for the light which is shed in heaven is Divine Truth coming from Divine Good.
sRef Isa@32 @3 S8′ sRef Isa@28 @7 S8′ sRef Isa@29 @10 S8′  In the same prophet,
Jehovah has poured out over you a spirit of slumber, and has closed your eyes, the prophets and your heads, the seers, He has covered. Isa. 29:10.
‘Closing the eyes’ stands for closing the understanding of truth – ‘the eye’ meaning the understanding, see 2701. ‘Covering the seers’ stands for covering those who know and teach the truths of faith. ‘Seers’ in former times were called prophets, and prophets mean those who teach as well as meaning the truths of doctrine, see 2534. In the same prophet,
The priest and the prophet err through strong drink, they err among those who see, they are tottery in judgement. Isa. 28:7.
Here the meaning is similar. ‘The judgement in which they are tottery’ means the truth of faith, see 2235. In the same prophet,
The eyes of those who see will not be closed, and the ears of those who hear will listen. Isa. 32:3.
Here the meaning is similar.
sRef Matt@5 @8 S9′ sRef Isa@33 @17 S9′  In the same prophet,
Your eyes will behold the king in his beauty, they will see a land stretching far. Isa. 33:17.
‘Beholding the king in his beauty’ stands for beholding truths of faith which come from the Lord and are called beautiful by virtue of good. ‘Seeing a land stretching far’ stands for seeing the good of love. For ‘the king’ means the truth of faith, see 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, this being called beautiful by virtue of good, 553, 3080, 3821; and ‘a land’ means the good of love, 620, 636, 3368, 3379. In Matthew,
Blessed are the pure in heart, for these will see God. Matt. 5:8.
Here it is quite evident that ‘seeing God’ means believing in Him, and so seeing Him by faith, for people who possess faith, from faith see God, since God is within faith and is that within faith which constitutes true faith.
sRef Matt@18 @9 S10′  In the same gospel,
If your eye causes you to stumble pluck it out. It is better for you to enter into life one-eyed than having two eyes to be thrown into the Gehenna of fire. Matt. 18:9.
Here, as is quite evident, ‘the eye’ does not mean the eye. Nor does it mean that the eye has to be plucked out, for it is not the eye that causes the stumbling but the understanding of truth meant here by ‘the eye’, 2701. The law that it is better not to know and grasp the truths of faith than to know and grasp them and yet to lead a life of evil is what is meant by ‘better to enter into life one-eyed than having two eyes to be thrown into the Gehenna of fire’.
sRef John@6 @46 S11′ sRef Matt@13 @17 S11′ sRef Matt@13 @16 S11′ sRef John@6 @47 S11′ sRef John@6 @36 S11′ sRef John@6 @40 S11′  In the same gospel,
Blessed are your eyes, for they see, and your ears, for they hear. Truly, I say to you, many prophets and righteous men desired to see what you see, but did not see. Matt. 13:13-17; John 12:40.
‘Seeing’ stands for knowing and understanding the things that constitute faith in the Lord, and so stands for faith. For it was not their seeing the Lord and seeing His miracles that made them ‘blessed’ but their believing, as becomes clear from the following words in John,
I said to you that you have both seen Me and not believed. This is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have eternal life. No one has seen the Father except Him who is with the Father; He has seen the Father. Truly, truly, I say to you, He who believes in Me has eternal life. John 6:36, 40, 46, 47.
‘Seeing and not believing’ stands for knowing the truths of faith and not accepting them, ‘seeing and believing’ for knowing them and accepting them. The words ‘No one has seen the Father except Him who is with the Father’ stands for not being able to acknowledge Divine Good except through Divine Truth – ‘the Father’ being Divine Good and ‘the Son’ Divine Truth, see 3704. Consequently the internal sense is that nobody is able to possess heavenly good unless he acknowledges the Lord.
sRef John@14 @18 S12′ sRef John@1 @18 S12′ sRef John@12 @45 S12′ sRef John@14 @19 S12′ sRef John@14 @17 S12′ sRef John@14 @9 S12′ sRef John@12 @46 S12′ sRef John@14 @7 S12′  Similarly in the same gospel,
Nobody has ever seen God; the only begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father, He has made Him known. John 1:18.
And in the same gospel,
Jesus said, He who sees Me sees Him who sent Me. I have come as Light into the world in order that everyone who believes in Me may not remain in darkness. John 12:45, 46.
Here it is explicitly stated that ‘seeing’ means believing or possessing faith. And in the same gospel,
Jesus said, If you know Me you know My Father also. And from now you know Him and have seen Him. He who has seen Me has seen the Father. John 14:7, 9.
In the same gospel,
The Spirit of truth the world cannot receive because it neither sees Him nor knows Him. I will not leave you orphans, I am coming to you. Yet a little while, the world will see Me no longer, but you will see Me; because I live you will live also. John 14:17-19.
‘Seeing’ stands for possessing faith, for it is solely through faith that the Lord is seen. Actually faith is the eye of love, since it is from love through faith that the Lord is seen, love being the life of faith. Hence His statement, ‘You will see Me; because I live you will live also’.
sRef John@9 @40 S13′ sRef John@9 @39 S13′ sRef John@9 @41 S13′ sRef Luke@17 @22 S13′ sRef Luke@9 @27 S13′ sRef Luke@8 @10 S13′  In the same gospel,
Jesus said, For judgement I came into this world, that those who do not see may see, but that those who see may become blind. The Pharisees said, Are we also blind? Jesus said to them, If you were blind you would have no sin; but now you say, ‘We see’, therefore your sin remains. John 9:39-41.
‘Those who see’ stands for those who imagine themselves to be more intelligent than everybody else. Of them it is said that they will become blind, that is, will not acquire faith. ‘Not seeing’ or being blind is used in reference to those immersed in falsities, and also to those who have no knowledge [of the truth], see 2383. In Luke,
To you it has been given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God, but for everyone else in parables, that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not hear. Luke 8:10.
Here the meaning is similar. In the same gospel,
I tell you truly, There are some of those standing here who will not taste death until they see the kingdom of God. Luke 9:27; Mark 9:1.
‘Seeing the kingdom of God’ stands for believing. In the same gospel,
Jesus said to the disciples, The days will come when you will desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man, but you will not see. Luke 17:22.
This refers to the close of the age or last period of the Church when no faith exists any longer.
sRef Luke@24 @31 S14′ sRef Luke@24 @30 S14′  In the same gospel,
It happened, when Jesus was at table with them, that He took the bread and said a blessing, and broke it and gave to them. Then their eyes were opened and they recognized Him. Luke 24:30, 31.
The meaning of this event was that the Lord comes into sight through good, but not through truth devoid of good; for ‘bread’ means the good of love, 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813. From these and many other places it is clear that ‘seeing’ in the internal sense means faith received from the Lord, for no other faith exists which is truly faith except faith which comes from the Lord. This is also the faith that enables a person to see, that is, to believe. But faith originating in self or a person’s proprium is not truly faith, for it causes him to see falsities as truths and truths as falsities; or if he does see truths as truths he does not truly see them because he does not believe them. For in them he sees himself and not the Lord.
 That ‘seeing’ means possessing faith in the Lord is quite evident from what has been stated often about the light of heaven, namely that because it flows from the Lord the light of heaven holds intelligence and wisdom within it, and so holds faith in Him since faith in the Lord is inwardly present in intelligence and wisdom. Consequently seeing by that light, as angels do, can mean nothing else than faith in the Lord. The Lord Himself too is within that light because it proceeds from Him. That light is also the light which shines within the conscience of those who possess faith in Him, though no one is directly conscious of its doing so as long as he lives in the body, for during that time the light of the world is obscuring that light.
 This can be seen quite clearly by anyone if he turns his attention to those who lead evil lives and to those who lead good lives. Those who lead evil lives, though instructed in the teachings of the Church during childhood and youth like everybody else, will be found on examination to believe nothing at all about the Lord, about faith in Him, or about the truths of the Church, whereas those who lead good lives will be found in every case to have faith in those truths which they believe to be truths. Those however who teach truths, as Church leaders do, and yet lead evil lives will indeed say that they believe, yet they do not believe in their hearts.
 With some a persuasive faith exists which is an imitation of true faith, but that faith is no more than factual knowledge which has been corroborated by them not because it is the truth but because by declaring their allegiance to it they improve their chances of personal position, honour, and gain. That knowledge goes no further than through the ears into the memory, and from the memory passes out on to the lips. It does not enter the heart and from there into a confession of it. From these considerations it is evident that the life is the guide to what kind of acknowledgement of truth exists, that is, to what kind of faith. They also show that faith separated from the good of life declares that no matter how a person lives he can still be saved by grace, and that such faith argues against the teaching that everyone’s life remains with him after death.
‘She conceived again and bore a son’, as previously, means spiritual conception and birth from what is external towards things that are more internal still. ‘For Jehovah has heard’ means in the highest sense providence, in the internal sense the will of faith, in the interior sense obedience, in the external sense the sense of hearing – faith in the will which is received from the Lord alone being meant here. ‘That I was hated’ means the state of faith if there is no will corresponding to it. ‘And has given me this one also’ means that which happens next. ‘And she called his name Simeon’ means the essential nature of it.
 It should be recognized that when distinguished from charity the word faith is used to mean truth, such as the truth of doctrine, that is, such as is incorporated in the confession called the Apostles’ Creed. This usage is in accord with the general meaning the word has in the Church, for the belief is that possessing faith in truths constitutes the faith through which salvation comes. Few know that faith is trust and confidence, and among these few fewer still know that trust or confidence originates in charity and is unable to exist with anyone who does not possess the life of charity.
 It is because these two – obedience, and faith in the will – lie thus within ‘hearing’ that these attributes are also meant in everyday speech by the phrases hearing, listening to, and paying attention to; for a person who ‘hears’ is one who is obedient, and ‘listening to’ somebody also means obeying him. For those entities which exist interiorly within something are sometimes included within the actual expressions a person uses when he speaks. These occur there because it is a person’s spirit which thinks and which grasps the meaning of the expressions used by others when they speak; and his spirit is in a way in contact with spirits and angels among whom the first beginnings of verbal expressions exist. What is more, the whole range of man’s experience is such that whatever enters in through the ear and eye, or hearing and sight, passes into his understanding, through the understanding into the will, and from the will into deed. So it is with the truth of faith. This first becomes the truth of faith present within knowledge, then the truth of faith within the will, and finally the truth of faith in deed, and so finally charity. Faith within knowledge or the understanding is meant by ‘Reuben’, as has been shown; faith in the will by ‘Simeon’; and faith in the will when it becomes charity by ‘Levi’.
 As regards ‘hearing’ in the highest sense meaning providence, this may become clear from what has been stated above in 3863 about ‘seeing’ in the highest sense meaning foresight, for the Lord’s foresight is a seeing from eternity to eternity that a thing is so, whereas His providence is a governing that that thing should be so and a bending of a person’s freedom towards good insofar as He foresees that that person is going to allow himself in freedom to be bent towards it, see 3854.
sRef Matt@17 @5 S4′ sRef John@5 @28 S4′ sRef John@5 @25 S4′  That ‘Jehovah heard’, the phrase from which Simeon received his name, in the interior sense means obedience, and in the internal sense faith in the will acquired from the Lord alone, is evident from very many places in the Word, such as the following: In Matthew,
Behold, a voice from the cloud, saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear Him. Matt. 17:5.
‘Hearing Him’ stands for possessing faith in Him, and obeying His commandments, and so possessing faith in the will. In John,
Truly, truly, I say to you, that the hour will come when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. Do not marvel at this, for the hour is coming in which all who are in the tombs will hear His voice. John 5:25, 28.
‘Hearing the voice of the Son of God’ stands for possessing faith in the Lord’s words, and willing them. People who possess faith that is part of the will receive life, and that is why the words ‘those who hear will live’ are used.
sRef Luke@16 @29 S5′ sRef John@10 @3 S5′ sRef Luke@16 @31 S5′ sRef John@10 @16 S5′ sRef John@10 @2 S5′ sRef John@18 @37 S5′ sRef John@10 @27 S5′  In the same gospel,
The one entering by the door is the shepherd of the sheep; to him the gate- keeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice. And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; I must bring them also, and they will hear My voice, and there will be one flock and one shepherd. My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me. John 10:2, 3, 16, 27.
‘Hearing the voice’ plainly stands for obedience resulting from faith that is part of the will. In the same gospel,
Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice. John 18:37.
Here the meaning is similar. In Luke,
Abraham said to him, They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them. If they do not hear Moses and the Prophets neither will they be persuaded if someone rose from the dead. Luke 16:29, 31.
‘Hearing Moses and the Prophets’ stands for knowing things contained in the Word and possessing faith in it, and so also willing those things. For possessing faith without willing is seeing but not hearing, whereas possessing faith together with willing is seeing and hearing. This is why both – seeing and hearing – are mentioned together in various places throughout the Word, seeing meaning that which is portrayed through ‘Reuben’ and hearing that which is portrayed through ‘Simeon’, since the two are joined together like brother to brother.
sRef Mark@8 @17 S6′ sRef Matt@13 @16 S6′ sRef Matt@13 @17 S6′ sRef Matt@13 @15 S6′ sRef Matt@13 @9 S6′ sRef Matt@13 @13 S6′ sRef Matt@13 @43 S6′ sRef Mark@8 @18 S6′ sRef Matt@13 @14 S6′  The fact that seeing and hearing are referred to jointly is clear from the following places: In Matthew,
Therefore I speak to them in parables, because those who see do not see, and those who hear do not hear, nor do they understand. And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah which says, By hearing you will hear and not understand, and seeing you will see and not discern. This people’s heart has become gross, and with ears they have heard in a dull manner, and their eyes they have closed, lest perhaps they see with their eyes and hear with their ears, and with their heart understand. But blessed are your eyes, for they see, and your ears, for they hear. Truly I say to you, that many prophets and righteous men desired to see what you see, but did not see it, and to hear what you hear, but did not hear it. Matt. 13:13-17; John 12:40; Isa. 6:9.
Jesus said to the disciples, Why do you discuss the fact that you have no loaves? Are you still without understanding and do not understand? Do you still have your heart hardened? Having eyes do you not see, and having ears do you not hear? Mark 8:17, 18.
sRef Isa@33 @15 S7′ sRef Isa@33 @16 S7′ sRef Isa@29 @18 S7′ sRef Isa@30 @21 S7′ sRef Isa@30 @20 S7′ sRef Isa@43 @8 S7′ sRef Ezek@12 @2 S7′ sRef Isa@35 @5 S7′ sRef Isa@32 @3 S7′ sRef Isa@42 @18 S7′  In Luke,
To you it has been given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God, but for everyone else in parables, that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not hear. Luke 8:10.
The eyes of the blind will be opened, and the ears of the deaf will be opened. Isa. 35:5.
In the same prophet,
Then on that day the deaf will hear the words of the book, and out of thick darkness and out of darkness the eyes of the blind will see. Isa. 29:18.
In the same prophet,
Hear, you deaf, and look and see, you blind. Isa. 42:18.
In the same prophet, Bring forth the blind people, who will have eyes, and the deaf, who will have ears. Isa. 43:8.
In the same prophet,
The eyes of those who see will not be closed, and the ears of those who hear will listen. Isa. 32:3.
In the same prophet, Let your eyes be looking at your teachers, and let your ears hear the word. Isa. 30:20, 21.
In the same prophet,
He who stops his ear lest it hears of blood, and shuts his eyes lest they see evil, will dwell on the heights. Isa. 33:15, 16.
Son of man, you are dwelling in the midst of a rebellious house, who have eyes to see but they do not see, who have ears to hear but they do not hear. Ezek. 12:2.
In these places both seeing and hearing are mentioned because one follows the other. That is to say, faith in the understanding, meant by ‘seeing’, is followed by faith in the will, meant by ‘hearing’. Otherwise it would have been sufficient to mention only one. From this it is also evident why one son of Jacob was named from the expression ‘seeing’ and the other from ‘hearing’.
 The origin of ‘seeing’ meaning faith within knowledge or the understanding, and ‘hearing’ faith within obedience or the will rests in correspondences in the next life and in meaningful signs based on these. People who have understanding and faith resulting from that understanding belong to the province of the eye, and those who are obedient and have faith resulting from that obedience belong to the province of the ear. The truth of this will be seen from what, in the Lord’s Divine mercy, is going to be shown at the ends of chapters concerning the Grand Man and the correspondence with it of everything in the human body.
sRef Isa@48 @8 S9′ sRef Jer@6 @10 S9′ sRef Jer@9 @20 S9′ sRef Zech@7 @12 S9′ sRef Ezek@23 @25 S9′ sRef Zech@7 @11 S9′ sRef Isa@55 @3 S9′ sRef Jer@7 @24 S9′ sRef Jer@7 @23 S9′ sRef Jer@35 @15 S9′ sRef Jer@7 @26 S9′ sRef Ezek@3 @10 S9′ sRef Isa@55 @2 S9′ sRef Isa@50 @4 S9′  So it is then that ‘the eye’ in the internal sense means the understanding, see 2701, and ‘the ear’ obedience. And in the spiritual sense ‘the ear’ means faith resulting from obedience, or faith in the will, as is also clear from the following places: In Isaiah,
Even so, you have not heard, even so, you have not known; even so, from that time your ear has not opened itself. Isa. 48:8.
In the same prophet,
The Lord Jehovih will arouse my ear to hear like those who are being taught. The Lord Jehovih opened my ear, and I was not rebellious. Isa. 50:4, 5.
In the same prophet,
Attend diligently to Me, and eat what is good, that your soul may delight in fatness; incline your ear and come to Me; hear, that your soul may live. Isa. 55:2, 3.
To whom am I to speak and testify, that they may hear? behold, their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot listen. Jer. 6:10.
In the same prophet,
This I commanded them, saying, Hear My voice, and I will be your God, and you will be My people. But they did not hear, nor did they incline their ear. Jer. 7:23, 24, 26
In the same prophet,
Hear, O women, the word of Jehovah, and let your ear receive the word of His mouth. Jer. 9:20.
In the same prophet,
You did not incline your ear, and you did not obey Me. Jer. 35:15.
Son of man, all My words that I have spoken to you, receive in your heart, and hear with your ears. Ezek. 3:10.
In the same prophet,
I will bring My zeal against you, and they will deal with you in fury. Your nose and your ears they will remove Ezek. 23:25.
‘Removing nose and ears’ stands for removing the perception of truth and good, and the obedience that goes with faith. In Zechariah,
They refused to pay attention, and fumed a stubborn shoulder, and made their ears heavy so that they might not hear, and set their heart adamant, so that they might not hear the law. Zech. 7:11, 12.
sRef Ex@29 @20 S10′ sRef Amos@3 @12 S10′  In Amos,
Thus said Jehovah, As the shepherd rescues from the mouth of the lion two legs or a piece of an ear, so will the children of Israel in Samaria be rescued, on the corner of a bed and on the end of a couch. Amos 3:12.
‘Rescuing two legs’ stands for rescuing the will for good, ‘a piece of an ear’ for rescuing the will for truth. It may be seen that ‘a piece of an ear’ has this meaning, as has been stated, solely from correspondences in the next life and from the meaningful signs based on these, with which the internal sense of the Word and also the ritual observances in the Israelitish and Jewish Church are in accordance. This explains why, when Aaron and his sons were to be consecrated for their specific function, Moses was commanded among other things to take some of the ram’s blood and to put it on the tip of Aaron’s ear and on the tips of the ears of his sons, and on the thumbs of their right hands and on the large toes of their right feet, Exod. 29:20. This ritual act represented the will anointed by faith, into which also as priest he was to be initiated. Anyone can recognize that this ritual act was holy since it was Jehovah who commanded Moses to perform it, and so also that putting blood on the tip of the ear was holy. But what holy thing was meant cannot be known except from the internal sense of the things in the Word, which at this point is that the holiness of faith when applied to the will must be preserved.
sRef Ex@21 @6 S11′  The meaning of ‘the ear’ as obedience, and in the internal sense as faith resulting from that obedience, is even more plainly evident from the ritual that was to be observed when a slave did not wish to go free, described in Moses as follows: If a slave or servant-girl did not wish to go free,
His master shall bring him to God, and shall bring him to the door or to the doorpost; and his master shall pierce his ear with an awl, and he shall serve him for ever. Exod. 21:6; Deut. 15:17.
‘Piercing his ear with an awl at the doorpost’ stands for serving and obeying for ever. In the spiritual sense it stands for having no wish to understand what is true, only a wish to be obedient to it. This, compared with an understanding of what is true, is not freedom.
 Since the obedience of faith is meant in the internal sense by ‘the ears’, and being obedient by ‘hearing’, one may see what is meant by the following words spoken by the Lord many times, He who has an ear to hear, let him hear, Matt. 13:9, 43; Mark 4:9, 23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35; Rev. 2:7, 11, 29; 3:13, 22.
sRef Ps@17 @6 S13′ sRef Ps@102 @2 S13′ sRef Isa@37 @17 S13′ sRef Ps@102 @1 S13′ sRef Ps@143 @1 S13′ sRef Ps@71 @2 S13′ sRef Lam@3 @56 S13′ sRef Dan@9 @18 S13′  As regards ‘hearing’ in the highest sense meaning providence and ‘seeing’ foresight, this is clear from the following places in the Word in which eyes and also ears are attributed to Jehovah or the Lord; as in Isaiah,
Incline Your ear, O Jehovah, and hear; open Your eyes, O Jehovah, and see. Isa. 37:17.
Incline Your ear, O my God, and hear; open Your eyes* and see our devastations. Dan. 9:18.
O God, incline Your ear to me, and hear my speech. Ps. 17:6.
In the same author,
Incline to me Your ear, and save me. Ps. 71:2.
In the same author,
Turn an ear to my prayers, on account of Your truthfulness; answer me, on account of Your righteousness. Ps. 143:1.
O Jehovah, You heard my voice; do not hide Your ear at my sighing, at my cry. Lam. 3:56.
O Jehovah, do not hide Your face from me in the day of my distress; incline to me Your ear; in the day I cry answer me. Ps. 102:2.
 It is well known that Jehovah does not have ears or eyes as man does but that some attribute which may be ascribed to the Divine is meant by the ear and the eye, namely infinite will and infinite understanding. Infinite will is providence, and infinite understanding foresight; and it is these that are meant in the highest sense by ear and eye when these are attributed to Jehovah. These considerations now show what is meant in each sense [of the Word] by ‘Jehovah heard’, the phrase from which ‘Simeon’ received his name.
* The Latin adds O Jehovah but this does not appear in the Hebrew or in Sw’s rough draft.
sRef Gen@49 @7 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @4 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @6 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @3 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @5 S2′  But this faith – that is to say, faith separated from charity and therefore contrary to charity – is represented later on by Reuben’s lying with Bilhah his father’s concubine, Gen. 35:22, and by the expression of disgust by Jacob, who by then was named Israel, in the following words,
Reuben, my firstborn, you are my strength and the beginning of my power. Unstable as water, may you not excel, for you went up to your father’s bed; then you defiled it. He went up to my couch. Gen. 49:3, 4.
Also described in that chapter, by means of Simeon and Levi, is the contrariety to charity of the will and affection that go with this faith, namely faith separated from charity, in the following words,
Simeon and Levi are brothers; weapons of violence are their swords. Into their secret place let my soul not come; in their assembly let not my glory be united; for in their fury they killed a man, and in their wilfulness they hamstrung an ox. Cursed be their fury, for it is fierce, and their anger, for it is severe. I will divide them in Jacob, and will scatter them in Israel. Gen. 49:5-7.
That faith separated from charity is described in this case by Simeon and Levi will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be shown later on.
‘She conceived again and bore a son’, as previously, means spiritual conception and birth from what is external towards that which is more internal still. ‘And she said, Now this time my husband will cling to me’ means in the highest sense love and mercy, in the internal sense charity, in the external sense a joining together – spiritual love being meant here. ‘For I have borne him three sons’ means that which happens next. ‘Therefore she called his name Levi’ means the essential nature of it.
sRef Jer@50 @4 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@56 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@56 @6 S2′  As regards ‘clinging’ in the internal sense meaning spiritual love, or what amounts to the same, charity towards the neighbour, this may also be seen from other places in the Word, as in Isaiah,
Do not let the son of the foreigner who has clung to Jehovah say, Jehovah surely separates me from being with His people. The sons of the foreigner who cling to Jehovah, to minister to Him and to delight in the name of Jehovah, will be His servants. Isa. 56:3, 6.
‘Clinging to Jehovah’ stands for keeping His commandments, which is an act of spiritual love, for no one at heart keeps God’s commandments except him in whom good that flows from charity towards the neighbour is present. In Jeremiah,
In those days the children of Israel will come, they and the children of Judah weeping as they come; and they will seek Jehovah their God. They will ask Zion concerning the way, their faces towards it, [saying,] Come and let us cling to Jehovah in an everlasting covenant that is not forgotten. Jer. 50:4, 5.
‘Clinging to Jehovah’ in like manner stands for keeping His commandments at heart, that is, doing so from good that flows from charity.
sRef Isa@14 @1 S3′ sRef Matt@6 @24 S3′ sRef Zech@2 @11 S3′  In Zechariah,
Many nations will cling to Jehovah on that day and will be My people. Zech. 2:11.
Here the meaning is similar. In Isaiah,
Jehovah will have compassion on Jacob, and will again choose Israel, and will set them on their own land. And the sojourner will cling to them, and they will join themselves to the house of Jacob. Isa. 14:1.
‘The sojourner clinging to them’ stands for having a similar allegiance to the law. ‘Joining themselves to the house of Jacob’ stands for the good that flows from charity, which is present in those meant by ‘the house of Jacob’. In Matthew,
No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other or he will cling to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon. Matt. 6:24.
Here the celestial form of love is meant by ‘loving’, the spiritual form by ‘clinging to’. Both of these expressions are used because those two forms of love are distinct and separate. Otherwise one expression would have been sufficient.
sRef Mal@2 @4 S4′ sRef Mal@3 @3 S4′ sRef Mal@2 @5 S4′ sRef Mal@2 @9 S4′ sRef Mal@3 @2 S4′ sRef Mal@2 @8 S4′  People who are stirred by spiritual love are therefore called ‘the sons of Levi’, as in Malachi,
Who can endure the day of His coming, and who will stand when He appears? He will sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and He will purify the sons of Levi and purge them like gold, and like silver. Mal. 3:2, 3.
In the highest sense the Lord is meant by ‘Levi’ by virtue of Divine love and of mercy towards those in whom spiritual love is present. This may be seen in the same prophet,
That you may know that I have sent this command to you, to be My covenant with Levi, said Jehovah Zebaoth. My covenant with him will be [a covenant] of life and peace. You have turned back from the way; you have caused many to stumble at the law, you have corrupted the covenant of Levi; therefore I have made you despised. Mal. 2:4, 5, 8, 9.
And because in the highest sense the Lord’s Divine Love or His Mercy was meant by ‘Levi’, and in the internal sense spiritual love, the tribe of Levi was therefore established as the priesthood; for in the internal sense of the Word ‘the priesthood’ is nothing other than the holiness of love and ‘kingship’ the holiness of faith, 1728, 2015 (end), 3670.
 Because the expression ‘cringing to’ from which Levi received his name
means spiritual love, which is the same as mutual love, the same expression in the original language is used to mean lending and borrowing.* And these two – lending and borrowing – in the Jewish Church represented mutual love, a representation which will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be dealt with elsewhere. Mutual love is different from friendship inasmuch as mutual love has a person’s good in view, and in directing itself towards that good is directed towards the person in whom good is present. Friendship however has the person in view, which is also mutual love when it looks at that person from the point of view of, that is, on account of, that good. But when it does not look at him from the point of view of good or on account of that good but on account of self which it calls good, friendship is not in that case mutual love but something close to the love of self. And insofar as it is close to this it is opposed to mutual love. In itself mutual love is nothing else than charity towards the neighbour, for in the internal sense ‘the neighbour’ means nothing else than good, and in the highest sense the Lord because all good originates in Him and He is Good itself, see 2425, 3419. This mutual love or charity towards the neighbour is what is understood by spiritual love and meant by ‘Levi’. What is more, in the Word celestial love, and also conjugial love, is expressed in the sense of the letter as ‘clinging to’, but this is derived from a different expression in the original language from that from which the name Levi is obtained.
sRef 2Ki@18 @5 S6′ sRef Deut@10 @20 S6′ sRef 2Ki@18 @6 S6′ sRef Josh@22 @5 S6′ sRef Deut@11 @22 S6′ sRef Deut@13 @4 S6′ sRef Jer@13 @11 S6′ sRef Deut@30 @20 S6′  This other expression means an even closer joining together, as in the
following places: In Moses,
You shall fear Jehovah your God: you shall serve Him and cling to Him. Deut.
You shall go after Jehovah your God, and fear Him, and keep His commandments, and hear His voice, and serve Him, and cling to Him. Deut. 13:4.
To love Jehovah your God, to go in all His ways, and to cling to Him. Deut. 11:22.
To love Jehovah your God, to obey His voice, and to cling to Him, for He is your life. Deut. 30:20.
Take good care to carry out the commandment and the law which Moses the
servant of Jehovah commanded you, to love Jehovah your God, and to walk in all His ways, and to keep His commandments, and to cling to Him, and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul. Josh. 22:5.
In the second Book of Kings,
King Hezekiah trusted in Jehovah the God of Israel. He clung to Jehovah; he did not turn back from going after Him, and he kept His commandments which
Jehovah had commanded Moses. 2 Kings 18:5, 6.
As a waistcloth clings to the loins of a man, so I made the whole house of Israel and the whole house of Judah to cling to Me, to be for Me a people, a name, a praise, and a glory; but they were not obedient. Jer. 13:11.
sRef Gen@34 @3 S7′ sRef Mark@10 @6 S7′ sRef Mark@10 @5 S7′ sRef 1Ki@11 @1 S7′ sRef 1Ki@11 @2 S7′ sRef Gen@2 @24 S7′ sRef Mark@10 @7 S7′ sRef Mark@10 @8 S7′ sRef Mark@10 @9 S7′  The fact that conjugial love as well is expressed by ‘clinging to’ is evident from the following,
Therefore a man will leave his father and his mother and will cling to his wife, and they will be one flesh. Gen. 2:24.
On account of your hardness of heart Moses wrote this commandment, but from the beginning of creation God made them male and female. For this reason a man (homo) will leave his father and mother and cling to his wife, and the two will be one flesh. What therefore God has joined together man (homo) must not put asunder. Mark 10:5-9; Matt. 19:5.
The soul of Shechem clung to Dinah, Jacob’s daughter. He loved the girl, and spoke to the girl’s heart. Gen. 34:3.
Solomon loved many foreign women. Solomon clung to these in love. 1 Kings 11:1, 2.
These quotations show then that ‘clinging to’ is an expression descriptive of love which was adopted in ancient times by Churches in which meaningful signs were prominent, and that it means nothing else in the internal sense than a spiritual joining together, which is charity and love.
* lit. mutually giving and receiving
‘She conceived again and bore a son’ means, as previously, spiritual conception and birth from what is external towards that which is more internal still. ‘And she said, This time I will confess Jehovah’ means in the highest sense the Lord, in the internal sense the Word, in the external sense doctrine from the Word – the Divinity of love, also His celestial kingdom being meant here. ‘Therefore she called his name Judah’ means the essential nature of it. ‘And she left off bearing’ means the ascent up a stairway from earth even to Jehovah or the Lord.
sRef Ps@100 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@100 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@100 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@100 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@100 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@75 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@12 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@12 @4 S2′  But what ‘confessing’ or ‘confession’ really is will be seen from places in the Word where these expressions are used, as in Isaiah,
You will say on that day, I will confess You O Jehovah; for You were angry with me, Your anger turned away, and You comforted me. And you will say on that day, Confess Jehovah, call on His name, make His deeds known among the people, make mention that His name is exalted. Isa. 12:1, 4.
we will confess You O God; we will confess, and Your name is near. They tell of Your wonders. Ps. 75:1.
In the same author,
A Psalm for confession. Make a joyful noise to Jehovah, all the earth. He made us and not we ourselves, His people and the flock of His pasture; therefore we are His, His people and the flock of His pasture.* Enter through His gates in confession, His courts in praise; confess Him, bless His name, for Jehovah is good, His mercy is for ever, and His truth from generation to generation. Ps. 100:1-5.
What ‘confessing’ and ‘confession’ mean here is self-evident, namely acknowledging Jehovah or the Lord, and the things that are His – that acknowledgement clearly being doctrine and the Word.
sRef Jer@30 @19 S3′ sRef Ps@42 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @9 S3′ sRef Jer@30 @18 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @10 S3′ sRef Ps@7 @17 S3′ sRef Isa@51 @3 S3′  In Isaiah,
Jehovah will comfort Zion, He will comfort all her waste places. Gladness and joy will be found in her, confession and the voice of song. Isa. 51:3.
Thus said Jehovah, Behold, I will bring back the captivity of the tents of Jacob and have compassion on his dwellings. And the city will be built upon its mound, and the palace will be inhabited in its accustomed manner. And there will come out from these confession and the voice of those amusing themselves. Jer. 30:18, 19.
I will confess Jehovah according to His righteousness, and will sing of the name of Jehovah Most High. Ps. 7:17.
In the same author,
When I shall have gone to the house of God with the voice of song and of confession, a multitude keeping festival. Ps. 42:4.
In the same author,
I will confess You among the nations, O Lord, I will make melody to You among the peoples, for great even to heaven is Your mercy. Ps. 57:9, 10.
 From these places it is evident that ‘confession’ has reference to the celestial form of love, for in the descriptions ‘confession and the voice of song’, ‘confession and the voice of those amusing themselves’, ‘I will confess You among the nations and I will make melody to You among the peoples’, ‘confession’ is used to mean something distinct and separate from that meant in phrases describing the spiritual form of love. ‘Confession’ or ‘confessing’ is a celestial term, whereas ‘the voice of song’, ‘the voice of those amusing themselves’, and also ‘making melody’ are spiritual expressions. In addition confession is said to occur ‘among the nations’ but melody to be made ‘among the peoples’ because ‘the nations’ means those who are governed by good, ‘the peoples’ those who are governed by truth, 1416, 1849, 2928, that is, those governed by celestial love and those governed by spiritual love. For in the Word, in the Prophets, dual expressions commonly occur in which one has reference to what is celestial or good, the other to what is spiritual or true, so that the Divine marriage may exist in every individual part of the Word, and so a marriage of good and truth, see 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 3132. From this it is also evident that confession implies the celestial form of love and that genuine confession, or that which flows from the heart, flows from nothing else than good. But confession which flows from truth is called ‘the voice of song’, ‘the voice of those amusing themselves’, and ‘making melody’.
sRef Ps@71 @22 S5′ sRef Ps@107 @21 S5′ sRef Ps@100 @4 S5′ sRef Ps@107 @22 S5′ sRef Ps@147 @7 S5′ sRef Ps@79 @13 S5′ sRef Ps@109 @30 S5′ sRef Ps@69 @30 S5′ sRef Ps@35 @18 S5′ sRef Ps@35 @17 S5′  A similar duality occurs in the following places: In David,
I will praise the name of God with a song and will magnify Him with confession. Ps. 69:30.
In the same author,
I will confess You on a ten-stringed instrument, Your truth, O my God. I will sing to You with the harp, O Holy One of Israel. Ps. 71:22.
‘Singing with the harp’ and all other stringed instruments mean spiritual things, see 418-420. In the same author,
Enter His gates in confession, His courts in praise; confess Him, bless His name. Ps. 100:4.
‘Confession’ and ‘confessing’ flow from the love of good, but ‘praise’ and ‘blessing’ from the love of truth. In the same author,
Reply to Jehovah by means of confession; make melody to our God with the harp. Ps. 147:7.
In the same author,
I will confess You in the great congregation, I will praise You among a numerous people. Ps. 35:18.
In the same author,
I will confess Jehovah with my mouth, and in the midst of many will I praise Him. Ps. 109:30.
In the same author,
We, Your people and the flock of Your pasture, will confess You for ever; generation after generation we will recount Your praise. Ps. 79:13.
In the same author,
Let them confess Jehovah for His mercy, and for His marvellous works to the children of men. Let them sacrifice the sacrifices of confession, and proclaim His works with a song. Ps. 107:21, 22.
 In all these places it is evident that dual expressions occur describing the same thing, which would be seen as pointless repetitions if one did not embody something celestial, which is good, and the other something spiritual, which is truth, and so did not embody the Divine marriage. The Lord’s kingdom is that marriage. This arcanum is present in every part of the Word but it cannot possibly be disclosed except by means of the internal sense, and of knowledge derived from this, showing which in a dual expression belongs to the celestial category and which to the spiritual. But a general impression of what the celestial is and what the spiritual, to which reference has often been made already, must exist first.
 True confession of the heart, because it flows from celestial love, is confession in the genuine sense. The person with whom it exists acknowledges that everything good comes from the Lord and everything evil from self. When that acknowledgement exists with him it is a state of humiliation, for in this case he acknowledges the Lord to be everything in him and he himself in comparison to be nothing. And when confession is made in this state it flows from celestial love.
sRef Lev@7 @11 S8′ sRef Lev@7 @12 S8′ sRef Lev@7 @13 S8′  But the sacrifices of confession which were offered in the Jewish Church were thanksgivings, and in the universal sense were called eucharistic and repayment sacrifices, of which there were two kinds – those of confession and those that were votive. As regards sacrifices of confession embodying the celestial form of love within them, this becomes clear from the institution of them, described in Moses as follows,
This is the law of the sacrifice of eucharistic offerings made to Jehovah. If someone offers it as a confession, he shall offer in addition to the sacrifice of confession unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and fine flour fried, cakes mixed with oil. With leavened cakes of bread he shall offer his gift, in addition to the sacrifice of confession. Lev. 7:11-13, 15.
All the things mentioned here, such as ‘unleavened cakes mixed with oil’, ‘unleavened wafers anointed with oil’, ‘fine flour fried’, ‘leavened cakes of bread’ mean the celestial things of love and faith and so mean confessions. It also means that these must be present within humiliation. For ‘fine flour’ and cakes made from it mean the celestial element of love and from this the spiritual element of faith, which is charity, see 2177; ‘unleavened’ means purification from evils and falsities, 2342; ‘oil’ means the celestial element of love, 886, 3728, as does ‘bread’ also, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735.
sRef Ps@116 @17 S9′ sRef Ps@116 @18 S9′ sRef Ps@56 @12 S9′ sRef Ps@50 @14 S9′ sRef Ps@50 @23 S9′  Votive offerings however, which constituted the second kind of eucharistic sacrifices, in the external sense meant repayment, in the internal sense the will that the Lord should provide, and in the highest sense a state of Providence, see 3732. This is why both types of offerings are mentioned in various places in the Word, as in David,
Sacrifice to God confession, and render to the Most High your vows. He who sacrifices confession honours Me, and he who sets in order the way, to him will I show the salvation of God. Ps. 50:14, 23.
In the same author,
Upon me, O God, are Your vows; I will repay confessions to You. Ps. 56:12.
In the same author,
To You will I sacrifice the sacrifice of confession, and on the name of Jehovah will I call. I will render my vows to Jehovah. Ps. 116:17, 18.
sRef Jonah@2 @9 S10′  In Jonah,
I with the voice of confession will sacrifice to You; that which I have vowed I will render. Jonah 2:9.
From all this one may now see what ‘confession’ is, from which Judah received his name, namely this: In the highest sense the Lord and the Divinity of love; in the internal sense the Word, and also the Lord’s celestial kingdom; and in the more exterior sense doctrine from the Word which the celestial Church possesses. Evidence that these things are meant in the Word by ‘Judah’ may be seen in what is presented below.
* The first and second halves of this sentence are in fact alternative ways of understanding the original Hebrew.
sRef Gen@49 @9 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @10 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @11 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @8 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @12 S2′  That ‘Judah’ in the internal sense means the Lord’s celestial Church, in the universal sense His celestial kingdom, and in the highest sense the Lord Himself may be seen from many places in the Old Testament where Judah is mentioned, for example, from the following: In Moses,
You are Judah; your brothers will praise you; your hands will be on the neck of your enemies; the sons of your father will bow down to you. A lion’s whelp is Judah; from the prey you have gone up, my son. He crouched, he lay down like a lion, and like an old lion; who will rouse him up? The sceptre will not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet until Shiloh comes; and to him will be the gathering of peoples. Binding his ass’s colt to the vine, and the foal of his she-ass to a choice vine, he will wash his clothing in wine, and his garment in the blood of grapes. His eyes are red from wine, and his teeth white from milk. Gen. 49:8-12.
 Nobody can know the meaning of this prophetical declaration about Judah uttered by Jacob, who by then was Israel – not even one expression used there – except from the internal sense. He cannot know for example what is meant by ‘his brothers will praise him’ and ‘his father’s sons will bow down to him’, or by ‘his going up from the prey like a lion’s whelp’, and ‘his crouching and lying down like a lion’. Nor can he know what is meant by ‘Shiloh’, by ‘binding his ass’s colt to the vine, and the foal of his she-ass to a choice vine’, by ‘washing his clothing in wine, and his garment in the blood of grapes’, by ‘eyes red from wine’, or by ‘teeth white from milk’. As has been stated, these expressions cannot possibly be understood by anyone except from the internal sense, yet all of them – each one – mean celestial things belonging to the Lord’s kingdom, also things that are Divine. The same words also foretell that the Lord’s celestial kingdom, and in the highest sense the Lord Himself, were to be represented by Judah. All these things declared by Jacob will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be discussed in the explanations of the chapter in which they occur.
sRef Ezek@37 @18 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @19 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @17 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @15 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @16 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @20 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @25 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @24 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @26 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @28 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @27 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @21 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @22 S4′ sRef Ezek@37 @23 S4′  Similar examples involving the name Judah occur elsewhere, especially in the Prophets, as in Ezekiel,
You son of man, take a stick and write on it, For Judah and for the children of Israel, his companions’. And take another stick and write on it, For Joseph – the stick of Ephraim and of the whole house of Israel, his companions – and join them together, one to the other into one stick for you, and they will be one in your, hand. I will make them into one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel, and one king will be king to them all. My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd. And they will walk in My judgements, and keep My statutes and do them. And they will dwell in the land which I gave to Jacob My servant, in which your fathers dwelt. And they will dwell in it, they and their sons, and their sons’ sons even for ever. And David My servant will be their prince for ever, and I will make with them a covenant of peace, it will be an eternal covenant with them. I will bless them, and multiply them, and I will grant My sanctuary in their midst for evermore. Thus will My dwelling-place be with them, and I will be their God, and they will be My people. Ezek. 37:15-28.
Anyone who takes Judah, Israel, Joseph, Ephraim, and David in this passage to mean those actual people will believe all these things will actually take place as described in the sense of the letter. That is to say, he will believe that Israel is going to be reunited with Judah, as well as the tribe of Ephraim; also that David is going to reign as king; that in this manner they are going to dwell in the land given to Jacob for ever, and that at that time an eternal covenant will exist with them and the sanctuary will be in the midst of them for ever. But in fact the meaning of this passage has nothing whatever to do with that nation but with the Lord’s celestial kingdom meant by ‘Judah’, and His spiritual kingdom meant by ‘Israel’, and with the Lord Himself meant by ‘David’. From this it is quite evident that names are not used to mean actual persons but things that are celestial and Divine.
sRef Zech@8 @22 S5′ sRef Zech@8 @23 S5′  The same is so with the following words in Zechariah,
Many peoples and numerous nations will come to seek Jehovah Zebaoth in Jerusalem and to placate Jehovah’s face. Thus said Jehovah Zebaoth, In those days ten men from the nations of every tongue will take hold; and they will take hold of the hem of a man of Judah, saying, We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you. Zech. 8:22, 23.
Those who take these words literally will say, as the Jewish nation believes still, that being a prophecy not yet fulfilled it is going to be fulfilled in the future. These say that they are going to go back to the land of Canaan, that many from every nation and tongue will follow them, and take hold of the hem of a man of Judah and plead to be allowed to follow. They say that at that time God – that is to say, the Messiah, whom Christians call the Lord – will be among them, to whom they must first be converted. This would be the true implication of these words if ‘a man of Judah’ were used to mean a man of Judah. But in fact the internal sense at this point deals with a new spiritual Church among gentiles, and ‘a man of Judah’ means saving faith which results from love to the Lord.
sRef Jer@23 @5 S6′ sRef Isa@11 @13 S6′ sRef Isa@11 @12 S6′ sRef Joel@3 @17 S6′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S6′ sRef Joel@3 @18 S6′ sRef Joel@3 @20 S6′  That ‘Judah’ is not used to mean Judah but, as has been stated, means in the internal sense the Lord’s celestial kingdom which was represented in the Church established among Judah or the Jews, becomes quite clear from the following places: In Isaiah,
When the Lord raises an ensign for the nations He will gather the outcasts of Israel, and will assemble the dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. Then the envy of Ephraim will depart, and the enemies of Judah will be cut off. Ephraim will not envy Judah, and Judah will not harass Ephraim. Isa. 11:12, 13.
Behold, the days are coming, said Jehovah, when I will raise up for David a righteous branch, who will reign as king, and prosper, and execute judgement and righteousness in the land. In His days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is His name which they will call Him, Jehovah our Righteousness. Jer. 23:5, 6.
Then you will know that I am Jehovah your God, who dwell in Zion, My holy mountain; and Jerusalem will be holy. It will happen on that day, that the mountains will drip new wine, and the hills will flow with milk, and all the streams of Judah will flow with water; and a spring will come forth from the house of Jehovah and will water the river of Shittim. Judah will abide for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation. Joel 3 :17, 18, 20.
sRef Zech@12 @8 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @7 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @5 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @4 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @6 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @9 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @10 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @10 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @9 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @7 S7′ sRef Zech@12 @8 S7′  In Zechariah,
On that day I will strike every horse with panic, and its rider with madness. And on the house of Judah I will open My eyes, and every horse of the peoples I will strike with blindness. And the leaders of Judah will say in their hearts, I will strengthen for myself the inhabitants of Jerusalem in Jehovah Zebaoth their God. On that day I will set the leaders of Judah like a hearth of fire in sticks of wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and they will devour to the right and to the left all the peoples round about, and Jerusalem will yet again be inhabited in her own place, in Jerusalem. And Jehovah will save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David, and the glory of the inhabitant of Jerusalem, may not exalt itself over Judah. On that day Jehovah will protect the inhabitant of Jerusalem, and the house of David will be like God, like the angel of Jehovah in front of them. And I will pour out over the house of David and over the inhabitant of Jerusalem a spirit of grace. Zech. 12:4-10.
This refers to the Lord’s celestial kingdom, where truth should not have dominion over good but ought to be subordinate to it, truth being meant by ‘the house of David’ and ‘the inhabitant of Jerusalem’, and good by ‘Judah’. From this it is evident why first it is said that ‘the glory of the house of David, and the glory of the inhabitant of Jerusalem, will not exalt itself over Judah’, and after this that ‘the house of David will be like God, and like the angel of Jehovah’, and that ‘a spirit of grace will be poured out over it and over the inhabitant of Jerusalem’. For such is the state when truth is subordinate to good or faith to love. ‘The horse which will be struck with panic, and the horse of the peoples with blindness’ is self-intelligence, see 2761, 2762, 3217.
sRef Mal@3 @4 S8′ sRef Mal@3 @2 S8′ sRef Zech@14 @21 S8′ sRef Mal@3 @1 S8′ sRef Zech@14 @20 S8′  In the same prophet,
On that day there will be on the horses’ bells, Holiness to Jehovah. And the pots in the house of Jehovah will be as the bowls before the altar. And every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah will be holiness to Jehovah Zebaoth. Zech. 14:20, 21.
This refers to the Lord’s kingdom. In Malachi,
Behold, I am sending My angel, who will prepare the way before Me, and suddenly there will come to His temple the Lord whom you are seeking, and the angel of the covenant in whom you delight. Behold, He is coming. Who can endure the day of His coming? Then the minchah of Judah and Jerusalem will be acceptable to Jehovah, as in the days of old and as in former years. Mal. 3:1, 2, 4.
This plainly refers to the Coming of the Lord. The meaning is that Judah and Jerusalem’s minchah was not, as is well known, acceptable but that worship flowing from love, Judah’s minchah, and worship flowing from faith rooted in love, Jerusalem’s minchah, are acceptable.
sRef Jer@31 @31 S9′ sRef Jer@31 @27 S9′ sRef Jer@31 @32 S9′ sRef Jer@31 @24 S9′ sRef Ps@78 @68 S9′ sRef Jer@31 @23 S9′ sRef Ps@78 @69 S9′  In Jeremiah,
Thus said Jehovah Zebaoth, Again they will speak this word in the land of Judah and in its cities when I turn again their captivity: Jehovah bless you, O habitation of righteousness, O holy mountain! And Judah and all its cities will dwell in it together. Behold, the days are coming, said Jehovah, in which I will sow the house of Judah with the seed of man and the seed of beast. Behold, the days are coming, said Jehovah, in which I will make with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah a new covenant, not like the covenant which I made with their fathers. Jer. 31:23, 24, 27, 31, 32.
The Lord chose the tribe of Judah, Mount Zion, which He loved, and built His sanctuary as the heights, as the earth He founded it for ever. Ps. 78:68, 69.
 From these places and very many others which have not been mentioned one may see what ‘Judah’ means in the Word. They show that ‘Judah’ does not mean the Jewish nation, for that nation was anything but the celestial Church or the Lord’s celestial kingdom; for so far as love to the Lord, charity towards the neighbour, and faith; went they were the worst nation of all. This has been so from their earliest forefathers, namely the sons of Jacob, even to the present day. But in spite of this such people were able to represent the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom, see 3479-3481. For in representations no attention is paid to the person who represents, only to what is represented by him, 665, 1097 (end), 1361, 3147, 3670.
sRef John@8 @44 S11′ sRef Isa@3 @8 S11′ sRef Mal@2 @11 S11′  But when they did not adhere to the religious observances commanded by Jehovah or the Lord but deviated from them into acts of idolatry they no longer represented those things but such as are contrary to them, namely those of hell and the devil, according to the Lord’s words in John,
You are from your father the devil, and the desires of your father you will to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and did not take a stand on the truth. John 8:44
Such is the meaning of ‘Judah’ in the contrary sense, as becomes clear
from the following: In Isaiah,
Jerusalem has stumbled, and Judah has fallen, because their tongue and their works are against Jehovah, to provoke the eyes of His glory to anger. Isa. 3:8.
Judah has acted faithlessly, and abomination has been committed in Israel and in Jerusalem, and Judah has profaned the holiness of Jehovah, for he loved and married the daughter of a foreign god. Mal. 2:11.
And in addition in the following places – Isa. 3:1 and following verses;
8:7, 8; Jer. 2:28; 3:7-11; 9:26; 11:9, 10, 12; 13:9; 14:2; 17:1; 18:11-13; 19:7; 32:35; 36:31; 44:12, 14, 26, 28; Hosea 5:5; 8:14; Amos 2:4, 5; Zeph. 1:4; and many times elsewhere.
* The Latin means For Judah and his sons, Israel his companions, but the Hebrew means For Judah and for the children of Israel, his companions, which Sw. has in other places where he quotes this verse.
** The Latin means my but the Hebrew means your.
 This stepping up is also meant by the stairway seen in a dream by Jacob which was set up on the earth, a stairway whose top reached to heaven, and on which the angels of God were going up and coming down, with Jehovah or the Lord standing above it, described in Chapter 28:12. From this it is evident that ‘she left off bearing’ has the meaning that has been stated. For explanations that the four conceptions and births spoken of meant an advance from what is external to what is internal, or from truth to good, that is, from earth to heaven, see 3860, 3868, 3874, 3879. Coming down is subsequent to this, for no one is able to come down before he has gone up. Coming down however is nothing else than surveying truth from good, as when one climbs a mountain and then regards the things that lie below. From that position he can, in a single survey of the scene, take in an incalculably greater number of things than people standing below or in the valley, as is evident to anyone. It is exactly the same with those who are governed by good, that is, by love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbour. These can see incalculably more than those governed merely by truth, that is, by faith alone.
What the Grand Man is, and what correspondence with it is, has been stated already. The Grand Man consists in heaven in its entirety, which in general is a likeness and image of the Lord. Correspondence is a correspondence of the Lord’s Divine with the celestial and spiritual things of heaven, and of those celestial and spiritual things of heaven with natural things in the world, primarily those in man. Thus there exists, by means of heaven or the Grand Man, a correspondence of the Lord’s Divine with man and every individual part of him, so much so that man comes into being from that correspondence and is all the time coming into being, that is, is kept in being, from it.
 The second general activity which I perceived was into the breathing of the lungs, which was gently controlling my own breathing. But it did so from what was interior and so I had no need to call on my own will to control my breathing or drawing of breath. I perceived plainly at that time the actual breathing of heaven. It is an internal breathing and not therefore perceptible to man, but flows in by means of a wonderful correspondence into man’s breathing, which is external or of the body. And if man were deprived of that influx he would instantly fall down dead.
 The third activity which I perceived was into the systole and the diastole of the heart, which was at that time gentler in myself than it had ever been at any other times. The pulse rate was regular – round about three beats for every breath that was taken – yet such that beats ended in and so conditioned actions taking place in the lungs. How at the end of each breath taken the alternating actions of the heart fitted into those of the lungs I was allowed to observe to a certain extent. The alternate sounds of the pulse could be observed so easily that I was able to count them. They were separate and gentle.
 The fourth general activity was into the kidneys; this too I was allowed to perceive, though obscurely. From these activities it was evident that heaven or the Grand Man has heartbeats and draws breaths, and that the heartbeats of heaven or the Grand Man have a correspondence with the heart and its systolic and diastolic motions, and that the breathing actions of heaven or the Grand Man have a correspondence with the lungs and their breathing actions. But neither can be observed by man, being imperceptible because they are internal.
 Inhabitants of the Lord’s celestial kingdom all belong to the province of the heart, and those of His spiritual kingdom all belong to the province of the lungs. The influx from the celestial kingdom into the spiritual kingdom is similar to the influx of the heart into the lungs, and also to the influx of all things belonging to the heart into those belonging to the lungs. For the heart reigns in the whole of the body and in every individual part of it by means of the blood vessels, as do the lungs in every individual part by means of the breathing. Consequently throughout the body there is so to speak an influx of the heart into the lungs, but this is dependent on the forms there and on the states. This is how all sensation arises and also all activity which belongs properly to the body. This point can also be proved from embryos and new-born infants. These cannot have any bodily sensation or any act of individual will until the lungs have been opened for them and an influx consequently takes place of heart into lungs. It is similar in the spiritual world, the difference being that bodily and natural things do not exist in that world but celestial and spiritual, which are the good of love and the good of faith. With them therefore motions of the heart are determined by the states of love, and respiratory motions by the states of faith. The influx of one into the other causes them to have sensations of things in a spiritual manner and to act in a spiritual manner. These ideas are bound to seem paradoxical to man because he has no other idea of the good of love or of the truth of faith than that they are some abstract qualities which have no power to effect anything. In fact the contrary is the case; that is to say, they are the source of all perception and sensation, of all energy and activity, including those in man.
 On one occasion I was told before going to sleep that many were plotting against me who had it in mind to make me perish by suffocation. But I took no notice of their threats because the Lord protected me, and so I went comfortably off to sleep. But at midnight I woke up and plainly experienced that I was not breathing from myself but was doing so from heaven. For the act of breathing was not my own and yet I myself was still breathing. On countless other occasions I have been allowed to feel what the breathing of spirits and also of angels is like through the experience of them breathing within me, though my own breathing continued at the same time yet separately from theirs. But nobody is allowed to have such an experience unless the interior parts of him have been opened and communication with heaven granted to him in this way.
3894[a] Because this is the case, and because the upright on entering the next life are first of all taken back to the life which had been theirs in the world, 2119, and so are also taken back to the desires and pleasures of that life, they cannot move among angels and breathe with them, for the reason that they have not yet undergone preparation for this. So when they undergo such preparation they are first of all introduced into angelic life by means of their taking breaths in unison with angels, and as they do so they enter at the same time into interior perceptions and into heavenly freedom. This takes place in a community consisting of many, that is, in choirs, in which one member breathes in the same way as another, and also perceives in the same way, and in the same way acts in freedom. And the way in which this is effected I have been shown visually.
sRef Matt@7 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@7 @23 S2′  Persuasive argument supporting what is true with a person leading a life of evil is such that he convinces himself that the truth is the truth not because he has good as his end in view but evil. That is to say, he convinces himself of it so that by means of the truth he may gain in position, reputation, and wealth. Such power of persuasion can exist with the most evil people of all. They can be so zealous seemingly for the truth that they condemn to hell all who, though good exists with them, do not possess the truth. Regarding this persuasion, see 2689, 3865. When such people first enter the next life they believe that they are angels, but they are unable to come near any angelic community, being suffocated so to speak by their own power of persuasive argument. They are those of whom the Lord spoke in Matthew,
Many will say to Me on that day, Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy through Your name and cast out demons through Your name, and do many mighty works in Your name? But then I will confess to them, I do not know you; depart from Me, you workers of iniquity. Matt. 7:22, 23.
In the preliminary section of this chapter – in accordance with the method of presentation adopted previously – those things which the Lord has taught in Matthew 24 about the Last Judgement or final stages of the Church come up for explanation. The preliminary section of the previous chapter explained the contents of Matt. 24:19-22, and now an explanation appears below of verses 23- 28, which are,
Then if anyone says to you, Behold, here is the Christ! or There! do not believe it. For false Christs and false prophets will arise, and they will show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect. Behold, I have told you beforehand. If therefore they say to you, Behold, He is in the wilderness! do not go out; Behold, He is in the inner rooms! do not believe it. For as the lightning comes from the east and is seen as far as the west, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be. For wherever the carcass is, there also the eagles will be gathered together.
 The Lord’s reason for speaking in this manner was that people should not understand the Word in case they profaned it; for once the Church had been destroyed, as it had been at that time among the Jews, people would have profaned the Word if they had understood it. This was also why the Lord spoke in parables, as He himself teaches in Matthew 13:13-15; Mark 4:11, 12; Luke 8:10. For the Word cannot be profaned by those who have no knowledge of its mysteries, only by those who do, see 301-303, 593, 1008, 1010, 1059, 1327, 1328, 2051, 3398, 3402; and more so by those who consider themselves learned than by those who consider themselves unlearned.
 But the reason why the interior contents of the Word are being disclosed at the present time is that the Church today has been so much vastated, that is, is so devoid of faith and love, that although people know and understand they still do not acknowledge, let alone believe, see 3398, 3399 – with the exception of a few who lead a good life and are called the elect. Among these few who are now able to be taught the new Church is to be established. But where those few are the Lord alone knows. Few of these will be inside the Church. In the past it has been the gentiles among whom new Churches have been established, see 2986.
 For false Christs and false prophets will arise means the falsities taught by that doctrine. ‘False Christs’ means matters of doctrine from the Word that have been falsified, that is, truths that are not Divine, as is evident from what has been stated immediately above; see also 3010, 3732 (end). And ‘false prophets’ means those who teach those falsities, 2534. In the Christian world those who teach falsities are in particular those who have self-aggrandizement and also worldly wealth as their end in view. Indeed they twist the truths of the Word to suit themselves. For when self-love and love of the world is the end in view, nothing else is contemplated. These are the ‘false Christs and false prophets’.
 And they will show great signs and wonders means proofs and convincing reasons that are based on outward appearances and on illusions by which the simple allow themselves to be led astray. The meaning of ‘signs and wonders’ will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be shown elsewhere.
 So as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect means those who lead lives that are good and true and who therefore abide in the Lord. These are the ones who in the Word are called ‘the elect’. They are rarely present in a group of those who cloak worship that is profane with outward reverence; or if they are present there they go unrecognized because the Lord hides them and so protects them. Until they have been made strong by Him, they easily allow themselves to be led astray by external practices expressing reverence; but once they have been made strong they are not deceived. For though they are not aware of it, they are kept by the Lord in the company of angels, when it is impossible for them to be led astray by that unspeakable crew.
sRef Matt@10 @16 S5′ sRef Matt@7 @15 S5′  Behold, I have told you beforehand means an exhortation to be shrewd, that is, to be on their guard, since they are among false prophets who appear in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves, Matt. 7:15. Those false prophets are the sons of the age who are more shrewd, that is, more cunning, in their own generation than the sons of light, referred to in Luke 16:8. For this reason the Lord warns them as follows,
Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves; so be shrewd as serpents and simple as doves. Matt. 10:16.
 If therefore they say to you, Behold, He is in the wilderness! do not go out; Behold, He is in the inner rooms! do not believe it means that what they say about the truth, what they say about good, and many other things, are not to be believed. Nobody can see that this is the meaning of these words except one who is acquainted with the internal sense. They contain an arcanum within them, as one may see from the fact that the Lord spoke them and that without some other sense concealed within them interiorly they would not amount to anything. That is to say, the injunctions not to go out if they said that Christ was in the wilderness and not to believe it if they said that He was in the inner rooms would not amount to anything. But truth that has undergone vastation is what ‘the wilderness’ means, and good that has undergone vastation, what ‘the inner rooms’ or inward parts means. The reason why truth that has undergone vastation is meant by a wilderness is that when the Church has undergone vastation, that is, when there is no Divine truth there any longer because no good exists there any longer, that is, no love to the Lord or charity towards the neighbour, it is called a wilderness or said to be in the wilderness. For the word wilderness is used to mean everything that is uncultivated or uninhabited, 2708, and also to mean that which has little life to it, 1927, as is the case at that time with truth in the Church. From this it is evident that ‘the wilderness’ here means a Church in which truth does not exist.
 ‘The inner rooms’ or inward parts however in the internal sense means the Church as regards good, and also simply that which is good. A Church in which good is present is called ‘the House of God’, ‘the inner rooms’ in this case being forms of good, as also are the contents of that house. For ‘the House of God’ means Divine good, and ‘a house’ in general means good that flows from love and charity, see 2233, 2234, 2559, 3142, 3652, 3720. The reason why what they say about truth and what they say about good is not to be believed is that they call falsity the truth and evil good. Indeed people whose end in view is self and the world do not understand anything else by truth and good than that they themselves should be adored and they themselves should receive benefits. And if they give the impression that they are devout it is so that they may be seen dressed in sheep’s clothing.
 What is more, the Word which the Lord has spoken contains more in it than anyone can calculate, and ‘the wilderness’ is an expression that has a wide range of spiritual meanings. As everything uncultivated or uninhabited is called ‘the wilderness’ and all things that are interior are called ‘the inner rooms’, therefore ‘the wilderness’ also means the Old Testament Word since this is considered to be superseded, while ‘the inner rooms’ means the New Testament Word since this teaches about interior things, that is, it is concerned with the internal man. The Word as a whole is likewise referred to as ‘the wilderness’ when it no longer serves to supply matters of doctrine, and ‘inner rooms’ is the name given to human practices which, being departures from the commands and ordinances of the Word, turn the Word into a wilderness. This is also well known in the Christian world, for people whose worship is outwardly holy but inwardly profane owing to the introduction of novelties which have as their end in view pre-eminence over all others and becoming wealthier than all others set aside the Word. Indeed they go so far as not to allow others to read it. And even in the case of those whose worship is not profane as just described and who do regard the Word to be holy and do allow it a place among ordinary people, they nevertheless bend and explain everything in accordance with their own teachings. And this turns the rest of the Word which does not accord with their own teachings into a wilderness, as becomes quite clear from those who focus salvation on faith alone and show contempt for the works of charity. They turn so to speak into a wilderness everything which the Lord Himself has stated in the New Testament, and so many times in the Old, about love and charity. And everything to do with faith without works is turned so to speak into inner rooms. From this it is evident what is meant by, If they say to you, Behold, He is in the wilderness! do not go out; Behold, He is in the inner rooms! do not believe it.
 For as the lightning comes from the east and is seen as far as the west, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be means that internal worship of the Lord will be like lightning which is instantly dispersed. For ‘lightning’ means that which is a manifestation of heavenly light and thus that which has reference to love and faith since these are the components of heavenly light. ‘East’ in the highest sense means the Lord, in the internal sense good that flows from love, charity, and faith received from the Lord, see 101, 1250, 3249. ‘West’ in the internal sense however means that which has gone down or ceased to be, and so means the non-acknowledgement of the Lord or of good that flows from love, charity, and faith. Accordingly ‘the lightning which comes from the east and is seen as far as the west’ means dispersal. The Lord’s coming does not consist, as the letter has it, in His appearing once again in the world, but in His presence within everyone. He is present there as often as the gospel is preached and that which is holy is contemplated.
sRef Luke@17 @37 S10′  For wherever the carcass is, there the eagles will be gathered together means that confirmations of falsity by means of reasonings will be multiplied in the Church that has undergone vastation. When the Church is devoid of good and as a consequence devoid of the truth of faith, that is, when it has undergone vastation, it is called dead, since good and truth are the source of its life. And so when it is dead it is compared to ‘the carcass’. Reasonings to the effect that goods and truths are nothing except insofar as they can be grasped mentally, and confirmations of evil and falsity by means of those reasonings, are meant by ‘the eagles’, as may be seen from what follows immediately below. The fact that ‘the carcass’ here means the Church when devoid of the life of charity and faith is evident from the Lord’s words where the close of the age is the subject, in Luke,
The disciples said (referring to the close of the age or the Last Judgement), Where, Lord? Jesus said to them, Where the body is, there the eagles will be gathered together. Luke 17:37.
‘The body’ is used here instead of the carcass, it being a dead body that is understood in this case, which means the Church. For it is clear from many references in the Word that the House of God – that is, the Church – is where the Judgement begins. These then are the details meant in the internal sense by the Lord’s words which have been introduced and explained above. The most wonderful flow of ideas, though barely visible at all in the sense of the letter, may be seen by anyone who thinks about them in the connected sequence explained above.
Jehovah found His people [Jacob] in a wilderness land and in the emptiness, the howling, the lonely place He encompassed him, instructed him, and kept him as the pupil of His eye. As an eagle stirs up its nest, hovers over its young, spreads out its wings, takes one, carries it on its wings. Deut. 32:10, 11.
That which is described here and compared to the eagle is instruction in the truths and goods of faith. The actual process up to the point when a person becomes rational and spiritual is what this description and comparison contains. All comparisons in the Word are made by means of meaningful signs, in this case by ‘the eagle’, which means the rational.
sRef Ex@19 @3 S2′ sRef Ex@19 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @31 S2′  In the same author,
Jehovah said to Moses, You have seen the things which I did to the Egyptians, and I bore you on eagles’ wings so that I might bring you to Myself. Exod. 19:3, 4.
Here the meaning is similar. In Isaiah,
Those who await Jehovah will be renewed with strength; they will mount up with strong wings like eagles; they will run and not be weary, they will walk and not faint. Isa. 40:31.
‘Being renewed with strength’ stands for growth in the willing of good, ‘mounting up with strong wings like eagles’ for growth in the understanding of truth, and so growth of the rational. Here, as elsewhere, dual expressions are used to present the subject, the first of a pair involving good which belongs to the will, the second truth which belongs to the understanding. ‘Running and not being weary’ and ‘walking and not fainting’ are similar dual expressions.
sRef Ezek@17 @2 S3′ sRef Ezek@17 @3 S3′ sRef Ezek@17 @4 S3′ sRef Ezek@17 @8 S3′ sRef Ezek@17 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@17 @7 S3′ sRef Ezek@17 @5 S3′ sRef Ezek@17 @6 S3′ sRef Ezek@17 @15 S3′  In Ezekiel,
Speak a parable about the house of Israel, and say, Thus said the Lord Jehovih, A great eagle with long pinions, full of feathers, in its embroidery, came on Lebanon and took a twig of the cedar. He carried it into a land of trade, he placed it in a city of perfumers. It sprouted and became a spreading vine. There was another great eagle with great wings and full of feathers, towards which, behold, this vine directed its roots, and sent out its branches towards it to water it from the beds of its young plants in a good field, by many waters. But it will be laid waste. He sent his ambassadors to Egypt that they might give him horses and many people. Ezek. 17:2-9, 15.
The eagle mentioned first stands for the rational enlightened by the Divine, the eagle mentioned second for the rational originating in the proprium, subsequently perverted by means of reasonings based on sensory evidence and factual knowledge – ‘Egypt’ standing for factual knowledge, 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, and ‘horses’ for understanding resulting from all this, 2761, 2762, 3217.
sRef Dan@7 @4 S4′ sRef Dan@7 @3 S4′  In Daniel,
A vision of Daniel. Four beasts came up out of the sea, different from one another. The first was like a lion, but had eagle’s wings. I watched it until its wings were torn away and it was lifted up from the ground and made to stand on its feet like a human being; and the heart of a human being was given to it. Dan. 7:3, 4.
That which is described by ‘a lion which had eagle’s wings’ is the first state of the Church, ‘eagle’s wings’ in this case meaning rational ideas originating in the proprium. And when these had been removed, rational ideas and desires in the will which had a Divine origin were given to it. These are meant by the lifting up of the eagle from the ground and the standing of it on its feet like a human being, and the gift to it of the heart of a human being.
sRef Ezek@10 @14 S5′ sRef Rev@4 @7 S5′ sRef Rev@4 @6 S5′ sRef Ezek@10 @13 S5′  In Ezekiel,
As for the likeness of the faces of the four living creatures or cherubs, each of the four had the face of a human being, and the face of a lion on the right side; and each of the four the face of an ox on the left side; and each of the four had the face of an eagle. Ezek. 1:10.
Their wheels were called Galgal; and each one had four faces – the first face was the face of a cherub, the second face the face of a human being, the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle. Ezek. 10:13, 14.
Around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes in front and behind. The first living creature was like a lion, the second living creature was like a calf, the third living creature had a face like a human being, the fourth living creature was like a flying eagle. Rev. 4:7.
Clearly, those living creatures that were seen mean Divine arcana, as consequently does the likeness of their faces. But exactly which arcana are meant cannot be known unless one knows what ‘lion’, ‘calf’, ‘human being’, and ‘eagle’ mean in the internal sense. It is evident that ‘the face of an eagle’ means vigilance and therefore providence, for the cherubs who were represented by the living creatures in Ezekiel mean the Lord’s providence which guards against anyone entering the mysteries of faith from himself and his own rationality as the starting point, see 308. This also shows that when ‘an eagle’ is used in reference to a human being the rational is meant in the internal sense. It has this meaning because an eagle is a high-flyer and from its more exalted position has a wide view of things below.
sRef Ezek@1 @10 S6′ sRef Job@39 @26 S6′ sRef Job@39 @27 S6′  In Job,
Is it through your intelligence that the hawk flies up and spreads its wings towards the south? Is it at your command* that the eagle lifts itself up and makes its nest up high? Job 39:26, 27.
In this verse it is evident that ‘the eagle’ means reason which is an attribute of intelligence. This was what ‘eagle’ meant in the Ancient Church, for the Book of Job is a book of the Ancient Church, 3540 (end). In fact the writing of almost all the books of that period involved the use of meaningful signs, but with the passage of time meaningful signs have been so eclipsed that it is not even known that ‘birds’ in general means thoughts, even though these are referred to many times in the Word and in those places quite clearly is meant something different from birds.
sRef Hab@1 @8 S7′ sRef Obad@1 @4 S7′ sRef Deut@28 @50 S7′ sRef Deut@28 @49 S7′ sRef Jer@4 @13 S7′ sRef Micah@1 @16 S7′ sRef Jer@49 @22 S7′ sRef Hab@1 @6 S7′ sRef Jer@49 @16 S7′ sRef Lam@4 @19 S7′  As regards ‘the eagle’ in the contrary sense meaning rational ideas that are not true, and so are false, this is evident from the following places: In Moses,
Jehovah will raise up above you a nation from far away, from the end of the earth, as an eagle flies, a nation whose language you do not understand, a hard-faced nation. Deut. 28:49, 50.
Behold, he comes up [like] clouds, and his chariots like a whirlwind; his horses are swifter than eagles. Woe to us, for we have been laid waste! Jer. 4:13.
In the same prophet,
Your bragging has deceived you, and the pride of your heart, you who dwell in the clefts of the rock, who hold the height of the hill; because, like the eagle, you have made your nest up high, I will cast you down from there. Behold, he mounts up and flies like an eagle, and spreads his wings over Bozrah; and the heart of the powerful men of Edom has become on that day like the heart of a woman in distress. Jer. 49:16, 22.
In the same prophet,
Our pursuers were swifter than eagles; they pursued us over the mountains, they laid in wait for us in the wilderness. Lam. 4:19.
Make yourself bald, and shave your head for the children of your delight; extend your baldness like an eagle, for they have departed from you. Micah 1:16.
If you raise yourself up like the eagle, and if you place your nest among the stars, I will bring you down from there. Obad. verse 4.
I am rousing the Chaldeans, a bitter and headlong nation, marching into the breadths of the earth, to inherit habitations that are not its own. Its horses are swifter than leopards.** Its horsemen will come from afar. They will fly in like an eagle hastening to devour. Hab. 1:6, 8.
 In all these places ‘eagles’ means falsity that has been introduced through reasonings – the delusions of the senses and external appearances being the source of that falsity. ‘The Chaldeans’ referred to in the last of the Prophets quoted means people who outwardly are holy but inwardly are under the influence of falsity, see 1368, and these like Babel are those who lay waste the Church, 1367. ‘The breadths of the earth’ means truths (the vastation of which is meant by ‘marching into the breadths of the earth’) see 3433, 3434, and ‘horses’ their intellectual concepts, which are similar, 2761, 2762, 3217. What is meant by ‘an eagle hastening to devour’ is clear from all this, namely a hastening to make man desolate of truths, for the desolation of the Church is the subject in these verses. Comparisons are made with eagles, but as has been stated, comparisons in the Word are made by means of meaningful signs. From all this one may now see what is meant by the comparison with the eagles which will be gathered together where the carcass is.
* lit. mouth
** The Latin means eagles, but the Hebrew means leopards, which Sw. has in other places where he quotes this verse.
1 And Rachel saw that she was not bearing Jacob [any children], and Rachel was jealous of her sister, and said to Jacob, Give me sons; if you do not, I am dead.
2 And Jacob flared up in anger against Rachel, and he said, Am I in God’s place, who is withholding from you the fruit of the womb?
3 And she said, Behold, my maidservant Bilhah; go [in] to her, and let her bear [a child] upon my knees, and I too shall be built up from her.
4 And she gave him Bilhah her servant-girl as his wife, and Jacob went [in] to her.
5 And Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a son.
6 And Rachel said, God has judged me, and also has heard my voice, and has given me a son. Therefore she called his name Dan.
7 And Bilhah, Rachel’s servant-girl, conceived again and bore a second son to Jacob.
8 And Rachel said, With the wrestlings of God I have wrestled with my sister, and I have prevailed. And she called his name Naphtali.
9 And Leah saw that she had stopped bearing, and she took Zilpah her servant-girl, and gave her to Jacob as his wife.
10 And Zilpah, Leah’s servant-girl, bore Jacob a son.
11 And Leah said, A troop comes! And she called his name Gad.
12 And Zilpah, Leah’s servant-girl, bore a second son to Jacob.
13 And Leah said, In my blessedness! for the daughters will call me blessed. And she called his name Asher.
14 And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found dudaim in the field, and brought them to Leah his mother. And Rachel said to Leah, Give me now some of your son’s dudaim.
15 But she said to her, Is it a small thing for you to have taken my husband? And will you take also my son’s dudaim? And Rachel said, Therefore he will lie with you this night [in return] for your son’s dudaim.
16 And Jacob came from the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him and said, You must come [in] to me, for I have surely hired you with my son’s dudaim. And he lay with her that night.
17 And God hearkened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son.
18 And Leah said, God has given me my reward, because I gave my servant-girl to my husband. And she called his name Issachar.
19 And Leah conceived again and bore a sixth son to Jacob.
20 And Leah said, God has endowed me with a good dowry; once again my husband will dwell with me, because I have borne him six sons. And she called his name Zebulun.
21 And afterwards she bore a daughter and called her name Dinah.
22 And God remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her and opened her womb.
23 And she conceived and bore a son, and she said, God has taken away* my reproach.
24 And she called his name Joseph, saying, May Jehovah add to me another son.
25 And it happened, when Rachel had borne Joseph, that Jacob said to Laban, Send me away and let me go to my own place and to my own land.
26 Give me my womenfolk and my children for whom I have served you, and let me go; for you know my service with which I have served you.
27 And Laban said to him, If now I have found grace in your eyes have learned from experience, and Jehovah has blessed me for your sake.
28 And he said, Indicate your wages to me, and I will give them.
29 And [Jacob] said to him, You know how I have served you, and how your cattle have fared with me.
30 For you had few before I came, and they have increased into a multitude; and Jehovah has blessed you since I set foot here. And now, when shall I, even I, provide for my own house?
31 And he said, What shall I give you? And Jacob said, You shall not give me anything; if you will do this one thing for me, I will return, feed, and guard your flock.
32 I will pass through all your flock today, removing from it every speckled and spotted member of the flock, and every black one among the lambs, and the spotted and speckled among the she-goats; and that will be my wages.
33 And my righteousness will answer for me on the morrow, when you come [to look] over my wages that are before you; every one that is not speckled and spotted among the she-goats, and black among the lambs, is one stolen by me.
34 And Laban said, Behold, let it be according to your word.
35 And he removed on that day the variegated and spotted he-goats, and all the speckled and spotted she-goats, every one that had white in it, and every black one among the lambs; and he gave them into the hand of his sons.
36 And he put three days’ journey between himself and Jacob; and Jacob was feeding the rest of Laban’s flocks.
37 And Jacob took for himself fresh rods of poplar, and hazel and plane, and stripped white strips on them – an exposing of the white which was on the rods.
38 And he set the rods which he had stripped in runners, in the troughs of water where the flocks came to drink, in front of the flocks; and they came on heat as they came to drink.
39 And the flocks came on heat at the rods, and the flocks brought forth variegated, speckled, and spotted ones.
40 And Jacob singled out the lambs, and set the faces of the flock towards the variegated, and every black one in Laban’s flock; and he put his own droves apart and did not put them near Laban’s flock.
41 And so it was, whenever those came on heat – those of the flock which came together first – that Jacob put the rods before the eyes of the flock in the runners, so that they would come on heat at the rods.
42 And before [the eyes of those of] the flock which came together later he did not put [the rods] in. And those which came together later were Laban’s, and those which came together first were Jacob’s.
43 And the man became very very prosperous,** and he had many flocks, and servant-girls and slaves, and camels and asses.
* lit. gathered up
** lit. spread himself exceedingly exceedingly
The previous chapter dealt, through Jacob’s four sons by Leah, with the state of the Church, that is, of the person who is becoming the Church, as regards the ascent from truth which is the truth of faith towards good which is the good of love. The present chapter deals – through Jacob’s sons by the servant- girls of Rachel and Leah, and through those also by Leah and lastly Rachel – with the means by which natural truth becomes joined to spiritual good, and also with the order in which this is effected with one who is being regenerated.
Verses 1, 2 And Rachel saw that she was not bearing Jacob [any children], and Rachel was jealous of her sister, and said to Jacob, Give me sons; if you do not, I am dead. And Jacob flared up in anger against Rachel, and he said, Am I in God’s place, who is withholding from you the fruit of the womb?
‘Rachel saw that she was not bearing Jacob [any children]’ means that interior truth was not yet acknowledged. ‘And Rachel was jealous of her sister’ means indignation that it was not being acknowledged as external truth was. ‘And said to Jacob, Give me sons’ means a desire to have interior truths by the good of natural truth. ‘If you do not, I am dead’ means that otherwise [the affection for interior truth] would not rise again. ‘And Jacob flared up in anger against Rachel’ means indignation on the part of natural good. ‘And he said, Am I in God’s place’ means that good was powerless. ‘Who is withholding from you the fruit of the womb’ means that it had to originate in what was internal.
 Take for example the internal truth that all good comes from the Lord and that no good exists which springs from man’s proprium. This truth can be known when regeneration begins, but it cannot as yet be acknowledged in action as well as in faith since the acknowledgement of it in faith and action involves a discernment in the mind that that truth is indeed a truth and a desire in the heart for it to be a truth; and this is the situation whenever good is put into action. That acknowledgement also involves the discernment that good springing from the proprium inevitably entails self-regard, thus putting self before others, and as a consequence contempt for others and above all thoughts of merit for the good that one does. These faults are present in external truth before internal truth has been joined to it, and the two cannot be joined together until self-regard starts to wane and a regard for the neighbour begins to be felt. From this one may see what is meant by indignation that internal truth was not yet being acknowledged as external truth was.
 This also explains why the literal sense is such, but not the internal sense, in that the literal is accommodated to the mental grasp of the natural man, the internal to the mental grasp of the spiritual man. This shows that ‘flaring up in anger’ means being indignant. Truly spiritual indignation does not originate at all, and celestial still less so, in the anger of the natural man but in the inner heart of zeal. To outward appearance such zeal looks like anger, but inwardly it is neither anger nor even indignation expressing anger, but a kind of sorrow coupled with a wish that something should not be, and more inwardly still a kind of vague displeasure that interrupts heavenly delight because what is good and true does not exist in another.
‘She said, Behold, my maidservant Bilhah’ means the affirming means, which has its place between natural truth and interior truth. ‘Go [in] to her’ means that with this means there exists the ability to effect a joining together. ‘And let her bear [a child] upon my knees’ means acknowledgement by the affection for interior truth, in which affection the joining together begins. ‘And I too shall be built up from her’ means that in this way it has life. ‘And she gave him Bilhah her servant-girl as his wife’ means that a link with the affirmative means was established. ‘And Jacob went [in] to her’ means a joining to it. ‘And Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a son’ means reception and acknowledgement.
 Actually when a person is being regenerated or becoming the Church, that is, when from being a dead man he is becoming a living one, or from being a bodily- minded man is becoming a heavenly-minded one, he is led by the Lord through many states. These general states are specified by those twelve sons, and later by the twelve tribes, so that the twelve tribes mean all aspects of faith and love – see what has been shown in 3858. For any general whole includes every particular and individual detail, and each detail exists in relation to the general whole. When a person is being regenerated the internal man is to be joined to the external man, and therefore the goods and truths which belong to the internal man are to be joined to those which belong to the external man, for it is truths and goods that make a person a human being. These cannot be joined together without means. These means consist in such things as take something from one side and something from the other, and act in such a way that insofar as a person moves closer to one the other plays a subordinate role. These means are meant by the servant-girls – Rachel’s servant-girls being the means available from the internal man, Leah’s the means available from the external man.
 The necessity for means by which the joining together is effected may be recognized from the consideration that of himself the natural man does not agree at all with the spiritual but disagrees so much as to be utterly opposed to the spiritual. For the natural man regards and loves self and the world, whereas the spiritual man does not, except insofar as to do so leads to the rendering of services in the spiritual world, and so he regards service to it and loves this service because of the use that is served and the end in view. The natural man seems to himself to have life when he is promoted to high positions and so to pre-eminence over others, but the spiritual man seems to himself to have life in self-abasement and in being the least. Not that he despises high positions, provided they are means by which he is enabled to serve the neighbour, society as a whole, and the Church. Neither does the spiritual man view the important positions to which he is promoted in any selfish way but on account of the services rendered which are his ends in view. Bliss for the natural man consists in his being wealthier than others and in his possessing worldly riches, whereas bliss for the spiritual man consists in his having cognitions of truth and good which are the riches he possesses, and even more so in the practice of good in accordance with truths. Not however that he despises riches, because these enable him to render a service in the world.
 These few considerations show that on account of their different ends in view the state of the natural man and the state of the spiritual are the reverse of each other, but that the two can be joined one to the other. That conjunction is effected when things which belong to the external man become subordinate and are subservient to the ends which the internal man has in view. In order that a person may become spiritual therefore it is necessary for the things belonging to the external man to be brought into a position of subservience, and so for ends that have self and the world in view to be cast aside and those that have the neighbour and the Lord’s kingdom to be adopted. The former cannot possibly be cast aside or the latter adopted, and so the two cannot be joined, except through means. It is these means that are meant by the servant-girls, and specifically by the four sons born to the servant-girls.
 The first means is one that affirms, or is affirmative towards, internal truth; that is to say, it affirms that it really is internal truth. Once this affirmative attitude is present, a person is in the first stage of regeneration, good from within being at work and leading to that spirit of affirmation. That good cannot pass into a negative attitude, nor even into one of doubt, until this becomes affirmative. After this, that good manifests itself in affection; that is to say, it causes the person to feel an affection for, and delight in, truth – first through his coming to know this truth, then through his acting in accordance with it. Take for example the truth that the Lord is the human race’s salvation. If the person does not develop an affirmative attitude towards this truth, none of the things which he has learned about the Lord from the Word or in the Church and which are included among the facts in his natural memory can be joined to his internal man, that is, to the truths that are able to be truths of faith there. Nor can affection accordingly enter in, not even into the general aspects of this truth which contribute to the person’s salvation. But once he develops an affirmative attitude countless things are added and are filled with the good that is flowing in. For good is flowing in constantly from the Lord, but where no affirmative attitude exists it is not accepted. An affirmative attitude is therefore the first means and so to speak first dwelling-place of the good flowing in from the Lord. And the same is so with all other truths called the truths of faith.
 These words mean in the internal sense a second degree of affirmation or acknowledgement resulting from affection, for affection has to be present in acknowledgement or affirmation if the joining together is to be effected. Indeed all conjunction is effected by means of affection, for without affection truths do not have any life. For example, knowing the truths that the neighbour ought to be loved, and that charity consists in that love, and spiritual life in charity, is no more than knowledge if affection is not present, that is, if there is no desire in the heart for any of this. Without affection these truths have no life, and no matter how well a person knows them he still does not love the neighbour but himself more than the neighbour, and is leading a natural life, not a spiritual one. In his case natural affection has dominion over spiritual affection, and as long as natural affection predominates a person is called ‘dead’, for the life he has in him is the reverse of heavenly life – heavenly life being true life.
‘Rachel said, God has judged me, and also has heard my voice’ in the highest sense means righteousness and mercy, in the internal sense the holiness of faith, in the external sense the good of life. ‘And has given me a son’ means that this truth was acknowledged. ‘Therefore she called his name Dan’ means the essential nature of it.
 The reason why ‘God has judged me, and also has heard my voice’ in the internal sense means the holiness of faith is that faith, which is associated with truth, corresponds to Divine righteousness, and holiness, which is goodness, corresponds to the Lord’s Divine mercy; and in addition to this, judging or judgement is associated with the truth of faith, 2235. And since it is God who is said to have judged, that which is good or holy is meant. From this it is evident that the holiness of faith, at the same time as righteousness and mercy, is meant by these two expressions – ‘God has judged me’ and ‘has heard my voice’. And because the two together mean a single entity they are joined by the words ‘and also’. The reason the good of life is meant in the external sense is also rooted in correspondence, for the good of life corresponds to the holiness of faith. Without the internal sense no one can know what ‘God has judged me, and also has heard me’ means, and this is evident from the consideration that in the sense of the letter the two phrases do not fit together very easily to present one complete and intelligible idea.
 The reason why in this verse and in those that follow as far as ‘Joseph’ the name God is used and why in the verses immediately before these Jehovah is used is that in this and the following verses the regeneration of the spiritual man is the subject, whereas in those before them the regeneration of the celestial man was the subject. For God is used when the good of faith which is an attribute of the spiritual man is the subject, but Jehovah when the good of love which is an attribute of the celestial man is the subject, see 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822. For Judah, down to whom the births of sons went in the previous chapter, represented the celestial man, see 3881, whereas Joseph, down to whom those births go in the present chapter, represents the spiritual man, dealt with below in verses 23, 24. The name Jehovah is used down to Judah, see 29:32, 33, 35, but God down to Joseph, see verses 6, 8, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23 of the present chapter, after which Jehovah occurs again because the subject moves on from the spiritual man to the celestial. This is the arcanum which lies concealed in these words and which no one can know except from the internal sense, and also unless he knows what the celestial man is and what the spiritual.