Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead)

AE (Whitehead) n. 1 1. APOCALYPSE. CHAPTER 1.

1. The Revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show unto His servants the things which must quickly come to pass, and signified, sending by His angel, unto His servant John.
2. Who bare witness to the Word of God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, whatsoever things he saw.
3. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear, the words of the prophecy, and keep the things which are written therein; for the time is near.
4. John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace to you, and peace, from Him who is, and who was, and who is to come; and from the seven spirits which are in sight of His throne;
5. And from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the Firstborn from the dead, and the Prince of the kings of the earth. Unto Him that loveth us, and washeth us from our sins in His blood;
6. And hath made us kings and priests unto God and His Father: to Him be the glory and the might unto the ages of the ages. Amen.
7. Behold, He cometh with the clouds; and every eye shall see Him, and they who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth shall lament over Him. Even so; Amen.
8. I am the Alpha and the Omega, Beginning and End, saith the Lord, who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.
9. I, John, who also am your brother and partaker in the affliction and in the kingdom and patient expectation of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos,* for the Word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.
10. I was in the spirit on the Lord’s day; and I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,
11. Saying, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last; and what thou seest write in a book, and send to the churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and Smyrna, and Pergamum, and Thyatira, and Sardis, and Philadelphia, and Laodicea.
12. And I turned to see the voice which spake with me. And having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands,
13. And in the midst of the seven lampstands one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about at the paps with a golden girdle.
14. And His head and hairs white as white wool, as snow: and His eyes as a flame of fire.
15. And His feet like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace; and His voice as the voice of many waters.
16. And having in His right hand seven stars; and out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth; and His face as the sun shineth in his power.
17. And when I saw Him I fell at His feet as dead. And He laid His right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the First and the Last;
18. And the Living One; and I became dead; and behold I am alive unto the ages of the ages, Amen: and I have the keys of hell and of death.
19. Write the things which thou sawest, and the things which are, and the things which are to be hereafter.
20. The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches; and the seven lampstands which thou sawest are the seven churches.
* The Photolithograph has in every case “Parmos” for “Patmos.”

1. Many have expounded this prophetical book called Revelation, but none of them understood the internal or spiritual sense of the Word. They have therefore applied the particular things in the book to the successive states of the church, which they have learned from histories; many things, moreover, they have applied to civil affairs. For this reason those expositions are for the most part conjectures, which can never appear in such light that they can be affirmed as truths. As soon, therefore, as they are read, they are put aside as speculations. The expositions of Revelation now extant are of this character, because, as has been said, their authors had no knowledge of the internal or spiritual sense of the Word. Yet, in fact, all things recorded in Revelation are written in a style similar to that of the Old Testament prophecies, and to the style, in general in which everything in the Word is written. The Word in the letter is natural, but in its bosom it is spiritual; and being such, it contains within it a sense that is not at all apparent in the letter. How the one sense differs from the other may be seen from what is said and shown in the small work on the White Horse and in the appendix there from the Arcana Coelestia.

AE (Whitehead) n. 2 2. From this it is evident that Revelation, equally with the Old Testament prophecies, can in no wise be understood, nor can anything therein be understood, unless the spiritual sense be known, and furthermore unless there be revelation from heaven, where the whole Word is understood according to that sense. That this is so the exposition itself that follows will establish.

AE (Whitehead) n. 3 3. In the following exposition many passages are cited from the Arcana Coelestia; be it known, therefore, that they are from that work.

AE (Whitehead) n. 4 sRef Rev@1 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 4. EXPOSITION

Verses 1-3. The revelation of Jesus Christ which God gave Him to show unto His servants the things which must quickly come to pass, and signified, sending by His angel, unto His servant John, who bare witness to the Word of God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, whatsoever things he saw. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear, the words of the prophecy, and keep the things which are written therein; for the time is near. 1. “The revelation of Jesus Christ,” signifies predictions from the Lord respecting the last times of the church (n. 5); “which God gave Him to show unto His servants,” signifies for those who are in truths from good (n. 6); “the things which must quickly come to pass,” signifies which will certainly be (n. 7); “and signified, sending by His angel, unto His servant John,” signifies which are revealed out of heaven to those who are in the good of love (n. 8, 9); 2. “who bare witness to the Word of God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ,” signifies to those who in heart acknowledge Divine truth, and the Divine of the Lord in His Human (n. 10); “whatsoever things he saw,” signifies having their understanding enlightened (n. 11); 3. “Blessed,” signifies those in whom is heaven (n. 12); “is he that readeth” signifies that they have perception (n. 13); “and they that hear the words of the prophecy,” signifies that they live according to the doctrine of heaven (n. 14); “and keep the things which are written therein,” signifies from the delight of the love of truth (n. 15); “for the time is near,” signifies such an interior state (n. 16).

AE (Whitehead) n. 5 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 5. Verse 1. The revelation of Jesus Christ, signifies predictions from the Lord respecting the last times of the church. This is evident from the signification of “revelation,” as being predictions; and since these are from the Lord alone, it is said, “the revelation of Jesus Christ.” The revelation, or predictions, are respecting the last times of the church, since those times are especially treated of. It may be supposed that in Revelation the successive states of the church from beginning to end are treated of; these, however, are not there treated of, but only the state of heaven and of the church near the end, when the Last Judgment takes place, thus the last times. The successive states of the church were foretold by the Lord Himself in Matthew 24, 25; and also in Mark 13; yet what is there given is written in the Divine prophetic style, that is, by means of correspondences; consequently it is of such a character that it can only be revealed and made evident by the internal or spiritual sense. (It has therefore been granted me from the Lord to unfold these things in the Arcana Coelestia, at the beginning of chapters 26 to 40 of Genesis; which explanations may be seen in their order, in the following places: n. 3353-3356, 3486-3489, 3650-3655, 3751-3757, 3897-3901, 4056-4060, 4229-4231, 4332-4335, 4422-4424, 4635-4638, 4661-4664, 4807-4810, 4954-4959, 5063-5071.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 6 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 6. Which God gave Him, to show unto His servants, signifies for those who are in truths from good. This is evident from the signification of “gave Him to show the revelation,” as being to declare predictions, that is to say, predictions for those; and from the signification of “His servants,” as being, who are in truths from good. Such are meant by servants of God, because those who hearken to and obey God are called, in the Word, servants of God. Hearkening and obedience take place with those who are in truths from good, but not with those who are in truths alone, or in truths without good; for these have truths in the memory only, and not in the life; whereas those who are in truths from good have truths in the life, and those who have truths in the life do them from the heart, that is, from love. Be it known, that no truth ever enters into the life of man unless the man be in good, for good is of love, and love makes the whole man; man therefore receives into his life all truths that are in accord. This may be abundantly seen from the fact, that whatever a man loves he appropriates to himself; and everything else he casts from him, yea, holds it in aversion. By good is here meant the good of love to the Lord and the good of love towards the neighbor; for this good is the only spiritual good, and with this truths of faith are in accord.

AE (Whitehead) n. 7 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 7. Things which must quickly come to pass, signifies which will certainly be. This is evident from the signification of “things which must come to pass,” as being things that must needs be; and from the signification of “quickly,” as meaning what is certain and full (Arcana Coelestia, n. 5284, 6783). Those who look at all things in the Word according to the sense of the letter do not know otherwise than that “quickly” signifies quickly; thus here, that the things predicted in Revelation were to occur quickly; from which they are led to wonder that nevertheless so long a time has elapsed before the Last Judgment took place. But those who know the internal sense of the Word, do not understand “quickly,” but certainly.
They see that “quickly” means certainly, because quickly involves time, and time is proper to nature; thus quickly is a natural, not a spiritual expression; and in the Word, all natural expressions signify the spiritual things that correspond to them; for the Word in its bosom is spiritual, while in the letter it is natural. Thence it is that “quickly” signifies what is certain. (That time is proper to nature, and, in the spiritual world, corresponds to state of life, may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, in the chapter on Time in Heaven, n. 162-169.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 8 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 8. And signified, sending by His angel, to His servant John, signifies which are revealed out of heaven to those who are in the good of love. This is evident from the signification of “signified,” as being the things in the sense of the letter that contain and thus signify those that are in the internal sense; for it is said, “the revelation which God gave to show, and signified;” and by the things that He signified are meant those that are in the sense of the letter, because all these signify, while the things that are signified are those that are contained in the internal sense. For all things in the Word are significative of spiritual things, which are in the internal sense. This is also evident from the signification of “sending by His angel,” as meaning, which are revealed out of heaven; for “to send” is to reveal, and “by an angel” is out of heaven. “To send” is to reveal, because everything that is sent out of heaven is revelation; for that which is there is what is revealed; and this is the spiritual which relates to the church and its state; but with man this is changed into the natural, such as is expressed in the sense of the letter in Revelation and elsewhere in the Word. That which comes out of heaven can be presented to man in no other way; for the spiritual falls into its corresponding natural when it descends out of the spiritual world into the natural. This is why the prophetic Word in the sense of the letter is such as it is, and being such, is in its bosom spiritual and is Divine. By “angel” is meant “out of heaven,” because that which an angel speaks is out of heaven; for when an angel communicates to man such things as pertain to heaven and the church, he does not speak as man speaks with man, who brings forth out of his memory what another has told him; but that which an angel speaks flows in continuously, not into his memory, but immediately into his understanding, and from that into words. From this it is that all things that the angels spoke to the prophets are Divine, and nothing at all from the angels. Whether it be said, that these revelations are out of heaven, or are from the Lord, it is the same; because the Divine of the Lord with the angels constitutes heaven, and nothing whatever from the angels’ proprium [selfhood, or what is their own]. (But this may be better understood from what is said and shown in Heaven and Hell, n. 2-12, 254.)

[2] The things revealed out of heaven are said to be for those who are in the good of love, because it is said, “sending by His angel to His servant John,” and by “John” those who are in the good of love are represented and meant. For by the twelve apostles are represented and signified all in the church who are in truths from good; consequently, all truths from good, from which is the church; and by each of the apostles in particular something special; thus by “Peter” faith; by “James” charity; and by “John” the good of charity or the good of love. Because John represented this good, the revelation was made to him; for revelation out of heaven, such as this, can be made only to those who are in the good of charity or of love. Others, indeed, can hear the things that are from heaven, but they cannot perceive them. Only those who are in the good of love have spiritual perception. This is because they receive heavenly things not only with the hearing, but also with the love; and to receive with the love is to receive fully, since the things so received are loved; moreover, those who thus receive, see these things in their understanding, where the sensation of their internal sight is. That this is so has been proven to me by much experience. It might also be elucidated by much rational argument; but the subject cannot just now be amplified so far.
It is here only necessary to say, that all names mentioned in the Word signify not persons but things; that “John,” for instance, signifies such as are in the good of love, thus in the abstract the good of love itself. (That all names in the Word signify things may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 768, 1888, 4310, 4442, 10329. That the names of persons and places in the Word cannot enter heaven, but that they are changed into the things that they signify, n. 1876, 5225, 6516, 10216, 10282, 10432. How exquisite the internal sense of the Word is, even where mere names are mentioned, illustrated by examples, n. 1224, 1264, 1888. That the twelve disciples of the Lord represented, and thence signified, all things of faith and love in the complex, in like manner as the twelve tribes of Israel, n. 2129, 3354, 3488, 3858, 6397. That “Peter,” “James,” and “John” represented, and thence signified, faith, charity, and the good of charity, in their order, see preface to Genesis 18, and 22, and n. 3934, 8581, 10087.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 9 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ sRef Mark@3 @17 S1′ sRef Mark@3 @16 S1′ 9. When one knows that all names in the Word signify things, and that the names of the twelve sons of Jacob, or of the twelve tribes, signify all truths and goods of the church in the complex; and in like manner, the names of the twelve disciples of the Lord; and that “Peter,” “James,” and “John” signify faith, charity, and the good of charity; he can see many arcana in the Word; as for example, why:
The Lord gave the name Peter to Simon, and to James and John the name Boanerges, which means sons of thunder (Mark 3:16-17).
For “Peter,” like petra [rock], signifies the Lord as to truth from good, or faith from charity; and “sons of thunder” signify those who from affection, which is of love, receive the truths of heaven. (That “rock” signifies the Lord in respect to truth from good, or faith from charity, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 8581, 10580; in like manner the “stone of Israel,” n. 6426; and that “thunders” signify Divine truths from heaven, n. 7573, 8914; and “lightning” the splendors thereof, n. 8813; whence thunders were also called “voices,” n. 7573, 8914.)
sRef Matt@26 @34 S2′ sRef Matt@16 @19 S2′ sRef Matt@16 @18 S2′ [2] I will here mention some arcana that may be seen by those who are aware that “Peter” signifies faith, and “John” the good of charity. First, why the Lord said to Peter:
I also say unto thee, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build My church; and I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens (Matt. 16:18-19).
It appears from the letter, as if that power was given to Peter, when in fact no power was given to Peter; but it was so said to him because “Peter” signified truth from good, which is from the Lord; and truth from good, which is from the Lord, has all power, thus the Lord has all power from good through truth. (That this is so may be seen illustrated in the small work on The Last Judgment, n. 57.) A second arcanum that may be seen, when it is known that “Peter” signifies faith, is, why the Lord said to him, that:
Before the cock crowed, he would deny Him thrice; which also came to pass (Matt. 26:34 seq.).
By these words is signified, that in the last time of the church there would be no faith in the Lord, because no charity; for “cock-crowing,” as well as “twilight,” signifies the last time of the church (n. 10134); and “three” or “thrice,” signifies what is complete to the end (n. 2788, 4495, 5159, 9198, 10127. That the end of the church is when there is no faith, because no charity, see in the small work on The Last Judgment n. 33-39, seq.).
sRef John@21 @18 S3′ sRef John@21 @15 S3′ sRef John@21 @17 S3′ sRef John@21 @16 S3′ sRef John@21 @22 S3′ sRef John@21 @20 S3′ sRef John@21 @21 S3′ sRef John@21 @19 S3′ [3] A third arcanum that may be seen is what is signified by the following words concerning Peter and John:
Jesus saith to Peter, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou Me? He saith unto Him, Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love Thee. He saith unto him, Feed My lambs. He saith to him again a second time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou Me? He saith unto Him, Yea, Lord, thou knowest that I love Thee. He saith unto him, Tend My sheep. He saith unto him the third time, Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou Me? Peter was grieved because He said unto him the third time, Lovest thou Me? And he saith unto Him, Lord, thou knowest all things; thou knowest that I love Thee. Jesus saith unto him, Feed My sheep. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, when thou wast younger, thou girdest thyself, and walkedst whither thou wouldest; but when thou shall be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and bear thee whither thou wouldest not. And when He had thus spoken, He saith unto him, Follow Me. Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved, following, and he saith, Lord, What shall this one [do]? Jesus saith unto him, If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? Follow thou Me (John 21:15-22).
What these things signify no one can know unless he knows the internal sense, and knows that “Peter” signifies faith, and “John” the good of charity, thus that “Peter” signifies those in the church who are in faith, and “John” those who are in the good of charity. That Jesus said to Peter three times, “Lovest thou Me?” and that Peter said three times. “Thou knowest that I love Thee,” and that Jesus then said, “Feed My lambs,” and “Feed My sheep,” signifies that those who are in faith from love, ought to instruct those who are in the good of love to the Lord, and in the good of charity towards the neighbor; for those who are in faith from love are also in truths, and those who from this are in truths, instruct concerning good, and lead to good; for all spiritual good that a man has, is gained and implanted by truths. (That “lambs” signify those who are in the good of innocence and of love to the Lord, may be seen in Arcana Coelestia, n. 3994, 10132; that “sheep” signify those who are in the good of charity towards the neighbor, n. 4169, 4809; and that “to feed” is to instruct, n. 5201, 6078.)
[4] Faith, as it was to be in the first period of the church and as it was to be in the last, is then described by the Lord. The first period of the church is meant by “when thou wast younger,” and its last by “when thou shalt be old.” That when Peter “was younger he girded himself and walked whither he would,” signifies that in the first period of the church men would imbibe truths from the good of charity and would act from freedom; for to act from freedom is to act from the affection of truth from good. “When thou shalt be old thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee and lead thee whither thou wouldest not,” signifies that in the last period of the church they would no longer imbibe truths from the good of charity, thus would not know them in any other way than as declared by another; and thus would be in a servile state; for a servile state ensues when good does not lead. (That “garments” signify truths, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1073, 2576, 5319, 5954, 9212, 9216, 9952, 10536; and that therefore to “gird oneself” denotes to imbibe and perceive truths, n. 9952. That to “walk” is to act and live; to act from freedom is to act from love or affection, since what a man loves that he does freely, n. 2870, 3158, 8987, 8990, 9585, 9591. That every church begins from charity, but that in process of time it turns aside to faith, and at length to faith alone, n. 1834, 1835, 2231, 4683, 8094.)
[5] Since, in the last period of the church, faith becomes such that it rejects the good of charity, saying that faith alone constitutes the church and is saving, and not the good of life which is charity, Jesus said to Peter, by whom such faith is here meant, “Follow Me; and Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple whom Jesus loved, following; and he saith, Lord, what shall this one [do]?” By this is signified that faith, in the last period of the church, would turn itself away from the Lord; for it is said of Peter, by whom such faith is signified, that “turning about, he saw;” also that he said of the disciple whom Jesus loved, or of John, by whom is signified the good of charity, “what shall this one [do]?” that is, that he is not anything. But Jesus said to him, “If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee? Follow thou Me.” By this is signified that the good of charity will follow the Lord, and will acknowledge Him, even to the last period of the old church, and the first of the new. (That the last period of the old church is called “the consummation of the age,” and the beginning of the new church “the coming of the Lord,” see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4535, 10622.) A fourth arcanum that may be seen is, why the Lord loved John above the rest of the disciples, and consequently why John lay on the breast or in the bosom of the Lord (John 13:23; 21:20); namely, because the good of love was what the Lord saw when He beheld John, who represented and signified that good; since it is that good that constitutes heaven and the church (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 13-19). A fifth arcanum is manifest when it is known that John represented the good of love, namely, what is signified by the words of the Lord from the cross to the mother Mary and to John:
When Jesus therefore seeth His mother, and the disciple standing by whom He loved, He saith unto His mother, Woman, behold thy son. Then He saith to the disciple, Behold thy mother. And from that hour the disciple took her unto his own home (John 19:26, 27).
By “mother” and by “woman” is here meant the church, and by “John” the good of charity; and by the things here said, that the church will be where the good of charity is. (That by “woman,” in the Word, is meant the church, may be seen in Arcana Coelestia, n. 252-253, 749, 770, 3160, 6014, 7337, 8994; that the like is signified by “mother,” n. 289, 2691, 2717, 3703, 4257, 5581, 8897, 10490. That to “take her unto his own home” is that these should dwell together, is evident.) From this it can now be seen how great arcana lie concealed in the Word, which are laid open to those only who know its internal or spiritual sense. Apart from that sense it cannot be known, moreover, what is signified when it is said:
That the apostles shall sit upon twelve thrones, and shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt. 19:28; Luke 22:30).
By “apostles” here are meant not apostles, but all truths from good, which are from the Lord; thus by these words is signified that the Lord alone will judge all from truths that are from good, thus that everyone will be judged according to those truths.

AE (Whitehead) n. 10 sRef Rev@1 @2 S0′ 10. Verse 2. Who bare witness to the Word of God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, signifies to those who in heart acknowledge Divine truth, and the Divine of the Lord in His Human. This is evident from the signification of “hearing witness,” as meaning to acknowledge in heart (of which hereafter), and from the signification of “the Word,” or speech of God, as meaning Divine truth (see AC, n. 4692, 5075, 9987); and from the signification of “[the testimony of] Jesus Christ,” as meaning the acknowledgment of the Lord’s Divine in His Human. This is signified by “the testimony of Jesus Christ,” because “to testify” signifies to acknowledge in heart, and to acknowledge Jesus Christ in heart is to acknowledge the Divine in His Human; for he that acknowledges the Lord, and does not at the same time acknowledge the Divine in His Human, does not acknowledge the Lord; since His Divine is in His Human, and not out of it; for the Divine is in Its Human as the soul is in the body, consequently to think of the Lord’s Human, and not at the same time of His Divine, is like thinking of a man abstractly from his soul or life, which is not thinking of a man.
sRef John@14 @6 S2′ sRef Rev@19 @10 S2′ [2] That the Lord’s Divine is in His Human, and that together they are one person, the doctrine received throughout the Christian world teaches; which teaching is as follows: “Although Christ is God and Man, yet they are not two, but one Christ; one, but not by a change of the Divine into the Human, but the Divine took the Human to Itself. Altogether one, not by confusion of the two natures, but by unity of person; for as soul and body make one man, so God and Man are one Christ” (Athanasian Creed). From this it is manifest, moreover, that those who separate the Divine into three persons, when they think of the Lord as a second person, ought to think of both together, the Human and the Divine; for it is said that they are a single person, and that they are one, as soul and body are. Therefore those that think otherwise do not think of the Lord; and those that do not think of the Lord in that way are unable to think of the Divine that is called the Father’s, for the Lord saith:
I am the way, the truth, and the life; no one cometh unto the Father but through Me (John 14:6).
Since this acknowledgment is signified by the “testimony of Jesus Christ,” it is said that:
The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy (Rev. 19:10).
“The spirit of prophecy” is the life and soul of doctrine (that “spirit” in the internal sense of the Word, signifies life or soul, may be seen Arcana Coelestia n. 5222, 9281, 9818; and that “prophecy” signifies doctrine, n. 2534, 7269); and the acknowledgment of the Lord is the very life or soul of all doctrine in the church. But of this more will be said in what follows.
sRef John@21 @24 S3′ sRef John@19 @35 S3′ [3] To “bear witness” is to acknowledge in heart, because spiritual things are treated of; and no one can bear witness respecting spiritual things except from the heart, because from no other source does he perceive that they are so. To bear witness of things that have existence in the world is to bear witness from knowledge, or from memory and thought, because the man has so seen or heard; but it is otherwise with things spiritual, for these fill the whole life and constitute it. The spirit of man, in which his life primarily resides, is nothing else than his will or his love, and his understanding and faith therefrom, and “heart” in the Word signifies the will and love, and understanding and faith therefrom. From this it is evident whence it is that by “bearing witness” in the spiritual sense, is meant to acknowledge in heart. Since by the “heart” is signified the good of love, and this alone is what acknowledges Divine truth, and the Divine of the Lord in His Human, and since that good is signified by “John,” it is also said by John that he “bears witness to the Word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ.” So also in another place:
And he that hath seen hath borne witness, and his witness is true; and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye may believe (John 19:35);
and in another place:
This is the disciple that beareth witness of these things, and wrote these things; and we know that his witness is true (John 21:24).

AE (Whitehead) n. 11 sRef Rev@1 @2 S0′ 11. Whatsoever things he saw signifies their understanding enlightened. This is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to understand (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863, 3869, 4403-4421, 10705); here, to understand from enlightenment, because the things of the church and of heaven are treated of, which are not understood and perceived except from enlightenment; for things of the church and of heaven, which are called spiritual things, do not enter into man’s understanding, except by means of the light of heaven, and the light of heaven enlightens the understanding. For this reason the Word, in which are contained the things of the church and of heaven, cannot be understood except by one who is enlightened, and those only are enlightened who are in the affection of truth from good, thus who are in love to the Lord and in charity towards the neighbor. This good is spiritual good, with which and from which is the light of heaven, which enlightens.

AE (Whitehead) n. 12 sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ 12. Verse 3. Blessed, signifies those in whom is heaven. This is evident from the signification of “the blessed,” as meaning those who are happy to eternity, thus in whom is heaven. Blessedness that is not eternal is indeed called blessedness, yet comparatively it is not, for it passes away, and that which passes away, in comparison with that which does not pass away, is as nothing. It is said, “in whom is heaven,” because heaven is in man; the heaven that is outside of man flows into the heaven that is within him, and is received so far as there is correspondence. (That heaven is in man, and that the internal of a man who is in heavenly love is heaven in the least form, corresponding to the greatest, may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 51-58; and that he who has heaven in himself comes into heaven may be seen in New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 232-236.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 13 sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ 13. Is he that readeth, signifies that they have perception. This is evident from the signification of “reading” the Word, as being to understand from enlightenment, thus to perceive, since to “read” signifies the like as to “see,” because he who reads, sees, and to “see” signifies to perceive from enlightenment, as was shown just above (n. 11).

AE (Whitehead) n. 14 sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ 14. And they that hear the words of the prophecy, signifies that they live according to the doctrine of heaven. This is evident from the signification of “hearing,” as being to perceive and obey (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2542, 3869, 4653, 5017, 7216, 8361, 8990, 9311, 9397, 10061); thus also to live according to that doctrine; for those who perceive and obey the doctrine of heaven live according to it; and from the signification of “the words of the prophecy,” as being the truths that pertain to the doctrine of heaven; for “words” are truths (n. 4692, 5075); and “prophecy” is doctrine (n. 2534, 7269); here it is the doctrine of heaven, since it is prophecy belonging to the Word, and the Word is from heaven. To “hear” is to obey and to live, because with celestial angels the things that are heard enter into the life; but as this is a thing unknown, I would like to explain it briefly.
There are two senses given to man which serve as means of receiving the things whereby the rational is formed, and also the things by which man is reformed; these are the sense of sight and the sense of hearing; the other senses are for other uses. The things that enter by the sense of sight enter into man’s understanding and enlighten it, for which reason by “sight” is signified the understanding enlightened, for the understanding corresponds to the sight of the eye, as the light of heaven corresponds to the light of the world. The things, however, that enter by the sense of hearing enter both into the understanding and into the will, and for this reason by “the hearing” is signified perception and obedience. Consequently, in human language, to “hear” anyone, and to “give ear to” anyone, also to “listen to,” and “hearken to,” are common expressions; and by “hearing anyone” is meant to perceive, and by “giving ear to,” as also by “listening to” is meant to obey; while “hearkening to” means either perceiving or obeying. These expressions flowed down into human language out of the spiritual world, where man’s spirit is. Their origin in the spiritual world shall also be explained.
[2] Those there who are in the province of the ear are obediences from perception. (That all who are in the spiritual world are in some province that is named from the members, organs, or viscera of man, because they correspond thereto, may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 87-102.) Moreover, the province of the ear is in the axis of heaven; into it, therefore, or into those who are there, the whole spiritual world flows in, with the perception that “thus must it be done;” for this is the reigning perception in heaven; from this it is that those who are in that province are obediences from perception. That the things that enter by hearing enter immediately through the understanding into the will, may be further illustrated by the way in which angels of the celestial kingdom, who are most wise, are instructed. These angels receive all their wisdom by hearing, and not by sight; for whatsoever they hear about Divine things, they receive in the will from veneration and love, and make it of their life; and because they receive these things not first in the memory, but immediately in the life, they do not speak about matters of faith, but when these are mentioned by others, they answer, “Yea, yea,” or “Nay, nay,” according to the Lord’s words in Matthew 5:37. From this it is evident that hearing is given to man chiefly for the reception of wisdom, and sight for the reception of intelligence. Wisdom is to perceive, to will, and to do; and intelligence is to know and to perceive. (That the celestial angels imbibe wisdom by hearing, not by sight, may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 270, 271; and more concerning those angels, n. 20-28.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 15 sRef Luke@11 @28 S0′ sRef John@15 @14 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @20 S0′ sRef John@15 @10 S0′ sRef John@14 @24 S0′ sRef John@14 @15 S0′ sRef John@14 @23 S0′ sRef John@8 @52 S0′ sRef John@8 @51 S0′ 15. And keep the things which are written therein, signifies from the love of truth. This is evident from the signification of “observing” and “keeping,” as being to perceive, to will, and to do according thereto, here according to the doctrine of heaven; and from the signification of “the things which are written therein,” as being, from the love of truth, or from the delight of that love; for what is done from love is done from delight; delight is from no other source. This is signified by “the things which are written therein,” because the things contained in the doctrine of heaven are written on the heart, and thus on the life, of those here described; and things written on the heart and life are written on the love; for “heart” in the Word signifies love (Arcana Coelestia, n. 7542, 9050, 10336). The love of truth is meant, because these things are said of the doctrine of heaven, and the doctrine of heaven is from truths. In the Word frequent mention is made of observing and keeping the precepts, the commandments, the words, and the law: and by observing and keeping is there signified to understand, to will, and to do, as in Matthew:
Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I commanded you (Matt. 28:20);
in Luke:
Blessed are they that hear the Word of God and keep it (Luke 11:28);
in John:
Verily, verily, I say unto you, if anyone keep My word he shall never see death (John 8:51);
in the same:
If any one love Me he will keep My word: He that loveth Me not, keepeth not My words (John 14:15, 23-24);
and in the same:
If ye keep My commandments ye shall abide in My love. Ye are My friends if ye do the things which I command you (John 15:10, 14).
To do is to will, and to will is to do; because in deeds the will is everything.

AE (Whitehead) n. 16 sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ 16. For the time is near, signifies such an interior state. This is evident from the signification of “time,” as meaning state (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 162-169, where Time in Heaven is treated of); and from the signification of “near,” as being the internal; thus here, because it refers to state, the interior state such as is described above is meant. By state is meant a state of affection and of thought therefrom. He who reads this, and knows nothing of the internal sense, supposes that by “the time being near” is meant that the time was near when the things contained in Revelation would be fulfilled. But that this is not meant can be seen from the fact that seventeen centuries elapsed before they were fulfilled. But because the Word in the letter is natural and within is spiritual, it is said that “the time is near,” in order that in heaven the interior state might be understood; for if the expression “the interior state,” which is the spiritual sense, had here been used, it would not have been understood by the angels; for they perceive all things of the Word according to correspondences. “Near” signifies interior, because distances in heaven are entirely in accord with the differences of the good of love; for which reason those who are in kindred good are also near one another; and it is from this that on earth kinships are called near relationships [propinquitates], because they relate to spiritual affinities, which in heaven are really such. In heaven this is so because the good of love conjoins, and the more interior the good, the nearer is the conjunction. From this it is, that heaven is nearer to man, the more interiorly he is in the good of love; and the origin of this is that the Lord is nearer to an angel, to a spirit, and to man, the more interiorly they love Him. To love Him interiorly is to love His precepts interiorly; that is, to perceive, to will, and to do them from the delight of love. It is from this that “nearness,” in the Word, signifies presence and conjunction (as may be seen in Arcana Coelestia, n. 5911, 9378, 9997, 10001). This nearness is thus described in John:
Jesus said, He that loveth Me keepeth My word, and My Father will love him, and We will come unto him, and make Our abode with him (John 14:23);
and in the same:
Ye know the Comforter, the Spirit of truth; for He abideth with you, and shall be in you (John 14:17);
“the Comforter, the Spirit of truth” is Divine truth going forth from the Lord; therefore it is said, “He shall be in you.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 17 sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ 17. These approximate or general explanations of the preceding words, not being presented in a continuous series, will appear disconnected; and this must be the case when each word or phrase is expounded separately, and the internal sense is immediately joined to the literal sense, which is diverse from it, and each is viewed by itself. But nevertheless, with angels, who are in the internal sense, this is not so. They do not see the sense of the letter, nor do they know anything about it; they see only the internal sense; and because they see this in the light of heaven, they see it in such a series and connection, and also in such abundance and thence in such wisdom, as cannot be expressed and described in human words. The ideas of angels, which are spiritual, also conjoin all things in a wonderful manner, and comprehend more than man can include or express in his ideas, which are natural, even as to a thousandth part thereof.

AE (Whitehead) n. 18 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 18. Verses 4-6. John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace to you, and peace, from Him who is, and who was, and who is to come; and from the seven spirits which are in sight of His throne; and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the Firstborn of the dead, and the Prince of the kings of the earth. Unto Him that loveth us, and washeth us from our sins in His blood; and hath made us kings and priests unto God and His Father; to Him be the glory and the might unto the ages of the ages. Amen.
4. “John,” signifies the Lord in respect to doctrine (n. 19); “to the seven churches,” signifies to all who are in truths from good, or in faith from charity (n. 20); “in Asia,” signifies those who are in the light of intelligence (n. 21); “Grace to you, and peace,” signifies the delight of truth and good (n. 22); “from Him who is, and who was, and who is to come,” signifies from Him who is the All in all things of heaven and of the church from eternity to eternity (n. 23); “and from the seven spirits,” signifies the Divine in heaven (n. 24); “which are in sight of His throne,” signifies presence and providence (n. 25). 5. “And from Jesus Christ,” signifies from the Lord in respect to the Divine Human (n. 26); “the faithful witness,” signifies from whom is all truth in heaven (n. 27); “the Firstborn from the dead,” signifies from whom is all good in heaven (n. 28); “and the Prince of the kings of the earth,” signifies from whom is all truth from good in the church (n. 29); “Unto Him that loveth us, and washeth us from our sins in His blood,” signifies His love, and regeneration from Him through truths that are from Him (n. 30). 6. “And hath made us kings and priests,” signifies that from Him we are in His spiritual and celestial kingdom (n. 31); “unto God and His Father,” signifies by Divine truth and Divine good (n. 32); “to Him be the glory and the might unto the ages of the ages,” signifies that these things are from Him alone to eternity (n. 33); “Amen,” signifies Divine confirmation (n. 34).

AE (Whitehead) n. 19 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 19. Verse 4. John signifies the Lord in respect to doctrine. This is evident from the representation of “John,” as being the good of love (of which above, n. 8). Because he represents the good of love, he also in the highest sense represents the Lord, since all the good of love is from the Lord. Man, spirit, and angel, are only recipients, and they who are recipients are said to signify that which is from the Lord. It is similar with many others in the Word, as with Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, David, Elijah, Elisha, John the Baptist, Peter, and the other apostles; each one of whom signifies some good or truth of heaven and the church, yet all of them, in the highest sense, signify the Lord. For instance, “David,” in the internal sense, signifies Divine truth in the spiritual kingdom, which is called the royalty of the Lord; for this reason, David in the highest sense signifies the Lord in respect to that truth and in respect to royalty; on which account it is said of David in the Word, that he is to come and reign over the sons of Israel (Ezek. 37:24, 25; Hosea 3:5). In like manner Elijah and Elisha, who, because in the internal sense they signify the Word, in the highest sense signify the Lord, from whom the Word is. (That “Elijah” and “Elisha” signify the Word, thus the Lord in respect to the Word, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2762, 5247; likewise “John the Baptist,” who is therefore called “Elijah,” n. 7643, 9372. That “Peter” signifies faith, and therefore the Lord in respect to faith, because faith is from the Lord, see above, n. 9.) From this it can be seen why “John” signifies the Lord. He signifies the Lord in respect to doctrine because it is said, “John to the seven churches,” and by “the seven churches,” in the internal sense, are meant all who are in truths from good, or in faith from charity; for it is these that constitute the church; and doctrine is what teaches these truths. From this it is that as the Lord is the Word, so is He also the doctrine of the church, for all doctrine is from the Word. (That the Lord is the doctrine of the church, because all truth that is of doctrine is from the Word, thus from the Lord, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2531, 2859, 3712.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 20 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 20. To the seven churches, signifies to all who are in truths from good or in faith from charity. This is evident from the signification of “seven,” as being all [persons]. For “seven,” in the Word, signifies the beginning and end, thus an entire period and a full state, in like manner as a “week” (Arcana Coelestia, n. 728, 6508, 9228); and because “seven” signifies what is full, it also signifies all, since all constitutes what is full, for fullness, as regards those that constitute a society (here, the church), means all; therefore when magnitude is treated of in the Word, “seven” signifies what is full; but when multitude is treated of, “seven” signifies all. “Three” also in the Word signifies what is full and all (as may be seen in Arcana Coelestia n. 2788, 4495, 7715); but “seven” is used in the Word where anything holy is treated of, and “three” in all other cases (Arcana Coelestia n. 10127); therefore “seven” is here used, because truths from good, which are the holy things of the church, are treated of. It is also evident from the signification of “churches” as being those who are in truths from good, or in faith from charity.
These are meant by “churches,” because such truths constitute the church with everyone; for those who are not in truths from good, though born within the church, yet are not of the church, because there is no church in them. From this it is that the Lord’s church consists of all those, wheresoever they are, who are a church, that is, who are in truths from good. (That the church, like heaven, is in man, and not outside of him, consequently that man who is in truths from good is a church, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3884; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 53, 54, 57.) It is also said, who are in faith from charity, since this is similar; for truth is of faith, and good is of charity; for in fact, everything that man believes is called truth, and everything that man loves is called good. (That every truth is from good, and that everything of faith is from charity, see in The small work, The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 84-107, 108-122; and The Last Judgment n. 33-39; also Heaven and Hell, n. 364, 424, 482, 526.) He who knows nothing of the internal sense of the Word, when he reads these things believes no otherwise than that by “seven churches” are meant the seven churches afterwards named (verse 11); whereas churches are not meant, but all who are of the church; because this is the spiritual sense of the Word.

AE (Whitehead) n. 21 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 21. In Asia, signifies those who are in the light of intelligence. This can be seen by a spiritual idea only, such as angels have, concerning the regions of this earth. When Asia is named, angels perceive the south; when Europe is named, the north; and when Africa, the east; and as by the “south” is signified the clear light of intelligence, so that light is signified by “Asia.” This perception has been granted also to me, as often as I have been in the spiritual idea and have thought of Asia. Such is the spiritual idea of Asia, because the church was there in ancient times, and then extended over many regions there; therefore, those who are in heaven from that country are in the light of intelligence. For this reason, when Asia is thought of, a light like that which is in the south of heaven flows in. (That in ancient times, and also in the most ancient, the church was in Asia, extending through many kingdoms there, see the quotations from the Arcana Coelestia in the little work on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 247; and that the “south” signifies the light of intelligence, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 141-153, where the Four Quarters in Heaven are treated of.) By “Asia,” however, the inhabitants of Asia are not here meant, but all, wheresoever they are, who are in the spiritual light of intelligence, or, what is the same, who are in truths from good; for those who are in truths from good are in the spiritual light of intelligence; and all such constitute the Lord’s church.
(That the Lord’s church exists also among the Gentiles, although specifically where the Lord is known and the Word is read, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 318-328; and on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 244, 246.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 22 sRef John@1 @16 S0′ sRef Luke@4 @22 S0′ sRef John@1 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ 22. Grace to you and peace, signifies the delight of truth and good. This is evident from the signification of “grace” as being the delight of truth (about which more presently); and from the signification of “peace,” as being the delight of the good of innocence and love (on which see in the work on Heaven and Hell, where the State of Peace in Heaven is treated of, n. 284-290). “Grace” means the delight of truth, because there are two things that proceed from the Lord, united in their origin, but separated with those that receive them. For there are those that receive more the Divine truth than the Divine good, and those that receive more the Divine good than the Divine truth. Those that receive more the Divine truth than the Divine good are in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, and are therefore called spiritual; but those that receive more the Divine good than the Divine truth are in the Lord’s celestial kingdom, and are therefore called celestial (On these two kingdoms in heaven and in the church, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 20-28.) To those in the spiritual kingdom it is granted by the Lord to be in the affection of truth for the sake of truth; and this Divine is what is called grace; so far, therefore, as anyone is in that affection is he in the Lord’s Divine grace; nor is there any other Divine grace with man, spirit, or angel, than to be affected by truth, because it is truth, since in that affection there is heaven and blessedness for them (see in The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 232, 236, 238; and Heaven and Hell, n. 395-414). Whether we say the affection of truth or the delight of truth it is the same; for there is no affection without delight.
[2] This in particular is what is meant by “grace” in the Word; as in John:
And the Word became flesh, and dwelt in us, and we beheld His glory, a glory as of the only-begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth, of His fullness we all received, and grace for grace. For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ (John 1:14, 16-17).
It is said “grace and truth,” because grace is the affection and the delight of truth. And in Luke, after the Lord had explained in the synagogue the prophesy of Isaiah respecting Himself, that is, the Divine truth, it is said:
All wondered at the words of grace proceeding out of His mouth (Luke 4:22).
the Divine truths that the Lord spoke are called “words of grace proceeding out of His mouth,” because they are acceptable, grateful, and delightful. In general, Divine grace is all that is given from the Lord; and as all that is so given has relation to faith and love, and faith is the affection of truth from good, this is meant in particular by Divine grace: for to be gifted with faith and love, or with the affection of truth from good, is to be gifted with heaven, thus with eternal blessedness.

AE (Whitehead) n. 23 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 23. From Him who is, and who was, and who is to come, signifies from Him who is the All in all things of heaven and of the church from eternity to eternity. This is evident from the signification of “who is, and who was, and who is to come,” as being from eternity to eternity, also the All in all things of heaven and of the church. From eternity to eternity is meant, because all times in the Word signify not times but states of life (as may be seen from what is said and shown concerning Time in Heaven, in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 162-169); and as all times signify states of life, so in reference to the Lord they signify infinite state, and infinite state as to time is eternity. That all times are comprised in “who is, and who was, and who is to come,” is evident. Of eternity, which is of the Lord alone, many things might be said; but such things are not understood by the natural man, whose thoughts are chiefly based on time, space, and matter, while, nevertheless, eternity, in itself, does not include such things.
If, indeed, man could think of eternity as the angels of heaven do, he might arrive at some idea of it, and thus might comprehend what from eternity is, which is signified by “who was;” also what the Divine foresight is, that it is in the most particular things from eternity; and what Divine Providence is, that it is in the most particular things to eternity; consequently, that whatsoever proceeds from the Lord is from eternity to eternity; and unless it were so heaven and the universe would not subsist. But there is no time to go further into this arcanum as yet (something may be seen respecting it in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 167); only let it be known, that the like is meant by “Jehovah” as by “who is, who was, and who is to come,” since “Is,” which is the meaning of Jehovah, involves what precedes, that is, “who was,” and also what is future, that is, “who is to come,” and thus signifies from eternity to eternity. sRef Ps@2 @7 S2′ [2] That “Is,” signifies from eternity is also known in the Christian world from the Psalm of David, where it is said:
I will declare of the decree; Jehovah said unto me; thou art My son; this day have I begotten thee (Ps. 2:7);
it is known that these things are said of the Lord, and that by “today” is meant from eternity. (That by “tomorrow,” also in the Word, where the Lord is treated of, is signified to eternity, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3998.) That the words “who is,” “who was,” and “who is to come,” signify also the All in all things of heaven and the church is because they signify eternity; and in heaven eternity can be expressed by no other word than Divine, for the reason that what is infinite cannot fall into the angelic idea, and still less into a human idea; and eternity is infinite Existere from infinite Esse; but only this enters the idea, that eternity, which is the Divine in respect to Existere, is the All in all things of heaven and of the church. For the whole heaven is heaven not from the angels’ proprium [selfhood, or what is their own], but from the Divine of the Lord; nor is the church the church from the proprium of men, but from the Divine of the Lord; for all the good of love and the truth of faith are from the Lord, and it is the good of love and the truth of faith that make heaven and the church. Angels and men are only recipients, and so far as they receive, heaven and the church are in them. (These things may be seen illustrated by many things in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 7-12, where it is shown that the Divine of the Lord makes heaven, and that the Divine that makes heaven is the Divine Human, which is the Divine Existere from the Divine Esse, n. 78-86.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 24 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 24. And from the seven spirits, signifies the Divine in heaven. This is evident from the signification of “seven,” as being what is full, and therefore all, and from its being predicated of the holy Divine things that proceed from the Lord (see above, n. 20); also from the signification of “spirits,” as being those of whom heaven consists; for all these are called “spirits of God,” since the Spirit of God is the Divine proceeding, or Divine truth united to Divine good in heaven and the church (Arcana Coelestia n. 9818); and the Divine proceeding or Divine truth united to Divine good, forms and creates the angel, and thus makes him [what he is] according to quality and quantity of reception (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 7-12). From this it is evident that by “the seven spirits” (of which more below), are not meant seven spirits, but all who are in heaven; as by the “seven churches” are not meant seven churches, but all who are in truths from good, or who are of the church (see above, n. 20). When this is understood, an arcanum is opened, namely, the meaning of “Jehovah God” in the Word; which is, that by “Jehovah” is meant the Divine Esse, and by “God” the Divine Existere in heaven. The Divine that is meant by “God” is the Divine Existere in heaven, because the Divine in heaven is in many; therefore in the Hebrew language, God is called “Elohim,” in the plural; for the same reason angels are called gods, not that they are gods, but because the Divine of the Lord that is in them is meant by “God.” (That in the Word the Lord is called Jehovah from Esse or Essence, and God from Existere or Existence, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 300, 3910, 6905; also that the Divine Esse is Divine good, and that the Divine Existere is Divine truth, n. 3061, 6280, 6880, 6905, 10579; and in general, that good is esse, and truth is existere therefrom, n. 5002. That angels are called gods from the reception of Divine truth proceeding from the Divine good of the Lord, n. 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873, 8301, 8192; and that Divine truth united to Divine good in heaven, is called, in one phrase, Divine truth, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 13, 133, 140.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 25 sRef John@15 @4 S0′ sRef John@15 @5 S0′ sRef John@14 @17 S0′ sRef John@15 @7 S0′ sRef John@15 @6 S0′ sRef John@14 @23 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 25. Which are in sight of His throne, signifies presence and providence. This is evident from the signification of “sight,” as being, when predicated of the Divine, presence, and providence therefrom (of which more in what follows); and from the signification of “throne of God,” as being Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, thus heaven, because it is its receptacle (concerning which see Arcana Coelestia, n. 5313, 6397). “Look” means presence, because by look or sight the understanding and thence thought are signified; and in the understanding everything that is thought stands forth as present. For this reason, those in the spiritual world with whom another desires to speak appear present provided the person had formed any idea of them from sight in the world, especially if this is true of both. This is why friends meet there, and also wives and husbands; the reason is that internal sight, which is the understanding, acts as one, in a spirit, with his external sight or sight of the eye; and as spaces in the spiritual world are not like spaces in the natural world, in that world what one desires to see is near, and what he does not desire to see is far off. From this now it is that “look” signifies presence. (That “look” or “sight” signifies the understanding, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863, 3869, 10705; and therefore signifies presence, n. 4723; and that spaces in heaven are not like spaces in the world, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 191-199.) “Look,” in respect to the Lord, as here, signifies His Divine presence, because the Lord knows all, and they, in turn, know the Lord who are in love and faith towards Him; consequently with such the Lord is present in the goods of love and in the truths of faith that are in them from Him. For these [goods and truths] are the Lord in heaven and in the church; since the things that proceed from the Lord are not merely His, but they are Himself [2] From this it is clear how the Lord is in man; thus, how that is to be understood that he spoke in John:
Abide in Me, and I in you; he that abideth in Me and I in him, the same beareth much fruit (John 15:4-5).
In the same:
He that loveth Me keeps My word; and the Father and I will come unto him, and make Our abode with him (John 14:23).
In the same:
Jesus said to His disciples, Ye know the Paraclete, the Spirit of Truth; for He abideth with you, and shall be in you (John 14:17).
The “Paraclete, the Spirit of Truth,” is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord; or what is the same, it is the Lord as to Divine truth; and “disciples” are all who are in goods and thence in truths; it is therefore said, “He shall be in you.” In the same:
The Word became flesh and dwelt in you* (John 1:14).
The Word, too, is Divine truth; and that the Word is the Lord is clear, since it is said that “the Word became flesh.” (That the “Word” signifies Divine truth, and signifies the Lord, see Arcana Coelestia n. 4692, 5075, 9987.) “Look” here also signifies providence, because all presence of the Lord is providence (as may appear from what is said and shown in the small work on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 267-279; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 9, 12, 143, 145).
* The Greek has “us,” as found also in Apocalypse Explained, n. 43.

AE (Whitehead) n. 26 sRef John@14 @10 S0′ sRef John@14 @9 S0′ sRef John@14 @6 S0′ sRef John@10 @30 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 26. Verse 5. And from Jesus Christ, signifies from the Lord as to the Divine Human. This is evident from the fact that such was the Lord’s name in the world; thus the name of His Human; but in respect to the Divine, His name was “Jehovah” and “God.” It is called the Divine Human because the Lord made His Human Divine when He was in the world; for He united it to His Divine which was in Him from conception, and which was to Him a soul from the Father, thus which was to Him His life; for the soul of everyone is his life, and the body, which is the human, lives therefrom; when, therefore, the Divine was united to the Human in the Lord, as soul to body, it is called the Divine Human. (That it is according to the doctrine of the church that as soul and body make one man, so the Divine and the Human make one Christ, as also that His Divine and His Human make one person, see above, n. 10.) They, therefore, who think of the Lord’s Human and not at the same time of His Divine, will on no account admit the expression Divine Human, for they think of the Human separately and of the Divine separately, thus, as it were, of a man separately from his soul or his life; this, however, is not to think of the man at all, still less of the Lord.
[2] Because such a separate idea is in their thought, they pray to the Father to have compassion for the sake of the Son; when, nevertheless, the Lord Himself ought to be prayed to that He may have compassion, in whom, according to the universal doctrine of the church, the Divine is such as the Father has; for that doctrine teaches, that as the Father, so also the Son, is uncreate, infinite, eternal, almighty, God, and Lord; and neither is before or after the other, nor greater or less than the other (from the Athanasian Creed). This also is in accordance with the doctrine given by the Lord Himself, which is: That He and the Father are one; and that he who seeth Him seeth the Father, because He is in the Father and the Father in Him; that He is the way, the truth, and the life; and that no one cometh to the Father but by Him. From this it is clear how much they turn aside from the way and the truth who pass by the Lord and approach the Father. But as I have conversed much on this subject with angels, and also with spirits, who, when they lived as men in the world, were of the Reformed Church and of the Papal religion, I shall be pleased to relate these conversations in the following pages; from which it will appear in what light the church would be respecting the Divine, which is the first and primary principle of the church, if it would acknowledge and believe in the Divine Human of the Lord.

AE (Whitehead) n. 27 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 27. The faithful witness, signifies from whom is all truth in heaven. This is evident from the signification of “faithful witness,” as being, in reference to the Lord, the acknowledgment of the Divine Human from whom is all truth in heaven (of which in what follows). It is said in heaven, because Divine truth, proceeding from the Lord’s Divine good, makes heaven in general, and with each angel there in particular. (This may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 13, 126-140; and that this is from the Lord’s Divine Human, n. 7-12, 78-86.) The Lord as to the Divine Human is called the “faithful witness,” because Divine truth proceeding from Him, bears witness in heaven concerning Him.
This testimony is universally in the Divine truth in heaven; as may be seen from this, that angels of the interior heaven can think of the Divine in no other way than under a human form, thus as the Divine Human, and for the reason that the Divine Human of the Lord fills the universal heaven and forms it, and the thoughts of angels proceed and flow according to the form of heaven (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 59-102, 200-212, 265-275). From this it is that “the testimony of Jesus Christ” (see n. 10) signifies the acknowledgment of the Divine of the Lord in His Human.
sRef John@1 @34 S2′ sRef John@1 @9 S2′ sRef John@1 @7 S2′ sRef John@1 @8 S2′ [2] From this can be seen what is meant in the spiritual sense by “bearing witness” and by “testimony” in the following passages:
John [that is, the Baptist] came for a witness, that he might bear witness of the Light, that all might believe through him. He was not the Light, but came that he might bear witness of the Light. It was the true Light, which lighteth every man. And I have seen and have borne witness (John 1:7-9, 34).
“Light” signifies Divine truth; therefore the Lord is here called “the true Light, which lighteth every man,” and to “bear witness of the light” signifies an acknowledgment of His Divine Human, from which Divine truth proceeds. (That “light” signifies Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, in the chapter on The Light of Heaven, n. 120-140.)
sRef John@15 @26 S3′ sRef John@3 @31 S3′ sRef John@3 @32 S3′ sRef John@8 @14 S3′ sRef John@5 @33 S3′ sRef John@3 @11 S3′ sRef John@5 @34 S3′ [3] In the same:
Ye sent unto John, and He bare witness unto the truth; but I receive not testimony from man (John 5:33-34).
In the same:
Jesus said, Verily I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and bear witness of what we have seen. He that cometh from heaven is above all. What He hath seen and heard, of that He beareth witness (John 3:11, 31-32).
In the same:
Jesus said, Even if I bear witness of Myself, My witness is true; for I know whence I came and whither I go (John 8:14).
By this is signified that He bears witness concerning Himself from Himself, because He was Divine truth. In the same:
When the Comforter is come, the Spirit of Truth, He shall bear witness of Me (John 15:26).
“The Comforter, the Spirit of Truth,” is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 9818, 9820, 10330; and above, n. 25).
sRef John@18 @37 S4′ sRef John@18 @38 S4′ [4] In the same:
Pilate said, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest it, because I am a king. For this have I been born, and for this am I come into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Everyone that is of the truth heareth My voice. Pilate said, What is truth? (John 18:37-38).
The Lord thus answered when He was asked whether He was a king, because the Lord, as king, is Divine truth, for this is the royalty of the Lord in heaven, while His Divine good is the priesthood there. This is why the Lord said that He was a king, that to this end He was born, and to this end He came into the world, that He should bear witness unto the truth; and that everyone that is in truth heareth His voice; and therefore Pilate asked him, “What is truth?” thus whether that was king. (That Divine truth is the royalty of the Lord in the heavens, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3009, 5068; and that “kings,” therefore, in the Word, signify those who are in Divine truths, or abstractly from persons, signify Divine truths, see n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044.) That “kings” signify those who are in Divine truths, will appear more clearly in the explanation of what follows in Revelation, where kings are mentioned; and just below, where it is said, “He hath made us kings and priests unto God and His Father.” From this it can be seen that by the words, “from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness,” is signified the Lord as to the acknowledgment of His Divine Human, from which is all truth in heaven.

AE (Whitehead) n. 28 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@22 @31 S0′ sRef Matt@22 @32 S0′ 28. The Firstborn from the dead, signifies from whom is all good in heaven. This is evident from the signification of the “firstborn,” as being, in reference to the Lord, Divine good in heaven, thus all good there. The “firstborn” signifies this, because by generations, in general and in particular, spiritual generations are signified, which are the generations of good and truth or of love and faith; from this it is, that by “father,” “mother,” “sons,” “daughters,” “sons-in-law,” “daughters-in-law,” and “son’s sons,” are signified goods and truths which generate and are generated in their order (Arcana Coelestia n. 10490), for in heaven there are no other nativities. This being so, by “firstborn” is not meant the firstborn, but the good of heaven and of the church, because this is in the first place. And since it is the Lord from whom all good in heaven is, He is called the “Firstborn.” He is called “the Firstborn from the dead,” because, when He arose from the dead, He made His Human to be Divine good by union with the Divine that was in Him from conception. sRef Ps@89 @27 S2′ [2] This is why He is called “the Firstborn from the dead,” and says of Himself in David:
I will make Him the Firstborn, high above the kings of the earth (Ps. 89:27).
What is meant by His being “high above the kings of the earth” will be seen in a subsequent article. (That the Lord, when He departed from the world, made His Human Divine good, see Arcana Coelestia n. 3194, 3210, 6864, 7499, 8724, 9199, 10076; thus that He came forth from the Father and returned to the Father, n. 3194, 3210; and that after the union, the Divine truth, which is the Comforter, the Spirit of Truth, proceeds from Him, n. 3704, 3712, 3969, 4577, 5704, 7499, 8127, 8241, 9199, 9398, 9407. But this arcanum may be seen more fully explained in the small work on The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 293-295; and in the passages there cited from the Arcana Coelestia, n. 303-305.) As the Lord in respect to the Divine Human is called “the Firstborn,” for the reason that all good proceeds from Him, so all the firstborn in the Israelitish church were holy to Jehovah; so also the Levites were received in place of all the firstborn in Israel; for by the sons of Levi were represented those of the church who are in the good of charity: therefore also a double portion of inheritance was allotted to the firstborn; all this for the reason that the firstborn signified the good that is from the Lord, and in the highest sense, the Lord Himself in respect to the Divine Human from which is all good. For all things that were commanded in the Israelitish church were representative of Divine things, spiritual and celestial.
sRef Ex@13 @2 S3′ sRef Ex@22 @30 S3′ sRef Ex@22 @31 S3′ sRef Ex@13 @12 S3′ sRef Ex@22 @29 S3′ [3] That all the firstborn in the Israelitish church were holy to Jehovah appears from Moses, in the following passages:
Sanctify unto Me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the sons of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is Mine (Exod. 13:2).
Thou shalt cause to pass over unto Jehovah all that openeth the womb, and every firstling that cometh of a beast, as many as thou hast, the males shall be Jehovah’s (Exod. 13:12).
Thou shalt not delay to offer the firstfruits of thy produce, and the firstfruits of thy wine. The firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto Me. Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen and with thy sheep; seven days it shall be with its dam: on the eighth day thou shalt give it Me. And ye shall be men of holiness unto Me (Exod. 22:29-31).
They were to give also the firstborn of beasts, because these, too, were representative; and because they represented they were also made use of in burnt-offerings and sacrifices. (What the various beasts in these services represented, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1823, 3519, 9280, 10042. Why the Levites were accepted in place of all the firstborn in Israel, see Num. 3:12, 13, 41, 45; 8:15-20, was, as was said above, because the “sons of Levi” represented, and therefore signified, the good of charity, and “Levi,” in the highest sense, signified the Lord as to that good, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3875, 3877, 4497, 4502, 4503, 10017. A double portion of the inheritance was given to the firstborn, Deut. 21:17, because a “double portion” signified the good of love, Arcana Coelestia, n. 720, 1686, 5194, 8423.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 29 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 29. And the Prince of the kings of the earth, signifies from whom is all the truth from good in the church. This is evident from the signification of “Prince of kings,” as meaning from whom is all truth; a “prince” denoting what is primary, and “kings” truths; and, because it refers to the Lord, who is here called “Prince of kings,” it means from whom is all truth (that “prince” means what is primary, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1482, 2089, 5044; and that “kings” are truths, see in the explanation of the following verse, where it is said, “and hath made us kings and priests,” n. 31); also from the signification of the “earth,” as meaning the church (of which in what follows). One who knows not the internal sense of the Word must needs believe that the kings of the whole earth are here meant; whereas kings are not meant, nor earth; but by “kings” are meant all who are in truths from good; and by the “earth” is meant the church. (That by the “earth” is signified the church is shown in many places in the Arcana Coelestia, from which these particulars may be seen: That by the “earth” is signified the kingdom of the Lord and the church, n. 662, 1066, 1068, 1262, 1413, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011, 9325, 9643. The chief reason of which is, that by the “earth” is meant the land of Canaan; and the church was there from most ancient times, n. 567, 3686, 4447, 4454, 4516, 4517, 5136, 6516, 9325, 9327; also that, in the spiritual sense, by the “earth” is meant the nation who dwell thereon, and their worship, n. 1262.
That the “new heaven and the new earth” signify the church in the heavens and on earth, n. 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4535, 10373. That by the creation of heaven and earth, in the first chapters of Genesis, in the internal sense, is described the establishment of the Most Ancient Church, see n. 8891, 9942, 10545. That to “create” is to establish and regenerate, see n. 10373. That “ground,” too, signifies the church; “ground” from the reception of seeds, which are truths, but “earth” from the nations therein, and their worship, see n. 566, 1068, 10570. Moreover, “earth,” as it signifies the church, signifies also the religious principle, consequently also such as is idolatrous; as the land of Egypt, the land of the Philistines, the land of Chaldea, and of Babel, and many others. That “earth” signifies the church is also briefly shown in the small work on The Last Judgment, n. 3, 4.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 30 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 30. Unto Him that loveth us, and washeth us from our sins in His blood, signifies His love, and regeneration by truths that are from Him. This is evident from the signification of “washing from sins,” as meaning to regenerate (see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 202-209); and from the signification of “in His blood,” as meaning by truths that are from Him (see in the same Doctrine, n. 210-213; and in the extracts from the Arcana Coelestia there, n. 217, 219, 222). That the Lord’s “blood” signifies truths from good, thus truths from the Lord, can with difficulty be seen and believed by a man who knows nothing of the internal sense of the Word; moreover, it seems far-fetched to understand truths from the Lord in place of His blood; and yet in heaven nothing else is understood by the Lord’s blood. This is because the Lord there is Divine truth united to Divine good, consequently no one there thinks of His flesh and blood. Thought concerning these they call material thought, of which there is none with them. They say, moreover, that they are not aware that flesh and blood are mentioned in the Word; for with them the things belonging to the literal sense of the Word, are changed into spiritual ideas, since they themselves are spiritual and not natural; thus “flesh” when ascribed to the Lord, is changed into Divine good, and “blood” into Divine truth, each proceeding from the Lord.
[2] “Flesh” and “blood” are mentioned in the literal sense of the Word, in order that corresponding spiritual things may be perceived in heaven; for all spiritual things terminate in natural things; in them they have their outmost plane, therefore the Divine passing through the heavens terminates in that plane, and thereon subsists, comparatively like a house on its foundation, and is then in its fullness. This is why the Word is such as it is in the letter, and why “flesh” and “blood” are there mentioned; the angels, however, are astonished that the man of the church, who might also be made spiritual from the Word, does not allow himself to be elevated above the sense of the letter, and thinks not spiritually but materially of the Lord, and of His flesh and blood. But because they so wondered, and it was told them that many, especially the simple, do think spiritually about these things, they explored whether it was so; and they discovered that many, and almost all the simple, when they come to the holy supper do not think at all about flesh and blood, but only of that which is holy which they then have from the Lord. The angels perceived that this is continually provided by the Lord, in order that the man of the church may then be in a spiritual and not in a material idea.
[3] The reason why material eating is understood and adopted in doctrines, is because men have thought of the Human of the Lord as of the human of another man, and have not then thought at the same time of the Divine in His Human, rejecting the expression, “Divine Human;” and they that so thought of the Lord’s Human could not think otherwise than materially of His flesh and blood. It would have been different if they had thought of the Lord according to the universal doctrine of the church, which is, that His Divine and Human is one person, the two being united as soul and body (see above, n. 10, 26). Moreover, “blood” is mentioned in many places in the Word, as also elsewhere in Revelation (as in 6:12; 7:14; 8:7-8; 11:6; 12:11; 14:20; 16:3-4, 6; 18:24; 19:2, 13). I purpose, therefore, in the following pages, to confirm fully that by “blood” is signified truth from the Lord, and in an opposite sense falsity that offers violence to that truth.

AE (Whitehead) n. 31 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ 31. Verse 6. And hath made us kings and priests, signifies that from Him we are in His spiritual and celestial kingdom. This is evident from the signification of “kings,” as meaning those who are in truths from good; and since they constitute the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, as meaning those who are in His spiritual kingdom. That these are signified by “kings” in the Word, will appear from what follows. The above is evident also from the signification of “priests,” as meaning those who are in the good of love; and since these constitute the Lord’s celestial kingdom, they also are those who are in His celestial kingdom. (That there are two kingdoms, into which the heavens are in general divided, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 20-28, and that the spiritual kingdom is called the Lord’s regal kingdom, and the celestial kingdom His priestly kingdom, n. 24.) In any places in the prophetic Word, kings are mentioned, and he that is ignorant of the internal sense believes that by “kings” are there meant kings; kings, however, are not meant, but all those who are in truths from good, or in faith from charity, from the Lord. The reason of this is, that the Lord is the sole king, and those who from Him are in truths from good are called His “sons;” for this reason the same are meant by “princes,” by “sons of the kingdom,” by “sons of kings,” and also by “kings;” and in a sense abstracted from the idea of persons, as it is in heaven, truths from good are meant, or, what is the same, faith from charity; since truth is of faith, and good is of charity.
sRef Matt@13 @38 S2′ sRef Rev@5 @10 S2′ [2] That kings are not meant can be seen simply from its here being said that Jesus Christ “hath made us kings and priests”; and afterwards:
And hast made us to be unto our God kings and priests, and we shall reign upon the earth (Rev. 5:10);
and in Matthew:
The good seed sown in the field are the sons of the kingdom (Matt. 13:38);
the “seed of the field” are truths from good with man from the Lord (Arcana Coelestia, n. 3373, 10248, 10249). Everyone, moreover, may perceive that the Lord will not make all those here treated of to be kings, but that he calls them kings from the power and the glory which those have who from the Lord are in truths from good. From this it can now be seen that by “king,” in the prophetic Word, is meant the Lord as to Divine truth, and by “kings” and “princes,” those who from the Lord are in truths from good, and as most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, that “kings” signify in that sense those who are in falsities from evil.
sRef John@18 @37 S3′ sRef John@18 @38 S3′ sRef John@19 @19 S3′ sRef John@19 @20 S3′ sRef John@19 @22 S3′ sRef John@19 @21 S3′ [3] That by “King” in the Word is meant the Lord in respect to Divine truth, is clear from the words of the Lord Himself to Pilate:
Pilate said, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest it, because I am a king. For this have I been born, and for this am I come into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Everyone that is in the truth heareth My voice. Pilate said unto Him, What is truth? (John 18:37, 38).
From the question of Pilate, “What is truth,” it is clear that he understood that truth was called “king” by the Lord; but as he was a Gentile, and knew nothing from the Word, he could not be taught that Divine truth is from the Lord, and that He is Divine truth; therefore, immediately after his question:
He went out to the Jews, saying, I find no fault in him; and afterwards put upon the cross, This is Jesus, the king of the Jews. And when the chiefs of the priests said unto him, Write not, The king of the Jews, but that He saith I am the king of the Jews, Pilate answered, What I have written, I have written (John 19:4, 19-22).
sRef Rev@19 @19 S4′ sRef Rev@16 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@17 @2 S4′ sRef Rev@17 @18 S4′ sRef Rev@18 @3 S4′ sRef Rev@17 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@17 @10 S4′ sRef Rev@17 @14 S4′ sRef Rev@17 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@21 @24 S4′ [4] When these things are understood, it may be known what is meant by “kings” in the following passages in Revelation:
The sixth angel poured out his bowl upon the great river Euphrates, and the water thereof was dried up, that the way might be made ready for the kings that come from the sun rising (Rev. 16:12).
The great harlot that sitteth upon many waters, with whom the kings of the earth committed fornication (Rev. 17:1-2).
The seven heads are seven mountains on which the woman sitteth, and they are seven kings; the five are fallen, the one is, the other is not yet come. And the ten horns that thou sawest are ten kings, who have received no kingdom as yet, but they receive power as kings with the beast for one hour. These shall war against the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them; for He is Lord of lords and King of Kings (Rev. 17:9, 10, 12, 14).
And the woman whom thou sawest is the great city, which hath the kingdom over the kings of the earth (Rev. 17:18).
Of the wine of the wrath of her fornication all the nations have drunk, and the kings of the earth committed fornication with her (Rev. 18:3).
And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together, to make war against Him that sat on the horse and against His army (Rev. 19:19).
And the nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it, and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honor into it (Rev. 21:24).
In these passages by “kings” are not meant kings, but all who are either in truths from good, or in falsities from evil, as was said before. Likewise in Daniel:
By the king of the south and by the king of the north, who made war against each other (Dan. 11).
By “the king of the south” are there meant those who are in the light of truth from good, by “the king of the north” those who are in darkness from evil. (That “south” in the Word signifies those who are in the light of truth from good, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1458, 3708, 3195, 5672, 9642; and “north” those who are in the darkness of falsity from evil, n. 3708, and in general, in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 141-153, where The Four Quarters in Heaven are treated of.) sRef Isa@52 @15 S5′ sRef Isa@49 @23 S5′ sRef Isa@60 @16 S5′ [5] “Kings” are also frequently mentioned by the prophets in the Old Testament; and there likewise are meant those who, from the Lord, are in truths from good, and in a contrary sense, those who are in falsities from evil; as in Isaiah:
He shall disperse* many nations: kings shall shut their mouths upon Him; for that which had not been told them they have seen, and that which they have not heard they have understood (Isa. 52:15).
In the same:
The Zion of the Holy One of Israel, thou shalt suck the milk of the nations, and shalt suck the breast of kings (Isa. 40:14, 16).
Kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and the chief women thy nursing mothers; they shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth (Isa. 49:23; and elsewhere, as in Isa. 14:9; 24:21; 60:10; Jer. 2:26; 4:9; 49:38; Lam. 2:6, 9; Ezek. 7:26, 27; Hos. 3:4; Zeph. 1:8; Ps. 2:10; 110:5; Gen. 49:20).
[6] Since “kings” signify those who, from the Lord, are in truths from good, it was a custom derived from ancient times for kings, when they were crowned, to receive such insignia as signify truths from good: as for the king to be anointed with oil, to wear a crown of gold, to hold a scepter in his right hand, to be clothed with a purple cloak, to sit upon a throne of silver, and to ride with the royal insignia upon a white horse; for “oil” signifies good from which is truth (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 886, 4638, 9780, 9954, 10011, 10261, 10268, 10269); a “crown of gold” upon the head has a like meaning (n. 9930); a “scepter,” which is a staff, signifies the power of truth from good (n. 4581, 4876, 4966); a “cloak” and a “robe,” Divine truth in the spiritual kingdom (n. 9825, 10005); and “purple,” the spiritual love of good (n. 9467); a “throne,” the kingdom of truth from good (n. 5313, 6397, 8625); “silver,” that truth itself (n. 1551, 1552, 2954, 5658); a “white horse,” the understanding enlightened from truths (see the small work on The White Horse, n. 1-5. That the ceremonies observed at the coronation of kings involve such things, but that the knowledge thereof is at this day lost, see also Arcana Coelestia, n. 4581, 4966).
sRef Gen@49 @11 S7′ sRef Judg@5 @10 S7′ sRef Gen@49 @10 S7′ sRef 1Ki@1 @33 S7′ sRef Judg@5 @9 S7′ sRef Zech@9 @9 S7′ [7] As it is known from these things what is meant by a “king” in the Word, I will add to the above:
Why the Lord, when He entered Jerusalem, sat upon the foal of an ass, and the people then proclaimed Him king, and also strewed their garments in the way (Matt. 21:1-8; Mark 11:1-11; Luke 19:28-40; John 12:14-16).
This is predicted in Zechariah:
Exult, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, thy king cometh unto thee, just and having salvation; riding upon an ass, and upon the foal of an ass (Zech. 9:9; Matt. 21:5; John 12:15).
The reason was, that to sit upon an ass and the foal of an ass was the distinctive mark of the highest judge and of a king; as can be seen from the following passages:
My heart is towards the lawgivers of Israel, ye who ride upon white asses (Judg. 5:9-10).
The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgivers from between his feet, till Shiloh come; who shall bind his ass’s foal to the vine, and the son of his she-ass to the noble vine (Gen. 49:10, 11).
As sitting on an ass, and the foal of an ass, was such a distinctive mark:
Judges rode upon white she-asses (Judg. 5:9-10);
And his sons upon asses’ colts (Judg. 10:4; 12:14);
And the king himself when crowned, upon a she-mule (1 Kings 1:33);
And his sons upon mules (2 Sam. 13:29).
One who does not know the signification of “horse,” “mule,” and “the foal of an ass,” in a representative sense, will suppose that the Lord’s riding upon the foal of an ass was significative of misery and humiliation. But it signified royal magnificence; for this reason the people then proclaimed the Lord king, and strewed their garments upon the way. This was done when He went to Jerusalem, because by “Jerusalem” is signified the church (as may be seen in the little work on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 6; and that “garments” signify truths clothing and serving good, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 1073, 2576, 5248, 5319, 5954, 9212, 9215, 9216, 9952, 10536; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 177-182).
[8] From this it is now clear what is signified by the “King” and by “kings,” in the Word, so also what by the “Anointed,” “Messiah,” and “Christ;” for “Anointed,” “Messiah,” and “Christ,” like “King,” signify the Lord as to Divine truth proceeding from His Divine good; for a king is called “anointed;” and “anointed” in the Hebrew is Messiah, and in the Greek Christ. But that the Lord, as to the Divine Human, was alone “the Anointed of Jehovah,” since in Him alone was the Divine good of Divine Love from conception, for He was conceived of Jehovah, but that all that were anointed were only representatives of Him (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 9954, 10011, 10268-10269). But “priests” signify such good as exists in the celestial kingdom (see in Arcana Coelestia, namely, that priests represented the Lord, as to Divine good, n. 2015, 6148; that the priesthood was representative of the Lord as to the work of salvation, since this was from the Divine good of His Divine Love, see n. 9809; that the priesthood of Aaron, of his sons, and of the Levites, was representative of the work of salvation, in successive order, see n. 10017; that from this “the priesthood,” and “priesthoods,” in the Word signified good of love, which is from the Lord, see n. 9806, 9809; that by the two names, “Jesus” and “Christ,” is signified both His priesthood and His royalty, that is, by “Jesus” is signified Divine good, and by “Christ” Divine truth, n. 3004, 3005, 3009; that priests and likewise kings who do not acknowledge the Lord signify the opposite, namely, evil, and falsity from evil, n. 3670).
* The Hebrew has “sprinkle,” as found also in Arcana Coelestia, n. 2015.

AE (Whitehead) n. 32 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ sRef John@14 @10 S0′ sRef John@16 @32 S0′ sRef John@14 @11 S0′ sRef John@10 @30 S0′ sRef John@10 @38 S0′ 32. Unto God and His Father, signifies by Divine truth and Divine good. This is evident from this, that “God” is the Divine truth, and “Jehovah” is the Divine good; therefore in the Word the Lord is called “God” when Divine truth is treated of, and “Jehovah” when Divine good is treated of (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4287, 4402, 7010, 9167); but here it is said “Father” instead of Jehovah, because the Father of the Lord was Jehovah, and by “Father” the like is meant as by “Jehovah.” By both “God” and “the Father” the Lord alone is meant; for the Father was in Him as the soul is in its body (see above, n. 10, 26); since He was conceived of Jehovah, and one’s soul is from him of whom He is conceived; consequently when the Lord spoke of the Father He meant His Divine in Himself. This was why He said:
That the Father is in Him and He in the Father (John 10:38; 14:10, 11).
That the Father and He are one (John 10:30).
That He is not alone, but He and the Father (John 16:32).
(That the Lord called the Divine of Jehovah, which was in Him from conception, and which was the esse of His life in His Human, “the Father,” and the Divine truth which is from Divine good “the Son,” see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2803, 3704, 7499, 8328, 8897; that “the Son of man” is Divine truth, and “the Father” Divine good, see n. 1729, 1733, 2159, 2628, 2803, 2813, 3255, 3704, 7499, 8897, 9807. See also citations from Arcana Coelestia in New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 304, on the unition of the Divine which is called “Jehovah,” “the Father,” with the Divine Human of the Lord.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 33 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ sRef John@15 @8 S0′ sRef John@15 @7 S0′ 33. To Him be the glory and the might unto the ages of the ages, signifies that these things, namely, Divine good and Divine truth, are from the Lord alone to eternity. This is evident from the signification of “glory,” as meaning Divine truth in heaven (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4809, 5922, 8267, 8427, 9429); and from the signification of “might,” as meaning Divine good through Divine truth, since Divine good has all might and all power through Divine truth (see n. 3091, 3563, 6344, 6423, 8304, 9643, 10019, 10182; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, where the power of the angels of heaven from the Lord is treated of, n. 228-233). That “unto the ages of the ages” means to eternity is clear without explanation. “Glory” is Divine truth in heaven because Divine truth is the light there; and the things that have existence from the light of heaven are called “glory,” because they have existence from the Lord and represent the Divine truth that is from Him, and declare His glory; especially the things that are within the angel, which are of intelligence and wisdom. (That the light of heaven is Divine truth, and that all things that are in heaven, whether without or within the angel, have existence from the light there, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 126-140, 172, 173, 176.) It is believed in the world that “Glory be to God” means that God for His own sake desires glory from man, and that He is moved by it, and imparts blessings in return for it. But this is a mistake. God desires glory from man for man’s sake; for thus man ascribes all things to the Divine and nothing to himself, and when he does this, the Divine can flow in with Divine truth, and give him intelligence and wisdom. Thus and no otherwise is the Lord glorified in man; for the Lord loves everyone, and, from love, desires that His glory, that is, Divine truth, may be in men. This, moreover, the Lord teaches in John:
If ye abide in Me, and My words abide in you, ye shall ask whatever ye will, and it shall be done unto you. Herein is My Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit, and that ye be made My disciples (John 15:7-8).
(That the salvation of the human race is the glory of the Lord, see n. Arcana Coelestia 4347, 4593, 5957, 7550, 8263, 10646.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 34 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ 34. Amen, signifies Divine confirmation. This is evident from the signification of “Amen,” as meaning truth, for this is the meaning of Amen in the Hebrew; and as all truth which is truth is Divine, “Amen,” when said in the Word, signifies Divine confirmation. For truth confirms all things, and Divine truth confirms itself; and it was because the Lord when He was in the world was Divine truth itself, that He so frequently said “Amen” [usually translated “Verily”].

AE (Whitehead) n. 35 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ 35. Verses 7, 8. Behold He cometh with the clouds, and every eye shall see Him, and they who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth shall lament over Him. Even so: Amen. I am the Alpha and the Omega, Beginning and End, saith the Lord, who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty. 7 “Behold He cometh with the clouds,” signifies that the Lord is about to reveal Himself in the Word through the internal sense (n. 36); “and every eye shall see Him,” signifies that all will acknowledge Him who are in truths from good (n. 37); “and they who pierced Him,” signifies that they also will see Him who are in falsities from evil (n. 38); “and all the tribes of the earth shall lament over Him,” signifies that the falsities of the church will oppose (n. 39); “even so: Amen,” signifies Divine confirmation, that so it will be (n. 40). 8. “I am the Alpha and the Omega, Beginning and End,” signifies that He governs all things from firsts through ultimates, and thus all things of heaven to eternity (n. 41); “saith the Lord, who is, and who was, and who is to come,” signifies from Him who is the All in all things of heaven and of the church from eternity to eternity, and Jehovah (n. 42); “the Almighty,” signifies from Himself (n. 43).

AE (Whitehead) n. 36 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ 36. Verse 7. Behold, He cometh with the clouds, signifies that the Lord is about to reveal Himself in the Word through the internal sense. This is evident from the signification of “coming,” as being, in reference to the Lord, to reveal Himself; and from the signification of “clouds,” as being Divine truths in ultimates, thus the Word in the letter; for the Word as to the sense of the letter is Divine truth in ultimates; and since each thing therein contains an internal or spiritual sense, “coming with clouds” means revealing Himself through that sense. That “clouds” signify Divine truths in ultimates is from appearances in the spiritual world. There clouds appear in various kinds of light; in the inmost or third heaven in a flaming light, in the middle or second heaven in a bright white light, and in the outmost or first heaven in a light more dense; and everyone there knows that they signify Divine truth from the Lord through the angels; for when Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, which is the very light of heaven, passes through the angels, it appears as a cloud, purer or denser according to their intelligence. Such clouds have oftentimes been seen by me, and what they signify has also been perceived. This is why “clouds,” such as those that appear before the eyes of men in the world, signify Divine truth in ultimates; and as the Word in the letter is Divine truth in ultimates, that is what is meant by “clouds.”
sRef Luke@21 @27 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @64 S2′ sRef Matt@24 @30 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @63 S2′ [2] He who does not know that “clouds” have this signification, may suppose that the Lord is about to come in clouds for the Last Judgment, and to appear in glory; according to His words in the Evangelists, where He says:
Then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and much glory (Matt. 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 21:27).
“The consummation of the age” which is there treated of is the last time of the church; and the Lord’s coming at that time is the revelation of Himself, and of Divine truth which is from Him, in the Word, through the internal sense. Elsewhere than in the Word the Lord does not reveal Himself, nor does He reveal Himself there except through the internal sense. The Word in the internal sense is also signified by “power” and “glory.” (That this is fulfilled at this day, namely that the age is consummated, and the Last Judgment accomplished; and also that the Lord has come in the clouds of heaven, that is, has revealed the internal sense of the Word, may be seen in the small work on The Last Judgment, from beginning to end; also in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 1; also in New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 249-266.
That “the consummation of the age” signifies the last time of the church, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4535, 10622; that “the coming of the Lord” signifies the revelation of Divine truth through the internal sense, n. 3900, 4060; that “clouds” signify the sense of the letter of the Word, n. 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8106, 8781, 9430, 10551, 10574; that “glory” signifies Divine truth in heaven, thus the internal sense, for this is Divine truth in heaven, n. 5922, 9429, 10574. The Lord is said to be “about to come in power,” because Divine truth, which is from the Lord has all power, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 228-233, 539.) The like is meant by the Lord’s words to the high priest:
Jesus said to the high priest, Henceforth ye shall see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven (Matt. 26:64; Mark 14:62).
“The Son of man” is the Lord as to Divine truth; “sitting at the right hand of power” is His omnipotence; “coming in the clouds of heaven” is the revelation of Divine truth respecting Him in the Word, for He has revealed Himself and has also fulfilled all things contained in the internal sense, which treats especially of the glorification of His Human.
sRef Rev@14 @14 S3′ sRef Dan@7 @13 S3′ sRef Ps@68 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@19 @1 S3′ sRef Rev@14 @16 S3′ sRef Ps@104 @3 S3′ [3] The same is signified by “clouds” in the following passages. In Daniel:
I saw in the night visions, and behold there came with the clouds of heaven, one like unto the Son of man (Dan. 7:13);
in Revelation:
I saw, and behold a white cloud; and on the cloud one sat like unto a man,* having on his head a crown (Rev. 14:14, 16);
in Isaiah:
Behold, Jehovah sitting upon a dense light cloud (Isa. 19:1);
in David:
Sing unto God, sing praises to His name, extol Him that rideth upon the clouds (Ps. 68:4);
in the same:
Jehovah appointeth the clouds His chariot; He walketh upon the wings of the wind (Ps. 104:3).
Who cannot see that these things are not to be understood according to the sense of the letter, that is, that Jehovah sits upon a cloud, that He rides upon the clouds, and that He makes the clouds His chariot? He who thinks spiritually may know that Jehovah is present in His Divine truth, for this proceeds from Him, consequently that this is what is meant by “clouds there;” so it is also said that Jehovah “appointeth the clouds His chariot;” because by “chariot” is signified the doctrine of truth (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2762, 5321, 8215).
sRef Isa@45 @8 S4′ sRef Ezek@10 @3 S4′ sRef Deut@33 @26 S4′ sRef Ezek@10 @4 S4′ sRef Nahum@1 @3 S4′ sRef Ps@68 @34 S4′ sRef Ps@89 @37 S4′ [4] Likewise in the following places. In Isaiah:
Drop down, ye heavens, from above, and let the higher clouds [pour down] righteousness (45:8);
in Nahum:
The way of Jehovah is with cloud** and storm, and clouds are the dust of His feet (Nahum 1:3);
in David:
Ascribe ye strength unto God; His excellency is over Israel, and His strength is in the higher clouds (Ps. 68:34);
A faithful witness in the clouds (Ps. 89:37).
in Moses:
There is none like unto the God of Jeshurun, who rideth upon the heaven in thy help, and in thy*** magnificence upon the clouds (Deut. 33:26);
From this it can be seen what is meant by:
The cloud filling the inner court (Ezek. 10:3-4);
And the cloud resting upon the tent (repeatedly in Moses); also that:
Jesus when He was transfigured, was seen in glory, and a cloud overshadowed the three disciples, and it was said to them out of the cloud, This is my beloved son (Matt. 17:1-10; Mark 9:1-11; Luke 9:28-36.
(See also what is said about the Lord’s being in a cloud in the midst of angels, in the little work on The Earths in the Universe, n. 171.)
* The Greek has “the Son of man,” as found also in Apocalypse Explained, n. 906; Apocalypse Revealed, n. 642; Arcana Coelestia, n. 9807, 9930.
** The Hebrew has “storm and tempest,” as also found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 419, 594; Arcana Coelestia, n. 2162.
*** The Hebrew has “His,” as also found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 594.

AE (Whitehead) n. 37 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ 37. And every eye shall see Him, signifies that all will acknowledge Him who are in truths from good. This is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to understand, to perceive, and to acknowledge (see Arcana Coelestia n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863, 3869, 4723, 10705); and from the signification of “eye,” as being understanding and faith (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2701, 4403-4421, 4523-4534, 9051, 10569); thus such as are in truths from good, for these are in faith and thence in understanding. That the “eye” signifies understanding and faith, is from correspondence; for understanding is internal sight, and it is internal sight that sees by means of the eye, for that sight determines the eye to objects and disposes its interior parts, which are many, for reception. It is in consequence of this that the iris and pupil seem now dilated, now contracted, now obscure, now bright and sometimes sparkling, altogether in agreement with the desire and want of the understanding. Therefore, to some extent, the affection of the thought can be seen from the eyes. It is from this correspondence that the eye signifies the understanding. The eye also signifies faith, because truths of faith have no other abode than the understanding; truths that do not abide there are not in the man (see New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 28-36). The “eye” is, in the spiritual sense, faith, also because of the angels looking to the Lord; for angels turn their faces continually to the Lord, and see Him by faith and understanding. (On which turning, see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 123, 142, 143, 145, 151, 153, 255, 272, 510.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 38 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@37 @17 S1′ 38. And they who pierced Him, signifies that they also will see Him who are in falsities from evil. This is evident from the signification of “piercing,” as being those who altogether deny the Lord, for these kill and pierce Him in themselves; for these are meant by the soldier who pierced His side (John 19:34-37). By “soldier” and “soldiers” are meant those who are of the church, and who should fight for the Lord. Here in particular are meant those of the Jewish church, and, in general, all that are of the church who are in falsities from evil. And as such were signified by “soldiers,” the soldiers divided the Lord’s garments, and cast lots upon His coat; which means that the Jewish church dispersed the Divine truths that are in the sense of the letter of the Word, but were unable to disperse interior truths, or the truths of the internal sense (for “garments” signify truths in ultimates; see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2576, 5248, 6918, 9158, 9212; “to divide” signifies to dissipate and disperse, see n. 4424, 6360, 6361, 9093; and “the coat” interior truths, n. 9048, 9212, 9216, 9826).

AE (Whitehead) n. 39 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ 39. And all the tribes of the earth shall lament over Him, signifies that the falsities of the church will oppose. This is evident from the signification of “lamenting” as being to mourn, to grieve, to be displeased, to be angry, to be averse from, thus also to oppose; and from the signification of “tribes,” as being all truths and goods in the complex, and in the contrary sense, all falsities and evils in the complex (of which in what follows); also from the signification of “the earth,” as being the church (see above, n. 29). By “all the tribes of the earth,” then, the whole church is meant, and by “their lamenting over Him” is signified that truth and good will be no more, because falsities and evils are to prevail and oppose. For this verse treats, in general, of what the state of the church will be at its end, when there will be no longer any faith, because no charity, namely, that the Lord will then reveal Himself, and that all who are in truths from good will acknowledge Him, and that they also will see Him, who are in falsities from evil, but that the falsities of the church will oppose. (That Revelation does not treat of the successive states of the church, but of its last state when it is at its end, see above, n. 5; and that its end is when there is no faith, because no charity, see the little work on The Last Judgment, n. 33-39 seq.; and when there is no faith, because no charity, falsities from evil prevail and oppose truths from good.)
[2] In the Word “tribes” are often mentioned, inasmuch as the Israelitish people were divided into twelve tribes, and one who does not know the internal sense of the Word supposes that by “tribes” are meant the tribes of Israel; but by “tribes” are not meant tribes, nor by “Israel” is Israel meant, but by “tribes” are meant all those who are in truths from good, and by “Israel” the Lord’s church. He who is ignorant of this will easily adopt the common belief that the sons of Israel were chosen in preference to all others on earth, and that they are also to be brought at last into the land of Canaan; indeed, that heaven also is to be formed chiefly from them; when, in fact, by their names they are not meant, but they who are in truths from good, thus those who are of the church; by the twelve tribes, all such, and by each tribe, some particular truth and good pertaining to those who are of the church.
[3] When this is understood, what is meant by these words in Revelation can be seen:
I heard the number of them which were sealed, a hundred and forty and four thousand sealed of all the tribes of the sons of Israel. Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Asher were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Naphtali were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Manasseh were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Zebulon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand (Rev. 7:4-8).
Here those who are of the Israelitish nation are not meant, but all, how many soever, who are in the truths from good, for all such are sealed for heaven. Moreover, the numbers “one hundred and forty-four thousand” and “twelve thousand” signify all; and each tribe signifies all who are in that truth or good which is signified by its name, as may appear from what is shown in the Arcana Coelestia; as what good and truth are signified by “Judah,” n. 3881, 6363; what by “Reuben,” n. 3861, 3866, 4605, 4731, 4734, 4761, 6342-6345; what by “Gad,” n. 3934, 3935; what by “Asher,” n. 3938, 3939, 6408; what by “Naphtali,” n. 3927, 3928; what by “Manasseh,” n. 3969, 5351, 5354, 6222, 6234, 6238, 6267, 6296; what by “Simeon,” n. 3869-3872, 4497, 4502-4503, 5482, 5626, 5630; what by “Levi,” n. 3875, 3877, 4497, 4502-4503; what by “Issachar,” n. 3956, 3957; what by “Zebulon,” n. 3960, 3961, 6383; what by “Joseph,” n. 3969, 3971, 4669, 6417; and what by “Benjamin,” n. 3969, 4592, 5411, 5413, 5443, 5639, 5686, 5688, 5689, 6440. That all numbers in the Word signify things, see n. 482, 487, 647-648, 755, 813, 1963, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 4495, 4670, 5265, 6175, 9488, 9659, 10217, 10253. That “twelve” signifies all, and all things in respect to truths from good, see n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272, 3858, 3913, likewise the numbers “72,” “144,” “1200,” “144,000,” because they arise from the number 12 by multiplication, n. 7973. That composite numbers have a like meaning with the simple numbers from which they are produced by multiplication, see n. 5291, 5335, 5708, 7973).
sRef Rev@21 @14 S4′ sRef Rev@21 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@21 @17 S4′ sRef Rev@21 @16 S4′ [4] He who is not aware that numbers signify things, and what the numbers “twelve,” “one hundred and forty-four,” and “twelve thousand” signify, likewise what “tribes” and “apostles” signify, cannot know what is signified by these words in Revelation:
The holy city, New Jerusalem, had a wall great and high, having twelve gates, and in the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of Israel; and the wall had twelve foundations, and on them the twelve names of the apostles of the Lamb. The wall was a hundred and forty and four cubits, and the length and the breadth of the city twelve thousand furlongs (Rev. 21:12, 14, 16-17).
What is signified by all this you will see explained in the small work on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine (n. 1); namely, that by “Jerusalem” is signified the church in respect to doctrine; by its “wall,” protecting truths; by the “gates,” introductory truths; by the” foundations,” the knowledges on which doctrine is based; by “twelve angels,” and by “twelve tribes,” all truths and goods in the complex; “the twelve apostles,” have a like signification, and the numbers “twelve,” “one hundred and forty-four,” and “twelve thousand,” signify all things and all persons.
sRef Rev@7 @8 S5′ sRef Matt@19 @28 S5′ sRef Rev@7 @5 S5′ sRef Rev@7 @7 S5′ sRef Rev@7 @6 S5′ sRef Rev@7 @4 S5′ [5] Furthermore, he who is aware that such things are signified by the twelve tribes can see the arcanum in this:
Why the names of the twelve tribes were engraved on the precious stones in the Urim and Thummim, likewise what that breastplate signified (Exod. 28:21; 39:10-15).
(This arcanum may be seen unfolded in Arcana Coelestia, n. 3858, 6335, 6640, 9863, 9865, 9873, 9874, 9905.) He can also see what is signified by this:
That the twelve apostles should sit upon twelve thrones, and are to judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt. 19:28);
namely, that the Lord alone will judge everyone by truths from good (n. 2129, 6397). Also what is meant by:
The predictions of Israel, the father, respecting his sons (Gen. 49:2-28);
as well as numerous other passages of the Word, where tribes are mentioned (as in Isa. 19:13; 49:6; 63:17; Jer. 10:16; Ezek. 48:1 seq.; Ps. 122:3-5; Deut. 32:8; Num. 24:2; Rev. 5:9; 7:4-9; 11:9; 13:7; 14:6; and elsewhere).
sRef Matt@24 @30 S6′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S6′ [6] Again, what is meant by the Lord’s Word respecting the consummation of the age and His coming:
After the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken; and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven; and then shall all the tribes of the earth lament; and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory (Matt. 24:29-30).
(These words can be seen explained in detail in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 1; and in the following passages in the Arcana Coelestia, namely, that the twelve tribes of Israel represented and thence signified all truths and goods in the complex, thus all things of faith and love, n. 3858, 3926, 4060, 6335; that like things are signified by the twelve apostles, n. 2129, 3354, 3488, 3858, 6397; and that their signification varies according to the order in which they are named, n. 3862, 3926, 3939, 4603, seq., 6337, 6640, 10335.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 40 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ 40. Even so, Amen, signifies Divine confirmation that so it will be. This is evident from the signification of “even so,” as being a confirmation of what goes before, that so it will be; and from the signification of “Amen,” as being Divine confirmation (see above, n. 34).

AE (Whitehead) n. 41 sRef Luke@24 @39 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @8 S0′ 41. Verse 8. I am the Alpha and the Omega, Beginning and End, signifies that He governs all things from firsts through ultimates, and thus all things of heaven to eternity. This is evident from the signification of “the Alpha and the Omega,” as being the first and the last, or in firsts and in ultimates; and He who is in firsts and in ultimates also governs intermediates, thus all things. These things are said of the Lord’s Divine Human, for they are said of Jesus Christ, by which name His Divine Human is meant (see above, n. 26). By means of this the Lord is in firsts and in ultimates. But that He governs all things from firsts through ultimates, is an arcanum that cannot as yet be perceived by man; for man knows nothing of the successive degrees into which the heavens are divided, and into which also the interiors of man are divided; and he scarcely knows that man as to flesh and bones is in his ultimates. Neither does he perceive how intermediates are governed from firsts through ultimates; and yet in order that He might thus govern all things, the Lord came into the world that even to ultimates, that is, even to flesh and bones, He might assume the Human and glorify it, that is, make it Divine. That the Lord put on such a Human, and took it with Him into heaven, is known in the church from this, that He left nothing of His body in the sepulcher; also from His own words to His disciples:
See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; handle Me and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye behold Me having (Luke 24:39).
By this Human, therefore, the Lord is in ultimates; and by making even these ultimates Divine, He put Himself into the Divine power of governing all things from firsts through ultimates. If the Lord had not done this, the human race on this earth would have perished in eternal death. But this arcanum is not carried further because more must be known whereby an idea of the Divine government from firsts through ultimates may be formed and acquired. (Yet some thing may come into the understanding from what is shown in the Arcana Coelestia, namely, that interior things flow in successively into external things, even into what is extreme or ultimate, and that there they have existence and subsistence, n. 634, 6239, 6465, 9216, 9217; that interior things not only flow in successively, but they also form what is simultaneous in the ultimate, and in what order, n. 5897, 6451, 8603, 10099; therefore, that all interior things are held together in connection, from what is first by means of what is ultimate n. 9828, and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 297; that from this there is strength and power in ultimates, n. 9836; that from this also what is ultimate is more holy than what is interior, n. 9824; that from this “the first and last [or ultimate]” signify all things, n. 10044, 10329, 10335. On the successive degrees into which the heavens are divided, and into which also the interiors of man are divided, see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 38.) It is said also, that the Lord is “Beginning and End,” and by this is meant that He is from eternity to eternity; but neither can this be explained to the apprehension further than has been done above (n. 23) which see.

AE (Whitehead) n. 42 sRef Rev@1 @8 S0′ 42. Saith the Lord, who is, and who was, and who is to come, signifies from Him who is the All in all things of heaven and of the church, from eternity to eternity, and Jehovah, as is evident from the explanation given above (n. 23), where the same words occur.

AE (Whitehead) n. 43 sRef John@5 @26 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef John@15 @5 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @8 S0′ sRef John@1 @4 S0′ sRef John@1 @3 S0′ 43. The Almighty, signifies from Himself. This is evident from this, that no one except the Lord alone has any power in the heavens; therefore the angels are powers, or are powerful, in the measure of their reception from the Lord, and they receive in the measure in which they are in Divine good united with Divine truth; for this is the Lord in Heaven. From this it is clear that the Lord alone is powerful, and no one else in heaven except from the Lord. The reason is that the Divine of the Lord is the All in all things in heaven, for this makes heaven in general, and with each one in particular. Moreover, by Him were all things created that were created, thus heaven and earth, as He Himself teaches in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. All things were made through Him; and without Him was not anything made that hath been made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the Word became flesh, and dwelt in us (John 1:1, 3-4, 14).
By “the Word” is meant the Divine truth which is in the heavens, and from which are all things there. That this is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human is evident, for it is said, “And the Word became flesh, and dwelt in us.” And because all the life of the angels is therefrom, likewise all the light in the heavens, it is said, “In Him was life, and the life was the light of men.” (But all these things may be seen more fully illustrated in the work on Heaven and Hell, namely, that the Divine of the Lord makes heaven, n. 7-12; that this is His Divine Human, n 78-86; that all the life of angels is therefrom, n. 9; and also all light in heaven, n. 126-140; that angels have all their power from the Lord, and none at all from themselves, n. 228-233.) From this it is clear that “Almighty” means to be, to live, and to have power, from Himself. That the Lord’s Divine Human has being, life, and power from Itself equally with His Divine in Himself, which is called the Father, the Lord also teaches:
As the Father hath life in Himself, so gave He to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:26);
and that no one else has life in himself Jesus declares:
Without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:5).

AE (Whitehead) n. 44 sRef Rev@1 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 44. Verses 9-11. I John, who also am your brother and partaker in the affliction and in the kingdom and [patient] expectation of Jesus Christ, was in the isle that is called Patmos, for the Word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ. I was in the spirit on the Lord’s day: and I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet, saying, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last; and, what thou seest write in a book, and send to the churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and Smyrna, and Pergamum, and Thyatira, and Sardis, and Philadelphia, and Laodicea. 9. “I, John” signifies doctrine respecting the Lord (n. 45); “who also am your brother,” signifies and respecting the good of love to Him (n. 46); “and partaker in the affliction,” signifies the truth of faith infested by falsities (n. 47); “and in the kingdom,” signifies in the church where truths are (n. 48); “and the [patient] expectation of Jesus Christ,” signifies where there is a knowledge of the Divine in His Human (n. 49); “was in the isle that is called Patmos,” signifies revelation to the Gentiles (n. 50); “for the Word of God,” signifies that Divine truth may be received (n. 51); “and for the testimony of Jesus Christ,” signifies and that the Lord’s Divine Human may be acknowledged (n. 52). 10. “I was in the spirit,” signifies a spiritual state when there is revelation (n. 53); “on the Lord’s day,” signifies Divine influx then (n. 54); “and I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,” signifies manifest perception of Divine truth, revealed from heaven (n. 55). 11. “Saying, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last,” signifies who governs all things from firsts through ultimates and thus all things of heaven to eternity (n. 56); “and what thou seest write in a book,” signifies that the things revealed may be for posterity (n. 57); “and send to the churches which are in Asia,” signifies and then to all, who are in the light of intelligence (n. 58); “unto Ephesus, and Smyrna, and Pergamum, and Thyatira, and Sardis, and Philadelphia, and Laodicea,” signifies in each case according to reception (n. 59).

AE (Whitehead) n. 45 sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 45. Verse 9. I, John, signifies doctrine respecting the Lord. This is evident from the representation of “John;” that by him is meant in the highest sense, the Lord in respect to doctrine (see above, n. 19) wherefore also by “John” is signified doctrine respecting the Lord; for to know the Lord is the chief thing of all things of doctrine, or the first and the last thereof; for the primary thing of the church is to know and acknowledge its Divine; for it is conjoined with its Divine by means of acknowledgment and faith, and without conjunction with the Divine all things of doctrine are of no account; this, moreover, is the reason why the Divine has revealed Itself. The Divine that has revealed Itself is the Divine Human. (That without acknowledgment of the Divine in the Lord’s Human there is no salvation, see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 280-310.) From this now it is that “John,” because he represents the Lord in respect to doctrine, also represents doctrine respecting the Lord.

AE (Whitehead) n. 46 sRef Matt@12 @48 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @8 S0′ sRef Matt@12 @47 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@12 @49 S0′ sRef Matt@12 @50 S0′ 46. Who also am your brother, signifies and respecting the good of love to Him. This is evident from the signification of “brother,” as being the good of love. “Brother” signifies the good of love, because in heaven there are no other than spiritual relationships, thus no other brotherhoods; for those there do not become brothers by birth; moreover, those who were brothers in the world do not recognize each other there, but each regards the other from the good of love; those most closely conjoined regarding each other as brothers; and others, according to their conjunction by good, regarding each other as kinsmen and as friends. This is why in the Word “brother” signifies the good of love. This, moreover, the Lord teaches where it is said:
One said unto Jesus, Behold, Thy mother and Thy brethren stand without seeking to speak with Thee: but He answered and said, Who is My mother, and who are My brethren? (Matt. 12:47-50).
My mother and My brethren are they who bear the Word of God and do it (Luke 8:18-21).
And in another place:
One is your Teacher, Christ, and all ye are brethren (Matt. 23:8).
From this it is evident what it is to be a “brother in the Lord.” (But see what has been shown before respecting this; as that all are consociated in heaven according to spiritual kinships, which are the kinships of the good of love and faith, and that such recognize each other as kindred, in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 205; and in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 685, 917, 2739, 3612, 3815, 4121; consequently by “brethren” in the Word are meant those who are conjoined by good, n. 2360, 3303, 3803, 3815, 4121, 4191, 4267, 5409, 6756, 10490; that the Lord calls those “brethren” who are in the good of love and of faith from Him, n. 4191, 5686, 5692, 6756; that they are called “brethren” also from spiritual kinship, n. 6756; that charity and faith, thus good and truth, are brethren, in what respect, n. 367, 3160, 9806; that good and truth are also brother and sister, in what respect, n. 2508, 2524, 3160; that good and truth are also married partners, in what respect, n. 3160; that “man with brother” means truth with good, n. 3459, 4725.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 47 sRef Matt@24 @29 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @20 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @21 S0′ 47. And partaker in the affliction, signifies the truth of faith infested by falsities. This is evident from the signification of “partaker,” as being the truth of faith (concerning which see below); and from the signification of “affliction,” as being infestation by falsities (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 6663, 6851, 9196). In the Word frequent mention is made of “brother” and “partaker” (or companion), and by these good and truth are signified. Moreover, in ancient times those were called “brethren” who were in good and those were called “partakers” (or companions) who were in truths, and for this reason, that truth must be in company with good, and when it is in company, it becomes a brother; consequently here by “partaker” is signified the truth of faith. (That good and truth are meant by “brother” and “companion” in the Word, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 6756, 10490.) “Affliction” signifies infestation by falsities, since a mind that is in truths is afflicted by falsities, when the two are in conflict with each other; spiritual affliction is from no other source. This, therefore, is what is signified by “affliction” in the Word, as in Matthew:
He that was sown upon the rocky places hath no root in himself; when affliction and persecution ariseth because of the Word, straightway he is offended (Matt. 13:20-21).
And in the same:
In the consummation of the age they shall deliver you up into affliction. For then shall be great affliction, such as hath not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, nor shall be. Immediately after the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened (Matt. 24:9, 21, 29; Mark 13:19, 24).
The “consummation of the age” is the last time of the church; and since falsities are then to prevail and fight against truths, it is said that they shall be in “affliction, and in so great a one as hath not been from the beginning of the world.” Such affliction is meant by the affliction in which John is said to be a “partaker,” and by John is here meant the doctrine respecting the Lord; for in Revelation the last time of the church is treated of (see above, n. 5).

AE (Whitehead) n. 48 sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 48. And in the kingdom, signifies in the church where truths are. This is evident from the signification of “kingdom” in the Word, as being heaven and the church. It means the church in respect to truth, or where truths are, because by the royalty of the Lord is signified Divine truth proceeding from Him, and therefore by “kings” are signified truths (see what is shown above, n. 31). It is said the church in respect to truth, by which is meant the church in respect to truths from good; and for the reason that there are no truths without good, for truths have their life from good. Truths with a man who is not in good are indeed truths in themselves, but they are not truths in him (as may be seen abundantly shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 11-27). sRef Matt@24 @7 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @43 S2′ sRef Matt@8 @12 S2′ [2] That “kingdom” in the Word signifies heaven and the church in respect to truths, is evident from many passages in the Word, some of which I will cite. Thus in Matthew:
The sons of the kingdom shall be cast forth into the outer darkness (Matt. 8:12);
the “sons of the kingdom” here are those of the church where truths do not prevail, but falsities. In the same:
He that heareth the Word of the kingdom, and giveth not heed to it, the evil one cometh, and snatcheth away that which hath been sown in his heart. This is he that was sown by the wayside. The field is the world; the seed are the sons of the kingdom (Matt. 13:19, 38).
“To hear the Word of the kingdom” is to hear the truths of the church; and because “seed” signifies truths, they who receive truths are called “sons of the kingdom.” (That “seed” is the truth of the church, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3038, 3373, 3671, 10248, 10249.) In the same:
Therefore the kingdom of God shall be taken away from you, and shall be given to a nation bringing forth fruit (Matt. 21:43).
It is evident that “the kingdom of God” here signifies the church in respect to truths, thus also the truths of the church, from its being said that “it should be taken away from them, and given to a nation bringing forth fruit;” “fruit” is good. Again in the same:
In the consummation of the age, nation shall be stirred up against nation, and kingdom against kingdom (Matt. 24:3, 7).
The consummation of the age” is the last time of the church, “nation against nation” is evil against good, and “kingdom against kingdom” is falsity against truth. (That “nation” is the good of the church, and in the opposite sense the evil there, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1059, 1159, 1258-1260, 1416, 1849, 6005.)
sRef Matt@6 @10 S3′ sRef Matt@6 @13 S3′ [3] From this it is plain what is meant by “kingdom” in the Lord’s prayer:
Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so also upon the earth. Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory (Matt. 6:10, 13).
“Thy kingdom come” is a prayer that truth may be received; “Thy will be done,” that it may be received by those who do God’s will; “Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory,” means Divine truth from God alone; it is also said “power and glory,” because Divine truth has all power and glory (see above, n. 33). From all this it can be seen what “the kingdom of God” signifies in very many passages in the Word, namely, the church in respect to truths, and also heaven, and in the highest sense the Lord in respect to the Divine Human. “Kingdom,” in the highest sense, signifies the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, because from Him all Divine truth proceeds; and “kingdom” signifies heaven, because heaven with the angels is from no other source than from the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 7-12, 78-86, 126-140).

AE (Whitehead) n. 49 sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 49. And the [patient] expectation of Jesus Christ, signifies where there is knowledge of the Lord’s Divine in His Human. This is evident from the signification of “the expectation of Jesus Christ,” as being the coming of the time when the church shall know the Lord; and the church knows the Lord when it acknowledges the Divine in His Human. That by “Jesus Christ” is meant the Lord in respect to the Divine in His Human, see above (n. 26). The church of which this is said is the church that is to come after the present one, for it is said “in the expectation.”

The church that is at this day knows, indeed, that the Divine is in the Human of the Lord; for it knows that according to the accepted doctrine, the Divine and the Human are not two but one person; also that they are like soul and body in man (see above, n. 10, 26). And yet it does not know that the Lord’s Human is Divine, for it separates the one from the other, as is clear from this, that those who are of the church do not admit the expression “Divine Human;” also that they approach the Father, that He may have compassion for the sake of the Son when yet the Divine Itself in heaven is the Divine Human (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 78-86). And because this knowledge and acknowledgment have thus perished, and yet it is the chief thing of all things of the church, as it is the chief thing of all things in heaven, therefore a new church is being established by the Lord among the nations, where this is not only known but also acknowledged. This, then, is what is signified by “the expectation of Jesus Christ.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 50 sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 50. Was in the isle that is called Patmos, signifies revelation to the nations. This is evident from the signification of “Patmos,” as being the revelation contained in Revelation; for all places mentioned in the Word signify things, and the things they signify are from the worship there, or from some memorable event that occurred there, or from their location in or near countries whereby the religious principle of the nation is signified. “Patmos” signifies revelation, from the memorable fact that there a revelation was made to John. The revelation was made on an island, because an “island” signifies a nation remote from true worship, but still desiring to be enlightened. That this is signified by “islands” in the Word, will be clear from what follows; in the first place something shall be said about names of places in the Word signifying things.
All persons mentioned in the Word, and all by whom the Word was written, were led to places that were significant, in order that all things might be significative of spiritual things. Even the Lord Himself, for the same reason, went to places thus significative; as into Galilee, to Tyre and Sidon, to Jerusalem, and to the Mount of Olives there, and also, when an infant, He was carried into Egypt. It was similar with the prophets, and with many who are mentioned in the historical Word, as may be abundantly shown. For this reason, John also was commanded to betake himself into the isle of Patmos, that the things that are to be at the end of the church might there be revealed, because “island” signifies a nation about to accept truths of doctrine. This island, moreover, is in the archipelago, where there are numerous other islands; and from this also it is that by “Greece” in the Word such nations are signified. (Thus in Dan. 8:21; 10:20; 11:2; John 12:20-21; Mark 7:26 seq.) (That all names of places mentioned in the Word signify things, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888, 4310, 4442, 10329.)
sRef Isa@51 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@49 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @4 S2′ sRef Jer@31 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@24 @15 S2′ sRef Zeph@2 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@60 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @12 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @10 S2′ [2] That “islands” signify nations that are about to accede to the true worship of God, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:
Glorify Jehovah in Urim, the name of the God of Israel in the isles of the sea (Isa. 24:15).
In the same:
He shall not quench nor break, until He have set judgment in the earth: and the isles shall hope in His law. Sing unto Jehovah a new song, His praises, ye ends of the earth: ye that go down to the sea, the isles, and the inhabitants thereof. Let them give glory unto Jehovah, and declare His praise in the islands (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12).
In the same:
Listen, O isles, unto Me, and hearken, ye peoples from afar (Isa. 49:1).
In the same:
The isles shall hope in Me, and on My arm shall they trust (Isa. 51:5).
In the same:
The islands shall trust in Me, and the ships of Tarshish (Isa. 60:9).
In Jeremiah:
Hear the words of Jehovah, O ye nations, and declare them in the isles afar off (Jer. 31:10).
And in Zephaniah:
Jehovah will make lean all the gods of the earth, that they may worship Him, everyone in his place, even all the isles of the nations (Zeph. 2:11).
(And elsewhere as in Isa. 23:2, 6; 41:1, 5; 42:15; 66:19; Jer. 2:10; 25:22; Ezek. 27:3, 7, 15, 35.) From these and other passages it is plain that “isles” signify nations, specifically nations in respect to the doctrine of truth, in other places in respect to the doctrine of falsity; for most things in the Word have also opposite significations.

AE (Whitehead) n. 51 sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 51. For the Word of God, signifies that Divine truth may be received. This is evident from the signification of “the Word of God,” as being Divine truth (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4692, 5075, 9987).

AE (Whitehead) n. 52 sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 52. And for the testimony of Jesus Christ, signifies that the Lord’s Divine Human may be acknowledged. This is evident from the signification of “testimony,” as being acknowledgment in heart (see above, n. 10, 27); and from the signification of the names “Jesus” and “Christ,” as being the Lord in respect to His Divine Human (see also above, n. 26). These things are said concerning the church of the Gentiles, which is about to receive Divine truth and acknowledge the Lord’s Divine Human. (That these things are said of the church of the Gentiles, see just above, n. 50.) The Christian church indeed, acknowledges the Lord’s Divine, but not His Divine Human; when, therefore, they think and speak about the Lord from doctrine, they separate His Human from the Divine, and make His Human like the human of another man; when yet the Divine is in His Human as the soul is in the body. This is why such as these can have no idea of the Divine; although it is the idea that conjoins, because thought conjoins; and moreover, without conjunction with the Divine through thought and affection, or what is the same, through faith and love, there is no salvation. It is said that conjunction through thought and affection is the same as conjunction through faith and love, since what I believe, that I think, and what I love, by that I am affected. To believe in the invisible is much the same as believing in the inmost of nature, an error to which the mind readily lapses when it indulges in its own phantasies. Yet there is implanted within everyone, from heaven, and this by continual influx therefrom, a desire to see what he regards as the Divine, and this, indeed, under the human form.
[2] This desire is implanted in the simpleminded, and also with well-disposed Gentiles (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 82). All such therefore, if they have also lived a life of charity, are received by the Lord, and heaven is granted them. No others can be received, because they are not conjoined. (That all angels in heaven, also the most wise in ancient times, and all who have spiritual faith, that is, a living faith, both on this earth and on all the earths in the universe, see their Divine in thought, because they acknowledge the Divine Human, and are therefore accepted by the Lord, see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 280-310; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 79-86, 316, 321; and in the small work on The Earths in the Universe, n. 7, 40, 41, 65, 68, 91, 98, 99, 107, 121, 141, 154, 158, 159, 169.) Because this implanted desire, which is in everyone from heaven, has been almost wholly rejected among the learned of the world, and access to the Divine thereby debarred, therefore, a new church is now being established by the Lord, among the Gentiles that have not extirpated that idea, and faith along with it. The extirpation from the Christian world of this implanted desire had its first beginning with the Babylonish body, which separated the Lord’s Human from His Divine, in order that its chief might be acknowledged as the vicar of the Lord’s Human, and might thus transfer to himself the Lord’s Divine power, saying that the Lord received that power from the Father, when in fact it was from Himself, because it was from His Divine. Thus they are unwilling to hear anything about the Divine Human (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4738). But on this subject, as it is the chief thing of all things in the church, more will be said hereafter.

AE (Whitehead) n. 53 sRef Rev@1 @10 S0′ 53. Verse 10. I was in the spirit, signifies a spiritual state when there is revelation. This is evident from the signification of “to be in the spirit,” as being to be brought into the state in which spirits and angels are, which state is a spiritual state. Into this state a man is brought when he is let into the state of his spirit, for every man is a spirit as regards his interiors (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 432-444). When a man is in that state, the things that are in the spiritual world appear to him as clearly as objects appear in the natural world; but the things that appear, because they are of spiritual origin, are in themselves spiritual, and such things as are of heavenly wisdom are presented as it were in a natural image. In this way Divine things are presented before the eyes of spirits and angels in visible forms. From this it is that all things that are seen in heaven are representative and significative, as were also the things seen by John, as described in Revelation. (The character of such things can be further learned from what is said and shown concerning Representatives and Appearances in Heaven, in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 170-176.)
[2] While man is in the body he does not see such things as are in heaven, unless the sight of his spirit is opened; when this is opened, then he sees. In this way John saw the things described in Revelation; and in like manner the prophets saw; and they were therefore called Seers, and were said to have their eyes opened. In this way also angels were seen in ancient times, and the Lord also was thus seen by the disciples after His resurrection. This sight is the sight of the spiritual man; and because in this state all things appear representatively, John was in it. He who knows nothing about this sight, believes that angels, when seen by men, have taken on a human form, and that when they vanished from their sight they laid it aside; but this is not so; angels then appeared in their own form, which is the human form, not before the sight of men’s bodily eyes, but before the sight of their spirit, which sight was then opened. This is evident from the Lord’s being seen by the disciples [after His resurrection], when He Himself showed to them that He was a man in a complete human form (Luke 24:39; John 20:20-28); and yet He became invisible. When they saw Him the eyes of their spirit were opened, but when He became invisible those eyes were closed. That man has such a sight is clear to me from much experience, for all things I have seen in the heavens have been seen by that sight. At such times I was in the same state of wakefulness as when they were not seen. But at the present time that sight is seldom opened to anyone by the Lord, and for many reasons.

AE (Whitehead) n. 54 sRef Rev@1 @10 S0′ 54. On the Lord’s day, signifies Divine influx then. This is evident from the signification of “the Lord’s day,” as being then the Lord is instructing man, thus when He is flowing in. The Lord’s day is the day of the Sabbath, and the Sabbath in the ancient churches, which were representative churches, was the most holy thing of worship, because it signified the union of the Divine and the Human in the Lord, and thence also the conjunction of His Divine Human with heaven (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 8494-8495, 10356, 10360, 10370, 10374, 10668). But when the Lord had united His Divine with His Human that holy representative ceased, and that day became a day of instruction (n. 10360). For this reason revelation was made to John on the Lord’s day. Revelation here is instruction concerning the state of the church.

AE (Whitehead) n. 55 sRef Rev@1 @10 S0′ 55. And I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet, signifies manifest perception of Divine truth about to be revealed from heaven. This is evident from the signification of “hearing,” as being to perceive and obey (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2542, 3869, 4653, 5017, 7216, 8361, 8990, 9311, 9397); and from the signification of “behind me,” as being manifestly (of which hereafter); and from the signification of “voice,” when heard out of heaven, as being Divine truth (see Arcana Coelestia n. 219-220, 3563, 6971, 8813, 8914); and from the signification of a “trumpet,” as being truth to be revealed out of heaven (of which hereafter). “Behind me” signifies manifestly, because the things that flow in from heaven into man’s affection flow in into the occipital region, and come thus into his manifest perception; for whatever enters into affection is manifestly perceived, for the whole life of perception is from affection; but whatever flows out of heaven immediately into the thought flows into the region above the forehead. (Concerning this influx, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 251.) From this it is clear what is signified by John’s having heard “behind him,” and by his afterwards “having turned to see the voice which spoke with him.” A “trumpet” or “horn” signifies Divine truth about to be revealed out of heaven, because sometimes Divine truth is heard in this way when it flows down from the Lord through the heavens with man; for it is increased in coming down; and it thus flows in. But it is thus heard only in the beginning with those through whom Divine truth is to be revealed in the ultimate sense, which is representative of interior things. But afterwards it is heard as a human voice. From this it is evident why “the voice of a trumpet” or “horn” signifies Divine truth about to be revealed out of heaven.
sRef Hos@8 @1 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @6 S2′ sRef Matt@24 @31 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @22 S2′ sRef Jer@6 @18 S2′ sRef Jer@6 @17 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @21 S2′ sRef Ezek@33 @5 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@47 @5 S2′ sRef Zech@9 @14 S2′ sRef Isa@18 @3 S2′ [2] He who is aware that “trumpet” or “horn,” signifies Divine truth out of heaven can understand many passages in the Word where these are mentioned. As in Matthew:
He shall send forth His angel, with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together the elect from the four winds (Matt. 24:31).
In Isaiah:
All ye inhabitants of the world, and ye dwellers on the earth, when the sign of the mountains shall be lifted up, see ye; and when the trumpet is blown, hear ye (Isa. 18:3).
In Jeremiah:
Proclaim with the trumpet in the land. Set up a standard towards Zion. How long shall I see the standard, and hear the sound of the trumpet? For my people are foolish, they are sottish sons, and they have no understanding (Jer. 4:5-6, 21-22).
In the same:
I set watchmen over you, saying, Hearken to the sound of the trumpet. But they said, We will not hearken. Therefore hear, ye nations (Jer. 6:17-18).
In Ezekiel:
He heard the sound of the trumpet, and took not warning; his blood shall be upon him; whereas if he had taken warning he should have delivered his soul (Ezek. 33:5).
In Hosea:
[Set] the trumpet to thy mouth, because they have transgressed My covenant, and trespassed against My law (Hos. 8:1).
In Zechariah:
The Lord Jehovih shall blow the trumpet, and shall go with the whirlwinds of the south (Zech. 9:14).
In David:
God is gone up with a shout, and Jehovah with the sound of a trumpet (Ps. 47:5).
And also in Revelation (chap. 4:1; 8:2, 7-8, 13; 9:1, 13, 14; 10:7; 18:22). Because a “trumpet” signified Divine truth, therefore when Divine truth was first about to be revealed before the people of Israel:
Sounds of a trumpet were heard from Mount Sinai (Exod. 19:16).
For this reason sounding the trumpet became representative with them:
When they were to assemble, and when they went forward, and also in their solemnities, at the beginnings of months, at burnt-offerings and eucharistic sacrifices (Num. 10:1-10).
They also sounded trumpets when they went forth to battle against the Midianites (Num. 31:6).
And when they took the city of Jericho (Josh. 6:4-20);
for wars and battles signified spiritual combats, which are combats of truth against falsity, and of falsity against truth.

AE (Whitehead) n. 56 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 56. Verse 11. Saying, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, signifies who governs all things from first principles through ultimates, and thus all things of heaven to eternity, as is evident from what is said and shown above (n. 41).

AE (Whitehead) n. 57 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 57. And, what thou seest write in a book, signifies that the things revealed may be for posterity, as is clear without explanation.

AE (Whitehead) n. 58 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 58. And send to the churches which are in Asia, signifies and then to all who are in the light of intelligence. This is evident from the signification of “the seven churches,” as being all who are in truths from good, or in faith from charity, thus who are of the church (see above, n. 20); and from the signification of “Asia,” as being those who are in the light of intelligence (see also above, n. 21).

AE (Whitehead) n. 59 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 59. Unto Ephesus, and Smyrna, and Pergamum, and Thyatira, and Sardis, and Philadelphia, and Laodicea, signifies in each case according to reception. This is evident from what follows, where these churches are treated of in detail. It is said according to reception, because the light of intelligence does not constitute the church with man, but the reception of light in heat, that is, the reception of truth in good. It is said the reception of light in heat, because spiritual light is Divine truth, and spiritual heat is Divine good, and these two in the spiritual world are as light and heat in the natural world; for insofar as spring or summer heat is added to the light, so far all things grow and germinate, but so far as that heat is not added to the light, so far all things become torpid and die. (That light in the spiritual world is Divine truth, and heat there is Divine good, and that they are as heat and light in the natural world, see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 126-140.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 60 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @14 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @15 S0′ 60. Verses 12-16. And I turned to see the voice which spoke with me. And having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands, and in the midst of the seven lampstands one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about at the paps with a golden girdle. And His head and hairs white as white wool, as snow; and His eyes as a flame of fire. And His feet like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace; and His voice as the voice of many waters. And having in His right hand seven stars; and out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth; and His face as the sun shineth in his power. 12. “And I turned to see the voice which spoke with me” signifies the understanding illustrated (n. 61); “and having turned I saw seven golden lampstands,” signifies a new heaven and a new church, which are in the good of love (n. 62). 13. “And in the midst of the seven lampstands one like unto the Son of man,” signifies the Lord, from whom is the All of heaven and of the church (n. 63); “clothed with a garment down to the foot,” signifies Divine truth proceeding from Him (n. 64); “and girt about at the paps with a golden girdle,” signifies Divine good likewise (n. 65). 14. “And His head and hairs white,” signifies His Divine in firsts and in ultimates (n. 66); “as white wool, as snow,” signifies in respect to good and truth therein (n. 67); “and His eyes as a flame of fire,” signifies Divine Providence from His Divine Love (n. 68). 15 “And His feet like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace, signifies the ultimate of Divine order, which is the natural [full of Divine Love] (n. 69, 70); “and His voice as the voice of many waters,” signifies Divine truth in ultimates (n. 71). 16. “And having in His right hand seven stars,” signifies all knowledges of good and truth from Him (n. 72); “and out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth,” signifies the dispersion of all falsities by the Word (n. 73); “and His face as the sun shineth in his power” signifies His Divine Love, from which are all things of heaven (n. 74).

AE (Whitehead) n. 61 sRef Rev@1 @12 S0′ 61. Verse 12. And I turned to see the voice which spoke with me signifies the understanding illustrated. This is evident in some degree from what was said above (n. 55), in the explanation of what is signified by John’s hearing a voice behind him. It is clear that in these words there is an arcanum that cannot be known unless it is known how the Divine flows in out of heaven with man; for it was from influx that John heard the voice behind him, and that afterwards, having turned to see the voice, he saw the things that follow. Divine influx out of heaven is into man’s will, and through that, into his understanding. Influx into the will is into the occipital region, because into the cerebellum, and from this it passes towards the foreparts into the cerebrum, where the understanding is; and when it comes by that way into the understanding, then it comes also into the sight; for man sees from the understanding. That there is such influx it has been granted me to know by much experience. It is the same whether we say influx into the will, or into the love, since the will is the receptacle of love; and it is also the same whether we say influx into the understanding or into faith, since the understanding is the receptacle of faith (see what is adduced in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 28-35). But it is not permitted to adduce more on these subjects at present, because up to this time they have been unknown: only these few things have been said that it may be known what is involved in John’s hearing a voice behind him, and his turning to see it; and why it is that this signifies the understanding illustrated; it is because what enters through the will into the understanding, or through love into faith, comes into illustration, since what man wills or loves, that he clearly perceives. It is otherwise if it enters by the way of the understanding alone. It is said “to see the voice,” because by “seeing,” when predicated of spiritual things, is signified understanding from illustration (as was shown above, n. 11); and unless “seeing” signified understanding it could not have been said “to see the voice.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 62 sRef Rev@1 @12 S0′ 62. And having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands, signifies a new heaven and a new church, which are in the good of love. This is evident from the signification of “having turned to see,” as being to understand from illustration (see just before, n. 61); and from the signification of “seven,” as being what is full and all, and as being predicated where the holy things of heaven and the church are treated of (see above, n. 20, 24); and from the signification of “lampstands,” as being the new heaven and the new church (as will be seen in what follows); and from the signification of “gold,” as being the good of love (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 113, 1551-1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9510, 9874, 9881). That “seven lampstands” signify heaven and the church is evident from the last verse of this chapter, where it is said, “The seven lampstands which thou sawest are the seven churches.” That “the seven churches” signify all who are of the church of the Lord, thus the church in general, may be seen above (n. 20); they also signify heaven, because heaven and the church make one; moreover, those that have the church in them have heaven in them; for the reason that the good of love and of faith makes the church with man, and makes heaven with him, as it does with angels; consequently, those that had the church, that is, the goods and truths of the church, in them in the world, come into heaven after death. (That this is so, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 12; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 57, 221-227.) The “seven lampstands” here mean the new heaven and the new church, for these are treated of at the end of Revelation (see chapter 21), and thus the conclusion of all things therein; and because that which is last is also first, the prediction respecting these is presented at the beginning. Moreover, it is also customary in the Word to mention in the beginning things that are to take place at the end, because intermediates are thus included; for, in the spiritual sense, the first is the end for the sake of which, as that is both first and last, and to it all other things look (see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 98).
sRef Zech@4 @2 S2′ sRef Zech@4 @3 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @5 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @23 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @24 S2′ [2] That “lampstand” signifies heaven and the church is evident from the description of the lampstand which was in the tabernacle, for by the tabernacle the whole heaven in the complex was represented; and by the lampstand therein, the spiritual heaven, which is the second heaven (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3478, 9457, 9481, 9485, 9548-9577, 9783). That this is so is clearly evident from John’s seeing “in the midst of the seven lampstands one like unto the Son of man;” “the Son of man” is the Lord in respect to His Divine Human, from which is Divine truth, which is the All in all things of heaven and the church. In the spiritual heaven also lampstands appear in much magnificence; by these that heaven is represented. These it has been given me to see. From this it can be seen what is meant in the Word, in the spiritual sense, by “lampstands” and by “lamps,” in the following passages. In Revelation:
I will remove thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent (Rev. 2:5).
“To remove thy lampstand” is to take away from them heaven or the church. In Zechariah:
The angel said to the prophet, What seest thou? And I said, I have seen, and behold a lampstand all of gold, its bowl on the top of it, and its seven lamps thereon, with seven pipes to the lamps (Zech. 4:2, 3).
Here Zerubbabel is treated of, who was to lay the foundation of the house of God, and to finish it. By Zerubbabel is represented the Lord, that He was about to come and restore heaven and the church: these are the “lampstands” and the holy truths there are “the seven lamps.”
[3] Because a lampstand takes its representative meaning from the lamps, and the lamps from light, which in heaven is Divine truth, so the Lord is also called “a lamp,” as in Revelation:
The holy Jerusalem hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine in it; the glory of God shall lighten* it, and the Lamb is the lamp thereof (Rev. 21:23; 22:5).
From this also it is that David, and the kings after him, are called:
Lamps of Israel (2 Sam. 21:17; 1 Kings 11:36; 15:4; 2 Kings 8:19);
for the Lord in respect to His royalty was represented by David, likewise by the kings of Judah and Israel. (For the representation by “David,” see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1888, 9954; and by “kings,” n. 31, above.) The lampstands that were seen were of gold; because “gold” signifies the good of love, and all that proceeds from the Lord is from Divine love; consequently the Divine of the Lord in the heavens is love to Him and love towards the neighbor, which is charity (as may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 13-19). This is why the lampstand here, as well as the lampstand in the tabernacle, was of gold.
* The Greek has “did lighten,” as also found in Apocalypse Revealed, n. 897, 919, 940; though elsewhere we also find “will lighten” and “lightens.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 63 sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ 63. Verse 13. And in the midst of the seven lampstands one like unto the Son of man, signifies the Lord, from whom is the All of heaven and of the church. This is evident from the signification of “in the midst,” as being in the inmost (see Arcana Coelestia., n. 1074, 2940, 2973); and as all things proceed from the inmost, as light proceeds from the center to the circumferences, so “in the midst” signifies from whom; also from the signification of “the seven lampstands,” as being the new heaven and the new church (of which just above, n. 62); and from the signification of “the Son of man,” as being the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, and also in respect to Divine truth, because Divine truth proceeds from His Divine Human. From this it can be seen why the Lord appeared “in the midst of seven lampstands,” namely, because from Him the All of heaven and the church proceeds; for it is the good of love and of faith that makes heaven and the church, and that this good is from the Divine is known in the Christian world, and as it is from the Divine, it is from the Lord, for the Lord is the God of heaven, and the Divine of the Lord makes heaven (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 2-6,7-12; and that this is His Divine Human, see n. 78-86).
sRef John@12 @35 S2′ sRef John@12 @34 S2′ sRef John@12 @36 S2′ [2] That the Son of man is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, and also in respect to Divine truth, because Divine truth proceeds from His Divine Human, is evident from those passages in the Word where the Son of man is mentioned. Thus in John:
The multitude said to Jesus, How sayest Thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of man? Jesus answered thee, Yet a little while is the light with you; walk while ye have the light, lest darkness overtake you. While ye have the light believe in the light, that ye may be sons of light (John 12:34-36).
From these words it is clear that “the Son of man” and “Light” have a like signification; for when the people asked, Who is the Son of man? the Lord answered that He was the Light in which they should believe. (That “light” is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Human, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 126-140; and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 49; thus also the Son of man.)
sRef Luke@6 @22 S3′ [3] In Luke:
Blessed are ye when men shall hate you for the Son of man’s sake (Luke 6:2).
“For the Son of man’s sake” is for the sake of Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord. Divine truth is the All of faith in and of love to the Lord. Because the evil deny these things, and those who deny also hate them, while the good acknowledge them, therefore it is said that the good are blessed. sRef Luke@17 @22 S4′ sRef Luke@17 @23 S4′ [4] In the same:
The days will come when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, but ye shall not see it. Then they shall say to you, Lo here, or Lo there. Go not away, nor pursue after (Luke 17:22-23).
“To desire [to see] one of the days of the Son of man,” is to desire Divine truth, which is genuine truth, as to something thereof; the end of the church is here meant, when there will no longer be any faith, because there will be no charity, at which time all Divine truth will perish; and because Divine truth is signified by “the Son of man,” it is said, “Then shall they say, Lo here, or Lo there; pursue not after.”
sRef Luke@18 @8 S5′ [5] In the same:
When the Son of man cometh, shall He find faith upon the earth? (Luke 18:8);
which means that when Divine truth shall be revealed out of heaven it will not be believed. Here also, “the Son of man” is the Lord in respect to Divine truth; the coming of the Lord is the revelation of Divine truth at the end of the church (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3900, 4060).
sRef Matt@24 @30 S6′ sRef Matt@24 @27 S6′ [6] In Matthew:
As the lightning cometh forth from the east, and is seen even unto the west, so shall the coming of the Son of man be. Then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven; and then shall all the tribes of the earth lament, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and glory (Matt. 24:27, 30).
That by “the coming of the Lord in the clouds of heaven” is here signified the revelation of Divine truth at the end of the church, see above (n. 36).
sRef Matt@26 @64 S7′ sRef Luke@22 @69 S7′ [7] In the same:
I say unto you, Henceforth ye shall see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven (Matt. 26:64).
And in Luke:
From henceforth shall the Son of man be seated at the right hand of the power of God (Luke 22:69).
“The Son of man” is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, and in respect to Divine truth proceeding from Him; “to sit at the right hand of power” means that He has omnipotence; its being said that they were now about to see this means that Divine truth was in its omnipotence when the Lord in the world had conquered the hells and reduced to order all things there and in the heavens, and that thus those who received Him in faith and love could be saved (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 9715. That to “sit at the right hand” means omnipotence, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3387, 4592, 4933, 7518, 8281, 9193; that all the power of good is by means of truth, n. 6344, 6423, 8304, 9327, 9410, 9639, 9643. That Divine power itself is by means of Divine truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Human, see n. 6948; that the “clouds” in which the Son of man is to come are the Word in the letter, which is Divine truth in the ultimate of order, see the preface to chapter 18 of Genesis, n. 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8443, 8781; and that “glory” is Divine truth itself, such as it is in the internal sense of the Word, see n. 4809, 5922, 8267, 9429).
sRef Rev@14 @14 S8′ sRef Dan@7 @13 S8′ [8] From this it can now be seen what is signified by these words in Revelation:
I saw, and behold, a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto the Son of man, having on His head a golden crown (Rev. 14:14).
And in Daniel:
I saw in the night visions, and behold, there came with the clouds of the heavens one like unto the Son of man (Dan. 7:13).
Because all judgment is executed according to truth, therefore it is said, that it was given to the Lord:
To execute judgment, because He is the Son of man (John 5:27); and that:
The Son of man shall render unto every man according to his deeds (Matt. 16:27);
and that:
When the Son of man shall come, He shall sit on the throne of His glory, and shall judge (Matt. 25:31).
sRef John@5 @27 S9′ sRef Matt@25 @31 S9′ sRef Matt@13 @38 S9′ sRef Matt@13 @37 S9′ sRef Matt@16 @27 S9′ [9] In Matthew:
He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man, the field is the world, the seed are the sons of the kingdom, the tares are the sons of the evil one (Matt. 13:37-38).
“Good seed” is Divine truth; it is therefore said that the Son of man soweth it; “the sons of the kingdom” are Divine truths in heaven and the church; for “son” is truth (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623), and, in the contrary sense, falsity, which also is “the son of the evil one.”
sRef Luke@17 @25 S10′ sRef Matt@17 @12 S10′ sRef Matt@17 @23 S10′ sRef Matt@17 @22 S10′ sRef Matt@8 @20 S10′ [10] In the same:
The Son of man hath not where to lay His head (Matt. 8:20);
by which is meant that Divine truth had no place anywhere, that is, with any man at that time. That the Son of man was about to suffer and be put to death (Matt. 17:12, 22-23; 26:2, 24, 45; Mark 8:31; 9:12, 31) signifies that thus they were about to treat Divine truth, consequently the Lord, who was Divine truth itself. This He also teaches in Luke:
But first must the Son of man suffer, and be rejected of this generation (Luke 17:25).
sRef Jer@51 @43 S11′ sRef Jer@49 @18 S11′ sRef Jer@49 @33 S11′ sRef Ps@146 @3 S11′ [11] In Jeremiah:
No man [vir] shall dwell there; neither shall a son of man [hominis] sojourn there (Jer. 49:18, 33).
And in the same:
In the cities no man [vir] shall dwell, nor shall a son of man [hominis] pass through them (Jer. 51:43).
He who does not know the spiritual sense of the Word believes that by “cities” here are meant cities, and that by “man,” and “son of man,” are meant a man and a son; and that the cities were to be so desolated that no one should be in them, but it is the state of the church in respect to the doctrine of truth that is described by these words; for “cities” are the doctrinals of the church (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 402, 2449, 3216, 4492, 4493); and “man” is its very truth conjoined with good (see n. 3134, 7716, 9007); therefore a “son of man” is truth.
sRef Isa@51 @12 S12′ [12] As Divine truth proceeding from the Lord was signified by “the Son of man,” therefore the prophets by whom it was revealed were called “sons of man” (as Daniel 8:17; and Ezekiel 2:1, 3, 6, 8; 3:1, 3-4, 10, 17, 25; 4:1, 16; 8:5-6, 8, 12, 15; 12:2, 3, 9, 18, 22, 27). As most things in the Word have also a contrary sense, so “son of man” has a contrary signification, which is the falsity opposite to truth. Thus in Isaiah:
What art thou, that thou art afraid of man, that dies; and of the son of man, who shall be as grass (Isa. 51:12).
And in David:
Put not your trust in princes, in the son of man, with whom there is no salvation (Ps. 146:3).
“Princes” are primary truths (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2089, 5044); so, in the contrary sense, primary falsities; and “the son of man” is falsity itself.

AE (Whitehead) n. 64 sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ 64. Clothed with a garment down to the foot, signifies Divine truth proceeding from Him. This is evident from the signification of “garments” as being truths that clothe good (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1073, 2576, 5248, 5319, 5954, 9212, 9216, 9952, 10536). Here is only mentioned “a garment down to the foot,” which is a general covering; by which, as the Lord is treated of, all Divine truth in general is meant. Since the Lord is here described in respect to the Divine Human, which is here the “Son of man seen in the midst of the lampstands,” and it is said that He was “clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about at the paps with a golden girdle,” and afterwards that “His face shone as the sun in his power,” I wish to give an explanation of what is said in the Evangelists about the Lord when He was transfigured, where some similar expressions are used; and afterwards of what is said about the soldiers dividing His garments, and casting the lot upon His tunic.
sRef Matt@17 @1 S2′ sRef Matt@17 @2 S2′ sRef Matt@17 @3 S2′ sRef Matt@17 @4 S2′ sRef Matt@17 @5 S2′ [2] Of the Lord’s transfiguration it is thus written:
Jesus took Peter, James, and John, into a very high mountain, and He was transfigured before them; and His face did shine as the sun, and His garments became white as the light. And behold, there appeared to them Moses and Elijah speaking with Him. And behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and behold, a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him (Matt. 17:1-6; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36).
The Lord took Peter, James, and John, because by them the church in respect to faith, charity, and the works of charity was represented; He took them “into a high mountain,” because “mountain” signifies heaven; “His face did shine as the sun,” because “face” signifies the interiors, and it did shine as the sun because His interiors were Divine, for the “sun” is Divine love; “His garments became white as the light,” because “garments” signify Divine truth proceeding from Him; the like is signified by “light.” “Moses and Elijah” appeared, because the two signify the Word, “Moses” the historical Word, and “Elijah” the prophetical Word; “a bright cloud overshadowed them,” because “a bright cloud” signifies the Word in the letter within which is the internal sense; “a voice out of the cloud said, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased, hear ye Him,” because “a voice out of the cloud” signifies Divine truth out of the Word, and “beloved Son,” the Lord’s Divine Human. And because Divine truth is from Him, and thence all truth of the church, it was said out of the cloud, “in whom I am well pleased, hear ye Him.”
sRef John@5 @37 S3′ sRef John@1 @2 S3′ sRef John@1 @18 S3′ sRef John@19 @24 S3′ sRef John@19 @23 S3′ [3] It was plainly the Divine Human of the Lord that was thus seen, for the Divine Itself cannot be seen by anyone, except through the Divine Human. This the Lord also teaches in John:
No man hath seen God at any time; the only-begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, He hath brought Him forth to view (John 1:18).
And in another place:
Ye have neither heard the voice of the Father at any time, nor seen His shape (John 5:37).
(That such things are signified by these words in the Evangelists, can be seen in the Arcana Coelestia where the particulars are made known, namely, that by “Peter,” “James,” and “John,” in the Word, are signified faith, charity, and the works of charity, n. 3750, and above, n. 8, 9; by “high mountain” is signified heaven, n. 8327, 8805, 9420, 9422, 9434, 10608; by “face,” the interiors which are of the mind, n. 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796, 5102, 9306, 9546; and by “the face of the Lord,” mercy, peace, and every good, n. 222, 223, 5585, 9306, 9546, 9888; by “the sun,” Divine Love, n. 2495, 4060, 7083; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 116-125; by “garments,” when the Lord is treated of, Divine truth, n. 9212, 9216; and the like by “light,” n. 3195, 3222, 5400, 8644, 9399, 9548, 9684; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 126-140. That “Moses and Elias” signify the Word; “Moses,” see Arcana Coelestia, n. 5922, 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382, 9372, 10234; and “Elias,” see n. 2762, 5247. That “clouds” signify the Word in the letter, see above, n. 36; that “beloved Son” is the Divine Human of the Lord is evident.) From the fact that the “Lord’s garments” signify Divine truth, it may be known what is signified by the soldiers dividing the garments of the Lord among them, and casting a lot upon His tunic, of which it is thus written in John:
The soldiers took His garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part, also the tunic. Now the tunic was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore one to another, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for whose it shall be; that the Scripture might be fulfilled which saith, They parted My garments among them, and upon My vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did (John 19:23-24).
sRef Num@4 @39 S4′ sRef Num@4 @23 S4′ sRef Num@4 @43 S4′ sRef Num@4 @47 S4′ sRef Num@4 @35 S4′ [4] He who is not aware that in every particular of the Word there is an internal sense which is spiritual, cannot see any arcanum in these things; he knows only that the soldiers divided the garments and not the tunic; and beyond this he knows nothing; when not only in this fact is there a Divine arcanum, but also in every particular of what is recorded concerning the passion of the Lord. The arcanum in this fact is that the garments of the Lord signified Divine truth, thus the Word, because the Word is Divine truth; the “garments” that they divided, the Word in the letter, and the “tunic” the Word in the internal sense to “divide them” signifies to disperse and falsify; and “the soldiers” signify those that are of the church, who should fight in behalf of Divine truth. This is why it is said, “These things therefore the soldiers did.” From this it is clear that the meaning of these words in the spiritual sense is that the Jewish Church dispersed the Divine truth which is in the sense of the letter, but could not disperse the Divine truth which is in the internal sense. That the “garments of the Lord” signified Divine truth, thus the Word, was shown above; that His “tunic” signified Divine truth, or the Word, in the internal sense, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 9826, 9942; that to “divide” is to disperse and separate from good and truth, thus to falsify, see n. 4424, 6360, 6361, 9094; that “the soldiers” signify those that are of the church, here of the Jewish church, who should fight in behalf of Divine truth, is clear from the spiritual sense of “warfare” and of “war;” that “war” signifies spiritual combats, which are of truth against falsity, see n. 1659, 1664, 8295, 10455; it is therefore said of the Levites, whose function pertained to such things as are of the church, that they were discharging military duty and were serving in war, when they were exercising their ministry in the tent of the assembly (Num. 4:23, 35, 39, 43, 47; 8:23, 24).

AE (Whitehead) n. 65 sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ 65. And girt about at the paps with a golden girdle, signifies Divine good likewise. This is evident from the signification of “being girt about at the paps with a girdle,” as being to be encompassed about the breast; “paps” and “girdle” are mentioned, because paps stand out from the breast, and a girdle encompasses. Divine good going forth from the Lord is here meant because this is signified by the “breast” in general and by the “paps” in particular. Good proceeding is meant because all garments signify things that proceed, for they are outside the body and clothe it; as things that proceed are also outside the body and encompass it. (That this is so can be seen from what is said in the work on Heaven and Hell, of The Garments with which Angels are Clothed, n. 177-182; namely, that everyone is clothed with garments according to his affection for becoming intelligent and wise, and this affection is what proceeds from them; for there is a sphere that proceeds from every angel and spirit, which is a sphere of affection, and is called the sphere of his life, and their garments are according to this sphere. That this is so does not appear before their eyes, but yet they know that it is so. Of this sphere, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2489, 4464, 5179, 7454, 8630.)
sRef Isa@60 @15 S2′ sRef Isa@60 @16 S2′ [2] From this it can be seen that the “Lord’s garments” signify the proceeding Divine, which is Divine truth united to Divine good, which fills the universal heaven and enters into the interiors of the mind, and gives to him who receives it intelligence and wisdom. This is meant by being “clothed with white garments.” Because the proceeding Divine good is signified by “the girdle” with which the Lord was girded, therefore the girdle appeared golden, for “gold” signifies the good of love (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9510, 9874, 9881). The “paps” are mentioned instead of the breast, which was girt with the girdle, because “paps” signify spiritual love, and “breast” signifies the good itself of that love. This love is signified by “paps” in Isaiah:
I will make thee a magnificence of eternity, the joy of generation and generation. Thou shalt suck the milk of the nations, and shalt suck the paps of kings (Isa. 60:15-16).
“Kings” are truths out of good from the Lord (see above, n. 31); “paps” and “breast” are that good, which is the good of spiritual love.
[3] That “breast” signifies the good of spiritual love is from correspondence with heaven; for the whole heaven corresponds to all things of man; the inmost or third heaven corresponding to the head; the middle or second to the breast; and the outmost or first to the feet. Because there is this correspondence, heaven is also called the Greatest Man. And as the inmost or third heaven corresponds to the head, by “head” is signified the good of celestial love, which is the good of love to the Lord; because that good rules and makes that heaven; and as the middle or second heaven corresponds to the breast, by “breast” is signified the good of spiritual love, which is the good of love to the neighbor, because that good rules and makes that heaven; and as the outmost or first heaven corresponds to the feet, by “feet” is signified the good of natural love from spiritual love, which is the good of faith; because that good rules and makes that heaven. From this it is clear why “paps” signify spiritual love, and the “breast” its good. (But these things may be better understood from what is shown in the work on Heaven and Hell, especially in the following chapters: On the Three Heavens, n. 29-39; That the Divine of the Lord in the Heavens is Love to Him and Charity towards the Neighbor, n. 13-19; That the Universal Heaven represents one Man, n. 59-67; That there is a Correspondence of Heaven with all things of Man, n. 87-102; and in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 4938, 4939, 10087. It may be permitted to cite from that work, by way of illustration, this further reason why the “breast” signifies the good of spiritual love, namely, that within the breast are the heart and lungs, and the “heart” from correspondence signifies celestial love, while the “lungs” signify spiritual love, but the lungs fill the breast. That there is this correspondence, see in the Arcana Coelestia, n. 3883-3896, 9280, 9300. What celestial love is, and what spiritual love, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 23.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 66 sRef Rev@1 @14 S0′ 66. Verse 14. And His head and hairs white, signifies the Divine in firsts and in ultimates. This is evident from the signification of “head,” when it refers to the Lord, of whom these things are said, as being the Divine in firsts (of which presently); and from the signification of “hairs,” as being the Divine in ultimates (of which also presently); and from the signification of “white,” as being what is pure. (That “white” [album] and “bright white” [candidum] mean what is pure, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319.) “Head,” in reference to the Lord, is the Divine in firsts, because the head is the highest part of man, and in it are his firsts, which are called the beginnings, from which are derived all things that have place in the body; for in the head are the understanding and the will, from which, as from their firsts or beginnings, flow the remaining things that relate to man’s outer life, such as speech and all actions. But “hairs,” in reference to the Lord, mean the Divine in ultimates, because hairs are ultimate things, for they grow out of the outmost parts of man, and first things terminate in them; when, therefore, “head” and “hairs” are mentioned firsts and ultimates are meant.
sRef Judg@16 @17 S2′ sRef Num@6 @15 S2′ sRef Num@6 @17 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @22 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @20 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @21 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @19 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @18 S2′ sRef Num@6 @16 S2′ sRef Num@6 @9 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @13 S2′ sRef Num@6 @10 S2′ sRef Num@6 @11 S2′ sRef Num@6 @12 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @14 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @16 S2′ sRef Num@6 @8 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @15 S2′ sRef Num@6 @13 S2′ sRef Num@6 @14 S2′ sRef Num@6 @6 S2′ sRef Num@6 @18 S2′ sRef Num@6 @19 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @29 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @30 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @31 S2′ sRef Num@6 @20 S2′ sRef Num@6 @4 S2′ sRef Num@6 @5 S2′ sRef Num@6 @21 S2′ sRef Num@6 @1 S2′ sRef Num@6 @2 S2′ sRef Num@6 @3 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @28 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @26 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @25 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @27 S2′ sRef 2Ki@2 @24 S2′ sRef 2Ki@2 @23 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @24 S2′ sRef Num@6 @7 S2′ sRef Judg@16 @23 S2′ [2] Anyone who knows that in spiritual things also “head” signifies first things and “hairs” ultimates, and that first things and ultimates signify all things (as shown in n. 41), can know many arcana of the internal sense where “head” and “hairs” are mentioned; as that:
A Nazarite should not shave the hair of his head, for this, as it is said, was the Nazariteship of God upon his head, and when the days were accomplished, he was to shave it off and consecrate it (Num. 6:1-21);
also that:
The strength of Samson was in his locks, and when they were shaven off he became weak, and when they grew again he came into his strength (Judg. 16:13 to the end);
also that:
Forty-two children were torn in pieces by bears because they mocked Elisha, calling him bald-head (2 Kings 2:23-24);
as also that:
Elijah was clothed with a garment of hair (2 Kings 1:8);
And John the Baptist with camel’s hair (Mark 1:6);
furthermore, what “head,” “hairs,” “beard,” and “baldness” signify wherever they are mentioned in the Word.
sRef Luke@24 @39 S3′ sRef Luke@24 @40 S3′ [3] That a Nazarite should not shave his hair, because this, as is said, was the Nazariteship of God upon his head; and that when the days were accomplished he should shave it off and consecrate it, was for the reason that the Nazarite represented the Lord in firsts and in ultimates, and His Divine in ultimates was His Human, which He made Divine even to the flesh and bones, which are ultimates. That He made it Divine even to the flesh and bones is evident from the fact that He left nothing in the sepulcher, and that:
He said to the disciples that He had flesh and bones, which a spirit hath not (Luke 24:39-40).
And when the Divine Itself is Divine even in ultimates, then it governs all things from firsts by means of ultimates (as can be seen from what was shown above, n. 41; especially from what was cited from the Arcana Coelestia, namely, that interior things flow in successively into exterior things, even into what is extreme or outmost, and there have existence and subsistence, n. 634, 6239, 6465, 9215, 9216; that they not only flow in successively, but also form what is simultaneous in the ultimate, in what order see n. 5897, 6451, 8603, 10099; that therefore all interior things are held together in connection from the first by means of the ultimate, n. 9828, and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 297; that from this the ultimate is more holy than the interiors, n. 9824; and therefore in ultimates there is strength and power, n. 9836). These then are the reasons why the Nazariteship was instituted. The Nazarite was finally to consecrate his hair by putting it into the fire of the altar, because it represented the Divine holiness, and the “fire of the altar” signified that holiness (n. 934, 6314, 6832).
sRef Judg@16 @17 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @16 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @18 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @20 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @19 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @30 S4′ sRef Judg@13 @7 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @13 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @15 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @14 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @21 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @28 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @27 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @31 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @29 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @23 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @22 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @24 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @26 S4′ sRef Judg@16 @25 S4′ [4] From this it can be seen, moreover, why the strength of Samson was in his hair (Judges 16:13 to the end), for it is said that:
He was a Nazarite from his mother’s womb (Judg. 13:7; 16:17).
Moreover, for the same reason:
It was not lawful for the high priest and his sons, nor for the Levites, to shave the head and make themselves bald (Lev. 10:6; 21:5, 10; Ezek. 44:20).
Likewise:
With the Israelitish people to cut off the beard (which had a like signification) was disgraceful (2 Sam. 10:4, 5).
The forty-two children were torn in pieces by the bears because they mocked Elisha, calling him bald-head, for the reason that Elijah and Elisha represented the Lord in respect to the Word, which is Divine truth, the sanctity and strength of which are in ultimates from firsts, as was said just above. Because “baldness” thus signified the deprivation of these, this took place. “Bears,” moreover, signify truth in ultimates. (That Elijah and Elisha represented the Lord in respect to the Word, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2762, 5247.) From this it is clear also why Elijah had a hairy garment and John one of camel’s hair; for John the Baptist, like Elijah, represented the Lord in respect to the Word; for this reason also he was called Elijah (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 7643, 9372).
sRef Amos@8 @10 S5′ sRef Ezek@29 @18 S5′ sRef Jer@7 @29 S5′ sRef Ezek@5 @1 S5′ sRef Isa@15 @2 S5′ sRef Isa@7 @20 S5′ sRef Ezek@7 @18 S5′ sRef Ps@68 @21 S5′ sRef Jer@7 @28 S5′ [5] When these things are understood, it can be known what is signified in the Word by “head,” “hairs,” “beard,” and “baldness,” as in Isaiah:
In that time shall the Lord shave by the king of Assyria, the head, and the hairs of the feet, He shall also consume the beard (Isa. 7:20).
In the same prophet:
On all heads baldness, every beard cut off (Isa. 15:2).
In Jeremiah:
Truth is perished, and is cut off from their mouth. Cut off thine hair and cast it away (Jer. 7:28-29).
In Ezekiel:
Take a razor and pass it over the head and beard (Ezek. 5:1).
Shame shall be upon every face, and baldness upon all heads (Ezek. 7:18).
Every head was made bald (Ezek. 29:18).
In Amos:
I will bring up baldness upon every head (Amos 8:10).
In David:
God shall bruise the head of His enemies, the hairy scalp of him that goeth on in his guilt (Ps. 68:21).
In these passages and in others, by “cutting off the hair of the head,” “shaving the beard,” and inducing baldness, is signified to deprive of all truth and good; since he that is deprived of ultimates is also deprived of things prior, for prior things have existence and subsistence in ultimates, as was said above. Moreover, in the world of spirits there are seen some that are bald, and I have been told that they are such as have abused the Word, and have applied the sense of the letter, which is Divine truth in ultimates, to wicked purposes, and therefore have been deprived of all truth. These are most malignant. Many of them are of the Babylonish body. Angels, on the contrary, appear with becoming hair.

AE (Whitehead) n. 67 sRef Dan@7 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @14 S0′ sRef Mark@9 @3 S1′ 67. As white wool, as snow, signifies in respect to good and truth therein. This is evident from the signification of “white wool” as being good in ultimates (of which presently); and from the signification of “snow,” as being truth in ultimates. “Snow” means truth in ultimates by reason of the water of which it is composed, and its whiteness and brightness. (That “water” signifies truth, see below, n, 71; and that “whiteness,” and “brightness,” signify truth from the transparency of light, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319, 8459.) “White wool,” signifies good in ultimates, because wool upon lambs and sheep has a signification like that of hair upon man; and “lambs,” and “sheep” signify good, “lambs” celestial good (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3519, 3994, 10132), and “sheep” spiritual good (n. 4169, 4809). From this it is that the “hairs,” by which Divine truth in ultimates is signified, are said to be “white as white wool, and as snow.” So also of the Lord, when He was transfigured:
His garments became glistening, exceeding white as snow, so as no fuller on earth can whiten them (Mark 9:3);
and of the “Ancient of Days” in Daniel:
I beheld till thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit; His raiment was white as snow, and the hair of His head was white wool* (Dan. 7:9).
“Raiment” signifies the Divine in ultimates (see above, n. 64); and “the Ancient of Days,” the Lord from eternity.
sRef Ps@147 @16 S2′ sRef Ezek@34 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@147 @15 S2′ sRef Hos@2 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@1 @18 S2′ sRef Hos@2 @9 S2′ [2] Because “wool” signifies good in ultimates, good is sometimes described in the Word by “wool,” and truth by “linen” and by “snow,” as in Hosea:
She said, I will go after my lovers, that give me my bread and my waters, my wool and my flax. Therefore will I return and take my corn in the time thereof, and I will pluck away my wool and my flax (Hos. 2:5, 9).
In Ezekiel:
Ye eat the fat, and ye clothe you with the wool; ye slaughter that which is the best; ye feed not the flock (Ezek. 34:3).
In David:
Jehovah will send** out His word upon the earth; He giveth snow like wool (Ps. 147:15-16).
In Isaiah:
Though your sins be as scarlet they shall be white as snow; though they be red like purple they shall be as wool (Isa. 1:18).
“Snow” is predicated of sins that were as scarlet, and “wool” of sins that were red like purple, because “scarlet” signifies truth from good, and in a contrary sense, falsity from evil (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4922, 9468); and “red” and “purple” signify good, and in a contrary sense, evil of every kind (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3300, 9467, 9865).
* The Chaldee here has “like,” as also found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 504; Apocalypse Revealed, n. 47; Arcana Coelestia, n. 3301, 5313.
** The Hebrew has “sends.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 68 sRef Rev@1 @14 S0′ sRef Jer@24 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@11 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@33 @18 S0′ 68. And His eyes as a flame of fire, signifies Divine Providence from His Divine love. This is evident from the signification of “eyes,” as being the understanding (see above, n. 37); and in reference to the Lord, as meaning presence, and thus providence (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3869, 10569) of which in what follows; also from the signification of “a flame of fire,” as meaning, in reference to the Lord, Divine love. “A flame of fire” means Divine love because from heaven the Lord appears as a sun, and the Divine that proceeds from Him as light, flaming light in the inmost or third heaven, and bright white light in the middle or second heaven. The Divine love itself is what thus appears. From this it is that in the Word “fire” and “flame” signify love (as can be seen from what is shown in the Arcana Coelestia, namely, that in the Word “fire” signifies love in each sense, n. 934, 4906, 5215. That sacred and celestial fire is Divine love, and every affection which is of that love, see n. 934, 6314, 6832. That there are two origins of heat, one the sun of the world, from which all things vegetate upon the earth, the other the sun of heaven, which is the Lord, from which angels and men derive the all of life, see n. 3338, 5215, 7324. That love is the fire of life, and that life itself is actually therefrom, see n. 4906, 5071, 6032, 6314. That flame is truth from the good of the inmost heaven, and light truth from the good of the middle heaven, see n. 3222, 6832; the reason is, that light in the inmost heaven appears flaming, and in the middle heaven bright white, see n. 9570; and likewise in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 116-140). In reference to the Lord, “eyes” signify Divine Providence, because, in reference to man, they signify understanding; and the Divine understanding, because it is infinite, is Divine Providence. Nothing else is signified by the “eyes” of Jehovah in Isaiah:
Incline thine ear, O Jehovah, and hear; and open thine eyes, O Jehovah, and see (Isa. 37:17).
In Jeremiah:
I will set Mine eye upon them for good, and I will bring them again to their land,* and I will build them (Jer. 24:6).
In David:
Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear Him (Ps. 33:18);
and in the same:
Jehovah is in the temple of His holiness, His eyes behold, and His eyelids prove the sons of man (Ps. 11:4);
and elsewhere. (What Divine Providence is, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 267-279.)
* Hebrew: “this land,” as also found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 403; but Arcana Coelestia, n. 10569 has “their land.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 69 sRef Rev@1 @15 S0′ 69. Verse 15. And His feet like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace, signifies the ultimate of Divine order, which is the natural, full of Divine love. This is evident from the signification of “feet,” as being the natural (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952); therefore, in reference to the Lord, as meaning the ultimate of Divine order, because that is the natural; also from the signification of “burnished brass,” or brass polished, as being natural good (of which presently); and from the signification of “glowing,” as being, in reference to the Lord, what is from Divine love (see n. 10055). It is said, “as if glowing in a furnace,” in order that the Divine love in the greatest degree and in its fullness may be represented, for the Divine is in its fullness when it is in its ultimate, and the ultimate is the natural (see above, n. 66).
From this it is clear that by “His feet like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace,” is signified the ultimate of Divine order, which is the natural, full of Divine love. These things, as well as the preceding, are described by comparisons; as that “His head and His hairs were white as white wool, as snow,” and that “His feet were like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace;” but it is to be noted, that all comparisons in the Word are significative, for they are from correspondences in like manner as the things themselves (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3579, 4599, 8989).
[2] In reference to the Lord, “feet” signify the ultimate of Divine order, and this is the natural, because heaven is heaven from the Lord’s Divine Human, and from this it is that heaven in the whole complex represents one man; and as there are three heavens, that the highest heaven represents the head, the middle heaven the body, and the lowest heaven the feet. The Divine that makes the highest heaven is called the celestial Divine, but the Divine that makes the middle heaven is called the spiritual Divine, and the Divine that makes the lowest heaven is called the natural Divine from the spiritual and celestial. This makes it evident why the Lord is here described in respect to His Divine Human, which is the Son of man seen in the midst of the lampstands, not only as regards His garments, but also as to His head, breast, and feet. (That the Son of man is the Lord as to His Divine Human, see above, n. 63; and that the “lampstands” are heaven, see n. 62. But since these things are arcana hitherto unknown in the world, and yet must be understood in order that the internal sense of this and the following parts of this prophetical book may be comprehended, the particulars have been explained specifically in the work on Heaven and Hell; as That the Divine Human of the Lord makes Heaven, n. 7-12, 78-86, seq.; That on this account Heaven in the whole Complex represents one Man, n. 59-77; That there are Three Heavens, and that the highest refers to the head, the middle to the body, and the lowest to the feet, n. 2940.) When this is understood it can be seen what is signified in the Word by “the feet of Jehovah” or “of the Lord,” namely, the ultimate of Divine order, or the natural; and since the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word is the ultimate of Divine order in the church, and is the natural, this is specifically signified by “the feet of Jehovah” or “of the Lord.”
sRef Ex@24 @10 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @14 S3′ sRef Nahum@1 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@99 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @13 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @7 S3′ sRef Lam@2 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@132 @7 S3′ sRef Rev@10 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@66 @1 S3′ sRef Dan@10 @5 S3′ sRef Dan@10 @6 S3′ [3] Because of this signification of “the feet of Jehovah” or “of the Lord,” therefore when the Lord was seen as an Angel by the prophets elsewhere, He appeared in like manner. Thus by Daniel:
I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with gold of Uphaz; His body was like the tarshish stone, and His eyes as lamps of fire, and His arms and His feet like the brightness of polished brass (Dan. 10:5-6).
In like manner the cherubs, by which is meant the Lord in respect to providence and protection (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 9277, 9509, 9673), were seen by Ezekiel:
Their feet sparkled like the brightness of polished brass (Ezek. 1:7).
The Lord was seen in like manner as an Angel as described further on in Revelation:
I saw an Angel coming down out of heaven, arrayed with a cloud, and a rainbow was about His head, and His face was as the sun, and His feet as pillars of fire (Rev. 10:1).
As the Lord appeared in this manner as to His feet, therefore under His feet there was seen by some of the sons of Israel:
As it were a work of sapphire stone, and as it were the substance of heaven for clearness (Exod. 24:10).
Their vision of the Lord was not as to the feet, but “under the feet,” because they were not in, but under, the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 248).
[4] Since “the feet of Jehovah” or “of the Lord” signify the ultimate of Divine order, and this specifically is the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, therefore this external is called in the Word “His footstool,” as in Isaiah:
The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, to beautify the place of My sanctuary; I will make the place of My feet honorable. And they shall bow themselves down at the soles of thy feet (Isa. 60:13-14).
In the same:
Heaven is My throne, and the earth is My footstool (Isa. 66:1).
In Jeremiah:
God doth not remember His footstool in the day of anger (Lam. 2:1).
In David:
Worship Jehovah at His footstool (Ps. 99:5).
We will go into His tabernacles; we will worship at His footstool (Ps. 132:7).
In Nahum:
Of Jehovah, the clouds are the dust of His feet (Nahum 1:3).
“Cloud” is the external of the Word, or the Word in respect to the letter (see above, n. 36). Because “cloud” is the external of the Word, it is also the external of the church and of worship; for the church and worship are from the Word. “Clouds” are called “dust of His feet,” because those things that are in the sense of the letter of the Word, which is natural, appear scattered.

AE (Whitehead) n. 70 sRef Rev@1 @15 S0′ 70. The feet are said to be “like unto burnished brass,” because burnished brass is polished brass, shining from something fiery; and “brass” in the Word signifies natural good. Metals are equally significative with the rest in the Word. “Gold” in the Word signifies celestial good, which is inmost good; “silver” signifies the truth thereof, which is spiritual good: “brass” natural good which is outmost good, and “iron” the truth thereof, which is natural truth.
Metals have such significations from correspondence; for in heaven many things are seen shining as if from gold and silver, and also many things as if from brass and iron; and it is there known that by these the goods and truths mentioned above are signified. It was from this that the ancients, who had a knowledge of correspondences, named the ages according to these metals; calling the first age the “golden,” because innocence, love, and wisdom therefrom then ruled; but the second “silver,” because truth from that good, or spiritual good, and intelligence therefrom then ruled; the third age “brazen” or “copper,” because mere natural good, which is justness and sincerity of moral life, then ruled; but the last age they called “iron,” because mere truth without good then ruled, and when that rules, falsity also rules. All this was from the spiritual signification of these metals.
sRef Isa@60 @17 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @33 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @32 S2′ [2] From this it can be known what is signified by the image seen in a dream by Nebuchadnezzar:
The head of which was of gold, the breast and arms of silver, the belly and sides of brass, the legs of iron, and the feet partly of iron and partly of clay (Dan. 2:23, 33);
namely, the state of the church in respect to good and truth, from its first time to its last; its last time was when the Lord came into the world. When it is known that “gold” signifies celestial good, “silver” spiritual good, “brass” natural good, and “iron” natural truth, many arcana in the Word, where these metals are mentioned, can be understood. Thus what is signified by these words in Isaiah:
For brass I will bring gold, for iron I will bring silver, and for wood brass, and for stones iron; I will also make thy government peace, and thine exactors justice (Isa. 60:17).
sRef Deut@8 @7 S3′ sRef Jer@15 @20 S3′ sRef Jer@15 @21 S3′ sRef Deut@33 @24 S3′ sRef Deut@33 @25 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @13 S3′ sRef Deut@8 @9 S3′ [3] But as the signification of “brass,” as meaning natural good, is here treated of, I will cite only a few passages where “brass” is mentioned, as signifying that good. Thus in Moses:
Asher acceptable unto his brethren, and dipping his foot in oil. Thy shoe iron and brass, and as thy days thy fame (Deut. 33:24-25).
“Asher,” as one of the tribes, signifies the blessedness of life, and the delight of affections (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3938-3939, 6408); “to dip the foot in oil” signifies natural delight, “oil” is delight (see n. 9954), “foot” the natural (see just above, n. 69); “the shoe iron and brass” signifies the lowest natural from truth and good, “the shoe” is the lowest natural (see n. 1748, 1860, 6844), “iron” is its truth, and “brass” its good (as above). In the same:
Jehovah thy God will bring thee into a wealthy land; a land out of whose stones thou mayest hew out iron, and out of its mountains brass (Deut. 8:7, 9).
In Jeremiah:
I will give thee unto this people for a fortified wall of brass, that they may fight against thee and not prevail against thee (Jer. 15:20).
And in Ezekiel:
Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were thy traffickers; with the soul of man and with vessels of brass they traded thy merchandise (Ezek. 27:13).
In this chapter the traffickings of Tyre are treated of, by which are signified the knowledges of good and truth; by the names “Javan,” “Tubal,” and “Meshech,” are signified such things as are of good and truth, of which knowledges treat; the “soul of man” is truth of life; “vessels of brass” are scientifics of natural good. (What is signified by “Tyre” may be seen in Arcana Coelestia, n. 1201; what by “traffickings,” n. 2967, 4453; what by “Tubal and Meshech,” n. 1151; what by “Javan,” n. 1152, 1153, 1155; what by the “soul of man,” n. 2930, 9050, 9281; what by “vessels,” n. 3068, 3079, 3316, 3318.) In the same:
The feet of the cherubs sparkled like the appearance of polished brass (Ezek. 1:7).
What “cherubs” and “feet” signify, see above (n. 69).
sRef John@3 @15 S4′ sRef John@3 @14 S4′ sRef Ezek@1 @7 S4′ sRef Ezek@40 @3 S4′ sRef Num@21 @6 S4′ sRef Num@21 @8 S4′ sRef Num@21 @9 S4′ [4] In the same:
I saw and behold there was a man, whose appearance was like the appearance of brass, and a line of flax was in his hand; and he was standing in the gate (Ezek. 40:3).
It was because this angel measured the wall and the gates of the house of God, which signify the externals of the church, that his appearance was seen as the appearance of brass. He who knows that “brass” signifies the external of the church, which in itself is natural, can in some measure know why:
The altar of burnt-offering was overlaid with brass, and the grating about it was of brass, and the vessels of brass (Exod. 27:1-4);
as also why:
The great vessel, which was called the sea, with the twelve oxen under it, and the ten lavers with the bases, and also all the vessels of the tabernacle for the house of God, were made by Solomon of polished brass (1 Kings 7:43-47).
[5] He who knows what “brass” signifies may also enter into the arcanum why it was commanded that a serpent of brass be set up for the people to look at, of which it is thus written in Moses:
Jehovah sent serpents among the people, and they bit the people. And He said unto Moses, Make thee a serpent, and set it upon a standard, and it shall come to pass that everyone that is bitten, and looketh upon it, shall live. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon a standard; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, and he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived (Num. 21:6, 8-9).
That this “serpent” signified the Lord, He Himself teaches in John:
As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in Him may not perish, but may have everlasting life (John 3:14-15).
By the “serpent” is signified that which is the ultimate of life with man, and is called the external sensual, which is the natural. Because this ultimate in the Lord was Divine, a serpent of brass was made among the sons of Israel, with whom all things were representative; and this signified that if they would look to the Divine Human of the Lord they would live again, that is, if they would believe in Him they would have eternal life, as the Lord Himself also teaches. (That to “see” is in the spiritual sense to believe, see above, n. 37, 68; and that the “serpent” is the external sensual, which is the ultimate of man’s life, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 195-197, 6398, 6949, 10313.) That “brass” and “iron” in the Word also signify what is hard (as in Isa. 48:4; Dan. 7:19; and elsewhere), will be seen in what follows.

AE (Whitehead) n. 71 sRef Rev@1 @15 S0′ 71. And His voice as the voice of many waters, signifies Divine truth in ultimates. This is evident from the signification of a “voice” when it is from the Lord, as being Divine truth (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 219, 220, 3563, 6971, 8813, 8914, and above, n. 55); and from the signification of “waters,” as being the truths of faith, and also the knowledges of truth (of which see n. 2702, 3058, 5668, 8568, 10238); and since the knowledges of truths are in ultimates, “the voice as the voice of many waters,” because it is said of the Lord, signifies Divine truth in ultimates. (That knowledges and scientifics are of the external or natural man, because they are in the light of the world, thus in ultimates, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 5212, and in general, New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 51.) As it is not yet known that “waters” in the Word signify the truths of faith and the knowledges of truth, I would like, since this signification may possibly appear remote, to show here briefly that this is what is meant in the Word by “waters.” This, moreover, is necessary, because without a knowledge of what “waters” signify, it cannot be known what baptism signifies, nor the “washings” in the Israelitish church so frequently referred to. “Waters” signify the truths of faith, as “bread” signifies the good of love. “Waters” and “bread” have this signification because things that pertain to spiritual nourishment are expressed in the sense of the letter by such things as belong to natural nourishment; for bread and water, which include in general all food and drink, nourish the body, while the truths of faith and the good of love nourish the soul. This also is from correspondence, for when “bread” and “water” are read of in the Word, angels, because they are spiritual, understand the things by which they are nourished, which are the goods of love and the truths of faith.
sRef Amos@8 @11 S2′ sRef Ps@147 @19 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @17 S2′ sRef Zech@14 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @20 S2′ sRef Rev@22 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @3 S2′ sRef Jer@17 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@48 @21 S2′ sRef Isa@58 @11 S2′ sRef Jer@14 @3 S2′ sRef Amos@8 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @17 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @16 S2′ sRef Amos@8 @12 S2′ sRef Jer@31 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@58 @10 S2′ sRef Ps@147 @18 S2′ sRef Rev@22 @17 S2′ sRef John@7 @38 S2′ sRef John@7 @37 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @6 S2′ sRef John@4 @8 S2′ sRef John@4 @7 S2′ sRef John@4 @10 S2′ sRef John@4 @9 S2′ sRef Jer@2 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@23 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@23 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@11 @9 S2′ sRef John@4 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@33 @16 S2′ sRef Ps@148 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@63 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@12 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@33 @15 S2′ sRef John@4 @12 S2′ sRef John@4 @11 S2′ sRef John@4 @13 S2′ sRef John@4 @14 S2′ [2] But I will cite some passages from which it may be known that “waters” signify the truths of faith, likewise the knowledges of truth. Thus in Isaiah:
The earth is full of the knowledge of Jehovah, as the waters cover the sea (Isa. 11:9).
In the same:
Then with joy shall ye draw waters out of the fountains of salvation (Isa. 12:3).
In the same:
He that walketh righteously, and speaketh uprightly, bread shall be given him, and his waters shall be sure (Isa. 33:15-16).
In the same:
The poor and the needy seek water, but there is none; their tongue faileth for thirst. I will open rivers upon the heights, and will place fountains in the midst of the valleys. I will make the wilderness into a pool of waters, and the dry land into a going forth of waters; that they may see, and know, and consider, and understand (Isa. 41:17, 18, 20).
In the same:
I will pour waters upon him that is thirsty, and streams upon the dry ground; I will pour My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thine offspring (Isa. 44:3).
In the same:
Thy light shall arise in the darkness, and thy thick darkness be as the noonday; that thou mayest be like a watered garden, and like a going forth of waters, whose waters shall not prove false (Isa. 58:10-11).
In Jeremiah:
My people have committed two evils; they have forsaken Me, the fountain of living waters, to hew out for themselves pits that hold no water (Jer. 2:13).
In the same:
Their nobles sent their little ones for water; they came to the pits and found no waters; they returned with their vessels empty; they were ashamed and confounded (Jer. 14:3).
In the same:
They have forsaken Jehovah, the fountain of living waters (Jer. 17:13).
In the same:
They shall come with weeping,* and with supplications will I lead them; I will lead them unto fountains of waters, in the way of right (Jer. 31:9).
In Ezekiel:
I will break the staff of bread, and they shall eat bread by weight and with carefulness; and they shall drink water by measure and with astonishment; that they may want bread and water, and be desolated, a man and a brother, and pine away for their iniquities (Ezek. 4:16-17; 12:18-19; Isa. 51:14).
In Amos:
Behold the days come, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but for hearing the Word of Jehovah. They shall wander from sea to sea, they shall run to and fro, to seek the Word of Jehovah, and shall not find it; in that day shall the fair virgins and young men faint for thirst (Amos 8:11-13).
In Zechariah:
In that day living waters shall go out from Jerusalem (Zech. 14:8).
In David:
Jehovah is my Shepherd, I shall not want. He will lead me to the waters of rest (Ps. 23:1-2).
In Isaiah:
They shall not thirst, He will cause waters to flow out of the rock for them, and He will cleave the rock, that the waters may flow out (Isa. 48:21).
In David:
O God, early will I seek Thee; my soul thirsteth, I am weary without waters (Ps. 63:1).
In the same:
Jehovah sendeth His word, He maketh the wind to blow, that the waters may flow (Ps. 147:18).
In the same:
Praise Jehovah, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heavens (Ps. 148:4).
In John:
When Jesus came to the fountain of Jacob, a woman of Samaria came to draw water; Jesus said to her, Give Me to drink. If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith unto thee, Give Me to drink, thou wouldest ask of Him, and He would give thee living water. The woman said unto Him, From whence hast Thou living water? Jesus said to her, Everyone that drinketh of this water shall thirst again; but whosoever shall drink of the water that I shall give him shall not thirst for ever; and the water that I shall give him shall become in him a fountain of water, springing up unto everlasting life (John 4:7-15).
In the same:
Jesus said, If any man thirst, let him come unto Me and drink. He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. (John 7:37-38).
In Revelation:
I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely (Rev. 21:6).
And in another place:
The angel showed unto him a river of water of life, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb (Rev. 22:1).
And again:
The spirit and the bride say, Come. He that heareth, let him say, Come. And he that is athirst, let him come. And he that wisheth, let him take the water of life freely (Rev. 22:17).
sRef Ezek@43 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@29 @3 S3′ sRef Rev@14 @2 S3′ sRef John@3 @5 S3′ [3] These passages have been cited that it may be known that in the Word “waters” signify the truths of faith, consequently what is meant by the water of baptism, about which the Lord thus teaches in John:
Except a man be born of water and of the spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of God (John 3:5).
“Waters” here are the truths of faith, and “spirit” a life according to them (see New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 202-209 seq.). Because it had not been known that “waters” signified the truths of faith, and that all things that were instituted among the sons of Israel were representative of spiritual things, it was believed that by the washings that were prescribed for them their sins were wiped away; yet this was not at all the case; those washings only represented purification from evils and falsities by means of the truths of faith and a life according to them (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3147, 5954, 10237, 10240). From this it is now clear that by “the voice,” which was “as the voice of many waters,” is meant Divine truth; as likewise in Ezekiel:
Behold the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east, and His voice was like the voice of many waters; and the earth was enlightened by His glory (Ezek. 43:2).
And in David:
The voice of Jehovah is upon the waters, Jehovah upon many waters (Ps. 29:3).
And in the following words in Revelation:
I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters (Rev. 14:2).
[4] I know that some will wonder why “waters” are mentioned in the Word, and not the truths of faith, since the Word is to teach man about his spiritual life; and since, if the expression the truths of faith had been used, instead of “waters,” man would have known that the waters of baptism and of washings contribute nothing to the purifying of man from evils and falsities. But it is to be known, that the Word in order to be Divine, and at the same time useful to heaven and the church, must be wholly natural in the letter, for if it were not natural in the letter there could be no conjunction of heaven with the church by means of it; for it would be like a house without a foundation, and like a soul without a body, for ultimates enclose all interiors, and are a foundation for them (see above, n. 41). Man also is in ultimates, and upon the church in him heaven has its foundations. For this reason the style of the Word is such as it is; and as a consequence, when man from the natural things that are in the sense of the letter of the Word thinks spiritually, he is conjoined with heaven, and in no other way could he be conjoined with it.
* The Latin has “weeping and with weeping,” the Hebrew “weeping and with supplication,” as also found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 239, 483; Arcana Coelestia, n. 3325.

AE (Whitehead) n. 72 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ 72. Verse 16. And having in His right hand seven stars, signifies all knowledges of good and truth from Him. This is evident from the signification of “having in His right hand,” as being from Him; for “hand” signifies power, thus it signifies whatever pertains to one, and so also whatever is from him. It is said “right hand,” because “right hand” signifies the power of good through truth. (That “hand” signifies power, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 875, 3091, 4931-4937, 6947, 10019; and consequently that it signifies whatever pertains to one, and so also whatever is from him, 9133, 10019, 10405; that the “right hand” signifies the power of good through truth, see n. 9604, 9736, 10061; and that “the right hand of Jehovah” signifies the Lord’s Divine power, thus omnipotence, see n. 3387, 4592, 4933, 7518, 7673, 8281, 9133, 10019.) This is evident also from the signification of “stars,” as being the knowledges of good and truth, of which more in what follows; and from the signification of “seven,” as being all (see above, n. 20, 24).
sRef Dan@12 @3 S2′ [2] That “stars” signify the knowledges of good and truth, thus goods and truths, is from the appearance in the spiritual world; for there the Lord appears as a sun, and angels from afar off as stars. Angels appear thus from their reception of light from the Lord as a sun, thus from their reception of Divine truth, which is from the Lord, for this is the light of heaven. From this it is that it is said in Daniel:
The intelligent shall shine as the brightness of the expanse; and they that justify many, as the stars for ever and ever (Dan. 12:3).
The “intelligent” are they that are in truths, and “they that justify” are those that are in good (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 346-348).
sRef Isa@13 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@13 @10 S3′ [3] When it is known to any that the “sun” signifies the Lord in respect to Divine love, thus also Divine love from the Lord, and that “stars” signify the truths of the church and knowledges thereof, these can also know what is signified in the Word where it is said that “the sun shall be darkened,” and that “the stars shall not give light,” also that they “shall fall from heaven;” and also what “stars” signify when mentioned elsewhere in the Word, as in the following passages. In Isaiah:
I will make the land a waste, and destroy the sinners thereof out of it; the stars of the heaven and the constellations thereof shall not shine forth with their light; the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not make bright her light (Isa. 13:9-10).
The vastation of the church is here treated of, which is when there is no good of love any more, nor any truths of faith. The “land” that shall be laid waste is the church; the “land” is the church (as may be seen above, n. 29).
sRef Dan@8 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@6 @13 S4′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S4′ sRef Dan@8 @10 S4′ sRef Ezek@32 @7 S4′ sRef Rev@22 @16 S4′ sRef Ezek@32 @8 S4′ sRef Rev@12 @4 S4′ sRef Matt@2 @1 S4′ sRef Matt@2 @2 S4′ sRef Num@24 @17 S4′ sRef Rev@8 @10 S4′ sRef Dan@8 @11 S4′ sRef Matt@2 @9 S4′ [4] In Ezekiel:
When I shall extinguish thee I will cover the heavens, and will make the stars dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not make her light to shine; all the luminaries of light will I make dark over thee, and I will set darkness upon the land (Ezek. 32:7-8).
“Darkness upon the land” means falsities in the church. In Joel:
The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars withdraw their brightness (Joel 2:10-11; 3:15).
In Matthew:
In the consummation of the age, after the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken (Matt. 24:29; Mark 13:24).
In Daniel:
From one of the horns of the he-goat went forth a horn, a little one, and it waxed exceeding great towards the south, and towards the east, and towards splendor; and it waxed great towards the host of the heavens; and some of the host and of the stars it cast down and trampled upon them. Yea, it magnified itself even to the Prince of the host (Dan. 8:9-11).
By the “host of the heavens” the goods and truths of the church in the complex are meant (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3448, 7236, 7988, 8019); in particular, such as combat against falsities (see n. 7277). From this Jehovah is called “Jehovah Zebaoth,” that is, Jehovah of Hosts (see n. 3448, 7988).
sRef Ps@147 @4 S5′ sRef Judg@5 @20 S5′ sRef Judg@5 @19 S5′ sRef Ps@148 @3 S5′ [5] In Revelation:
The dragon with his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven to the earth (Rev. 12:4).
The “stars” here also are the goods and truths of the church, and the knowledges thereof; the “third part” is the greater part; but what is signified by the “dragon” will be told in what follows. In the same:
The stars of heaven fell unto the earth (Rev. 6:13).
In the same:
A star from heaven is fallen unto the earth (Rev. 9:1).
In the same:
There fell from heaven a great star burning as a torch; it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters (8:10).
As “stars” signify the goods and truths of the church and the knowledges thereof, by their “falling from heaven” is signified that these perish. In David:
Jehovah telleth the number of the stars, He calleth them all by names (Ps. 147:4).
In the same:
Praise ye Jehovah, sun and moon; praise Him, all ye stars of light (Ps. 148:3).
In the book of Judges:
The kings came, they fought from heaven; the stars in their courses fought (Judg. 5:19-20).
Since the angels in the spiritual heaven shine as stars, and since all the truths and goods that are with the angels are from the Lord, therefore the Lord, as He is called an “Angel,” is likewise called a “Star,” as in Moses:
There shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a Scepter shall arise out of Israel (Num. 24:17).
In Revelation:
Jesus, the bright and morning Star (Rev. 22:16).
From this it can be seen:
Why the wise men from the east saw a star, and followed it, and why it stood where Jesus had been born (Matt. 2:1-2, 9).
From this it can now be known what is signified by the “seven stars” that were in the right hand of the Son of man, who there is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human (see above, n. 63).

AE (Whitehead) n. 73 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ 73. And out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth, signifies the dispersion of falsities by the Word. This is evident from the signification of “going forth out of the mouth,” as being, in reference to the Lord, Divine truth, thus the Word, for the Word goes forth out of the Lord’s mouth. This is evident also from the signification of “the long sword,” or the “sword,” as being truth combating; and as truth, when it combats, disperses falsities, therefore a “long sword” also signifies the dispersion of falsities. The long sword is called “two-edged and sharp,” because truth completely disperses. (That “long sword” or “sword” signifies truth combating against falsities and destroying them, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2799, 6353, 8294.) As “the long sword” is frequently mentioned in the following pages (as in chap. 1:12, 16; 6:4, 8; 13:10, 14; 19:15, 21), passages from the Word illustrating and showing that it signifies truth combating and dispersing falsities, will here be omitted. This will be illustrated and shown in those places.

AE (Whitehead) n. 74 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ 74. And His face as the sun shineth in his power, signifies His Divine love, from which are all things of heaven. This is evident from the signification of “face,” as being, in reference to the Lord, Divine love, from which is all good, thus all things of heaven (Arcana Coelestia, n. 5585, 9306, 9546, 9888; and that the Lord in the Word in respect to the Divine Human is called “the face of Jehovah,” see n. 10579. That the Lord from Divine love appears from heaven as a sun shining, and that from Him, as a sun, all things of heaven have existence and subsistence, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 116-125, and in what follows).

AE (Whitehead) n. 75 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @19 S0′ 75. Verses 17-20. And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. And He laid His right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the First and the Last; and the Living One; and I became dead; and behold I am alive unto the ages of the ages, amen: and I have the keys of hell and of death. Write the things which thou sawest, and the things which are, and the things which are to be hereafter. The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in My right hand, and the seven golden Lampstands. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches; and the seven Lampstands which thou sawest are the seven churches. 17. “And when I saw Him,” signifies the presence of the Divine majesty (n. 76); “I fell at His feet,” signifies adoration from humiliation of heart in presence of the Divine (n. 77); “as dead,” signifies failure of self-life (n. 78) “And He laid His right hand upon me,” signifies life from Him (n. 79); “saying unto me, Fear not,” signifies revival (n. 80); “I am the First and the Last,” signifies who governs all things from firsts by means of ultimates, thus all things of heaven (n. 81). 18. “And the Living One,” signifies who is from eternity (n. 82); “and I became dead,” signifies that He was rejected (n. 83); “and behold I am alive unto the ages of the ages,” signifies that eternal life is from Him (n. 84); “amen,” signifies Divine confirmation (n. 85); “and I have the keys of hell and of death,” signifies that He has power to save (n. 86). 19. “Write the things which thou sawest, and the things which are, and the things which are to be hereafter,” signifies that all these things are for posterity, because Divine (n. 87). 20. “The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in My right hand,” signifies revelation concerning goods and truths, which are all from Him (n. 88); “and the seven golden lampstands,” signifies also concerning the things in the new heaven and new earth (n. 89); “the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches,” signifies those who receive goods and truths from the Lord (n. 90); “and the seven lampstands which thou sawest are the seven churches,” signifies that all such are in the new heaven and in the new church (n. 91).

AE (Whitehead) n. 76 sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ 76. Verse 17. And when I saw Him, signifies the presence of the Divine majesty. This is evident from the things that precede relating to the Son of man, all of which are of the Divine majesty, as is clear from the explanation of them in the internal sense; as that “He was clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about at the paps with a golden girdle,” signifying that Divine truth and Divine good proceed from Him; that “His head and His hairs were white as white wool, as snow,” signifying the Divine in firsts and in ultimates; that “His feet were like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace,” signifying that His Human, even in ultimates, is full of Divine love; that “His voice was as the voice of many waters,” signifying that all Divine truth is from Him; that “He had in His right hand seven stars,” signifying that all goods and truths of heaven and the church are therefrom; that “out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword went forth,” signifying that by Him all falsities are dispersed; that “His face was as the sun shineth in his power,” signifying that from His Divine love were all things of heaven. It is clear that these things are Divine, and that they appeared full of Divine majesty. That to “see” signifies here the presence, now most interior, of these things, is evident from this, that it was also said before that John saw them (verse 12), and according to that seeing also they were described; and now again it is said “I saw Him,” and on account of this seeing he fell at His feet as dead; therefore it is that by “seeing” is here signified the presence of the Divine majesty. This presence came to John, when he saw “His face as the sun in his power,” for from this he was illustrated and filled with awe, in the presence of the Divine; for all Divine light is from the Lord as a sun, and Divine light passes into the interiors; from this comes such presence and such filling with awe (as can be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, on the Lord as a Sun, n. 116-125; on Light and Heat therefrom in Heaven, n. 126-140; and on Turning to Him, n. 17, 123, 144, 145, 151, 255, 272, 510, 548, 561). It is to be known, moreover, that man has two kinds of sight, one from cogitative faith, the other from love: when he has sight from cogitative faith only, his sight is unattended with awe before the Lord’s Divine majesty; but when this sight is from love, it is attended with awe at the Divine majesty; this is because man is then turned to the Lord, for love turns him, but cogitative faith apart from love does not (as can be seen from the passages cited above from the work on Heaven and Hell, about turning). That this is so is well known in the spiritual world. It is clear, therefore, that by “I saw him,” stated a second time, is signified the presence of the Divine majesty.

AE (Whitehead) n. 77 sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ 77. And I fell at His feet, signifies adoration from humiliation of heart in presence of the Divine. This is evident from the signification of “falling at the feet,” as being adoration from humiliation. Humiliation of heart is meant, because humiliation that springs from the heart in presence of the Divine produces that prostration. All affections, whatsoever they are, have corresponding gestures in the body. Into these gestures the body is borne and falls as of itself, when man is interiorly in the affection. Humiliation before a man produces a bowing down, according to the estimation of him; but in presence of the Divine it produces total prostration, especially when man thinks that the Divine in respect to power and wisdom is everything, and man in comparison is nothing, or that from the Divine is all good and from man nothing but evil.
When man is in this acknowledgment from the heart he comes as it were out of himself, and thence falls upon his face, and when he is thus out of himself he also is removed from the proprium [what is his own], which in itself is wholly evil; when this is removed, the Divine fills him and raises him up; not that the Divine desires such humiliation on its account, but because evil is then removed, and so far as evil is removed with man so far the Divine flows in; for evil alone stands in the way. (An example of such humiliation may be seen in the little work on the Earths in the Universe, n. 91.) Man’s state when the Divine presence with him removes proprium [what is his own], and afterwards infills him, is thus described in this verse: “When I saw Him I fell at His feet as dead; and He laid His right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not.” This state is more fully described in Daniel:
I lifted up mine eyes and looked, and behold a Man clothed in linen, His face as the appearance of lightning, and His eyes as lamps of fire, and His feet like the splendor of burnished brass. I alone saw the vision; but the men that were with me saw it not; but great fear fell upon them, and they fled. And there remained no strength in me; and I came into a deep sleep, and my face upon the ground. But lo, a hand touched me, and set me upon my knees and upon the palms of my hands, and He said, Fear not (Dan. 10:5-12).
This state is also described in Ezekiel, when he saw the cherubs, by which is signified the Lord in respect to Providence:
When I saw the glory of Jehovah, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of One that spoke. And He said unto me, son of man, stand upon thy feet, that I may speak to thee. And the spirit entered into me when He spoke unto me, and set me upon my feet, and I heard Him that spake unto me (Ezek. 1:28; 2:1-2; 3:24).
Likewise also, when Jesus was transfigured before Peter, James, and John, of which it is thus written in Matthew:
While Peter was yet speaking, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them; and behold, a voice out of the cloud saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him. And when the disciples heard these things they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Arise, be not afraid. And when they had lifted up their eyes they saw no one save Jesus only (Matt. 17:5-8).
From this it is apparent of what nature is the presence of the Divine Human of the Lord with man, when man is in a state of humiliation of heart, namely, that he falls upon his face, and by the touch of the Lord’s hand is raised upon his feet. It was plainly the presence of the Lord in respect to the Divine Human; since it was the “Son of man” who was in the midst of the lampstands that appeared in this way before John; and the “Son of man” is the Lord as to the Divine Human, see above (n. 63). It was similar with the disciples when the Lord was transfigured; it is therefore also said that “when they lifted up their eyes they saw no one save Jesus only.” That it was also the Lord as to the Divine Human who was seen by Daniel and Ezekiel, is evident from the words of the Lord himself, that:
No one hath heard the Father’s voice at any time, nor seen His form (John 5:37; see also John 1:18).
Moreover, that men worshiped the Lord when He was in the world, by falling upon the face at His feet, may be seen in Matt. 28:9; and in Mark 7:25-26; Luke 8:41; 17:15-16, 18; and in John 11:32.

AE (Whitehead) n. 78 sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ 78. As dead, signifies failure of self-life. This is evident from the signification of “as dead,” in reference to the Divine presence with man, as meaning the failure of self-life; for man’s self-life is that into which he is born, which is in itself nothing but evil, for it is altogether inverted, for it has regard to itself and the world only, and therefore turns itself back away from God and from heaven. The life that is not man’s self-life is that into which he is led when he is being regenerated by the Lord; and when he comes into that life he regards God and heaven in the first place, and self and the world in the second. That life flows in with man when the Lord is present; consequently so far as that life flows in, so far there is effected a turning of the life. This turning, when effected suddenly, causes man to appear to himself as dead; thence it is that by “as dead” is here signified the failure of self-life. But these two states of life cannot be so described as to be apprehended. Moreover, they are not the same with a man and with a spirit, and they are wholly different with the evil and with the good. Man cannot live with the body in the presence of the Divine; those who do live are encompassed by an angelic column, which moderates the Divine influx; for the body of every man is nonreceptive of the Divine, consequently it dies and is cast off. That man cannot live with the body in the presence of the Divine can be seen from the words of the Lord to Moses:
Thou canst not see My faces; for man shall not see Me and live (Exod. 33:20);
Moses, therefore, because he desired to see, was placed in a cleft of a rock and was covered until the Lord had passed by. Furthermore, it was known to the ancients that man cannot see God and live, as is evident from the book of Judges:
Manoah said unto his wife, Dying we shall die, because we have seen God (Judg. 13:22);
and this was also attested to the sons of Israel, when the Lord was seen from Mount Sinai, of which it is thus written in Moses:
Be ready against the third day; for the third day Jehovah will come down in the eyes of all the people, upon Mount Sinai. And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying, Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the extremity of it; whosoever toucheth the mount dying he shall die. And because terror seized upon them, they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us and we will hear; but let not God speak with us lest perchance we die (Exod. 19:11-12; 20:19).
(That by “Mount Sinai” is signified heaven, where the Lord is, and that by “touching” is signified to communicate, to transfer, and to receive, and for this reason it was forbidden to touch the extremity of that mountain, see in the explanation of those chapters in the Arcana Coelestia.) Jehovah has been seen by many, as recorded in the Word, but this was because they were encompassed at the time by a column of spirits, and thus were preserved, as was said above. In this way the Lord has also been seen at different times by me. But the state of spirits in the Divine presence is different from the state of men; spirits cannot die, consequently if they are evil they die a spiritual death in the Divine presence, the nature of which will be spoken of presently; but those who are good are conveyed into societies, where the sphere of the Divine presence is tempered and accommodated to reception. On account of this there are three heavens, and in each heaven many societies, and those who are in the higher heavens are nearer to the Lord, and those who are in the lower are more remote from Him (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 20-28, 29-40, 41-50, 206-209). What the spiritual death is that evil spirits die in the Divine presence, shall be briefly stated. Spiritual death is a turning away and removal from the Lord. When evil spirits, however, who have not yet been vastated, that is, have not yet become fixed in their ruling love, enter any angelic society, then because the Divine of the Lord is there present they are direfully tormented, and not only turn away but even cast themselves down into the depths, where no light from heaven enters; some into dark caverns of rocks; in a word, into the hells (see what is shown in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 54, 400, 410, 510, 525, 527). This turning away and removal from the Lord is what is called spiritual death; and with such the spiritual of heaven is dead.

AE (Whitehead) n. 79 sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ 79. And He laid His right hand upon me, signifies life from Him. This is evident from the signification of “right hand,” as being, in reference to the Lord, life from Him (see above, n. 72). It signifies life from Him, because it immediately follows the words, “I fell at His feet as dead;” and moreover, “to touch with the hand” signifies to communicate and transfer to another what pertains to oneself, and also to receive from another. To communicate and transfer to another what pertains to oneself, in reference to the Lord, as here, is to communicate and transfer life such as those have who are in a state of illumination and who see and hear such things as are in heaven. This also took place with John, for he was in such illumination when he saw and heard the things that are described in Revelation “To touch with the hand” is to communicate and transfer to another, because the whole power of man is transferred from the body into the hands; consequently what the mind wills that the body should do, that the arms and hands do (from this it is that by “arms” and “hands” in the Word is signified power, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 878, 3091, 4931-4937, 6947, 7673, 10019).
But this power is natural power, and communication thereby is an exertion of the bodily forces; but spiritual power is to will the good of another, and to will to convey to another as far as possible what is with oneself. This power is what “hand” in the spiritual sense signifies, and its communication and transference are signified by “touching with the hand.”
From this it can be seen what is signified by this, that the Lord, who is here called the “Son of man,” laid His right hand upon John, when John lay as dead, namely, that He communicated and transferred to him life from Himself (see above). “To touch,” and “to touch with the hand,” has a similar signification in many passages in the Word, as in the following. In Daniel:
The Lord, who there appeared to him as a man clothed in linen, whose appearance was as the appearance of lightning, and His eyes as torches of fire, and His feet as the brightness of polished brass, touched him; and restored him to his standing; and lifted him upon his knees; and touched his lips, and opened his mouth; and still again touched him, and strengthened him (Dan. 10:4 to the end).
In Jeremiah:
Jehovah put forth His hand, and touched my mouth, and said, I put My words into thy mouth (Jer. 1:9).
And in Matthew:
Jesus stretching forth His hand to the leper, touched him, saying, I will; be thou made clean. And straightway his leprosy was cleansed (Matt. 8:3).
In the same:
Jesus saw Peter’s wife’s mother sick of a fever, and he touched her hand, and the fever left her (Matt. 8:14-15).
In the same:
Jesus touched the eyes of the two blind men, and their eyes were opened (Matt. 9:29-30).
In the same:
When Peter was yet speaking, behold a bright cloud overshadowed the disciples, and behold, a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him. And when the disciples heard these things they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. Then came Jesus and touched them, and said, Arise, be not afraid (Matt. 17:5-8).
In Luke:
Jesus came and touched the bier of the dead, and said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise. Then he that was dead sat up, and began to speak (Luke 7:14-15).
In the same:
Jesus touched the ear of the deaf one,* and healed him (Luke 22:51).
In Mark:
And they brought [to Jesus] little children, that He should touch them; and He took them in His arms, put His hands upon them, and blessed them (Mark 10:13, 16).
In the same:
They brought unto Jesus those that were ill, that they might touch if it were but the border of His garment; and as many as touched were made whole (Mark 6:56; Matt. 14:35, 36).
In Luke:
A woman suffering from an issue of blood touched the border of His garment; and immediately the issue of her blood stanched. Jesus said, Who is it that touched Me? Some one did touch Me; I knew that power went forth from Me (Luke 8:43-46).
Because “touching” and “laying on of hands” signify communicating and transferring to another what pertains to oneself, therefore it has been customary in the churches from ancient times to lay hands upon the head of those who are inaugurated and blessed:
This Moses also was commanded to do to Joshua (Num. 27:18-23; Deut. 34:9).
As all things among the sons of Israel were representative and significative of spiritual things, so also was touch; wherefore those who touched what was holy were sanctified, and those who touched what was unclean were polluted; for “touch” signified communication and transference to another, and reception from another, as can be seen from the following passages in Moses:
Whosoever shall touch the tent of meeting; the ark of the Testimony; the table, and all the vessels thereof; the lampstand and the vessels thereof; the altar of incense; the altar of burnt-offering, and all the vessels thereof, and the laver and the base thereof, shall be holy (Exod. 30:26-29).
Whatsoever toucheth the altar shall be holy (Exod. 29:37).
Everything that toucheth the remainder of the meal-offering, and the remainder of the flesh from the sacrifice, shall be holy (Lev. 6:18, 27).
Whosoever toucheth the dead, and purifieth not himself, defileth the tabernacle of Jehovah; and that soul shall be cut off from Israel. And whosoever in the open field toucheth one that is slain with a sword, or the bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days. He that toucheth the waters of separation shall be unclean until even. And whatsoever the unclean person toucheth shall become unclean, and the soul that toucheth it shall be unclean until even (Num. 19:11, 13, 16, 21-22).
He that toucheth unclean beasts and unclean reptiles shall be unclean. Everything upon which they shall fall shall be unclean, whether it be a vessel of wood, raiment, water, an earthen vessel, food, drink, an oven, (but not a fountain, pit, or receptacle of water) shall be unclean (Lev. 11:31-36, besides other places, as Lev. 5:2, 3; 7:21; 11:37, 38; 15:1 to the end; 22:4; Num. 16:26; Isa. 52:11; Lam. 4:14, 15; Hos. 4:2, 3; Hag. 2:12, 13, 14).
* In the Greek we have “servant”; but Arcana Coelestia, n. 10130 also has “deaf one.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 80 sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ 80. Saying unto me, Fear not, signifies renewal of life. This is evident from the series of things in the internal sense. For John lay as dead, and the Lord, seen as the Son of man, laid His right hand upon him, and said to him, “Fear not.” His “lying as dead” signified failure of his self-life; the Lord’s “laying His right hand upon him” signified life from Him; therefore His saying to him “Fear not” signified renewal of life; for all who come suddenly from self-life into any spiritual life are at first afraid, but their life is renewed by the Lord. This renewal is effected in this way that the Divine presence, and fear on account of it, are accommodated to reception. The Lord is present, indeed, with all in the universe, but more nearly or remotely according to the reception of good by means of truths with them from Him. For good is that in which the Lord is present with angel, spirit, and man; therefore the extent and quality of good from the Lord with them are what determine the extent and quality of His presence; if the presence goes beyond this, there is anguish and tremor; but by accommodation to reception there is renewal of life (as can be seen from what has just been said and shown above, n. 78). This renewal is what is signified by “Fear not;” also in other places, where it is said by the Lord or by the angel of the Lord when seen:
Fear not (Dan. 10:12, 19; Luke 1:12, 13; 2:8-10; Matt. 28:5, 9-10).
Renewal of life, that comes by accommodation to reception, appears in the spiritual world, when it is presented to view, as a cloud. All societies there are encompassed by such a cloud, denser or rarer according to reception. (That angels are encompassed by a thin correspondent cloud, lest they should be hurt by a nearer influx of the Divine of the Lord, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 6849. What “clouds” are in the spiritual world, and therefore in the spiritual sense, see above, n. 36.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 81 sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ 81. I am the First and the Last, signifies who governs all things from firsts by means of ultimates, thus all things of heaven. This is evident from the explanation given above (n. 41).

AE (Whitehead) n. 82 sRef John@14 @6 S0′ sRef John@1 @4 S0′ sRef John@1 @2 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ sRef John@1 @3 S0′ sRef John@5 @26 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ sRef John@11 @25 S0′ 82. Verse 15. And the Living One, signifies who is from eternity. This is evident from this, that He who is from eternity is the only Living One, and that all others, who are not from eternity, have been created by Him, and thus made recipients of life from Him. Therefore He only who is from eternity has life in Himself, and no one besides Him. That the Lord, in respect both to the Divine and to the Human, has life in Himself, is evident from what is said in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the Word became flesh, and dwelt in us (John 1:2-4, 14).
That the Lord is here meant by the “Word” is clear, for it is said, “the Word became flesh, and dwelt in us.” In the same:
As the Father hath life in Himself, even so gave He to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:26).
In the same:
Jesus said, I am the resurrection and the life (John 11:25).
And in the same:
Jesus said, I am the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6).
It is believed in the world that man has life implanted in him, and that it does not therefore flow in unceasingly from Him who alone has life in Himself, and who thus alone is Life. But this belief is a belief in what is false (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 9).

AE (Whitehead) n. 83 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ 83. And I became dead, signifies that He was rejected. This is evident from this, that the Lord is said to be “dead” when faith in Him and love towards Him are no more; for with those who are in love towards Him and faith in Him the Lord lives, but with those who are not in love and in faith toward Him He does not live. With such He is said to be “dead” because He is rejected. This is what is here meant in the internal sense by the words “I became dead;” but in the sense of the letter it is meant that He was crucified. The Lord’s being crucified has a like signification in the internal sense, namely, that He was rejected and treated thus by the Jews; for the Lord, when He was in the world, was Divine truth itself, and as Divine truth was altogether rejected by the Jews, therefore the Lord, who was Divine truth, suffered Himself to be crucified. Such things are signified by all that is related in the Evangelists concerning the Lord’s passion; the particulars, even to every minutest particular, involve this. Whenever, therefore, the Lord speaks of His passion He calls Himself the Son of man, that is, Divine truth (see above, n. 63). That Divine truth was altogether rejected by the Jews is well known; for they accepted nothing that the Lord said, and not even that He was the Son of God. From this it may be known how those things that the Lord said to the disciples about the Jews’ rejection of Him are to be understood. Thus in Luke:
The Son of man must suffer many things, and be repudiated by the elders and chief priests and scribes (Luke 9:22).
In the same:
The Son of man must suffer many things, and be repudiated by this generation (Luke 17:25).
In Mark:
It is written of the Son of man, that He should suffer many things and be set at naught (Mark 9:12).
In Luke:
Jesus took unto Him the twelve, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all the things that are foretold through the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished. For He shall be delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and shamefully entreated, and spit upon; and after they have scourged Him, they shall put Him to death; but the third day He shall rise again (Luke 18:31-33).
The way in which the Jews treated Divine truth, which was from the Word, is signified by these particulars. “Jerusalem” here is the Jewish Church; “to be delivered unto the Gentiles, to be mocked, to be shamefully entreated, to be spit upon, to be scourged, to be put to death,” are the wicked ways in which the Jews treated Divine truth; and as the Lord was Divine truth itself, because He was the Word (John 1:14), and as it was foretold in the prophets that Divine truth would be so dealt with in the end of the church, therefore it is said, “that all things may be accomplished that have been foretold through the prophets concerning the Son of man.” So elsewhere in the same Gospel:
These are the words which I spoke unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must needs be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning Me (Luke 24:44).
That all things were accomplished when Jesus was crucified He Himself said, when He was upon the cross:
Jesus, knowing that all things were accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, I thirst (John 19:28).
He then said, “I thirst,” because He longed for a new church that would acknowledge Him. (That to “thirst,” in the spiritual sense, signifies to long for, and that it is predicated of the truths of the church, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4958, 4976, 8568.) These are also the things that were predicted by Daniel concerning vastation and desolation:
After sixty and two weeks shall the Messiah be cut off, but not for Himself; then the people of the Prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary, so that its end shall be with a flood. At last upon the bird of abominations shall be desolation, and even to the consummation and decision it shall drop upon the devastation (Dan. 9:26-27).
“Desolation” and “vastation” signify repudiation and rejection of Divine truth with those that are of the church (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 5360, 5376). That Divine truth, which is the Word, was so repudiated by the Jews, is also meant by these words in Matthew:
I say unto you that Elias is come already, and they have not acknowledged him, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Even so shall the Son of man suffer of them (Matt. 17:12).
By “Elias” the Word is signified (see Arcana Coelestia, preface to chapter 18 of Genesis, and in n. 2762, 5247), and also by “John the Baptist;” therefore he was called “Elias” (n. 7643, 9372). From this it can be seen what is signified by “Elias has come,” and that “they have done to him whatsoever they listed,” and that “the Son of man is to suffer of them.” How the Jews explained and thus rejected the Word is clear from many passages in the Gospels, where the Lord makes this manifest. From this it can now be seen that “I became dead,” signifies that He was rejected. Moreover, that the Lord, by the passion of the cross, also glorified His Human, that is, made it Divine, see New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 294, 295, 302, 305.

AE (Whitehead) n. 84 sRef John@4 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ sRef John@4 @11 S0′ 84. And behold I am alive unto the ages of the ages, signifies that eternal life is from Him. This is evident from the signification of “I am alive,” which means to be from eternity, and that in Him alone is life from Himself (on which see above, n. 82); but here as being life in others, and His life in others is eternal life. For it is said just before that He “became dead,” which signifies that He was rejected, because not received in faith and love; here, therefore, “I am alive” signifies that He is received by those who are in His life, which life is in faith and love with man, and that life is eternal life. That “unto the ages of the ages” signifies to eternity, is clear without explanation. That the life of the Lord is a life of faith in Him and love to Him, and that this life is eternal life is evident from many passages in the Word, as the following from John:
As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in Him may not perish, but may have eternal life. He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life; but he that believeth not on the Son shall not see life (John 3:14-16, 36).
In the same:
The water that I shall give shall become in him a fountain of water, springing up unto eternal life (John 4:10-11, 14).
Water is the truth of faith (see above, n. 71).
In the same:
Everyone that beholdeth the Son, and believeth on Him, hath eternal life. The words that I speak unto you are spirit and are life (John 66:40, 63).
The “words” that the Lord speaks are also the truths of faith. In the same:
I am the resurrection and the life; he that believeth in Me, though he die, yet shall he live (John 11:25-26).
In the same:
Work for the food which abideth unto eternal life, which the Son of man giveth (John 6:27).
The “food” which the Lord gives is also the truth and good of faith, because spiritual food is meant (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3114, 4459, 4792, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 8562, 9003). It was said that the life of the Lord is in faith in Him and love to Him with man; this is because everything of faith and love is from Him, and that which is from Him is also Himself, for it is His proceeding Divine, which is called “the Spirit of Truth” and “the Holy Spirit;” and as the Lord is therein, and it is Himself, therefore it is said that they should abide in the Lord, which means in faith in Him and love to Him, from Him; as in John:
Jesus said, Abide in Me, and I in you. If ye abide in Me, and My words abide in you, ye shall ask whatever ye will, and it shall be done unto you. Abide in My love. If ye keep My commandments, ye shall abide in My love. He that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit; for without Me ye cannot do anything (John 15:4-10).
From this it may be known what is meant by these words in John:
Ye see Me; because I live ye shall live also (John 14:19).
(That to “see” the Lord is to believe in Him, see above, n. 14, 25, 37; and that “to have faith,” or “to believe” in the Lord, is to be in love and charity, see the little work on The Last Judgment, n. 33-39; and New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 108-142.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 85 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ 85. Amen, signifies Divine confirmation, as may be seen above (n. 34).

AE (Whitehead) n. 86 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ 86. And I have the keys of hell and of death, signifies that He has power to save. This is evident from the signification of “keys,” as being the power to open and shut (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 9410); and from the signification of “hell,” as being evils, for all evils are from hell and belong to hell; and from the signification of “death,” as being damnation, which is also called spiritual death (see n. 5407, 6119, 9008). “To have the keys of hell and of death” means also the power to save, because the Lord alone removes the hells with man and thereby damnation; and when the hells are removed man is saved, for in their place heaven and eternal life flows in; for the Lord is constantly present with man, and desires to fill him with heaven, but evils stand in the way of its being received; so far, therefore, as the hells are removed, that is, so far as man refrains from evils, so far the Lord with heaven flows in.
The Lord here says that He “has the keys of hell and of death,” because it is said immediately before that He is “alive unto the ages of the ages,” by which is meant that from Him is eternal life; and so far as the Lord is received in faith and in love so far as He is in man, and so far as He is in man so far He removes evils, thus the hells and eternal death. This the Lord alone does, and for this reason He ought to be received, as is evident also from the passages from the Word cited just above (n. 83). By “hell” evils of every kind are signified, because all evils are from hell. Whatever man thinks and wills is either from hell or from heaven. If he thinks and wills evil it is from hell, but if he thinks and wills good it is from heaven. There is no thought and will in man from any other source. The man who supposes that he thinks and wills from himself is not aware of this; but I can assert from all experience on this subject that every thing that a man thinks and wills is either from one or the other of these sources. For this reason, moreover, the man who thinks and wills evil is actually in hell; and where one actually is while he lives in the world thither will he come after death.
He can come into no other place because man’s spirit is formed and composed of those things that he thinks and wills. When, therefore, he thinks and wills evil, the whole man is formed and composed of evil, so that he is his own evil in form. From this it is that infernal spirits are altogether images of their own evil, and are monstrosities, horrible according to the kind of evil. Furthermore, the only means whereby a spirit can be formed and constituted for heaven is receiving the Lord in faith and love; for the Lord alone, by His presence in faith and love with man, removes evils, and forms man into an image of heaven, which is an angel. From this it can be seen what is signified by “having the keys of hell and of death.” The word “keys” is used because all the hells are closed up, and are opened only when evil spirits are cast into them, and when any are taken out of them, which occurs when evils increase with men. The openings that are then made are called “gates,” and as they are called “gates,” so also “keys” are mentioned, and these signify the power to open and to shut, since the opening and shutting of gates is effected by means of keys.
The keys given to Peter (Matthew 16:18, 19) have a like signification; for by “Peter” is there signified truth from the good which is from the Lord, thus it is meant that the Lord alone, from whom is all the truth of faith and the good of love, has that power (see the little work on The Last Judgment, n. 57).

AE (Whitehead) n. 87 sRef Rev@1 @19 S0′ 87. Verse 19. Write the things which thou sawest, and the things which are, and the things which are to be hereafter, signifies that all these things are for posterity, because Divine. This is evident from the signification of “writing,” as being that it is for remembrance (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 8620), thus that these things are for posterity; and from the signification of “which thou sawest,” and “which are,” and “which are to be hereafter,” as meaning all things; for the three times, namely, past, present, and future, signify all things; and since the things he was to write were from the Lord, therefore they signify things Divine, since nothing proceeds from the Lord except what is Divine. Moreover, every particular recorded in Revelation, as well as every particular in the prophetical parts of the Word elsewhere, has an internal sense, and the internal sense is in the light of heaven, which is Divine truth proceeding from the Lord. It is said here, “which thou sawest,” and “which are,” and “which are to be,” because above it was said in respect to the Lord, “who is, and who was, and who is to come.” What was there treated of was the Lord Himself; but here things Divine from the Lord with man are treated of, as can be seen from what precedes and from what follows in the series.

AE (Whitehead) n. 88 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′ 88. Verse 20. The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in My right hand, signifies revelation concerning goods and truths, which are all from Him. This is evident from the signification of “mystery,” as being what lies concealed in the vision that John had, but here that vision revealed, since in what now follows it is told what is meant by the “seven stars” and by the “seven lampstands.” This is evident also from the signification of the “seven stars,” as being the knowledges of all things of good and truth, and thence all goods and truths (see above, n. 72); and from the signification of “in My right hand,” as meaning, in reference to the Lord, what is from Him (see also, n. 72). From this it is clear that by “the mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest” is signified the revelation of goods and truths, which are all from Him.

AE (Whitehead) n. 89 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′ 89. And the seven golden lampstands, signifies also concerning the things in the new heaven and in the new earth. This is evident from the signification of the seven “lampstands,” as being the new heaven and the new church (see above, n. 62). They are the goods and truths for those who are in the new heaven and the new church, because in the internal sense they thus cohere with what immediately precedes; for things that appear disconnected in the sense of the letter, in the internal sense are continuous (see above, n. 17).

AE (Whitehead) n. 90 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′ 90. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, signifies those who receive goods and truths from the Lord. This is evident from the signification of the “seven stars,” as being goods and truths, all from the Lord (see above, n. 72); also from the signification of “angels,” as being those in the heavens who are in like correspondent good and truth with those in the church (of which more in what follows); also from the signification of “seven churches,” as being all those who are in truths from good, or in faith from charity, thus all who are of the church (see above, n. 20). From this taken together, it follows as a conclusion that by “the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches” are signified all who receive goods and truths from the Lord.
By “angels” are here signified those who in heaven are in like correspondent good and truth with those in the church, because the universal heaven is divided into societies, and the societies are arranged according to the affections of good and truth in general and in particular. These societies correspond to those on earth who are in like affections of good and truth. All these societies are called “angels,” and each one is called an “angel;” and a society also when viewed from a distance, and when so presented as to be seen as a one, appears as a single angel (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 62, 68-72). Moreover, there is a complete correspondence of heaven with the church, or of the angels of heaven with the men of the church; through this correspondence heaven makes a one with the church. From this it is clear what is here signified by the “angels of the seven churches,” and in the following chapter by the “angel” of each church, where it is said, “Write to the angel of the Ephesian church,” “to the angel of the church of the Smyrneans,” “to the angel of the Pergmean church,” “to the angel of the church of Thyatira,” “to the angel of the church in Sardis,” “to the angel of the Philadelphian church,” and “to the angel of the Laodicean church;” the command evidently was to write, not to angels but to churches, that is, to those who are in such good and truth from the Lord and who are described by each church (of whom we shall treat in what follows). (That in the Word by “angel” nothing else is meant but good and truth which are from the Lord with angel and man, will be more fully shown in the following pages; in the meantime see what is shown concerning the heavens and the angelic societies in the work on Heaven and Hell, since without knowledge of these things from that source, what is said of angels in the following pages can be but little understood; for knowledge must precede if the understanding is to be illustrated.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 91 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′ 91. And the seven golden* lampstands which thou sawest are the seven churches, signifies that all such are in the new heaven and in the new church. This is evident from the signification of the “seven lampstands,” as being the new heaven and the new church (see above, n. 62); and also from the signification of the “seven churches,” as being those who are in truths from good or in faith from charity (see also above, n. 20). From this it is clear that by the “seven lampstands are the seven churches” all who will be in the new heaven and in the new church are signified.
All things in Revelation have regard to that which is signified by the “seven golden lampstands,” that is, to the new heaven and the new church, as to their end and conclusion; consequently, these are treated of in the final chapters. The remaining things that come between are such things as stand in the way, and are to be removed, as what is said of the “dragon” and of the “beasts of Babylon.” When these no longer oppose, or when they are removed, the new heaven and the new church come forth and are manifest.

Revelation 2

1. To the angel of the Ephesian Church write: These things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand; He that walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands;
2. I know thy works, and thy toil, and thy endurance, and that thou canst not bear the evil, and hast tried them that say that they are apostles, and they are not, and hast found them liars;
3. And hast borne and hast endurance, and for My name’s sake hast toiled, and hast not failed.
4. But I have against thee, that thou hast left thy first charity.
5. Be mindful, therefore, of whence thou hast fallen, and repent, and do the first works; but if not, I will come unto thee quickly, and will move thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent.
6. But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.
7. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.
8. And to the angel of the church of the Smyrneans write: These things saith the First and the Last, who was dead and is alive:
9. I know thy works, and affliction, and poverty, but thou art rich;** and the blasphemy of them who say that they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan.
10. Fear not the things which thou art to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have affliction ten days: be thou faithful even till death, and I will give thee the crown of life.
11. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. He that overcometh shall not be hurt by the second death.
12. And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword,
13. I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, where Satan’s throne is; and thou holdest My name, and didst not deny My faith, even in the days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.
14. But I have against thee a few things: that thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the sons of Israel, to eat idol-sacrifices, and to commit whoredom.
15. So thou also hast then that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate.
16. Repent; or else I will come to thee quickly, and will fight against thee with the sword or My mouth.
17. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. To him that overcometh, to him will I give to eat of the hidden manna; and will give him a white stone, and upon the stone a new name written, which no one knoweth except he that receiveth.
18. And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write: These things saith the Son of God, that hath His eyes as a flame of fire, and His feet like burnished brass.
19. I know thy works and charity, and ministry and faith, and thine endurance, and thy works, and the last to be more than the first.
20. But I have against thee a few things; that thou, sufferest the woman Jezebel, that calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce My servants to commit whoredom, and to eat idol-sacrifices.
21. And I gave her time that she might repent of her whoredom; and she repented not.
22. Behold, I cast her into a bed, and those that commit adultery with her into great affliction, except they repent of their works.
23. And her sons I will kill with death; and all the churches shall know that I am He that searcheth the reins and hearts; and I will give to each one of you according to your works.
24. But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine, and who have not known the depths of Satan, as they say; I put upon you no other burden.
25. Nevertheless, that which ye have, hold fast till I come.
26. And he that overcometh and keepeth My works unto the end, I will give him power over the nations.
27. And he shall rule them with an iron rod; as earthen vessels shall they be shivered, as I also have received from My Father.
28. And I will give him the morning star.
29. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.
* “Golden” is not found in the Greek, nor in the text.
** “But thou art rich,” is crossed out by the author, but is found in n. 118 below. It is omitted in Apocalypse Revealed, n. 95.

AE (Whitehead) n. 92 92. In the preceding pages it has been told what is meant by the “seven churches” and by the “angels” thereof; namely, by the “seven churches” all who are in truths from good, and by the “seven angels” all in heaven that correspond to them (see n. 20, 90); and since heaven and the church make one by correspondence, it is said in what follows, “To the angel of the church, write,” and not, Write to the church. It is so said for this reason also, that there must be correspondence in order that the church may be a church with man; if there were no correspondence, there would be no communication of heaven, thus no heaven, with man; and if heaven were not with him neither would the church be with him. (See The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 241-248. What the correspondence of the man of the church with heaven is, cannot be told in a few words, but whoever desires may be taught what it is in what is said and shown in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 87-115 and 291-310.) In a word, there is correspondence when man has becomes spiritual, and man becomes spiritual when he acknowledges the Divine and especially the Lord, and loves to live according to the precepts in the Word, for when he does this he is conjoined with heaven; and then the spiritual corresponds with the natural which is with him. I am aware that to many these things may seem to exceed their comprehension; but the reason is that it is not the delight of their love to know them; if it were the delight of their love, not only would they perceive them clearly, but they would also be eager to, know much more of such things; for a man desires what he loves, and what he loves is his delight; moreover, whatever is loved enters both with joy and with light into the idea of the mind.

AE (Whitehead) n. 93 93. The angel of the Ephesian church is the first here written to; and by the angel of that church all those in the church are meant who are in the knowledges of truth and good, thus in the knowledges of such things as are of heaven and of the church, and who still are not, or not yet, in a life according to them. By these knowledges are especially meant doctrinals; but doctrinals alone, or the knowledges of truth and good alone, do not make a man spiritual, but a life according to them; for doctrinals or knowledges without a life according to them abide only in the memory and thence in the thought, and all things that abide there only, abide in the natural man; consequently a man does not become spiritual until these enter the life, and they enter the life when a man wills the things which he thinks, and consequently does them.
That this is so anyone can see from this alone, that if anyone knows all the laws of moral and civil life, and does not live according to them, he still is not a moral and civil man; he may indeed talk about them more learnedly than others, but still he is rejected. It is the same with one who knows the ten precepts of the Decalogue, so as to be able even to explain and discourse about them with intelligence, and yet does not live according to them. Those, therefore, within the church who are in the knowledges of such things as pertain to the church, that is, who are in knowledges of truth and good from the Word, but are not, or not yet, in a life according to them, are here first treated of, and these are described by the things written to the angel of the Ephesian church.

AE (Whitehead) n. 94 sRef Rev@2 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @3 S0′ 94. EXPOSITION.
Verses 1-7. To the angel of the Ephesian church write: These things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand; He that walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands; I know thy works and thy toil, and thy endurance, and that thou canst not bear the evil, and hast tried them that say, that they are apostles and they are not, and hast found them liars: and hast borne and hast endurance, and for My name’s sake hast toiled, and hast not failed. But I have against thee that thou hast left thy first charity. Be mindful therefore of whence thou hast fallen, and repent, and do the first works; but if not I will come unto thee quickly, and will move thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent. But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate. He that hath an ear let him hear what the spirit saith unto the churches. To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life which is in the midst of the paradise of God. 1. “To the angel of the Ephesian church write,” signifies for remembrance to those within the church who are in the knowledges of truth and good from the Word (n. 95); “these things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand,” signifies from whom are all the knowledges of good and truth (n. 96); “He that walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands,” signifies from whom is life to all in the new heaven and the new church (n. 97). 2. “I know thy works, and thy toil, and thy endurance,” signifies all things that they think, will, and do, thus all things of love and faith in the spiritual and in the natural man (n. 98); [“and that thou canst not bear the evil,” signifies that they reject evils (n. 99)] and hast tried them that say they are apostles and they are not, and hast found them liars,” signifies also falsities, so far as they are able to search them out (n. 100). 3. “And hast borne, and hast endurance,” signifies resistance against those who assail the truths of faith, and diligence in instructing (n. 101); “and for My name’s sake hast toiled,” signifies acknowledgment of the Lord and of the knowledges of truth that have respect to Him (n. 102); “and hast not failed,” signifies so far as they could (n. 103). 4. “But I have against thee that thou hast left thy first charity,” signifies that they do not make such a life as those lived who were in the church at its beginning the essential of knowledges (n. 104). 5. “Be mindful therefore of whence thou hast fallen, and repent, and do the first works,” signifies the remembrance of former things, and thus the remembrance of having deviated from the truth, and this in order that the good of life of the church at its beginning may come into mind (n. 105); “but if not I will come unto thee quickly, and will move thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent,” signifies that if not, it is certain that heaven cannot be given (n. 106). 6. “But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate,” signifies an aversion, derived from the Divine, towards those who separate good from truth, or charity from faith, from which separation there is no life (n. 107). 7. “He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies that he who understands should hearken to what Divine truth proceeding from the Lord teaches and says to those who are of His church (n. 108); “To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life,” signifies that he who receives in the heart shall be filled with the good of love, and with heavenly joy therefrom (n. 109); “which is in the midst of the paradise of God,” signifies that all knowledges of good and truth in heaven and in the church look thereto and proceed therefrom (n. 110).

AE (Whitehead) n. 95 sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′ 95. Verse 1. To the angel of the Ephesian church write, signifies for remembrance to those within the church who are in knowledges of truth and good from the Word. This is evident from the signification of “writing,” as being for remembrance (Arcana Coelestia n. 8620). It means to those within the church who are in the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, because these are meant by the “angel of the Ephesian church.” That these are meant is evident from the things written to the angel of that church. What is meant by the angel of each church can be known only from the internal sense of the things written to each church. It is said, “from the internal sense,” since all things in Revelation are prophetic, and things prophetic can be explained only by the internal sense. Who that reads the Prophets does not see that there are arcana therein that are more deeply hidden than the plain meaning of the letter? And since these arcana cannot be seen by the merely natural man, those who account the Word holy pass those things by that they do not understand, saying that there is a hidden meaning therein that is unknown to them, and that some call mystical. That this is the spiritual of the Word is known by some, because they think of the Word as being in its bosom spiritual for the reason that it is Divine. Nevertheless, it has been unknown heretofore that this is the spiritual sense of the Word, and that the Word is understood in this sense by angels, and that by means of this sense there is conjunction of heaven with the man of the church (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 303-310). Those who are in the knowledges of truth and good from the Word are meant by the “angel of the Ephesian church,” because by the knowledges of truth and good are meant the doctrinals of the church, and only from the Word can doctrinals be obtained. Why it is said, “To the angel of the church, write,” and not, To the church, may be seen above (n. 92).

AE (Whitehead) n. 96 sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′ 96. These things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand, signifies from whom are all the knowledges of good and truth. This is evident from the signification of “seven stars,” as meaning all the knowledges of good and truth (see above, n. 72); and from the signification of “right hand,” as being, in reference to the Lord, what is from Him (see above, n. 72, 79); therefore by these words, “that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand,” is signified that from the Lord are all the knowledges of good and truth. It is said that He saith this “who holdeth the seven stars in His right hand, and walketh in the midst of the [seven] golden lampstands,” because by “stars” are signified the knowledges of good and truth, and by “golden lampstands” the new heaven and the new church. There is thus prefixed to each description of a church a Divine characteristic that indicates the subject treated of (as to the descriptions of the churches that follow, verses 8, 12, 18; chap. 3:1, 7, 14). It is so prefixed because everything of the church is from the Lord. From this it is clear also why the Lord, in respect to His Divine Human, is described in the first chapter by the representatives that were seen by John, namely, that from these might be taken what was to be prefixed to the description of each church, for a testimony and a memorial that everything of the church is from the Lord, and indeed from His Divine Human; for from this all the good of love proceeds and every truth of faith, and these constitute the church. What immediately proceeds from His Divine Itself does not reach man, because His Divine Itself is invisible and therefore does not fall within the thought, and what does not fall within the thought does not fall within the faith; for everything that is of faith must be thought. That the Son of man, who is described (in chap. 1) by the representatives seen by John, is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, and Divine truth proceeding therefrom, see above (n. 63). The knowledges of truth and good are here treated of first, because they are the first things of the church; for no one can be initiated into faith and charity, which constitute the church, except by means of knowledges from the Word that pertain to the church (see what is appended to n. 356 of the work on Heaven and Hell from the Arcana Coelestia).

AE (Whitehead) n. 97 sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′ 97. He that walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands, signifies from whom is life to all in the new heaven and in the new church. This is evident from the signification of “walking” as being to live, and in reference to the Lord, Life itself (of which more will be said in what follows); and from the signification of “seven golden lampstands,” as being all in the new heaven and in the new church (see above, n. 62). From this it is clear that the Lord was seen “in the midst of the lampstands,” because “midst” signifies inmost; “lampstands” signify heaven and the church, and “walking” signifies life; and to be “in the midst” signifies, in reference to the Lord, to be in all that are round about Him. By this, therefore, it was represented that all the life of faith and of love in heaven and in the church is from Him (see above, n. 84). (That “midst” denotes the inmost and the center from which, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1074, 2940, 2973, 7777.
That the Lord is the common center from whom is all direction and determination in heaven, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 123-124. That the extension of the light of heaven, which is Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, from which angels have intelligence and wisdom, is effected also from the midst into those who are round about, see the same, n. 43, 50, 189.) That “walking” signifies living, and in reference to the Lord, Life itself, is from appearances in the spiritual world, where all walk according to their life, the evil in no other ways than those that lead to hell, but the good in no other ways than those that lead to heaven; consequently all spirits are known there from the ways wherein they are walking. Moreover, ways actually appear there; but to the evil, the ways towards hell only, and to the good, the ways towards heaven only; and thus everyone is brought to his own society. From this it is that “walking” signifies living. (Of these ways, and walking therein, in the spiritual world, see what is shown in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 195, 479, 534, 590; and in the small work on The Last Judgment, n. 48.) That in the Word “ways” signify truths or falsities, and “walking” signifies living, may be seen from many passages therein; I will cite only a few here by way of confirmation. In Isaiah:
We have sinned against Jehovah; they would not walk in His ways, neither have they heard His law (Isa. 42:24).
In Moses:
If ye shall keep the commandments, by loving Jehovah your God, by walking in all His ways (Deut. 11:22).
In the same:
Thou shalt keep all this commandment to do it, by loving Jehovah thy God, and walking in His ways all the days (Deut. 19:9; 26:17).
In the same:
I will set My tabernacle in the midst of them,* and I will walk in the midst of you, and I will be to you for a God (Lev. 26:11, 12).
In the same:
Jehovah thy God walketh in the midst of your** camp, and therefore shall your** camp be holy (Deut. 23:14).
In Isaiah:
Remember, O Jehovah, how I have walked before Thee in truth (Isa. 38:3).
In the same:
He entereth into peace, walking in uprightness (Isa. 57:2).
In Malachi:
He walked with Me in peace and in uprightness (Mal. 2:6).
In David:
Thou hast delivered my feet from stumbling, that I may walk before God in the light of the living (Ps. 56:13).
In John:
Jesus said, I am the light of the world; he that followeth Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life (John 8:12).
In the same:
Yet a little while is the light with you; walk while ye have the light, that darkness overtake you not; and he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. While ye have the light believe on the light (John 12:35, 36).
In Mark:
The Pharisees and Scribes ask Him, Why walk not Thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders? (Mark 7:5).
In Moses:
If ye walk contrary to Me, and will not hearken to My voices, I will also walk contrary to you (Lev. 26:21, 23, 24, 27).
In Isaiah:
This people that walk in darkness have seen a great light; they that dwell in the land of the shadow, upon them hath the light shined (Isa. 9:2).
In Micah:
All the peoples walk in the name of their god, and we will walk in the name of Jehovah our God (Micah 4:5).
In Isaiah:
Who among you feareth Jehovah? He that walketh in darkness, who hath no brightness (Isa. 50:10);
besides many other passages (as in Jer. 26:4; Ezek. 5:6; 20:13, 16; Zech. 10:12; Micah 4:5; Luke 1:6). From these passages it can be seen that “walking,” in the spiritual sense, signifies living; and as it signifies living, so in reference to the Lord, as in this passage, it signifies Life itself, for the Lord is Life itself, and the rest are recipients of life from Him (see above, n. 82, 84).
* The Hebrew has “you.”
** In both instances of “your,” the Hebrew has “thy,” as also found in Arcana Coelestia, n. 10039.

AE (Whitehead) n. 98 sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ 98. Verse 2. I know thy works, and thy toil, and thy endurance, signifies all things that they will, think, and do, thus all things of love and faith in the spiritual and in the natural man. This is evident from the signification of “works,” as being the things that are of the will and love (of which in what follows); and from the signification of “toil,” as being the things that are of thought and faith (of which also in what follows); and from the signification of “endurance,” as being the things done from will and thought, or the things that these do. But it can with difficulty be comprehended that this is the meaning of these words, unless it is known that all things done by man flow out from the interiors belonging to his mind, also that the mind is the all in everything that man does, and that the body is a mere obedience through which is exhibited, in a form visible before the eye, that which the mind wills and thinks. This is why those external things here mentioned, “works,” “toil,” and “endurance,” signify wing, thinking, and consequent doing, or what is the same, loving, believing, and consequent presenting in act. But still these things are not comprehensible, unless it is also known that man has two faculties, called will and understanding, and that these two faculties are called by the one term “mind;” also that man has an internal and an external-an internal in the light of the spiritual world, and an external in the light of the natural world. (The Will and the Understanding are treated of in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 28-35; and the Internal and the External Man, n. 36-52.) When this is understood, it may be known that by “works,” in the spiritual sense, is meant everything that man wills and loves, and by “toil” everything that man thinks or believes, and by “endurance” everything that man does from these.
sRef Rev@3 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @8 S2′ sRef Rev@3 @7 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @13 S2′ sRef Rev@3 @8 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @18 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @9 S2′ sRef Rev@3 @15 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @19 S2′ sRef Rev@3 @14 S2′ [2] But leaving these matters, as being, perhaps, too little known about and therefore too obscure to be clearly apprehended, let us advance to this point only, that by “works,” in the spiritual sense, are meant all things that are of man’s will or love; and this, for the reason that in what follows as to the seven churches, it is everywhere said first, “I know thy works;” as in these verses:
To the angel of the church of the Smyrneans write: These things saith the First and the Last, I know thy works, and affliction, and poverty (Rev. 2:8-9);
To the angel of the church in Pergamum write: These things saith He that hath the two-edged sword, I know thy works, and where thou dwellest (Rev. 2:12-13);
To the angel of the church in Thyatira write: These things saith the Son of God, I know thy works and charity (Rev. 2:18-19);
To the angel of the church in Sardis write: These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, I know thy works, that thou art said to live (Rev. 3:1);
To the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: These things saith He that is holy, He that is true, I know thy works (Rev. 3:7-8);
To the angel of the Laodicean church write: These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true Witness, I know thy works (Rev. 3:14-5).
[3] As it is here said everywhere, “I know thy works,” it is clear that “works” signify, in general, all things of the church; and as all things of the church have reference to love and faith, therefore these are what are meant in the spiritual sense by “works.” These are meant in the spiritual sense by “works,” because every work or deed or act, that to appearance is done from the body, is not done from the body, but is done by means of the body from man’s will and thought, for not a particle of the body moves itself except from the will and thought. From this it is that “works” signify, not the things that appear in outward form, but the things of will and thought. That this is so is known to everyone who reflects. Who that is wise regards a man from his deeds alone, and not from his will? If the will is good he loves the deeds; but if the will is evil he does not love the deeds. He sees the deeds also, but interprets them according to the intention of the will. He who is spiritual attends still less to the deeds, but explores the will; for the reason already given, that deeds in themselves are nothing, but all that they are is from the will, for deeds are the will in act. It is said “will,” but in the spiritual sense love is meant, for a man wills what he loves, and he loves what he wills. Man’s will is only the receptacle of his love. (See what is said and shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, on that faculty of man, n. 28-35; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 358, 470-484.)
sRef Matt@25 @34 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @45 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @46 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S4′ sRef Matt@16 @27 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @40 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @32 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @33 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S4′ sRef Rev@22 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@20 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@2 @23 S4′ sRef Hos@4 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@20 @13 S4′ sRef Jer@32 @19 S4′ sRef Rev@14 @13 S4′ sRef Jer@25 @14 S4′ [4] Because “works” or deeds in the Word signify specifically the things that proceed from man’s love or will, it is often said in the Word that a man shall be judged and it shall be rendered unto him according to his works; and the meaning is according to works in the internal form, not in the external; as in the following passages:
The Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and then shall He render unto everyone according to his works (Matt. 16:27).
Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labors; their works do follow them (Rev. 14:13).
I will give unto each one of you according to his works (Rev. 2:23).
I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened; and the dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works. The sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell gave up those that were in them; and they were judged everyone according to their works (Rev. 20:12, 13).
Behold I come, and My reward is with Me, to render to each one according to his works (Rev. 22:12).
In Jeremiah:
I will recompense them according to their work, and according to the doing of their hands (Jer. 25:14).
Jehovah, whose eyes are open upon all the ways of the sons of men, to give everyone according to his ways and according to the fruit of his works (Jer. 32:19).
Elsewhere:
I will visit upon him his ways, and will render unto him for his works (Hosea 4:9).
According to our ways and according to our works Jehovah hath done with us (Zech. 1:6).
Where the Lord prophesies respecting the Last Judgment He makes mention of works only, and declares that:
Those who have done good works shall enter into life eternal, and those who have done evil works into condemnation (Matt. 25:32-46).
sRef John@9 @4 S5′ sRef John@6 @29 S5′ sRef John@6 @28 S5′ [5] That “works” signify the things that are of love and faith the Lord also shows in these words:
They said to Jesus, What shall we do that we may work the works of God? Jesus answered, This is the work of God, that ye believe on Him whom [the Father] hath sent (John 6:28, 29).
The night cometh, when no man can work (John 9:4).
“Night” signifies the last time of the church, when there is no faith, because there is no charity. (That “night” signifies this time, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2353, 6000.) “Works” are so frequently mentioned, because the sense of the letter of the Word is made up solely of things external, which are in nature and which appear before the eyes: and this in order that there may be a spiritual sense in each particular, as a soul in a body, for otherwise the Word would not be a means of communication with the angels, for it would be like a house without a foundation (see above, n. 8, 16).
From this also it is that when “works” are mentioned, angels, because they are spiritual, do not understand works, but the things from which works spring, which are, as was said above, the will or love, and thought therefrom which is of faith. (This subject you will find more clearly explained in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 470-483, where it is shown that man is after death such as his life was in the world.) “Toil,” in the spiritual sense, means all things that man thinks, because spiritual toiling is thinking. And “endurance” signifies all things that man does, because “to endure” here means to be assiduous, and to put away the obstructions in the natural man that are continually rising up and hindering.

AE (Whitehead) n. 99 sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ 99. And that thou canst not bear the evil, signifies that they reject evils. This is evident from the signification of “canst not bear,” as being to reject, for what a man cannot bear he rejects. “The evil” signify evils, because the thought of angels is abstracted from persons; when, therefore, in the sense of the letter of the Word “the evil” are mentioned, angels think of evils; for by “the evil,” men who are evil, thus persons, are meant. The thought of angels is of this character because they are in heavenly wisdom, and that wisdom has extension into the universal heaven; if therefore they should think with thought determined to persons, that extension would perish, and their wisdom with it. In this way the spiritual differs from the natural. This is why “the evil” signify evils. (Of the wisdom of the angels, that it is extended into the universal heaven because their thought is abstracted from space, time, and matter, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 169, 191-199, 265-275; and that their thought is abstracted from persons, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 8343, 8985, 9007.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 100 sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ 100. And hast tried them that say that they are apostles and they are not, and hast found them liars, signifies also falsities, so far as they are able to search them out. This is evident from the signification of “to try,” as being to inquire into and search out; and from the signification of “apostles,” as being those who teach the truths of the church, and in a sense abstracted from persons, the truths themselves that are taught (of which in what follows); also from the signification of “and are not, and are found liars,” as being not truths but falsities; for a “lie” and a “liar” signify falsity (Arcana Coelestia, n. 8908, 9248). From this and what precedes it is evident that “I know that thou canst not bear the evil, and hast tried them that say they are apostles and they are not, and hast found them liars,” signifies that they reject evils, and falsities also, so far as they are able to search them out. For in the things written to this church those who are in the knowledges of truth and good, thus in the knowledges of such things as are of heaven and of the church, are treated of (see above, n. 93); here, therefore, it is first said of them that they put away evils, and falsities also, so far as they are able to search them out; for those who are in the knowledges of the holy things of the church need first to know in general what good and truth are, also what evil and falsity are, for upon this knowledge all other knowledges are founded. (For this reason also The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem first of all treats of Good and Truth, n. 11-27, and from these it can also be seen what evil and falsity are.)
[2] By “apostles” those who teach the truths of the church are signified, because the apostles [those sent] were so called from their having been sent to teach and to preach the Gospel concerning the Lord and the drawing nigh of the kingdom of God through Him; thus to teach the truths of the church, by which the Lord is known and the kingdom of God is brought nigh. The kingdom of God on the earth is the church. From this it is evident what is meant by “apostles” in the spiritual sense of the Word, namely, not the twelve apostles who were sent by the Lord to teach concerning Him and His kingdom, but all who are in the truths of the church, and in a sense abstracted from persons, the truths themselves. For in the Word it is customary to speak of persons; but those who are in its spiritual sense, as angels are, do not think of persons at all, but their thought is abstracted from persons, and has respect therefore solely to things. The reason is, that it is material to think of persons, but spiritual to think apart from the idea of persons; for instance, where the “disciples” are mentioned in the Word, or “prophets,” “priests,” “kings,” “Jews,” “Israel,” “the inhabitants of Zion,” and of “Jerusalem,” and so on. (Moreover, the very names of persons and places are changed with angels into things, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 768, 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888, 4310, 4442, 5095, 5225, 6516, 10216, 10282, 10329, 10432; and that the thought of angels is abstracted from persons, n. 8343, 8985, 9007.)
sRef Rev@21 @14 S3′ sRef Luke@6 @13 S3′ sRef Luke@9 @1 S3′ sRef Luke@9 @11 S3′ sRef Luke@9 @10 S3′ sRef Luke@11 @49 S3′ sRef Luke@9 @2 S3′ [3] That the disciples of the Lord were called apostles from their having been sent to teach concerning Him and His kingdom is clear in Luke:
Jesus sent His twelve disciples to preach the kingdom of God. And the apostles, when they were returned, declared unto Him what things they had done. And Jesus spake to them of the kingdom of God (Luke 9:1, 2, 10, 11).
In the same:
When it was day, Jesus called His disciples; and He chose from the twelve, whom also He named apostles (Luke 6:13).
In the same:
I will send unto them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall kill and persecute (Luke 11:49).
They are called “prophets and apostles,” because by “prophets,” as well as by “apostles,” are meant those who were sent to teach truths; but by “prophets” those of the Old Testament, and by “apostles” those of the New. (That “prophets” in the Word signify those who teach truths and in a sense abstracted from persons the truths themselves, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2534.) As the “twelve apostles” signify the truths themselves of the church, it is said in Revelation:
The wall of the New Jerusalem had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb (Rev. 21:14).
(That by the “New Jerusalem” is meant the church in respect to doctrine, see in The small work on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 6; that by its “wall” are signified the truths of doctrine for defense, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 6419; by the “foundations of the wall” are signified the knowledges of the truth, on which doctrine is founded, n. 9643; by “twelve” are signified all truths in the complex, n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272, 3858, 3913. From this it is clear why it is said that in the foundations of the wall were the “names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb.”)

AE (Whitehead) n. 101 sRef Rev@2 @3 S0′ 101. Verse 3. And hast borne and hast endurance, signifies resistance against those who assail the truths of faith, and diligence in instructing. This is evident from the signification of “bearing,” in reference to those who are in the knowledges of truth and good, as being resistance against those who assail the truths of faith, for those who are in knowledges defend those truths, and resist those who are against them; also from the signification of having “endurance” or “patience,” as being diligence in instructing.

AE (Whitehead) n. 102 sRef Rev@2 @3 S0′ 102. And for My name’s sake hast toiled, is the acknowledgment of the Lord and of the knowledges of truth that have respect to Him. This is evident from the signification of “the name” of Jehovah, or of the Lord, as being, in the highest sense, His Divine Human (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2628, 6887), and in a relative sense, all things of love and faith by which the Lord is worshiped, because these are things Divine that proceed from His Divine Human (n. 2724, 3006, 6674, 9310). This is evident also from the signification of “toiling,” as being to strive with mind and zeal that these things may be known and acknowledged; for this is signified by “toiling” when it is said of those who apply themselves to the knowledges of truth and good. From this it follows that “for My name’s sake hast toiled” signifies the acknowledgment of the Lord, and of the knowledges that have respect to Him. The knowledges that have respect to the Lord are all things that are of love and faith. In many passages of the Word it is said, “for the sake of Jehovah’s name,” “for the sake of the Lord’s name,” “for the sake of the name of Jesus Christ,” that “the name of God should be sanctified,” and the like. Those whose thoughts do not go beyond the sense of the letter suppose that the name alone is meant; but what is meant is not the name, but everything whereby the Lord is worshiped; and all of this has relation to love and faith. Therefore by “the Lord’s name” in the Word all things of love and of faith by which He is worshiped are meant; here the acknowledgment of the Lord and of the knowledges of truth that have respect to Him, because this is said to those who are only zealous about knowledges.
[2] That “Jehovah’s name” or the “Lord’s name” does not mean the name itself, but all things of love and faith, is from the spiritual world. There the names used on the earth are not uttered; but the names of the persons who are spoken of are formed from the idea of all things known about them combined into a single word. In this way names in the spiritual world are expressed; consequently names there, like all the other things, are spiritual The names “Lord” and “Jesus Christ,” even, are not uttered there as on the earth, but in place of those names a name is formed from the idea of all things known and believed respecting Him; and this idea is made up of all things of love to Him and faith in Him. This is because these in the complex are the Lord in them; for the Lord is in everyone in the goods of love and of faith that are from Him. As this is so, the quality of everyone there, in respect to love to the Lord and faith in the Lord, is immediately known if he only utters “Lord” or “Jesus Christ” by a spiritual expression or spiritual name; and for the same reason also, those who are not in any love to Him or faith in Him are unable to speak His name, that is, to form any spiritual name of Him. From this it is now clear why by the “name” of Jehovah, of the Lord, or of Jesus Christ, name is not meant in the Word, but everything of love and of faith whereby He is worshiped.
sRef John@14 @14 S3′ sRef Matt@10 @22 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @26 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @27 S3′ sRef John@3 @18 S3′ sRef John@3 @17 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @38 S3′ sRef John@14 @13 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @25 S3′ sRef John@1 @12 S3′ sRef John@2 @23 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @5 S3′ sRef Matt@18 @20 S3′ sRef Luke@21 @8 S3′ sRef John@20 @31 S3′ sRef Matt@21 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@23 @39 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @23 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @24 S3′ sRef Matt@19 @29 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @11 S3′ [3] Lest, therefore, the opinion that is entertained by many should prevail, that the mere name Jesus Christ, without love to Him or faith in Him, thus without the knowledges by which love and faith exist, contributes something to salvation, I will introduce some passages from the Word in which the expressions “for His name’s sake” and “in His name” are used, from which those who think more deeply may see that name alone is not meant:
Jesus said, Ye shall be hated of all for My name’s sake (Matt. 10:22; 24:9, 10).
Where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them (Matt. 18:20).
As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become sons of God; even to them that believe in His name (John 1:12).
When Jesus was in Jerusalem many believed in His name (John 2:23).
He that believeth not hath been judged already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of God (John 3:17, 18).
These are written that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye may have life in His name (John 20:31).
Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord (Matt. 21:9; 23:39; Luke 13:35; 19:35).
Everyone that hath left houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or fields, for My name’s sake, shall receive a hundred-fold, and eternal life (Matt. 19:29).
(What is here signified by “houses, brethren, sisters, father, mother, wife, children, and fields,” which are to be left for the name of the Lord, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 10490.)
Jesus said, Whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that I will do (John 14:13, 14);
“to ask in My name” is to ask from love and faith.
Many shall come in My name, saying, I am He; go ye not therefore after them (Luke 21:8; Mark 13:6);
“to come in My name” and “to say that I am He” is to proclaim falsities and to say that they are truths, and thus to lead astray. The like is signified by saying that they are the Christ, when they are not, in Matthew:
Many shall come in My name, saying, I am the Christ, and shall lead many astray (Matt. 24:5, 11, 23-27);
for by “Jesus” is meant the Lord in respect to Divine good; and by “Christ” the Lord in respect to Divine truth (Arcana Coelestia, n. 3004-3005, 3009, 5502), and by not being Christ, truth not Divine, but falsity.
sRef Isa@26 @13 S4′ sRef Deut@16 @2 S4′ sRef Deut@16 @16 S4′ sRef Isa@26 @8 S4′ sRef Mal@1 @11 S4′ sRef Isa@43 @7 S4′ sRef Deut@5 @11 S4′ sRef Deut@16 @15 S4′ sRef Micah@4 @5 S4′ sRef Deut@16 @11 S4′ sRef Deut@16 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@12 @4 S4′ sRef Isa@41 @25 S4′ sRef Deut@10 @8 S4′ [4] The “name of the Lord,” in the New Testament means the like as the “name of Jehovah” in the Old, because the Lord there is Jehovah. Thus in Isaiah:
And in that day shall ye say, Confess ye to Jehovah, call upon His name (Isa. 12:4).
In the same:
O Jehovah, we have waited for Thee; to Thy name and to Thy memorial is the desire of our soul. By Thee will we make mention of Thy name (Isa. 26:8, 13).
In the same:
From the rising of the sun shall My name be called upon (Isa. 41:25).
In Malachi:
From the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; and in every place incense is offered unto My name; for My name is great among the nations (Mal. 1:11).
In Isaiah:
Everyone that is called by My name I have created for My glory, I have formed him (Isa. 43:7).
In Micah:
All peoples walk in the name of their god, and we will walk in the name of Jehovah our God (Micah 4:5).
In Moses:
Thou shalt not take the name of thy God in vain; for Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that hath taken His name in vain (Deut. 5:11).
In the same:
Jehovah separated the tribe of Levi, that they should minister and bless in the name of Jehovah (Deut. 10:8).
In the same:
They shall worship Jehovah in one place, where He shall place His name (Deut. 12:5, 11, 13, 14, 18, 26; 16:2, 6, 11, 15, 16).
“Where He shall place His name” means where there shall be worship from the good of love and the truths of faith. This was done at Jerusalem; and therefore by “Jerusalem” the church in respect to doctrine and worship is signified (see in the small work on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 6).
sRef Isa@42 @8 S5′ sRef John@12 @28 S5′ sRef Matt@6 @9 S5′ sRef Jer@23 @5 S5′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S5′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S5′ [5] Since by the “name of Jehovah” or the “name of the Lord” is signified in the spiritual sense all worship from the good of love and the truths of faith, therefore in the highest sense by “name of Jehovah” is meant the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, for the reason that from His Divine Human everything of love and of faith proceeds. That by “name of Jehovah,” in the highest sense, the Lord is meant, is evident in John:
Jesus said, Father, glorify Thy name. There came a voice out of heaven, saying, I have both glorified and will glorify again (John 12:28).
In Isaiah:
I will give thee for a covenant to the people, for a light of the nations. I am Jehovah, this is My name, and My glory will I not give to another (Isa. 42:6, 8);
the coming of the Lord is here treated of. In Jeremiah:
Behold the days come that I will raise unto David a righteous shoot, and He shall reign as King, and this is His name, by which they shall call Him, Jehovah, our righteousness (Jer. 23:5, 6).
From this it is clear what is meant in the Lord’s prayer by the words:
Hallowed be Thy name (Matt. 6:9);
namely, that the Divine Human of the Lord is to be accounted holy, and to be worshiped.
sRef Luke@10 @20 S6′ sRef John@10 @3 S6′ sRef Matt@10 @42 S6′ sRef Rev@3 @4 S6′ sRef Matt@10 @41 S6′ [6] As this is meant by “the name of the Lord,” the meaning of the following passages can be seen. In John:
The shepherd of the sheep calleth his own sheep by their name (John 10:3).
In Luke:
Rejoice that your names are written in heaven (Luke 10:20).
And in Revelation:
Thou hast a few names in Sardis (Rev. 3:4).
He who does not know what “name” signifies in the Word cannot possibly know how these words are to be understood, in Matthew:
He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet’s reward; and he that receiveth a righteous one in the name of a righteous one shall receive a righteous one’s reward; and whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a cup of cold [water] in the name of a disciple only, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward (Matt. 10:41, 42).
“To receive a prophet in the name of a prophet,” “a righteous one in the name of a righteous one,” and “to give drink in the name of a disciple,” signifies to love truth for the sake of truth, good for the sake of good, and to exercise charity from the faith of truth; for by “prophet” is signified truth, by “righteous one” is signified good, and by “disciple” good from truth; and “to give to drink of cold [water]” is to exercise charity from obedience; “in the name” of these is for the sake of what they are, thus for their sake. Who could ever understand these things unless he knew what “name” signifies?
[7] To love and to do truth for the sake of truth, and good for the sake of good, is to have affection for truth and good for their sake, and not for the sake of one’s own reputation, honor, or gain. Such affection of truth and good is a truly spiritual affection; but the affection of truth and good for the sake of one’s own reputation, honor, or gain, is a merely natural affection. And as those who love truth and good for the sake of truth and good, or because they are truth and good, are in the spiritual affection of truth and good, therefore it is said that they shall receive “a prophet’s reward” and “a righteous one’s reward;” which means that they are in the spiritual affection of truth and good, and this affection has reward in itself, because it has heaven in itself. (That the happiness of heaven is in the affection of loving and doing truth and good, without regard to reward as an end, thus for the sake of truth and good, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 6388, 6478, 9174, 9984. That “prophet” signifies one who teaches truth, thus also, in the abstract, truth that is taught, see n. 2534, 7269. That a “righteous one” signifies the good of love to the Lord, n. 2235, 9857. That “disciple” signifies good from truth, which is the good of charity, n. 2129, 3354, 3488, 3858, 6397. That “to give drink” is to instruct in the goods and truths of faith, and thus to exercise charity, n. 3069, 3772, 4017, 4018, 8562, 9412; and that “name” signifies the quality of a thing, n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 3237; hence “the name of Jehovah,” or “the name of the Lord,” signifies every quality by which He is worshiped, n. 2724, 3006, 6674, 9310.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 103 sRef Rev@2 @3 S0′ 103. And hast not failed, signifies so far as they could. This is evident from the signification of “not failing,” in reference to those who are eager for the knowledges of truth and good, as being so far as they could; for in what now follows, a life according to these knowledges is treated of. Those who are in a life according to these go forward and do not fail; but those who are as yet in knowledges alone, go forward as far as they can, but do not yet have the light of life, from which is vigor.

AE (Whitehead) n. 104 sRef Rev@2 @4 S0′ 104. Verse 4. But I have against thee that thou hast left thy first charity, signifies that they do not make such a life as those lived who were in the church at its beginning, the essential of knowledges. This is evident from the signification of “first charity,” as being a life according to the knowledges of good and truth, such as those lived who were in the church at its beginning (of which presently); and from the signification of “leaving that charity,” as being not to make it the essential of knowledges; for those who are eager for the knowledges of truth and good, and who believe that they are saved thereby, make knowledges essential, and not life, when yet a life according to knowledges is the essential. But as this essential of the church and of salvation is treated of in what follows, more will there be said about it. Charity is life, because all life in accordance with the precepts of the Lord in the Word is called “charity;” therefore to exercise charity is to live according to those precepts. (That this is so, see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, in the chapter on Love to the Neighbor or Charity, n. 84-106; and in the small work on The Last Judgment, n. 33-39.) The life of the church at its beginning is here meant by “first charity;” for every church begins from charity, and successively turns away from it to faith alone or to meritorious works. (On which subject, and on charity, see what is shown in the Arcana Coelestia, namely, that every church begins from charity, but in process of time turns away from it, n. 494, 501, 1327, 3773, 4689; thus to falsities from evil, and at length to evils, n. 1834, 1835, 2910, 4683, 4689; commonly to faith alone, n. 1834, 1835, 2231, 4683, 8094. A comparison of the church in its beginning and in its decline, with the rising and setting of the sun, n. 1837; and with the infancy and old age of man, n. 10134; that the church is not with man until the knowledges of good and truth have been implanted in the life, n. 3310; that charity constitutes the church, n. 809, 916, 1798, 1799, 1844, 1894; that the internal of the church is charity, n. 4766, 5826; that there would be one church, and not many, as at this day, if all were regarded from charity, although they might differ in respect to doctrinals of faith and rituals of worship, n. 1286, 1316, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844, 2385, 2982, 3267, 3451; that worship of the Lord consists in a life of charity, n. 8254, 8256; that the quality of worship is according to the quality of charity, n. 2190.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 105 sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ 105. Verse 5. Be mindful therefore of whence thou hast fallen, and repent, and do the first works, signifies the remembrance of former things, and the remembrance of having deviated from the truth; and this, in order that the good of life of the church at its beginning may come into mind. This is evident from the signification of “be mindful,” as being here the remembrance of former things; from the signification of “whence thou hast fallen,” as being deviation therefrom, thus deviation from the truth; from the signification of “repent,” as being that it may come into mind; and from the signification of “doing the first works,” as being the good of life of the church at its beginning. (That “works” mean all those things of life that proceed from love and faith, see n. 98; and that “first works,” which are of charity, are those of the church at its beginning, see just above, n. 104.) That a life in accordance with knowledges is the essential of the church, and not knowledges apart from such a life, can be seen by everyone who thinks about it; for knowledges, so long as there is no life according to them, reside in the memory only; and so long as they reside there only they do not affect man’s interiors; for memory is given to man to be a receptacle, from which may be taken what will be serviceable to the life; and things are serviceable to the life when a man wills them and does them.
[2] The whole spirit of man is nothing but his will; when, therefore, man becomes a spirit, he is unable to resist anything that is favored by his will, for the whole man strives after it. That this is so is well known in the spiritual world; and I have occasionally seen the trial made, whether a spirit could do anything contrary to his will, from which he exists, and it was found that he could not. From this it was clear that man’s will is what gives form to his spirit, and that man’s spirit after it has left the body is his will. Whether you say will or love it is the same, for what a man loves he wills; so whether you say that the spirit of man cannot resist his will, or that it cannot resist his love, it is the same. The knowledges of good and truth, before they enter a man’s will or love, contribute nothing whatever to his salvation, because they are not within the man: but out of him. But still knowledges are necessary, for without them man can know nothing of spiritual life, and he who knows nothing of spiritual life cannot become spiritual; for that which a man knows he can think, can will, and can do, but not that which he does not know. But yet if knowledges enter no deeper than into the memory and into thought therefrom, they do not affect him, and consequently do not save him.
[3] It is believed by many in the world at this day, especially by those who make faith alone the essential of the church, that to know doctrinals and from mere knowing to believe that they are true, saves man, however he may live; but I can affirm that no one is saved by these alone. I have seen many, even the most learned, cast into hell; but on the other hand, those who have lived according to the knowledges of truth and good from the Word I have seen raised up into heaven. From this it is clear that knowledges are of no avail, but a life according to them; and that knowledges merely teach how man ought to live. To live according to the knowledges of truth and good is to think that one must do thus and not otherwise because it is commanded by the Lord in the Word. When man thus thinks and thus wills and does, he becomes spiritual. Yet it is necessary for those within the church to believe in the Lord, and when they think of Him to think of His Divine in the Human, since from His Divine Human everything of charity and faith proceed.

AE (Whitehead) n. 106 sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ 106. But if not, I will come unto thee quickly, and will move thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent, signifies that if not, it is certain that heaven will not be given. This is evident from the signification of “coming quickly,” as being for certain; (that “quickly” means what is certain, see above, n. 7); also from the signification of “lampstand,” as being the church and heaven (of which also see above, n. 62). Therefore, to “move the lampstand out of its place” means to separate from the church and heaven, or in other words, that heaven is not given to them. That to those who are in knowledges alone, and not in a life according to them, heaven is not given, see above (n. 104).

AE (Whitehead) n. 107 sRef Rev@2 @6 S0′ 107. Verse 6. But [this] thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate, signifies an aversion, derived from the Divine, towards those who separate good from truth or charity from faith, from which separation there is no life. This is evident from the signification of “thou hast that thou hatest,” as being aversion (it is aversion derived from the Divine, because it is said, “which I also hate”); also from the signification of “works,” as being the things of the mind, that works spring from (see above, n. 98); from the signification of the “Nicolaitans,” as being those who separate good from truth, or charity from faith, such as do this being without life. These have no life, because all spiritual life is from charity, and from faith separate from charity there is no life. For to know and think are of faith, but to will and to do are of charity. Those that separate charity from faith can know nothing whatever of what makes heaven and the church with man, thus of what makes spiritual life; for they do not think within themselves, but outside of themselves. To think outside of oneself is to think from memory only; for the memory is outside of the man, being as it were a court, through which is an entrance into the house and its chambers; and into the thought that is outside of man heaven cannot flow in, for heaven flows into the things that are within man, and through these into the things that are outside of him. Such, therefore, cannot be taught what makes heaven and the church, or life eternal; for everyone is taught from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord, about the things that pertain to life eternal; thus he is taught by way of his life, which is by way of his soul and heart. He is greatly deceived who supposes that those who separate charity from faith can be in the knowledges of truth. For such apprehend all things from themselves, and nothing from heaven; and the things that man apprehends from self, and not from heaven, are falsities, because he then thinks in darkness, and not in light. All light in such things as pertain to the church must come from heaven.
[2] It is true that there are many in the church who say that charity is the essential of the church, and not faith separate; but to say this and believe it, and not to live a life of charity, is not to make it the essential, but only to say that it is. Such, therefore, are in the same position as those who say that faith is the essential, for to them charity is a matter of faith alone, and not of life; consequently they cannot be illustrated. About such in the spiritual world something snow-like, as if of light, appears; but the light from which the snow-like appearance is derived is natural; and this light is such that when light from heaven, which is spiritual light, flows in, it is changed into darkness. Such dwell there towards the left, almost in the angle of the north and west. These are intelligent only so far as they have applied the knowledges of truth and good to life.
[3] All who are in the knowledges of truth and good, but not, conformably to these, in the good of life, may live a moral life equally with those who are in knowledges and through these in the good of life; yet their moral life is not spiritual but natural, because in their life they do not live sincerely, justly, and well from religion; and those who do not live well from religion cannot be conjoined with heaven; for it is religion that makes a man spiritual and conjoins him with the angels, who are purely spiritual. To live well from religion is to think, to will, and to do because it has been so enjoined in the Word, and because the Lord has commanded it; but to live not from religion is to think, to will, and to do from a regard solely to civil and moral laws. Such as these, since they have regard only to these laws, conjoin themselves to this world alone, for which these laws are; but the former have regard to the Lord, and thereby conjoin themselves to Him. Gentiles are saved solely by this, that in their life they have regard to religion, thinking and saying that they ought to do thus and not otherwise, because to do otherwise would be contrary to the laws of their religion, thus contrary to the Divine; and when they thus think, and act accordingly, they are endowed with spiritual life, which with them is of such quality that afterwards, in the spiritual world, they receive truths more readily than those Christians who, in what they do, give no thought to the Word, or to the doctrine of the church, which is from the Word.
[4] Those who do not think from religion do not have conscience, because they are not spiritual; consequently, if their external bonds, which are fears respecting the law and reputation, should be loosened with them, they would rush into every wickedness; while on the other hand, if external bonds, which are fears respecting the law and reputation, should be taken away from those who think from religion, they would still act sincerely, justly, and well; for they fear God, and are kept in a life of obedience and charity out of heaven from the Lord, to whom they are conjoined. Those who separate charity from faith are called “Nicolaitans” chiefly from the sound of that word in heaven, for its sound is from truth or faith, and not from good or charity. (That from the expressions in the Word it may be known whether they involve good or truth, thus also whether they involve the one separate from the other, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 241.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 108 sRef Luke@6 @48 S0′ sRef Matt@7 @26 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @49 S0′ sRef Luke@8 @20 S0′ sRef Luke@8 @21 S0′ sRef Matt@7 @24 S0′ sRef Luke@8 @19 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @47 S0′ sRef Matt@11 @15 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @43 S0′ sRef Mark@4 @23 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ sRef Mark@4 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @23 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @15 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @13 S0′ sRef Mark@7 @16 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @14 S0′ 108. Verse 7. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands should hearken to what Divine truth proceeding from the Lord teaches and says to those who are of His church. This is evident from the signification of “He that hath an ear let him hear,” as being that he who understands should hearken, or obey (that to “hear” is to understand and to do, that is, to hearken, see above, n. 11); also from the signification of “the Spirit,” here the Spirit of God, as being Divine truth proceeding from the Lord (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3704, 5307,6788, 6982, 6993, 7001, 7499, 8302, 9199, 9228, 9229, 9303, 9407, 9818, 9820, 10330); and from the signification of “churches,” as being those who are in truths from good, or in faith from charity, that is, who are of the church, for no others are of the church. These words, namely, “He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith into the churches,” are said to each of the churches (here to the church of Ephesus; afterwards to the church in Smyrna, verse 11; in Pergamum, verse 17; in Thyatira, verse 29; in Sardis, chapter 3:6; in Philadelphia, verse 13; and in Laodicea, verse 22), in order that everyone who is of the church may know that it is not knowing and understanding the truths and goods of faith, or doctrinals, or even the Word, that makes the church, but hearkening, that is, understanding and doing; for this is signified by the words “He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.” Because this makes the church and forms heaven with man, and knowing and understanding, apart from doing, does not, therefore the Lord also uses the same words in several other places:
He that hath an ear to hear let him hear (as in Matt. 11:15; 12:43; Mark 4: 9, 23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35).
In Revelation it is added, “what the Spirit saith unto the churches;” since by this is signified what Divine truth teaches and says to those who are of the church, or what is the same, what the Lord teaches and says, for all Divine truth proceeds from Him (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 13, 133, 137, 139); for this reason the Lord did not Himself say, “what the Spirit saith,” because He who spoke was the Divine truth.
[2] That knowing and understanding Divine truths does not make the church and form heaven with man, but knowing, understanding, and doing, the Lord teaches plainly in many passages; as in Matthew:
He that heareth these words of Mine and doeth them, is likened unto a prudent man, but he that heareth and doeth them not, is likened unto a foolish man (Matt. 7:24, 26).
In the same:
He that was sown upon good land, this is he that heareth the Word, and taketh heed and thence beareth fruit (Matt. 13:23).
In Luke:
Everyone that cometh to Me and heareth My words, and doeth them, I will show to whom he is like. He is like a man building a house, who laid the foundation on a rock. But he that heareth and doeth not is like a man that built a house upon the earth, without a foundation (Luke 6:47-49).
In the same:
My mother and My brethren are they who hear the Word of God and do it (Luke 8:21);
and in many other places. In these passages, “hearing” signifies simply hearing, which is knowing and understanding. “Hearing,” in common discourse, has this meaning when one is said “to hear” a thing; but it means both understanding and doing when it is said “give ear to,” or “hearken to,” also “listen to.” Moreover, those who have separated life from faith are like those of whom the Lord speaks in Matthew:
Seeing they see not, and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand (Matt. 13:13-15; Ezek. 12:2).

AE (Whitehead) n. 109 sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ 109. To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, signifies that he who receives in the heart shall be filled with the good of love and with heavenly joy therefrom. This is evident from the signification of “overcoming,” as being to receive in the heart (of which in what follows); also from the signification of “eating,” as being to be appropriated and to be conjoined (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2187, 2343, 3168, 3813, 5643); and from the signification of “the tree of life,” as being the good of love and heavenly joy therefrom (of which also in what follows). “To overcome” is to receive in the heart, because everyone who is to receive spiritual life must fight against evils and falsities which belong to his natural life; and when he overcomes these he receives in the heart the goods and truths which belong to the spiritual life. To receive in the heart is to receive in the will and love, for “heart” in the Word signifies the will and love (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2930, 3313, 7542, 8910, 9050, 9113, 10336). To receive in the heart, then, is to do these from the will or love; this is what is meant by “overcoming.”
[2] “The tree of life” signifies the good of love and heavenly joy therefrom, because “trees” signify such things as are with man in his interiors, which are of his mind [mens] or disposition [animus]; “boughs” and “leaves” signifying those things that are of the knowledges of truth and good, and “fruits” the goods of life themselves. This signification of trees draws its origin from the spiritual world; for in that world trees of every kind are seen, and the trees that are seen correspond to the interiors of the angels and spirits which are of their mind; the most beautiful and fruitful trees to the interiors of those who are in the good of love and thence in wisdom; trees less beautiful and fruitful to those who are in the good of faith; but trees bearing leaves only, and without fruits, to those who are only in the knowledges of truth; and horrible trees, with noxious fruits, to those who are in knowledges and in evil of life. To those, however, who are not in knowledges, and who are in evil of life, no trees appear, but stones and sands instead. These appearances in the spiritual world really flow from correspondence, for the interiors of the minds of those there are by such effigies presented actually before their eyes. (These things may be better seen from two chapters in the work on Heaven and Hell; first, where the Correspondence of Heaven with all things of Earth is treated of, n. 103-115; and the other, where Representatives and Appearances in Heaven are treated of, n. 170-176, and in what follows there, n. 177-190.)
[3] It is from this that “trees” are so often mentioned in the Word, and by them are signified the things with men that belong to their minds; and from this it is also that in the first chapters of Genesis: two trees are said to have been placed in the garden of Eden, one called “the tree of life,” and the other “the tree of knowledge.” “The tree of life” there signifies the good of love to the Lord, and heavenly joy therefrom, which were with those who were then of the church, and who are meant by the “man” and his “wife;” and by “the tree of knowledge” is signified the delight of knowledges apart from any other use than to be accounted learned and to acquire repute for erudition solely for the sake of honor or gain. “The tree of life” also signifies heavenly joy, because the good of love to the Lord, which is specifically signified by that tree, has heavenly joy in it (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 395-414, and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 230-239).
sRef Ezek@20 @47 S4′ sRef Rev@8 @7 S4′ sRef Dan@4 @11 S4′ sRef Dan@4 @10 S4′ sRef Isa@60 @13 S4′ sRef Ezek@17 @24 S4′ sRef Joel@1 @12 S4′ sRef Isa@41 @19 S4′ sRef Dan@4 @12 S4′ [4] That “trees,” which are so often mentioned in the Word, signify the interiors of man which belong to his mind and disposition, and the things that are on trees, as leaves and fruit, signify such things as are from these interiors, can be seen from the following passages:
I will give in the desert the cedar, the shittah tree,* and the myrtle, and the oil tree; I will set in the wilderness the fir tree, the pine, and the box tree (Isa. 41:19).
The establishment of the church is there treated of:
The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir tree, the pine, and the box tree together, to deck the place of My sanctuary (Isa. 60:13).
All the trees of the field shall know that I, Jehovah, humble the high tree, exalt the low tree, dry up the green tree, and make the dry tree to bud (Ezek. 17:24).
Behold, I will kindle a fire in thee, and it shall devour the green tree in thee, and every dry tree (Ezek. 20:47).
The vine is withered, and the fig tree languisheth; the pomegranate tree, the palm tree also, and the apple tree, all the trees of the field are withered: joy is withered away from the sons of men (Joel 1:12).
When the angel sounded, there followed hail and fire, which fell upon the earth; and the third part of the trees was burnt up (Rev. 8:7).
Beltshasar** saw in a dream a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof was great. The leaves thereof were fair, and the flowers many, and in it was food for all (Dan. 4:10-12).
(Because “trees” in general signify such things as are with man and constitute the interiors of his mind, and so also the spiritual things that are of the church; and because both are of various kinds, therefore there are so many kinds of trees mentioned, each signifying something different. What the various kinds signify is shown in the Arcana Coelestia, as what is signified by the “oil tree,” n. 9277, 10261; what by the “cedar,” n. 9472, 9486, 9528, 9715, 10178; what by the “vine,” n. 1069, 5113, 6375, 6378, 9277; what by the “fig,” n. 217, 4231, 5113, etc.)
sRef Ps@1 @3 S5′ sRef Ps@1 @1 S5′ sRef Ps@1 @2 S5′ sRef Ps@148 @9 S5′ sRef Ps@104 @16 S5′ sRef Jer@17 @8 S5′ sRef Rev@22 @2 S5′ sRef Joel@2 @22 S5′ sRef Ezek@47 @12 S5′ [5] Moreover, the things that are on trees, as leaves and fruit, signify such things as are with man; “leaves,” the truths with him, and “fruits,” the goods, as in the following passages:
He shall be as a tree planted by the waters, and shall spread out his roots by the river; his leaf shall be green; neither shall he cease from yielding fruit (Jer. 17:8).
By the river flowing out from the house of God, upon the bank on this side and on that, ascendeth the tree of food, whose leaf falleth not off, nor is its fruit consumed; it is renewed in its months, because its waters issue out of the sanctuary, whence its fruit is for food, and its leaf for medicine (Ezek. 47:12).
In the midst of the street and of the river (flowing out from the throne of God and of the Lamb), on this side and on that, was the tree of life, bearing twelve fruits, yielding its fruit every month, and the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations (Rev. 22:1, 2).
Blessed is the man whose delight is in the law; he shall be like a tree planted by the streams of waters, that bringeth forth its fruit in its time, whose leaf also doth not wither (Ps. 1:3).
Be not afraid, for the tree shall bear fruit, the fig tree and the vine shall yield their strength (Joel 2:22).
The trees of Jehovah are satisfied, the cedars of Lebanon which He hath planted (Ps. 104:16).
Praise Jehovah, ye fruit trees, and all cedars (Ps. 148:7, 9).
sRef John@15 @2 S6′ sRef Deut@20 @19 S6′ sRef Lev@23 @41 S6′ sRef Matt@3 @10 S6′ sRef Luke@13 @7 S6′ sRef Luke@13 @8 S6′ sRef Deut@20 @20 S6′ sRef Luke@13 @9 S6′ sRef Luke@13 @10 S6′ sRef Luke@13 @6 S6′ sRef John@15 @5 S6′ sRef John@15 @6 S6′ sRef Lev@25 @20 S6′ sRef Lev@25 @4 S6′ sRef John@15 @8 S6′ sRef John@15 @7 S6′ sRef Lev@23 @40 S6′ sRef Matt@12 @33 S6′ sRef John@15 @3 S6′ sRef John@15 @4 S6′ [6] Because “fruits” signified the goods of life with man, therefore it was commanded in the Israelitish church, which was a representative church, that the fruits of trees, like men themselves, should be circumcised, concerning which it is thus written:
The fruit of the tree serving for food in the land of Canaan shall be uncircumcised; three years shall they be uncircumcised. But in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, praises to Jehovah. And in the fifth year shall ye eat [of the fruit thereof] (Lev. 19:23-25).
Because the “fruits of the tree” signified the goods of life, it was also commanded:
That in the feast of tabernacles they should take the fruits of the tree of honor, and the boughs, and be glad before Jehovah, and thus should keep the feast (Lev. 23:40, 41).
For by “tabernacles” were signified the goods of heavenly love, and holy worship therefrom (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3312, 4391, 10545); and by the “feast of tabernacles” was signified the implantation of that good or love (n. 9296). Because “fruits” signified the goods of love which are goods of life:
It was amongst the blessings that the tree of the field should give its fruit, and among the curses that it should not bear fruit (Lev. 26:4, 20).
So also it was a command that when any city was besieged:
They should not lay the axe to any tree of good fruit (Deut. 20:19, 20).
From all this it can be seen that “fruits” signify the goods of love, or what is the same, the goods of life, which are also called “works,” as likewise in these passages in the Evangelists:
The axe lieth unto the root of the tree; every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be hewn down and cast into the fire (Matt. 3:10; 7:16-21).
Either make the tree good and the fruit good, or else make the tree corrupt and the fruit corrupt; for the tree is known by its fruit (Matt. 12:33; Luke 6:43, 44).
Every branch that beareth not fruit shall be taken away; but every branch that beareth fruit shall be pruned, that it may bring forth more fruit (John 15:2-8).
A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came seeking fruit thereon, but found none. And he saith unto the vine dresser, Behold, for three years I come seeking fruit from the fig tree, and find none; cut it down; why should it make the ground unfruitful? (Luke 13:6-9).
Jesus saw a fig tree by the way; He came to it, and found nothing thereon but leaves only; and He said, Nevermore from thee shall there be fruit. And immediately the fig tree withered away (Matt. 21:19; Mark 11:13, 14, 20).
The “fig tree” signifies the natural man and its interiors, and “fruits” signify his goods (Arcana Coelestia, n. 217, 4231, 5113); but “leaves” signify knowledges (n. 885). From this it is clear what is signified by the fig tree’s withering away because the Lord found on it leaves only and no fruit. All these passages are cited that it may be known what is signified by the “tree of life in the midst of the paradise of God,” namely, the good of love proceeding from the Lord, and heavenly joy therefrom.
* This is translated “the cedar of Shittah” in Arcana Coelestia, n. 9472, 9780, Apocalypse Explained, n. 294, 375, 730.
** In the Chaldee this is related of Nebuchadnezzar.

AE (Whitehead) n. 110 sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ 110. Which is in the midst of the paradise of God, signifies that all the knowledges of good and truth in heaven and in the church look thereto and proceed therefrom. This is evident from the signification of “the midst,” as being the center to which all things that are round about look and from which they proceed (of which above, n. 97) and from the signification of “paradise,” as being the knowledges of good and truth and intelligence therefrom (Arcana Coelestia, n. 100, 108, 1588, 2702, 3220); and because these are signified by “paradise,” therefore by the “paradise of God” heaven is signified, and as heaven, so also the church is signified, for the church is the Lord’s heaven on the earth. Heaven and the church are called the “paradise of God,” because the Lord is in the midst of them, and from Him is all intelligence and wisdom. Since it has not been known heretofore that all things in the Word are written by correspondences, consequently that there are spiritual things in every particular that is mentioned therein, it is believed that by the “paradise” treated of in the second chapter of Genesis, a paradisal garden is meant. But no earthly paradise is there meant, but the heavenly paradise which those possess who are in intelligence and wisdom from the knowledges of good and truth (see above, n. 109; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 176, 185).
sRef Ezek@31 @9 S2′ sRef Ezek@31 @3 S2′ sRef Ezek@31 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@51 @3 S2′ sRef Ezek@28 @13 S2′ [2] From this it can be seen not only what is signified by the “paradise” or “garden in Eden,” but also by the “paradises” or “gardens of God” elsewhere in the Word, as in Isaiah:
Jehovah shall comfort Zion, He will comfort all her waste places, even that He may make her wilderness into Eden, and her desert into a garden of Jehovah; joy and gladness shall be found therein (Isa. 51:3).
In Ezekiel:
Thou hast been in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering (Ezek. 28:13).
These things are said of Tyre, because by “Tyre” in the Word a church that is in the knowledges of truth and good and in intelligence therefrom is signified (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1201); its intelligence therefrom is “Eden, the garden of God,” likewise “the precious stone” from which is its “covering” (see n. 114, 9863, 9865, 9868, 9873). In the same:
Behold Asshur a cedar in Lebanon. The cedars have not hid it in the garden of God; nor was any tree in the garden of God equal to it in beauty. I have made it beautiful by the multitude of its branches; and all the trees of Eden in the garden of God envied it (Ezek. 31:3, 8, 9).
By “Asshur” in the Word those who have become rational by the knowledges of good and truth, thus whose minds are illustrated from heaven, are meant. (That “Asshur” is the rational of man, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 119, 1186.)
[3] Something shall now be said to explain how it is to be understood that all knowledges of good and truth look to the good of love to the Lord and proceed therefrom, which is the significance of these words: “To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life which is in the midst of the paradise of God.” The good of love to the Lord is the Lord Himself, since the Lord is in the good of His love with man, spirit, and angel. That all knowledges of good and truth look thereto, or to the Lord, is known in the Christian church; for the doctrine of the church teaches that there is no salvation apart from the Lord, and also that all salvation is in the Lord.
The knowledges of good and truth, or doctrinals from the Word, teach how man can come to God and be conjoined to Him. (That no one can be conjoined to God except from the Lord and in the Lord, see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 283, 296.) From this it can be seen that all things taught by the church from the Word look to the Lord and to love to Him, as the end to which [ad quem]. That all knowledges of good and truth, or all doctrinals from the Word, proceed from the Lord is also known in the church, for it is there taught that everything of love and everything of faith is from heaven, and that nothing is from man; and that no one can love God and believe in Him from himself. To love God and to believe in Him involve all things that the church teaches, called doctrinals and knowledges, since from these is God loved and believed in. There is no love and faith without previous knowledges; for without knowledges man would be empty.
sRef Rev@22 @2 S4′ sRef Ps@104 @16 S4′ [4] From this it follows that as everything of love and of faith proceeds from the Lord, so do all knowledges of good and truth which make and form love and faith. Because all knowledges of good and truth look to the Lord, and proceed from Him, and this is what is signified by “the tree of life in the midst of the paradise of God,” therefore all the trees in paradise are called “trees of life” and “trees of Jehovah;” in Revelation “trees of life”:
In the midst of the street and of the river (flowing out from the throne of God and of the Lamb) on this side and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve fruits (Rev. 22:2).
In David they are called “trees of Jehovah”:
The trees of Jehovah are satisfied, the cedars of Lebanon which He hath planted (Ps. 104:16).
From this also it is clear that by the “tree of life in the midst of paradise” is meant every tree there, in other words, every man in the midst of whom, that is, in whom is the Lord. From what has been shown here and in the preceding article, what is signified by the words, “The Lord will give to him that overcometh to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God,” may be learned.

AE (Whitehead) n. 111 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 111. Verses 8-11. And to the angel of the church of the Smyrneans write: These things saith the First and the Last, who was dead and is alive. I know thy works, and affliction, and poverty, but thou art rich; and the blasphemy of them who say that they are Jews and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. Fear not the things which thou art to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried, and ye shall have affliction ten days: be thou faithful even till death, and I will give thee the crown of life. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. He that overcometh shall not be hurt by the second death. 8. “And to the angel of the church of the Smyrneans write,” signifies for remembrance to those within the church, who wish to understand the Word, but do not yet understand, and are therefore as yet but little in the knowledges of truth and good, which nevertheless they desire in heart (n. 112); “These things saith the First and the Last,” signifies the Lord, who governs all things from the Divine Human, from firsts by means of ultimates (n. 113); “who was dead and is alive,” signifies that He has been rejected, and yet eternal life is from Him (n. 114, 115). 9. “I know thy works,” signifies love (n. 116); “and affliction,” signifies anxiety from a longing to know truths (n. 117); “and poverty, but thou art rich,” signifies acknowledgment that they know nothing from themselves (n. 118); “and the blasphemy of them who say that they are Jews and they are not,” signifies denunciation by those who think themselves to be in the knowledges of good and truth because they have the Word, and yet are not (n. 119); “but are a synagogue of Satan,” signifies doctrine of all falsities with these (n. 120). 10. “Fear not the things which thou art to suffer,” signifies that they should not grieve because such men persecute them (n. 121); “Behold, the devil is about to cast some of you into prison,” signifies that those who are in falsities from evil will set about to deprive them of all truth from the Word (n. 122); “that ye may be tried,” signifies consequent increase of longing for truth (n. 123); “and ye shall have affliction ten days,” signifies that infestation and temptation therefrom will last for some time (n. 124); “be thou faithful even till death,” signifies steadfastness in truths to the end (n. 125); “and I will give thee the crown of life,” signifies wisdom and eternal happiness therefrom (n. 126). 11. “He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies that he that understands should hearken to what Divine truth proceeding from the Lord teaches and says to those who are of His church (n. 127). “He that overcometh shall not be hurt by the second death” signifies that he who is steadfast in the genuine affection of truth to the end of his life in the world shall come into the new heaven (n. 128).

AE (Whitehead) n. 112 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ 112. Verse 8. And to the angel of the church of the Smyrneans write, signifies for remembrance to those within the church who wish to understand the Word, but do not yet understand, and are therefore as yet but little in the knowledges of truth and good, which nevertheless they desire in heart. This is evident from the signification of “writing” as being for remembrance (see above, n. 95); and from the signification of the “angel of the church of the Smyrneans,” as being those within the church who wish to understand the Word but do not yet understand, and are therefore but little in the knowledges of truth and good, which nevertheless they desire in heart. That these are meant by the “angel of the church of the Smyrneans” is clear from the things written to that angel which follow: for who are meant by the angel of each church can be known only from the internal sense of the things written to him.
[2] In the things written to the angel of the Ephesian church, explained just above, those are described who are in the knowledges of truth and good, and not also, or not yet, in a life according to them. Here now those are described who are in the knowledges of truth and good, and at the same time in a life according to them; these, therefore, are in the affection of truth from a spiritual source; but the former are those who are in the affection of truth from a natural source. In general, there are affections of truth from two sources, namely, from a natural and from a spiritual source. Those who are in the affection of truth from a natural source look first to self and the world, and thence are natural; but those who are in the affection of truth from a spiritual source look first to the Lord and to heaven, and thence are spiritual. Man’s affection or love looks either downwards or upwards; those who look to self and the world look downwards, but those who look to the Lord and to heaven look upwards. A man’s interiors, which are of his mind, actually look in the same direction as his love or affection does, for love determines them; and such as is the determination of man’s interiors, which are of his mind, such after death does the man remain to eternity. Looking downwards or upwards is looking from love through the understanding, thus through the things that form and make the understanding, which are the knowledges of truth and good.
[3] In what is written to the angel of the Ephesian church, those within the church who are in the knowledges of truth and good, and not also, or not yet, in a life according to them, thus those who are in the affection of truth from a natural source, are described; and now in what is written to the angel of the church of the Smyrneans, those who are in the knowledges of truth and good, and also in a life according to them, thus those who are in the affection of truth from a spiritual source are described; and this because the former is the first [state] of the church, and the latter is the second. For no one can be introduced into the church and formed for heaven, except by knowledges from the Word. Without these man does not know the way to heaven, and without these the Lord cannot dwell with him. It can be seen that without the knowledges of truth and good from the Word no one can know anything of the Lord, of the angelic heaven, or of charity and faith; and that which a man does not know he cannot think, thus cannot will, and accordingly cannot believe and love. It is evident, therefore, that by means of knowledges man learns the way to heaven. It can also be seen that without the knowledges of truth and good from the Word the Lord cannot be present with man and lead him, for when man knows nothing of the Lord, of heaven, of charity and faith, his spiritual mind, which is the higher mind, and is intended to see by the light of heaven, is empty, and has nothing from the Divine in it. But the Lord cannot be with man except in His own with man, that is, in the things that are from Him. For this reason it was said that unless a man is in the knowledges of truth and good from the Word and in the life thereof, the Lord cannot dwell with him. From this, taken together, it follows that the natural man can by no means become spiritual without the knowledges of good and truth from the Word.
[4] By “the angel of the church of the Smyrneans” are meant those within the church who wish to understand the Word, but do not yet understand, and therefore are as yet but little in the knowledges of truth and good, which nevertheless they desire because they are in the spiritual affection of truth; and those who are in the spiritual affection of truth are also in the life of charity, for from that they have spiritual affection. The spiritual comes to man from no other source than from charity. Those who are in spiritual affection are interested in the Word, and desire nothing more earnestly than to understand it. But as there are innumerable things therein that they do not understand, because the Word in its bosom is spiritual and the spiritual includes infinite arcana, therefore, so long as man lives in the world and then sees from the natural man, he can be but little in the knowledges of truth and good, and in generals only, in which, however, innumerable things may be implanted when he comes into the spiritual world or heaven.
sRef Matt@13 @12 S5′ sRef Luke@6 @38 S5′ [5] A man who is in the affection of truth from a spiritual origin knows many more things than he knew before; for the general knowledges that he has are like vessels that can be filled with many things, and they are also actually filled when he comes into heaven. That this is so can be seen merely from this, that all the angels in heaven are from the human race, and yet they possess wisdom such as could be described only by what is unutterable and incomprehensible, as is well known. (That the angels of heaven are from no other source than the human race, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 311-317:, and in the small work on The Last Judgment, n. 14-22.) This fullness of intelligence and wisdom is what is meant by the words of the Lord in Luke:
Good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, shall be given into your bosom (Luke 6:38);
and in Matthew:
Whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundantly (Matt. 13:12; 25:29);
and in Luke:
The lord said to the servant who from the pound given him gained ten pounds, Because thou hast been faithful in a very little, thou shalt have authority over ten cities (Luke 19:16, 17).
By “ten” is here signified much and full, and by “cities” intelligence and wisdom. (That “ten” signifies much and full, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1988, 3107, 4638; and the “cities” signify those things that are of intelligence and wisdom, n. 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216, 3584, 4492, 4493, 5297.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 113 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @1 S1′ 113. These things saith the First and the Last, signifies the Lord, who governs all things from the Divine Human, from firsts by means of ultimates. This is evident from the signification of “the First and the Last,” as being, in reference to the Lord, His ruling all things from firsts by means of ultimates (see above, n. 41). That it is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human who here and in what follows speaks to the angels of the churches, can be seen from the preceding chapter, where similar things are said of the Son of man; and the Son of man is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human (see above, n. 63). This is clearly shown by bringing the passages together; for example, the Son of man is described in the preceding chapter as seen:
In the midst of the golden lampstands, having in his right hand seven stars (Rev. 1:13, 16).
These same things introduce what is written to the angel of the Ephesian Church in these words, “These things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand, that walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands” (verse 1 of this chapter).
sRef Rev@1 @18 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @8 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @14 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @18 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @15 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @16 S2′ [2] In the preceding chapter the Son of man is described thus:
I am the First and the Last; and the Living One; and I became dead; and behold I am alive unto the ages of the ages (Rev. 1:17-18).
These things here introduce what is written to the angel of the church of the Smyrneans, in these words; “These things saith the First and the Last, who was dead and is alive” (verse 8). In the preceding chapter the Son of man is described, that there was seen:
Out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth (Rev. 1:16).
This introduces what is written to the angel of the church Pergamum, in these words:
These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword (Rev. 1:12).
In the preceding chapter the Son of man is described, that He was seen to have:
Eyes as a flame of fire; and feet like unto burnished brass, as if glowing in a furnace (Rev. 1:14-15).
These things introduce what is written to the angel of the church in Thyatira, in these words:
These things saith the Son of God, that hath His eyes as a flame of fire, and His feet like unto burnished brass (Rev. 1:18).
[3] Similar things introduce what is written to the angels of the other three churches (of which in the following chapter). From this it can be seen that it is the Son of man who says the things that are written to the churches; and as by the “Son of man” the Lord in respect to the Divine Human is meant (as was shown above, n. 63), it follows that all that is written to the churches is from the Lord’s Divine Human; and from this it also follows that the Divine Human is the All in all things of the church, as it is the All in all things of Heaven. So here by His being “the First and the Last” is signified that the Lord from His Divine Human governs all things from firsts by means of ultimates. (That the Lord in respect to the Divine Human is the All in all things of heaven, may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 7-12 and n. 78-86, and the rest there. And as the Lord is the All in all things of heaven, He is also the All in all things of the church, for the church is the kingdom of the Lord on the earth.) This I can affirm, that no one who is within the church, and does not acknowledge the Divine of the Lord in His Human, can enter heaven. To acknowledge the Divine of the Lord in His Human is to think of His Divine when thinking of His Human. That it must be so thought of is because the whole heaven is from His Divine Human (as may be seen shown in the work on Heaven and Hell, from beginning to end; and above in the explanation of Revelation, n. 10, 49, 52, 82).

AE (Whitehead) n. 114 sRef John@1 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ 114. Who was dead and is alive, signifies that He has been rejected, and yet eternal life is from Him. This is evident from the signification of being “dead,” as being, in reference to the Lord, to have been rejected (of which see above, n. 83); also from the signification of “being alive,” as being that eternal life is from Him (of which also above, n. 84). The Lord is said to have been rejected when He is not approached and worshiped; and also when He is approached and worshiped in respect to His Human only, and not at the same time in respect to the Divine; therefore He is rejected at the present time within the church by those who do not approach and worship Him, but pray to the Father to have compassion for the sake of the Son, when yet neither man nor angel can ever approach the Father and worship Him immediately; for the Divine is invisible, and with it no one can be conjoined by faith and love; since what is invisible does not come into the idea of thought, nor, consequently, into the affection of the will; and what does not fall into the idea of thought does not fall within the faith; for the things that are to be of faith must be thought of. So also what does not enter into the affection of the will does not enter into love, for what is to be of the love must affect man’s will, for all the love that man has resides in the will (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 28-35).
sRef John@14 @9 S2′ sRef John@14 @10 S2′ sRef John@10 @30 S2′ sRef John@14 @6 S2′ sRef Matt@11 @27 S2′ sRef John@15 @5 S2′ sRef John@14 @7 S2′ sRef John@5 @37 S2′ sRef John@14 @8 S2′ sRef John@1 @18 S2′ sRef John@10 @38 S2′ sRef John@14 @11 S2′ [2] But the Divine Human of the Lord does come into the idea of the thought and thus into faith, and from that into the affection of the will, that is, into love. From this it is clear that there is no conjunction with the Father except from the Lord, and in the Lord. This the Lord Himself teaches with the utmost clearness in the Evangelists, as in John:
No one hath seen God at any time; the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath brought Him forth to view (John 1:18).
In the same:
Ye have neither heard the Father’s voice at any time, nor seen His shape (John 5:37).
In Matthew:
No one knoweth the Father save the Son, and he to whom the Son willeth to reveal Him (Matt. 11:27).
In John:
I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life; no man cometh unto the Father but through Me (John 14:6).
In the same :
If ye know Me ye know My Father also; he that seeth Me seeth the Father. Philip, believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? Believe Me, that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:7-11).
And that the Father and the Lord are one (John 10:30, 38).
I am the vine, ye are the branches; apart from Me ye can do nothing (John 15:5).
[3] From this it can be seen that the Lord has been rejected by those within the church who approach the Father immediately and pray to Him to have compassion for the sake of the Son; for these cannot do otherwise than think of the Lord’s Human as they think of the human of another man, thus they cannot think at the same time of His Divine as being in the Human, still less of His Divine as conjoined with His Human as the soul is conjoined with the body, according to the doctrine received throughout the universal Christian world (see above, n. 10, 26). Who is there in the Christian world, acknowledging the Divinity of the Lord, that is willing to be one who would place the Lord’s Divine outside of His Human? When yet to think of the Human only, and not at the same time of His Divine in the Human, is to view the two as separated, which is not to view the Lord, nor the two as one person; and yet the doctrine received throughout Christendom is, that the Divine and the Human of the Lord are not two persons but a single person.
[4] It is true that men of the church at this day, when they speak from the doctrine of the church think of the Divine of the Lord in His Human; but when they think and speak by themselves aside from doctrine, it is altogether otherwise. But be it known, that man is in one state when he is thinking and speaking from doctrine, and in another when he is thinking and speaking aside from doctrine. When man is thinking and speaking from doctrine, his thought and speech are from the memory of his natural man; but when he is thinking and speaking aside from doctrine, his thought and speech are from his spirit; for to think and speak from the spirit, is to think and speak from the interiors of one’s mind, from which is his real faith. Moreover, man’s state after death becomes such as were the thought and speech of his spirit by himself aside from doctrine, and not such as they were from doctrine, if the latter was not one with the former.
[5] Man does not know that he has two states in respect to faith and love; one when in doctrine and another aside from doctrine; but that the state of his faith and love aside from doctrine is what saves him, and not the state of his speech respecting faith and love from doctrine, unless the latter state makes one with the former. Yet to think and speak from doctrine respecting faith and love is to speak from the natural man and its memory, as is evident merely from this, that the evil, when with others, can think and speak thus equally with the good. For the same reason also evil preachers equally with good, or preachers that have no faith equally with those that have faith, can preach the Gospel, and, to appearance, with similar zeal and affection. This is because the man, as has been said, then thinks and speaks from his natural man and its memory. But to think from one’s spirit is not to think from the natural man and its memory, but from the spiritual man, and from its faith and affection. Merely from this it is clear that man has two states, and that it is the latter state, not the former, that saves him; for man after death is a spirit; therefore such as he was in the world in respect to his spirit, such he remains after his departure out of the world.
[6] Moreover, it has been given me to know from much experience that the man of the church has these two states. For after death, man can be let into either state, and is also actually let into both. Many of these, when they have been let into the former state, have spoken like Christians, and from such speech have been believed by others to be Christians; but as soon as they were remitted into the latter state, which was the real state of their spirit they spoke like devilish spirits, and altogether in opposition to what they had spoken before (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 491-498, 499-511).
[7] From this it can be seen how the statement is to be understood that the Lord has been at this day rejected by those within the church; namely, that although it is held from doctrine that the Divine of the Lord must be acknowledged and believed in the same degree as the Divine of the Father, for the doctrine of the church teaches that “As is the Father so also is the Son, uncreate, infinite, eternal, omnipotent, God, Lord, and neither of them greater or less, before or after the other” (see the Creed of Athanasius); yet they do not approach and worship the Lord and His Divine, but the Divine of the Father; this they do when they pray to the Father to have mercy for the sake of the Son; and when they say this they do not think at all of the Divine of the Lord, but they think of His Human as separated from the Divine, thus of His Human as similar to the human of any other man; and then they also think not of one God, but of two, or three. To think in this way of the Lord is to reject Him; for by not thinking of His Divine at the same time that they think of His Human, by the separation they thrust out the Divine. Yet these are not two, but one person, and make one as soul and body do.
[8] I once spoke with spirits who when they lived in the world were of the popish religion, and I asked whether in the world they ever thought about the Divine of the Lord? They said that they thought about it whenever they saw from doctrine, and that they then acknowledged His Divine to be equal with the Divine of the Father, but that apart from doctrine, they thought of His Human only, and not of His Divine. They were asked why they say that the power which His Human had was given to it by the Father and not by Himself, since they acknowledged His Divine to be equal with that of the Father? At this they turned away, making no answer. But it was said to them, that it was because they transferred to themselves all His Divine power, and that they could not have done this unless they had separated the Divine from the Human. That with them the Lord has been rejected, everyone may conclude from this, that they worship the pope instead of the Lord, and that they no longer attribute any power to the Lord.
[9] I will here also mention a great scandal heard from the pope called Benedict XIV. He openly declared that when he lived in the world he believed that the Lord had no power, because He had transferred it all to Peter, and after him to his successors; adding his belief that their saints have more power than the Lord, because they hold it from God the Father, while the Lord resigned it all and gave it to the popes; yet that He is still to be worshiped, because otherwise the pope is not worshiped with sanctity. But because this pope even after death claimed the Divine for himself, after a few days he was cast into hell.

AE (Whitehead) n. 115 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ 115. The Lord said to the angel of this church, “I am the First and the Last, who was dead and is alive,” because those within the church that are in the spiritual affection of truth are here treated of. These are such as search out truths from the Word, and when they find them they rejoice in heart, solely because they are truths. Those also are here treated of who are in a merely natural affection of truth. These are such as do not search for truths, nor rejoice in them because they are truths, but they simply acquiesce in the doctrinals of their church, not caring whether they are true or false; these they learn with the memory only, confirming them also by the sense of the letter of the Word; and doing this solely for the sake of acquiring repute, honors, or gain. It is with such that the Lord is “dead,” that is, rejected. The spiritual affection of truth, which is loving truth because it is truth, exists only with those who are conjoined to the Lord by the acknowledgment of His Divine in the Human, and by faith in it; since all the truth of heaven and all the truth of the church is from no other source than the Lord’s Divine Human; for out of this proceeds Divine truth, which is called “the Spirit of Truth,” or “the Holy Spirit.” From this the angels of heaven have all their affection of truth and all their wisdom (that this is so, see in the work on Heaven and Hell n. 126-140, 265-275, 346-356). It is with these that the Lord is alive.

AE (Whitehead) n. 116 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 116. Verse 9. I know thy works, signifies love. This is evident from the signification of “works,” as being the things that are of the will or love, since works proceed therefrom, and that from which anything proceeds constitutes the all in that which proceeds, as cause does in effect, for when the cause is taken away or ceases the effect ceases. So it is with man’s will and works therefrom; will is the cause and works are the effects, and it is well known that when will ceases work ceases. From this it is clear that “works” in relation to cause are the will.
The will of man is spiritual, but works therefrom are natural; therefore here by “works,” in the spiritual sense, the will is meant. By “works” is meant also the love, because what a man loves that he wills, and what in heart he wills that he loves; and if you look more deeply you will see that all things of man’s interior will are of his love. Yet in common discourse we speak of man’s love, not of his will, because the loves are manifold, and there are many in one man, and all are together in the will, which is perceived by man as a one, because he distinguishes between will and understanding. The will, therefore, is man’s spiritual itself, because love is spiritual. “Works” are mentioned in the Word, and not the will or love (as here and in what follows, to the angels of the churches, “I know thy works,” and not “I know thy will,” or “thy love”), because all things that are in the sense of the letter of the Word are natural, and contain within them things spiritual; to bring out, therefore, the spiritual sense of the Word, the spiritual, which is in the natural or from which the natural proceeds, is to be explored.

AE (Whitehead) n. 117 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 117. And affliction, signifies anxiety from a longing to know truths. This is evident from the signification of “affliction,” as being anxiety of mind from a longing to know truths; for those who wish to understand the Word, but who do not as yet well understand it, are here treated of (see above, n. 112), and these are in anxiety as to the spirit when they do not understand. That these have such anxiety when they do not understand, none can know except those who are in the affection of truth for the sake of truth, that is, who are in spiritual affection; who these are may be seen above (n. 115). The reason of this is, that such are conjoined to the angels of heaven, and angels continually long for truths, because they long for intelligence and wisdom; they long for these as a hungry man longs for food. For this reason also intelligence and wisdom are called spiritual food. This longing also man has from infancy, for when he is an infant, and afterwards when a child, he is conjoined to heaven, and this longing is from heaven; but with those who turn themselves to the world it perishes. From this it may be known what is the anxiety of mind or spiritual anxiety that is here signified by “affliction.”
[2] They have such anxiety when they read the Word and do not well understand it, because all the truths of heaven and the church are from the Word, and lie concealed therein in its spiritual sense, and are not opened to any except such as are conjoined to heaven, since that sense of the Word is in heaven. Yet the spiritual sense itself of the Word does not flow in with man out of heaven, but it flows into his affection, and through this into the knowledges that he has, and thus kindles his longing, and he then receives the genuine truths of the church so far as he can see them from the literal sense of the Word. Everyone who is in the spiritual affection of truth is conscious that the things that he knows are few, and the things that he does not know are infinite. He is aware, moreover, that knowing and acknowledging this is the first step towards wisdom; and that those who pride themselves on the things they know, and believe themselves on account of these to be most intelligent, have not reached this first step. Such persons also commonly glory more from falsities than from truths, for they have regard to their own reputation, and are affected by that alone, and not by truth itself. Such are they who are in natural affection only and in longing from that (see above, n. 115).

AE (Whitehead) n. 118 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 118. And poverty, but thou art rich, signifies the acknowledgment that they know nothing from themselves. This is evident from the signification of “poverty,” as being the acknowledgment of heart that they know nothing from themselves (of which presently); and from the signification of “but thou art rich,” as being the affection of spiritual truth (of which also presently). That by “poverty” spiritual poverty is here meant, and that by “thou art rich” is meant to be spiritually rich, is clear, since these things are said to the church. To be spiritually poor, and yet to be rich, is to acknowledge in heart that one has no knowledge nor understanding nor wisdom from himself, but that he knows, understands, and is wise wholly from the Lord. In such acknowledgment are all the angels of heaven, wherefore they are also intelligent and wise, and this in the same degree in which they are in the acknowledgment and perception that this is the case. For they know and perceive that nothing of the truth that is called the truth of faith, and nothing of the good that is called the good of love, is from themselves, but that these are from the Lord; they also know and perceive that all things that they understand and in which they are wise have reference to the truth of faith and to the good of love; and from this again they know that all their intelligence and wisdom is from the Lord; and because they know and acknowledge this, and also wish and love it to be so, Divine truth from which are all intelligence and wisdom continually flows in from the Lord, and this they receive in the measure in which they are affected by it, that is, love it. But, on the other hand, the spirits of hell believe that all things which they think and will, and thence speak and do, are from themselves, and nothing from God; for they do not believe in a Divine; consequently, instead of intelligence and wisdom they have insanity and folly, for they think contrary to truth, and will contrary to good, and this is to be insane and foolish. Every man who is in the love of self does the same; he cannot do otherwise than attribute all things to self, because he looks only to self; and because he does this he is not in any acknowledgment that all intelligence and wisdom are from the Lord; consequently, when such persons think with themselves, they think contrary to the truths and goods of the church and of heaven, although when speaking with men they talk otherwise, from a fear of losing their reputation.
[2] From this it can be known what “poverty” in the spiritual sense means. He who is spiritually poor is nevertheless rich, because he is in the spiritual affection of truth; for into this affection intelligence and wisdom from the Lord flow; for everyone’s affection receives and imbibes things congenial to it, as a sponge does water; therefore the spiritual affection of truth receives and imbibes spiritual truths, which are the truths of the church, from the Word. The spiritual affection of truth has no other source than the Lord, because the Lord is Divine truth in heaven and in the church, for Divine truth proceeds from Him. And as the Lord loves to lead everyone to Himself, and to save him, and this He can do only by the knowledges of good and truth from the Word, so the Lord loves to impart these to man, and make them of his life, for in this way and no other can He lead man to Himself and save him. From this it is manifest that all spiritual affection of truth is from the Lord, and that no one can be in that affection unless he acknowledges the Divine of the Lord in His Human, for by such acknowledgment there is conjunction, and according to conjunction there is reception. (On this more may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, where it treats of The Wisdom of the Angels of Heaven, n. 265-275; and of The Wise and the Simple in Heaven, n. 346-356, and elsewhere in the same work, n. 13, 19, 25, 26, 133, 139, 140, 205, 297, 422, 523, 603; and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 11-27; and above, in the explanation of Revelation, n. 6, 59, 112, 115, 117.
sRef Isa@41 @17 S3′ sRef Isa@14 @30 S3′ sRef Luke@14 @21 S3′ sRef Matt@5 @6 S3′ sRef Luke@6 @21 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S3′ sRef Luke@6 @20 S3′ sRef Matt@5 @3 S3′ sRef Isa@41 @18 S3′ [3] In the Word, “the poor and needy” are mentioned here and there, also the “hungry and thirsty.” By “the poor and needy” are signified those who believe that of themselves they know nothing; and also those who are destitute of knowledge because they have not the Word; and by the “hungry and thirsty” are signified those who continually long for truths, and long to be perfected by means of truths. These two classes are meant by the “poor,” the “needy,” the “hungry,” and the “thirsty,” in the following passages:
Blessed are the poor in spirit; for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness; for they shall be filled (Matt. 5:3, 6).
Blessed are the poor; for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. Blessed are ye that hunger; for ye shall be filled (Luke 6:20, 21).
To the poor the Gospel shall be preached, and the poor hear the Gospel (Luke 7:22; Matt. 11:5).
The master of the house said to the servant that he should go out into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor (Luke 14:21).
Then the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down with confidence (Isa. 14:30).
I was an hungered and ye gave Me to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me to drink (Matt. 25:35).
The poor and the needy seek water, and there is none, their tongue faileth for thirst, I, Jehovah, will answer them. I will open rivers on the heights, and fountains will I place in the midst of the valleys (Isa. 41:17-18).

From this last passage it is clear that the “poor and needy” are those who long for the knowledges of good and truth, for the “water” that such seek is truth. (That “water” is the truth of faith, see above, n. 71.) Their longing is here described by “their tongue fainting for thirst,” and the abundance they are to have by “rivers being opened on the heights, and fountains in the midst of the valleys.”
[4] Those who do not know that by the “rich” are signified those who have the Word and who thence can be in the knowledges of truth and good, and that by the “poor” are signified those who have not the Word, and yet long for truths, know no other than that by the “rich man” in Luke (16:19 seq.) “who was clothed in purple and fine linen,” are meant the rich in the world, and that by the “poor man” who “was laid at his gate, and desired to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man’s table,” are meant the poor in this world. But by the “rich man” there the Jewish nation is meant, which had the Word, and might from it have been in the knowledges of truth and good; and by the “poor man” are there meant the Gentiles that had not the Word and yet longed for the knowledges of truth and good. The rich man is described as “clothed with purple and fine linen,” because “purple” signifies genuine good (Arcana Coelestia, n. 9467), and the “fine linen” genuine truth (Arcana Coelestia, n. 5319, 9469, 9596, 9744), both from the Word. The poor man is described as “laid at the rich man’s gate, and desiring to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man’s table,” because by “to be laid at the gate” is meant to be rejected, and to be deprived of the opportunity to read and understand the Word; and “wishing to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man’s table” means to long for some truths from the Word, for “food” signifies the things of knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom and in general, good and truth (Arcana Coelestia, n. 3114, 4459, 4792, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 5576, 5582, 5588, 5655, 8562, 9003); and “table” signifies a receptacle for these (Arcana Coelestia, n. 9527). As the poor man was in that longing, which is the same as the spiritual affection of truth, it is said of him that “he was carried by the angels into Abraham’s bosom,” by which is signified to be raised into an angelic state in respect to intelligence and wisdom; “Abraham’s bosom” is the Divine truth that is in heaven, for those who are in that are with the Lord. (That “Abraham” in the Word signifies the Lord, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2010, 2833, 2836, 3245, 3251, 3305, 3439, 3703, 6098, 6185, 6276, 6804, 6847.)
sRef Luke@1 @53 S5′ [5] The like that is signified here by the “rich man” and the “poor man who hungered” is signified by the “rich” and the “hungry” in Luke:
The hungry He hath filled with good, and the rich He hath sent empty away (Luke 1:53).
(That by “riches” in the Word are meant spiritual riches, which are the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1694, 4508, 10227; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 365; and in a contrary sense, the knowledges of what is false and evil, which are confirmed from the sense of the letter of the Word, Arcana Coelestia, n. 1694.) That “riches” in the Word signify the knowledges of truth and good, and intelligence and wisdom therefrom, is from correspondence; for with the angels in heaven all things appear as if refulgent with gold, and silver, and precious stones; and this so far as they are in the intelligence of truth and in the wisdom of good. Also with the spirits who are below the heavens there are riches in appearance according to the reception of truth and good from the Lord with them.

AE (Whitehead) n. 119 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 119. And the blasphemy of them who say that they are Jews and they are not, signifies denunciation by those who think themselves to be in the knowledges of good and truth because they have the Word, and yet they are not. This is evident from the signification of “blasphemy,” as being reviling and denunciation; and from the signification of “Jews,” as being those who are in the knowledges of good and truth from the Word; for “Judah,” in the highest sense of the Word, signifies the Lord in respect to celestial love, in the internal sense the Lord’s celestial kingdom and the Word, and in the external sense doctrine from the Word, which is of the celestial church (see Arcana Coelestia, 3881, 6363). From this it can be seen that by the “blasphemy of them who say that they are Jews and they are not,” is signified reviling and denunciation by those who say that they acknowledge the Lord, and are in His kingdom and in true doctrine, because they have the Word, and yet they are not; in general, those who say that they are in the knowledges of good and truth from the Word, and yet are in falsities and evils.
[2] Those who know nothing of the internal sense of the Word cannot know otherwise than that by “Judah” and “Jews,” in the prophetical parts of the word, are meant Judah and the Jews; these, however are not there meant by their names, but all who are in the true doctrine of the church, thus who are in the knowledges of good and truth from the Word; and in the contrary sense, those who are in false doctrine, thus who have adulterated the truths and goods of the Word. That Judah and the Jews are not meant can be seen merely from this, that there is an internal sense in every particular of the Word, and also in the names of persons and places; and that nothing is treated of in this sense except what pertains to heaven and the church; such things, therefore, must also be signified by the names “Judah” and “Israel.” And as with them a church was instituted in which all things were representative and significative of things heavenly, so by their names was signified that which essentially makes the church, namely, in the highest sense, the Lord Himself; in the internal sense His Word; and in the external sense doctrine from the Word, as was said above. From this it is clear how greatly those are mistaken who believe, according to the letter, that the Jews are to be brought back into the land of Canaan, and that they have been chosen and destined for heaven in preference to others; when yet but few from that nation are saved, since none are saved except those who believe in the Lord; and he who believes in the Lord in the world, believes in Him after death; but that nation has altogether rejected Him from its faith.
sRef Gen@49 @10 S3′ sRef Gen@49 @11 S3′ sRef Gen@49 @9 S3′ [3] That by “Judah” is meant the Lord in respect to His kingdom and the Word can be seen from the prophecy of Israel regarding his sons; when this is unfolded by the internal sense it is clear what each tribe represented in the church. It is clearly evident that the tribe of Judah represented the Lord’s kingdom, or the church where the Word is; for it is said of Judah:
Judah is a lion’s whelp; from the prey, my son, thou art gone up. The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and upon Him shall the clinging of the people be; who shall bind to the vine the foal of His ass, and to the noble vine the son of His she-ass; whilst He shall have washed His garment in wine, and His vesture in the blood of grapes (Gen. 49:9-11).
That these particulars signify the Lord’s kingdom or the church, may be seen in the Arcana Coelestia, where they are explained.
sRef Joel@3 @6 S4′ sRef Joel@3 @18 S4′ sRef Isa@48 @1 S4′ sRef Joel@3 @20 S4′ [4] He who knows that by “Judah” is meant in the highest sense the Lord, and in the internal sense His kingdom and the Word, and in the external sense doctrine from the Word, also in a contrary sense those who deny the Lord and adulterate the Word, can know what is signified by “Judah” in very many passages of the Word, as in the following:
Hear ye, O house of Jacob, called by the name of Israel, and who are come forth out of the waters of Judah (Isa. 48:1).
The “house of Jacob” and “Israel” is the church; “to come forth out of the waters of Judah” signifies out of doctrine from the Word, for the church is from that. That “waters” denote the truths of doctrine out of the Word, see above (n. 71).
The sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the sons of the Grecians, that ye may remove them far from their borders. It shall come to pass in that day that all the brooks of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall go forth out of the house of Jehovah, and Judah shall sit to eternity (Joel 3:6, 18, 20).
“To sell the sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem to the sons of the Grecians” is to falsify the goods and truths of the church; “in that day” means when there is an end of that church and a new church has been established among the Gentiles; “all the brooks of Judah shall flow with waters” signifies the abundance of truth and good from the Word, for those who are in the new church; that these are from the Word is signified by the “fountain going forth out of the house of Jehovah.” From this it is evident that by “Judah,” who “shall sit to eternity,” is not meant Judah or the Jewish nation, but all those who are in good by means of truths from the Word.
sRef Zech@2 @11 S5′ sRef Hos@1 @11 S5′ sRef Isa@65 @9 S5′ sRef Zech@10 @6 S5′ sRef Ps@69 @35 S5′ sRef Hos@1 @7 S5′ sRef Ps@69 @36 S5′ sRef Zech@2 @12 S5′ sRef Zech@10 @3 S5′ [5] Like things are meant by “Judah” in the following passages:
I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will save them. And the sons of Judah and the sons of Israel shall be gathered together, and they shall put over themselves one head, and they shall go up from the land; for great is the day of Jehovah* (Hos. 1:7, 11).
Then many nations shall join themselves to Jehovah in that day; they shall be to Me for a people, for I will dwell in thee; then Jehovah shall make Judah an heritage in Himself, His portion upon the land of holiness, and shall again choose Jerusalem (Zech. 2:11, 12).
Jehovah Zebaoth shall visit His flock, the house of Judah, and shall make them a horse of glory in war; I will render the house of Judah powerful (Zech. 10:3, 6).
God shall save Zion, and will build the cities of Judah; and they shall dwell there, and inherit it; the seed also of His servants shall inherit it; and they that love the name of Jehovah shall dwell therein (Ps. 69:35, 36).
I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of My mountains; that My chosen may possess it (Isa. 65:9);
besides very many other places. That the Jewish nation is not meant in the Word in these and other places, where they are called “chosen” and “heirs,” may be seen from what is cited respecting that nation from the Arcana Coelestia, in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem (n. 248). From this now can be seen what is signified by the “blasphemy of them who say that they are Jews, and they are not.”
* In Hebrew “Jezreel,” instead of “Jehovah”; in Doctrine of the Lord, n. 4, we have “Israel,” cf. Arcana Coelestia, n. 3580.

AE (Whitehead) n. 120 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 120. But are a synagogue of Satan, signifies the doctrine of all falsities with these. This is evident from the signification of “synagogue,” as being doctrine (of which presently); and from the signification of “Satan,” as being the hell from which are all falsities. There are two kinds of hells, one in which those are who are in evils, and the other in which those are who are in the falsities of evil. The hell in which those are who are in evils is called, in one word, Devil, and that in which those are who are in the falsities of evil is called, in one word, Satan. That the hells are thus named is totally unknown to those who know nothing about the hells, but have adopted the belief that the devil was created an angel of light, and because he rebelled was cast down with his crew, and thus hell was made. (That the hells are called Devil and Satan may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 311, 544, 553; and in the small work on The Last Judgment, in the chapter where it is shown that Heaven and Hell are from the Human Race, n. 14-22.)
[2] Let it be known, moreover, that as all goods and truths are from the Lord out of the heavens, so all evils and falsities are out of the hells. He is greatly deceived who believes that goods and truths have any other source than out of the heavens from the Lord, or that evils and falsities have any other source than out of the hells. Man is simply a receptacle of these, and to whichever he turns himself of that he is a recipient. If he turns himself towards heaven, which is effected by the goods of love and the truths of faith, he receives goods and truths from the Lord; but if he turns himself towards hell, which is effected by the evils of love and falsities of faith, he receives evils and falsities from the hells. Now as all evils and falsities are from the hells, and as the hells are called, in one word, either Devil or Satan, it follows that by Devil are also signified all evils, and by Satan all falsities. From this it is that by a “synagogue of Satan” the doctrine of all falsities is signified.
[3] By “synagogue” doctrine is signified, because in the synagogues there was instruction, and differences in matters of doctrine were also adjusted. That there was instruction in the synagogues is evident from Matt. 4:23; 9:35; 13:54; Mark 1:21, 22, 29, 39; 6:2; Luke 4:15, 16, 44; 13:10, 14; John 18:20. That differences in matters of doctrine were adjusted in the synagogues may be inferred from what is said in Matt. 10:17; Mark 13:9; Luke 12:11; 21:12; John 9:22; 12:42; 16:2, 3. That with the Jewish nation there was the doctrine of all falsities can be seen from many things known as to that nation; namely, that they denied the Lord; that they wish for a Messiah whose kingdom will be upon the earth, and who will exalt them above all other nations in the world; that they place all worship in externals, and reject the internals of worship, which are of faith in the Lord and of love to Him; that they apply all things in the Word to themselves; and falsify it by traditions of their own invention (see Matt. 15:6-9; Mark 7:1-13). Again, what the quality of that nation in respect to their interiors has been from the beginning can be seen from the song of Moses (Deut. 32), and elsewhere in many passages (see also the quotations from the Arcana Coelestia, in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 248).

AE (Whitehead) n. 121 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 121. Verse 10. Fear not the things which thou art to suffer, signifies that they should not grieve because such men persecute them. This is evident from the signification of “fear not,” as being, in reference to those about to suffer persecutions, that they should not grieve in mind; for fear with these is also grief; and from the signification of “the things which thou art to suffer,” namely, from those who are in the doctrine of all falsities, as being that such are about to persecute. The persecution of those who are in the spiritual affection of truth, by those who are in falsities, is now treated of. This can best be seen from those who are of this character in the world of spirits (of which world see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 421-535), for there the quality of everyone in respect to his interiors, which are of thought and intention, is manifest; since everyone there is in himself, because he is a spirit, and the spirit is what thinks and intends.
All spirits there are either conjoined with the hells or conjoined with the heavens. Those who are conjoined with the hells, as soon as they perceive anyone to be in the spiritual affection of truth begin to burn with hatred, and strive to destroy him; they cannot endure the sight of him. Very many of them, if they only perceive for a moment the delight of the spiritual affection of truth, which is the delight itself of heaven, become as if insane, and nothing is then more delightful to them than to destroy that delight. From this it is evident that all the hells are opposed to the spiritual affection of truth, and that all the heavens are in it. It would be similar among men on the earths if they were in the perception in which spirits are; but as they are not in such perception, and therefore do not know who are in spiritual affection, they remain quiet and act in a friendly manner towards each other, in accordance with the delights of the world. But this disposition displays itself in the churches, among those who are zealous in religious matters. It also becomes evident with those who are in that spiritual affection, in this way, that falsities break in upon their thoughts, endeavoring to extinguish their longing and the delight thence; these falsities that break in upon their thoughts are from hell; for everything that a man thinks is either from hell or from heaven (as was said above, n. 120).

AE (Whitehead) n. 122 sRef Matt@21 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@21 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@21 @34 S0′ sRef Matt@21 @35 S0′ sRef Matt@21 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@21 @38 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@21 @33 S0′ sRef Matt@21 @41 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @22 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @23 S0′ sRef Matt@21 @36 S0′ 122. Behold, the devil is about to cast some of you into prison, signifies that those who are in falsities from evil will set about to deprive them of all truth from the Word. This is evident from the signification of “casting into prison,” as being, in reference to those who are in the spiritual affection of truth, to endeavor and to set about to deprive them of truths from the Word (of which presently); and from the signification of the “devil,” as being the hells which are in evil and in falsities therefrom (of which above, n. 120). “To cast into prison,” in reference to those who are in the spiritual affection of truth, is to endeavor and to set about to deprive them of truths from the Word, for the reason that truths are, as it were, in prison or in confinement when falsities break in; and so long as falsities are under view, truths cannot appear, still less can they be set at liberty. Those that are in the spiritual affection of truth, who are those that love truths because they are truths, are held in such confinement whenever they do not understand the Word and yet wish to understand it; the falsities that imprison rise up from hell into the natural man when the delights of the love of self and the world have rule therein, for these delights are the origins of all evils and of the falsities therefrom (see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 65-83).
[2] This is meant, in the spiritual sense, by “being cast by the devil into prison;” for as the devil is hell, and out of hell every evil arises, and as the influx from hell is into the natural man, and not into the spiritual, so the devil affects all who are in the delights of these loves, and subjects them to himself and makes them his crew; for all who are in the hells are in evils and the falsities thence from the loves of self and of the world (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 551-565; but that the delights of those loves are changed into correspondences, the character of which may be seen there, n. 485-490).
This casting into prison by the devil is described in the Word, where it is said that the Jews and the evil will persecute the Lord’s disciples, and will evil entreat and kill them; for by the “disciples of the Lord” are meant all who are in truths from good, thus who are in truths from the Lord; and as these are meant by the Lord’s disciples, so in a sense abstracted from persons, which is the spiritual sense itself of the Word, truths and goods themselves, which are from the Lord through His Word, are meant. (That by the Lord’s twelve disciples all things of faith and love in the complex, thus all the truths and goods of the church, are meant, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2129, 3354, 3488, 3858, 6397; that the Word in heaven is understood in a sense abstracted from persons, see above, n. 99, 100.)
sRef Matt@24 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@5 @11 S3′ sRef Matt@5 @12 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @11 S3′ sRef Luke@11 @49 S3′ sRef Matt@10 @18 S3′ sRef Matt@10 @17 S3′ sRef Matt@23 @34 S3′ sRef Luke@21 @12 S3′ [3] When one knows that by the “disciples of the Lord” all those who are in truths from good from the Lord are meant, and in an abstract sense truths themselves from good; and that by their being “cast into prison by the devil” is meant the endeavor of those who are in falsities from evil to deprive them of truths, and in a sense abstracted from persons, the detention or imprisonment of truths by falsities, as described above, he can understand what is signified in each of these senses in the following passages:
They shall lay hands on you and shall persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues and prisons, for My name’s sake (Luke 21:12).
That “for the sake of the Lord’s name” signifies for the sake of the goods of love and the truths of faith, from Him, see above (n. 102).
Then shall they deliver you up to affliction, and shall kill you, and ye shall be held in hatred for My name’s sake (Matt. 24:9, 11).
They will deliver you up to councils and to synagogues, and they will scourge you for My sake (Matt. 10:17, 18; Mark 13:9).
Behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes; and some of them ye shall kill and crucify, and some of them ye shall scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city (Matt. 23:34).
A man that was a householder planted a vineyard, and let it out to husbandmen. When the season of the fruits drew near, he sent his servants to the husbandmen, to receive the fruits of it. But the husbandmen took his servants, and beat one, and killed another, and stoned another. Again, he sent other servants, and they did unto them likewise. At length he sent unto them his son. But the husbandmen, when they saw the son, said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and possess his inheritance. And they took him, and cast him forth out of the vineyard, and killed him (Matt. 21:33-44).
The wisdom of God said, I will send unto them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall kill and persecute (Luke 11:49).
(That by “prophets” in the Word are meant those who teach truths, and in a sense abstracted from persons the doctrine of truth, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2534, 7269; and that “apostles” have a similar signification, see above, n. 100.)
Blessed are ye, when men shall reproach you, and persecute you, and shall say every evil word against you falsely, for My sake; rejoice and exult, for great is your reward in the heavens; for so persecuted they the prophets that were before you (Matt. 5:10-12).
Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you, and shall reproach you and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man’s sake; for in the same manner did their fathers unto the prophets (Luke 6:22, 23).
sRef Matt@16 @24 S4′ sRef Luke@14 @27 S4′ sRef John@15 @20 S4′ sRef Mark@10 @21 S4′ [4] Similar to this is the signification of the words of the Lord, that they should follow Him and take up their cross; as in the following passages:
Jesus said unto His disciples, If anyone will come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me (Matt. 16:24; Mark 8:34);
“to deny oneself” is to put away evils that are from proprium [the self-life].
Whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after Me, cannot be My disciple (Luke 14:27).
Jesus said to the young man who was rich, One thing thou lackest; go, sell whatsoever thou hast, and come, follow Me, bearing the cross (Mark 10:21).
By this is meant, in the spiritual sense, that he should put away the falsities that were of the Jewish doctrine, and accept the doctrine of truth from the Lord, and should undergo assaults and temptations from falsities. Those, therefore, are deceived who believe that those who wish to follow the Lord are to sell their goods and suffer the cross. Since the Lord was Divine truth itself, which in John 1:1-3, 14, is called the “Word,” the Lord’s suffering Himself to be scourged and crucified signifies that Divine truth which is in the Word was so treated by the Jews. (That all things related of the Lord’s passion in the Evangelists involve and signify that the Jews so treated Divine truth, see above, n. 83.) Wherefore the Lord says:
Remember My word, if they have persecuted Me, they will also persecute you (John 15:20).
sRef Matt@25 @43 S5′ sRef John@8 @43 S5′ sRef John@8 @44 S5′ [5] That the Jews in particular are meant by the “devil” who was to cast the disciples of the Lord into prisons, and that, in general, all that call themselves “Jews, and are not, but are a synagogue of satan,” are meant (according to the passages cited above, n. 119, 120), is clear from the Lord’s words in John:
Ye do not understand My speech because ye cannot hear My word. Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie he speaketh from his own, for he is a liar and the father thereof (John 8:43, 44).
That “their father was a murderer from the beginning,” “and the truth was not in him, but a lie,” signifies that from the beginning they had been against truths and in falsities from evil. For a “murderer” is a destroyer of the truth of the church, and “father” means predecessors. (Of the quality of the Jewish nation formerly and at present, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 248; that the “bound in prison” signify those who are in falsities from evil, see the Arcana Coelestia, n. 4958, 5096; “to be overcome* in prison” signifies to be detained and separated from truths, n. 5037, 5038, 5083, 5086, 5096; and also to be tempted, n. 5037, 5038.)
[6] The Jews were such as are here described because they were in the love of self and the world more than other nations; and persons of that character, when they read the Word, apply all things of the Word to their own loves; and especially the Jews, because they are so frequently mentioned. It is similar with others who are in these loves, for the love that is dominant turns the mind of him who reads to those things only that favor the love; for love is like a fire, which lights up the things that favor it, while the rest are either passed by as if not seen, or drawn over to one’s side by perverse explanation and thus falsified. Both infest those who are in the spiritual affection of truth, and both are meant by the “devil” who “casts into prison” those who are of the Lord’s church; from them, indeed, all falsities from the spiritual world flow into those that long for truths, and hold them as if bound in confinement. The same are meant by those of whom the Lord says:
I was in prison and ye visited Me not (Matt. 25:43).
* Some of the Latin editors read vinciri for vinci, “bound” for “overcome.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 123 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 123. That ye may be tried, signifies consequent increase of longing for truth. This is evident from the signification of “being tried,” as being to be infested by falsities (of which see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 197, 198). But here, since it is said, “the devil shall cast some of you into prison,” by which such infestation is meant, so “being tried” signifies increase of longing, and as a consequence, increase of truth, since temptations effect this. (That through the temptations in which man conquers there come illustration and perception of truth and good, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 8367, 8370; that intelligence and wisdom are therefrom, n. 8966, 8967; that truths increase immensely after temptations, n. 6663; with many other things that may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 187-201.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 124 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 124. And ye shall have affliction ten days, signifies that infestation and temptation therefrom will last for some time. This is evident from the signification of “affliction,” as being infestation and temptation of those who are in the spiritual affection of truth by those who are in falsities; (that this is meant by “affliction” is clear, since it is said in reference to such;) also from the signification of “ten days,” as being duration for some time. Duration for some time is signified by “ten days,” for the reason that the entire duration of infestation and temptation is signified by “forty days” (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2959, 7985, 7986), and “ten” means some part thereof; for all numbers in the Word signify things or states, with variety according to the relation to other numbers. The number “ten,” without reference to other numbers, signifies what is full or much (Arcana Coelestia, n. 3107, 4638); but in reference to a greater number, it signifies as much as is needed for uses (n. 9757); so here it signifies duration for some time, thus as use demands. (That all numbers in the Word signify things or states, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 482, 487, 647, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 4495, 4670, 5265, 6175, 9488, 9659, 10217, 10253.) He that considers, can see that by the “affliction of ten days” here, which they are to have who are cast into prison by the devil, something else must be meant than ten days’ affliction.

AE (Whitehead) n. 125 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 125. Be thou faithful even till death, signifies steadfastness in truths to the end. This is evident without explanation. It is said “even till death,” because such as man is when he dies, such he remains to eternity; the life previously lived is only the life for the formation of his spirit (of which see many things in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 470-484).

AE (Whitehead) n. 126 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 126. And I will give thee the crown of life, signifies wisdom and eternal happiness therefrom. This is evident from the signification of “crown,” as being wisdom, in reference to those who are in the spiritual affection of the knowledges of truth and good (of which more in what follows); and from the signification of “life,” as being eternal happiness, which is also called life eternal. Those who are in the spiritual affection of truth and good, and who are here treated of, have eternal happiness, because heaven with man is implanted by means of the knowledges of truth and good from the Word. He who believes that heaven is implanted by other means is much deceived; for man is born merely natural, with the faculty of becoming spiritual, and he becomes spiritual by means of truths from the Word and a life according to them. Who can ever become spiritual unless he has some knowledge of the Lord, of heaven, of the life after death, of faith, and of love, and of the other things that are means of salvation? If man had no knowledge of these things he would remain natural; and a merely natural man can have nothing in common with the angels of heaven, who are spiritual. Man has two minds, one exterior, the other interior.
The exterior mind is called the natural mind, but the interior is called the spiritual mind. The former or natural mind is opened by means of the knowledges of the things that are in the world; but the latter or spiritual mind by means of the knowledges of the things that are in heaven, which the Word teaches, and the church from the Word; by means of these man becomes spiritual when he knows them and lives according to them.
sRef John@3 @5 S2′ [2] This is meant by the Lord’s words in John:
Except a man has been born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God (John 3:5).
“Water” signifies the truths of faith, and “spirit” a life according to them (see above, n. 71; and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 202-209). Most people at this day believe that they are to come into heaven solely by virtue of holy worship in temples and by adorations and prayers; but such of them as do not care for the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, and who fail to imbue with these the life, as well as the memory, remain natural as before, and do not become spiritual; for their holy worship, adorations, and prayers, do not proceed from any spiritual origin; since their spiritual mind has not been opened by the knowledges of spiritual things and a life according to them, but is empty; and worship that proceeds from what is empty is merely natural gesture, with nothing spiritual in it. If such persons are insincere and unjust in respect to moral and civil life, their holy worship, adorations, and prayers have within them what repels heaven from them, instead of opening heaven to them as they believe; for their holy worship is like a vessel containing things putrid and filthy, which are oozing forth, or like a splendid garment investing a body covered with ulcers. I have seen many thousands of such cast into hell. But wholly different are holy worship, adorations, and prayers with those who are in the knowledges of truth and good and in a life according to them; with such these acts are pleasing to the Lord, for they are the effects wrought by their spirit in the body, or the effects of their faith and love, thus they are not merely natural gestures, but spiritual acts.
From this it can be seen that the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, and a life according to them, alone make man spiritual; and that in him who is thereby made spiritual, angelic wisdom from the Lord can be implanted together with eternal happiness. Angels derive happiness from no other source than from wisdom.
sRef Ezek@16 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @12 S3′ [3] A “crown” signifies wisdom, because all things by which man is clothed or distinguished derive their signification from the part of man that they clothe or distinguish (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 9827), and “crown” signifies wisdom, because it is a sign upon the head, and “head” in the Word signifies wisdom, for there wisdom resides. So in Ezekiel:
I decked thee with ornaments, I put bracelets upon thy hands; and a chain upon thy throat. And I put a jewel upon thy nose, and earrings in thine ears, and a crown of adorning upon thy head (Ezek. 16:11, 12).
Jerusalem, which signifies the church, is here treated of, such as it was when it was established by the Lord; by these various insignia are meant, in the spiritual sense, such things as are of the church; and each one takes its signification from the part to which it is applied, and “the crown of adorning” here means wisdom. (But what is meant by “ornament,” may be seen in Arcana Coelestia, n. 10536, 10540; by “bracelets,” n. 3103, 3105; by “chain” n. 5320; by “jewel,” n. 4551; by “earrings,” n. 4551, 10402.) Wisdom, which is from the knowledges of truth and good from the Word and from a life according to them, is likewise signified by “crown” in many other passages in the Word (as in Isa. 28:5; Jer. 13:18; Lam. 5:15, 16; Ezek. 21:25, 26; 23:42; Zech. 6:11-14; Ps. 89:38, 39; Ps. 132:17, 18; Job 19:9; Rev. 3:11; 4:4). The crowning of kings is from ancient times, when men were familiar with representatives and significatives, and it was known that “kings” represented the Lord in respect to Divine truth, and that a “crown” was intended to signify wisdom (that “kings” represented the Lord in respect to Divine truth, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4581, 4966, 5068, 6148); that those that are in truths are called “kings” and “king’s sons” see above (n. 31); and as these are called “kings” in the Word, and kings have crowns, so here where these are treated of it is said that they were to receive “the crown of life.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 127 sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ 127. Verse 11. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he that understands should hearken to what Divine truth proceeding from the Lord teaches and says to those who are of His church, as may be seen above (n. 108), where similar expressions occur.

AE (Whitehead) n. 128 sRef Rev@21 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @6 S0′ 128. He that overcometh shall not be hurt by the second death, signifies that he who is steadfast in the genuine affection of truth to the end of his life in the world, shall come into the new heaven. This is evident from the signification of “overcoming,” as being in reference to those who long for the knowledges of truth and good from the Word, to be steadfast in the genuine affection of truth, even to the end of life in the world. It is said “he that overcometh,” because those are meant who endure spiritual temptation, which is from evils and falsities, and who fight; and “to overcome” is to resist evils and falsities, and to tame and subdue them as one’s enemies. But no one overcomes unless he is steadfast in the spiritual affection of truth, even to the end of his life in the world; then the work is finished; for man remains to eternity such as he then is, namely, such as his life has been up to that point; death is what completes it. But no one is able to overcome except the Lord only. The man who supposes that he overcomes of himself, and not that it is the Lord with him that overcomes, does not overcome but succumbs; for it is spiritual faith that overcomes, and there is nothing of spiritual faith from man, but the whole of it is from the Lord. (What spiritual faith is, see in the small work on The Last Judgment, n. 33-39; and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 108-120; and what spiritual temptation is, n. 187-201.) That “not to be hurt by the second death” is to come into the new heaven, cannot be known unless it is known what the former heaven is, and what the new heaven, which are treated of in chapter 21 of Revelation. (Something of what the “former heaven” is can be seen in The small work on The Last Judgment, n. 65-72; and what the “new heaven” is, in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 1-7.) But what is meant by the “first death” and by the “second death,” also by the “first resurrection” and “second resurrection,” will be told in the explanation of chapters 20 and 21, where it is said:
The rest of the dead shall not live again until the thousand years be finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he that hath part in the second* resurrection; over these the second death hath no power; but they shall be priests of God and of Christ (Rev. 20:5-6).
Their part shall be in the lake that burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death (Rev. 21:8).
From this it is clear that the “second death” is damnation; to be hurt by it, therefore, is to be damned, and on the other hand, not to be hurt by it is to be saved; and as all that are saved come into the new heaven, to come into the new heaven is signified by “not being hurt by the second death” (of which heaven, and of whom it consists, see in the small work on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 2-6).
* The Greek has “first” for “second,” as we also find in Apocalypse Revealed, n. 851.

AE (Whitehead) n. 129 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @14 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @15 S0′ 129. Verses 12-17. And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword, I know thy works and where thou dwellest, where Satan’s throne is; and thou holdest My name, and didst not deny My faith, even in the days wherein Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth. But I have against thee a few things, that thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the sons of Israel, to eat idol-sacrifices, and to commit whoredom. So thou also hast them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate. Repent; or else I will come to thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of My mouth. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. To him that overcometh, to him will I give to eat of the hidden manna; and will give him a white stone, and upon the stone a new name written, which no one knoweth except he that receiveth. 12. “And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write,” signifies for remembrance to those within the church who are in temptations (n. 130); “these things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword,” signifies the Lord, who alone combats in temptations (n. 131). 13. “I know thy works,” signifies love and faith (n. 132); “and where thou dwellest,” signifies amongst whom he now lives (n. 133); “where Satan’s throne is,” signifies where all falsities reign (n. 134); “and thou holdest My name,” signifies the acknowledgment of the Divine in His Human (n. 135); “and didst not deny My faith,” signifies constancy in truths (n. 136); “even in the days wherein Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you,” signifies in that time and state in which all are hated who openly acknowledge the Divine Human of the Lord (n. 137); “where Satan dwelleth,” signifies by those who are in the doctrine of all falsities (n. 138). 14. “But I have against thee a few things,” signifies that heed should be taken (n. 139); “that thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumbling block before the sons of Israel,” signifies those who have been illustrated in respect to the understanding, and who teach truths, and yet love to destroy by craft those who are of the church (n. 140); “to eat idol-sacrifices, and to commit whoredom,” signifies that they may be imbued with evils and with falsities therefrom (n. 141). 15. “So thou also hast them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate,” signifies those who separate good from truth, or charity from faith, which is against Divine order (n. 142). 16. “Repent,” signifies dissociation from these (n. 143); “or else I will come to thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of My mouth,” signifies if not, when visitation comes, they will be dispersed (n. 144). 17. “He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith to the churches,” signifies that he who understands should hearken to what Divine truth proceeding from the Lord teaches and says to those who are of His church (n. 145); “to him that overcometh, to him will I give to eat of the hidden manna,” signifies that those who conquer in temptations will have the delight of heavenly love from the Lord’s Divine Human (n. 146); “and will give him a white stone,” signifies wisdom and intelligence (n. 147) “and upon the stone a new name written, which no one knoweth except he that receiveth,” signifies a state of interior life unknown to all except those who are in it (n. 148).

AE (Whitehead) n. 130 sRef Rev@2 @12 S0′ 130. Verse 12. And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write, signifies for remembrance to those within the church who are in temptations. This is evident from the signification of “writing,” as being for remembrance (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 8620); and from the signification of “angel,” as being a recipient of Divine truth, and in the highest sense Divine truth itself proceeding from the Lord (of which more in what follows); and from the signification of the “church in Pergamum,” as being those within the church who are in temptations.
That these are meant by the “church in Pergamum” is clear from the things written to that church, which follow. From no other source can it be known what is signified by each of the seven churches. For as was shown before, what is meant is not any church in Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, or Laodicea, but all who are of the Lord’s church, and by each of these churches something that constitutes the church with man is meant. And as the first things of the church are the knowledges of truth and good, and the affections of spiritual truth, these are first treated of, namely, in what is written to the angel of the Ephesian church and of the Smyrnean church; of the knowledges of truth and good to the angel of the Ephesian church, and of the spiritual affection of truth to the angel of the Smyrnean church. And as no one can be imbued with the knowledges of truth and good in respect to life, and be steadfast in the spiritual affection of truth, unless he undergoes temptations, so temptations are now treated of in what is written to the angel of the church in Pergamum. From this it appears in what order the things follow that are taught under the names of the seven churches.
[2] It is said “To the angel of the church, write,” and not, To the church, because by “angel” is signified Divine truth, which makes the church; for Divine truth teaches how man is to live that he may become a church. That “angel” in the Word, in its spiritual sense, does not mean any angel, but in the highest sense, Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and in a respective sense, he that receives it, can be seen from this, that all the angels are recipients of Divine truth from the Lord, and no angel is of himself an angel; but he is so far an angel as he receives Divine truth; for angels more than men know and perceive that all the good of love and all the truth of faith are from the Lord, not from themselves, and as the good of love and the truth of faith constitute their wisdom and intelligence, and as these constitute the whole angel, they know and say that they are merely recipients of the Divine proceeding from the Lord, and thus are angels in the degree in which they receive it. On this account they desire that the term “angel” should be understood spiritually, that is, in a sense abstracted from persons, and as meaning Divine truths. By Divine truth is meant at the same time Divine good, because these proceed from the Lord united (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 13, 140 [? 133-140].
sRef Ex@23 @23 S3′ sRef Ex@23 @21 S3′ sRef Ex@23 @20 S3′ sRef Ex@23 @22 S3′ sRef Gen@48 @16 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @9 S3′ [3] And as Divine truth proceeding from the Lord constitutes the angel, by “angel” in the Word in the highest sense is meant the Lord Himself, as in Isaiah:
The angel of the faces of Jehovah delivered them, in His love and His pity He redeemed them, and took them up, and carried them all the days of eternity (Isa. 63:9).
In Moses:
The angel who hath redeemed me from all evil, bless them (Gen. 48:16).
In the same:
I send an angel before thee to keep thee in the way; take ye heed of His faces, for my name is in the midst of Him (Exod. 23:20-23).
sRef Matt@13 @49 S4′ sRef Matt@13 @41 S4′ sRef John@1 @51 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @31 S4′ sRef Matt@24 @31 S4′ [4] As the Lord in respect to Divine truth is called an “angel,” so also Divine truths are meant by “angels” in the spiritual sense, as in the following passages:
The Son of man shall send His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that cause stumbling. In the consummation of the age the angels shall come forth and sever the wicked out of the midst of the just (Matt. 13:41, 49).
In the consummation of the age the Son of man shall send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and shall gather together the elect from the four winds (Matt. 24:3, 31).
When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory (Matt. 25:31).
Jesus said, After this ye shall see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man (John 1:51).
In these passages, in the spiritual sense, by “angels” Divine truths and not angels are meant. So when it is here said that, in the consummation of the age, “the angels are to gather out all things that cause stumbling,” “are to sever the wicked from the midst of the just,” “are to gather together the elect from the four winds with a great sound of a trumpet,” and that “the Son of man with the angels is to sit upon a throne of glory,” it is not meant that angels, together with the Lord, are to do these things, but that the Lord alone will do them by means of His Divine truths; for angels have no power of themselves, but all power is the Lord’s through His Divine truth (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 230-233). That “ye shall see the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man,” means the like, namely, that Divine truths should be in Him and from Him.
sRef Rev@8 @7 S5′ sRef Rev@12 @9 S5′ sRef Rev@14 @6 S5′ sRef Rev@16 @12 S5′ sRef Rev@16 @8 S5′ sRef Rev@16 @4 S5′ sRef Rev@16 @10 S5′ sRef Rev@16 @3 S5′ sRef Rev@16 @1 S5′ sRef Rev@16 @2 S5′ sRef Rev@8 @6 S5′ sRef Rev@21 @12 S5′ sRef Rev@12 @7 S5′ sRef Rev@8 @8 S5′ [5] Moreover, in other places also “angels” mean Divine truths from the Lord, consequently the Lord in respect to Divine truths, as:
To the seven angels were given seven trumpets, and the angels sounded on the trumpets (Rev. 8:2, 6-8, 10, 12, 13; 9:1, 13, 14).
It is said that to the angels were given trumpets, and that they sounded thereon, because “trumpets” and their “sound” signify Divine truth to be revealed (see above, n. 55). Similar things are also meant:
By the angel warring against the dragon (Rev. 12:7, 9);
By the angel flying in the mid-heaven, having the eternal
gospel (Rev. 14:6);
By the seven angels pouring out the seven bowls (Rev.16:1-4, 8, 10, 12);
By the twelve angels upon the twelve gates of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:12).
That this is so will also be seen in what follows.
sRef Gen@2 @7 S6′ sRef Ps@104 @4 S6′ sRef John@3 @8 S6′ [6] That by “angels” are meant Divine truths which are from the Lord is clearly manifest in David:
Jehovah maketh His angels winds, and His ministers a flaming fire (Ps. 104:4);
by which words are signified Divine truth and Divine good; for the “wind” of Jehovah in the Word signifies Divine truth, and His “fire” Divine good (as can be seen from what is shown in The Arcana Coelestia, as that the “wind of the nostrils” of Jehovah is Divine truth, n. 8286; that the “four winds” are all things of truth and good, n. 3708, 9642, 9668; consequently “to breathe” in the Word signifies the state of the life of faith, n. 9281; from which it is evident what is signified by Jehovah’s “breathing” into the nostrils of Adam (Gen. 2:7); by the Lord’s “breathing” upon His disciples (John 20:22); and by these words, “The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh” (John 3:8); concerning which see n. 96, 97, 9229, 9281; and also n. 1119, 3886, 3887, 3889, 3892, 3893; that “flaming fire” is Divine love, and therefore Divine good, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 133-140, 566-568; and above, n. 68).
sRef Rev@21 @17 S7′ [7] That “angel” signifies Divine truth proceeding from the Lord is clearly manifest from these words in Revelation:
He measured the wall of the New Jerusalem, a hundred and forty-four cubits, the measure of a man, which is that of an angel (Rev. 21:17).
That the wall of the New Jerusalem is not the measure of an angel anyone can see, but that all protecting truths are there meant by an “angel” is evident from the signification of the “wall of Jerusalem,” and of the number “one hundred and forty-four.” (That the “wall” signifies all protecting truths, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 6419; that the number “one hundred and forty-four” signifies all things of truth in the complex, n. 7973; that “measure” signifies the quality of a thing in respect to truth and good, n. 3104, 9603, 10262. These things may also be found explained as to the spiritual sense, in The small work on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, n. 1.)
sRef Rev@8 @10 S8′ sRef Rev@8 @12 S8′ sRef Rev@8 @2 S8′ sRef Mal@2 @7 S8′ sRef Luke@7 @27 S8′ sRef Rev@8 @13 S8′ [8] Because by “angels” in the Word Divine truths are signified, therefore the men through whom Divine truths are made known are sometimes called “angels” in the Word, as in Malachi:
The priest’s lips ought to guard knowledge, and they shall seek the law at his mouth, because he is the angel of Jehovah (Mal. 2:7).
He is said to be the “angel of Jehovah,” because he teaches Divine truth; not that he is the angel of Jehovah, but the Divine truth that he teaches is. Moreover, it is known in the church that no one has Divine truth from himself. “Lips” also here signify the doctrine of truth, and “law” Divine truth itself. (That “lips” signify the doctrine of truth, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1286, 1288; and that “law” signifies Divine truth itself, see n. 3382, 7463.)
[9] From this it is that John the Baptist also is called an angel:
Jesus said, This is he of whom it is written, Behold, I send Mine angel before Thy face, who shall prepare Thy way before Thee (Luke 7:27).
John is called an “angel,” because by him, in the spiritual sense, is signified the Word, which is Divine truth, in like manner as by Elias (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 7643, 9372, and what is signified; this is what is meant by the persons mentioned in the Word, see n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3670, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4292, 4307, 4500, 6304, 7048, 7439, 8588, 8788, 8806, 9229).
[10] It is said that by “angels” in the Word, in its spiritual sense, Divine truths proceeding from the Lord are meant, because these constitute the angels; when angels utter these truths, they speak not from themselves, but from the Lord. The angels not only know that this is so, but they also perceive it. The man who believes that nothing of faith is from himself, but that all faith is from God, also knows this, indeed, but he does not perceive it. That nothing of faith is from man, but all faith is from God, is the same as saying that nothing of truth that has life is from man, but all truth is from God, for truth is of faith and faith is of truth.

AE (Whitehead) n. 131 sRef Luke@22 @37 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @35 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @38 S0′ sRef Luke@22 @36 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @16 S1′ 131. These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword, signifies the Lord, who alone combats in temptation. This is evident from the signification of “long sword” or “sword [romphaeae seu gladii],” as meaning truth combating against falsity, and in the opposite sense, falsity combating against truth. It is said to be “sharp two-edged,” because it pierces on both sides. Because this is signified by “the long sword,” dispersion of falsities is also signified by it, and also temptation. That it signifies dispersion of falsities, see above (n. 73). It signifies temptation, because in what is written to the angel of this church temptations are treated of. Moreover, “the long sword” also signifies temptation, because temptation is a combat of truth against falsity and of falsity against truth. (That spiritual temptation is such combat, see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 187-201.) By “these things saith He that hath the sharp long sword with two edges” is meant that the Lord alone combats in temptations, because in the preceding chapter (verse 16) it was said that:
Out of the mouth of the Son of man, walking in the midst of the seven lampstands, a sharp two-edged long sword was seen going forth (Rev. 1:10).
and by the “Son of man” is meant the Lord in respect to Divine truth (as may be seen above, n. 63). (That the Lord alone combats in temptations, and not man at all, see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 195-200.) By “long sword” or by “sword [romphaeam seu gladium]” is signified the combat of truth against falsity, and of falsity against truth, because by “wars” in the Word are signified spiritual wars, and spiritual wars are wars of truths against falsities and of falsities against truths; and as “wars” in the Word have such a signification, all weapons of war, as “sword,” “spear,” “bow,” “arrows,” “shield,” and many others, signify each some special thing pertaining to spiritual combat; especially the “sword,” because in wars they fight with swords. (That “wars” signify spiritual combats, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1659, 1664, 8295, 10455; consequently that each weapon of war signifies something pertaining to spiritual combat, see n. 1788, 2686.)
sRef Matt@10 @34 S2′ [2] That “sword” in the Word signifies truth combating against falsity, and falsity against truth, and therefore the dispersion of falsities, and also spiritual temptation, can be seen from very many passages, of which I will introduce here only a few by way of confirmation. Thus in Matthew:
Jesus said that He came not to send peace on earth, but a sword (Matt. 10:34).
Here by “sword” is meant the combat of temptation. It was so said, because men at that time were in falsities, and the Lord uncovered interior truths, and only by combats from such truths can falsities be cast out.
[3] In Luke:
Jesus said to His disciples, Now he that hath a purse let him take it, likewise a wallet; and he that hath no sword let him sell his garments and buy one (Luke 22:35-38).
By “purse” and “wallet” spiritual knowledges, thus truths, are signified; “garments” signify what is their own; and by “sword” combat is signified.
sRef Jer@50 @38 S4′ sRef Jer@50 @36 S4′ sRef Jer@50 @37 S4′ sRef Jer@50 @35 S4′ [4] In Jeremiah:
A sword against the Chaldeans, and against the inhabitants of Babylon, and against her chiefs, and against her wise men. A sword against liars that they may become foolish; a sword against her mighty men that they may be dismayed; a sword against her horses and against her chariots; a sword against her treasures that they may be spoiled; a drought upon her waters that they may be dried up (Jer. 50:35-38).
By “sword” here dispersion and vastation of truth are signified; by each in particular against which the sword shall be, as the “Chaldeans,” the “inhabitants of Babylon,” her “chiefs” and “her wise men,” “liars,” “mighty men,” “horses,” “chariots,” and “treasures,” are signified the persons or things that will be vastated: as by “horses,” things intellectual; by “chariots,” doctrinals; and by “treasures,” knowledges; it is said, therefore, “a drought upon her waters, that they may be dried up,” for “waters” are the truths of the church, and “a drought that they may be dried up” is vastation. (That “drought” and “drying up” are where there is no truth, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 8185; that “waters” are truths of the church, see above, n. 71; that “treasures” are knowledges, Arcana Coelestia, 1694, 4508, 10227; that “horses” are things intellectual, and “chariots” doctrinals, see White Horse, n. 2-5.)
sRef Isa@21 @14 S5′ sRef Ps@149 @6 S5′ sRef Ps@149 @5 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @15 S5′ sRef Ezek@21 @15 S5′ sRef Ezek@21 @12 S5′ sRef Ezek@32 @12 S5′ sRef Ezek@32 @11 S5′ sRef Rev@6 @4 S5′ sRef Ps@45 @3 S5′ sRef Ezek@32 @10 S5′ sRef Ezek@21 @11 S5′ sRef Ezek@21 @10 S5′ sRef Ps@45 @5 S5′ sRef Ezek@21 @13 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @21 S5′ sRef Ezek@21 @9 S5′ sRef Isa@21 @15 S5′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S5′ sRef Jer@12 @12 S5′ sRef Ezek@21 @14 S5′ sRef Ezek@21 @28 S5′ [5] In Isaiah:
Jehovah will plead, and with His sword with all flesh, and the slain of Jehovah shall be multiplied (Isa. 66:16).
In Jeremiah:
Upon all the heights in the desert the devastators are come, because the sword of Jehovah devoureth from the end of the land even to the end of the land (Jer. 12:12).
In Ezekiel:
Prophesy and say, a sword sharpened and also furbished, it is sharpened to slay a slaughter, it is furbished that it may have luster; let the sword be doubled for the third time; the sword of the slain, the sword of great slaughter entering into the secret chambers that the heart may melt, and stumblings be multiplied; against all their gates will I set the point of the sword: Ah! It is made into lightning (Ezek. 21:9-15, 28).
In Isaiah:
Bring waters to meet him that is thirsty, with bread prevent him that wandereth; for before the sword shall they wander, before the drawn sword, and before the bended bow, and for the grievousness of war (Isa. 21:14, 15).
In Ezekiel:
They shall quake with fear when I shall make my sword to fly before their faces, that they may tremble every moment, a man for his own soul; by the swords of the mighty casting down their multitude (Ezek. 32:10-12).
In David:
Let the saints exult in glory; let them sing upon their beds. Let the exaltations of God be in their throat, and a two-edged sword in their hand (Ps. 149:5, 6).
In the same:
Gird thy sword upon the thigh, O mighty one, in thy honor ascend the chariot, ride on the Word of truth, thy right hand shall teach thee wonderful things. Thine arrows are sharp (Ps. 45:3-5).
In Revelation:
There was given unto him that sat on the red horse a great sword (Rev. 6:4).
In another place:
Out of the mouth of him that sat on the white horse went forth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations. The rest were killed with the sword of him that sat upon the horse (Rev. 19:15, 21).
By “sword” in these passages is signified truth combating and destroying; this destruction is especially apparent in the spiritual world; there those that are in falsities cannot sustain the truth; when they come into the sphere of light, that is, where Divine truth is, they are in anguish, like those who are struggling with death; and thus also they are deprived of truths and are vastated.
sRef Isa@66 @16 S6′ sRef Luke@21 @24 S6′ [6] As most expressions in the Word have also a contrary sense, so also has “sword;” in that sense it signifies falsity combating against truth and destroying it. The vastations of the church, which take place when there are no longer any truths, but only falsities, are described in the Word by a “sword,” as in the following passages:
They shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led captive into all nations; Jerusalem shall finally be trodden down by all nations, until the times of the nations shall be fulfilled (Luke 21:24).
The consummation of the age, which is here treated of, is the last time of the church, when falsities are to prevail. “To fall by the edge of the sword” denotes that truth will be destroyed by falsity; “nations” here are evils and “Jerusalem” is the church.
sRef Isa@13 @12 S7′ sRef Isa@13 @15 S7′ [7] In Isaiah:
I will make a man more rare than fine gold. Everyone that is found shall be thrust through; and everyone gathered in shall fall by the sword (Isa. 13:12, 15).
“A man who is rare” for those that are in truths; “to be thrust through” and “to fall by the sword” means to be consumed by falsity.
sRef Isa@31 @7 S8′ sRef Isa@31 @8 S8′ [8] In the same:
In that day they shall cast away every man the idols of his silver and the idols of his gold, which your own hands have made unto you. Then shall Asshur fall by the sword, not of a man [viri]; and the sword not of a man [hominis] shall devour him; but he who fleeth for himself before the sword, his young man shall be for tribute (Isa. 31:7, 8).
“The idols which the hands have made” are falsities from self-intelligence; “Asshur” is the rational by which [per quod]. “To fall by the sword not of a man” [viri], and “not of a man” [hominis], is not to be destroyed by any combat of truth against falsity. “He who fleeth for himself before the sword, his young man shall be for tribute,” means that the truth which is not destroyed shall be subservient to falsities. That this is the meaning of these words does not appear in the sense of the letter, which shows how far distant the spiritual sense is from the sense of the letter.
sRef Jer@2 @30 S9′ [9] In Jeremiah:
In vain I have smitten your sons; they accepted not correction; your own sword hath devoured your prophets (Jer. 2:30).
Behold, the prophet say, Ye shall not see the sword, neither shall ye have famine. By sword and by famine shall the prophets be consumed. If I go forth into the field, behold the slain with the sword; and if I enter into the city, then behold the sickness of famine (Jer. 14:13-18).
Both these passages treat of the vastation of the church in respect to truth; “prophets” are those who teach truths; and “the sword that consumes them” is falsity combating and destroying; “the field” is the church; “the city” is doctrine; “the slain with the sword in the field” are those in the church with whom truths are destroyed; “the famine” that is in the city is dearth of all truth in doctrine.
sRef Jer@11 @22 S10′ sRef Jer@5 @12 S10′ [10] In the same:
They have denied Jehovah when they have said, It is not He; neither shall evil come upon us; neither shall we see sword and famine (Jer. 5:12).
In the same:
The young men shall die by the sword; and their sons and their daughters shall die by famine (Jer. 11:22).
“Young men” are those who are in truths, and in the abstract, truths themselves; “to die by the sword” is to be destroyed by falsities; “sons and daughters” are the knowledges of truth and good; “famine” is a dearth of these.
sRef Lam@5 @9 S11′ [11] In Lamentations:
We get our bread with peril of our souls, because of the sword of the wilderness (Lam. 5:9).
“The wilderness” is where there is no good because there is no truth; its “sword” is the destruction of truth; “bread” is good, which is got with “peril of souls,” because all good is implanted in man by means of truth.
sRef Ezek@7 @15 S12′ [12] In Ezekiel:
The sword is without, and pestilence and famine within; he that is in the field shall die with the sword; and he that is in the city, famine and pestilence shall devour him (Ezek. 7:15).
“The sword” is the destruction of truth; “pestilence” consequent extermination; and “famine” complete dearth. Similarly in other places (as in Jeremiah 21:7; 29:17, 18; 34:17).
sRef Zech@11 @17 S13′ [13] In Zechariah:
Woe to the shepherd of nought forsaking the flock; a sword upon his arm, and upon his right eye; his arm in drying up shall dry up, and his right eye in growing dim shall grow dim (Jer. 11:17).
“A sword upon the arm” is the destruction of the voluntary in respect to good; “a sword upon the right eye” is the destruction of the intellectual in respect to truth; that all good and all truth are to perish is signified by “the arm in drying up shall dry up; and the right eye in growing dim shall grow dim.”
sRef Isa@37 @37 S14′ sRef Isa@37 @6 S14′ sRef Isa@37 @7 S14′ sRef Isa@37 @38 S14′ [14] In Isaiah:
Thus shall ye say to your lord, Fear not for the words that thou hast heard, wherewith the lads of the king of Asshur have blasphemed Jehovah. Behold, I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land. And Senacherib, king of Asshur, returned; and it came to pass, when he bowed himself in the house of Nisroch his god, his two sons smote him with the sword (Isa. 37:6, 7, 37, 38).
As it is the rational that acknowledges and that denies the Divine, and when it denies seizes upon every falsity instead of truth, and thus perishes, there was this representative occurrence, namely, that the king of Asshur, because he blasphemed Jehovah, was smitten with the sword by his sons, in the house of Nisroch his god. “Asshur” signifies the rational in either sense (Arcana Coelestia, n. 119, 1186); the “sons” of that king signify falsities, and the “sword” signifies destruction by falsities.
sRef Deut@13 @13 S15′ sRef Deut@13 @12 S15′ sRef Deut@13 @16 S15′ sRef Deut@13 @15 S15′ [15] In Moses:
[It was commanded that] the city that worshiped other gods should be smitten with the sword, and burned up with fire (Deut. 13:12-16).
This was decreed because at that time all things were representative; “to worship other gods” is to worship from falsities; “to be smitten with the sword” is to perish by falsity; and “to be burned up with fire” is to perish by the evil of falsity.
[16] In the same:
Whosoever in the field toucheth one that is slain with the sword shall be unclean (Num. 19:16, 18, 19).
“One in the field slain with the sword” represented those within the church who destroyed truths with themselves; “the field” here is the church.
sRef Matt@26 @52 S17′ sRef Matt@26 @51 S17′ sRef Ps@57 @4 S17′ sRef Ps@59 @7 S17′ sRef Ps@64 @3 S17′ sRef Ps@64 @2 S17′ [17] That “sword” signifies falsity destroying truth is manifest in David:
The sons of man are set on fire; their teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword (Ps. 57:4).
Behold, they belch out with their mouth, swords are in their lips (Ps. 59:7).
Workers of iniquity sharpen their tongues like a sword; they hurl their arrow with a bitter word (Ps. 64:3).
From this it is clear what is signified by the Lord’s words to Peter:
All they that take the sword shall perish by the sword (Matt. 26:51-52);
namely, that those who believe falsities will perish by falsities.
[18] From this it is now evident what is signified in the Word by “the long sword,” “the short sword,” or the “sword” [romphaea, macharera, seu gladius] in both senses. Such things are signified by “sword” by reason also of appearance in the spiritual world. When spiritual combats take place there, which are combats of truth against falsity and of falsity against truth, various weapons of war, as swords, spears, shields, and the like are seen; not that the combats are maintained by these, but they are mere appearances, representative of spiritual combats. When falsities are fiercely combating truths, there sometimes appears from heaven the brightness or flashing of a sword vibrating every way, and causing great terror, by which those who are combating from falsities are dispersed.
sRef Ezek@32 @10 S19′ sRef Gen@3 @24 S19′ sRef Ezek@21 @10 S19′ sRef Ezek@21 @28 S19′ sRef Ezek@21 @13 S19′ sRef Ezek@32 @11 S19′ sRef Ezek@21 @14 S19′ sRef Ezek@21 @12 S19′ sRef Ezek@21 @11 S19′ sRef Ezek@32 @12 S19′ sRef Jer@14 @13 S19′ sRef Jer@14 @16 S19′ sRef Ezek@21 @15 S19′ sRef Ezek@21 @9 S19′ sRef Jer@14 @15 S19′ sRef Jer@14 @14 S19′ sRef Ezek@28 @7 S19′ sRef Jer@14 @17 S19′ sRef Jer@14 @18 S19′ [19] This makes clear what is meant by these words in Ezekiel:
They shall be horribly afraid when I shall brandish My sword before their faces, that they may tremble every moment for their soul (Ezek. 32:10-12).
And in the same:
Prophesy and say, a sword, it is sharpened and also furbished, that it may have luster, that the heart may melt. Ah! It is made into lightning (Ezek. 21:9-10, 15).
The sword causes so great terror because “iron,” of which a sword is made, signifies truth in ultimates, and the brightness and flashing are from the light of heaven and from vibration of this light upon the sword. The light of heaven is Divine truth proceeding from the Lord. Divine truth thus falling upon those who are in falsities strikes terror.
[20] This also makes clear what is signified by this, that:
Cherubim, after Adam had been driven out, were made to dwell at the east of Eden, and the flame of a sword turning and vibrating every way, to guard the way to the tree of life (Gen. 3:24).
By the “tree of life” is signified celestial love, which is love to the Lord; by “cherubim” a guard; by the “flame of a sword turning every way” the terrific driving off and rejecting of all who are in falsities; the “east of Eden” is where the Lord’s presence is in celestial love; by these words, therefore, is signified that every approach to the acknowledgement of the Lord alone is closed to him who does not live a life of love. That “sword” signifies falsity is clearly evident in Ezekiel, where it is said of the prince of Tyre:
They shall unsheathe the swords upon the beauty of thy wisdom (Ezek. 28:7).
“The prince of Tyre” signifies intelligence from the knowledges of truth; because that is extinguished by falsities it is said that they should unsheathe their swords “upon wisdom,” which could not have been said unless by “swords” falsities were meant.

AE (Whitehead) n. 132 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 132. Verse 13. I know thy works, signifies love and faith, as is made evident from what was shown above, (n. 98 and 116).

AE (Whitehead) n. 133 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 133. And where thou dwellest, signifies amongst whom he now lives. This is evident from the signification of “dwelling,” as meaning to live. “To dwell,” in the spiritual sense, is to live, because dwellings in the spiritual world are all distinguished according to the lives and differences of life. (This can be seen from what is shown in the work on Heaven and Hell, concerning the Societies in Heaven, n. 41-50, and n. 205; the reasons are there given why “dwelling” in the Word signifies to live. That to “dwell” is to live may be seen in Arcana Coelestia, n. 1293, 3384, 3613, 4451, 6051. That “dwelling together” is to be in agreement of life, n. 6792. That “dwelling” in the Word signifies things of the mind, thus the things of intelligence and wisdom, from which man has life, n. 7719, 7910. That “cities” are predicated of truths of doctrine, and “dwellers” of good of life, n. 2268, 2451, 2712. That “to dwell in the midst of them,” when said of the Lord, is His presence and influx into the life of love and faith, n. 10153. That “the dwelling place of the Lord” is heaven, n. 8269, 8309. That “the dwelling place of the tent” with the sons of Israel represented and signified heaven, n. 9481, 9594, 9632.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 134 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 134. Where Satan’s throne is, signifies where all falsities reign. This is evident from the signification of “where the throne is,” as being where reigns, for “throne” signifies sovereignty; also from the signification of “Satan,” as being the hells where and whence are all falsities (of which above, n. 120). “Thrones” are mentioned in many passages of the Word, and in the spiritual sense they signify judgment from Divine truths, and in the highest sense the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, where His Divine truth is received more than His Divine good (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2129, 5313, 5315, 6397, 8625). But as “throne” is here mentioned in a contrary sense, showing this by passages from the Word will here be omitted. It will be shown in what follows.

AE (Whitehead) n. 135 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 135. And thou holdest My name, signifies the acknowledgment of the Divine in the Human of the Lord, as well as all things of love to Him and faith in Him. This is evident from what has been shown above about the signification of the “name” of Jehovah, Lord, and Jesus Christ (n. 102). By the Lord’s “name” in the Word is meant primarily the acknowledgment of the Divine in His Human, because all things of love and faith are from that; for Divine goods which are of love, and Divine truths which are of faith, proceed from no other source than from the Lord alone; and these cannot flow in with man unless he thinks of the Lord’s Divine at the same time that he thinks of His Human; nor is His Divine separate from the Human, but it is in the Human (as may be seen above, n. 10, 26, 49, 52, 77, 97, 113, 114). I can aver, from all experience of the spiritual world, that no one is in the truths of faith and in the goods of love except he who thinks of the Lord’s Divine at the same time that he thinks of His Human; as also that no one is spiritual, or is an angel, unless he has been in that thought and consequent acknowledgment in the world. Man must needs be conjoined to the Divine by his faith and love in order to be saved; and all conjunction is with the Lord; and to be conjoined to His Human only, and not to His Divine at the same time, is not conjunction; for the Divine saves, but not the Human apart from the Divine. (That the Human of the Lord is Divine, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 280-310.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 136 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 136. And didst not deny My faith, signifies constancy in truths. This is evident from the signification of “not denying,” as being, in reference to faith, to be constant (for he who is constant does not deny); and from the signification of “faith,” as being truths, since truth is of faith and faith is of truth. There are two things that constitute man’s spiritual life, love and faith. Every good has reference to love, and every truth to faith; but truth with man is of faith only so far as it is derived from the good of love; since every truth is from good, for it is the form of good, and all good is the esse of truth. For good, when it is so formed as to appear to the mind, and through the mind in speech, is called truth; therefore it is said that good is the esse of truth. (But more may be seen on this subject in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 11-27, likewise 28-35, 54-64, 108-122.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 137 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 137. Even in the days wherein Antipas was My faithful martyr who was slain among you, signifies in that time and state in which all are hated who openly acknowledge the Divine Human of the Lord. This is evident from the signification of “day,” as being time and state (on which see Arcana Coelestia, n. 23, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 10656); consequently “in the days in which” signifies in that time and state; also from the signification of “Antipas My faithful martyr,” as being those who openly acknowledge the Divine Human of the Lord (of which more in what follows); also from the signification of “being slain,” as being to be hated. “To be slain,” is to be hated, because he who hates is unceasingly slaying; he cherishes in his thought nothing else and purposes nothing else than to slay, and he would also slay if the laws did not prevent. This lies concealed in hatred; he, therefore, who hates the neighbor, when in the other life external bonds are removed from him, is continually breathing the murder of some one. This has been testified to me by much experience.
aRef Luke@16 @21 S2′ [2] “Antipas the faithful martyr” signifies those who are hated because of their acknowledgment of the Lord’s Divine Human, for the reason that at that time one Antipas was slain on that account; by “Antipas,” therefore, all who are hated on that account are meant; just as by “Lazarus,” who lay at the rich man’s gate and longed to be fed with the crumbs that fell from his table, are meant all whom the Lord loves because they long for truths from spiritual affection (see above, n. 118). That the Lord loved a certain one named Lazarus, whom also He raised from the dead, is manifest in John (chap. 11:3, 5, 36) and that he reclined with the Lord at table, (chap. 12), on which account he was called “Lazarus,” by the Lord, who longed to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man’s table, whereby is signified a longing for truths from spiritual affection (as shown above, n. 118). As “Lazarus” was so named on that account, so was “Antipas” because he was made a martyr for the name of the Lord, that is, for the acknowledgment of His Divine Human.
sRef John@14 @6 S3′ sRef John@15 @18 S3′ sRef John@15 @19 S3′ sRef John@14 @9 S3′ sRef John@15 @21 S3′ sRef John@1 @18 S3′ sRef Matt@28 @18 S3′ sRef John@14 @10 S3′ sRef John@15 @22 S3′ sRef John@15 @25 S3′ sRef John@5 @37 S3′ sRef John@14 @11 S3′ sRef John@15 @23 S3′ sRef John@15 @24 S3′ sRef John@15 @20 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @10 S3′ sRef John@1 @2 S3′ sRef John@14 @8 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @9 S3′ sRef John@14 @7 S3′ [3] That such as he are hated by all who do not think of the Lord’s Divine and of His Human at the same time, cannot be known from those who are in the world; but it can be known from the same in the other life, where they all burn with such hatred against those who approach the Lord alone as cannot be described in a few words; they desire nothing more eagerly than to murder them. The reason is, that all who are in the hells are against the Lord, and all who are in the heavens are with the Lord; and those who are of the church and who do not acknowledge the Lord’s Divine in His Human act as one with the hells, and it is from the hells that they have such hatred. They have frequently been told that they are doing wrong, since they know from the Word:
That the Lord has all power in the heavens and on earth (Matt. 28:18);
thus that He is the God of heaven and earth; likewise:
That He is the way, the truth, and the life, and that no one cometh unto the Father but by Him (John 14:6);
Also that he who seeth the Lord seeth the Father, because He is in the Father, and the Father in Him (John 14:7-11);
And that no one hath seen the Father’s shape, nor heard His voice, and that it is the Lord alone, who is in His bosom, and who is one with Him (John 1:18; 5:37).(Besides many other places.)
When they hear these truths they turn away, for they cannot deny them; but they are offended, and breathe forth the murder of all who openly acknowledge the Lord, as was just said, because hatred is inrooted in them (see above, n. 114).
[4] That they will hate all such for the Lord’s sake, He has predicted in several passages; as in Matthew:
In the consummation of the age, they shall deliver you up unto affliction, and shall kill you; and ye shall be hated of all [the nations] for My name’s sake (Matt. 24:9-10).
In John:
Jesus said, If the world hateth you, know that it hated Me before it hated you. If they persecuted Me, they will also persecute you. All these things will they do unto you for My name’s sake (John 15:18-25).
(See besides the passages cited above from the Word, n. 122.) These things have been said that it may be known that by “Antipas My faithful martyr, who was slain among you,” those are meant who are hated because they openly acknowledge the Lord’s Divine Human.

AE (Whitehead) n. 138 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 138. Where Satan dwelleth, signifies by those who are in the doctrine of all falsities. This is evident from what was cited and shown above (n. 120 and 134). In what precedes we are told in what company those are who are in temptations, namely, they are among those who are in falsities of every kind; for man as to his body is with men in the natural world, but as to thoughts and intentions he is with spirits in the spiritual world. When he comes into spiritual temptation, he is among those spirits who are in falsities; these bind his thoughts and hold them as it were bound in prison, and continually pour in calumnies against the truths of faith, and call forth the evils of his life; but the Lord continually protects man by flowing in from the interior, and thus holds man in constancy in resisting; such are spiritual temptations. That man who is in temptations is among spirits that are in falsities is meant by these words in this verse, “I know where thou dwellest, where Satan’s throne is;” and also by these words, “Even in the days wherein Antipas, My faithful martyr, was slain among you where Satan dwelleth;” and constancy in resisting is understood by these words, “Thou holdest My name, and didst not deny My faith.” But none except those who acknowledge the Lord’s Divine in His Human and who are in the spiritual affection of truth are let into spiritual temptations; the rest are natural men, who cannot be tempted. (On temptations, see what is shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 187-201.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 139 sRef Rev@2 @14 S0′ 139. Verse 14. But I have against thee a few things, signifies that heed should be taken, as is evident from what follows, where it is told of whom heed should be taken.

AE (Whitehead) n. 140 sRef Rev@2 @14 S0′ 140. That thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, signifies those who have been illustrated in respect to the understanding, and who teach truths, and yet love to destroy by craft those who are of the church. This is evident from the historicals of the Word respecting Balaam and Balak, understood in the spiritual sense; and these must first be told. Balaam was a soothsayer from Pethor of Mesopotamia, and was therefore called by Balak, king of Moab, to curse the Israelitish people; but this Jehovah prevented, and granted him to speak prophetically, yet he afterwards counseled with Balak how to destroy that people by craft, by leading them away from the worship of Jehovah to the worship of Baal-peor. Here, therefore, by “Balaam” those are meant who have been illuminated in respect to the understanding, and who teach truths, and yet love to destroy by craft those who are of the church. That Balaam was a soothsayer is evident from these words in Moses:
The elders of Moab and the elders of Midian went to Balaam with the rewards of enchantment in their hand (Num. 22:7).
When Balaam saw that it was good in the eyes of Jehovah to bless Israel, he went not as in former times to meet with divinations (Num. 24:1).
And in Joshua:
Balaam also, the son of Beor, the diviner, did the sons of Israel slay with the sword upon their slain (Joshua 13:22).
That he was called by Balak, king of Moab, to curse the people of Israel, see Num. 22:5, 6, 16, 17; Deut. 23:3, 4; but that Jehovah prevented this, and granted him to speak prophetically, Num. 22:9, 10, 12, 20; 23:5, 16; the prophecies which he uttered may be seen Num. 23:7-15, 18-24; 24:5-9, 16-19, 20-24; all which things are truths, because it is said that:
Jehovah put a word into his mouth (Num. 23:5, 12, 16).
sRef Num@25 @9 S2′ sRef Num@31 @9 S2′ sRef Num@22 @7 S2′ sRef Num@24 @4 S2′ sRef Num@24 @3 S2′ sRef Josh@13 @22 S2′ sRef Num@23 @12 S2′ sRef Num@25 @1 S2′ sRef Num@24 @15 S2′ sRef Num@23 @16 S2′ sRef Num@23 @5 S2′ sRef Num@24 @1 S2′ sRef Num@24 @16 S2′ sRef Num@31 @16 S2′ sRef Num@25 @3 S2′ sRef Num@31 @8 S2′ sRef Num@25 @2 S2′ sRef Num@25 @18 S2′ [2] That afterwards he counseled with Balak to destroy the people of Israel by craft, by leading them away from the worship of Jehovah to the worship of Baal-peor, is evident from these words in Moses:
In Shittim the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat and bowed down to their gods. Especially did Israel join himself unto Baal-peor. Therefore there were killed of Israel twenty and four thousand (Num. 25:1-3, 9, 18).
They slew Balaam amongst the Midianites; and the sons of Israel led captive all the women of the Midianites; which was of the counsel of Balaam, to deliver them to prevarication against Jehovah, in the matter of Peor (Num. 31:8, 9, 16).
That by “Balaam” those are meant who have been illustrated in respect to the understanding, and who teach truths, follows from what has now been shown, for he spoke prophetically truths about Israel, and also about the Lord; that he spoke truths about the Lord also may be seen in his prophecy (Num. 24:17). To speak prophetically about Israel is to speak not about the Israelitish people, but about the church of the Lord, which is signified by “Israel.” The illustration of his understanding he himself describes in these words:
The saying of Balaam the son of Beor, the saying of the man whose eyes are opened, the saying of him who heareth the words of God, who falls prostrate, and has his eyes uncovered (Num. 24:3-4, 15-16).
“To have the eyes opened,” or “to have them uncovered,” is to be illustrated in respect to the understanding, for “eyes” in the Word signify the understanding (as may be seen in Arcana Coelestia, n. 2701, 4410-4421, 4523-4534, 9051, 10569).
[3] That “Balaam” also means those who love to destroy by craft those who are of the church is evident also from what has been shown above; moreover, when he rode upon the ass, he continually thought upon the use of enchantments for destroying the sons of Israel; and when he was not able to do this by curses, he counseled Balak to destroy them by calling them to the sacrifices of his gods, and by their committing whoredom with the daughters of Moab. By the “sons of Israel,” whom he wished to destroy, is signified the church, because the church was instituted among them (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 6426, 8805, 9340).
sRef Num@24 @1 S4′ sRef Num@22 @32 S4′ sRef Num@22 @33 S4′ [4] The arcanum respecting the she-ass on which Balaam rode, which turned aside three times out of the way from the angel seen with a drawn sword, and its speaking to Balaam, I will here briefly explain. When Balaam rode upon the ass he continually meditated enchantments against the sons of Israel; the riches with which he should be honored were in his mind, as is evident from what is said of him:
He went not as in former times to meet with divinations (Num. 24:1).
In heart, he was also a soothsayer, therefore when left to himself, he thought of nothing else. By the “she-ass” upon which he rides is signified, in the spiritual sense of the Word, the intellectual illustrated; consequently to ride on a she-ass or a mule was the distinction of a chief judge or a king (see above, n. 31; and in Arcana Coelestia, n. 2781, 5741, 9212). The angel with the drawn sword signifies Divine truth illustrating and combating against falsity (see above, n. 131). Therefore that “the ass turned aside three times out of the way” signifies that the understanding when illustrated did not agree with the thought of the soothsayer; this also is meant by what the angel said to Balaam:
Behold, I went forth to withstand thee, because thy way is evil before me (Num. 22:32).
By “way,” in the spiritual sense of the Word, is signified that which a man thinks from intention (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 479, 534, 590; and in The small work on The Last Judgment, n. 48). That he was withheld from the thought and intention of using enchantments by the fear of death is manifest from what the angel said to him:
Unless the ass had turned aside before me, surely now I had even slain thee (Num. 22:33).
sRef Num@23 @23 S5′ [5] It sounded to Balaam as if the ass spoke to him, yet she did not speak, but the speech was heard as if from her. That such was the case has often been shown me by living experience; it has been granted me to hear horses seemingly speaking, when yet the speech was not from them, but was seemingly from them. This actually occurred in Balaam’s case, that the story might be so related in the Word for the sake of the internal sense in every particular of it. That sense describes how the Lord protects those who are in truths and goods, that they may not be harmed by those who speak from seeming illustration, and yet have the disposition and intention to lead astray. He who believes that Balaam could harm the sons of Israel by enchantments is much deceived; for enchantments could have availed nothing against them; this Balaam himself confessed when he said:
Divination avails not against Jacob, nor enchantments against Israel (Num. 23:23).
Balaam could lead that people astray by craft, because that people were such in heart; with the mouth only they worshiped Jehovah, but in heart they worshiped Baal-peor, and because they were such this was permitted.
[6] It is to be noted, moreover, that a man can be in illustration in respect to the understanding, and yet in evil in respect to the will; for the intellectual faculty is separated from the voluntary with all who are not regenerated, and only with those who are regenerated do they act as one; for it is the office of the understanding to know, to think, and to speak truths, but of the will to will the things that are understood, and from the will, or from the love, to do them. The divorcement of the two is clearly manifest with evil spirits; when these turn themselves towards good spirits, they, too, understand truths, and also acknowledge them, almost as if they were illustrated; but as soon as they turn themselves away from good spirits, they return to the love of their will and see nothing of truth, and even deny the things they have heard (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 153, 424, 455).
[7] To be able to have the understanding illustrated is granted to man, for the sake of reformation; for in man’s will every evil resides, both that into which he is born and that into which he introduces himself; and the will cannot be corrected unless man knows, and by the understanding acknowledges, truths and goods, and also falsities and evils; in no other way can he turn away from the latter and love the former. (More may be seen on the will and the understanding in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 28-35.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 141 sRef Num@25 @1 S0′ sRef Num@25 @9 S0′ sRef Num@25 @2 S0′ sRef Num@25 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @14 S0′ 141. To eat idol-sacrifices and to commit whoredom, signifies that they may be imbued with evils and with falsities therefrom. This is evident from the signification of “eating,” as being to appropriate to themselves, and to be consociated with (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2187, 2343, 3168, 3513, 5643, 8001); so also to be imbued with; and from the signification of “idol-sacrifices,” which are things consecrated to idols, as being evils of every kind (of which more in what follows); and from the signification of “committing whoredom,” as being to falsify truths (of which also more presently). That Balaam counseled Balak to invite the sons of Israel to the sacrifices of his gods appears from what was shown in the preceding article, and from these words of Moses:
Israel abode in Shittim, where the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab; for he called* the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods. Especially did the people join themselves to Baal-peor; therefore the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Israel. And those that were slain were four and twenty thousand (Num. 25:1-3, 9).
It was among the statutes where sacrifices were instituted that some part of the sacrifices, especially of the thank-offerings, should be burnt from the altar, and some part eaten in the holy place. The “sacrifices” themselves signified worship from love and faith, and the “eating” of them signified appropriation of the good thereof. (That “sacrifices” signified all things of worship from the good of love and faith, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 923, 6905, 8680, 8936, 10042; and “eating” the appropriation of goods, n. 10109.) As the eating of things sanctified to Jehovah signified the appropriation of good, so the eating of the sacrifices offered to the gods of the nations, and which were called “idol-sacrifices,” signified the appropriation of evil.
[2] That to “commit whoredom,” in the spiritual sense, signifies to become imbued with falsities, so also to falsify truths, can be seen from many passages in the Word. The same was signified by the whoredoms of the sons of Israel with the daughters of Moab; for all historical parts of the Word involve spiritual things and signify them (as can be seen from the explanations of Genesis and Exodus, called Arcana Coelestia). And as the eating of idol-sacrifices by the sons of Israel and their whoredoms with the daughters of Moab involved such things (for what things signify they involve), therefore it was commanded that the heads of the people should be hung up to Jehovah before the sun; and for the same reason Phinehas the son of Eleazar thrust through a man of Israel and a Midianitish woman in the place of their lust, and for doing that he also was blessed; and for the same reason there were slain of Israel twenty and four thousand (as may be seen, Num. 25:1 to the end). Such punishments and such plagues merely because of the eating of idol-sacrifices, and committing whoredom with the women of another nation, would never have been commanded to be done, unless they had involved heinous offenses against heaven and the church, which do not appear in the literal sense of the Word, but only in its spiritual sense. The heinous offenses involved were the profanation at once of the goods and of the truths of the church, and this, as has been said above, was the appropriation of evil and falsity.
sRef Ezek@16 @32 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @15 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @33 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @26 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @28 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @35 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @29 S3′ [3] That adulteries and whoredoms involve such things is evident from numerous passages in the Word, where they are recounted, which show clearly that they signify the adulterations of good and the falsifications of truth, as in the following. In Ezekiel:
Jerusalem, thou hast trusted in thy beauty, and hast committed whoredom because of thy renown, so that thou hast poured out thy whoredoms on everyone that passed by. Thou has committed whoredom with the sons of Egypt thy neighbors, great of flesh, and hast multiplied thy whoredom. Thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Asshur, when there was no satiety to thee, with whom thou committedst whoredom. Thou hast multiplied thy whoredom even to Chaldea, the land of traffic. An adulterous woman receiveth strangers instead of her husband. All give reward to their harlots,** but thou hast given reward to all thy lovers, and hast rewarded them that they may come unto thee on every side in thy whoredoms. Wherefore, O harlot! hear the word of Jehovah (Ezek. 16:15, 26, 28-29, 32-33, 35 seq.).
Who cannot see that by “whoredoms” here are not meant whoredoms in the usual natural sense? For the church in which all the truths of the Word have been falsified is treated of; this is what is meant by “whoredoms;” for “whoredoms” in the spiritual sense, or spiritual whoredoms, are no other than falsifications of truth. “Jerusalem” here is the church; the “sons of Egypt,” with whom she committed whoredom, are scientifics and knowledges of every kind, perversely applied to confirm falsities; the “sons of Asshur” are reasonings from falsities; “Chaldea,” the land of traffic, is the profanation of truth; the “rewards” that she gave to her lovers are the vendings of falsities; and because of the adulteration of good by the falsifications of truth, that church is called a “woman adulterous while subject to her husband.”
sRef Ezek@23 @11 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @3 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @5 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @14 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @2 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @7 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @16 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @17 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @8 S4′ [4] In the same:
Two women, the daughters of one mother, committed whoredoms in Egypt; they committed whoredoms in their youth. One committed whoredom while subject to me, and chose for lovers the Assyrians her neighbors; she bestowed her whoredoms upon them yet she hath not left her whoredoms in Egypt. The other hath corrupted her love more than she, and her whoredoms above the whoredoms of her sister; she increased her whoredoms, she loved the Chaldeans; the sons of Babel came to her to the bed of loves, and they defiled her with their whoredom (Ezek. 23:2-3, 5-8, 11, 14, 16-17 seq.).
Here also by “whoredoms” are in like manner meant spiritual whoredoms, as is evident from every particular. “Two women, the daughters of one mother, are the two churches, the Israelitish and the Jewish; “whoredoms” with “the Egyptians,” “the Assyrians,” “the Chaldeans,” signify the like as above; “the bed of loves with the sons of Babel” is the profanation of good.
sRef Jer@3 @9 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @1 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @8 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @6 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @2 S5′ [5] In Jeremiah:
Thou hast committed whoredoms with many companions, thou hast profaned the land with thy whoredoms, and with thine evil. Hast thou seen that which backsliding Israel hath done? She hath gone away upon every high mountain, and under every green tree, and there committeth whoredom. Perfidious Judah also hath gone away and committed whoredom, so that by the voice of her whoredom she hath profaned the land; she hath committed adultery with stone and with wood (Jer. 3:1-2, 6, 8-9).
“Israel” is the church that is in truth, “Judah” the church that is in good, for they represented these two churches. The falsifications of truth are signified by the “whoredoms of Israel,” and the adulterations of good by “the whoredoms of Judah.” “To go away upon every high mountain and under every green tree and to commit whoredom” is to seek after all the knowledges of good and truth, even from the Word, and to falsify them; “to commit adultery with stone and wood” is to pervert and profane all truth and good; “stone” signifying truth, and “wood” signifying good.
sRef Jer@5 @1 S6′ sRef Jer@5 @7 S6′ [6] In the same:
Run ye to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and seek in the broad places thereof, if ye can find a man [vir], if there be any doing judgment, seeking truth. When I fed them to the full they committed whoredom and came by troops to the house of the harlot (Jer. 5:1, 7).
To “run to and fro through the streets, and to seek in the broad places of Jerusalem,” is to see and explore the doctrinals of that church; for “Jerusalem” is the church, and “streets” and “broad places” are doctrinals. “If ye have found a man, if there be any doing judgment, seeking truth,” means whether there be any truth in the church. “When I fed them to the full they committed whoredom,” means that when truths were revealed to them they falsified them. Such a church, in respect to doctrine, is the “house of the harlot,” into which they “came by troops.”
sRef Jer@13 @27 S7′ [7] In the same:
Thine adulteries, and thy neighings, the lewdness of thy whoredom, thine abominations on the hills in the field have I seen. Woe unto thee, O Jerusalem! thou wilt not be made clean (Jer. 13:27).
“Neighings” are profanations of truth, because a “horse” signifies the intellectual where there is truth; “the hills in the field” are goods of truth in the church, which have been perverted.
sRef Jer@23 @14 S8′ sRef Jer@29 @23 S8′ [8] In the same:
In the prophets of Jerusalem I have seen a horrible stubbornness in adulterating and in walking in a lie (Jer. 23:14).
They have wrought folly in Israel, and have committed adultery with their companions’ wives, and have spoken My*** word in My name falsely (Jer. 29:23).
To “adulterate” and to “commit adultery” here clearly mean to pervert truths; “the prophets” signifying those who teach truths from the Word; for it is said “in adulterating and walking in a lie,” and “they have spoken My word falsely.” A “lie” in the Word signifies falsity.
sRef Num@14 @33 S9′ [9] In Moses:
Your sons shall be shepherds in the wilderness forty years, and shall bear your**** whoredoms even till their carcasses are consumed in the wilderness (Num. 14:33).
The sons of Israel did not bear whoredoms and were not for that reason consumed in the wilderness, but because they spurned heavenly truths, as is evident from this, that it was so said to them because they wished not to enter into the land of Canaan, but to return to Egypt; “the land of Canaan” signifies heaven and the church, with the truths thereof; and “Egypt” signifies the same falsified and turned into magic.
sRef Micah@1 @7 S10′ [10] In Micah:
All her graven images shall be beaten to pieces, and all the rewards of whoredom shall be burned up with fire; and all her idols will I lay waste, for she hath gathered them from the hire of an harlot, therefore even to the hire of an harlot shall they return (Micah 1:7).
“Graven images” and “idols” signify falsities that are from self-intelligence; “the rewards of whoredom” are the knowledges of truth and good that they have applied to falsities and evils and have thus perverted.
sRef Hos@1 @2 S11′ [11] In Hosea:
Jehovah said to the prophet, Take unto thee a wife of whoredoms and children of whoredoms, for whoring the land doth commit whoredom in departing from Jehovah (Hosea 1:2).
By this was represented what the quality of the church was, namely, that it was wholly in falsities.
sRef Hos@4 @11 S12′ sRef Hos@4 @13 S12′ sRef Hos@4 @7 S12′ sRef Hos@4 @10 S12′ [12] In the same:
They sinned against Me; I will change their glory into disgrace. They committed whoredom; because they have forsaken Jehovah. Whoredom, wine, and new wine, have occupied the heart. Your daughters commit whoredom, and your daughters-in-law commit adultery (Hosea 4:7, 10-11, 13).
“Whoredom, wine, and new wine,” are falsified truths; “whoredom” falsification itself; “wine” interior falsity; “new wine” exterior falsity; “daughters who commit whoredom” are the goods of truth perverted; “daughters-in-law who commit adultery” are evils conjoined with falsities therefrom.
sRef Isa@23 @18 S13′ sRef Isa@23 @17 S13′ [13] In Isaiah:
It shall come to pass after the end of seventy years that Jehovah will visit Tyre, that she may return to her meretricious hire, and commit whoredom with all the kingdoms of the earth upon the faces of the world; at length her merchandise [and her meretricious hire] shall be holiness to Jehovah (Isa. 23:17, 18).
“Tyre,” in the Word, is the church in respect to the knowledges of truth and good; “meretricious hire” the same knowledges applied, by perverting them, to evils and falsities; “her merchandise” the vending of these. “To commit whoredom with all the kingdoms of the earth,” is with all and every truth of the church. “Her merchandise and her meretricious hire shall be holiness to Jehovah” because these signify the knowledges of truth and good applied by them to falsities and evils; and by means of the knowledges themselves regarded in themselves, a man can gain wisdom; for knowledges are means of becoming wise, and they are also means of becoming insane. They are the means of becoming insane when they are falsified by being applied to evils and falsities. The like is signified where it is said that:
They should make to themselves friends of the unrighteous mammon (Luke 16:9);
and where it is commanded that:
They should borrow from the Egyptians gold, silver, and raiment, and take them away from them (Exod. 3:22; 12:35-36).
By the “Egyptians” are signified scientifics of every kind which they used to falsify truths.
sRef Nahum@3 @1 S14′ sRef Lev@20 @5 S14′ sRef Nahum@3 @3 S14′ sRef Rev@14 @8 S14′ sRef Nahum@3 @4 S14′ sRef Rev@18 @3 S14′ sRef Isa@57 @2 S14′ sRef Rev@17 @2 S14′ sRef Ex@34 @16 S14′ sRef Rev@17 @1 S14′ sRef Num@15 @39 S14′ sRef Ex@34 @15 S14′ sRef Rev@19 @2 S14′ sRef Isa@57 @3 S14′ [14] In Moses:
I will cut off the soul that looketh unto them that have familiar spirits and unto wizards, to go a-whoring after them (Lev. 20:5, 6).
In Isaiah:
He entereth into peace, he walketh in uprightness. But draw ye near, ye sons of the enchantress, the seed of the adulterer and the harlot (Isa. 57:2-3).
In Nahum:
Woe to the city of bloods, all in a lie, the horseman ascendeth, and the flaming of the sword, and the flashing of the spear, a multitude of the slain; for the multitude of the whoredoms of the harlot, of the mistress of sorceries, selling the nations through her whoredoms (Nahum 3:1, 3-4).
In Moses:
A covenant must not be made with the inhabitants of the land, lest the sons and daughters go a-whoring after their gods (Exod. 34:15-16).
In the same:
That ye may remember all the commandments of Jehovah, and do them; and that ye spy not after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye are wont to go a-whoring (Num. 15:39).
In Revelation:
Babylon hath made all nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her whoredom (Rev. 14:8);
The angel said, I will show thee the judgment of the great harlot that sitteth upon many waters; with whom the kings of the earth have committed whoredom (Rev. 17:1-2);
Babylon hath made all nations to drink of the wine of the wrath of her whoredom, and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her (Rev. 18:3);
He hath judged the great harlot, which did corrupt the earth with her whoredom (Rev. 19:2).
It is manifest that in these passages by “whoredoms” are meant the falsifications of truth.
sRef Lev@21 @9 S15′ sRef Lev@21 @7 S15′ sRef Lev@21 @14 S15′ sRef Deut@23 @18 S15′ sRef Deut@23 @17 S15′ sRef Lev@21 @13 S15′ sRef Lev@20 @10 S15′ [15] As such things are signified by “whoredoms” and “adulteries,” and as these have the same signification in heaven, therefore in the Israelitish church, which was a representative church, in which all things were significative, the following commands were given:
That there should be no harlot nor whoremonger in Israel (Deut. 23:17);
That the man that committed adultery with the wife of a man, and the man that committed adultery with the wife of his companion should be put to death (Lev. 20:10);
That the hire of a harlot should not be brought into the house of Jehovah for any vow (Deut. 23:18);
That the sons of Aaron should not take a harlot to wife, nor a woman put away by her husband. That the high priest should take a virgin to wife. That the daughter of a priest, if she profaned herself by committing whoredom, should be burned with fire (Lev. 21:7, 9, 13-14). (Besides many other passages.)
[16] That “whoredoms” and “adulteries” involve such things has been testified to me from much experience in the other life. The spheres from spirits who have been of such character have made these things evident; from the presence of spirits who have confirmed falsities in themselves, and have applied truths from the sense of the letter of the Word to confirm them, there exhales an abominable sphere of whoredom. Such spheres correspond to all the prohibited degrees (of which, see Lev. 20:11- 21) with a difference according to the application of truths to falsities and the conjunction of falsities with evils, especially with evils that gush out of the love of self (of which more may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 384-386).
* In Hebrew: “they called,” as also found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 140, 401; Apocalypse Revealed, n. 114; Arcana Coelestia, n. 10652.
** In Hebrew: “They give reward to all harlots,” as also found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 695; Arcana Coelestia, n. 8904.
*** In Hebrew: “the word,” as also found in Arcana Coelestia, n. 2466, 8904. “My” is found in Apocalypse Revealed, n. 134 and in True Christian Religion, n. 314.
**** In Hebrew: “your,” as also found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 633; Arcana Coelestia, n. 2466, 8904, but Apocalypse Revealed, n. 134 has “their.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 142 sRef Rev@2 @15 S0′ 142. Verse 15. So thou hast them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate, signifies those who separate good from truth, or charity from faith, which is against Divine order. This is evident from what was said and shown above (n. 107), where similar words occur. To which this is to be added: That those who separate truth from good, or faith from charity, turn away from themselves all influx of heaven into the goods they do, in consequence of which their goods are not good; for heaven flows in, that is, the Lord through heaven, into the good of man’s love; he, therefore, that rejects the good of charity from the doctrine of the church, and receives instead only those things that are called matters of faith, is shut out of heaven; truths with such have no life; and it is the life of truth, which is good, that conjoins, but not truth without life, or faith without charity. (But more on these subjects in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem where it treats of Charity, n. 84-107, and of Faith, n. 108-122.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 143 sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ 143. Verse 16. Repent, signifies dissociation from these. This is evident from the signification of “repent,” as being in reference to the things signified by “the doctrine of Balaam,” and by “the doctrine of the Nicolaitans,” to be dissociated from them. Nor is repentance anything else; for no one repents unless he actually separates himself from the things of which he has repented; and he separates himself from them only when he shuns them and turns away from them. (That this is repentance or penitence, see the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 159-172.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 144 sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ 144. Or else I will come to thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of My mouth, signifies if not, when visitation comes they will be dispersed. This is evident from the signification of “coming to thee quickly,” as being, in reference to the Lord, visitation (of which more in what follows); also from the signification of the “sword of the mouth,” as being truth combating against falsity, and the subsequent dispersion of falsities (see above, n. 73, 131); but here it signifies the dispersion of those who hold “the doctrine of Balaam,” and the “doctrine of the Nicolaitans,” that is, of those who are illustrated in respect to the understanding and who teach truths, and yet love to destroy by craft those who are of the church; and of those also who separate good from truth, or charity from faith (see above, n. 140, 142). “Coming quickly” means visitation, because the coming of the Lord in the Word signifies visitation (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 6895). Visitation is the exploration of man’s character after death, before he is judged.

AE (Whitehead) n. 145 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 145. Verse 17. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands should harken to what Divine truth proceeding from the Lord teaches and says to those who are of His church, as is evident from what was said and shown above (n. 14, and n. 108), where there are similar words.

AE (Whitehead) n. 146 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef John@6 @48 S1′ sRef John@6 @49 S1′ sRef John@6 @45 S1′ sRef John@6 @50 S1′ sRef John@6 @58 S1′ sRef John@6 @46 S1′ sRef John@6 @55 S1′ sRef John@6 @57 S1′ sRef John@6 @56 S1′ sRef John@6 @52 S1′ sRef John@6 @51 S1′ sRef John@6 @53 S1′ sRef John@6 @54 S1′ sRef John@6 @47 S1′ sRef John@6 @31 S1′ sRef John@6 @41 S1′ sRef John@6 @42 S1′ sRef John@6 @38 S1′ sRef John@6 @34 S1′ sRef John@6 @40 S1′ sRef John@6 @37 S1′ sRef John@6 @44 S1′ sRef John@6 @43 S1′ sRef John@6 @33 S1′ sRef John@6 @35 S1′ sRef John@6 @36 S1′ sRef John@6 @39 S1′ sRef John@6 @32 S1′ 146. To him that overcometh, to him will I give to eat of the hidden manna, signifies that those who conquer in temptations will have the delight of heavenly love from the Lord’s Divine Human. This is evident from the signification of “overcoming,” as being those who conquer in temptations (for it is these that are treated of in what is written to the angel of this church, see above, n. 130); from the signification of “giving to eat,” as being to be appropriated and to be conjoined by love and charity (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2187, 2343, 3168, 3513, 5643) and as it is said “of the hidden manna,” which means the Lord in respect to His Divine Human, the “eating” of this here signifies the delight of heavenly love, for this is appropriated by the Lord’s Divine Human to those who receive Him in love and faith; also from the signification of the “hidden manna,” as being the Lord in respect to His Divine Human. That this is “manna” is manifest from the Lord’s own words in John:
Our fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, as it is written, He gave them bread out of heaven to eat. The bread of God is He who cometh down out of heaven, and giveth life unto the world. I am the bread of life. Your fathers did eat the manna in the wilderness, and they are dead. This is the bread which cometh down out of heaven, that a man may eat thereof and not die. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven; if any man eat of this bread he shall live forever. The bread that I will give is My flesh (John 6:31-58).
That it is the Lord Himself who is meant by “manna” and by “bread,” He plainly teaches, for He says, “I am the bread of life which came down out of heaven.” That it is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, He also teaches when He says, “The bread that I will give is My flesh.”
sRef John@6 @27 S2′ sRef Luke@22 @30 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @26 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @15 S2′ sRef Matt@8 @11 S2′ [2] The Lord taught the same when He instituted the Holy Supper:
Jesus took bread and blessed it, and gave to the disciples, and said, Take, eat, this is My body (Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19).
“To eat of this bread” is to be conjoined to the Lord by love, for “to eat” signifies to be appropriated and to be conjoined (as above), and love is spiritual conjunction. The same is signified by “eating in the kingdom of God,” in Luke:
Blessed is he that eateth bread in the kingdom of God (Luke 14:15).
Ye shall eat and drink at My table in My kingdom (Luke 22:30).
In Matthew:
Many shall come from the east and the west, and shall recline to eat with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of God (Matt. 8:11).
(That by “Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,” the Lord is meant, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1893, 4615, 6095, 6185, 6276, 6804, 6847.) In John:
Work not for the food which perisheth; but for the food which abideth, which the Son of man shall give unto you (John 6:27).
That the “Son of man” is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, see above (n. 63).
sRef Ex@16 @31 S3′ sRef Deut@8 @3 S3′ sRef Ex@16 @15 S3′ sRef Ex@16 @14 S3′ sRef Ex@16 @4 S3′ [3] It is called “hidden manna,” because the delight of heavenly love, which those receive who are conjoined to the Lord through love, is wholly unknown to those that are in a love not heavenly; and this delight no one is able to receive except he that acknowledges the Lord’s Divine Human; for from this the delight proceeds. Because this delight was unknown to the children of Israel in the wilderness, they called it “manna,” as appears in Moses:
Jehovah said unto Moses, Behold, I will cause bread to rain from heaven itself for you. And in the morning the dew lay round about the camp. And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold upon the face of the wilderness a small round thing; and when they saw it, they said, This is manna? (what is this)? Moses said unto them, this is the bread which Jehovah giveth you to eat. And the house of Israel called the name thereof manna (Exod. 16:3 to the end).
In the same:
Jehovah fed thee with manna which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that He might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by all that is uttered by the mouth of Jehovah doth man live (Deut. 8:3).
This delight, which is meant by “manna,” was unknown to the sons of Israel, because they were in corporeal delight more than other nations, and those who are in that delight are altogether incapable of knowing anything of heavenly delight. (That the sons of Israel were such, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 248.) The term “delight” is used, and the delight of love is meant, for every delight of life is of love.
sRef John@6 @34 S4′ sRef John@6 @33 S4′ sRef John@6 @42 S4′ sRef John@6 @43 S4′ sRef John@6 @36 S4′ sRef John@6 @35 S4′ sRef John@6 @53 S4′ sRef Deut@8 @3 S4′ sRef John@6 @31 S4′ sRef John@6 @32 S4′ sRef John@6 @56 S4′ sRef John@6 @58 S4′ sRef John@6 @57 S4′ sRef John@6 @44 S4′ sRef John@6 @46 S4′ sRef John@6 @55 S4′ sRef John@6 @54 S4′ sRef John@6 @47 S4′ sRef John@6 @45 S4′ sRef Ps@105 @40 S4′ sRef John@6 @37 S4′ sRef John@6 @41 S4′ sRef John@6 @50 S4′ sRef John@6 @49 S4′ sRef John@6 @40 S4′ sRef John@6 @39 S4′ sRef John@6 @51 S4′ sRef John@6 @52 S4′ sRef Ps@78 @23 S4′ sRef John@6 @48 S4′ sRef Ps@78 @24 S4′ sRef John@6 @38 S4′ [4] As it is the delight of heavenly love that is signified by “eating of the hidden manna,” therefore it is called “the bread of the heavens” in David:
Jehovah commanded the skies from above, and opened the doors of the heavens; and He rained down upon them manna for food, and gave them corn of the heavens (Ps. 78:23, 24).
In another place:
Jehovah satisfied them with the bread of the heavens (Ps. 105:40).
It is called the “bread of the heavens,” because it rained down from heaven with the dew, but in the spiritual sense it is called the “bread of the heavens” because it flows down from the Lord through the angelic heaven. In that case no other heaven is meant, and no other bread than that which nourishes the soul of man. That it is in this sense that “bread” is to be understood here is evident from the words of the Lord Himself in John:
That He is the manna, or bread, that came down out of heaven (John 6:31-58).
And in Moses:
That Jehovah fed them with manna, that He might make them to know that man doth not live by bread only, but by all that is uttered by the mouth of Jehovah (Deut. 8:3).
“What is uttered by the mouth of Jehovah” is everything that proceeds from the Lord, and this, in a special sense, is Divine truth united with Divine good (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 13, 133, 139, 140, 284-290).
sRef Ex@16 @31 S5′ sRef Num@11 @7 S5′ sRef Num@11 @8 S5′ [5] This delight is also described by the correspondences in Moses:
The manna appeared like coriander seed, white, and the taste of it was like cakes made with honey (Exod. 16:31).
And in another place in the same:
They made cakes of it; and the taste of it was as the taste of the juice of oil (Num. 11:7, 8).
The appearance and taste of the manna was such because “Coriander seed, white,” signifies truth from a heavenly origin; “cake,” the good of heavenly love; “honey” its external delight; “oil” that love itself; and its “juice,” from which was the taste, its internal delight: and the “rain with dew,” in which the manna was, the influx of Divine truth in which that delight is. (That “seed” signifies truth from a heavenly origin, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3038, 3373, 10248, 10249; that “white” is predicated of that truth, n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319; that “cake” signifies the good of heavenly love, n. 7978, 9992, 9993; that “oil” signifies that love itself, n. 886, 3728, 9780, 9954, 10261, 10269; its “juice,” therefore, signifies the delight of that love, because the taste is therefrom, and the taste is the delight and pleasantness, see n. 3502, 4791-4805. But more about these matters may be seen in the explanation of chapter 16 of Exodus in The Arcana Coelestia.)
[6] The delight of heavenly love is signified by “eating of the hidden manna,” when yet by “the hidden manna” the Lord in respect to the Divine Human is signified, because it is the same whether you say the Lord’s Divine Human, or the Divine Love, for the Lord is Divine Love itself, and what proceeds from Him is Divine good united to Divine truth; both are of love, and are also the Lord in heaven; consequently “to eat of Him” is to be conjoined to Him, and this by love from Him. (But these things may be better understood from what is said and shown in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 13-19, 116-125, 126-140; also in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 210-222, 307.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 147 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 147. And will give him a white stone, signifies wisdom and intelligence. This is evident from the signification of “a white stone,” when [it is given] by the Lord, as being reception from Him and influx; and as it is reception and influx from the Lord, it also is wisdom and intelligence from Him, for those who receive from the Lord and with whom the Lord flows in, are in wisdom and intelligence. “To give a white stone” signifies these things, because formerly in public decisions the votes were taken by means of stones; white stones indicating the affirmative opinions, and black stones the negative; therefore by a “white stone” is signified the reception of wisdom and intelligence.

AE (Whitehead) n. 148 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 148. And upon the stone a new name written, which no one knoweth except he that receiveth, signifies a state of interior life unknown to all except those who are in it. This is evident from the signification of “name,” as being the quality of state (of which see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1754, 1896, 2009, 3237, 3421); here the quality of the state of the interior life, because it is said “a new name, which no one knoweth except he that receiveth,” for the quality of the state of the interior life is wholly unknown to those who are not in the interior life. Those are in the interior life who are in love to the Lord, and none are in love to the Lord except those who acknowledge the Divine in His Human (that to love the Lord is to live according to His precepts, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 10143, 10153, 10578, 10645, 10829). Interior life is the spiritual life, in which the angels of heaven are; but the exterior life is the natural life, in which are all who are not in heaven. With those, moreover, who live according to the precepts of the Lord and acknowledge the Divine in His Human, the interior mind is opened, and man then becomes spiritual; but those who do not so live, and do not acknowledge the Lord, remain natural. (That to all who are not in heavenly love the state of the interior or spiritual life is unknown, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 395-414; and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 105, 238.)
sRef Isa@49 @1 S2′ sRef John@10 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@45 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@45 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @26 S2′ sRef John@10 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@43 @1 S2′ [2] That “name” in the Word signifies quality of state is evident from many passages there, some of which I will here cite in confirmation. Thus in Isaiah:
Lift up your eyes on high and see; who hath created these? He that leadeth out the host in number; that calleth them all by name (Isa. 40:26).
“His calling them all by name” is knowing the quality of all, and giving to them according to the state of love and faith with them. In John the meaning is similar:
He that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. To him the porter openeth, and the sheep hear his voice; and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out (John 10:2-3).
In Isaiah:
Thus saith Jehovah thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel, Fear not; for I have redeemed thee, and have called thee by name; thou art Mine (Isa. 43:1).
In the same:
That thou mayest know that I am Jehovah, who had called thee by thy name. For Jacob My servant’s sake, and Israel My chosen, I have called thee by thy name, when thou didst not know Me (Isa. 45:3-4).
“I have called thee by thy name” means that He knew the quality of the state of the church; for “Jacob” and “Israel” are the church, “Jacob” the external church, and “Israel” the internal.
sRef Isa@65 @15 S3′ sRef Isa@62 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@48 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@22 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@48 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@22 @2 S3′ sRef Isa@62 @2 S3′ [3] In the same:
Israel, if thou hadst hearkened to My commandments, his name should not have been cut off nor destroyed from before Me (Isa. 48:18-19).
“The name being cut off and destroyed from before Jehovah” denotes the quality of the state by which conjunction is effected, which state is the spiritual state of him who is of the church signified by “Israel.” Again in the same prophet:
Jehovah hath called me from the womb, from the bowels of my mother doth He make mention of my name (Isa. 49:1).
here “making mention of the name” is knowing the quality. In the same:
For Zion’s sake I will not be still, and for Jerusalem’s sake I will not be quiet. And the nations shall see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory; and thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of Jehovah shall utter (Isa. 62:1, 2).
In the same:
He shall call His servants by another name (Isa. 65:15).
“To call by a new name,” and “by another name,” is to bestow another state of life, namely, a state of spiritual life. In Ezekiel:
The city of bloods, polluted by name (Ezek. 22:2, 5).
“The city of bloods” is the doctrine that offers violence to the good of charity; this is said to be “polluted by name” when it abounds with falsities and evils therefrom, which constitute its quality.
sRef Ex@33 @12 S4′ sRef Ex@33 @17 S4′ sRef Rev@3 @5 S4′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@3 @4 S4′ sRef Rev@22 @4 S4′ sRef Rev@13 @8 S4′ [4] In Moses:
Moses said unto Jehovah, Thou hast said, I know thee by thy name. And Jehovah said unto Moses, This word also that thou hast spoken I will do, for I know thee by name (Exod. 33:12, 17).
“His knowing Moses by name” is knowing his quality. In Revelation:
Thou hast a few names in Sardis which have not defiled their garments. He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white garments, and I will confess his name before My Father. He that overcometh, I will write upon him the name of My God, and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, and My new name (Rev. 3:4, 5, 12).
It can be seen that “name” here signifies the quality of state in respect to the good of love and the truth of faith. In another place:
Whose names have not been written in the book of life (Rev. 13:8; 17:8).
“Names written in the book of life” are the quality of all things of man’s love and faith, the all things of his spiritual life. In another place:
They shall see the face of God and the Lamb, and His name shall be in their forehead (Rev. 22:4).
“His name in their forehead” is a state of love, for “forehead” corresponds to love, and therefore signifies love.
[5] “Name” in the Word signifies the quality of man’s state, because in the spiritual world each one is named according to the state of life in which he is, thus variously; for spiritual speech is not like human speech; all things there are expressed according to ideas of things and of persons; and these ideas fall into words. (This can be seen more clearly from what is shown on The Speech of the Angels in Heaven, in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 234-245; also see above, n. 102, 135, where it is shown what “the name of Jehovah,” “of the Lord,” and “of Jesus Christ” signify in the Word.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 149 sRef Rev@2 @21 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @25 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @29 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @28 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ 149. Verses 18-29. And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write: These things saith the Son of God, that hath His eyes as a flame of fire, and His feet like burnished brass, I know thy works and charity, and ministry and faith, and thine endurance, and thy works, and the last to be more than the first. But I have against thee a few things, that thou sufferest the woman Jezebel, that calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and seduce My servants to commit whoredom, and to eat idol-sacrifices. And I gave her time that she might repent of her whoredom, and she repented not. Behold, I cast her into a bed, and those that commit adultery with her into great affliction, except they repent of their works. And her sons I will kill with death; and all the churches shall know that I am He that searcheth the reins and hearts; and I will give to each one of you according to your works. But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine, and who have not known the depths of Satan, as they say; I put upon you no other burden. Nevertheless, that which ye have hold fast till I come. And he that overcometh and keepeth My works unto the end, I will give him power over the nations. And he shall rule them with an iron rod; as earthen vessels shall they be shivered, as I also have received from My Father. And I will give him the morning star. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. 18. “And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write,” signifies those of the church with whom the internal and external, or the spiritual and natural man, make one (n. 150); “These things saith the Son of man”* signifies the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, from which is that essential of the church (n. 151); “that hath His eyes as a flame of fire,” signifies Divine Providence from His Divine love and Divine wisdom and intelligence communicated to those who are in love towards Him and from that in faith in Him (n.152); “and His feet like burnished brass,” signifies the ultimate of Divine order, which is the natural, full of Divine love (n. 153). 19. “I know thy works and charity,” signifies the internal of those who are of the church (n. 154); “and ministry and faith,” signifies good and truth therein (n. 155); “and thine endurance,” signifies conjunction with the external [and consequent combat] (n. 156); “and thy works, and the last to be more than the first,” signifies the externals that are therefrom (n. 157). 20. “But I have against thee a few things,” signifies that heed should be taken (n. 158); “that thou sufferest the woman Jezebel,” signifies the delight of the love of self and of the world (159); “that calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce My servants,” signifies that the doctrine of all falsities is therefrom (n. 160); “to commit whoredom and to eat idol-sacrifices,” signifies the falsifications of truth and the adulterations of good (n. 161). 21. “And I gave her time that she might repent of her whoredom, and she repented not,” signifies that those who are in falsities therefrom do not turn themselves to truths by means of truths (n. 162). 22. “Behold, I cast her into a bed,” signifies that they are left to their natural man, and to the doctrine of falsities therein (n. 163); “and those that commit adultery with her into great affliction,” signifies the grievous temptations of those who addict themselves to the falsities of such (n. 164); “except they repent of their works,” signifies except they separate themselves from them (n. 165). 23. “And her sons I will kill with death,” signifies that thus falsities are extinguished (n. 166); “and all the churches shall know that I am He that searcheth the reins and hearts,” signifies the acknowledgment of all who are of the church that the Lord alone knows and explores the exteriors and interiors, and the things that are of faith and of love (n. 167); “and I will give to each one of you according to your works” signifies eternal blessedness according to one’s internal in the external (n. 168). 24. “But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira,” signifies to all and each one with whom the internal is conjoined to the external (n. 169); “as many as have not this doctrine,” signifies with whom external delight, which is the delight of the love of self and of the world, is not dominant (n. 170); “and who have not known the depths of Satan, as they say,” signifies entanglement with these (n. 171); “I put upon you no other burden,” signifies that this alone should be guarded against (n. 172). 25. “Nevertheless, that which ye have hold fast till I come,” signifies steadfastness in a state of love and of faith, even until visitation (n. 173). 26. “And he that overcometh and keepeth My works unto the end,” signifies perseverance in love and faith after combat against these loves, and their removal as far as possible (n. 174); “I will give him power over the nations,” signifies over the evils within him, which will then be scattered by the Lord (n. 175). 27. “And he shall rule them with an iron rod,” signifies that he is about to chastise evils by means of truths, that are in the natural man (n. 176); “as earthen vessels shall they be shivered,” signifies the total dispersion of falsities (n. 177); “as I also have received from My Father,” signifies comparatively as the Lord from His Divine, when He glorified His Human (n. 178). 28. “And I will give him the morning star,” signifies intelligence and wisdom from the Lord’s Divine Human (n. 179). 29. “He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies that he who understands should hearken to what Divine truth proceeding from the Lord teaches and says to those who are of His church (n. 180).
* In Greek: “Son of God,” as just above; but here the Latin has “Son of man,” as also in Apocalypse Explained, n. 98, 250; Apocalypse Revealed, n. 70, 125.

AE (Whitehead) n. 150 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 150. Verse 18. And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write, signifies those of the church with whom the internal and the external, or the spiritual and natural man, make one. This is evident from what is written to this angel understood in the internal sense, which treats of the conjunction of the internal or spiritual man with the external or natural man, or concerning those of the church in whom these are conjoined. In every man there is an internal and an external; his internal is what is called the spiritual man, the external what is called the natural man. When man is born, the external or natural man is first opened; and afterwards, as he grows up and is perfected in intelligence and wisdom, the internal or spiritual man is opened. The external or natural man is opened by such things as man derives from the world, while the internal or spiritual man is opened by such things as he derives from heaven; for the external or natural man is formed for receiving such things as are in the world, but the internal or spiritual man for receiving such things as are in heaven. The things in the world, for receiving which the external or natural man is formed, have reference, in general, to all things of civil and moral life; while the things in heaven, for receiving which the internal or spiritual man is formed, have reference, in general, to all things of love and faith.
[2] Since there are these two in man, and each separately must be opened by means proper to it, it is clear that unless the internal is opened by its proper means man continues merely natural, and his internal in that case is closed. But those with whom the internal is closed are not men of the church; for the church with man is formed through communication with heaven: and there is no communication with heaven unless man’s internal is opened by its proper means, all which have reference, as was said above, to love and faith. It is to be known, moreover, that with the man of the church, that is, the man who has been regenerated by the Lord by means of truths called truths of faith and by means of a life according to them, the internal and external or the spiritual and natural man are conjoined, and that this conjunction is effected by correspondences. (The nature of correspondences, and therefore the nature of the conjunction effected by them can be seen from what is shown about them in The Arcana Coelestia, and cited from that work in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 261.)
[3] Now since a man does not become a man of the church until his internal or spiritual man has been opened and until this has been conjoined with the external or natural man, those within the church in whom this conjunction is effected are now treated of; for (as was said above, n. 20) by “the seven churches” are not meant seven churches, but all in general who are of the Lord’s church; consequently what is written to the angel of each church treats of such things as constitute the church; here, therefore, that is, “to the angel of the church of Thyatira,” the internal and external are treated of, and the conjunction of the two in those of the church. (But as hitherto it has not been known that these two are actually in man, and that they must be opened and conjoined that man may be a man of the church; and as these things cannot be made clear in a few words, therefore they have been treated of in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 36-53, 179-182.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 151 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 151. These things saith the Son of man, signifies the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, from which is that essential of the church. This is evident from the signification of “the Son of man,” as being the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, and in respect to Divine truth, since Divine truth proceeds from Him (see above, n. 63); also as being that from which is that essential of the church, namely, the opening of the internal or spiritual man, and the conjunction thereof with the external, since everything of the church with man is from the Lord’s Divine Human. For everything of love and faith, which two constitute the church, proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human, and not immediately from the Divine Itself; for what proceeds immediately from His Divine Itself, does not fall into any thought and affection of man, nor consequently into faith and love, because it is far above them. This can be seen from the fact that man is not able to think of the Divine Itself apart from the human form, except as he thinks of nature, as it were, in things least. Thought that is not determined to a certain figure is diffused in every direction, and what is diffused is dissipated. This has been given me to know most especially from those in the other life who are from the Christian world, who have thought only of the Father, and not of the Lord, that they make nature in its minutest parts their God, and finally fall away from all idea of God, consequently from the idea and faith in anything of heaven and the church.
[2] It is otherwise with those who have thought of God under the human form; these have all their ideas determined to the Divine, nor do their thoughts, like the thoughts of those mentioned before, wander in every direction. And as the Divine under the Human form, is the Lord’s Divine Human, therefore the Lord bends and determines their thoughts and affections to Himself. This, because it is the primary truth of the church, unceasingly flows in out of heaven with man; consequently it is, as it were, implanted in everyone to think of the Divine under the human form, and thus to see His Divine inwardly in himself, with the exception of such as have extinguished in themselves this implanted thought (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 82). From this the reason can also be seen, why all men, whatsoever after death, when they become spirits, turn themselves to their own loves, and thus why those who have worshiped the Divine under the human form turn themselves to the Lord, who appears to them as a sun above the heavens. But those who have not worshiped the Divine under the human form, turn themselves to the loves of their natural man, all of which have reference to the loves of self and the world, thus turning backwards from the Lord; and turning oneself backwards from the Lord is turning towards hell. (That all in the spiritual world turn themselves to their own loves, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 17, 123, 142-145, 151, 153, 255, 272, 510, 548, 552, 561.)
[3] All who lived in ancient times and worshiped the Divine saw the Divine in thought under the human form, and hardly anyone thought of an invisible Divine; and the Divine under the human form was even then the Divine Human. But as this Divine Human was the Divine of the Lord in the heavens and passing through the heavens, when at length heaven became enfeebled, because men, of whom heaven is made up, from internal successively became external and thus natural, therefore it pleased the Divine Itself to put on a human, and to glorify it, or make it Divine, that thus from Himself He might affect all, both those who are in the spiritual world and those who are in the natural world, and might save those who acknowledge and worship His Divine in the Human.
sRef John@1 @2 S4′ sRef John@1 @8 S4′ sRef John@1 @1 S4′ sRef John@1 @9 S4′ sRef John@1 @7 S4′ sRef John@1 @6 S4′ sRef John@1 @4 S4′ sRef John@1 @5 S4′ sRef John@1 @10 S4′ sRef John@1 @14 S4′ sRef John@1 @13 S4′ sRef John@1 @12 S4′ sRef John@1 @3 S4′ sRef John@1 @11 S4′ [4] This is clearly stated in many passages in the Old Testament Prophets, as well as in the Evangelists; of these I will cite only the following in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. All things were made through Him, and without Him was not anything made that hath been made. In Him was life; and the life was the light of men. And that Light shineth in the darkness; and the darkness apprehended it not. It was the true Light, which lighteth every man coming into the world. He was in the world, but the world acknowledged Him not. And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory (John 1:1-14).
It is plainly evident that the Lord in respect to the Human is here meant by “the Word,” for it is said, “the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory.” It is also evident that the Lord made His Human to be Divine, for it is said, “the Word was with God and God was the Word, and this became flesh,” that is, a man. And since all Divine truth proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human, and this is His Divine in the heavens, therefore by “the Word” is also signified Divine truth; and thence He is said to be “the Light which lighted every man coming into the world.” Moreover, “light” is Divine truth; and because men from being internal became so external or natural as no longer to acknowledge Divine truth or the Lord, therefore it is said that “the darkness apprehended not the light,” and that “the world acknowledged Him not.” (That the Word is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human and Divine truth proceeding therefrom, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 263, 304. That “light” is Divine truth, and “darkness” the falsities in which those are who are not in the light, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 126-140, 275.)
sRef John@1 @12 S5′ sRef John@1 @13 S5′ [5] That they who acknowledge the Lord and worship Him from love and faith, and are not in the love of self and the love of the world, are regenerated and saved, is also taught in these words in John:
As many as received Him, to them gave He power to be children of God, even to them that believe in His name; which were born, not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God (John 1:12, 13).
Here “of bloods” means such as destroy love and charity. “The will of the flesh” is every evil from the love of self and love of the world, also man’s will-proprium, which in itself is nothing but evil; “the will of man” is falsity thence that comes from that will-proprium. That those who are not in these loves receive the Lord and are regenerated and saved, is meant by its being said that those who “believe in His name become children of God,” and are “born of God.” (That to “believe in the Lord’s name” is to acknowledge His Divine Human and to receive love and faith from Him, see above. n. 102-135. That “bloods” are the things that destroy love and charity, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4735, 5476, 9127; that “flesh” is man’s will-proprium, which in itself is nothing but evil, n. 210, 215, 731, 874-876, 987, 1047, 2307, 2308, 3518, 3701, 3812, 4328, 8480, 8550, 10283, 10284, 10286, 10732; and that man’s proprium is the love of self and the love of the world, n. 694, 731, 4317, 5660. That “man” [vir] is the intellectual, and therefore truth or falsity, since the intellectual is of the one or the other, see n. 3134, 3309, 9007. Thus “the will of man” [viri] is the intelligence-proprium, which, when it exists from the will-proprium [which in itself is nothing but evil], is nothing but falsity, for where evil is in the will there is falsity in the understanding. That to be “born of God” is to be regenerated by the Lord, see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 173-184. Moreover, that all in the universe, from influx out of heaven and from revelation, worship the Divine in the human form, see Earths in the Universe, n. 98, 121, 141, 154, 158, 159, 169; likewise all angels of the higher heavens, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 78-86.)
[6] From this it can now be seen that everything of the church, thus also everything of heaven with men, is from the Lord’s Divine Human. For this reason “the Son of man,” who is the Divine Human, is described in the first chapter of Revelation by various representatives; and from that description the introductory sentences to each of the churches are taken (as may be seen above, n. 113), and what is said to this church in particular treats of this chief essential of the church, namely, the conjunction of the internal and external, or the regeneration of the man of the church; for it is said to the angel of this church, “These things saith the Son of God, that hath His eyes as a flame of fire.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 152 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 152. That hath His eyes as a flame of fire, signifies Divine Providence from His Divine love, also Divine wisdom and intelligence communicated to those who are in love towards Him and from that in faith in Him. That “eyes as a flame of fire,” means in reference to the Lord, His Divine Providence from His Divine love, see above (n. 68). This means also Divine wisdom and intelligence communicated to those who are in love towards the Lord, and from that in faith in Him, because “eyes” in the Word signify in reference to man the understanding of truth, and the understanding of truth is intelligence and wisdom; consequently “eyes” signify, in reference to the Lord, Divine wisdom and intelligence proceeding from Him; and what proceeds from Him is communicated to angels and to men who are in love towards Him and from that in faith in Him. All the wisdom and intelligence that angels and men have is the Lord’s with them and not their own; and this is also well known in the church; for it is known that all good, which is of love, and all truth, which is of faith, are from God, and nothing thereof from man; and truths interiorly seen and acknowledged constitute intelligence, and these together with goods interiorly perceived and thence seen constitute wisdom. From this then it is that “having His eyes as a flame of fire” also signifies the Lord’s Divine wisdom and intelligence communicated to those who are in the goods of love, and from that in faith in Him.
[2] “Eyes” signify the understanding, because all the sight of the eyes with men and angels is from the understanding. That all the sight of the eyes is from the understanding must sound absurd to those who are ignorant of the interior causes of things, out of which effects are presented in the body; those ignorant of these causes believe no otherwise than that the eye sees of itself, that the ear hears of itself, that the tongue tastes of itself, and that the body feels of itself; when yet it is the interior life of man, the life of his spirit, which is the life of his understanding and will, or of his thought and affection that, through the organs of the body, has sensation of the things that are in the world, and thus perceives them naturally. The whole body, with all its sensories, is merely an instrument of its soul, or of its spirit; which is also the reason that when man’s spirit is separated from the body the body has no sensation whatever, but the spirit afterwards continues to have sensation as before. (That man’s spirit sees, hears, and feels, after it is released from the body equally as before while in the body, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 461-469; and on The Correspondence of the Understanding with the Sight of the Eye, see Arcana Coelestia n. 4403-4421, 4523-4534.) With beasts, moreover, their interior life, which is also called their soul, has sensation equally through the external organs of their body, but with a difference, in that the sensation of the beast is not rational like man’s, thus is not formed from an understanding and will such as man has (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 108; and The Last Judgment, n. 25).
[3] From this, then, it is, that by “eye” in the Word is signified the understanding of truth, or intelligence and wisdom, as may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:
Say to this people, hear ye in hearing, but understand not; and see ye in seeing, and know not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and smear their eyes, lest they see with their eyes (Isa. 6:9-10; John 12:40).
“To smear the eyes, lest they see with their eyes,” is to darken the understanding, that they may not understand.
sRef Isa@29 @10 S4′ [4] In the same:
Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes; the prophets and your heads, the seers hath He covered (Isa. 29:10);
where “He hath closed the eyes; the prophets and the heads, and the seers hath He covered,” is the understanding of truth. “Prophets” are those that teach truths, who are also called “heads,” because the head signifies intelligence, and are also called “seers” from the revelation of Divine truth with them.
sRef Isa@33 @17 S5′ sRef Isa@33 @15 S5′ sRef Isa@32 @3 S5′ [5] In the same:
The eyes of them that see shall not be closed, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken (Isa. 32:3).
“The eyes of them that see” means of those that understand truths. In the same:
Who shutteth his eyes from seeing evil. Thine eyes shall behold the king in his beauty (Isa. 33:15, 17).
“To shut the eyes from seeing evil” is not to admit evil into the thought; “their eyes shall behold the king in his beauty” is that they are to understand truth in its light with pleasantness; for by “king” here is not meant a king but truth (see above, n. 31).
sRef Lam@5 @16 S6′ sRef Jer@5 @21 S6′ sRef Lam@5 @17 S6′ [6] In Jeremiah:
Hear now this, O foolish people, who have no heart; who have eyes and see not; who have ears and hear not (Jer. 5:21; Ezek. 12:2).
In Lamentations:
The crown of our head hath fallen; for this our heart hath become faint; and for this our eyes have been darkened (Lam. 5:16, 17).
“The crown of the head” is wisdom (see above n. 126); the “faint heart” means that the will of good is no more (that “heart” is the will and love, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 95). “Eyes” are the understanding of truth, and they are said to be darkened when truth is no longer understood.
sRef Zech@11 @17 S7′ [7] In Zechariah:
The punishment of the shepherd forsaking the flock, a sword upon his right eye; and his right eye in growing dim shall be dimmed (Zech. 11:17).
“The sword upon the right eye,” and “the right eye in growing dim shall be dimmed,” means that all truth in the understanding is to perish through falsity (that “sword” is the destruction of truth by falsity, see above, n. 131).
sRef Zech@14 @12 S8′ [8] In the same:
The plague wherewith Jehovah will strike all the peoples that shall war against Jerusalem; their eyes shall consume away in their sockets (Zech. 14:12).
“The peoples that shall war against Jerusalem” are those that fight against the church; “Jerusalem” is the church; that “their eyes shall consume away” means that intelligence is to perish because they fight by falsities against truths.
sRef Zech@12 @4 S9′ [9] In Zechariah:
I will smite every horse with astonishment, and every horse of the peoples with blindness (Zech. 12:4).
Here the vastation of the church is treated of; by “horse” is signified the intellectual, therefore the understanding is meant when it is said that the horse should be smitten with astonishment and with blindness. (That “horse” signifies the intellectual, see the small treatise on The White Horse, n. 1-5.)
sRef Deut@16 @19 S10′ sRef Ps@13 @3 S10′ [10] In David:
Hear me, O Jehovah, my God; lighten mine eyes, lest I sleep [the sleep of] death (Ps. 13:4).
“Lighten the eyes” means the understanding. In Moses:
Thou shalt not take a gift, for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise (Deut. 16:19).
“To blind the eyes of the wise” is that they may not see or understand the truth.
sRef Matt@6 @22 S11′ sRef Matt@6 @23 S11′ [11] In Matthew:
The lamp of the body is the eye: if the eye be single the whole body is light; if the eye be evil the whole body is darkened. If therefore the light be darkness, how great is the darkness (Matt. 6:22, 23; Luke 11:34).
By “eye” here is not meant the eye, but the understanding; by “the eye single” the understanding of truth; by “the eye evil” the understanding of falsity; “darkness” is falsities; “the whole body” is the whole spirit, which is wholly such as the will is and the understanding therefrom; but if it has the understanding of truth from the will of good it is an angel of light; but if it has an understanding of falsity it is a spirit of darkness. By these words the reformation of man through the understanding of truth is described. From this it is clear that he who knows what “eye” signifies can know the arcanum of these words. That man is reformed by means of truths in the understanding, see above (n. 112, 126).
sRef Matt@5 @29 S12′ [12] In Matthew:
If thy right eye causeth thee to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from thee; for it is better for thee to enter life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire (Matt. 5:29; 18:9; Mark 9:47).
Here also, by “eye” is not meant the eye, but the understanding thinking; by “the right eye causing to stumble” the understanding thinking evil; “plucking it out and casting it away” is not admitting such evil, but rejecting it; “having one eye” is the understanding thinking not evil, but truth only, for the understanding can think the truth; if it thinks evil it is from the will of evil. It is said “the right eye,” because “the right eye” signifies the understanding of good, and the “left eye” the understanding of truth (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4410, 6923).
sRef Isa@42 @7 S13′ sRef Isa@43 @8 S13′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S13′ sRef Isa@35 @5 S13′ sRef Isa@29 @18 S13′ [13] In Isaiah:
In that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of thick darkness and out of darkness (Isa. 29:18).
In the same:
Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf (Isa. 35:5).
In the same:
I will give thee for a light of the nations, to open the eyes of the blind, to lead him that is bound out of the dungeon, and them that sit in darkness out of the house of prison (Isa. 42:6, 7).
In the same:
Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears (Isa. 43:8).
“To open the eyes of the blind” is to instruct those who as yet are ignorant of truths, but nevertheless have a longing for them, that is, the Gentiles. The like is signified by:
The Lord’s healing the blind (Matt. 9:27-29; 20:29 to the end; 21:14; Mark 8:23, 25; Luke 18:35 to the end; John 9:1-21);
for all the Lord’s miracles involved such things as pertain to the church and heaven, therefore they were Divine (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 7337, 8364, 9301).
sRef Lev@21 @18 S14′ sRef Lev@21 @17 S14′ sRef Lev@22 @22 S14′ sRef Lev@21 @19 S14′ sRef Lev@21 @22 S14′ sRef Lev@21 @21 S14′ sRef Lev@21 @20 S14′ sRef Lev@21 @23 S14′ sRef Lev@26 @16 S14′ [14] Because the “eye” signified the understanding it was among the statutes pertaining to the sons of Israel:
That no one of the seed of Aaron who was blind or had a blemish in the eye should come nigh to offer sacrifice, or enter within the veil (Lev. 21:17-23).
That what was blind should not be offered for a sacrifice (Lev. 22:22; Mal. 1:8);
so also among the curses was:
A fever that should consume the eyes (Lev. 26:16).
From all this it can now be known what is signified by “the eyes of the Son of God that were as a flame of fire,” namely, Divine wisdom and intelligence communicated to those who are in love towards the Lord and thence in faith in Him.
sRef Rev@4 @6 S15′ sRef Ezek@10 @12 S15′ sRef Rev@4 @8 S15′ [15] That His Divine Providence is also signified is evident from what was shown above (n. 68). To this may be added what is said of the cherubim in Ezekiel, and of the four animals about the throne in Revelation, which also signify the Divine Providence of the Lord, and in particular, a guard that the Lord be not approached except through good. In Ezekiel:
I saw, and behold four wheels near the cherubim; their whole flesh, and their backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the wheels were full of eyes round about (Ezek. 10:9, 12).
In Revelation:
About the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind; each one had wings full of eyes about and within (Rev. 4:6, 8).
These four “living creatures” also were cherubim, for the description of them is almost like that of the cherubim in Ezekiel. So many “eyes” are ascribed to them because the Lord’s Divine Providence, which is signified by “cherubim,” is His government of all things in the heavens and on the earth by Divine wisdom; for the Lord by Divine Providence sees all things, disposes all things, and looks out for all things. (That by “cherubim” is signified the Lord’s Divine Providence, and in particular, a guard that the Lord be not approached except through good, see n. 9277, 9509, 9673.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 153 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 153. And His feet like burnished brass, signifies the ultimate of Divine order, which is the natural, full of Divine love, as is evident from what is said and shown above (n. 69), where similar words occur. As what is written to the angel of this church treats of the internal of the church, which is spiritual, and its external, which is natural, that they must make one (see above, n. 150), so it is prefaced by these things respecting the Lord, from whom is everything of the church, “These things saith the Son of God, that hath His eyes as a flame of fire, and His feet like unto burnished brass;” for in respect to man, “eyes” signify the internal, which is spiritual, and “feet” the external, which is natural; but in respect to the Lord, “eyes” and “feet” signify the Divine things from which are the internal and external with man.

AE (Whitehead) n. 154 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 154. Verse 19. I know thy works and charity, signifies the internal of those who are of the church. This is evident from the signification of “works,” as being the things that are of the will, or of celestial love (of which see above, n. 98), and from the signification of “charity,” as being the things that are of spiritual love. “Works and charity” signifies the internal of the church, because its internal is made up of the things that are of the will or love, and its external of the things that are of the understanding and faith. There are two loves that constitute heaven or the church, love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor, or charity; love to the Lord is called celestial love, and love toward the neighbor, which is charity, is called spiritual love. They are so called for the reason that heaven is divided into two kingdoms, one called the celestial kingdom, the other the spiritual kingdom, consequently the loves that govern there are so called (see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 13-19, 20-28 also Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 54-62, 84-100, where also it is shown what celestial love is, and what spiritual love, namely, that celestial love is to do the commandments of the Lord from the affection of the will, and spiritual love is to do them from the affection of the understanding). There are two things that constitute heaven or the church with man, namely, love and faith. Love resides in man’s will, for what man loves that he also wills; but faith resides in his understanding, for what a man believes that he also thinks, and thought is of the understanding.
[2] The internal of the celestial church, therefore, is to do the Lord’s commandments from the affection of the will, consequently from the love of good; while the internal of the spiritual church is to do the Lord’s commandments from the affection of the understanding, consequently from the love of truth. That doing the Lord’s commandments is loving Him, He Himself teaches in John (14:21, 23). The internal of the celestial church is what is meant by “works,” and the internal of the spiritual church is meant by “charity.” (But as these things cannot be explained in a few words, so as to be clearly perceived, see what is said respecting them in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, on The Will and Understanding, n. 28-36; on The Internal and the External Man, n. 36-53; on Love in General, n. 54-64; on Love towards the Neighbor, or Charity, n. 84-107; on Faith, n. 108-122; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, where Celestial Love and Spiritual Love are treated of, n. 13-19.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 155 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 155. And ministry and faith, signifies good and truth therein. This is evident from the signification of “ministry,” as being good (of which presently); and from the signification of “faith,” as being truth. Faith signifies truth, because truth is of faith, and faith is of truth. “Ministry” signifies good, because in the Word “ministry” is predicated of good. For this reason the function of Aaron, of his sons, and of the Levites, and the priestly function in general, was called a “ministry.” For the same reason, “ministering” to Jehovah, or to the Lord, means to worship Him from the good of love. From this it is clear that “ministry” has reference to works, and “faith” to charity, of which just above, where it is said, “I know thy works and charity,” for faith and charity make one, since where there is no charity there is no faith (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 108-122; and the small work on The Last Judgment, n. 33-40).
sRef Ps@104 @4 S2′ [2] That “ministry” and “ministering” in the Word are predicated of the good of love can be seen from the following passages. In David:
Jehovah maketh His angels spirits, His ministers a flaming fire (Ps. 104:4).
Jehovah’s “making His angels spirits” means that they are recipients of Divine truth (see above, n. 130). “Making His ministers a flaming fire” means that they are recipients of Divine good for “flaming fire” signifies the good of love (see above, n. 68). From this it is clear that by “ministers” those who are in the good of love are meant.
sRef Ps@103 @21 S3′ [3] In the same:
Bless Jehovah, all ye His hosts; ye ministers of His that do His will (Ps. 103:21).
Those are called “hosts of Jehovah” who are in truths (see n. 3448, 7236, 7988, 8019), and “ministers” those who are in goods; therefore it is said, “that do His will.” Doing the Lord’s will is acting from the good of love; for all good has reference to the will, as all truth has to the understanding.
sRef Isa@61 @6 S4′ sRef Jer@33 @21 S4′ [4] In Isaiah:
Ye shall be called the priests of Jehovah, the ministers of our God (Isa. 61:6).
Priests are called “ministers” because they represented the Lord in respect to the good of love; those, therefore, who are in the good of love are called “priests” in the Word (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2015, 6148, 9809, 10017); and for the same reason they are called “ministers of God.” On this account the function of Aaron and of his sons is called “a ministry;” also the function of the Levite priests; and entering into the tent of meeting and officiating in the ministry there, also approaching the altar and officiating in the ministry there, is called “ministering” (see Exod. 28:35; 30:20; Num. 8:15, 19, 24-26). And in Jeremiah:
Then shall My covenant become void with the Levites the priests, My ministers (Jer. 33:21).
(That Aaron represented the Lord in respect to the good of love, see Arcana Coelestia, 9806, 9946, 10017; likewise priests in general, n. 2015, 6148; consequently by “priesthood” in the Word the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love is signified, n. 9806, 9809.)
sRef Isa@56 @6 S5′ sRef Matt@20 @27 S5′ sRef Matt@20 @28 S5′ sRef Matt@20 @26 S5′ sRef Luke@12 @37 S5′ sRef John@12 @26 S5′ [5] There are two kingdoms into which the whole heaven is divided, in one of which are the angels who are in the good of celestial love, in the other the angels who are in the good of spiritual love, or in charity. The Lord’s celestial kingdom is called His “priesthood,” the spiritual kingdom His “royalty” (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 24, 226). “Ministry” is predicated of those in the celestial kingdom, and “service” of those in the spiritual kingdom. From this it is clear what is meant in the following passages by “ministering” and “minister,” and by “serving” and “servant”:
Jesus said to the disciples, Whosoever would be great let him be your minister; and whosoever would be first, let him be your servant; as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister (Matt. 20:26-28; 23:11-12; Mark 9:35; Luke 22:24-27).
Jesus said, If any man will minister to Me let him follow Me; then where I am, there shall also My minister be; yea, if any man will minister to Me, him will My Father honor (John 12:26).
Jesus said, Blessed are those servants whom the Lord when He cometh shall find watching; I say unto you, that He shall gird Himself, and make them to recline to eat, and He will come forth and minister to them (Luke 12:37).
In Isaiah:
The sons of the alien that conjoin themselves to Jehovah to minister to Him, and to love the name of Jehovah (Isa. 56:6).
Because “ministering” is predicated of the good of love, “the sons of the alien” are said “to minister to Jehovah,” and “to love Him;” and of the Lord Himself it is said that “He would minister.” From all this it can now be seen that by “ministry” is signified everything that is done from the good of love, thus the good of love.

AE (Whitehead) n. 156 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 156. And thine endurance, signifies conjunction with the external, and consequent combat. This is evident from the signification of “endurance,” as being in respect to those who are in the internal and the external of the church (who are here treated of), the conjunction of the internal with the external, and consequent combat. This is signified by “endurance,” because the conjunction of the internal with the external, or of the spiritual man with the natural, is effected by temptations; without these the two are not conjoined; therefore the combat by which that conjunction is effected, since man then suffers and endures, is signified by “endurance.” (That the internal man is conjoined with the external by temptations, which are spiritual combats, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 10685; and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 190, 194, 199.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 157 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 157. And thy works, and the last to be more than the first, signifies the externals that are therefrom. This is evident from the signification of “works,” as being externals in which are internals; for “works” are ultimate effects, in which internals are presented together, and are in a series therein; there they form their ultimate and fullness. The things that are of the thought and the will, and spiritually speaking, those that are of love and of faith, are called internal; these are in works, consequently “works” are ultimates. (That the interior things, which are of the mind, successively flow into external things, even into the extreme or ultimate, and that they have existence and subsistence therein, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 634, 6239, 6465, 9215-9216; that in the ultimate they also form what is simultaneous, in what series, see n. 5897, 6451, 8603, 10099; that the whole man is in his deeds or works, and that what is only willed and not done, when man is able to do, does not yet have existence, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 475-476.)
sRef Zech@6 @1 S2′ [2] To this I will add an arcanum not yet known. After death, man’s spirit appears in a human form according to the life of his affection while in the world; in a beautiful form if he lived a life of heavenly love; in an unbeautiful form if he lived a life of worldly love. It is from this that angels are forms of love and charity; yet their form is not so beautiful from the affection of thought and will alone as from the affection of these expressed in deeds or works; for deeds or works from the affection of the will and thought, or of love and faith, are what constitute the outward aspect of the spirit, thus the beauty of his face, body, and speech. The reason for this is, that as the interiors terminate in deeds or works as into their extremes, so do they terminate in the outward form of the body. For it is well known that everything of man’s will terminates in the extremes of his body. Any part of the body in which the will does not terminate is not a part of the body; as is evident from the actions of the body, even the least of them; for these all flow from the impulse of the will and are manifested in the extremes of the body (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 59, 60; and in the small work on The Last Judgment, n. 30, 31).
[3] The same is manifest from this, that man’s spirit is altogether as his will is; not as his will is that does not go forth into act when it can (that will is nothing but thought in which there is an appearance of wing), but as the actual will is, which has no other desire than to act; this will is the same with man’s love; in accordance with this is the whole spirit and its human form. (That the will or love is the spirit itself, see above, n. 105; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 479.) On this account it is so often said in the Word that man ought “to do the Lord’s commandments,” and that he will be recompensed according to his “doings,” that is, according to the love in deeds, but not according to the love without deeds, when doing is possible.
[4] It is said, “I know thy works, and the last to be more than the first;” by “the last being more than the first” is meant that the works are more full of love after the conjunction of the internal man with the external; for the more the internal is conjoined with the external the more there is of the internal in externals; consequently in the deeds or works; for externals or works are nothing but effects of the interiors which are of the will and of the thought therefrom; and effects derive their all from the internals from which they exist, as motion does from its conatus. In man the conatus is the will, and the motion therefrom is action.
[5] From what has been explained in this verse it can be seen in what order the conjunction of the internal with the external in the man of the church is described, namely, the internal by “I know thy works and charity;” the good of the internal and its truth by “ministry and faith;” the conjunction of the internal with the external by “endurance;” and the externals therefrom by “I know thy works, and the last to be more than the first.” That such things are involved in these words no one can see from the sense of the letter, but only from the spiritual sense which is within the literal sense.

AE (Whitehead) n. 158 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ 158. Verse 20. But I have against thee a few things, signifies that heed should be taken, as is evident from what follows, for it is there told of what things heed should be taken.

AE (Whitehead) n. 159 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ 159. That thou sufferest the woman Jezebel, signifies the delight of the love of self and of the world. This is evident from the signification of “the woman Jezebel,” as being the church wholly perverted; for “woman” in the Word signifies the Church (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 252, 253, 749, 770, 6014, 7337, 8994), here the church perverted. And as all perversion of the church springs from those two loves, namely, from the love of self and the love of the world, “Jezebel” signifies the delight of these loves. The church in which these loves reign is called “the woman Jezebel,” because Jezebel the wife of Ahab represented in the Word the delight of these loves, and the perversion of the church thereby. For all things that are written in the Word, even in the historical portion, are representative of such things as are of the church (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 249-266). Every perversion of the church springs from these two loves when they reign over the heavenly loves, because these two loves are altogether opposite to the two loves that constitute heaven and the church, which are love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor, and because from these two loves all evils and the falsities thence spring (see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 59, 61, 65-82 and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 252, 396, 399, 400, 486, 551-565, 566-575).
[2] That Jezebel the wife of Ahab represented what has been said will be seen presently; but something shall first be said about the delights of loves. Every man is such as his love is, and every delight of his life is from his love; for whatever favors his love he perceives as delightful, and whatever is adverse to his love he perceives as undelightful; consequently it is the same whether it be said that man is such as his love is, or such as his life’s delight is. Those, therefore, who are loves of self and of the world, that is, they, with whom these loves reign, have no other life’s delight or no other life than infernal life. For these loves, or the life’s delights from them that are permanent, turn all their thoughts and intentions to self and the world; and so far as they turn them to self and to the world, they so far immerse them in man’s proprium [what is his own], which he has by inheritance, thus at the same time in evils of every kind; and so far as man’s thoughts and intentions are turned to his inherited proprium, which in itself is nothing but evil, so far are they turned away from heaven. For man’s interiors, which are of his mind, that is, of his thought and intention, or of his understanding and will, are actually turned to his own loves, that is, downwards to self where the love of self and its delights reign, and outwards, that is, away from heaven towards the world, where the love of the world and its delights reign. It is otherwise when man loves God above all things, and his neighbor as himself; then the Lord turns the interiors which are of man’s mind, or of his thought and intention, to Himself, thus turning them away from man’s proprium [what is his own], and elevating them; and this without man’s knowing anything about it. From this it is that man’s spirit, which is the man himself, after its release from the body is actually turned to its own love, because that constitutes his life’s delight, that is, his life. (That all spirits are actually turned to their own loves, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 17, 123, 142-145, 151, 153, 272, 510, 548, 552, 561; and above, n. 41.)
[3] This may be illustrated somewhat by the fact that all the least parts of the body turn themselves to the common center of our earth, which is called the center of gravity; and from this it is that wheresoever men are, even those who are in directly opposite positions, and are called antipodes, all stand upon their feet. Yet this center of gravity is merely nature’s center of gravity; but there is another center of gravity in the spiritual world, and this, with man, is determined by the love in which he is, downwards if his love is infernal, but upwards if his love is heavenly; and whichever way man’s love is determined, in the same way his thoughts and intentions are determined; for these are in the spiritual world, and are impelled by the forces that are there.
[4] From this it can now be seen that the perversion of the church with men, which is signified by “the woman Jezebel,” is solely from the loves of self and of the world, since these turn man’s interiors, which are of his mind, downward, thus turning them away from heaven. It is said “the perversion of the church with men,” because the church is in man, as heaven is in the angel; every church is constituted of those that are of the church, and not of any others, even though they may be born where the church is; as can be clearly seen from this, that love and faith constitute the church, and love and faith must be in man, consequently the church must be in him. (That heaven is in the angel, and the church in man, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 33, 53, 54, 57, 454; and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 232, 233, 241, 245, 246.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 160 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ 160. That calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce My servants, signifies that the doctrine of all falsities is therefrom. This is evident from the signification of a “prophet,” as being one who teaches truths, and abstractly from persons, the doctrine of truth (of which, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2534, 7269); therefore in the contrary sense by a “prophet” those who teach falsities are meant, and abstractly from persons, the doctrine of falsities, and the like is here meant by “prophetess.” Because “prophetess” here signifies one who teaches falsities and the doctrine of all falsities, it is therefore added that “she teaches and seduces the servants of the Lord.” It is said “to teach and to seduce,” because “to teach” is predicated of truths and falsities, and to “seduce” of goods and evils; and those who are in truths are called in the Word “servants of the Lord,” and those who are in good are called “ministers” (see above, n. 155). It is said of Jezebel that she “calleth herself a prophetess,” not that Jezebel the wife of Ahab called herself a prophetess, but this is said because “Jezebel” signifies the delight of the love of self and the world; and this delight teaches and seduces those who are in truths. For everyone, when he thinks by himself, thinks from his own love, and thus imbues himself with falsities, which is “to teach and to seduce.” Of Jezebel we read in the Word:
That Ahab the king of Israel took to wife Jezebel the daughter of the king of the Zidonians, and that he went away and served Baal, and reared up to him an altar in Samaria, and made a grove (1 Kings 16:31-33);
And that Jezebel slew the prophets of Jehovah (1 Kings 18:4, 13);
And that she wished to slay Elijah also (1 Kings 19:1-2 seq.);
And that through craft, by substituting false witnesses, she took away the vineyard from Naboth, and slew him (1 Kings 21:6-7 seq.);
It was therefore predicted by Elijah that dogs should eat her (1 Kings 21:23; 2 Kings 9:10);
And afterwards, by the command of Jehu, she was thrown out of the window, and some of her blood was sprinkled upon the wall and upon the horses that trod her under foot (2 Kings 9:32-34).
[2] By all these things the perversion of the church by the delight of the love of self and the world, and by the evils and falsities flowing forth therefrom, was represented. For all the historical parts of the Word, as well as the prophetical, are representative of such things as are of the church. “Baal” whom Ahab served, and to whom he raised up an altar, signifies the worship from the evils of the love of self and the world; the “grove” which he made signifies worship from the falsities therefrom. That “Jezebel slew the prophets of Jehovah” signifies the destruction of the church in respect to its truths; that “she wished to slay Elijah also” signifies a desire to annihilate the Word, for Elijah represented the Word. “The vineyard which by means of false witnesses she took away from Naboth” signifies the falsification of truth and the adulteration of good; the prophecy of Elijah that “dogs should eat her” signifies uncleanness and profanation. That “she was thrown out of a window, and some of her blood was sprinkled upon the wall and upon the horses that trod her under foot,” signifies the lot of those who are of that character; what the lot of such will be can be seen from the internal sense of the particulars there. From this it can be seen that by “the woman Jezebel, who calleth herself a prophetess,” no other Jezebel is meant than Jezebel the wife of Ahab, spoken of in the Word; and that by her those are described who are in the doctrine of all falsities from the delights of the loves of self and of the world.

AE (Whitehead) n. 161 sRef Rev@2 @21 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ sRef 2Ki@9 @22 S0′ 161. To commit whoredom, and to eat idol sacrifices, signifies falsifications of truth and adulterations of good. This is evident from the signification of “committing whoredom,” as being to falsify truths (of which see above, n. 141), and from the signification of “eating idol sacrifices,” as being to appropriate evil (of which see also above, n. 141); to adulterate good is also signified, because appropriations of evil are, in things of the church, adulterations of good; for it is an application of its goods to evils, thus adulterating them. For example, the goods of the Israelitish church were signified by the altar, the sacrifices, and eating together of the things sacrificed; when these things were given over to Baal, goods were applied to evils (besides other like instances). It is the like in a church in which there are no representatives, when the Word is applied to confirm the evils of self, as is done by the papal body to gain dominion over the universal heaven. That “to commit whoredom and to eat idol sacrifices” signifies to falsify truths and adulterate goods, is also clear from this, that the deeds of Jezebel are in one expression called “whoredoms” and “witchcrafts,” in the second book of Kings:
When Jehoram saw Jehu, he said, Is it peace, Jehu? and he said, What peace, so long as the whoredoms of thy mother Jezebel and her witchcrafts are many? (2 Kings 9:22).

AE (Whitehead) n. 162 sRef Rev@2 @21 S0′ 162. Verse 21. And I gave her time that she might repent of her whoredom, and she repented not, signifies that those who are in falsities therefrom do not turn themselves to truths nor by means of truths. This is evident from the signification of “repenting of whoredom,” as being to turn oneself from falsities to truths; for “whoredom” is the falsification of truth, and “to repent” is to turn oneself away from falsities; for repentance is an actual turning from falsities to truths, and dissociation and separation from falsities (see above, n. 143); also from the signification of “she repented not,” as being that they do not turn themselves from falsities to truths. These things are said of Jezebel, but those are meant who from the delight of the loves of self and the world have falsified truths and adulterated goods; for in the prophecies of the Word one person is named, and by that person are meant all of that character.
[2] Something shall be here said briefly about this statement that those who have falsified truths with themselves by applying them to the delights of self-love do not afterwards turn themselves to truths. Man sees from the Word the truths of the church from the spiritual or internal man and from its intellectual, but he does not receive them therein except to the extent that he loves them so as to wish to do them. When man so wills, his internal or spiritual man calls forth and elevates to itself, out of the natural man and its memory, the truths that are there, and conjoins them to the love that is of his will; thus the internal spiritual man, where man’s interior and higher mind resides, is opened and is successively filled and perfected. But if man permits the natural delight, which is the delight of the love of self and the world, to have dominion, then he views all things from that delight; and if he then sees truths he applies them to his own love and falsifies them. When this is done the internal spiritual man is closed; for as this is suited only to the reception of such things as are in heaven, it cannot bear that truths should be falsified; consequently when truths are falsified it contracts itself and closes almost, as a fibril does when touched by a prickle. When the internal is once closed, the love of self reigns, or the love of the world, or both together; and they form the external or natural man altogether in opposition to the internal or spiritual man. For this reason those who have falsified truths by applying them to the delights of the love of self and the world are unable afterwards to turn themselves to truths. This is what is here meant by these words, “I gave to the woman Jezebel time that she might repent of her whoredom, and she repented not.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 163 sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ 163. Verse 22. Behold, I cast her into a bed, signifies that they are left to their natural man, and to the doctrine of falsities therein. This is evident from the signification of a “bed,” as being the natural man, also the doctrine of falsities (of which presently). What now follows treats of those who suffer themselves to be seduced by those who are in the doctrine of falsities from the delight of the love of self and the world, who are meant by “Jezebel” (as was said above). Those who suffer themselves to be seduced are not like those who have falsified truths and adulterated goods from the delight of those loves; for such have seen truths and have applied them to favor their delights, and have thus perverted them, and afterwards these are unable to turn themselves to truths and acknowledge them. These are treated of in the preceding article (n. 162). But those who have not done this, but have suffered themselves to be led away by those who have, have not so closed the internal or spiritual man with themselves; for they have not themselves falsified truths, but have put faith in those who have, because these falsities sound like truths. For these think no more deeply than that their leaders must be believed because they are intelligent and wise; thus they hang upon the lips of a master. There are many such at this day in Christendom, especially among those born in countries where the papal religion prevails. These are meant by those that commit adultery with Jezebel in a bed.
[2] “Bed” signifies the doctrine of falsities, and at the same time the natural man, because the doctrine of falsities has no other source than the natural man separated from the spiritual; and the natural man separated from the spiritual sees worldly things in light, but heavenly things in thick darkness; it sees falsity, therefore, in the place of truth, and evil in the place of good; moreover, if it sees truth it falsifies it, and if it sees good it adulterates it; for heaven flows into the natural or external man through the spiritual or internal man, and not immediately into the natural or external; into it the world flows immediately. And when the natural world with man is not governed by the spiritual world, the bond with heaven is broken; and when this is broken man makes the world his all, and heaven of little or no account; so also self as all, and God of little or no account. When the external or natural man is in such a state it is in falsities from the evils that spring forth out of the love of self and the world. As “bed,” therefore, signifies the natural man, it also signifies the doctrine of falsities.
sRef Amos@3 @12 S3′ [3] “Bed” signifies the natural man, because the natural man underlies the spiritual, thus the spiritual lies on it and on the things that are in it as on its own bed. That “bed” signifies the natural man, also the doctrinals that are in it, can be seen from the passages in the word where “bed” is mentioned, as in the following. In Amos:
As the shepherd hath rescued out of the mouth of the lion two legs and a bit of an ear, so shall the sons of Israel be rescued that dwell in Samaria on the corner of a bed, and on the end of a couch (Amos 3:12).
“Lion” signifies the church, here those therein that destroy goods and truths; “legs and a bit of an ear” are the goods that are in the natural man, and something of perception of truth therefrom; “the sons of Israel that dwell in Samaria” are those of the church; “on the corner of the bed, and on the end of a couch,” are those in a little natural light from the spiritual, and in some truths therefrom.
sRef Amos@6 @5 S4′ sRef Amos@6 @4 S4′ sRef Amos@6 @1 S4′ sRef Amos@6 @6 S4′ [4] In the same:
Woe to them that are at ease in Zion, and trust in the mountains of Samaria; to them that lie upon the beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon their couches, and eat the lambs out of the flock, and the calves out of the midst of the stall; that devise for themselves instruments of song; that drink out of bowls of wine, and anoint themselves with the firstlings of the oils: but they are not grieved over the breach of Joseph (Amos 6:4-6).
Those that the “trust in the mountains of Samaria” are those that trust in themselves, and from self-intelligence hatch out doctrines. “Samaria” is the perverted spiritual church; “beds of ivory” are fallacies of the senses on which doctrine is founded; “to stretch themselves upon couches” is to confirm and multiply the falsities therefrom; “to eat the lambs out of the flock, and the calves out of the midst of the stall, to drink out of bowls of wine and to anoint themselves with the firstlings of the oils,” is to draw the truths and goods of the Word out of the sense of its letter and to apply and falsify them. “Not to be grieved over the breach of Joseph” is not to care that the spiritual church is perishing, and that its truths are being infringed upon. (That “Joseph” in the highest sense signifies the Lord in respect to the Divine spiritual; in the internal sense the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, thus also the spiritual church; and in the external sense the fructification of good and multiplication of truth, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3969, 3971, 4669, 6417, 6526.)
sRef Gen@49 @26 S5′ [5] In Moses:
May the blessings of thy father prevail above the blessings of my parents, may they be on the head of Joseph, and on the head of the bed* of his brethren (Gen. 49:26).
“Joseph,” as was said, is the Lord’s spiritual church; “the head of the bed of his brethren” is the spiritual that flows into all the truths and goods of that church (for the twelve sons or tribes of Israel signify all the truths and goods of the church in the complex, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3858, 3926, 4060, 6335).
sRef Luke@17 @35 S6′ sRef Luke@17 @34 S6′ sRef Luke@17 @36 S6′ [6] In Luke:
I say unto you, In that night there shall be two [men] in one bed; one shall be taken, the other shall be left. There shall be two [women] grinding together; one shall be taken, the other shall be left. There shall be two [men] in the field; one shall be taken, the other shall be left (Luke 17:34-36).
This treats of the consummation of the age, which is the last time of the church when judgment takes place. To be “in one bed” is to be in the same doctrine of the church; “two [women] grinding” are those that collect and learn such things as are serviceable to faith; “two [men] in the field” are those in the church that apply goods and truths to themselves. (That “those who grind” are those who collect and learn such things as are serviceable to faith, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4335, 7780, 9995; that “field” means reception of truth and good, see n. 368, 3310, 9141, 9295.)
sRef John@5 @10 S7′ sRef John@5 @14 S7′ sRef John@5 @9 S7′ sRef John@5 @12 S7′ sRef John@5 @11 S7′ sRef Mark@2 @4 S7′ sRef Mark@2 @9 S7′ sRef Mark@2 @11 S7′ sRef Mark@2 @12 S7′ sRef John@5 @8 S7′ [7] In John:
Jesus said to the sick man at the pool of Bethsaida,** Arise, take up thy bed, and walk. And straightway the man was made whole, and took up his bed, and walked. Afterward Jesus findeth him, and said unto him, Behold, thou art made whole; sin no more, lest a worse thing befall thee (John 5:8-12, 14).
And in Mark:
They uncovered the roof where Jesus was, and they let down*** the bed whereon the sick of the palsy lay. Jesus said, Whether is easier to say, Thy sins are forgiven thee, or to say, Arise, and take up thy bed and walk? Then he said, Arise, take up thy bed, and walk and go unto thine house. And immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went forth before them all (Mark 2:4, 9, 11-12).
The Lord saying to these sick, “Arise, take up thy bed, and walk,” signifies doctrine, and a life according thereto; “bed” signifies doctrine, and “to walk” life (that ” walking” is living, see above, n. 97). “The sick man” signifies those that have transgressed and sinned; consequently the Lord said to the sick man at the pool of Bethsaida, “Behold, thou art made whole; sin no more, lest a worse thing befall thee;” and to the paralytic let down on a bed through the roof, “Whether it is easier to say, Thy sins are forgiven thee, or to say, Arise, take up thy bed, and walk?” Those who know nothing of the internal sense of the Word may believe that the words that the Lord spoke involve nothing more than what is obvious in the sense of the letter, when yet every particular of what the Lord spoke has a spiritual meaning, for He spoke from the Divine, and thus in the presence both of heaven and of the world (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2533, 4637, 4807, 9048, 9063, 9086, 10126, 10276).
sRef Deut@3 @11 S8′ [8] The bed of Og, the king of Bashan, is thus described in Moses:
Og, king of Bashan, remained of the remnants of the Rephaim; behold, his bed was a bed of iron; is it not in Rabbah of the sons of Ammon? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man (Deut. 3:11).
The bed of Og is here described, because he was of the remnants of the Rephaim, and because he was king of Bashan; for by the “Rephaim,” those were signified who were in the love of self above others, and therefore natural above all others, and from a persuasion of their eminence over others were in falsities of every kind (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 581, 1268, 1270, 1271, 1673, 7686). And by “Bashan” the external of the church, thus the natural, was signified, for Bashan was outside the land of Canaan where the church was. On this account the bed of Og is described, which would not have been described unless such things had been signified by “Og;” for whatsoever is mentioned in the Word, even in the historical Word, is significative as to every expression. From this it is that the Word is spiritual in each and every particular, and therefore Divine from inmosts to ultimates. On this account, also, it is said that the bed was “of iron,” that it was “in Rabbah of the sons of Ammon,” and that “nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.” For “iron” signifies what is natural (see below, n. 176); “Rabbah of Ammon” signifies the falsifications of truth (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2468); and “nine cubits the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it,” signifies the conjunction of evil and falsity.
sRef Lev@15 @4 S9′ sRef Gen@49 @33 S9′ sRef Lev@15 @5 S9′ [9] From this it can be seen what the Word is in its bosom. Because “bed” signifies doctrine, it was among the statutes in the church with the sons of Israel:
That every bed whereon he that hath the issue lieth should be unclean; and that the man who touched his bed should wash his clothes, and bathe himself in waters (Lev. 15:4-5).
“Having the issue” signifies those who are in natural love, separate from spiritual love; “washing the clothes, and bathing himself in waters,” signifies purification by the truths of faith (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 202-209). Because “Jacob” in the Word signifies the external church, which is with those who are in natural light, and who live a moral life from the obedience of faith, though not from internal affection, when “Jacob” is spoken of there is in the spiritual world above on the right side, the appearance of a man lying in a bed; therefore in the Word it is said of him when he was dying:
When Jacob had made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet upon his bed and expired (Gen. 49:33).
It is said “he gathered up his feet upon the bed,” because “feet” also signify the natural (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952).
* The word lectus here is a participle, meaning one chosen. Swedenborg read it in his Latin Bible for the noun lectus, a bed. In other places he translates the word “chosen.”
** The common reading is “Bethesda,” though a number of the Greek manuscripts, with Swedenborg, have “Bethsaida.”
*** The Latin has dimiserunt, “let go,” for which the Latin editor reads demiserunt, “let down.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 164 sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ 164. And those that commit adultery with her into great affliction, signifies grievous temptations for those who addict themselves to the falsities of such. This is evident from the signification of “committing adultery,” as being to falsify truths (see above, n. 141) therefore “to commit adultery with Jezebel” is to surrender oneself to the falsities of those signified by “Jezebel;” and from the signification of “affliction,” as being the infestation of truth by falsities (see above, n. 47), here temptation, since temptation with man is nothing else but infestation of truth by falsities (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 188, 196, 197); therefore “casting those who commit adultery with her into great affliction” signifies the grievous temptations of those who addict themselves to the falsities of such.
Here those are treated of with whom the spiritual or internal man is not so closed, because they are in some spiritual affection of truth, and yet they suffer themselves to be seduced by those who are in the doctrine of falsities (see above, n. 162). As these receive falsities into the memory of their natural man, with which falsities the internal spiritual man cannot agree, for this receives nothing but truths, a combat arises between the spiritual and the natural man. This combat is temptation, and this is signified by “great affliction.” (That temptation is the combat between the spiritual and natural man, see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 190, 194, 197, 199.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 165 sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ 165. Except they repent of their works, signifies except they separate themselves from them. This is evident from the signification of “repenting,” as being to separate oneself from falsities (of which see above, n. 143); also from the signification of “works,” which are here whoredoms with Jezebel, by which are signified the reception of falsities (of which see just above, n. 163). To separate oneself from these is to repent, and to repent is to refrain from evils and falsities, and afterwards to shun them and to have them in aversion (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 161, 165, 169 seq.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 166 sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ 166. Verse 23. And her sons I will kill with death, signifies that thus falsities are extinguished. This is evident from the signification of “sons,” as being truths of the church from the Word, and, in the contrary sense, falsities (of which presently); also from the signification of “king with death,” as being to extinguish; for falsities are separated, and as it were extinguished by temptations, and by man’s refraining from them, and shunning them, and holding them in aversion. “Sons” in the Word signify truths, and in the contrary sense falsities, because the spiritual sense of the Word treats only of such things as relate to the church and heaven; and all things of the church and of heaven have reference to the goods which are of love, and to the truths which are of faith. From this it is that the names of kinships and relationships, as husband, wife, son, daughter, brother, sister, daughter-in-law, son-in-law, and others, signify spiritual things that have reference to spiritual birth, which is regeneration, and to the heavenly marriage, which is the marriage of good and truth. The things that are born of this marriage are likewise goods and truths. From this it is that “daughters” in the Word signify goods, and “sons” truths, both derived from the good that is signified by “father,” and from the truth that is signified by “mother.” (That all the truths and goods that are with the regenerate man are conjoined according to spiritual relationships, and follow in order, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2508, 3815, 4121. That all who are in heaven are also associated according to spiritual relationships, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 205. That “sons” signify truths and the affections of truth, is shown in Arcana Coelestia, n. 489, 491, 533, 2623, 3373, 4257, 8649, 9807; that “sons of sons” signify truths in successive order, n. 6583, 6584; that by “father,” “mother,” “brethren,” “children,” goods and truths, or evils and falsities with man are signified, n. 10490; that “to smite the mother upon the sons,” is to destroy all things of the church, n. 4257; that the Lord called Himself “the Son of man,” because He was Divine truth, and because every truth of heaven and of the church proceeds from Him, see above, n. 63.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 167 sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ 167. And all [the churches] shall know that I am He that searcheth the reins and hearts signifies the acknowledgment of all who are of the church, that the Lord alone knows and explores the exteriors and interiors, and the things that are of faith and love. This is evident from the signification of “searching,” as being, in reference to the Lord, that He alone knows and explores; also from the signification of “reins” as being the truths of faith and their purification from falsities (of which in what follows); also from the signification of “hearts,” as being the goods of love. “Heart” signifies the good of love, because there are two things that rule in man, and from these is the whole life of his body, namely the heart and the lungs. And as all things in man’s body correspond to the things that are in his mind, there are two things also that rule there, namely the will and the understanding. These two kingdoms of the mind correspond to the two kingdoms of the body, namely the will to the heart and its pulse, and the understanding to the lungs and their respiration. Without this correspondence the body could not live, not even a particle of it. As the heart corresponds to the will, so it corresponds to the good of love; and as the lungs correspond to the understanding, so they also correspond to the truths of faith. It is from this correspondence that “heart” signifies love, and “soul” signifies faith. It is from this that the expression “from the heart and soul” is so often used in the Word, by which is meant from love and faith. (As this correspondence is much treated of in the Arcana Coelestia, these things may be seen more fully explained there, namely, that “heart” in the Word signifies love; and because it signifies love, it also signifies the will, n. 2930, 3313, 7542, 8910, 9050, 9113, 10336. That the heart corresponds to the things that are of love with man, and the lungs to the things that are of faith with him, n. 3883-3896. That in heaven there is a pulse such as that of the heart, and a respiration such as that of the lungs, n. 3884, 3885, 3887. That the pulse of the heart there is in accordance with the state of love, and the respiration of the lungs in accord with the state of faith, n. 3886-3889. That the influx of the heart into the lungs is like the influx of good into truth, and like the influx of the will into the understanding; it is also according to the influx of love into faith, and there are like communications and conjunctions, n. 3884, 3887-3889, 9300, 9495. Of the influx of heaven into the heart and into the lungs, from experience, n. 3884. That from this the correspondence in the Word, “from the heart and soul” signifies from love and faith, n. 2930, 9050. That the conjunction of man’s spirit with his body is by means of the respiration of the lungs and the pulse of the heart, and that therefore when these cease man dies as to the body, but lives as to the spirit, see in the work on Heaven and Hell [n. 521]; and that when the pulse of the heart ceases the spirit is separated, because the heart corresponds to love, which is the vital heat, n. 447, in the same work. Many other things respecting this correspondence, see n. 95.) “Reins” signify the truths of faith, and their purification from falsities, because the purification of the blood is performed in the reins and “blood” in the Word signifies truth (as may be seen in Arcana Coelestia, n. 4735, 9127). The like is signified by the organ that purifies; and all purification from falsities is effected by truths. From this it is clear what is signified in the Word by the expression, that Jehovah, or the Lord, “searcheth the hearts and reins,” namely, that He explores the truths of faith and the goods of love, and separates them from evils and falsities.
sRef Jer@12 @2 S2′ sRef Jer@11 @20 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @3 S2′ [2] This is signified by “reins” in the following places. In Jeremiah:
Jehovah Zebaoth, Judge of righteousness, trying the reins and the heart (Jer. 11:20).
In the same:
Thou hast proved* them, yea, they have taken root; they grow, yea, they bring forth fruit: Thou art near in their mouth, and far from their reins. But thou, O Jehovah, Thou shalt see me, and shalt prove my heart (Jer. 12:2, 3).
“Near in the mouth and far from the reins” is truth in the memory only, and in some thought therefrom when man speaks, but not in the will and from that in act. Truth in the will and from that in the act is what separates and dissipates falsities. Truth in the will and from that in the act is willing and doing what a man knows and thinks to be true; such truth is what is especially meant by “reins.”
sRef Jer@17 @10 S3′ [3] In the same:
I, Jehovah, search the heart, I prove the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, and according to the fruits of his works (Jer. 17:10).
“Searching the heart” is purifying good by separating evil from it; “proving the reins” is purifying truth by separating falsity from it; it is therefore said “to give to every man according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his works;” “ways” are the truths that are of faith, and “the fruit of works” are the goods that are of love. (That “ways” are truths that are of faith, see above, n. 97; and that “the fruit of works” are the goods that are of love, n. 98, 109, 116.)
sRef Ps@73 @22 S4′ sRef Ps@26 @2 S4′ sRef Ps@51 @8 S4′ sRef Ps@73 @21 S4′ sRef Ps@51 @6 S4′ sRef Ps@7 @9 S4′ sRef Jer@20 @12 S4′ [4] In the same:
Jehovah Zebaoth, that provest the righteous, that seest the reins, and the heart (Jer. 20:12).
And in David:
Establish Thou the righteous; for Thou that provest the hearts and the reins art a righteous God (Ps. 7:9);
“the righteous” are those who love to do what is true and good, their goods and truths are purified by the Lord, which is meant by “seeing” and by “proving the reins and the hearts.”
In David:
Prove me, O Jehovah, and try me, explore my reins and my heart (Ps. 26:2).
Because truths are separated from falsities and goods from evils by means of temptations, it is said, “Try me.” In the same:
My heart is in a ferment, and I am pricked in my reins, but I am foolish and know not (Ps. 73:21, 22).
The infestation of good by evil and of truth by falsity is described by these words. In the same:
Behold, thou desirest truth in the reins and in the hidden part thou makest wisdom known to me (Ps. 51:6).
Here there is another word in the original for “reins,” that includes the separation both of falsities from truths and of evils from goods. This shows that the “reins” signify purification and separation.
sRef Ps@139 @15 S5′ sRef Ps@139 @13 S5′ sRef Ps@139 @12 S5′ sRef Ps@16 @7 S5′ [5] In the same:
I will bless Jehovah, who hath given me counsel; also my reins chastise me in the night (Ps. 16:7).
“Night” signifies the state of man when falsities rise up; the consequent combat of truths with falsities is signified by “my reins chastise me.” In the same:
Even the darkness doth not make darkness before Thee, but the night is lucid as the day; as the darkness so is the light. For thou possessest my reins, my bone was not hidden from Thee when I was made in secret (Ps. 139:12, 13, 15).
“Darkness” means falsities, and “light” truths; to “possess the reins” is to know falsities and truths with man; therefore it is said, “my bone was not hidden from Thee when I was made in secret,” which signifies that no falsity that was made was hidden. (That “darkness” means falsity and “light” truth, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 126-140; and that “bone” means truth in the ultimate of order and in the contrary sense, falsity, Arcana Coelestia, n. 3812, 5560, 5565, 6592, 8005.)
[6] As “the reins” signified truths purified from falsities, so:
In the sacrifices, the fats and reins alone were offered up (as may be seen in Exod. 29:13; Lev. 3:4, 10, 15; 4:9; and elsewhere).
Fats and reins alone were offered upon the altar because “fats” signified the goods of love, and “reins” the truths of faith. (That “fats” or “fatnesses” signify the goods of love, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 353, 5943, 6409, 10033. That the “reins” signify the truths of faith, examining, purifying, and rejecting from themselves falsities, is from correspondence; for each and every thing of the body corresponds, as can be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell, where this is shown in its chapter entitled, There is a Correspondence of all things of Heaven with all things of Man, n. 87-102; and on the Reins, n. 96, 97.) Unless it be known that there is such a correspondence, who could ever know why it is so often said of Jehovah or the Lord in the Word, that “He searcheth and proveth the reins and the heart?” (On the correspondence of the reins, of the ureters, and of the bladder, see further in Arcana Coelestia, n. 5380-5386.) To “search the reins and the heart” signifies also to explore the exteriors and the interiors of man, because truth is without and good is within; and spiritual good, which in its essence is truth, and in particular is signified by the “reins,” is exterior good; while celestial good which in particular is signified by the “heart,” is interior good. (This can be seen more fully from what is shown respecting The Spiritual Kingdom and the Celestial Kingdom, in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 20-26.)
* The Hebrew instead of “proved” has “planted,” as also found in Arcana Coelestia, n. 348, 8918.

AE (Whitehead) n. 168 sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ 168. And I will give to each one of you according to your works, signifies eternal blessedness according to one’s internal in the external. This is evident from the signification of “works,” as being the things that are of love and of faith therefrom (of which see above, n. 98, 116); and as being the same in deeds or works (see n. 157); also from the signification of “giving to each one according to his works,” as being eternal blessedness; for everything blessed and delightful is of love and according to the love (of which also see above, n. 146). Here “giving to each one according to his works” signifies eternal blessedness according to the internal in the external, because those are here treated of, who at the same time are in the internal and the external, and of the conjunction of the two (see above, n. 150). It is said, eternal blessedness according to the internal in the external, because all heavenly blessedness with man, spirit, and angel flows in through the internal into their external; for their internal is formed for the reception of all things of heaven, and their external for the reception of all things of the world; therefore there is heavenly blessedness with those only with whom the internal has been opened and formed after the image of heaven; and not with those in whom the internal has been shut; the blessedness of these is the delight of honor, glory, and gain, which delight a man may have so long as he lives in the world. (But after death, when man becomes a spirit, this is changed into the corresponding delight which is filthy and direful, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 485-490; and that the blessedness of heaven, which is called heavenly joy, those only have who are in the internal and from that in the external, see the same, n. 395-414; and what the internal and the external are, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 36-53.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 169 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 169. Verse 24. But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, signifies to all and each one within whom the internal is conjoined to the external. This is evident from what was said and shown above (n. 150), namely that in what is written to the angel of the church in Thyatira those are described who are in the internal and from that in the external, thus those with whom the internal is conjoined to the external.

AE (Whitehead) n. 170 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 170. As many as have not this doctrine, signifies with whom external delight, which is the delight of the love of self and the world, is not dominant. This is evident from the signification of that “doctrine” which “Jezebel, who calleth herself a prophetess,” taught, and by which she seduced, as being the delight of love of self and the world (of which see above, n. 159-161). Here “doctrine” signifies life; so by “not having it,” is signified not to live according to it; for what is meant is having doctrine in themselves; and to have doctrine in themselves is to have it in the life. From this it is clear that by the “doctrine of Jezebel” is meant the life of the love of self and the world.

AE (Whitehead) n. 171 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 171. And who have not known the depths of Satan, as they say, signifies entanglement with these, as is evident from this, that the loves that rule in the hells are the loves of self and of the world, and those loves are altogether contrary to the love to the Lord and the love to the neighbor, which rule in heaven. “Satan,” by whom is meant hell (see above, n. 120), unceasingly inspires the loves of self and of the world; and these man also receives with delight, because they are in him hereditarily, and are therefore his proprium [his own]; thus hell insinuates itself with man and entangles him. This is what is signified by “the depths of Satan.” There are few, however, who are aware of this, because these loves, as they are man’s proprium [man’s own] by inheritance, draw his mind to themselves by allurements from delight, and thus draw him away from the delights of heavenly loves, even until he does not know what the delights of heaven are. These delights of the love of self and the love of the world are what close up the internal man and open the external; and to the extent that the external is opened the internal is closed, so that the man is finally in total thick darkness in respect to the things of heaven and the church, though in light [lumen] in respect to the things of self and the world. (These things may be seen more fully described in the work on Heaven and Hell, in the chapter where it is shown that The Divine of the Lord in Heaven is Love to Him, and Charity towards the neighbor, n. 13-19; and in the chapter where it is shown that All who are in the Hells are in Evils and in Falsities therefrom, out of the loves of Self and of the World, and that these loves are the Infernal Fires, n. 551-565, 566-575; also in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 65-83, where these two loves are treated of.

AE (Whitehead) n. 172 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 172. I put upon you no other burden, signifies that this alone should be guarded against. This is evident from the signification of “laying a burden” upon those in whom the internal can be conjoined with the external, as being that they should carefully guard against this, since the delights of these two loves are the sole cause of the closing of man’s internal, which looks to heaven. When that is closed there is no conjunction of the internal with the external, which looks to the world, nor any influx from heaven. It is said “burden,” because man’s proprium [what is man’s own], which is to love self above God and the world above heaven, offers resistance.

AE (Whitehead) n. 173 sRef Rev@2 @25 S0′ 173. Verse 25. Nevertheless that which ye have, hold fast till I come, signifies steadfastness in a state of the good of love and faith, even until visitation. This is evident from the signification of “that which ye have hold fast,” as being to be steadfast in a state of love and faith, thus in a state of conjunction of the internal with the external, in which they are capable of being so far as they resist the delights of the loves of self and of the world. For so far as man removes these delights from him is the internal conjoined with the external, thus more in one man and less in another. This is evident also from the signification of “till I come,” as meaning visitation (of which see above, n. 144).

AE (Whitehead) n. 174 sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 174. Verse 26. And he that overcometh and keepeth My works unto the end, signifies perseverance in love and faith after combat against these loves and their removal as far as possible. This is evident from the signification of “overcoming” as being to fight against the delights of the loves of self and of the world, and to remove them. That this is the spiritual sense of these words follows from the connection. It is evident also from the signification of “keeping unto the end,” as being perseverance even unto death; for he who perseveres even unto death in love and faith is saved; for such as he then is in respect to his life, he thenceforth remains to eternity (see above, n. 125). It is evident also from the signification of “works” as being the things of love and faith in cause and in effect, that is in internals and in externals. These things are here signified by “works,” because these are the things treated of in what is written to the angel of this church (see above, n. 150). It is said, “keepeth My works,” because everything of love and faith, and every opening of the internal and its conjunction with the external is from the Lord alone; therefore the “works,” by which these are signified, are not man’s, but the Lord’s with man; and consequently it is said, “My works.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 175 sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 175. I will give him power over the nations, signifies over the evils within him, which will then be scattered by the Lord. This is evident from the signification of “nations,” as being evils (of which presently); and from the signification of “giving power over them,” as being that these (the evils) will then be dispersed by the Lord. “To have power,” in reference to “over the nations,” means to scatter in reference to evils; thus there is an adaptation of words to their subjects. It is said that evils will be scattered by the Lord, for the Lord scatters evils by means of truths. He first discovers them to man by means of truths, and when man acknowledges the evils, the Lord scatters them. (That the Lord alone does this, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 200.) “Nations and peoples” are often mentioned in the Word, and those who know nothing of the spiritual or internal sense of the Word, believe that peoples and nations are to be understood. But “peoples” mean those who are in truths, or in the contrary sense those who are in falsities, and “nations” those who are in goods, or in the contrary sense, those who are in evils. And as such are meant by “peoples” and by “nations,” so abstractly from persons “peoples” mean truths or falsities, and “nations” goods and evils; for the true spiritual sense is abstracted from persons, spaces, times, and like things, that are proper to nature.
[2] With these the natural sense of the Word, which is the sense of its letter, is at one; and the sense that is at one with these serves as a basis to the sense that is apart from them. For all things that are in nature are ultimates of Divine order, and the Divine does not rest in the middle, but flows down even to its ultimates, and there subsists. From this it is that the Word in the letter is such as it is, and unless it were such it would not serve as a basis for the wisdom of angels who are spiritual. It can be seen from this how mistaken those are who despise the Word on account of its style. “Nations” signify those who are in good, and in the abstract, goods, because men who lived in ancient times were divided into nations, families, and houses; and they then loved each other mutually; and the father of a nation loved the whole nation which was from him; thus the good of love reigned among them. For this reason “nations” signified goods. But when men came into the opposite state, which took place in the following ages when empires were established, then “nations” signified evils. (See further on this subject in The small work on The Earths in the Universe, n. 49, 90, 173, 174.)
sRef Isa@60 @3 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @12 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @22 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @16 S3′ [3] That “nations” in the Word signify either goods or evils, and “people” either truths or falsities, can be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:
Nations shall walk to Thy light, and kings to the brightness of Thy rising. Then shalt Thou see and flow together, and Thine heart shall be enlarged, because the multitude of the sea is converted unto Thee, the army of the nations come unto Thee; Thy gates shall be opened continually, they shall not be shut by day and by night, that men may bring unto Thee the army of the nations, and their kings shall be brought; for the nation or kingdom that will not serve Thee shall perish; and the nations by wasting shall be wasted. Thou shalt suck the milk of nations, even the breasts of kings shalt Thou suck. The little one shall become a thousand, and the few a numerous nation (Isa. 60:3, 5, 11-12, 16, 22).
Here the Lord is treated of; and by “nations” all who are in the good of love to Him are meant, and by “kings” all who are in the truths of faith in Him. From this it is manifest who are meant by the “nations” that “shall walk to Thy light;” and by “the army of the nations that shall be brought;” also, who are meant by “the kings” that “shall walk to the brightness of Thy rising;” and by “the kings of the nations” that “shall be brought;” also, what is meant by “Thou shalt suck the milk of nations and the breasts of kings” (“milk” is the delight of the good of love, likewise “breasts,” for milk is from them). The multiplication of truth and the fructification of good are described by the “little one shall become a thousand, and the few a numerous nation.” But by “the nations that shall be wasted” are meant all that are in evils, and also the evils themselves.
sRef Isa@49 @22 S4′ sRef Isa@49 @23 S4′ [4] In the same:
Behold I will lift up My hand towards the nations, and set up Mine ensign towards the peoples, that they may bring thy sons in the bosom, and carry thy daughters upon the shoulder; and kings shall be thy nourishers and the chief women thy sucklers; with the face to the earth shall they bow down to thee (Isa. 49:22, 23).
here also the Lord is treated of, and those who shall worship and adore Him. To “lift up His hand towards the nations, and His ensign towards the peoples,”* is to join to Himself all who are in the goods of love and in truths therefrom; of these it is said that “they shall bring thy sons in the bosom, and carry thy daughters upon the shoulder;” “sons” are the affections of truth, and “daughters” the affections of good (see above, n. 166). And of these it is said that their “kings shall be thy nourishers, and the chief women thy sucklers.” “Kings” are truths themselves, “chief women” are the goods thereof; and as man is regenerated by both of these, and also nourished, it is said that they shall be “nourishers” and “sucklers.” (That man is regenerated by means of truths and a life according to them, see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 23, 24, 27, 186.) This is the internal sense of these words; without that sense who could understand them?
sRef Isa@66 @20 S5′ sRef Isa@66 @19 S5′ sRef Isa@66 @18 S5′ sRef Isa@66 @12 S5′ [5] In the same:
Jehovah said, Behold I spread out upon Jerusalem peace as a river, and as a torrent the glory of the nations, that ye may suck. He will come to gather all nations and tongues, that they may come and see My glory. They shall declare My glory among the nations; then shall they bring your brethren out of all nations, as a gift to Jehovah, upon horses and upon the chariot, to the mountain of My holiness (Isa. 66:12, 18-20).
Here “Jerusalem” is the Lord’s church in the heavens and on the earth; it is said the church in the heavens, for the church is there also (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 221-227). By “nations and tongues” all who are in the goods of love and in truths therefrom are meant. It is said that “they shall bring out of all nations a gift to Jehovah, upon horses and upon the chariot;” “a gift to Jehovah” is worship from the good of love; “horses and chariots” are intellectuals and doctrinals, for these are the source and foundation of worship. (That this is what “horses and chariots” signify, see in the small work on The White Horse, n. 1-5.)
sRef Isa@11 @10 S6′ [6] In the same:
It shall be in that day that a Root of Jesse, which shall stand for a sign of the people, the nations shall seek (Isa. 11:10). “The root of Jesse” is the Lord; “to stand for a sign of the people” means that it may be seen by those who are in truths; “the nations which shall seek,” are those who are in the good of love. It is believed that “nations” here mean the nations that are to approach and acknowledge the Lord, from which is to be the church that is called the church of the Gentiles; but these are not meant by “nation” but all who are in love to the Lord and faith in Him, whether within the church or out of it (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 308, 318-328).
sRef Isa@26 @15 S7′ sRef Isa@25 @3 S7′ sRef Ps@67 @4 S7′ sRef Ps@67 @5 S7′ sRef Ps@106 @5 S7′ sRef Ps@67 @3 S7′ sRef Dan@7 @14 S7′ sRef Dan@7 @13 S7′ sRef Jer@4 @2 S7′ sRef Isa@61 @6 S7′ sRef Isa@26 @2 S7′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S7′ sRef Isa@34 @1 S7′ sRef Lam@4 @20 S7′ sRef Jer@10 @7 S7′ sRef Rev@21 @26 S7′ sRef Rev@21 @25 S7′ [7] In the same:
A strong people shall honor Thee, the city of the powerful nations shall fear thee (Isa. 25:3).
In the same:
Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation may enter in. Thou hast increased the nation, O Jehovah, Thou hast increased the nation, Thou art glorified (Isa. 26:2, 15).
In the same:
Come near, ye nations, to hear; and hearken, ye peoples (Isa. 34:1).
In the same:
I, Jehovah, have called thee in righteousness, for a covenant to the people, for a light of the nations (Isa. 42:6).
In Jeremiah:
The nations shall bless themselves in Him, and in Him shall they glory (Jer. 4:2).
In the same:
Who will not fear Thee, O king of nations? and in all their kingdom there is none like unto Thee (Jer. 10:7).
In Daniel:
I was seeing in the night visions, and behold with the clouds of heaven One like the Son of man. And there was given Him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom; and all peoples, nations, and tongues shall worship Him (Jer. 7:13, 14).
In David:
The peoples shall give thanks unto Thee, O God; all the peoples shall give thanks unto Thee. Let the nations be glad and sing for joy; for Thou shalt judge the peoples with equity, and shalt lead the nations upon the earth (Ps. 67:3, 4).
In the same:
That I may see the good of Thy chosen, and be glad in the joy of Thy nations (Ps. 106:5).
In Revelation:
The glory and honor of the nations shall be brought into the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:26).
In Isaiah:
Ye shall be called priests of Jehovah; ministers of your** God, it shall be said to you. Ye shall eat the wealth of the nations, and in their glory shall ye glory (Isa. 61:6).
In the Lamentations:
The breath of our nostrils, the Anointed of Jehovah, was taken in their pits; of whom we had said, In His shadow we shall live among the nations (Lam. 4:20).
In these passages, by “nations” all who are in love to the Lord, whether within the church where the Word is or out it: are meant.

sRef Jer@5 @15 S8′ sRef Jer@5 @17 S8′ [8] That by “nations” in a contrary sense those who are in evils are meant, and in the abstract, evils themselves, can be seen from the following passages. In Jeremiah:
I will bring a nation upon you from far, it is a mighty nation; it is a nation of an age, a nation whose tongue thou shalt not know. It shall eat up thy harvest and thy bread; it shall eat up thy sons and thy daughters; it shall eat up thy vine and thy fig-tree; it shall impoverish the cities with the sword (Jer. 5:15, 17).
The vastation of the church is here treated of; and by “nation” is meant the evil that will consummate it; it is therefore said, that “it shall eat up the harvest and the bread,” “the sons and daughters,” “the vine and the fig-tree,” and “shall impoverish the cities with the sword;” by which all the goods of love and the truths of faith are signified; by “harvest” a state of the reception of truth from good (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 9295); by “bread” the good of love (see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 218); by “sons and daughters” the affections of truth and good (see above, n. 166); by “vine” the internal church, thus the internal things of the church (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1069, 5113, 6376, 9277): by “fig-tree” the external church, thus the external things of the church (Arcana Coelestia, n. 5113); by “cities” doctrines (Arcana Coelestia, n. 402, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493); by “sword” falsity destroying (see above, n. 73, 131). From this it can be seen that by “nations” is signified the evil that destroys all these.
sRef Jer@6 @21 S9′ sRef Jer@6 @22 S9′ sRef Jer@6 @23 S9′ [9] In the same:
Behold I lay stumbling-blocks before this people, that they may stumble upon them, the fathers and the sons together. Behold, a people cometh from the land of the north, and a great nation from the sides of the earth. They have no compassion, their voice roareth like the sea, and they ride upon horses (Jer. 6:21-23).
(vi. 21-23).
Here also “nation” means evil, and “peoples” falsities, “the stumbling-blocks upon which the fathers and the sons stumble” are the perversions of good and truth (“fathers” are goods, and “sons” truths therefrom). It is said, “a people from the land of the north, and a nation from the sides of the earth,” for the “north” signifies falsity from evil, and “the sides of the earth” signify what is outside of the church, thus evils remote from the goods of the church. “To roar like the sea, and to ride upon horses,” is to persuade by fallacies of the senses, and by reasonings therefrom.
sRef Ezek@7 @24 S10′ sRef Ezek@7 @23 S10′ sRef Ezek@7 @27 S10′ [10] In Ezekiel:
The land is full of the judgment of bloods, and the city is full of violence, wherefore I will bring the worst of the nations, that they may occupy their houses; the king shall mourn, and the prince shall be clothed with stupor (Ezek. 7:23-24, 27).
The “land” is the church; “full of the judgment of bloods” is to be in falsities that destroy goods; “city” is doctrine; “full of violence” is to use force against the good of charity; “the worst of the nations” are direful falsities from evil; “to occupy their houses” is to possess their minds; “the king who shall mourn” is the truth of the church; “the prince who shall be clothed with stupor,” is subservient truth. (That the “land” is the church, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 662, 1066, 1068, 1262, 1413, 1607, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011, 9325, 9643; that “bloods” are falsities destroying good, n. 374, 1005, 4735, 5476, 9127; that “city” is doctrine, n. 2268, 2449, 2451, 2712, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493; that “violence” is using force against the good of charity, n. 6353; that “houses” are the things of man that belong to his mind, n. 710, 2231, 2233, 2559, 3128, 3538, 4973, 5023, 6690, 7353, 7848, 7910, 7929, 9150; that “the king who shall mourn” is the truth of the church, see above n. 31.)
sRef Ps@33 @10 S11′ [11] In David:
Jehovah bringeth the counsel of the nations to naught, He overthroweth the thoughts of the peoples (Ps. 33:10).
“Nations” mean those who are in evils, and “peoples” those who are in falsities; and because both are signified, it is said that “Jehovah bringeth the counsel of the nations to naught, and overthroweth the thoughts of the peoples,” which are two expressions, as it were, of one thing, yet they are distinct in the internal sense, in which “nations” signify one thing, and “peoples” another.
sRef Luke@21 @24 S12′ sRef Luke@21 @25 S12′ [12] In Luke:
Then they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led captive among all nations, and at length Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the nations, until the time of the nations be fulfilled. Then there shall be signs in sun, moon, and stars, and upon the earth anguish of nations, the sea and the waves roaring (Luke 21:24-25).
The consummation of the age is here treated of, which is the last time of the church, when there is no longer any faith because there is no charity, or no truth because there is no good. This is here described by correspondences: “to fall by the edge of the sword” is to be destroyed by falsities; “to be led captive among all nations” is to be possessed by evils of every kind; “Jerusalem, which shall be trodden down,” is the church; the “sun” is love to the Lord; the “moon” faith in Him; the “stars” the knowledges of good and truth; the “signs” in them mean that these are to perish; “the sea and the waves that shall roar” are fallacies and reasonings therefrom.
sRef Matt@24 @9 S13′ sRef Matt@24 @7 S13′ [13] In Matthew:
Nation shall rise up against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places. And they shall deliver you unto affliction, and ye shall be hated of all the nations for My name’s sake (Matt. 24:7, 9; Luke 21:10, 11).
These things also were said by the Lord respecting the last time of the church; and by “nation shall rise up against nation, and kingdom against kingdom” is signified that there will be conflicts of evils and falsities among themselves; by “famines and pestilences” are signified the failure and wasting of truths; by “earthquakes” the perversion of the church; by “being hated of all nations” is signified to be hated by all who are in evil; “the name of the Lord,” for the sake of which they shall be hated, signifies all things of love and faith whereby the Lord is worshiped (see above, n. 102, 135).
sRef Ezek@31 @12 S14′ sRef Ezek@31 @11 S14′ sRef Ezek@31 @5 S14′ sRef Ezek@31 @10 S14′ sRef Ezek@31 @6 S14′ sRef Ezek@31 @3 S14′ [14] In Ezekiel:
Behold Asshur a cedar in Lebanon. He has become high, and his branches have been multiplied. In his branches have all the fowl of the heavens built their nests, and under his branches all the beasts of the field have brought forth, and in his shade have dwelt all great nations. But his heart is lifted up in his height; therefore I will give him into the hand of the strong one of the nations, strangers shall cut him off, the violent of the nations, and they shall cast him down; whence all peoples of the earth have gone down from his shadow, and have abandoned him (Ezek. 31:3, 5, 6, 10-12).
These things no one can understand unless he has a knowledge of the spiritual or internal sense of the Word. He will believe them to be mere comparisons, in which there is no spiritual signification; when yet all the particulars therein signify things of heaven and the church; therefore they shall be explained briefly. “Asshur” is the rational of the man of the church which is illustrated; this is called “a cedar in Lebanon,” because a “cedar” has the same signification as “Asshur,” specifically truth from good in the rational; and “Lebanon” is the mind where the rational resides, because there were cedars in Lebanon.
By “his branches that were multiplied” are meant truths therefrom; “the fowl of the heavens that built their nests in his branches” are the affections of truth; and “the beasts of the field that brought forth under his branches” are the affections of good; the “great nations that dwelt in his shade” are the goods of love; “his heart lifted up in his height” is the love of self; “to be given into the hands of the strong one of the nations,” and “to be cast down by the violent of the nations,” means that evils from that love will destroy goods and truths; “the peoples of the earth that went down from his shadow and abandoned him” are all truths of the church. From this it is manifest that “nations” signify goods, and in the contrary sense evils; by “the nations that dwelt in his shade,” goods; and by “the nations that cut him off, and cast him down,” evils. (See, moreover, what is said and shown about nations and their signification in Arcana Coelestia, namely, that by “nations” in the Word are meant those who are in good, and consequently goods themselves, n. 1059, 1159, 1258, 1260, 1416, 1849, 6005; “the assembly of the nations,” truths and goods, n. 4574, 7830; “the holy nation,” the spiritual kingdom, n. 9255, 9256; when it is said “nation and people,” by “nation” those who are in celestial good are meant, and by “people” those who are in spiritual good, n. 10288. That by “nations,” especially the nations of the land of Canaan, evils and falsities of every kind are meant, n. 1059, 1205, 1868, 6306, 8054, 8317, 9320, 9327).
* The Latin has “kings” for “peoples,” but see text as quoted just before.
** Hebrew: “our,” as also found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 155, 1115, Arcana Coelestia, n. 9809; but in Apocalypse Revealed, n. 128 we find “your.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 176 sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ 176. Verse 27.And He shall rule them with an iron rod, signifies that He is about to chastise evils by means of truths that are in the natural man. This is evident from the signification of “ruling,” as being to chastise, for it is added that “He would shiver them as pottery vessels,” and the evils which are signified are chastised by means of truths. It is evident also from the signification of “an iron rod,” as being truths that are in the natural man; a “rod” or “staff” signifies the power by which chastisement is effected; and “iron” truths in the natural man which chastise. (That a “rod” or “staff:” is power, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936, 6947, 7011, 7026, 7568, 7572; that it is for this reason that kings have a scepter, which is a short staff, n. 4581, 4876.)
“Iron” signifies truths in the natural man, because metals, as well as the other things of the earth, by correspondence signify things spiritual and celestial, all of which have reference to truths and goods. “Gold” signifies the good of the internal man; “silver” its truth; “copper” or “brass” the good of the external or natural man; “iron” its truth. For this reason the ages were called by the ancients after the names of the metals, namely, Golden, Silver, Copper, and Iron; the Golden Age from the most ancient men, who lived in the good of love; the Silver Age from the ancients after them who lived in truths from that good; the Copper Age from their posterity who were in external or natural good; the Iron Age from the posterity of these who were in natural truth alone without good. Natural truth is truth in the memory, not in the life; truth of life is good. (But more about this correspondence in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 104, 115.)
sRef Dan@2 @32 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @43 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @33 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @34 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @42 S2′ sRef Dan@2 @41 S2′ [2] The successive states of the church, even until the coming of the Lord, are meant by the “gold,” the “silver,” the “brass,” and the “iron,” of which the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar in a dream was composed, which is thus described in Daniel:
His head was good gold, his breast and his arms silver, his belly and his thighs brass, his legs iron, his feet part iron and part clay. A stone was cut out of the rock, and it smote the image upon his feet that were iron and clay, and brake them to pieces. Whereas thou sawest the feet partly of potter’s clay and partly of iron, it signifies that the kingdom shall be divided; the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken. Whereas thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves by the seed of man; but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron doth not mingle with clay (Dan. 2:32-34, 41-43).
By “the head which was good gold,” the first state of the church is meant, when men were in the good of love to the Lord; by “the breast and arms which were silver,” the second state of the church is meant, when they were in truths from that good; by “the belly and thighs which were of brass,” the following third state of the church, when they were no longer in spiritual good but in natural good, for “brass” signifies natural good; by “the legs which were of iron,” the fourth state of the church is meant, when natural good was no more, but truth only; but by “the feet which were of iron and clay,” the last state of the church is meant when there are both truth and falsity, truth in the Word and falsity in doctrine; when the truths of the Word are falsified, and doctrine is drawn from truths falsified, the state of the church is “partly iron and partly clay,” thus the kingdom is “partly strong and partly broken.” “The kingdom” here is the church; it is therefore called also “the kingdom of God.” That truths are thus mixed with falsities, but still they do not cohere, is meant by these words, “Whereas thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves by the seed of man; but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron doth not mingle with clay.” “The seed of man” is Divine truth, which is in the Word. (That this is signified by “seed,” see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3038, 3373, 10248, 10249; that “man” signifies the Lord, from whom is the Word, and also signifies the church, see n. 768, 4287, 7424, 7523, 8547, 9276.) That “potter’s clay” signifies the falsities that are in the natural man, will be seen in the following article (n. 177). By “the stone cut of the rock,” which “smote the image upon his feet,” the Lord by means of Divine truth is meant, and the destruction of falsities not cohering with truths from the Word. (That a “stone” is truth, and that “the stone of Israel” is the Lord in respect to Divine truth, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 643, 1298, 3720, 6426, 8609, 10376; that “rock” likewise signifies the Lord, n. 8581, 10580, and in the small work on The Last Judgement, n. 57.) Because “iron” signifies truths in the natural man, “the feet of the statue” were seen to be “of iron,” for “feet” signify the natural (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952).
sRef Isa@60 @17 S3′ [3] Like things are signified by “gold,” “silver,” “brass,” and “iron,” in these words in Isaiah:
For brass I will bring gold, for iron I will bring silver, for woods brass, and for stones iron (Isa. 60:17).
“To bring gold for brass” means celestial good for natural good; “silver for iron” means celestial truth for natural truth; “brass for woods, and iron for stones,” means natural good and truth in great abundance like that of woods and stones. Here the state of the celestial church is treated of. (That “iron” signifies truth in the natural man, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 425, 426.)
[4] These passages are cited that it may be known what is meant by the “iron rod,” namely, the power whereby the Lord chastises the evils and disperses the falsities that are in the natural man; for a “rod” or “staff” signifies power (as was said above), and “iron” signifies truths in the natural man. The Lord chastises evils and disperses falsities by means of truths in the natural man, because all evils and the falsities therefrom have their seat in the natural man, and none in the spiritual or internal man. The internal man does not receive evils and falsities, but is closed against them. And as all evils and falsities have their seat in the natural man, they must needs be chastised and dispersed by means of such things as are there, which are truths in the natural man. Truths in the natural man are knowledges and cognitions, from which man can think, reason, and conclude naturally respecting the truths and goods of the church, and the falsities and evils which are opposed to these, and can consequently be in some natural illustration when he reads the Word. For the Word in the letter is not understood without illustration; and illustration is either spiritual or natural. Spiritual illustration is only with those who are spiritual; and the spiritual are those that are of the good of love and charity and in truths therefrom; while mere natural illustration is with those who are natural (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 153, 425, 455; and above, n. 140). Moreover, those who are spiritual have, whilst they live in the world, illustration in the natural; but this springs from illustration in the spiritual; for with them the Lord flows in through the spiritual or internal man into the natural or external, and thus illustrates it, from which enlightenment man can see what is true and good, and what is false and evil, and when he sees that, the Lord scatters the evils and the falsities that are in the natural man, by means of the truths and goods that are also there and that make one with the goods and truths in the spiritual or internal man (see in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, on Sciences and knowledges, what they effect, n. 51, and on Influx, n. 277,278).
sRef Rev@19 @15 S5′ sRef Micah@4 @13 S5′ sRef Rev@12 @5 S5′ sRef Isa@11 @4 S5′ sRef Ps@2 @9 S5′ [5] From this it can now be seen what is signified by “the iron rod,” with which the Lord is to rule the nations, that is, chastise the evils that are in the natural man. These things are said to the angel of this church, because in what is written to this angel the internal and external man and their conjunction are treated of; for when the internal and the external or the spiritual and the natural are conjoined, the Lord chastises the evils and falsities that are in the natural man, and this by means of the knowledges of truth and good. But with those with whom the internal and external man are not conjoined, evils and falsities cannot be chastised and scattered, since they receive nothing from heaven through the spiritual man, but all things they receive are from the world; and these their rational favors, and supplies confirmations. Things similar to those here signified by “the iron rod” are also signified in the following passages. In David:
Thou shalt bruise [the nations] with an iron scepter; as a potter’s vessel Thou shalt dash them in pieces (Ps. 2:9).
In Isaiah:
He shall smite the land with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the wicked (Isa. 11:4).
In Revelation:
The woman brought forth a male, a son, who is to rule all nations with an iron rod (Rev. 12:5).
Out of the mouth of the One sitting on the white horse went forth a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations; for He shall rule them with an iron rod (Rev. 19:15).
In Micah:
Arise, O daughter of Zion; for I will make thine horn iron, and I will make thy hoofs brass, that thou mayest beat in pieces many peoples (Micah 4:13).
The “daughter of Zion” is the celestial church; “horn” is power in the natural man; “hoofs” are the ultimates there, called sensual scientifics; hence it is evident what is signified by “making the horn iron, and the hoofs brass.” (That the “daughter of Zion” is the celestial church, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 2362, 9055; that “horn” is the power of truth from good in the natural man, n. 2832, 9081, 9719, 9720, 9721, 10182, 10186; and that “hoofs” are the knowledges of the sensual man, which are truths in the ultimate of order, n. 7729.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 177 sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ 177. As earthen vessels shall they be shivered, signifies the total dispersion of falsities. This is evident from the signification of “earthen vessels,” as being such things in the natural man as are from self-intelligence; and all things in the natural man that have respect to the things of heaven and the church and which are from self-intelligence are falsities (of which presently). It is evident also from the signification of being “shivered,” as being to be dispersed; “to disperse” is said of falsities, as “to shiver” is said of earthen vessels. That “earthen vessels” signify the things in the natural man that are from self-intelligence in matters of heaven and the church, and that these things are falsities, will be shown in what follows; something must first be said to show that the things that have respect to heaven and the church that gain entrance by self-intelligence are falsities.
Those who think from self-intelligence think from the world; for man, from his proprium [what is his own] loves only the things of the world and of self, and what he loves he also sees and perceives; the things he loves he calls goods, and the things he sees and perceives therefrom he calls truths; but these goods, which from love he so calls, are evils, and the truths which he sees from that love are falsities, since they spring forth from the loves of self and of the world, which loves are contrary to the loves of heaven, which are love to the Lord and love to the neighbor; and the things that pour forth from contraries are contraries.
[2] Those, therefore, who read the Word solely for repute of erudition, or to acquire fame that they may be exalted to honors or may gain wealth, never see and perceive truths, but falsities instead; and the truths that stand out before the eyes in the Word they either pass by as if not seen or they falsify them. The reason is, that to read the Word solely for the repute of erudition or for fame, that they may be exalted to honors and gain wealth, is to read it for the sake of self and the world as ends, thus from the loves of self and the world. And as these loves are of man’s proprium [man’s self] so the things that man sees and perceives from them are from self-intelligence.
[3] But those who read the Word from the spiritual affection of truth, which affection is a love of knowing truth because it is truth, see truths in the Word, and rejoice in heart when they see them; and this because they are in illustration from the Lord. Illustration descends from the Lord through heaven from the light there, which light is Divine truth. It is therefore given to them to see truths from the light of truth, and this in the Word, because the Word is Divine truth, and in it are stored up all the truths of heaven. But those only are in this illustration who are in the two loves of heaven, which are love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor; for these loves open the inner or higher mind, which is formed to receive the light of heaven, and through that mind in them the light of heaven flows in and illustrates. But so long as they live in the world they do not perceive truths in that mind, but they see them in the lower mind, the mind of the external or natural man. Such as these do not think from self-intelligence when they read the Word. The especial reason why these do not think from their self-intelligence when they read the Word is, that their interior or spiritual mind looks to the Lord, and the Lord then elevates it up to Himself, and with it the lower or natural mind, thus withdrawing it from man’s proprium [man’s self] which cannot be done with those who have regard first and foremost to themselves and the world.
[4] From this it can be seen that man from self-intelligence perceives nothing but evils and sees nothing but falsities; but that goods and truths that are of heaven and the church he perceives and sees from the Lord. When the internal or spiritual man, in which is the inner or higher mind of which we have just spoken, is opened, then the Lord subdues the evils and disperses the falsities which are in the external or natural man. These things, then, are what are meant in the spiritual sense by this, that the Son of man is to “give them power over the nations, and He shall rule them with an iron rod, and as earthen vessels they shall be shivered.”
sRef Ps@2 @9 S5′ [5] That “earthen vessels” signify such things as are from self-intelligence, thus the falsities that are in the natural man, is evident from various passages in the Word, of which I will cite the following as confirmation. In David:
Thou shalt bruise the nations with an iron scepter; as a potter’s vessel Thou shall dash them in pieces (Ps. 2:9).
In this passage also “to bruise the nations with an iron scepter” is to chastise and subdue the evils that are in the natural man. “Scepter” here has the same signification as “staff” or “rod.” It is added “as a potter’s vessel,” because that signifies falsity from self-intelligence. In the sense of the letter this is a comparison, for it is said “as a potter’s vessel,” and “as earthen vessels;” but in the internal sense comparisons are not perceived as comparisons, since comparisons are equally from things significative (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3579, 8989.) “A potter’s vessel,” or “earthen vessel,” signifies what is false, because a potter is one who forms, and a vessel is what is formed; and when man forms the vessel it is a falsity, but when the Lord forms it with man it is a truth; consequently in the Word “a potter’s vessel” signifies either what is false or what is true, and “a potter” signifies one who forms.
sRef Isa@29 @16 S6′ sRef Isa@64 @8 S6′ sRef Isa@45 @9 S6′ [6] The Lord Himself is called in the Word a “Potter,” from His forming man by means of truths; as in Isaiah:
Jehovah our Father; we are the clay, and Thou art our Potter, and we all are the work of Thy hands (Isa. 64:8).
In the same:
Woe unto him that striveth with the Former! a potsherd with the potsherds of the earth! Shall the clay say to its potter, What makest thou? (Isa. 45:9).
In the same :
Shall the potter be counted as clay? Shall the work say to its Former, He made me not, and shall the thing formed say of its potter, He understandeth not? (Isa. 29:16).
sRef Isa@30 @14 S7′ sRef Isa@30 @11 S7′ sRef Isa@30 @10 S7′ [7] As the Jews and Israelites falsified all the truths of the Word by applying them to themselves and to their own exaltation above all nations and peoples in the universal world, so their falsities are called “marred vessels” of a potter, as in Isaiah:
Who have said to the seers, See not; and to those that have vision, See not for us right things, speak unto us smooth things, see illusions; depart from the way; therefore iniquity shall break them as the breaking of the potter’s bottle; in beating it shall not spare, so that there shall not be found in the fragment thereof a sherd to take fire from the hearth or to draw waters from the cistern (Isa. 30:10-11, 13-14).
That they wholly deprived themselves of truths, and immersed themselves in falsities, is described by this, “They said to the seers, See not; and to those that have vision, See not for us right things, speak unto us smooth things, see illusions; depart from the way.” That they had so immersed themselves in falsities that no more truth remained, is described by “the breaking of the potter’s bottle, so that there should not be found in the fragment a sherd to take fire from the hearth or to draw waters out of the cistern.” By this is signified that not enough of truth should be left to enable them to perceive any good and truth from the Word; for “fire” signifies good, and “water” truth; “hearth” the Word in respect to good; “cistern” and “fountain” the Word in respect to truth.
sRef Jer@18 @2 S8′ sRef Jer@18 @1 S8′ sRef Jer@18 @3 S8′ sRef Jer@18 @4 S8′ [8] In Jeremiah:
The word came to Jeremiah, Arise, and go down to the potter’s house. Then I went down to the potter’s house, and behold he wrought a work on the table. But the vessel that he was making was marred; and he turned back and made it another vessel as was right in the potter’s eyes to make (Jer. 18:1-4).
This also means that with the Jewish nation there was nothing but falsity; and “the vessel that was marred in the potter’s house” is that falsity; “the potter’s house” is the state in which they were. That the truth of the church should be taken away from them and given to others, is meant by this, that “the potter turned back and made it another vessel, as was right in his eyes.”
sRef Jer@19 @1 S9′ sRef Jer@19 @11 S9′ sRef Jer@19 @21 S9′ [9] In the same:
Jehovah said, Go buy a potter’s earthen bottle of the elders of the people and of the elders of the priests; and go forth into the valley of the son of Hinnom. Then shalt thou break the bottle before the eyes of the men that go with thee; and shalt say, I will break this people, and this city as one breaketh a potter’s vessel, that cannot be made whole again; and they shall bury in Tophet, because there is no more a place to bury in (Jer. 19:1-2, 10-11).
“The potter’s earthen bottle, or vessel, from the elders of the people and of the priests” is here also the falsity in which all of that nation were. That this falsity was such that it could not be dispersed by means of truths is described by this, that “he should break the vessel before the eyes of the men that went with him, that it could not be made whole again;” that they should “bury in Tophet, because there was no more a place,” signifies where all truths and goods have been destroyed.
sRef Nahum@3 @14 S10′ sRef Nahum@3 @15 S10′ [10] In Nahum:
Draw thee waters for the siege; strengthen thy fortresses; go into the mire and tread the clay, repair the brick-kiln. There shall the fire devour thee; the sword shall cut thee off (Nahum 3:14-15).
“To draw waters for the siege and to strengthen the fortresses” is to fortify falsities by various means against truths; “to go into the mire and tread the clay” is to confirm falsities by fictions and fallacies; doctrine thence derived is called “a brickkiln,” because infernal love is strengthened by falsifications; it is therefore said that “the fire shall devour, and the sword cut off;” “fire” is infernal love, and a “sword” is falsity combating and destroying truth. “A potter’s vessel” or “earthen vessel” signifies falsity, because it corresponds to something fabricated, and what is fabricated is a product of man’s self-intelligence; it was from this correspondence that the prophets were commanded to do such things as are mentioned above.

AE (Whitehead) n. 178 sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ 178. As I also have received from my Father, signifies comparatively as the Lord did from His Divine Human, when He glorified His Human, namely, that He dissipated all evils and falsities arising from the human that He had from the mother. By “the Father” here the Divine in Himself, or that which He had from conception, is meant, for this Divine was one with the Father, as He declares. It is said comparatively, for as the Lord glorified His Human, so He regenerates man; that is, as He united His Divine to the Human and the Human to the Divine, so He conjoins the internal to the external and the external to the internal with man. (But as this arcanum cannot be explained in a few words so as to be understood, consult what has been shown respecting it in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 280-297, and in the passages cited from the Arcana Coelestia in that work, n. 185, 298-307, in which it is fully explained.)

AE (Whitehead) n. 179 sRef Rev@2 @28 S0′ 179. Verse 28. And I will give him the morning star, signifies intelligence and wisdom from the Lord’s Divine Human. This is evident from the signification of “stars,” as being the knowledges of good and truth (see above, n. 72); and as they signify the knowledges of good and truth, they also signify intelligence and wisdom, for all intelligence and wisdom come by means of the knowledges of good and truth. It is evident also from the signification of “morning” as being the Lord in respect to His Divine Human, therefore “the morning star” means intelligence and wisdom from Him. “Morning” is often mentioned in the Word, and its signification varies according to the connection in the internal sense; in the highest sense it signifies the Lord, and also His coming; in the internal sense it signifies His kingdom and church, and their state of peace. Moreover, it signifies the first state of a new church, and also a state of love, and a state of illustration, consequently a state of intelligence and wisdom, and also a state of the conjunction of good and truth, the state in which the internal man is conjoined to the external. “Morning” has such various significations, because in the highest sense it signifies the Lord’s Divine Human; it therefore also signifies all things that proceed from the Divine Human, for the Lord is in those things that proceed from Him, even so that it is He there.
[2] The Divine Human of the Lord in the highest sense is meant by “morning,” because the Lord is the sun of the angelic heaven, and the sun of that heaven does not advance from morning to evening, or from rising to setting, as the sun of the world apparently does, but remains constantly in its place, in front above the heavens; consequently the sun is always in the morning there, and never in the evening. And since all the intelligence and wisdom that the angels have comes from the Lord as their sun, their state of love, and state of wisdom and intelligence, and in general their state of illustration is signified by “morning;” for these proceed from the Lord as a sun, and what proceeds from Him is Himself, for from the Divine nothing but what is Divine goes forth, and everything Divine is Himself. (That the Lord is the sun of the angelic heaven, and that from Him as a sun there exist all love, wisdom, and intelligence, and in general all illustration in respect to Divine truths, from which is wisdom, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 116-125, 126-143, 155, 156.)
sRef 2Sam@23 @3 S3′ sRef 2Sam@23 @4 S3′ [3] From this it can he seen why “morning” is so often mentioned in the Word when Jehovah or the Lord, His coming, His kingdom and church, and the goods thereof are treated of; as in the following passages, which I will cite by way of illustration. In the second book of Samuel:
The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me. He is as the light of the morning; the son riseth, a morning without clouds (2 Sam. 23:3, 4).
“The God of Israel” and “the Rock” is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human and Divine truth proceeding therefrom; “the God of Israel” because Israel is His spiritual church, and “the Rock” because His Divine in the spiritual church is Divine truth (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3720, 6426, 8581, 10580). As the Lord in the angelic heaven is a sun, and as all the light that angels have is therefrom, and as the sun there is continually in its morning, it is said, “He is as the light of the morning; the sun riseth, a morning without clouds.”
sRef Ps@110 @4 S4′ sRef Ps@110 @3 S4′ [4] In David:
From the womb of the morning thou hast the dew of thy youth; thou art a priest forever, after the order of Melchizedek (110:3, 4).
This is said of the Lord as about to come into the world; “from the womb of the morning thou hast the dew of thy youth” is conception from the Divine Itself, and the glorification of His Human thereby; “a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek,” means that Divine good and Divine truth proceed from Him, for the Lord as priest is Divine good, and as king of holiness, who is, “Melchizedek,” is Divine truth (see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1725).
sRef Ezek@10 @19 S5′ [5] In Ezekiel:
The cherubim stood at the east entrance of the gate of the house; the glory of the God of Israel was over them above (Ezek. 10:19).
“Cherubim” signify the Lord in respect to providence and as to guard lest He be approached otherwise than by the good of love; “the east entrance of the gate of the house” signifies approach; “the house of God” is heaven and the church; the “east” is where the Lord appears as a sun, thus where He is continually as the morning; therefore it is said “the glory of the God of Israel was over them above.”
sRef Ezek@43 @2 S6′ sRef Ezek@43 @1 S6′ sRef Ezek@43 @4 S6′ [6] In the same:
The angel brought me to the gate that looketh towards the east; and behold, the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east; and the earth was enlightened by His glory. And the glory of Jehovah came into the house by the way of the gate whose face is toward the east (Ezek. 43:1, 2, 4).
Here, in the internal sense, the influx of the Lord into those who are in His kingdom and church is described; “the God of Israel” is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human and the Divine truth proceeding therefrom; “the house of God” is His kingdom and the church; “glory” is Divine truth as it is in heaven; “to come by the way of the east into the house” means from the sun, where it is continually in its morning. (That “glory” is Divine truth as it is in heaven, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4809, 5922, 8267, 8427, 9429; that “the house of God” is heaven and the church in respect to good, and “temple” is the same in respect to truth, n. 3720; and that the “east,” in the highest sense, is the Lord, because He is the sun of heaven, which is always in its rising and morning, consequently the “east” is the good of love from Him, see n. 3708, 5097, 9668.) sRef Ezek@47 @8 S7′ sRef Ezek@47 @1 S7′ sRef Ezek@47 @2 S7′ sRef Ezek@47 @9 S7′ [7] In the same:
The angel afterwards brought me back to the entrance of the house, where behold, waters issuing out from under the threshold of the house towards the east, they shall descend into the plain and come towards the sea, being sent forth into the sea that the waters may be healed; whence it comes to pass that every living soul that creeps, whithersoever the rivers come, shall live, whence there are exceeding many fishes, because these waters shall come thither, and they are healed, that everything may live whither the river shall come (Ezek. 47:1, 8, 9).
Here also, the influx of the Lord from His Divine Human with those who are of His kingdom and church is described by pure correspondences. By “waters issuing out from under the threshold of the house towards the east,” Divine truth proceeding from the Lord and flowing in with those that are in the east, that is, that are in the good of love to Him, is described. “The waters shall descend into the plain” and “into the sea,” and “thereby the waters of the sea are healed,” signifies influx into the natural man and into the knowledges which are therein; the “fishes therefrom” signifies many scientific truths in the natural man; that “everything shall live whither the river shall come” signifies that they should have life from Divine truth. That such thing are hereby signified there, no one can see except from the internal sense of the Word, yet every single expression therein involves arcana of man’s regeneration by the Lord; but what is involved in each expression here will he disclosed in explaining 22:1, 2, of Revelation, where like things are mentioned.
sRef Ps@130 @7 S8′ sRef Ps@130 @8 S8′ sRef Ps@130 @6 S8′ sRef Ps@130 @5 S8′ [8] In David:
I have waited for Jehovah, my soul doth wait, my soul waiteth for the Lord more than the watchmen for the morning, the watchmen for the morning; for with Him is much redemption, and He will redeem Israel (Ps. 130:5-8).
Here the Lord’s coming into the world, and His reception by those that are in the good of love are treated of. The Lord’s coming is signified by “I have waited for Jehovah, my soul doth wait for the Lord, for with Him is much redemption, and He shall redeem Israel;” and His reception by those that are in the good of love is signified by “more than watchmen for the morning, the watchmen for the morning.” Here “morning” in the highest sense signifies the Lord, and in the internal sense His kingdom and church; and “watchmen for the morning” signify those who wait for the Lord’s corning, who are those that are in the good of love, since to those the Lord is “coming.”
sRef Isa@21 @12 S9′ sRef Dan@8 @26 S9′ sRef Isa@21 @11 S9′ sRef Dan@8 @14 S9′ sRef Zeph@3 @5 S9′ sRef Ezek@7 @7 S9′ sRef Ezek@7 @10 S9′ sRef Ezek@7 @6 S9′ [9] That “morning” signifies the Lord’s coming into the world and then a new church is evident from the following passages.
In Daniel:
Unto evening and morning, two thousand three hundred, then the holy (sanctum) shall be justified. The vision of the evening and the morning, which has been told, is truth (Dan. 8:14, 26). “Evening” signifies the last time of the former church, and “morning” the first time of the new church, thus the Lord’s coming.
In Isaiah:
Crying to me from Seir, Watchman,* what of the night? watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night (Dan. 21:11, 12).
Here also the Lord’s coming is treated of; “night” is the last time of the former church, and “morning” the first of the new. (What is signified by “calling out of Seir,” see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4240, 4384.) In Ezekiel:
The end is come, the end is come, the morning is come upon thee, O inhabitant of the land; behold the day cometh, the morning is gone forth (Ezek. 7:6, 7, 10).
Here likewise the Lord’s coming and the end of the former church and the beginning of a new one are treated of. In Zephaniah, where similar things are meant:
Jehovah in the morning, in the morning, He shall bring His judgment to light, nor shall He fail (Zeph. 3:5).
sRef Isa@17 @11 S10′ sRef Ps@59 @16 S10′ sRef Isa@33 @2 S10′ sRef Ps@143 @8 S10′ sRef Lev@6 @12 S10′ sRef Deut@16 @7 S10′ sRef Deut@16 @6 S10′ sRef Isa@50 @4 S10′ sRef Ex@19 @16 S10′ sRef Ps@63 @1 S10′ sRef Ps@90 @14 S10′ sRef Ps@5 @3 S10′ sRef Ps@46 @5 S10′ sRef Rev@22 @16 S10′ sRef Jer@7 @13 S10′ sRef Ex@16 @13 S10′ sRef Ex@16 @12 S10′ sRef Ex@16 @21 S10′ [10] As “morning” signifies the Lord, His coming, also His kingdom and church, as also the good of love from Him, what is meant by “morning” in the following passages can be seen.
In David:
Cause me to hear Thy mercy in the morning (Ps. 143: 8).
In the same:
I will sing aloud of Thy mercy in the morning (Ps. 59:16).
In the same:
O satisfy us in the morning with Thy mercy; that we may sing aloud and be glad all our days (Ps. 90:14).
In the same:
O Jehovah, in the morning shalt Thou hear my voice; in the morning I will set myself in order for Thee (Ps. 5:3).
In the same:
God is in the midst of her; God shall help him** at the turning of the morning (Ps. 46:5).
In the same:
O God, my God, in the morning do I seek Thee (Ps. 63:1).
In Isaiah:
In the day shalt thou make thy plant to grow, and in the morning shalt thou make thy seed to blossom (Isa. 17:11).
In the same:
Jehovah is*** their arm every morning (Isa. 33:2).
In the same :
Jehovah**** hath given me the tongue of the learned; he hath awakened me every morning (Isa. 50:4).
In Jeremiah:
I speak unto you every morning (Jer. 7:13; 11:7; 25:3, 4). From the signification of “morning” it can be seen what is meant by the following:
That manna fell in the morning (Exod. 16:12, 13, 21).
That Jehovah descended in the morning from Mount Sinai (Exod. 19:16);
That the priest kindled wood upon the altar every morning and placed thereon the whole burnt-offering (Lev. 6:12). Also what is involved in the command respecting the sacrifice of the passover:
Thou shalt sacrifice the passover at the going down of the sun. Then thou shalt eat it; and thou shalt turn in the morning and go into thy tents (Deut. 16:6, 7).
“They should sacrifice the passover when the sun went down,” because “the setting of the sun” signified the last time of the church; that “they should turn in the morning,” signified the establishment of a new church, thus the Lord’s coming. These things are cited that it may be known what is signified by the “morning star,” which the Son of man would give, namely wisdom and intelligence from the Lord’s Divine Human. And as those who receive wisdom and intelligence from the Lord also receive Him, for the Lord is in the wisdom and intelligence that are from Him, even so that He is the wisdom and intelligence with them, the Lord Himself also is called “the Morning Star” in Revelation:
I am the root and the offspring of David, the bright and Morning Star (Rev. 22:16).
He is likewise called a Star (Num. 24:17).
* The Latin has “Watchman, watchman,” the Hebrew has it only once.
** In Hebrew: “help her” as found in AR 151; TCR 764; Coronis 5.
*** The Hebrew has “be Thou their arm,” as also found in AC 4933, 8211.
**** The Hebrew has “Lord Jehovih,” as also found in Arcana Coelestia 3869.

AE (Whitehead) n. 180 sRef Rev@2 @29 S0′ 180. Verse 29. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands should hearken to what Divine truth proceeding from the Lord teaches and says to those who are in His church, as is evident from what was said and shown above (n. 108), where there are like words.


Revelation 3

1. And to the angel of the church in Sardis write, These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars: I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead.
2. Be wakeful, and confirm the things remaining that are about to die; for I have not found thy works full before God.
3. Remember, therefore, how thou hast received and heard, and take heed, and repent; if, therefore, thou shalt not be wakeful, I will come on thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know in what hour I will come upon thee.
4. Thou hast a few names even in Sardis that have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy.
5. He that overcometh shall be clothed in white garments; and I will not blot his name out of the book of life; and I will confess his name before My Father and before His angels.
6. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.
7. And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write, These things saith the Holy, the True, He that hath the key of David, He that openeth and no one shutteth, and shutteth and no one openeth:
8. I know thy works; behold, I have given before thee an opened door, and no one is able to shut it; for thou hast some power, and hast kept My word, and hast not denied My name.
9. Behold, I will give, from the synagogue of Satan, of those saying that they are Jews and they are not, but do lie; behold I will make them to come and worship at thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.
10. Because thou hath kept the word of My endurance I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation that is to come upon the whole world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.
11. Behold, I come quickly; hold fast what thou hast, that no one take thy crown.
12. He that overcometh I will make him a pillar in the temple of My God, and He shall go out thence no more; and I will write upon him the name of My God, and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which is coming down out of heaven from My God, and My new name.
13. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith to the churches.
14. And to the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write, These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true Witness, the Beginning of the working of God:
15. I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot; would that thou wert cold or hot.
16. So because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I am about to vomit thee out of My mouth.
17. Because thou sayest, I am rich and have gotten riches, and have need of nothing, and knowest not that thou art wretched and miserable and poor and blind and naked:
18. I counsel thee to buy of Me gold tried by fire, that thou mayest be enriched; and white garments, that thou mayest be clothed, that the shame of thy nakedness be not manifest; and anoint thine eyes with eye-salve, that thou mayest see.
19. As many as I love I reprove and chasten; be zealous, therefore, and repent.
20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock; if anyone hear My voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with Me.
21. He that overcometh, I will give to him to sit with Me in My throne, as I also have overcome and am sitting with My Father in His throne.
22. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

AE (Whitehead) n. 181 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @5 S0′ 181. EXPOSITION.
Verses 1-6. And to the angel of the church in Sardis write, These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars: I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead. Be wakeful, and confirm the things remaining that are about to die; for I have not found thy works full before God. Remember, therefore, how thou hast received and heard, and take heed, and repent; if, therefore, thou shalt not be wakeful, I will come on thee as a thief and thou shalt not know in what hour I will come upon thee. The hast a few names even in Sardis that have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy. He that overcometh shall be clothed in white garments; and I will not blot his name out of the book of life; and I will confess his name before My Father and before His angels. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.
1. “And to the angel of the church in Sardis write” signifies those who live a moral but not a spiritual life, because they have little regard for the knowledges of spiritual things and for intelligence and wisdom therefrom (n. 182); “these things saith he that hath the seven spirits of God,” signifies the Lord, from whom are all the truths of heaven and of the church (n. 183); “and the seven stars,” signifies from whom are all the knowledges of truth and good (n. 184); “I know thy works,” signifies the things that are of their life (n. 185); “that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead,” signifies the quality of their thought, in that they think themselves to be alive because they are living a moral life, when yet they are dead (n. 186). 2. “Be wakeful,” signifies that they should acquire for themselves life (n. 187); “and confirm the things remaining that are about to die,” signifies in order that the things that belong to the moral life may be vivified (n. 188); “for I have not found thy works full before God,” signifies that otherwise the Divine is not in the moral life (n. 189). 3. “Remember, therefore, how thou hast received and heard, and take heed,” signifies recalling to mind and attention what the Lord teaches in the Word (n. 190); “and repent,” signifies consequent spiritual life (n. 191); “if, therefore, thou shalt not be wakeful,” signifies if thou dost not acquire spiritual life (n. 192); “I will come on thee as a thief,” signifies the unexpected time of death, when all knowledges procured from the Word that have not acquired spiritual life will be taken away (n. 193); “and thou shalt not know in what hour I will come upon thee,” signifies ignorance of that time and the state then (n. 194). 4. “Thou hast a few names even in Sardis that have not defiled their garments,” signifies those who live a moral life from a spiritual origin, by applying the knowledges of truth and good [from the Word] to the uses of their life (n. 195); “and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy,” signifies their spiritual life which they have by means of the knowledges of truth and good from the Word (n. 196). 5.”He that overcometh,” signifies he that is steadfast even until death (n. 197); “shall be clothed in white garments,” signifies intelligence and wisdom according to truths and their reception (n. 198); “and I will not blot his name out of the book of life,” signifies that they will be in heaven, because they are fitted for it (n. 199); “and I will confess his name before My Father and before His angels,” signifies that they will be in Divine good and in Divine truth therefrom (n. 200). 6. “He that hath an ear let him hear, what the Spirit saith to the churches,” signifies that he who understands should hearken to what Divine truth proceeding from the Lord teaches and says to those who are of His church (n. 201).

AE (Whitehead) n. 182 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 182. Verse 1. And to the angel of the church in Sardis write, signifies those who live a moral but not a spiritual life, because they have little regard for the knowledges of spiritual things and for intelligence and wisdom therefrom. This is evident from what is written to the angel of this church, from which, when viewed in the internal or spiritual sense, it can be seen that those who live a moral but not a spiritual life, because they have little regard for the knowledges of the spiritual things and for intelligence and wisdom therefrom, are here treated of. But before unfolding the things that follow as to their spiritual sense, it is necessary to explain and open what moral life is and what spiritual life is, also what moral life from spiritual life is, and what moral life apart from spiritual life. Moral life is acting well, sincerely, and justly with one’s companions in all the affairs and occupations of life; in a word, it is the life that is apparent before men, because it is the life lived with them. But this life has a two-fold origin; it is either from the love of self and the world, or it is from love to God and love towards the neighbor.
[2] Moral life from the love of self and the world is not in itself moral life, although it seems to be moral; for the man acting thus acts well, sincerely, and justly for the sake of self and the world only, and what is good, sincere, and just serves him as means to an end, which is, either that he may be raised above others and rule over them, or that he may gain wealth; and of these things he thinks in his spirit, or when he is by himself secretly; but these things that he thinks he does not dare to avow openly, because they would destroy the good opinion others have of him, and thus destroy the means by which he wishes to attain his ends. From this it can be seen that there lies within the moral life of such a man nothing else than to acquire all things in preference to others, thus that he wishes to have all others to serve him, or to gain possession of their goods; from which it is evident that his moral life is not in itself a moral life; for if he should gain what he aims at, or what he has as an end, he would subject others to himself as slaves, and would deprive them of their goods. And as all means savor of the end, and in their essence are of the same quality as their ends, for which reason they are also called intermediate ends, therefore such a life, regarded in itself, is merely craftiness and fraud. And this also becomes clearly evident in the case of those with whom these external bonds are released, as takes place, when engaged in lawsuits against their fellows, when they desire nothing so much as to subvert justice, and secure the good will of the judge or the favor of the king, and this secretly, that they may deprive others of their goods; and when they obtain this, they rejoice in spirit and in heart. This is still more evident in the case of kings who place honor in wars and victories, that they find the highest joy of their hearts in subjugating provinces and kingdoms, and where resistance is made, in depriving the vanquished of all their goods, and even of life. Such also is the delight of many who engage at such times in military service. This becomes still more evident with all of this character when they become spirits, which is immediately after the death of the body. As they then think and act from their spirit, they rush into every wickedness according to their love, however morally they may have lived in appearance while in the world.
[3] But spiritual life is wholly different, because it has a different origin; for it is from love to God and love towards the neighbor. Consequently, the moral life also of those who are spiritual is different, and is a truly moral life; for these, when they think in their spirit, which takes place when they are thinking secretly by themselves, do not think from self and the world, but from the Lord and heaven; for the interiors of their minds, that is, of their thought and will, are actually elevated by the Lord into heaven, and are there conjoined to Him; thus the Lord flows into their thoughts, intentions, and ends, and governs them and withdraws them from their proprium [what is their own], which is solely from the love of self and of the world. The moral life of such persons is, in appearance, like the moral life of those described above, and yet their moral life is spiritual, because it is from a spiritual origin. Their moral life is simply an effect of spiritual life, which is the efficient cause, thus the origin. For they act well, sincerely, and justly with their fellows from fear of God and from love of the neighbor; in these loves the Lord keeps their mind and disposition [mentem et animum]; consequently when they become spirits, which takes place when the body dies, they think and act intelligently and wisely, and are elevated into heaven. Of these it may be said, that with them every good of love and every truth of faith flows in out of heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord. But this is not true of those described above; for their good* is not the good of heaven, nor is their truth the truth of heaven; but what they call good is the delight of the lust of the flesh, and it is falsity therefrom that they call truth; these flow into them from self and from the world. From this it can also be known what moral life from spiritual life is, and what moral life apart from spiritual life is; namely, that moral life from spiritual life is truly moral life, which may be called spiritual, since it has its cause and origin in the spiritual; but that moral life apart from spiritual life not moral life, and may be called infernal, for so far as the love of self and of the world reign in it, so far it is fraudulent and hypocritical.
[4] From what has now been said, the quality of external sanctity may also be inferred (by which is meant worship in churches, prayers, and gestures then), with such as are in the love of self and of the world, and yet live an apparently moral life, namely, that nothing of these is elevated to heaven and is heard there, but that they flow out from some thought of the external or natural man, and thus from their mouth into the world. For the interior thoughts of such, which are of their very spirits, are full of craftiness and fraud against the neighbor; and yet it is through interiors that there is elevation into heaven. Moreover, their worship in churches, and prayers, and gestures at such times, are either the result of habit from infancy, and are thence become familiar, or they are from a principle that such external things contribute everything to salvation, or they are a consequence of there being no business for them at home and abroad on holy days, or of a fear of being regarded as irreligious by their companions. But worship with those who live a moral life from a spiritual origin is altogether different, for it is truly a worship of God, for their prayers are elevated to heaven and are heard, for the Lord leads their prayers through heaven to Himself. (But more may be seen on these subjects in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 468, 484, 529, 530-534; and above, in the explanation of Revelation n. 107.) These things are premised, because what is written to the angel of this church treats of those who live a moral but not a spiritual life, for the reason that they have little regard for the knowledges of spiritual things.
* The Latin for “good” has “the good of heaven.”

AE (Whitehead) n. 183 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 183. These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, signifies the Lord from whom are all the truths of heaven and of the church. This may appear from the fact that it is the Lord who is meant, because it is the Son of man who said these things, as well as those said to the angels of the other churches; and the Son of man is the Lord in respect to the Divine Human (see n. 63, 151). By “the seven spirits of God” all the truths of heaven and of the church are meant, because “the Spirit of God” in the Word signifies Divine truth proceeding from the Lord. “Spirit” is mentioned in many passages in the Word, and “spirit,” when used in reference to man, signifies Divine truth received in the life, thus it signifies man’s spiritual life; but in reference to the Lord, by “spirit” is meant the Divine that proceeds from Him, which is called by the general term Divine truth. But since few at this day know what is meant by “spirit” in the Word, I will first show by passages from the Word that “spirit,” in reference to man, signifies Divine truth received in the life, thus man’s spiritual life. But because there are two things that constitute man’s spiritual life, namely, the good of love and the truth of faith, in many passages in the Word mention is made of “heart and spirit,” and also of “heart and soul;” and by “heart” the good of love is signified, and by “spirit” the truth of faith; the latter is also signified by “soul,” for this means in the Word man’s spirit.
sRef Ps@51 @17 S2′ sRef Ezek@36 @26 S2′ sRef Ps@51 @10 S2′ sRef Ps@51 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@18 @31 S2′ sRef Ps@51 @12 S2′ [2] That “spirit,” in reference to man, signifies truth received in the life, is clear from the following passages. In Ezekiel:
Make you a new heart and a new spirit; why will ye die, O house of Israel (Ezek. 18:31).
In the same:
A new heart will I give you, and a new spirit will I give in the midst of you (Ezek. 36:26).
And in David:
Create for me a clean heart, O God, and renew a steadfast spirit in the midst of me. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart God doth not despise (Ps. 51:10, 17).
In these passages “heart” signifies the good of love, and “spirit” the truth of faith, from which man has spiritual life; for there are two things that make all of man’s life, namely, good and truth; these two when united in man make his spiritual life.
sRef Ezek@13 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@78 @8 S3′ sRef Isa@33 @11 S3′ sRef Deut@2 @30 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @7 S3′ sRef Ezek@20 @32 S3′ [3] As “heart” signifies good, and “spirit” truth, both received in the life, so “heart,” in the contrary sense, signifies evil, and “spirit” falsity; for most expressions in the Word have also a contrary sense. In this sense “heart” and “spirit” are mentioned, in David:
A generation that doth not set its heart aright, neither is its spirit steadfast with God (Ps. 78:8).
And in Ezekiel:
Every heart shall melt, and every spirit shall faint (Ezek. 21:7).
In Moses:
Jehovah hardened the spirit of the king of Heshbon, and confirmed his heart (Deut. 2:30).
In Isaiah:
Conceive chaff, bring forth stubble; your spirit fire shall devour (Isa. 33:11).
In Ezekiel:
Woe unto the foolish prophets that go away after their own spirit (Ezek. 13:3).
In the same:
That which ascendeth upon your spirit shall never come to pass (Ezek. 20:32).
[4] From this it is clear that the whole of man’s life is meant by “heart and spirit;” and as his whole life refers itself to these two, namely, to good and truth, and in a spiritual sense to love and faith, so these two lives of man are meant by “heart and spirit.” From this also it is that “heart and spirit” signify the will and the understanding of man; since these two faculties in man make all his life; nowhere else than in these has man life; and for the reason that the will is the receptacle of good and its love, or of evil and its love; and the understanding is the receptacle of truth and* its faith, or of falsity and its faith; and as has been said, all things with man refer themselves to good and truth, or to evil and falsity, and in a spiritual sense to love and faith (see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 28-35). In reference to man, “spirit” signifies truth or falsity, and man’s life from one or the other; because by “spirit” is meant especially the spirit that is in man and that thinks, and it thinks** either from truths or from falsities. But as was said just above, there are two things that make the life of man, understanding and will; the life of the understanding is to think either from truths or from falsities, and the life of the will is to affect or inflame with love those things that the understanding thinks. These two lives of man correspond to the two lives of his body, which are the life of the respiration of the lungs, and the life of the pulse of the heart; it is by this correspondence that spirit and body with man are united (see above, n. 167; and in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 446-447).
sRef Rev@11 @7 S5′ sRef Rev@11 @11 S5′ sRef Ps@104 @29 S5′ sRef Ezek@37 @5 S5′ sRef Luke@8 @54 S5′ sRef Ezek@37 @10 S5′ sRef Luke@8 @55 S5′ sRef Ezek@37 @9 S5′ [5] Because of this correspondence the word that means spirit in the Hebrew, as well as in many other languages, means wind or breath; so also to expire [to breathe out] is expressed by the term “to give up the spirit [breath, or ghost];” and this also in the Word; as in David:
I gathered in*** their spirit, he expired (Ps. 104:29).
In Ezekiel:
The Lord Jehovih said to the dry bones, Behold I bring spirit into you, that ye may live; and the Lord Jehovih said, From the four winds come, O spirit, and breathe into these slain; and the spirit came into them, and they revived (Ezek. 37:5, 9-10).
In Revelation:
The two witnesses were slain by the beast that cometh up out of the abyss; but after the three days and a half the spirit of life from God entered into them, so that they stood upon their feet (Rev. 11:7, 11).
In Luke:
Jesus, taking the hand of the dead girl, called, saying, Maiden, arise. Therefore her spirit came again, and she rose up immediately (Luke 8:54-55).
sRef John@3 @8 S6′ sRef John@3 @5 S6′ sRef John@20 @22 S6′ sRef John@20 @21 S6′ [6] When these passages are understood it can be seen what “spirit” signifies, when predicated of man, in many places in the Word, of which I will cite only these. In John:
Except one be born of water and of the spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh and whither it goeth; so is everyone that is born of the spirit (John 3:5, 8).
The Lord breathed on the disciples, and said, Receive ye the Holy Spirit (John 20:22).
And in the book of Genesis:
Jehovah breathed into man’s nostrils the breath of lives (Gen. 2:7);
besides other places.
sRef Luke@2 @40 S7′ sRef Dan@5 @12 S7′ sRef Luke@1 @80 S7′ sRef Dan@5 @14 S7′ sRef Ex@28 @3 S7′ sRef John@4 @23 S7′ [7] That “spirit,” in the spiritual sense, signifies truth, and man’s life therefrom, which is intelligence, is clear from the following passages. In John:
The hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshipers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth (John 4:23).
In Daniel:
In him was an excellent spirit of knowledge and understanding. I have heard of thee that the spirit of God is in thee, and that light and understanding and excellent wisdom is found in thee (Dan. 5:12, 14).
In Moses:
Thou shalt speak to all the wise in heart, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom (Exod. 28:3).
In Luke:
John grew, and waxed strong in spirit (Luke 1:80).
And concerning the Lord:
The child Jesus grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was filled with wisdom (Luke 2:40).
sRef Isa@11 @1 S8′ sRef Isa@11 @2 S8′ sRef Isa@42 @1 S8′ sRef John@3 @34 S8′ sRef John@16 @13 S8′ sRef John@6 @63 S8′ sRef John@16 @14 S8′ sRef John@16 @7 S8′ sRef Isa@59 @19 S8′ sRef Isa@61 @1 S8′ [8] When it is known what “spirit,” in reference to man, signifies, it can be known what it signifies when predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, to whom are attributed all things that a man has, as face, eyes, ears, arms, hands, as also heart and soul, and so also a spirit, which in the Word is called “the Spirit of God,” “the Spirit of Jehovah,” “the Spirit of His nostrils,” “the Spirit of His mouth,” “the Spirit of truth,” “the Spirit of holiness,” and “the Holy Spirit.” That “spirit” means Divine truth proceeding from the Lord is plain from many passages in the Word. Divine truth proceeding from the Lord is “the Spirit of God,” because from it men have all their life; and those who receive that Divine truth in faith and life have heavenly life. That this is “the Spirit of God” the Lord Himself teaches. In John:
The words that I speak unto you are spirit and are life (John 6:63).
In Isaiah:
There went forth**** a shoot out of the stock of Jesse; the spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and intelligence, the spirit of counsel and of might (Isa. 11:1, 2). In the same:
I have given My spirit unto Him: He shall bring forth judgment to the nations (Isa. 42:1).
In the same:
He shall come like a flood; the spirit of Jehovah shall lift up a standard against Him (Isa. 59:19).
In the same:
The spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon me, therefore Jehovah hath anointed me to preach good tidings to the poor (Isa. 61:1). In John:
He whom the Father hath sent speaketh the words of God, for not by measure hath God given the spirit (John 3:34).
These things are said of the Lord.
[9] That the Holy Spirit is Divine truth proceeding from the Lord can be seen in John:
I tell you the truth; it is expedient for you that I go away; for if I go not away the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I go away I will send Him unto you. When He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He shall guide you into all truth; He shall not speak from Himself, but He shall take of Mine, and shall declare it unto you (John 16:7, 13, 14).
That “the Comforter (Paraclete)” here is Divine truth proceeding from the Lord is plainly evident, for it is said that the Lord Himself spoke to them the “truth,” and that, when He should go away, He would send the Comforter, the “Spirit of truth,” who should “guide them into all truth,” and that He would “not speak from Himself,” but from the Lord. It is said “He shall take of Mine,” because Divine truth proceeds from the Lord, and what proceeds is called “Mine;” for the Lord Himself is Divine love; and what proceeds from Him is Divine truth, thus it is His (see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 139, 140, and the preceding numbers; and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 307). “Being sent” and “sending” mean proceeding and going forth (see Arcana Coelestia., n. 2397, 4710, 6831, 10561); the same is meant here by “I will send Him to you.” That “the Comforter” is the Holy Spirit is evident in John:
The Comforter, the Holy Spirit, He shall teach you all things (John 14:26).
sRef John@7 @37 S10′ sRef John@14 @26 S10′ sRef John@7 @38 S10′ sRef John@7 @39 S10′ [10] In the same:
Jesus cried with a great voice, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink. He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. This He saith of the spirit which they that believe on Him were to receive; the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified (John 7:37-39).
It is clear from this that the Holy Spirit is Divine truth, proceeding from the Lord, which flows in with man, both immediately from the Lord Himself and mediately through angels and spirits; for the Lord says first, that “he who believes on Him, out of His belly shall flow rivers of living water,” and then that “He spake this of the spirit which they were to receive;” for “water” in the spiritual sense, signifies truth, and “rivers of living water,” Divine truth from the Lord in abundance; the like is therefore meant by “the spirit which they were to receive.” (That “water” signifies truth,” and “living water” Divine truth,” see above, n. 71.) And as Divine truth proceeds from the glorified Human of the Lord and not immediately from the Divine Itself, for this was glorified in Itself from eternity, so it is here said, “the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified.” That to “glorify” is to make Divine, and that the Lord fully glorified His Human, that is, made it Divine by His last temptation and victory on the cross, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem (n. 293-295, 300-306).
[11] It is greatly wondered at in heaven that the man of the church does not know that the Holy Spirit, which is Divine truth, proceeds from the Lord’s Human, and not immediately from His Divine, when yet the doctrine received in the whole Christian world teaches that:
As is the Father so also is the Son, uncreate, infinite, eternal, omnipotent, God, Lord; neither of them first or last, nor greatest or least. Christ is God and man: God from the nature of the Father, and man from the nature of the mother; but although He is God and man, yet they are not two, but one Christ; He is one, but not by changing the Divine into the Human but the Divine took the Human to Itself. He is altogether one, not by a mingling of two natures, but He is a single person, because as body and soul are one man, so God and man is one Christ. (This from the Creed of Athanasius).
Now as the Divine and the Human of the Lord are not two, but a single person, and are united as soul and body, it may be known that the Divine which is called the Holy Spirit goes out and proceeds from His Divine through the Human, thus from the Divine Human; for nothing whatever can go forth from the body except from the soul through the body, since all the life of the body is from its soul. And since “As is the Father so is the Son, uncreate, infinite, eternal, omnipotent, God and Lord, and neither of them is first or last, nor greatest nor least,” it follows that the proceeding Divine, which is called the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Divine Itself of the Lord through His Human, and not from another Divine that is called the Father; for the Lord teaches that the Father and He are one, and that the Father is in Him and He in the Father (see below, n. 200). But the reason why most of those in the Christian world think otherwise in their hearts, and thence believe otherwise, is, the angels said, because they think of the Lord’s Human as separate from His Divine, although this is contrary to the doctrine which teaches that the Divine and the Human of the Lord are not two persons, but a single person, united as soul and body. That this should be the doctrine of the whole Christian world was provided by the Lord, because it is the essential of the church, and the essential of the salvation of all. But they have divided the Divine and the Human of the Lord into two natures, and have said that the Lord is God from the nature of the Father, and man from the nature of the mother, because they do not know that when the Lord fully glorified His Human He put off the human from the mother, and put on a Human from the Father (according to what is shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 295. That this distinction was made in a certain council by those who were there, for the pope’s sake, that he might be acknowledged as the Lord’s vicar, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 4738).
sRef Rev@19 @10 S12′ sRef Isa@28 @5 S12′ sRef Ezek@37 @14 S12′ sRef Isa@44 @3 S12′ sRef Isa@28 @6 S12′ sRef Matt@3 @11 S12′ sRef Ezek@37 @13 S12′ sRef Micah@3 @8 S12′ sRef Ps@33 @6 S12′ sRef Lam@4 @20 S12′ sRef Joel@2 @28 S12′ sRef Job@4 @9 S12′ sRef Joel@2 @29 S12′ [12] That the “Spirit of God” is Divine truth, and thence spiritual life to the man who receives it, is further evident from these passages. In Micah:
I am full of power with the spirit of Jehovah and of judgment (Micah 3:8).
And in Isaiah:
I will pour out waters upon him that is thirsty, and streams upon the dry ground, and My spirit upon thy seed (Isa. 44:3).
In that day shall Jehovah Zebaoth be for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment, and for might to them (Isa. 28:5-6).
In Ezekiel:
And ye shall know that I will put my spirit in you that ye may live (Ezek. 37:14).
In Joel:
I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh, and upon the menservants and upon the maidservants (Joel 2:28).
In Revelation:
The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy (Rev. 19:10).
Since the “Spirit of God” signifies Divine truth, it is called:
The spirit of the mouth of Jehovah (Ps. 33:6);
The spirit of His lips (Isa. 11:4);
The breath of God and the spirit of His nostrils (Lam. 4:20; Ps. 18:16; Job 4:9).
In Matthew:
John said, I baptize you with water unto repentance; but He that cometh after me, He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Matt. 3:11).
In the spiritual sense, “to baptize” signifies to regenerate; the “Holy Spirit” is Divine truth, and “fire” Divine good. (That to “baptize” signifies to regenerate, see above, n. 71; and that “fire” signifies the good of love, n. 68.)
sRef Matt@28 @19 S13′ [13] From this it can now be seen what is meant by the words of the Lord to His disciples:
Go ye, baptize into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19).
Here “the Father” is the Divine Itself, “the Son” is the Divine Human, and “the Holy Spirit” is the proceeding Divine which is Divine truth; thus there is one Divine, and yet there is a trine. That this is so the Lord teaches in John:
Henceforth ye know the Father, and have seen Him. He that seeth Me seeth the Father. I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:7, 9-10).
sRef Ps@104 @4 S14′ sRef Rev@5 @6 S14′ sRef Rev@4 @5 S14′ [14] Since the proceeding Divine, which is Divine truth, flows in with men immediately, as well as mediately through angels and spirits, it is believed that the Holy Spirit is a third person, distinct from the two called Father and Son. But I can affirm that no one in heaven knows any other Holy Divine than the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord. And since Divine truth is also communicated to men mediately through angels, it is said in David:
Jehovah God maketh His angels spirits (Ps. 104:1, 4).
These passages have been cited that it may be known that “the seven spirits” signify all the truths of heaven and of the church from the Lord. It is made still more manifest that “the seven spirits” are all the truths of heaven and of the church, from these passages in Revelation:
The seven lamps of fire burning before the throne are the seven spirits of God (Rev. 4:5).
And further:
In the midst of the elders a Lamb standing, having seven horns, and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth (Rev. 5:6).
It is plain that the spirits here are not spirits, from the fact that the “lamps” and the “eyes of the Lamb” are called spirits. “Lamps” signify Divine truths, and “eyes” the understanding of truth; and when predicated of the Lord, His Divine wisdom and intelligence (see above, n. 152).
* The Latin has “or,” but the context requires “and.”
** The Latin for “thinks either” has “either thinks either.”
*** For “I gathered in” the Hebrew has “thou gatherest in.”
**** For “there went forth,” the Hebrew has, “There shall go forth,” as found in AC 2826, 9818; AR 46, 962.

AE (Whitehead) n. 184 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 184. And the seven stars, signifies from whom are all the knowledges of truth and good. This is evident from the signification of “seven,” as being what is full and all things (see above, n. 20, 24), also from the signification of “stars” as being the knowledges of truth and good (see also above, n. 72). It is said to the angel of this church, “These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars,” because those within the church who are living a moral but not a spiritual life, because they have little regard for the knowledges of spiritual things and thence for intelligence and wisdom, are here treated of; for “the seven spirits of God” signify all the truths of heaven and of the church, and “the seven stars” the knowledges of truth and good; and through these two come all intelligence and wisdom. To the angel of each church is premised something respecting the Lord, which indicates what is treated of (see above, n. 113).

AE (Whitehead) n. 185 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 185. I know thy works, signifies the things that are of their life. This is evident from the signification of “works,” as being the things that are of man’s life, both the good and the evil. “Works” signify the things that are of life because they are the effects of life, for they proceed from the life of everyone. If the life is good the works are good, but if the life is evil the works are evil. The life that is in works is the intention, which is of the will, and of the thought therefrom; and this life is the life of man’s spirit; for it is the spirit in man that intends and thinks. Without this life in works they would be only motions like those of automatons. For this reason the wise do not look at the works, but at the life that is in the works, namely, at the intention. This is especially true of the angels who are with man; they do not see his works, but only the intentions of his mind, and conclude therefrom what the man’s state is. From this it can be seen that “works” in the spiritual sense mean the life; and as the life of man is diverse, depending mainly upon his love, it is his love that is especially signified by “works;” see above (n. 98, 116). This is why it is said to the angel of each church in the beginning, “I know thy works;” which therefore means that the Lord knows the whole life of man, and its quality in respect to love.

AE (Whitehead) n. 186 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 186. That thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead, signifies the quality of their thought, in that they think themselves to be alive, because they are living a moral life, when yet they are dead. This is evident from the signification of “name,” as being quality of state (see above, n. 148); also from the signification of “living,” as being to have spiritual life (of which presently); also from the signification of “being dead,” as being not to have spiritual life, but only moral life without it. This is “being dead,” because in the Word “life” signifies the life of heaven with man, which is there also called “life eternal;” while “death” signifies the life of hell, which life in the Word is called “death,” because it is the privation of the life of heaven. Here, therefore, “thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead,” signifies thinking that they have spiritual life, and thus are saved, because they are living a moral life, when yet they are spiritually dead. But how this is to be understood can be seen from what was said above (n. 182) of each life, spiritual and moral, namely, that moral life apart from spiritual life is the life of the love of self and the love of the world, while moral life that is from spiritual life is a life of love to the Lord and love towards the neighbor; this life is the life of heaven, but the other life is what is called spiritual death. When this is understood (see above, n. 182), it can be known what is meant here by “being alive and yet being dead.”
sRef Ezek@3 @21 S2′ sRef Ezek@3 @20 S2′ sRef Ezek@3 @19 S2′ sRef Ezek@3 @18 S2′ [2] That “to live,” or “being alive,” signifies spiritual life in man, and “being dead” deprivation of that life, and damnation, can be seen from many passages in the Word, of which I will cite the following. Thus in Ezekiel:
When I shall say unto the wicked, In dying he* shall die, and thou shalt not give him warning, nor speak to warn the wicked one from his evil way, that he may be made alive, the wicked shall die in his iniquity. But if thou shalt give warning to the wicked, and he shall not** turn back from his wickedness nor from his wicked way, he shall die in his iniquity; yet hast thou delivered thy soul. So if thou shalt give warning to a righteous man that he sin no more,*** and he sin not, living he shall live, because he took warning (Ezek. 3:18-21).
Here “dying he shall die” is to perish in eternal death, which is damnation, for it is said of the wicked; and “living he shall live” is to enjoy eternal life, which is salvation, for it is said of those who repent, and of the righteous.
sRef Ezek@13 @19 S3′ [3] In the same:
Ye have profaned Me with My people, to kill the souls that should not die, and to keep alive the souls that should not live, whilst ye lie to My people, to them that hear a lie (Ezek. 13:19).
This treats of the falsification of truth, which is meant by “Ye have profaned Me with My people,” and by “ye lie to the people, to them that hear a lie.” Here “a lie” signifies what is false, and what is falsified. “To kill the souls that should not die” is to deprive them of the life that comes from truths; and “to keep alive the souls that should not live” is to persuade them that life eternal is from falsities. That this is here meant by “making alive” is evident from the preceding verse there.
sRef John@5 @24 S4′ sRef Ps@56 @13 S4′ sRef Ps@33 @19 S4′ sRef Jer@21 @8 S4′ sRef Ps@33 @18 S4′ [4] In David:
Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear Him, to deliver their soul from death, and to keep them alive in famine (Ps. 33:18-19).
In the same:
Thou hast delivered my soul from death, and my feet from stumbling, that I may walk before God in the light of the living (Ps. 56:13).
In Jeremiah:
Behold, I set before you the way of life and the way of death (Jer. 21:8).
In John:
Jesus said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that heareth My Word hath eternal life, and shall not come into condemnation, but shall pass from death into life (John 5:24).
sRef Isa@28 @15 S5′ sRef Rev@20 @14 S5′ sRef Ps@18 @4 S5′ sRef Ps@30 @3 S5′ sRef Ps@18 @5 S5′ sRef Hos@13 @14 S5′ sRef Isa@38 @18 S5′ sRef Rev@6 @8 S5′ sRef Isa@38 @19 S5′ sRef Ps@6 @5 S5′ sRef Ps@49 @14 S5′ [5] It is clear that in these passages “death” means damnation, and “life” salvation. Because “death” is damnation it is also hell, for which reason hell is commonly called “death” in the Word, as in these passages. In Isaiah:
Hell will not confess Thee, nor will death praise Thee; they that go down into the pit will not hope on Thy truth. The living, the living, he shall confess Thee (Isa. 38:18-19).
In the same:
We have made a covenant with death, and with hell we have made a vision (Isa. 28:15).
In Hosea:
I will ransom them from the hand of hell; I will redeem them from death. O death, I will be thy plague! O hell, I will be thy perdition! (Hosea 13:14).
In David:
In death there is no remembrance of Thee; in hell who shall confess Thee? (Ps. 6:5).
In the same:
The cords of death compassed me, and the cords of hell (Ps. 18:4-5).
In the same:
Like sheep shall they be laid in hell; death shall feed them (Ps. 49:14).
In the same:
Jehovah, thou hast brought up my soul from hell; Thou hast made Me to live (Ps. 30:3).
In Revelation:
A pale horse, and he that sat upon him whose name was death, and hell will follow**** him (Rev. 6:8).
And in another place:
Death and hell were cast into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:14).
sRef Ps@91 @6 S6′ sRef Rev@8 @11 S6′ sRef John@8 @51 S6′ sRef Isa@25 @8 S6′ sRef Isa@53 @9 S6′ sRef Ps@91 @5 S6′ sRef Ps@9 @13 S6′ sRef John@8 @52 S6′ sRef Rev@16 @3 S6′ sRef Rev@2 @11 S6′ [6] As “death” signifies damnation and hell, its meaning in the following passages is evident. In Isaiah:
He will swallow up death for ever; and the Lord Jehovih will wipe away tears from off all faces (Isa. 25:8).
In the same:
That he might give the wicked to their sepulcher, and the rich in their deaths (Isa. 53:9).
In David:
Jehovah, Thou liftest me up from the gates of death (Ps. 9:13).
Thou shalt not be afraid for the arrow that flieth by day, nor for the death that wasteth at noonday (Ps. 91:5-6).
In John:
If any one keep My word he shall never see death John 8:51).
In Revelation:
He that overcometh shall not be destroyed in the second death (Rev. 2:11).
In another place:
Many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter (Rev. 8:11).
In the same:
The second angel poured out a bowl upon the sea, and it became blood as of one dead, whence every living soul died in the sea (Rev. 16:3).
sRef Num@19 @17 S7′ sRef Num@19 @18 S7′ sRef Num@19 @19 S7′ sRef Matt@8 @22 S7′ sRef Ps@106 @28 S7′ sRef Num@19 @22 S7′ sRef Num@19 @21 S7′ sRef Lev@21 @11 S7′ sRef Num@19 @20 S7′ sRef Ezek@44 @25 S7′ sRef Num@19 @16 S7′ sRef Num@6 @7 S7′ sRef Num@6 @6 S7′ sRef Num@19 @11 S7′ sRef Lev@21 @2 S7′ sRef Lev@21 @3 S7′ sRef Matt@8 @21 S7′ sRef Num@19 @13 S7′ sRef Num@19 @14 S7′ sRef Num@19 @12 S7′ sRef Num@19 @15 S7′ sRef Ps@143 @3 S7′ [7] From these passages it can be seen what is meant by “the dead,” namely, those who have not in themselves the life of heaven, and consequently are in evils and in falsities therefrom. These are meant also in the following passages. In David:
They joined themselves also unto Baal-peor, and ate the sacrifices of the dead (Ps. 106:28).
In the same:
He hath made me to sit in darkness, like the dead of eternity (Ps. 143:3).
In Matthew:
One of His disciples said, Lord, suffer me first to go away and bury my father. Jesus said, Follow Me, and let the dead bury the dead (Matt. 8:21-22).
On account of this signification of “the dead”:
The sons of Aaron were forbidden to touch any dead body (Lev. 21:2-3, 11);
Likewise the priests, the Levites (Ezek. 44:25);
Likewise the Nazirite (Num. 6:6-7);
And whoever of the sons of Israel touched the dead must be cleansed by the water of separation (Num. 19:11 to the end).
sRef Ps@66 @9 S8′ sRef Ps@66 @8 S8′ sRef Matt@19 @17 S8′ sRef Ps@142 @5 S8′ sRef Ps@27 @13 S8′ sRef John@5 @29 S8′ sRef Matt@18 @9 S8′ sRef Matt@7 @14 S8′ [8] As “death” signifies damnation and hell, so on the other hand “life” signifies salvation and heaven; as in the passages that follow. In Matthew:
Narrow is the gate and straitened is the way which leadeth unto life (Matt. 7:14).
In the same:
It is good to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the hell of fire (Matt. 18:9).
If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments (Matt. 19:17).
In John:
They shall come forth; they that have done good unto the resurrection of life (John 5:29).
From this it is that salvation is called “eternal life” (as in Matt. 19:16, 29; 25:46; Mark 10:30, 31; Luke 10:25; 18:18, 30; John 3:14-16, 36; 17:2, 3; and other places). For the same reason heaven is called “the land of the living,” as in David:
“the land of the living,” as in David:
O Jehovah, Thou art my reliance, my part in the land of the living (Ps. 142:5).
In the same:
That thou mayest see the good of Jehovah in the land of the living (Ps. 27:13).
In the same:
O bless our God, ye peoples, who places our soul among the living (Ps. 66:8, 9).
sRef John@11 @26 S9′ sRef John@6 @48 S9′ sRef John@5 @21 S9′ sRef John@14 @6 S9′ sRef John@11 @25 S9′ sRef John@5 @26 S9′ sRef John@6 @33 S9′ sRef John@6 @47 S9′ sRef John@6 @35 S9′ [9] That the Lord alone has life in Himself, and that even man has life from Him, the Lord Himself teaches in the following passages. In John:
As the Father raiseth up the dead and maketh them alive, even so the Son maketh alive whom He will. For as the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:21, 26).
In the same:
Jesus said, I am the resurrection and the life; he that believeth in Me, though he die, shall live (John 11:25, 26).
In the same:
I am the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6).
In the same:
I am the bread of life that cometh down out of heaven, and giveth life unto the world (John 6:33, 35, 47, 48).
From this it is that the Lord is said to be “Living” and “the Living One” (Apoc. 4:9, 10; 5:14; 7:2; 10:6). The same is said of Jehovah in many passages in the prophets.
sRef John@11 @26 S10′ sRef John@5 @40 S10′ sRef John@10 @10 S10′ sRef John@10 @28 S10′ sRef John@11 @25 S10′ sRef John@3 @36 S10′ [10] And as the Lord is life, so all have life from Him; this also the Lord teaches. In John:
He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life; but he that believeth not the Son shall not see life (John 3:36).
In the same:
Jesus said, I came that the sheep may have life. I give unto them eternal life (John 10:10, 28).
In the same:
He that believeth on Me, though he die, shall live (John 11:25, 26).
In the same:
Ye will not come to Me, that ye may have life (v. 40).
sRef Ps@36 @9 S11′ sRef John@1 @1 S11′ sRef John@1 @9 S11′ sRef John@8 @12 S11′ sRef John@1 @4 S11′ [11] “Life” signifies the Lord, and thence salvation and heaven, because all of life is from one only Fountain, and that only Fountain of life is the Lord, while angels and men are merely forms receiving life from Him. The Life itself that proceeds from the Lord and fills heaven and the world, is the life of His love, and in heaven this appears as light, and because this light is life it enlightens the minds of angels, and enables them to understand and be wise. From this it is that the Lord calls Himself not only “the Life” but also “the Light.” As in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. In Him was life; and the life was the light of men. That was the true Light, which lighteth every man coming into the world (John 1:1, 4-12).
In the same:
Jesus said, I am the Light of the world; he that followeth Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life (John 8:12).
In David:
Jehovah, with Thee is the fountain of life, in Thy light shall we see light (Ps. 36:9).
The light which is life from the Lord in heaven is there called Divine truth, because it shines in the minds of those who are there, and thence shines before their eyes. From this it is that in the Word “light” signifies Divine truth, and intelligence and wisdom therefrom, and that the Lord Himself is called “the Light.” (But this is shown more fully in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 126-140, 275, which see.)
[12] The Lord is the source [a quo] of everything of life, because He is the sun of the angelic heaven, and the light of that sun is Divine truth, and its heat is Divine good; the two are life. From that origin is all life in heaven and in the world. The spiritual that flows into nature, and gives life there, is from no other source; but it gives life according to reception. (On this also see the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 116-125.) From this it is now evident why it is that the Lord calls Himself “the Life,” and why it is that those are said to have life and to live who receive light which is Divine truth, from the Lord, and why those who do not receive it are said not to live, but to be dead. (That there is one only Fountain of life, and that the Lord is that Fountain, see in the work on Heaven and Hell, n. 9; and in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, n. 278.)
* The Hebrew has: “thou shalt die,” as found also in Arcana Coelestia, n. 5890.
** Latin for “and he shall not turn” has “and he shall turn.”
*** Latin for “that he sin no more” has “lest he sin more.”
**** For “will follow” the Greek has “followed,” as found in AE 377, 383.

AE (Whitehead) n. 187 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ 187. Verse 2. Be wakeful, signifies that they should acquire for themselves life. This is evident from the signification of “being wakeful,” as meaning to be in spiritual life; but here, since those whose life is moral and not yet spiritual are treated of, “Be wakeful” is that they should acquire for themselves spiritual life. This life is meant by “wakefulness” and “being awake,” because spiritual life is to moral life, apart from spiritual life, as wakefulness is to sleep, or as noonday light is to the evening, yea, to darkness. But that this is so is not known or perceived by those who are in natural life alone, neither by those who are in moral life apart from spiritual life, for this life also is natural life. They do not know or perceive this, because they are in natural lumen only, and this lumen in comparison with spiritual light is as the darkness of evening to the light of noonday. Moreover, to such the darkness of evening seems like light; for their interior sight, which is that of the thought, is adapted to that darkness, just as the sight of owls, bats, and other birds that fly by night, is adapted to the shade. Consequently they believe themselves to be in light because they are able to reason, when yet they are in darkness. That this is so is manifest from the state of such after death, when they become spirits. They then believe, when with their companions, that they are in light, because they not only see all things that are about them, but also are able to think and speak about any matter whatever; and yet their light, when the light of heaven flows in with them, is changed into darkness, and they become so blind in respect to the understanding as not to be able to think at all. Moreover, when angels who are in the heavens look down on those who are in such lumen, they see nothing there but mere darkness. That spiritual life compared with moral life apart from spiritual life is as wakefulness compared with sleep, can be further seen from this, that those who are in spiritual light are in angelic wisdom and intelligence, which is such as to be incomprehensible and ineffable to those who are in natural lumen alone, and this not only with men while living in the world, but also with the same when after death they become spirits; and when intelligence and wisdom constitute wakefulness. From this it can now be seen that “Be wakeful” here signifies that they should procure for themselves spiritual life.
sRef Matt@24 @42 S2′ sRef Mark@13 @37 S2′ sRef Mark@13 @36 S2′ sRef Mark@13 @35 S2′ [2] To “be awake” has a similar signification in the following passages. In Matthew:
Be awake, therefore, for ye know not in what hour your Lord cometh (Matt. 24:42).
In Mark:
Be ye awake, for ye know not when the lord of the house cometh, at evening, or at midnight, or at cock-crowing;* lest, coming suddenly, he find you sleeping. What I say unto you I say unto all, Be awake (Mark 13:35-37).
He that is ignorant of the internal sense of the Word may believe that these words refer to the Last Judgment, and that everyone should be prepared for that; but man’s state in respect to love and faith when he dies is what they refer to, for then is his judgment. “Evening,” “night,” and “cock-crowing” signify such states; “evening” signifying a state of waning faith and charity, which is man’s state when he comes into the exercise of his own judgment, and is extinguishing in himself the things that he imbibed in childhood; “night” signifying a state of no faith and charity; “cock-crowing” or “daybreak” the state when faith and charity are beginning, which is, when man loves truths and wishes to be reformed by them.
In whatever state a man dies he remains, and according to that he is judged. From this it is evident what is meant by “Be ye awake, lest the Lord coming suddenly find you sleeping. What I say unto you I say unto all, Be awake,” namely, that “to be awake” means to receive life from the Lord, which life is spiritual life, and that “sleeping” means living a natural life apart from a spiritual life. (That “evening” signifies a state of waning faith and charity, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 3056, 3197, 3833, 8431, 10134, 10135; “night” a state of no faith or charity, n. 221, 709, 2353, 6000, 7870, 7947; and “daybreak” before morning, or “cock-crowing,” the state when faith and charity are beginning, n. 10134.)
sRef Luke@12 @37 S3′ sRef Luke@12 @40 S3′ [3] In Luke:
Blessed are those servants whom the Lord when He cometh shall find awake; verily I say unto you, He shall gird himself, and make them recline to eat, and drawing near will minister unto them. Be ye ready; for in an hour that ye think not the Son of man will come (Luke 12:37, 40).
Here also, those that “are awake” mean those who are spiritually awake, that is, those who receive spiritual life from the Lord, for these come into the light of intelligence and wisdom respecting Divine truths; but those who do not receive spiritual life remain in obscurity and thick darkness respecting those truths; these, therefore, are asleep, while the former are awake. His “girding himself, making them recline to eat, and drawing near to minister unto them,” signifies to communicate to them the goods of heaven, which are all from the Lord.
[4] In Matthew:
The kingdom of the heavens is like unto ten virgins, five of them were prudent, and five were foolish. While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept; but the bridegroom coming, they all arose and trimmed their lamps. And when the foolish came, who had no oil in their lamps, and said, Lord, Lord, open to us, the Lord answered, I say unto you, I know you not. Be awake, therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh (Matt. 25:1-13).
By “the ten virgins” all who are of the church are meant; by “five” some of them are meant; this is what these numbers signify; by “lamps” the things of faith are signified; by “oil” the things of love. By “the five prudent virgins,” therefore, those who are in love and in faith therefrom are meant; but by “the five foolish virgins” those who are in no love, but in faith alone. As such are in no spiritual life (for only those who are in love and charity have spiritual life, because they only are in faith), so because such as these are shut out of heaven, it is said unto them, “I say unto you, I know you not.” From this it is most evident what is signified by “Be awake, therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh,” namely, that they should receive spiritual life, which those have who are in love and in faith therefrom. (But these things may be seen more fully explained in Arcana Coelestia, n. 4635-4638.)
sRef Luke@21 @36 S5′ [5] In Luke:
Be wakeful, therefore, praying at every season, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man (Luke 21:36).
Here, also, “to be wakeful” means to receive spiritual life; “to pray at every season” signifies to prepare oneself.
sRef Rev@16 @15 S6′ [6] In Revelation:
Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that is awake, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked (Rev. 16:15).
Here “to be awake” signifies to receive spiritual life from the Lord, as is evident from its being said, “Blessed is he that is awake and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked;” “garments” signifying the knowledges of truth and good by means of which man has spiritual life; and “to walk naked” signifying life without such knowledges as means, thus life not spiritual but merely natural. (That “garments” signify the knowledges of truth and good, see below, n. 195, and that by “naked” is signified the deprivation of these, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1073, 5433, 5954, 9960.)
sRef Lam@2 @19 S7′ [7] In Lamentations:
Arise, cry aloud in the night, at the beginning of the watches; lift up thy hands to the Lord respecting the soul of thy babes, who have fainted through hunger at the head of every street (Lam. 2:19);
here, as above, “night” signifies a state of no faith; “the beginning of the watches” signifies the state when faith begins, thus a state of illustration, which is when man becomes spiritual. By “babes” are meant those who love truths, and long for them; “to faint through hunger at the head of every street” is to be deprived of spiritual life through a lack of the knowledges of truth and good. (That “hunger” means a lack of knowledges and a longing for them, see Arcana Coelestia, n. 1460, 3364, 5277, 5279, 5281, 5300, 5360, 5376, 5893; and that “streets” are the truths of doctrine, n. 2336.)
sRef Ps@13 @3 S8′ sRef Ps@76 @5 S8′ sRef Jer@51 @57 S8′ sRef Jer@51 @39 S8′ sRef Ps@76 @6 S8′ sRef Matt@13 @25 S8′ sRef Matt@13 @24 S8′ [8] Because “to be awake” signifies to receive spiritual life, therefore “sleeping” signifies natural life apart from spiritual life, since natural life compared with spiritual life is as sleep compared with wakefulness, as has been said above. This is what “sleeping” signifies in Matthew:
The kingdom of the heavens is like unto a man that sowed good seed in his field; but while men slept the enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat (Matt. 13:24-25).
In Jeremiah:
When they have grown warm, I will set their feasts, and I will make them drunken, that they may sleep the sleep of an age, and not awake (Jer. 51:39, 57).
In David:
Look! answer me, Jehovah my God! lighten Thine eyes** lest I sleep death (Ps. 13:3).
In the same:
The strong in heart have become a spoil, they have slumbered their sleep; at Thy rebuke both the chariot and the horse have fallen into a deep sleep (Ps. 76:5-6).
“Chariot and horse” signify the doctrine of the church and the understanding of doctrine; these are said “to fall into a deep sleep” when they are without truths, and when consequently the man of the church is without spiritual life by means of truths. (That “chariots and horses” in the Word signify doctrine and the intellectual, see in The small work on The White Horse, n. 1-5.)
* For “cock-crowing” the Latin has “belonging to chickens.”
** For “thine” the Hebrew has “mine,” as found in Apocalypse Explained, n. 152; Arcana Coelestia, n. 212, 6119.

AE (Whitehead) n. 188 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ 188. And confirm the things remaining that are about to die, signifies in order that the things that belong to the moral life may be vivified. This is evident from the signification of “confirming,” as being to vivify the moral life by means of truths; for truths from the Word are what vivify it; and when it is vivified it is also confirmed, for it then acts as one with the spiritual life; for spiritual life and moral life act as one with those who are spiritual, as will and action do; will is of the spiritual man and its life, and action is of the moral (see above, n. 182). It is said, “confirm the things remaining that are about to die,” which signifies lest the moral life be destroyed by evils and falsities; for moral life apart from spiritual life is nothing else than natural life; since all the good things that man does from a moral life, apart from the spiritual, are from no other origin than from the love of self and the world, that is, from the proprium [one’s own], and from the proprium [one’s own] nothing flows out except evil and falsity; man, indeed, wishes to be esteemed moral, because by feigning goodness, sincerity, and righteousness in outward form, he may gain ends that have respect to self and the world.
From this it is that all things that are with him are in themselves dead, that is, are “about to die,” unless they are made alive by truths and goods, which may bring about an opening of the internal spiritual man; for it is by this means that the Lord takes away the evils and falsities that are in the natural.

AE (Whitehead) n. 189 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ 189. For I have not found thy works full before God, signifies that otherwise the Divine is not in the