Apocalypse Revealed (Whitehead)

AR (Whitehead) n. 0 sRef Jame@5 @14 S0′ 0. Preface

There are many who have labored in the explanation of the Apocalypse; but, as the spiritual sense of the Word had been hitherto unknown, they could not see the arcana which lie concealed therein, for the spiritual sense alone discloses these; on which account expositors have conjectured various things, and the most of them have applied the things that are therein to the states of empires, intermingling also some things about ecclesiastical affairs. But the Apocalypse, like the whole Word, does not in the least, in its spiritual sense, treat of worldly, but of heavenly things; thus not of empires and kingdoms, but of heaven and the church. It is to be known, that after the Last Judgment, which was accomplished in the spiritual world in the year 1757, concerning which see in a small work by itself, published at London in 1758, there was formed a New Heaven from Christians; but from those only who could receive the Lord as the God of heaven and earth, according to His words in Matthew 28:18, and who at the same time in the world had repented of their evil works. From this heaven the New Church on earth, which is the New Jerusalem, is descending and will descend. That this Church will acknowledge the Lord alone, is manifest from these passages in the Apocalypse:
There came unto me one of the seven angels, and spake with me, saying, Come I will show thee the Bride, the Lamb’s Wife; and he showed me the great city, holy Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God (chapter 21:9, 10).
And in another place:
Let us rejoice and exult; for the time of the Marriage of the Lamb is come, and His Wife hath made herself ready. Happy are they that are called unto the Marriage Supper of the Lamb (chapter 19:7, 9).
That there is to be a New Heaven, and that the New Church on earth will descend therefrom, is manifest from these words there:
I saw a New Heaven and a New Earth; and I saw the holy city Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a Bride adorned for her Husband. He that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new; and He said unto me, Write, for these words are true and faithful (chapter 21:1, 2, 5).
“The New Heaven” is a New Heaven from Christians: “the New Jerusalem” is the New Church on earth, which will act as one with that New Heaven. “The Lamb” is the Lord as to the Divine Human.
To this something shall be added for illustration. The Christian Heaven is below the Ancient Heavens. Into it, from the time of the Lord, when He was in the world, were admitted those who worshiped one God under three Persons, and who at the same time had not the idea of three Gods; and this because the Trinity of Persons has been received in the whole Christian world. But they who cherished no other idea of the Lord’s Human than as the human of another man, could not receive the faith of the New Jerusalem; which is, that the Lord is the only God, in whom is the Trinity. These were for that reasons separated, and were sent away to the extremes: it was given me to see the separations and the removals after the Last Judgment. For the whole heaven is founded upon a just idea of God, and the whole church on earth, and in general all religion; since by that idea there is conjunction, and by conjunction light, wisdom, and eternal happiness.
Everyone can see that the Apocalypse can by no means be explained but by the Lord alone; for each word therein contains arcana, which could never be known without particular enlightenment, and thus revelation; wherefore it has pleased the Lord to open the sight of my spirit, and to teach me. Do not believe, therefore, that I have taken anything therein from myself, nor from any angel, but from the Lord alone. The Lord also said to John through the angel:
Seal not the words of the prophecy of this Book (chapter 22:10).
By which is meant that they are to be made manifest.

A SUMMARY OF THE DOCTRINES OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND RELIGION.
SINCE Babylon, which is the Roman Catholic Religion, is also treated of in the Apocalypse, chapters 17, 18, and 19, in the beginning of these explanations, its doctrinal tenets must be laid open, and in the following order: Of Baptism, the Eucharist or Holy Supper, Masses, Repentance, Justification, Purgatory, the Seven Sacraments, the Saints, and Power.
“I. Of Baptism, they teach: That Adam, after the offense of transgression was wholly changed for the worse, both as to body and soul; that this sin was transfused into the whole human race; that this original sin is taken away only by the merit of Christ; and that the merit of Christ is applied by the sacrament of Baptism; and that thus the whole guilt of original sin is taken away by Baptism; that nevertheless lust remains in the baptized as an incentive to sins, but not sin itself; that thus they put on Christ, become new creatures, and obtain a full and complete remission of sins. Baptism is called the laver of regeneration and of faith. That the baptized, when grown up, are to be questioned concerning the promises made by their sponsors; which is the SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION. That by reason of lapses after Baptism, the Sacrament of Repentance is necessary.
“II. THE EUCHARIST OR HOLY SUPPER. That immediately after consecration, the true body and the true blood of Jesus Christ are really and substantially contained under the form of bread and wine, together with His Soul and Divinity; the body under the form of bread, and the blood under the form of wine, by virtue of the words: but the body itself under the form of wine, and the blood under the form of bread, and the soul under both, by virtue of a natural connection and alliance, whereby the parts of the Lord Christ are united together, and the Divinity by reason of its admirable hypostatic union with the body and the soul; thus that they are as fully contained under one form as under both; in a word, that the whole and entire Christ exists under the form of the bread and under every part of that form; and the whole also under the form of the wine and its parts; that therefore the two forms are separated, and the bread is given to the laity, and the wine to the clergy. That water is to be mixed with wine in the cup. That the laity are to receive the communion from the clergy, and the clergy from themselves. That the true body and the true blood of Christ, after consecration, are in the host in the consecrated particles; and that therefore the host is to be adored when it is shown and carried about. That this wonderful and particular conversion of the whole substance of the bread into body, and of the whole substance of the wine into blood, is called transubstantiation. That the communion of both forms, under certain conditions, may be granted by the Pontiff. It is called supersubstantial bread, and the bread of angels, which these eat without any veils; it is also called spiritual food; also the antidote by which they are freed from sins.
“III. MASSES. It is called the sacrifice of the mass, because the sacrifice by which Christ offered up Himself to God the Father, is represented thereby under the form of the bread and wine; that thence it is a sacrifice truly propitiatory, pure, and there is nothing in it except what is holy. That if the people do not commune sacramentally, but only the minister, then the people commune spiritually, because the ministers do it, not for themselves only, but for all the faithful who appertain to the body of Christ. The masses ought not to be performed in the vulgar tongue, because they contain the great learning of the faithful people; but that the ministers may declare some thing concerning it on the Lord’s days. That it is ordained, that some things which are mystical should be pronounced with a lower, and other things with a louder, voice; and, for the purpose of giving majesty to so great a sacrifice which is offered to God, there should be lights, incense, garments, and other like things. That it is to be offered for the sins, penalties, satisfactions, and all the necessities of the living, and also for the dead. That masses in honour of the saints are thanksgivings because they intercede when they are implored.
“IV. REPENTANCE. That besides baptism there is the Sacrament of Repentance, whereby the benefit of the death and merit of Christ is applied to those who lapse after baptism; therefore it is called a kind of laborious baptism. That the parts of repentance are contrition, confession, and satisfaction. That CONTRITION is the gift of God, and the impulse of the Holy Spirit, not yet indwelling, but only moving, therefore it is a disposing. That CONFESSION ought to be made of all mortal sins, even the most secret, and of the intentions; that sins which are withheld from confession are not forgiven, but that those which after search do not occur, are included in confession; that confession ought to be made at least once a year: that absolution of sins is to be given by the ministers of the keys, and that they are forgiven on their saying, I ABSOLVE; that absolution is like the act of a judge when sentence is pronounced; that the more grievous sins are to be absolved by bishops, and the still more grievous by the pontiff. SATISFACTION is made by satisfactory punishments imposed by the ministry at discretion, according to the measure of the offence; that when eternal punishment is remitted, then temporal punishment is remitted also. That the power of INDULGENCES was left by Christ to the church, and that the use of them is most salutary.
“V. JUSTIFICATION. That the change from that state in which man is born a son of Adam, cannot be effected into a state of face through the second Adam the Saviour, without the washing of regeneration and faith, or without baptism. That the second beginning of justification is from preventing grace, which is a calling, with which man cooperates by converting himself. That disposition is produced by faith, when man believes those things to be true which are revealed, to which he is freely moved; also by hope, when he believes that God is propitious for the sake of Christ; and by charity, in consequence whereof he begins to love his neighbour, and to hate sin. That justification, which follows, is not only remission of sins, but sanctification, and renovation of the interior man; that then they are not reputed just, but that they are just, receiving justice in themselves; and because they receive the merit of Christ’s passion, justification is inserted by faith, hope, and charity. That faith is the beginning of human salvation, the foundation and root of justification, and that this is to be justified by faith: and because none of those things which precede justification, whether they be of faith or works, merit the grace of justification, that this is being justified gratis, for it is a preventing grace; and that still man is justified by works, and not so much by faith. That the just may fall into light and venial sins, and still be just; and that therefore the just ought continually to labour by prayers, oblations, alms, and fastings, lest they should fall, because they are born again into the hope of glory, and not into glory. That the just, if they fall from the grace of justification, may be justified again by the sacrament of repentance: that by any mortal sin grace is lost, but not faith, but that faith also is lost by infidelity, which is a receding from religion. That the works of a justified man are merits; and that the justified merit eternal life by those that are done by them through the grace of God and the merit of Christ. That FREE-WILL was not lost and extinguished after the sin of Adam; and that man co-operates by assenting to the calling of God; and that otherwise he would be an inanimate body. They establish PREDESTINATION, by saying that no one knows whether he is in the number of the predestined, and among those whom God has elected to Himself, except by special revelation.
“VI. PURGATORY. That all the guilt from which men are to be purified by temporal punishment is not blotted out by justification, and therefore all come into purgatory to be purified, before the entrance into heaven is open. That the souls there detained are assisted by the suffrages of the faithful, and particularly by the sacrifice of the mass; and that this is diligently to be taught and preached.” The torments there endured are variously described, but they are inventions, and in themselves fictions.
“VII. THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS. That there are seven sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Repentance, Extreme Unction, Order, and Matrimony; that there are neither more nor less: that one is of greater dignity than another; that they contain grace; and that from the work operated by them grace is conferred; that there were the same number of sacraments of the ancient Law. Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, and Repentance have been treated of above. THE SACRAMENT OF EXTREME UNCTION: That it is founded on the epistle of James, chap. v., 14, 15; that it is to be administered to the sick near the end of life, whence it is called the sacrament of the departing; that if they recover, it may be applied again; that it is performed with oil blessed by the bishop, and with these words: `May God grant thee indulgence for whatsoever offence thou hast committed through the fault of the eyes, the nostrils, or the touch.’ THE SACRAMENT OF ORDER: That there are seven orders in the ministry of the priesthood, which differ in dignity, and all together are called the ecclesiastical hierarchy, which is like the order of an encampment; that inaugurations into the ministry are to be effected by anointings, and by transferring of the Holy Spirit into them. That the secular power or consent, calling or authority of the magistrate is not required for the ordination of bishops and priests; that they who ascend to the ministry being appointed by a calling from them only, are not ministers, but thieves and robbers, who do not enter in by the door. THE SACRAMENT OF MATRIMONY: That the dispensation of degrees and divorces belongs to the church. That the clergy are not to contract matrimony. That all of them may have the gift of chastity, and if anyone saith he cannot, when nevertheless he has vowed, let him be anathema, because God does not refuse it to those who seek it in a right way, and does not suffer anyone to be tempted beyond what he is able to bear. That a state of virginity and celibacy is to be preferred to the conjugial state; besides other things.
“VIII. THE SAINTS. That the saints reigning together with Christ offer up their prayers to God for men; that Christ is to be adored, and the saints to be invoked; that the invocation of saints is not idolatrous, nor derogatory to the honour of the one Mediator between God and men; it is called Latria. That images of Christ, of Mary the God-bearer and of the saints, are to be revered and honoured; not that it is to be believed that there is Divinity or virtue in them, but because the honour which is paid to them is referred to the prototypes which they represent; and that through the images which they kiss, and before which they kneel and uncover their heads, they adore Christ and venerate the saints. That the miracles of God are performed through the saints.
“IX. POWER. That the Pope of Rome is the successor of the apostle Peter, and vicar of Jesus Christ, the head of the church, and the universal bishop; that he is above councils; that he has the keys to open and shut heaven, consequently the power of remitting and retaining sins; that therefore he, as key-bearer of everlasting life, hath a right at once to earthly and heavenly empire; that moreover bishops and priests have such a power from him, because it was given also to the rest of the apostles, and that therefore they are called ministers of the keys. That it belongs to the church to judge of the true sense and interpretation of the Sacred Scripture, and that they who oppose them are to be punished by penalties established by law. That it is not fitting for the laity to read the Sacred Scripture, because the sense of it is only known to the church; thence its ministers make traffic of their knowledge of it.”
X. The above are from councils and bulls, particularly from the council of Trent, and the papal bull confirming it, wherein all who think, believe, and act contrary to what was there decreed, which in general is as above adduced, they condemn by anathema.

A SUMMARY OF THE DOCTRINES OF THE CHURCH AND RELIGION OF THE REFORMED

Since the Reformed are much treated of in the Apocalypse in its spiritual sense, therefore, before entering upon the explanations, their doctrinal tenets are also to be laid open, and in this order: Of God, of Christ the Lord, of Justification by Faith, and of God Works, of the Law and the Gospel, of Repentance and Confession, of Original Sin, of Baptism, of the Holy Supper, of Free-Agency, and of the Church.
“I. OF GOD. Of God they believe according to the Athanasian Creed, which, as it is in the hand of everyone, is not here quoted. That they believe in God the Father as the Creator and Preserver; in God the Son as the Saviour and Redeemer; and in the Holy Spirit as the Enlightener and Sanctifier, is also known.
“II. OF CHRIST THE LORD. Concerning the Person of Christ, the same doctrine is not taught by all the Reformed. The Lutherans teach that the Virgin Mary not only conceived and brought forth a real man, but also the real Son of God, whence she is rightly called, and truly is, the mother of God. That in Christ there are two natures, the Divine and the Human, the Divine from eternity, and the human in time; that these two natures are personally united, altogether in such a manner, that there are not two Christs, one the Son of God, and the other the Son of man; but that one and the same is the Son of God and the Son of man, not that these two natures are mixed together into one substance, nor that one is changed into the other, but that both natures retain their essential properties, which are also described as to their qualities; that their union is hypostatic, and that this is the most perfect communion, like that of the soul and body; that therefore it is rightly said, that in Christ God is Man and Man God; that He did not suffer for us as mere man only, but as such Man, whose Human nature hath so strict and ineffable a union and communion with the Son of God, as to become one Person with Him; that the Son of God truly suffered for us, but yet according to the properties of the human nature; that the Son of man, by whom is meant Christ as to the Human nature, was really exalted to the right hand of God when He was taken into God, which was the case as soon as He was conceived of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the mother; that Christ always had that majesty by reason of the personal union, but that, in the state of exinanition, He only exercised it so far as seemed good to Him; but that after the resurrection He fully and entirely put off the form of a servant, and established the Human nature or essence in the plenary possession of the Divine majesty; and that in this manner He entered into glory; in a word, Christ is, and remains to all eternity, perfect God and Man in one indivisible Person; and the true, omnipotent and eternal God; being, also with respect to His Human, present at the right hand of God, He governs all things in the heavens and on earth, and also fills all things, is with us, and dwells and operates in us. That there is no difference of adoration, because through the nature which is seen, the Divinity which is not seen, is adored. That the Divine essence communicates and imparts its own excellences to the Human nature, and performs its Divine operations through the body as through its organ; that thus all the fullness of the Divinity dwells in Christ bodily, according to Paul. That the Incarnation was accomplished that He might reconcile the Father to us, and become a sacrifice for the sins of the whole world, as well original as actual; that He was incarnated from the substance of the Holy Spirit, but that His Human nature was produced from the Virgin Mary, which, as the Word, He assumed and united to Himself; that He sanctifies those who believe in Him, by sending the Holy Spirit into their hearts, to rule, comfort, and vivify them, and defend them against the devil and the power of sin. That Christ descended to those below, and destroyed hell for all believers; but in what manner these things were effected, He does not wish them to scrutinize too curiously, but that the knowledge of this matter may be reserved for another age, when not only this mystery, but many other things also will be revealed.” These particulars are from Luther; the Augustan Confession; the Nicene Council, and the Smalcaldic Articles. See The Formula Concordiae.
“By another part of the Reformed, who are also treated of in The Formula Concordiae, it is believed that Christ, according to His Human nature, by exaltation, received only created gifts and finite power, therefore that He is a man like any other, retaining the properties of the flesh; that therefore as to His Human nature He is not omnipresent and omniscient; that although absent He governs, as King, things remote from Himself; that as God from eternity He is with the Father, and as Man born in time, He is with the angels in Heaven; and that when it is said, in Christ God is Man and Man God, it is only a figure of speech; besides other things of a like nature.
“But this disagreement is adjusted by the Athanasian Creed, which is received by all in the Christian world, where these words occur: “The true faith is, that we believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and Man; God, from the substance of the Father, born before the world, and Man, from the substance of the mother, born in the world; perfect God and perfect Man: who, although He be God and Man, yet they are not two but one Christ: one, not by the conversion of the Divine essence into body, but by the taking of His Human into God; one altogether, not by confusion of substance, but by unity of Person; for as the rational soul and the body is one man, so God and Man is one Christ.’
“III. OF JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH, AND OF GOOD WORKS. The justifying and saving faith of the clergy is this: That God the Father turned Himself away from the human race on account of their iniquities, and so, from justice, condemned them to eternal death, and that He therefore sent the Son into the world to expiate and redeem them, and to satisfy and reconcile; and that the Son did this by taking upon Himself the condemnation of the law, and suffering Himself to be crucified, and that thus by obedience He entirely satisfied God’s justice, even to becoming justice Himself; and that God the Father imputes and applies this, as His merit, to believers, and sends the Holy Spirit to them, who operates charity, good works, and repentance, as a good tree produces good fruits; and justifies, renews, regenerated, and sanctifies; and that this faith is the only means of salvation, and that by it alone a man’s sins are forgiven. They distinguish between the act and the state of justification: by the act of justification they understand the beginning of justification, which takes place in a moment, when man by that faith alone takes hold of the merit of Christ with confidence; by the state of justification they understand the progress of that faith, which takes place by the interior operation of the Holy Spirit, which does not manifest itself except by certain signs, concerning which they teach various things. They speak also of manifest good works, which are done from the man and his will, and follow that faith; but they exclude them from justification, because the proprium and therefore the merit of the man is in them. This is a summary of modern faith, but its confirmations and the traditions concerning it are numerous and manifold; some of which also shall be adduced; which are, that men cannot be justified before God by their own strength, merits, and works, but gratuitously for Christ’s sake, by faith; that by this faith they believe that they are received into grace, and their sins are remitted for His sake, who by His death made satisfaction for us, and that God the Father imputes this to believers for righteousness before Him; that this faith, that Christ suffered and died for us, is not only the historical knowledge, but also a cordial assent, confidence and trust that sins are gratuitously remitted for Christ’s sake, and that they are justified; and that then these three things concur, gratuitous promise, the merit of Christ as a price, and propitiation. That faith is the righteousness by which we are reputed just before God on account of the promise; and that to be justified is to be absolved from sins, and that it may also be called being vivified and regenerated; that faith is reckoned to us for justice, not because it is so good a work, but because it takes hold of the merit of Christ. That the merit of Christ is His obedience, passion, death, and resurrection; that it is necessary that there should be something by which God can be approached, and that this is nothing else but faith, by which reception is effected. That faith, in the act of justification, enters through the Word and the hearing, and that it is not the act of man, but that it is the operation of the Holy Spirit, and that then man does not co-operate any more than a statue of salt, a stock, or a stone, doing nothing from himself, and knowing nothing of it; but that after the act he co-operates, yet not with any will of his own in spiritual things; in things natural, civil, and moral, it is otherwise: but that they can so far proceed in things spiritual as to will what is good, and to feel delight in consequence, yet this is not from their own will, but from the Holy Spirit, and that thus they co-operate, not from their own powers, but from new powers and gifts begun in them by the Holy Spirit in their conversion; and that in true conversion a change, renovation, and motion are produced in the understanding and heart of man. That charity, good works, and repentance, do not enter into the act of justification, but that in the state of justification they are necessary, especially by reason of God’s command, and that by them they merit the corporeal rewards of this life, but not the remission of sins, and the glory of eternal life, because faith alone, without the works of the law, justifies and saves. That faith in act justifies man, but faith in state renovates him; that in renovation by reason of God’s command, the works reputed good, as commanded by the Decalogue, are necessary to be performed, because it is the will of God that carnal lusts should be restrained by civil discipline, for which reason He has provided doctrine, laws, magistrates, and punishments; that, therefore, it is consequently false, that by works we merit remission of sins and salvation, and that works have any effect in preserving faith, and that it is also false, that man is reputed just on account of the justice of his reason; and that reason can, from its own powers, love God above all things and do His law; in a word, that faith and salvation are not preserved and retained in men by good works, but only by the Spirit of God and by faith; but still that good works are testimonies that the Holy Spirit is present and dwells in them. They condemn as pernicious, the expression that good works are hurtful to salvation; because the interior works of the Holy Spirit are to be understood, which are good, not the exterior ones proceeding from man’s own will, which are not good but evil, because meritorious. They teach, moreover, that Christ at the Last Judgment will pronounce sentence upon good and evil works as effects proper and not proper to the faith of man. This faith reigns at this day in the whole Reformed Christian world with the clergy, but not with the laity, except a very few; for the laity by faith understand nothing else but to believe in God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, and that he who lives well and believes well, will he saved; and of the Lord that He is the Saviour; for they are ignorant of the mysteries of justification of their preachers, who, although they preach such things, yet, with the laity who hear them, they enter in at one ear and go out at the other; their teachers, indeed, think themselves learned, from knowing them, and labor much in their schools and universities to acquire them; therefore it is said above, that this faith is the faith of the clergy. But yet the teachers teach this same faith differently in the different kingdoms in which the Reformed Church is established; in Germany, Sweden, and Denmark, they say that the Holy Spirit operates by that faith, and justifies and sanctifies men, and afterwards successively renovates and regenerates them, but without the works of the law; and they who are in that faith from trust and confidence, are in grace with God the Father; and that then the evils which they do, appear indeed, but are constantly remitted. In England, they teach that this faith produces charity without man’s knowing it, and that when man feels the Holy Spirit operate interiorly in himself, this operation also is the good of charity; and if he does not feel it, and yet does good for the sake of salvation, that it may he called good, but still that it derives somewhat from man, in that there is merit in it. Moreover, that such faith can operate this at the last hour of death, yet it is not known how. In Holland, they teach, that God the Father, for the sake of the Son, justifies and purifies man interiorly by the Holy Spirit through that faith, but even to His own will, from which He turns back without touching it; some teach that He touches it lightly, and that thus the evils of man’s will do not appear before God. But few of the laity know anything of these mysteries of the clergy; nor are they willing to publish them as they are in themselves, because they know that the laity do not relish them.
“IV. OF THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL. That the law was given by God, that it may be known what sin is, and that thus it may be restrained by threats and by fear, and afterwards by the promise and the announcement of grace; therefore the special office of the law is, to reveal original sin and all its fruits, and to make known to what a horrible degree the nature of man is fallen and how deeply it is depraved; by this means it terrifies, humbles, and prostrates man so that he despairs for himself, and anxiously desires help. This effect of the law is called contrition, which is not active or factitious, but passive, and the torment of conscience. But the Gospel is the whole doctrine concerning Christ and faith; and thus concerning the remission of sins; consequently, a most gladdening messenger, not reproving and terrifying, but comforting. By the law the wrath of God against all impiety is revealed, and man is condemned, therefore it causes man to look to Christ, and to the Gospel; they must both be preached, because they are connected. The Gospel teaches that Christ took upon Himself the curse of the law and expiated all sins, and that we consequently obtain remission by faith. That the Holy Spirit is given and received, and the heart of man renewed, not by the preaching of the law, but of the Gospel; and that the Spirit afterwards makes use of the ministry of the law, to teach and show in the Decalogue, what the good will and pleasure of God is; thus the Spirit makes dead and makes alive. That a distinction is to be made between the works of the law, and the works of the Spirit, therefore the faithful are not under the law, but under grace, for that very reason. That the justice of the law does not justify, that is, does not reconcile nor regenerate, nor, by itself, make men accepted of God; but when the Holy Spirit is given, the fulfilling of the law follows. That the works of the second table of the Decalogue do not justify, because by it we act with men, and not properly with God, and yet in justification we must act with God. That Christ, because without sin suffered the punishment of sin, and was made an offering for us, whereby He took away that right of the law, that it might not condemn believers, because He is a propitiation for them, for the sake of which they are reputed just.
“V. OF REPENTANCE AND CONFESSION. That repentance consists of two parts; one is contrition, or terror struck into the conscience by reason of sin; the other faith, which is conceived from the Gospel, and by the remission of sins, comforts the conscience and delivers from terrors. He who confesses that he is wholly sin, comprehends all sins, excludes none, and forgets none; thus sins are purged away, and man is purified, rectified, and sanctified; because the Holy Spirit does not suffer sin to have dominion, but represses and restrains it. That the enumeration of sins ought to be free, as the person may choose or not choose; and that great stress is to be laid upon private confession and absolution; therefore if anyone chooses, be may confess his sins, and receive absolution from the confessor, and the sins are then remitted. The words which the minister is to make use of on this occasion are, `May God be propitious to thee, and confirm thy faith; be it unto thee as thou believest, and I, by the commandment of the Lord, remit to thee thy sins;’ but others say, `I announce to thee the remission of thy sins:’ that still, however, sins are not forgiven by repentance any more than by works; but by faith. Therefore, the repentance of the clergy is only a confession before God that they are sinners, and a prayer that they may persevere in faith That expiations and satisfactions are not necessary, because Christ is the expiation and satisfaction.
“VI. OF ORIGINAL SIN, they teach: That after the fall of Adam all men propagated according to nature are born with sin, that is, without the fear of God, and with lusts; and that this condemns and brings eternal death upon those who are not born again by Baptism and the Holy Spirit; that it is a privation of original justice, and at the same time an inordinate disposition of the parts of the soul, and a corrupt habit. That there is a difference between the nature itself into which man was created, which exists even after the fall, and remains a creature of God, and original sin; therefore, that there is a difference between corrupt nature, and the corruption which is inherent in nature, and by which nature is corrupted; that no one but God alone can separate the corruption of nature from nature itself; that this will manifestly be done in the blessed resurrection, because then nature itself, which man bears around in the world, will rise again without original sin, and enjoy eternal felicity; that the difference is as between the work of God and the work of the devil; that this sin did not invade nature in such a manner, as if Satan had created any evil substantially and commixed it with nature, but that concreated and original justice was lost: that original sin is an accident; and that by reason of it, man is, as it were, spiritually dead before God: that this evil is covered and pardoned by Christ alone: that the seed itself from which man is formed, is contaminated by that sin: that hence also it is, that man receives from his parents depraved inclinations and internal uncleanness of heart.
“VII. OF BAPTISM. That Baptism is not simply water, but that it is water taken by the Divine command, and sealed with the Word of God, and thus sanctified: that the virtue, work, fruit, and end of Baptism is, that men may be saved and admitted into the Christian communion. That by Baptism victory is offered over death and the devil; remission of sins; the grace of God; Christ with all His works; and the Holy Spirit with all His gifts; and eternal blessedness to all and every believer. Whether faith be given to infants, also, by Baptism, is a question too deep to be solicitously inquired into. That immersion in water signifies the mortification of the old man, and the resurrection of the new; that therefore it may be called the laver of regeneration; and the true laver in the Word; also in the death and burial of Christ. That the life of a Christian is a daily Baptism once begun in this manner; that the water does not effect this, but the Word of God, which is in and with the water, and the faith of God’s Word added to the water; that hence it follows, that Baptism in the name of God, is performed by men indeed, but is not from them, but from God Himself. That Baptism does not take away original sin by extinguishing depraved lust, but only the guilt of it.
“But others of the Reformed believe, that Baptism is an external laver of water, whereby an internal ablution from sins is signified; that it does not confer regeneration, faith, the grace of God, and salvation, but only signifies and seals them; and that they are not conferred in and with Baptism, but afterwards as the person grows up; and that the elect alone obtain the grace of Christ and the gift of faith: and because salvation does not depend upon Baptism, that therefore it is permitted to be performed by another in the lack of a regular minister.
“VIII. OF THE LORD’S SUPPER. They of the Reformed Church, who are called Lutherans, teach that in the Holy Supper or Sacrament of the Altar, the body and blood of Christ are really and substantially present, and are actually distributed and received with the bread and wine; that therefore the real body and the real blood of Christ are in, with, and under the bread and wine and are given to Christians to eat and drink; and that therefore they am not simply bread and wine, but are included and bound to the Word of God, and that this causes them to be the body and blood of Christ; for when the Word accedes to the element, it becomes a Sacrament; but yet that there is no transubstantiation, such as is that of the papists; that it is the food of the soul, nourishing and strengthening the new man: that it was instituted, to the end that faith might repair and receive its strength, to give remission of sins, and a new life, which Christ merited for us: that thus the body and blood of Christ are not only taken spiritually by faith, but also by the mouth, in a supernatural way, by reason of their sacramental union with the bread and wine: that the worthiness of this Supper consists in obedience alone, and in the merit of Christ, which is applied by true faith. In a word, that the Sacraments of the Lord’s Supper and of Baptism are testimonies of the will and grace of God towards men; and that the Sacrament of the Supper is a promise of remission of sins through faith; that it may move the heart to believe; and that the Holy Spirit may operate through the Word and the Sacraments: that the consecration of the minister does not produce these effects, but that they are attributed to the sole omnipotent virtue of the Lord. That the unworthy, as well as the worthy, receive the real body and blood of Christ, as He hung upon the cross; but the worthy to salvation, the unworthy to condemnation; that they are worthy who have faith; that no one is to be forced to that Supper, but everyone may approach when urged by spiritual hunger.
“Others, however, of the Reformed Church teach, that in the Holy Supper the body and blood of Christ are taken only spiritually, and that the bread and wine are only signs, types, symbols, marks, figures, and similitudes; that Christ is not bodily present, but only in virtue and operation from His Divine essence; but that in heaven there is a conjunction according to the individual communion: that the worthiness of this Supper depends not only upon faith, but also upon preparation: that the worthy alone receive its virtue, but the unworthy bread and wine only. Although there are these disagreements, yet all the Reformed agree in this: that it is altogether necessary that they should do the work of repentance who desire to receive that Holy Supper worthily; the Lutherans insist that if they do not do repentance from evil works, and yet approach, they are eternally condemned; and the English, that otherwise the devil will enter into them as he did into Judas; this is evident from the prayers read before the communion.
“IX. OF FREE WILL. They make a distinction between the state before the fall, after the fall, after the reception of faith and renovation, and after the resurrection. That man since the fall is entirely incapable of beginning, thinking, understanding, believing, willing, operating or cooperating anything from his own power in spiritual and Divine things; or of applying or accommodating himself to grace; but that his natural will is only for those things which are contrary to God, and displease Him; thus that man in spiritual things is like a stock, but that still he has a capacity, not active, but passive, whereby he can be turned to good by the grace of God; that nevertheless there remains in man since the fall, the freewill and power either to hear or not to hear the Word of God, and that thus a spark of faith may be kindled in his heart, which embraces the remission of sins for Christ’s sake, and imparts consolation. That nevertheless the human will enjoys the liberty of doing civil justice, and of making choice of such things as are within the province of reason.
“X. OF THE CHURCH. That the church is the congregation and communion of saints, and that it is spread through the entire world among those who have the same Christ, and the same Holy Spirit, and the same Sacraments, whether they have similar or dissimilar traditions: and that it is principally a society of faith; and that this church alone is the body of Christ, and that the good are both in reality and in name the church, but the wicked only in name; that the evil and hypocrites, because they are intermixed, are members of the church according to its external signs, provided they are not excommunicated, but that they are not members of the body of Christ. That ecclesiastical rites, which are called ceremonies, are matters of indifference (adiaphori), and that they are not the worship of God, nor a part of the worship of God; that therefore the church is at liberty to institute, change, and abrogate them, as, for instance, the distinctions of vestments, times, days, foods, and the like; and that therefore one church ought not to condemn another on account of things of this nature.”
These are the doctrinal tenets of the Reformed Church and Religion in brief; but those which are taught by the Schwengfeldians, Pelagians, Manichaeans, Donatists, Anabaptists, Arminians, Cinglians, Antitrinitarians, Socinians, Arians, and, at this day, by the Quakers and Moravians, are passed over, because they are reprobated and rejected by the Church of the Reformed as heretical.

AR (Whitehead) n. 1 sRef Rev@21 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@22 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @1 S0′ 1. Revelation 1

1. The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto Him, to show unto His servants things which must shortly come to pass; and He signified, sending by His angel to His servant John,
2. Who testified the Word of God, and the testimony of Jesus Christ, whatsoever he saw.
3. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear, the words of the prophecy, and keep the things written therein: for the time is near.
4. John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and peace, from Him who is, and who was, and who is to come; and from the seven spirits who are before His throne;
5. And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the first-born from the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. To Him that loveth us, and washeth us from our sins in His blood:
6. And He maketh us kings and priests unto God and His Father: to Him be glory and might for ever and ever.
7. Behold He cometh with the clouds, and every eye shall see Him, and they who pierced Him: and all the tribes of the earth shall wail because of Him. Even so; Amen.
8. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, saith the Lord, who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.
9. I, John, who also am your brother, and companion in affliction, and in the kingdom and patient expectation of Jesus Christ, was in the island called Patmos, for the Word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.
10. I became in the spirit on the Lord’s day; and I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,
11. Saying, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last: and, what thou seest, write in a book, and send to the churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and Smyrna, and Pergamos, and Thyatira, and Sardis, and Philadelphia, and Laodicea.
12. And I turned to see the voice that spoke with me: and, having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands;
13. And in the midst of the seven lampstands One like unto the Son of Man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.
14. And His head and His hairs were white as white wool, like snow; and His eyes as a flame of fire;
15. And His feet like unto fine brass, as if glowing in a furnace; and His voice as the voice of many waters;
16. And having in His right hand seven stars; and out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth; and His face was as the sun shineth in His power.
17. And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. And He laid His right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the First and the Last;
18. And am He that liveth, and was dead; and behold I am alive for ages of ages. Amen; and I have the keys of hell and of death.
19. Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter.
20. The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches; and the seven lampstands, which thou sawest, are the seven churches.

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

The contents of the whole chapter

That this Revelation is from the Lord alone, and that it is received by those who will be in His New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, and acknowledge the Lord as the God of heaven and earth; the Lord is also described as to the Word.

The contents of each verse

Verse 1. “The Revelation of Jesus Christ” signifies predictions from the Lord concerning Himself and His Church, what the latter will be in its end, and what it will be afterwards (n. 2). “Which God gave unto Him to show unto His servants,” signifies for those who are in faith from charity (n. 3). “Things which must shortly come to pass,” signifies that they will certainly be, lest the Church perish (n. 4). “And He signified, sending by His angel, to His servant John,” signifies the things which are revealed by the Lord through heaven to those who are in the good of life from charity and its faith (n. 5). Verse 2. “Who testified the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ,” signifies, who from the heart and thus in the light receive Divine truth from the Word, and acknowledge the Lord’s Human to be Divine (n. 6). “Whatsoever he saw,” signifies their enlightenment in all the things which are in this Revelation (n. 7). Verse 3. “Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things written therein,” signifies the communion of those with the angels of heaven, who live according to the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem (n. 8). ” For the time is near,” signifies that the state of the Church is such that it can no longer continue so as to have conjunction with the Lord (n. 9). Verse 4. “John to the seven churches,” signifies to all who are in the Christian world, where the Word is, and by it the Lord is known, and who draw near to the Church (n. 10). “Which are in Asia,” signifies to those who are in the light of truth from the Word (n. 11). “Grace be unto you, and peace,” signifies the Divine salutation (n. 12). “From Him who is, and who was, and who is to come,” signifies from the Lord, who is eternal and infinite, and Jehovah (n. 13). “And from the seven spirits who are before His throne,” signifies from the whole heaven, where the Lord is in His Divine truth (n. 14). Verse 5. “From Jesus Christ,” signifies the Divine Human (n. 15). “The faithful witness,” signifies that He is the Divine truth itself (n. 16). “The first-born from the dead,” signifies that He is also the Divine good itself (n. 17). “And the Prince* of the earth,” signifies from whom is all truth from good in the church (n. 18). “That loveth us, and washeth us from our sins,” signifies who from love and mercy reforms and regenerates men by His Divine truths from the Word (n. 19). Verse 6. “And He maketh us kings and priests,” signifies who gives to those who are born of Him, that is, regenerated, to be in wisdom from Divine truths and in love from Divine goods (n. 20). “Unto God and His Father,” signifies and thus images of His Divine wisdom and His Divine love (n. 21). “To Him be glory and might into the ages of ages,” signifies who alone has Divine majesty and Divine omnipotence to eternity (n. 22). “Amen,” signifies the Divine confirmation from truth, thus from Himself (n. 23). Verse 7. “And He cometh with the clouds of heaven,” signifies that the Lord will reveal Himself in the literal sense of the Word, and will open its spiritual sense, at the end of the church (n. 24). “And every eye shall see Him,” signifies that all will acknowledge Him, who, from affection, are in the understanding of Divine truth (n. 25). “And they who pierced Him,” signifies that they also will see, who are in falsities in the church (n. 26). “And all the tribes of the earth shall wail,” signifies that this will be when there are no longer any goods and truths in the church (n. 27). “Even so, Amen,” signifies the Divine confirmation that thus it will be (n. 28). Verse 8. “I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End,” signifies Who is the Self-existing and the Only from firsts to ultimates, from Whom all things are; thus who is Love Itself and the Only Love, Wisdom Itself and the Only Wisdom, and Life Itself and the Only Life in Himself, and thus the Creator Himself and the only Creator, Saviour, and Enlightener from Himself, and thence the All in all of heaven and the church (n. 29). “Saith the Lord, who is, and who was, and who is to come,” signifies who is eternal and infinite, and Jehovah (n. 30). “The Almighty,” signifies who is, lives, and has power, from Himself, and who governs all things from firsts by ultimates (n. 31). Verse 9. “I, John, who am your brother and companion,” signifies those who are in the good of charity and thence in the truths of faith (n. 32). “In affliction, and in the kingdom, and the patient expectation of Jesus Christ,” signifies who in the church are infested by evils and falsities, but these are to be removed by the Lord, when He comes (n. 33). “I was in the island called Patmos,” signifies a state and place in which he could be enlightened (n. 34). “For the Word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ,” signifies in order that the Divine truth from the Word may be received from the heart and thus in the light, and that the Lord’s Human may be acknowledged to be Divine (n. 35). Verse 10. “I became in the Spirit on the Lord’s day,” signifies a spiritual state at that time from Divine influx (n. 36). “And I heard behind me a great voice as of a trumpet,” signifies the manifest perception of Divine truth revealed from heaven (n. 37). Verse 11. “Saying, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last,” signifies who is the Self-existing and the Only from firsts to ultimates, from whom all things are; and more as above (n. 38). [“What thou seest write in a book”]** signifies that they might be revealed to posterity (n. 39). “And send unto the churches that are in Asia,” signifies for those in the Christian world who are in the light of truth from the Word (n. 40). “Unto Ephesus and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia and unto Laodicea,” signifies in particular according to the state of each one’s reception (n. 41). Verse 12. “And I turned to see the voice which was speaking with me,” signifies the inversion of the state of those who are in the good of life as to the perception of truth in the Word, when they turn themselves to the Lord (n. 42). “And having turned I saw seven golden lampstands,” signifies the New Church which will be in enlightenment from the Lord out of the Word (n. 43). Verse 13. “And in the midst of the seven lampstands One like unto the Son of Man,” signifies the Lord as to the Word, from whom is that church (n. 44). “Clothed with a garment down to the foot,” signifies the proceeding Divine, which is the Divine truth (n. 45). “And girded at the paps with a golden girdle,” signifies the proceeding and at the same time conjoining Divine, which is the Divine good (n. 46). Verse 14. “And His head and hairs were white*** as wool, like snow,” signifies the Divine love of the Divine wisdom in firsts and in ultimates (n. 47). “And His eyes as a flame of fire,” signifies the Divine wisdom of the Divine love (n. 48). Verse 15. “And His feet like unto fine brass, as if glowing in a furnace,” signifies the Divine good natural (n. 49). “And His voice as the voice of many waters,” signifies the Divine truth natural (n. 50). Verse 16. “And having in His right hand seven stars,” signifies all the knowledges of good and truth in the Word from Him (n. 51). “And out of His mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth,” signifies the dispersion of falsities by the Lord through the Word and through doctrine therefrom (n. 52). “And His face was as the sun shining in power,” signifies the Divine love and the Divine wisdom, which are Himself, and proceed from Him (n. 53). Verse 17. “And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead,” signifies the failing of his own life from such presence of the Lord (n. 54). “And He laid His right hand upon me,” signifies life then inspired from Him (n. 55). “Saying unto me, Fear not,” signifies resuscitation, and adoration then from the deepest humiliation (n. 56). “I am the First and the Last,” signifies that He is Eternal and Infinite, and thus the Only God (n. 57). Verse 18. “And am He that is living,” signifies who alone is life, and from whom alone life is (n. 58). “And was dead,” signifies that He was neglected in the church, and His Divine Human not acknowledged (n. 59). “And behold, I am alive for ages of ages,” signifies that He is life eternal (n. 60). “Amen,” signifies the Divine confirmation that it is the truth (n. 61). “And I have the keys of Hell and of death,” signifies that He alone can save (n. 62). Verse 19. “Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter,” signifies in order that all the things which are now revealed may be for posterity (n. 63). Verse 20. “The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden lampstands,” signifies arcana in the visions concerning the New Heaven and the New Church (n. 64). “The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches,” signifies the New Church in the heavens, which is the New Heaven (n. 65). “And the seven lampstands which thou sawest are the seven churches,” signifies the New Church on earth, which is the New Jerusalem descending from the Lord out of the New Heaven.
* In the original Latin “of the kings” is omitted.
** The clause in brackets is omitted in the Latin, but appears in the explanation below (n. 39).
*** In the original Latin “white” is omitted, but is in the text of the chapter.

THE EXPLANATION

What the spiritual sense is, has been hitherto unknown. That there is such a sense in every particular of the Word, and that without it, the Word in many places cannot be understood, has been shown in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 5-26). This sense does not appear in the literal sense, for it is in it as the soul in its body. It is known that there is the spiritual and the natural, and that the spiritual flows into the natural, and presents itself to be seen and felt in the forms which fall under the sight and touch, and that the spiritual, without such forms, is not perceived otherwise than as affection and thought, or as love and wisdom which are of the mind. That affection and thought, or love whose property it is to be affected, and wisdom whose property it is to think, are spiritual, is acknowledged. That these two faculties of the soul present themselves in the body in forms which are called the organs of sense and motion, is known; also, that they make one, and such a one as that when the mind thinks, the mouth in an instant speaks, and when the mind wills, the body in an instant acts; hence it is evident, that there is a perfect union of things spiritual and natural with man.
[2] It is similar in each and everything in the world; there is in them the spiritual, which is the inmost of the cause, and there is the natural, which is its effect, and these two make one; and the spiritual does not appear in the natural, because it is in it as the soul in the body, and as the inmost of the cause in the effect, as was said before. It is similar with the Word; that this in its bosom is spiritual, because it is Divine, can be denied by no one; but as the spiritual does not appear in the sense of the letter, which is natural, therefore the spiritual sense has been hitherto unknown; nor could it have been known before genuine truths were revealed by the Lord, for that sense is in these. For this reason Revelation has not been understood before. But lest there should be doubt that such things are within it, the particulars must be explained, and demonstrated by similar passages elsewhere in the Word. The explanation and demonstration now follow.

AR (Whitehead) n. 2 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 2. Verse 1. The revelation of Jesus Christ, signifies predictions from the Lord concerning Himself and His church, what the latter will be in its end, and what it will be afterwards, as well in the heavens as upon earth. By “the revelation of Jesus Christ” are signified all predictions, which because they are from the Lord, are called the Revelation of Jesus Christ; that they relate to the Lord and His church, will appear from the explanations. In Revelation it does not treat of the successive states of the church, still less of the successive states of kingdoms, as some have hitherto believed, but there from beginning to end it treats of the last state of the church in the heavens and on the earth; and then concerning the Last Judgment; and after this of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem. That this New Church is the end of this work, is evident, wherefore those things which precede refer to the state of the church, as to its quality just before it. But in what series these are treated of, may be seen from the contents of each chapter; and more distinctly from the explanation of each particular verse.

AR (Whitehead) n. 3 sRef Dan@9 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ sRef Jer@25 @4 S0′ sRef Amos@3 @7 S1′ 3. Which God gave unto Him to show unto His servants, signifies for those who are in faith from charity, or in truths of wisdom from the good of love. By “showing” is signified to manifest, and by “servants” are here signified those who are in faith from charity; to them these things are manifested, because they understand and receive them. By servants, in the spiritual sense, are meant those who are in truths; and because truths are from good, by servants are meant those who are in truths from good, thus also, those who are in wisdom from love, because wisdom is of truth, and love is of good; also those who are in faith derived from charity, because faith also is of truth and charity is of good; and as the genuine spiritual sense is abstracted from person, therefore in it by servants are signified truths. Now as truths are serviceable to good by teaching it, therefore, in general, and properly, by “servant” in the Word is meant what is serviceable, or he or that which serves; in this sense not only the prophets are called the servants of God, but also the Lord as to His Human; that the prophets are called the servants of God is evident from the following passages:
Jehovah hath sent unto you all His servants the prophets (Jer. 25:4).
He revealeth His secret unto His servants the prophets (Amos 3:7).
He set before you* by the hand of His servants the prophets (Dan. 9:10);
And Moses is called “The servant of Jehovah” (Mal. 4:4).
The reason is that by a prophet in the spiritual sense is meant the truth of doctrine, as explained below.
sRef Isa@37 @35 S2′ sRef Isa@53 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @19 S2′ sRef Ezek@34 @24 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@52 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@37 @24 S2′ [2] And because the Lord was the Divine truth itself, which also is the Word, and from this was Himself called the Prophet; and served in the world, and serves all to eternity by teaching, therefore, He also, in many places, is called the servant of Jehovah; as in the following passages:
He shall see of the labor of His soul, and shall be satisfied; by His knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many (Isa. 53:11).
Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, He shall be extolled and exalted and be lifted up greatly (Isa. 52:13).
Behold, my servant, on whom I lean, mine elect, in whom my soul hath good pleasure, I have put my spirit upon Him (Isa. 42:1, 19);
this is spoken of the Lord: in like manner David is called a servant, where, by him, the Lord is meant; as in the following passages:
And I Jehovah will be their God, and My servant David a prince in the midst of them (Ezek. 34:24).
My servant, David, shall be king over them, that there may be one shepherd to them all (Ezek. 37:24).
I will protect this city to preserve it, for My sake and My servant David’s (Isa. 37:35).
So also in Psalm 78:70-72, 89:3-4, 20. That by David in these places is meant the Lord, may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 43-44). The Lord Himself says the same of Himself:
Whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister, and whosoever will be first let him be your servant, as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister (Matt. 20:25-28; Mark 10:42-44; Luke 22:27; likewise Luke 12:37).
This the Lord says, because by servant and minister is meant one who serves and ministers by teaching, and abstractly from person, the Divine truth, which was Himself.
sRef Matt@20 @27 S3′ sRef Matt@20 @28 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @46 S3′ sRef Matt@20 @26 S3′ sRef Luke@12 @37 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @45 S3′ [3] Since, therefore, by servant is meant he who teaches Divine truth, it is evident that by servants in this place in Revelation are meant those who are in truths from good, or in faith from charity, because these can teach from the Lord, that is, the Lord can teach and minister through them. In this sense they are called servants in Matthew:
In the consummation of the age, who is the faithful and prudent servant, whom his Lord shall set over his household, to give them their food in its season; blessed is that servant whom the Lord when He cometh, shall find so doing (Matt. 24:45-46).
And in Luke:
Blessed are those servants, whom the Lord when He cometh, shall find watching: verily, I say unto you, that He shall gird Himself, and make them to recline, and shall Himself come near and minister unto them (Luke 12:37).
In heaven all are called servants of the Lord who are in his spiritual kingdom; but they who are in his celestial kingdom are called ministers; the reason is, that they who are in his spiritual kingdom, are in wisdom from Divine truth; and they who are in his celestial kingdom are in love from Divine good; and good ministers and truth serves. But in the opposite sense, by servants are meant those who serve the devil; these are in a state of servitude itself; but they who serve the Lord are in a state of liberty; as the Lord also teaches (John 8:32-36).
* The Hebrew has “us.” In AE 409, we also read “you.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 4 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 4. Things which must shortly come to pass signifies that they will certainly be, lest the church perish. By coming to pass shortly, is not meant that the things which are foretold in Revelation, will happen immediately and speedily, but certainly; and that unless they do happen the church must perish. In the Divine idea, and thence in the spiritual sense, there is no time, but instead of time there is state; and because shortly relates to time, by it is signified certainly, and that it will come to pass before its time, for Revelation was given in the first century, and since that seventeen centuries have now elapsed, from which it is evident, that by shortly is signified that which corresponds to it, and that is, certainly.
sRef Matt@24 @22 S2′ [2] The like is also involved in these words of the Lord:
Except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved; but for the elect’s sake, those days shall be shortened (Matt. 24:22);
by which also is meant that unless the church should come to an end before its time, it would altogether perish; in that chapter the consummation of the age and the Lord’s coming are treated of; and by the consummation of the age is meant the last state of the old church, and by the Lord’s coming, the first state of the new church.
sRef Ps@90 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@2 @7 S3′ [3] It was said that in the Divine idea there is not time, but the presence of all things past and future; wherefore it is said in David:
A thousand years in Thy sight are as yesterday (Ps. 90:4);
I will declare the decree, Jehovah hath said unto Me, Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee (Ps. 2:7).
“This day” is the presence of the Lord’s advent. Thence also it is, that an entire period is called day in the Word, and its first state the dawning and the morning, and the last evening and night.

AR (Whitehead) n. 5 sRef Rev@1 @1 S0′ 5. And He signified, sending by, His angel to His servant John, signifies the things which are revealed from the Lord through heaven to those who are in the good of life from charity and its faith. By “He signified, sending by His angel,” in the spiritual sense, is meant the things which are revealed from heaven, or through heaven by the Lord: for by “angel” in the Word is everywhere meant the angelic heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself; the reason is, that no angel ever speaks with man separate from heaven; for there is such a conjunction there of each with all, that everyone speaks from the communion, although the angel is not conscious of it. For heaven in the sight of the Lord is as one man, whose soul is the Lord Himself; wherefore the Lord speaks with man through heaven, as man does from his soul through his body with another; and this is done in conjunction with all and each of the things of his mind, in the midst of which are the things which he speaks. But this arcanum cannot be unfolded in a few words. It is partly unfolded in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom. Hence it is evident, that by “an angel” is signified heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord. The reason why by “angel” the Lord is meant in the supreme sense, is, because heaven is not heaven from the things proper to the angels, but from the Divine of the Lord, from which is derived their love and wisdom, yea, their life. Hence it is that the Lord Himself is called “Angel” in the Word. From these things it is manifest that the angel did not speak from himself with John; but the Lord by means of heaven through him.
[2] By these words is meant, that they were revealed to those who are in the good of life from charity and its faith, because these are meant by “John.” For by the “twelve disciples” or “apostles” of the Lord, are meant all who are of the church in truths from good; and in the abstract sense, all things of the church; and by “Peter,” all who are in faith, and, abstractly, faith itself; by “James,” they who are in charity, and, abstractly, charity itself; by “John,” they who are in the good of life from charity and its faith, and, abstractly, the good of life itself therefrom. That these things are meant by “John,” “James,” and “Peter” in the Word of the evangelists, may be seen in the small work on The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, published at London in the year 1758, (n. 122).
[3] Since the good of life from charity and its faith makes the church, therefore through the apostle John were revealed the arcana concerning the state of the church which are contained in his visions. That by all the names of persons and places in the Word are signified things of heaven and the church, is shown in many places in Arcana Coelestia, also published at London. From these things it may appear, that by “He signified, sending by His angel to His servant John,” is meant in the spiritual sense, what is revealed by the Lord through heaven to those who are in the good of life from charity and its faith; for charity through faith operates good, and not charity by itself, nor faith by itself.

AR (Whitehead) n. 6 sRef Rev@1 @2 S0′ sRef John@15 @26 S0′ 6. Verse 2. Who testified the Word of God, and the testimony of Jesus Christ, signifies who, from the heart, and thus in the light, receive the Divine truth from the Word, and acknowledge the Lord’s Human to be Divine. It is said of John that “he testified the Word of God,” but as by John are meant all who are in the good of life from charity and its faith, as was said above (n. 5), therefore in the spiritual sense all these are meant. The angels, who are in the spiritual sense of the Word, never know any name of a person mentioned in the Word, but only that which the person represents and thence signifies, which, instead of John, is the good of life, or good in act; consequently all in the aggregate who are in that good. These “testify,” that is, see, acknowledge, receive from the heart in the light, and confess the truths of the Word, especially that truth therein that the Lord’s Human is Divine; which may be evident from the passages quoted from the Word in great abundance in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord. By “Jesus Christ” and by “the Lamb” in the Apocalypse is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human, and by “God,” the Lord as to His Divine, from which are all things.
sRef John@1 @7 S2′ sRef John@1 @34 S2′ sRef John@1 @14 S2′ sRef John@5 @33 S2′ sRef John@1 @1 S2′ sRef John@1 @8 S2′ sRef John@8 @14 S2′ sRef John@1 @2 S2′ sRef John@5 @34 S2′ sRef John@1 @9 S2′ [2] With regard to the spiritual signification of “testifying,” this is predicated of truth, because in the world the truth is to be testified, and when it is testified, it is acknowledged. But in heaven truth testifies of itself because it is itself the light of heaven. For when the angels hear the truth, they immediately know and acknowledge it; and because the Lord is the truth itself, as He Himself teaches in John 14:6, He is in heaven the testimony of Himself. Hence it may appear what is meant by “the testimony of Jesus Christ”; wherefore the Lord says:
Ye sent unto John, and he testified unto the truth; but I receive not testimony from man (John 5:33-34).
And in another place:
John came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light; he was not that Light; the Word which was with God, and was God, and became flesh, was the true Light, which lighteth every man (John 1:1-2, 7-8, 14, 34).
And in another place:
Jesus said, Though I testify of Myself, yet My testimony is true, for I know whence I came, and whither I go (John 8:14).
When the Comforter has come, even the Spirit of truth, He shall testify of Me (John 15:26).
By the Comforter, the Spirit of truth, is meant the truth itself proceeding from the Lord, wherefore it is said of it that it will not speak from itself, but from the Lord (John 16:13-15).

AR (Whitehead) n. 7 sRef Rev@1 @2 S0′ 7. Whatsoever he saw, signifies their enlightenment in all things which are in this Revelation. By “whatsoever he saw,” in the spiritual sense, are not meant what John saw, for they were only visions, but the things which they see who are meant by John, who are those who are in the good of life from charity and its faith, as was said above. These see in the visions of John, the arcana concerning the state of the church, not so much when they read them, but when they see them revealed. Moreover to see signifies to understand; on this account in common discourse it is said, that one sees a thing, and he sees that it is the truth; for man has sight as to his spirit as well as to his body. But man with his spirit sees spiritual things, because from the light of heaven, but with his body he sees natural things; because this sees from the light of the world, and spiritual things are real, but natural things are their forms. It is the spiritual sight of man which is called the understanding. From these things it is evident what is meant, in the spiritual sense, by “whatsoever things he saw;” in like manner in what follows, where it is said that he saw.

AR (Whitehead) n. 8 sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ 8. Verse 3. Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things which are written therein, signifies the communion of those with the angels of heaven, who live according to the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem. By “blessed,” is here meant one who, as to his spirit, is in heaven; thus, one who, while he lives in the world, is in communion with the angels of heaven; for as to his spirit he is in heaven. By “the words of the prophecy” nothing else is meant than the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, for by “prophet,” in the abstract sense, is signified the Doctrine of the church derived from the Word, thus here the Doctrine of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem; the same is signified by “prophecy.” By “reading, hearing, and keeping the things which are written therein,” is signified, to desire to know that doctrine; to attend to the things which are in it, and to do the things which are therein; in short, to live according to it. That they are not blessed who only read, hear and keep or retain in the memory the things which were seen by John, is evident (see below, n. 944).
sRef Matt@24 @11 S2′ sRef Matt@24 @24 S2′ aRef Matt@21 @46 S2′ [2] The reason why “a prophet” signifies the Doctrine of the church from the Word, and “prophecy” the same, is, because the Word was written through prophets, and in heaven a person is regarded according to that which belongs to his function and office. From this, also, is every man, spirit, and angel, named there. Therefore, when a prophet is mentioned, because his function was to write and teach the Word, the Word is meant as to doctrine, or doctrine from the Word. Hence it is, that the Lord, because He is the Word itself, was called the Prophet (Deut. 18:15-20, Matt. 13:57, chap. 21:11, Luke 13:33). To show that by “prophet” is meant the doctrine of the church from the Word, some passages shall be adduced, from which this may be collected. In Matthew:
In the consummation of the age many false prophets shall rise up, and shall seduce many. There shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and, if it were possible, they shall lead into error the elect (Matt. 24:11, 24).
“The consummation of the age” is the last time of the church, which is now, when there are not false prophets, but falsities of doctrine.
sRef Matt@10 @41 S3′ sRef Matt@10 @42 S3′ [3] In the same:
He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet, shall receive a prophet’s reward; and he that receiveth a just man in the name of a just man, shall receive a just man’s reward (Matt. 10:41).
“To receive a prophet in the name of a prophet,” is to receive the truth of doctrine because it is true; and “to receive a just man in the name of a just man,” is to receive good for the sake of good; and “to receive a reward,” is to be saved according to reception. It is evident that no one receives a reward, or is saved, because he receives a prophet and a just man in the name of such. Those words cannot be understood by anyone, without a knowledge of what “a prophet” and “a just man” signify; nor can those which follow:
Whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a cup of cold water only, in the name of a disciple, shall not lose his reward (Matt. 10:42).
By a “disciple” is meant charity, and at the same time faith from the Lord.
sRef Rev@18 @20 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @28 S4′ sRef Jer@23 @15 S4′ sRef Jer@18 @18 S4′ sRef Matt@7 @23 S4′ sRef Rev@11 @18 S4′ sRef Jer@5 @13 S4′ sRef Jer@23 @16 S4′ sRef Matt@7 @22 S4′ [4] In Joel:
I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh, so that your sons and your daughters shall prophesy (Joel. 2:28).
This is concerning the church which was to be established by the Lord, in which they would not prophesy, but receive doctrine, which is to “prophesy.” In Matthew:
Jesus said, Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? but then will I confess unto them, I have not known you; depart from me, ye that work iniquity (Matt. 7:22-23).
Who does not see, that they will not say that they have prophesied, but that they knew the doctrine of the church, and taught it? In Revelation:
The time is come for judging the dead and for giving reward to the prophets (Rev. 11:18);
and in another place:
Exult, O heaven, and holy apostles and prophets, for God hath judged your judgment (Rev. 18:20).
It is evident that a reward would not be given to the prophets alone, and that the apostles and prophets would not alone exult at the Last Judgment, but all who have received the truths of doctrine, and have lived according to them. These, therefore, are meant by “apostles” and “prophets.”
sRef Micah@3 @6 S5′ sRef Jer@8 @10 S5′ sRef Ex@7 @1 S5′ sRef Isa@28 @7 S5′ [5] In Moses:
Jehovah said unto Moses, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet (Exod. 7:1);
“a god” here means the Divine truth as to reception from the Lord, in which sense the angels are also called gods, and by “prophet” is meant one who teaches and speaks it, therefore Aaron is there called a prophet. The same is signified by “prophet” in other places, as in the following:
The law shall not perish from the priest, nor the Word from the prophet (Jer. 18:18).
From the prophets of Jerusalem hath gone forth hypocrisy into all the land (Jer. 23:15-16).
The prophets shall become wind, and the Word is not in them (Jer. 5:13).
The priests and the prophets err through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they stagger in judgment (Isa. 28:7).
The sun setteth over the prophets, and the day groweth dark over them (Micah 3:6).
From the prophet even unto the priest, everyone doeth a lie (Jer. 8:10).
[6] In these passages, by “prophets” and “priests,” in the spiritual sense, are not meant prophets and priests, but the entire church; by “prophets,” the church as to the truth of doctrine, and by “priests” the church as to the good of life, both of which were destroyed; these things are so understood by the angels in heaven; while by men in the world they are understood according to the sense of the letter. That the prophets represented the state of the church as to doctrine, and that the Lord represented it as to the Word itself, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 15-17).

AR (Whitehead) n. 9 sRef Matt@24 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S0′ 9. For the time is near, signifies that the state of the church is such, that it cannot endure any longer as to its conjunction with the Lord. There are two essentials by which conjunction with the Lord, and thence salvation is effected, the acknowledgment of one God, and repentance of life; but at this day, instead of the acknowledgment of one God, there is an acknowledgment of three, and instead of repentance of life, there is repentance of the mouth only that one is a sinner; and by these two there is not any conjunction; therefore unless the New Church should arise, which acknowledges these two essentials, and lives accordingly, no one can be saved; on account of this danger the time is shortened by the Lord, according to His words in Matthew:
For then shall be great affliction, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, nor shall be; yea, except those days should be shortened, no flesh should be saved (Matt. 24:21-22).
That near or nearness of time is not meant, may be seen below (n. 947).

AR (Whitehead) n. 10 sRef Matt@12 @45 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@12 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@12 @1 S0′ 10. Verse 4. John to the seven churches, signifies to all who are in the Christian world where the Word is, and by it the Lord is known, and who draw near to the church. By the “seven churches” are not meant seven churches, but all who are of the church in the Christian world; for numbers, in the Word, signify things, and “seven,” all things and all, and thence, also, what is full and perfect, and it occurs in the Word where anything holy is treated of, and in the opposite sense, of anything profane; consequently, this number involves what is holy, and, in the opposite sense, what is profane. The reason why numbers signify things, or rather resemble certain adjectives to substantives adding some quality to the things, is, because number is, in itself, natural; for natural things are determined by numbers, but spiritual things by things and their states. Therefore, he who does not know the signification of numbers in the Word, and especially in Revelation, cannot know the many arcana which are contained therein. Now, since “seven” signifies all things and all, it may appear that by the “seven churches” are meant all who are in the Christian world where the Word is, and by it the Lord is known. These, if they live according to the Lord’s precepts in the Word, make the church itself.
sRef Rev@4 @5 S2′ sRef Lev@8 @11 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @18 S2′ sRef Rev@16 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@5 @1 S2′ sRef Lev@8 @35 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @24 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @21 S2′ sRef Lev@8 @33 S2′ sRef Rev@8 @2 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @16 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @28 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S2′ sRef Rev@15 @6 S2′ sRef Lev@4 @17 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @14 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @13 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @12 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @15 S2′ sRef Lev@4 @16 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @20 S2′ sRef Num@19 @4 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @35 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @30 S2′ sRef Ps@79 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @37 S2′ [2] Hence it is that the Sabbath was instituted on the seventh day, and the seventh year was called the sabbatical year; and the seven times seventh year the Jubilee, by which was signified everything holy in the church: for this cause, also, a week, in Daniel, and elsewhere, signifies an entire period from beginning to end, and is predicated of the church. Similar things are signified by seven in the following passages, as by:
The seven golden lampstands, in the midst of which was the Son of Man (Rev. 1:13).
The seven stars in his right hand (Rev. 1:16, 20).
The seven spirits of God (Rev. 1:4; 4:5).
The seven lamps of fire (Rev. 4:5).
The seven angels, to whom were given seven trumpets (Rev. 8:2).
The seven angels having the seven last plagues (Rev. 15:5-6).
The seven vials full of the seven last plagues (Rev. 16:1; 21:9).
The seven seals with which the book was sealed (Rev. 5:1).
In like manner in the following places that:
Their hands should be filled seven days (Exod. 29:35).
They should be sanctified seven days (Exod. 29:37).
When they were consecrated they should go clothed in the garments of holiness seven days (Exod. 29:30).
They were not to go out of the door of the tent seven days, when they were initiated into the priesthood (Lev. 8:33, 35).
An atonement was to be made seven times upon the horns of the altar (Lev. 16:18-19).
The altar was to be sanctified with oil seven times (Lev. 8:11).
The blood was to be sprinkled seven times before the veil (Lev. 4:16-17).
And also seven times toward the east (Lev. 16:12-15.)
The water of separation was to be sprinkled seven times towards the tent (Num. 19:4).
The passover was celebrated seven days; and unleavened bread was eaten seven days (Exod. 12:15; Deut. 16:4-7).
In like manner:
The Jews were to be punished seven times more for their sins (Lev. 26:18, 21, 24, 28).
Wherefore David says:
Recompense unto our neighbor sevenfold into their bosom (Ps. 79:12).
sRef Ezek@39 @11 S3′ sRef Jer@15 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @12 S3′ sRef Ps@12 @6 S3′ sRef 1Sam@2 @5 S3′ sRef Rev@12 @3 S3′ [3] Sevenfold is fully. Likewise in these places:
The sayings of Jehovah are pure sayings, silver purified in the furnace seven times (Ps. 12:6).
The hungry ceased, so that the barren hath borne seven, but she that hath many children lacketh (1 Sam. 2:5).
“The barren” is the church of the Gentiles, who had not the Word; “she that hath many children” is the church of the Jews, who had the Word.
She who had borne seven languisheth, she shall breathe out her soul (Jer. 15:9).
In like manner:
They that dwell in the cities of Israel shall set on fire and burn up the arms, and they shall kindle them with fire seven years: they shall bury Gog, and seven months shall they be cleansing the land (Ezek. 39:9, 11-12).
The unclean spirit will take with him seven other spirits worse than himself (Matt. 12:45).
Profanation is here described, and by “the seven spirits” with which he would return, are signified all the falsities of evil; thus the plenary extinction of good and truth. By “the seven heads of the dragon,” and “the seven diadems upon his heads” (Rev. 12:3), is signified the profanation of all good and truth. From these things it is evident, that “seven” involves what is holy or profane, and signifies all and full.

AR (Whitehead) n. 11 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 11. Which are in Asia, signifies to those who are in the light of truth from the Word. Since, by all the names of persons and places in the Word, the things of heaven and the church are meant, as was said before; thus also they are meant by “Asia” and by the names of the seven churches therein, as will appear from what follows. The reason why they who are in the light of truth from the Word, are meant by “Asia,” is, because the Most Ancient Church, and, after it, the Ancient, and then the Israelitish church, were in Asia; also, because the ancient Word, and, afterwards the Israelitish, were with them; and all the light of truth is from the Word. That there were ancient churches in the Asiatic world and that they had a Word which was afterwards lost, and, lastly, the Word which is extant at this day, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 101-103). On this account it is, that by “Asia” are here signified all who are in the light of truth from the Word.
[2] “Concerning this Ancient Word, which was in Asia before the Israelitish Word, it is fitting to relate this news: That it is still reserved there among the people who are in Great Tartary; I have spoken with spirits and angels in the spiritual world who came thence, who said that they possess a Word, and have possessed it from ancient times; and that their Divine worship is performed according to this Word; and that it consists of mere correspondences. They said that it also contains the book of Jasher, which is mentioned in Joshua (10:12, 13), and 2 Sam. (1:17, 18), and also, that with them are the books mentioned by Moses, as The Wars of Jehovah and the Propheticals (Num. 21:14, 15, and 27-30); and when I read to them the words quoted thence by Moses, they examined whether they were extant there, and found them. From these things it was manifest to me that the Ancient Word is still with them. While speaking with them they said that they worship Jehovah, some as an invisible, and some as a visible God. Moreover they related that they do not suffer foreigners to come among them, except the Chinese, with whom they cultivate peace, because the emperor of China is from their country. And further, that they are so populous, that they do not believe any region in the whole world to be more populous; which is very credible from the wall so many miles long, which the Chinese formerly constructed as a safeguard against invasion from them. Seek for it in China, and peradventure you will find it there among the Tartars.

AR (Whitehead) n. 12 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ 12. Grace be unto you and peace, signifies Divine salutation. What is understood specifically by “grace and peace,” will be explained in what follows; that “peace be unto you” was the Lord’s salutation to His disciples, thus the Divine salutation, may be seen in Luke (24:36, 37); John (20:19-21); and by command of the Lord, it was the salutation of the disciples to all to whom they should enter in (Matt. 10:11-15).

AR (Whitehead) n. 13 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S1′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S1′ 13. From Him who is, who was, and is to come, signifies, from the Lord who is eternal and infinite, and Jehovah. That it is the Lord, appears clearly from what follows in this chapter, where it is said that he heard a voice from the Son of man, saying:
I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last (Rev. 1:11-13);
and afterwards:
I am the First and the Last (Rev. 1:17);
and in the following chapter (Rev. 1:8); and afterwards (Rev. 21:6; 22:12); and in Isaiah:
Thus saith Jehovah, the King of Israel, and His Redeemer Jehovah of Hosts: I am the First, and I am the Last, and besides Me there Is no God (Isa. 44:6);
also (48:12); and He who is the First and the Last, is He who is, and who was, and who is to come.
[2] This also is meant by Jehovah; for the name Jehovah signifies is; and He who is, or who is Esse itself, the same is also He who was, and is to come, for in Him the past and the future are present; hence He is without time eternal, and without place infinite. This also is acknowledged by the church in the Doctrine of the Trinity, called Athanasian, in which are these words: “The Father is eternal and infinite, the Son is eternal and infinite, and the Holy Spirit is eternal and infinite, but yet there are not three eternals and infinites, but one;” that this one is the Lord, is demonstrated in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord.

AR (Whitehead) n. 14 sRef Rev@1 @4 S0′ sRef Isa@66 @1 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ sRef Ezek@1 @26 S0′ sRef Ps@103 @19 S0′ 14. And from the seven spirits who are before His throne, signifies, from the whole heaven where the Lord is in His Divine truth, and where His Divine truth is received. By “seven spirits” are meant all who are in the Divine truth, and in the abstract sense, the Divine true or Divine truth itself. That “seven” in the Word means all and all things, may be seen above (n. 10); and that by “throne” is meant the whole heaven, will be seen presently. Hence by “before His throne,” is meant where His Divine truth is; for heaven is not heaven from anything proper to the angels, but from the Divine of the Lord, as is shown in many places in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence and the Divine Love and Wisdom. That “the Lord’s throne” signifies heaven, is evident from the following passages:
Jehovah saith, The heavens are My throne (Isa. 66:1).
Jehovah hath made firm His throne in the heavens (Ps. 103:19).
He that sweareth by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by Him who sitteth thereon (Matt. 23:22).
Above the expanse that was over the head of the cherubim, was as it were, the appearance of a sapphire stone, the likeness of a throne, and upon it the appearance of a Man (Ezek. 1:26; 10:1).
By “the expanse over the head of the cherubim” is meant heaven. And in Revelation:
He that overcometh, I will give him to sit on My throne (Rev. 3:21).
“On my throne,” is in heaven; specifically, where His Divine truth reigns; thus also, where judgment is treated of, it is said that the Lord will sit upon a throne, for judgment is performed by truths.

AR (Whitehead) n. 15 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 15. Verse 5. And from Jesus Christ, signifies the Divine Human. That by “Jesus Christ” and by “the Lamb” in the Word, is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human, may be seen above (n. 6).

AR (Whitehead) n. 16 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 16. Who is the faithful witness, signifies that He is the Divine Truth itself. That “witness” is predicated of truth, and that the truth testifies of itself, thus the Lord, who is the Divine Truth itself, and the Word, may be seen above (n. 6).

AR (Whitehead) n. 17 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @28 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @29 S0′ 17. The first-born from the dead, signifies that He is the Divine Good itself. What “the first-born from the dead” means, no one as yet knows; and the ancients disputed what it signifies. They knew that by “the first-born” is signified what is first and primary, from which is the all of the church; and it was believed by many, that it was truth in doctrine and in faith; but by few, that it was truth in act and work, which is the good of life. That this is the first and primary of the church, and thence in the proper sense is meant by “the first-born,” will be seen presently. But first something shall be said concerning the opinion of those who believed, that truth in doctrine and in faith is the first and primary of the church, thus the first-born. They believed this, because it is learned first, and because a church is a church by means of truth, though not before it is of the life. Previously it is only in the thought of the understanding, and in the memory, and not in the act of the will; and truth, which is not truth in act or work, does not live. It is only like a luxuriant tree having branches and leaves without fruit. And it is like knowledge without application to use; and like the foundation upon which a house is built in which one is to dwell. These things are first in time, but they are not first in end; and what are first in end are primary; for habitation in the house is the first in end, but the foundation is the first in time; use also is first in end, and knowledge is first in time; in like manner the first in end, when a tree is planted, is the fruit, but the first in time are the branches and leaves.
[2] With the understanding it is similar, which is formed in man first, but to the end that what a man sees with his understanding, he may do; otherwise the understanding is like a preacher, who teaches well, but lives wickedly. Moreover all truth is sown in the internal man, and rooted in the external; wherefore, unless the truth that is inseminated takes root in the external man, which is effected by doing, it becomes like a tree planted, not in the soil, but upon it, which immediately withers on exposure to the heat of the sun. The man who has done the truth, takes this root with him after death; but not the man who had only known and acknowledged it in faith. Now because many of the ancients made that which is first in time, the first also in end, that is, primary; therefore they said, that the first-born signified truth in doctrine and faith in the church; not knowing that this is the first-born apparently, but not actually.
[3] But all those who have made truth in doctrine and in faith the primary, are condemned, because there is nothing of deed or work, or nothing of life in that truth. Therefore Cain, who was the first-born of Adam and Eve, was condemned. That by him is signified truth in doctrine and in faith, may be seen in the Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence (n. 242). Therefore, also Reuben, who was the first-born of Jacob, was condemned by his father (Genesis 49:3-4), and his birthright was taken from him (1 Chron. 5:1). That by “Reuben” in the spiritual sense, is meant truth in doctrine and in faith, will be seen presently. By “the first-born of Egypt,” who were all smitten, because condemned, nothing else is meant in the spiritual sense, than truth in doctrine and in faith separate from the good of life, which truth is in itself dead. By the “goats” in Daniel and in Matthew, no others are meant than those who are in faith separate from life, concerning whom see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning Faith (n. 61-68). That those who were in faith separate from life, were rejected and condemned about the time of the Last Judgment, may be seen in The Continuation concerning the Last Judgment (n. 16, seq.).
sRef John@3 @21 S4′ [4] From these few things it may appear that truth in doctrine and in faith is not the first-born of the church; but truth in act or work, which is the good of life; for the church is not with man until the truth becomes of the life, and when the truth becomes of the life, then it is good; for the thought of the understanding, and the memory, do not flow into the will, and through the will into act; but the will flows into the thought of the understanding, and into the memory, and acts. And what proceeds from the will, through the understanding, proceeds from affection, which is of love, through the thought, which is of the understanding, and all this is called good, and it enters into the life; wherefore the Lord saith, that:
He who doeth the truth, doeth it in God (John 3:21).
sRef John@21 @22 S5′ sRef John@21 @23 S5′ sRef John@21 @22 S5′ sRef John@21 @23 S5′ sRef John@21 @21 S5′ sRef John@21 @20 S5′ sRef John@21 @19 S5′ sRef John@21 @18 S5′ [5] Because John represents the good of life, and Peter the truth of faith, as may be seen above (n. 5), therefore:
John leaned on the Lord’s breast, and followed Jesus, but not Peter (John 21:18-21).
The Lord also said of John, that “he should tarry till He came” (verse 22-23); thus to this day, which is the Lord’s coming; the good of life is therefore now taught by the Lord* for those who will be of His New Church, which is the New Jerusalem. In a summary, that is the first-born which the truth first produces from good, thus what the understanding produces from the will; because truth is of the understanding, and good is of the will: this first is primary, because it is as the seed from which the rest proceed.
sRef Ps@89 @27 S6′ [6] As to the Lord He is the First-born from the dead, because He, as to His Human, is the truth itself united to the Divine good, from whom all men live, who in themselves are dead. The same is meant in David:
I will make Him the first-born higher than the kings of the earth (Ps. 89:27).
This is concerning the Lord’s Human. Thence it is that Israel is called the first-born (Exod. 4:22, 23). By “Israel” is meant the truth in act, and by “Jacob” the truth in doctrine; and because there is no church from the latter alone, therefore Jacob was named Israel; but in the supreme sense by “Israel” is meant the Lord. On account of this representation of the “first-born,” all the first-born and all the first fruits were sanctified to Jehovah (Exod. 13:2, 12; 22:28, 29).
sRef Ex@13 @2 S7′ sRef Ex@13 @12 S7′ [7] On account of this representation of the “first-born,” the Levites were taken instead of all the first-born in the Israelitish church; and it is said that thereby they belonged to Jehovah (Num. 3:12, 13, 40-46; 18:15-18): for by “Levi” is signified truth in act, which is the good of life; and therefore the priesthood was given to his posterity, which will be treated of below. For the same reason a double portion of the inheritance was given to the first-born, and he was called “the beginning of strength” (Deut. 21:15-17).
[8] The “first-born” signifies the primary of the church, because in the Word by natural births, spiritual births are signified, and then what first produces them in man, is meant by his “first-born;” for there is no church with him, until the truth of doctrine conceived in the internal man is born in the external.
* The translation reads “Word,” but the Latin clearly is “Lord.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 18 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 18. And the prince of the kings of the earth, signifies from whom is all truth from good in the church. This follows from what has gone before, because by faithful witness, the Lord as to the Divine truth is signified; and by first-born the Lord as to the Divine good; therefore by “the prince of the earth,” is signified, that all truth from good in the church is from Him. The reason why this is signified by “the prince of the kings of the earth,” is, that by “kings” in the spiritual sense of the Word, are meant those that are in truths from good, and abstractly, truths from good; and by “earth” is meant the church. That this is the signification of “kings” and “earth,” may be seen below (n. 20, 285).

AR (Whitehead) n. 19 sRef Rev@1 @5 S0′ 19. To Him that loveth us and washeth us from our sins, signifies, who out of love and mercy reforms and regenerates men by His Divine truths from the Word. That “to wash us from our sins” is to purify us from evils, thus to reform and regenerate, is evident; for regeneration is spiritual washing. But that by “His blood,” is not meant the passion of the cross, as many believe, but the Divine truth proceeding from Him, may appear from many passages in the Word, which it would be too prolix to adduce here, but they will be adduced below (n. 379, 653). In the meantime, see what is said and shown concerning the signification of the Lord’s flesh and blood in the Holy Supper, as set forth in The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, published at London in the year 1758 (n. 210-222); and concerning spiritual washing, which is regeneration, in the same (n. 202-209).

AR (Whitehead) n. 20 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @21 S1′ 20. Verse 6. And maketh us kings and priests, signifies who gives to those who are born of Him, that is, who are regenerated, to be in wisdom from Divine truths, and in love from Divine goods. It is known that in the Word the Lord is called “king,” and also “priest”; He is called “king” from Divine wisdom, and “priest” from Divine love; therefore, they who are in wisdom from the Lord are called “sons of the king,” and also “kings;” and they who are in love from Him, are called “ministers” and “priests;” for the wisdom and love with them is not from themselves, thus not their own, but the Lord’s. Hence it is that these are meant in the Word by “kings” and “priests;” not that they are such, but that the Lord is such in them, and causes them to be so called. They are also called “born of Him,” “sons of the kingdom,” “sons of the Father,” and “heirs;” “born of him” (John 1:12, 13), that is, born again, or regenerated (John 3:3 seq.); “sons of the kingdom” (Matt. 8:12; 8:38); “sons of the Father in heaven” (Matt. 5:45); “heirs” (Ps. 127:3; 1 Sam. 2:8; Matt. 25:34); and because they are called heirs, sons of the kingdom, and born of the Lord as their Father, they are called “kings and priests;” then also it is said that:
They all sit with the Lord upon His throne (Rev. 3:21).
[2] There are two kingdoms into which the entire heaven is distinguished, the spiritual kingdom and the celestial kingdom; the spiritual kingdom is what is called the Lord’s royalty, and as all who are therein are in wisdom from truths, therefore they are meant by “the kings,” which the Lord will make those men who are in wisdom from Him; and the celestial kingdom is what is called the Lord’s priesthood, and because all who are there, are in love from goods, therefore they are meant by “priests,” which the Lord will make those men who are in love from Him: in like manner, the Lord’s church upon earth is distinguished into two kingdoms; concerning those two kingdoms, see the work on Heaven and Hell, published in London in the year 1758 (n. 24, 226).
sRef Isa@52 @15 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @16 S3′ sRef Dan@11 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@60 @10 S3′ [3] He who does not know the spiritual signification of “kings and priests,” may be hallucinated* by many things which are related concerning them in the prophets and in Revelation; as in these in the prophets:
The sons of strangers shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee; thou shalt suck the milk of the Gentiles, yea thou shalt suck the breasts of kings; that thou mayest know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer (Isa. 60:10, 16).
Kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their princesses thy nursing mothers (Isa. 49:23).
And in other places, as in (Gen. 49:20; Ps. 2:10; Isa. 14:9; 24:21; 52:15; Jer. 2:26; 4:9; 69:3; Lam. 2:6, 9; Ezek. 7:26, 27; Hos. 3:4; Zeph. 1:8). By “kings” in these passages, kings are not meant, but those who are in Divine truths from the Lord, and abstractly Divine truths, from which is wisdom. Neither are kings meant by “the king of the south” and “the king of the north” who waged war with each other (Dan. 11:1 seq.); but by “the king of the south” are meant those who are in truths, and by “the king of the north” those who are in falsities.
sRef Rev@21 @24 S4′ sRef Rev@16 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@17 @2 S4′ sRef Rev@18 @3 S4′ sRef Rev@19 @19 S4′ [4] In like manner in Revelation, where kings are frequently mentioned; as in these passages:
The sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates, and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings from the rising of the sun might be prepared (Rev. 16:12).
The kings of the earth have committed whoredom with the great harlot that sitteth upon many waters (Rev. 17:2).
All nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of the whoredom of Babylon, and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her (Rev. 18:3).
And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies gathered together to make war with Him that sitteth on the white horse (Rev. 19:19).
And the nations which are saved shall walk in His light, and the kings of the earth shall bring their glory and honor into the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:24);
and in other places (as in Rev. 16:14; 17:2, 9-14; 18:9-10). By kings are here meant those who are in truths, and, in the opposite sense those who are in falsities; and abstractly, truths or falsities. By “the whoredom of Babylon with the kings of the earth” is meant the falsification of the truth of the church; that Babylon, or the woman who sat upon the scarlet beast, did not commit whoredom with the kings, but that she falsified the truths of the Word, is evident.
sRef Rev@5 @10 S5′ sRef John@18 @38 S5′ sRef John@18 @37 S5′ [5] From this it is evident that by “kings,” that the Lord will make those who are in wisdom from Him, is not meant that they will be kings, but that they will be wise. That this is so, enlightened reason also sees. So in the following:
Thou hast made us unto our God kings and priests, that we may reign upon the earth (Rev. 5:10).
That the Lord, by “a king,” meant truth, is evident from his own words to Pilate:
Pilate said unto Him, Art thou not a king then? Jesus answered, Thou hast said that I am a king. For this was I born, and for this I came into the world, that I should give testimony to the truth; everyone that is of the truth heareth My voice. Pilate saith unto Him, What is truth? (John 18:37-38).
“To bear witness unto the truth,” means that He Himself is the truth; and because from it He called Himself “a king,” Pilate said, “What is truth,” that is, is truth a king? That “priests” signify those who are in the good of love, and abstractly the goods of love, will appear in what follows.
* deceived

AR (Whitehead) n. 21 sRef John@14 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ sRef John@14 @9 S0′ sRef John@14 @8 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S0′ sRef John@14 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S0′ 21. Unto God and his Father signifies thus images of His Divine wisdom, and of His Divine love. By “God and Father,” in the spiritual sense, two persons are not meant; but by “God” is meant the Divine as to wisdom, and by “Father” the Divine as to love; for there are two things in the Lord, the Divine wisdom and the Divine love, or the Divine truth and the Divine good; these two are meant in the Old Testament by “God” and “Jehovah,” and here, by “God” and “Father.” Now because the Lord teaches, that He and the Father are one, and that He is in the Father and the Father in Him (John 10:30; 14:10, 11), by God and the Father are not meant two persons, but the Lord alone. The Divine also is one and indivisible, therefore by “Jesus Christ made us kings and priests unto God and His Father” is signified, that they appear before Him as images of His Divine wisdom and of His Divine love; for in these two consists the image of God in men and angels. That the Divine, which in itself is one, is designated by various names in the Word, may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord. That the Lord Himself is also the Father, is evident from the following places. In Isaiah:
For unto us a Boy is born, unto us a Son is given, and His name shall be called Wonderful, God, Hero, the Father of eternity, the Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6).
Thou, Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer, Thy name is from an age (Isa. 63:16);
and in John:
If ye had known Me, ye should have known My Father also, and from henceforth ye know Him, and have seen Him. Philip saith unto Him, Lord, show us the Father. Jesus saith unto him, he that hath seen Me hath seen the Father, therefore how sayest thou, Show us the Father? Believe Me, that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:7-9, 11).
See n. 962, below.

AR (Whitehead) n. 22 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ 22. To Him be glory and might unto the ages of ages, signifies, to whom alone belong Divine majesty and Divine omnipotence to eternity. By “glory” in the Word, where the Lord is treated of, is meant the Divine majesty; this being predicated of His Divine wisdom; and by “might,” is meant the Divine omnipotence, this being predicated of His Divine love; and by “ages of ages,” is meant eternity. That such is the meaning of “glory,” “might,” and “ages of ages,” when spoken of Jehovah or the Lord, may be confirmed from many passages in the Word.

AR (Whitehead) n. 23 sRef Rev@1 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′ 23. Amen, signifies Divine confirmation from the truth, thus from Himself. “Amen” signifies truth; and because the Lord was truth itself, He so often said, “Amen, I say unto you,” (as in Matt. 5:18, 26; 6:16; 10:23, 42; 17:20; 18:13, 18; 25:12; 28:20; John 3:11; 5:19, 24, 25; 6:26, 32, 47, 53; 8:34, 51, 58; 10:7; 13:16, 20, 21; 21:18, 25); and in the following passage in Revelation:
These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness (Rev. 3:14);
that is, the Lord. That the Lord is the truth itself, He Himself teaches in John 14:6; 17:19.

AR (Whitehead) n. 24 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @64 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @63 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @30 S0′ 24. Verse 7. Behold He cometh with the clouds of heaven, signifies that the Lord will reveal Himself in the literal sense of the Word, and will open its spiritual sense in the end of the church. He who does not know anything of the internal or spiritual sense of the Word, cannot know what was meant by the Lord that “He will come in the clouds of heaven”; for He said to the high priest, who adjured Him to say whether He was the Christ the Son of God:
Thou hast said I am; and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming with the clouds of heaven (Matt. 26:63-64; Mark 14:61-62).
And where the Lord speaks to His disciples of the consummation of the age, He says:
And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man; and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory (Matt. 24:30; Mark 13:26).
By “the clouds of heaven” in which He is to come, nothing else is meant but the Word in its literal sense; and by “the glory” in which they will see Him, the Word in its spiritual sense. That this is the case, is difficult to be believed by those who do not think beyond the sense of the letter of the Word; with such, “a cloud” is a cloud, and thence is their belief that the Lord will appear in the clouds of heaven, when the Last Judgment is at hand. But this idea falls, when it is known what “a cloud” is, and that it is the Divine truth in ultimates, thus the Word in the sense of the letter.
[2] In the spiritual world there appear clouds as well as in the natural world; but the clouds in the spiritual world appear beneath the heavens, with those who are in the sense of the letter of the Word, darker or brighter according to their understanding and reception of the Word; the reason is, that the light of heaven there is the Divine truth, and darkness there is falsities; consequently “bright clouds” are the Divine truth veiled in appearances of truth, such as the Word is in the letter with those who are in truths; and “dark clouds” are the Divine truths covered with fallacies and confirmed appearances, such as the Word is in the letter with those who are in falsities. I have often seen those clouds, and it was evident whence and what they are. Now because the Lord, after the glorification of His Human, was made the Divine truth, or the Word, even in ultimates, He said unto the high priest, that, “Hereafter they should see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven.”
sRef Rev@14 @14 S3′ sRef Dan@7 @13 S3′ [3] But His saying to His disciples, that “in the consummation of the age the sign of the Son of man should appear, and that they should see Him coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory,” signifies that at the end of the church, when the Last Judgment shall take place, He will appear in the Word, and reveal the spiritual sense, which is also accomplished at this day, because now is the end of the church, and the Last Judgment has taken place, as may appear from the small works recently published. This, therefore, is what is meant in Revelation, by “behold He cometh with clouds”: also in the following passages:
I saw, and behold, a white cloud, and upon the cloud one sat like unto the Son of man (Rev. 14:14).
As also in Daniel:
I saw in the night visions, and behold the Son of man coming with clouds (Dan. 7:13).
That by “the Son of man” is meant the Lord as to the Word, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 19-28).
sRef Ps@18 @10 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @11 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @12 S4′ sRef Ps@68 @4 S4′ sRef Isa@19 @1 S4′ sRef Deut@33 @26 S4′ [4] That also by “clouds” in other parts of the Word, is meant the Divine truth in ultimates, and thence the Word in the letter, may be seen in other passages where clouds are mentioned; as in these:
There is none like unto the God of Jeshurun, who rideth upon the heaven, and in magnificence upon the clouds (Deut. 33:26).
Sing unto God, praise His name, extol Him that rideth upon the clouds (Ps. 68:4).
Jehovah rideth upon a light cloud (Isa. 19:1).
“To ride upon the clouds,” signifies to be in the wisdom of the Word, for “a horse” signifies the understanding of the Word; who cannot see that Jehovah does not ride upon the clouds?
God rode upon a cherub, and placed the clouds of the heavens His tent (Ps. 18:10-11).
Here there is a similar signification; “cherubs” also signify the Word, as may be seen below (n. 239, 672); tent signifies a habitation.
sRef Job@37 @15 S5′ sRef Ps@104 @3 S5′ sRef Job@26 @8 S5′ sRef Ps@68 @34 S5′ sRef Job@26 @9 S5′ [5] Jehovah layeth the beams of His chambers in the waters, He maketh the cloud His chariot (Ps. 104:3).
“Waters” signify truths, “chambers” signify doctrinals, and “chariot” doctrine, all which, because they are from the sense of the letter of the Word, are called “clouds.”
He bindeth up the waters in His clouds, and the cloud is not broken under them; He spreadeth His cloud over His throne (Job 26:8-9).
In like manner:
God caused the light of His cloud to shine (Job 37:15).
Give ye strength unto God, strength upon the clouds (Ps. 68:34).
“The light of a cloud” signifies the Divine truth of the Word, and “strength” signifies Divine power there.
sRef Jer@51 @9 S6′ sRef Isa@4 @5 S6′ sRef Isa@14 @14 S6′ sRef Isa@14 @13 S6′ sRef Ps@105 @39 S6′ sRef Isa@14 @12 S6′ [6] Thou, O Lucifer, hast said in thine heart, I will ascend above the heights of the cloud; I will become like the Most High (Isa. 14:14).
Forsake ye, Babylon, for she hath lifted herself up even to the clouds (Jer. 51:9).
By “Lucifer,” and “Babylon” are signified those who profane the goods and truths of the Word, therefore these truths are meant there by “clouds.”
Jehovah spread a cloud for a covering (Ps. 105:39).
Jehovah createth upon every habitation of Zion a cloud by day, for upon all the glory shall be a covering (Isa. 4:5).
Here, also, by “cloud,” is meant the Word in the sense of the letter, which sense, as it includes and covers the spiritual sense, is called “a covering upon the glory.” That the literal sense of the Word is a covering, lest its spiritual sense should be injured, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 33); and that it is a guard (n. 97).
sRef Ex@19 @9 S7′ [7] The Divine truth in ultimates, which is the same with the Word in the sense of the letter, is also represented by the “cloud,” in which Jehovah descended upon Mount Sinai, and promulgated the law (Exod. 19:9; 34:5). Also by the “cloud” which covered Peter, James, and John, when Jesus was transfigured, concerning which it is written:
While Peter yet spake, behold a cloud overshadowed them, and behold a voice out of the cloud saying, This is my beloved Son, hear ye Him (Matt. 17:5; Mark 9:7; Luke 9:34-35).
The Lord in this transfiguration, caused Himself to be seen as the Word; therefore a cloud overshadowed them, and a voice was heard out of the cloud, that He is the Son of God; “the voice out of the cloud” is out of the Word. That by “cloud,” in the opposite sense, is meant the Word as to the sense of the letter falsified, will be seen elsewhere.

AR (Whitehead) n. 25 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ 25. And every eye shall see Him, signifies that all who are in the understanding of Divine truth from affection will acknowledge Him. In the spiritual sense, by “eye” is not meant the eye, but the understanding; therefore, “every eye shall see Him,” signifies that all who are in the understanding of Divine truth from affection will acknowledge Him, because they alone understand and acknowledge. The rest see indeed and also understand, but do not acknowledge; the former, then, are signified, because it follows, that “they also who pierced Him” will see Him, by whom are meant those who are in falsities. That “the eye” signifies the understanding, will be seen below (n. 48).

AR (Whitehead) n. 26 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ sRef John@19 @34 S0′ 26. And they also who pierced Him, signifies that they also will see who are in falsities in the church. By “piercing” Jesus Christ nothing else is meant than to destroy His Divine truth in the Word. This, also, is meant by:
One of the soldiers pierced His side, and there went forth blood and water (John 19:34.)
“Blood and water” are the Divine truth, spiritual and natural, thus the Word in its spiritual and in its natural sense; and “to pierce the Lord’s side” is to destroy both by falsities, as was also done by the Jews; for all things of the Lord’s passion represented the state of the Jewish church as to the Word, on which subject, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 15-17). The reason why “piercing” Him, signifies to destroy the Word by falsities, is, because this is said of Jesus Christ, who presently is called the Son of man, and by the Son of man is meant the Lord as to the Word, therefore “to pierce the Son of man,” is to do the same to the Word.

AR (Whitehead) n. 27 sRef Matt@24 @29 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @30 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ 27. And all the tribes of the earth shall wail, signifies that this will be when there are no longer any goods and truths in the church. That “the tribes of the earth” signify the goods and truths of the church, will be seen in the explanation of the seventh chapter, where the twelve tribes of Israel are treated of; “wailing” signifies lamentation that they are dead. The same is meant here as by the Lord’s words in Matthew:
After the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven; and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man, and then shall all the tribes of the earth wail (Matt. 24:29-30).
These things are said of the consummation of the age, which is the end of the church; “the sun shall be darkened,” signifies that there is no longer any love and charity; “the moon shall not give her light,” signifies that there is no longer any intelligence and faith; “the stars shall fall from heaven,” signifies that there are no longer any knowledges of good and truth; “all the tribes of the earth shall wail,” signifies that there are no longer any goods and truths; “affliction” signifies that state of the church.

AR (Whitehead) n. 28 sRef Rev@1 @7 S0′ 28. Even so, Amen, signifies the Divine confirmation that so it will be. This is evident from what was explained above (n. 23).

AR (Whitehead) n. 29 sRef Rev@1 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @12 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @11 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @10 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S1′ sRef Rev@1 @18 S1′ 29. Verse 8. And I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, signifies Who is the Self-existing and the Only from firsts to ultimates, from Whom all things are; thus Who is Love Itself and the Only Love, Wisdom Itself and the Only Wisdom, Life Itself and the Only Life in Himself, and thus the Creator Himself and the Only Creator, Saviour and Enlightener from Himself, and thence the All in all of heaven and the church. These and many more things besides are contained in the above words, by which the Lord is described. That they are spoken of the Lord, and, indeed, of His Human, is very evident, for it follows that John heard a voice, saying:
I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last; and He turned to see the voice that spake with him, and saw the Son of man in the midst of seven lampstands (Rev. 1:10-13).
Who, also, a little further on, says:
I am the First and the Last, I am He that liveth and was dead (Rev. 2:8).
But that all the particulars above enumerated are contained in these words cannot be confirmed briefly, for to confirm them fully would require many sheets; still they are in part confirmed in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom, recently published in Amsterdam, which see. The Lord calls Himself ” the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End,” because “Alpha and Omega” refer to His Divine love, and “Beginning and End,” to His Divine wisdom; for there is, in every particular of the Word, a marriage of love and wisdom, or of good and truth; on which subject, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 80-90).
[2] The Lord is called “the Alpha and the Omega,” because Alpha is the first letter and Omega the last in the Greek Alphabet, and therefore they signify all in the aggregate. The reason is, that every letter of the alphabet, in the spiritual world, signifies something; and a vowel, because it is serviceable for sound, something of affection or love. From this origin, spiritual and angelic speech, and, also, the Scriptures, are derived; but this is an arcanum hitherto unknown. For there is a universal language in which all angels and spirits are; and this has nothing in common with any language of men in the world. Every man comes into this language after death; for it is implanted in every man from creation, therefore they all can understand each other in the whole spiritual world. It has been granted me frequently to hear that language, and also to speak it; and I have compared it with the languages in the world, and have found that it does not, even in the smallest particular, make one with any natural language on the earth. It differs from these in its first principle, which is, that each letter of every word has a sense and signification peculiar to itself, as well in speaking as in writing. Therefore it is that the Lord is called the Alpha and the Omega, which signifies that He is the All in all of heaven and the church; and as these two letters are vowels, they have relation to love, as was said above. Concerning this language, and the writing of it, flowing from the spiritual thought of the angels, something may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 295).

AR (Whitehead) n. 30 sRef Rev@1 @8 S0′ 30. Saith the Lord, Who is, and Who was, and Who is to come. That this signifies who is eternal and infinite, and Jehovah, may be seen above (n. 13), where this is explained.

AR (Whitehead) n. 31 sRef Rev@1 @8 S0′ 31. The Almighty, signifies who is, lives, and has power from Himself, and who rules all things from firsts by ultimates. Since all things are from the Lord, and are created from the firsts which are from Him; and nothing is given which does not exist therefrom, as is abundantly shown in the Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom, it follows, that He is omnipotent. Suppose One from whom are all things; are not all things of that One, upon whom they depend in order, like the links of a chain upon their hook; or like the blood vessels of the whole body upon the heart; or as each and everything in the universe on the sun? Thus do all things depend on the Lord, who is the sun of the spiritual world, from whom is all the essence, life, and power, with those who are under that sun. In a word, “from Him we live, and move, and have our being” (Acts 17:28). This is the Divine omnipotence. That the Lord rules all things from firsts by ultimates, is an arcanum never before revealed; but it is now explained in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord and Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture in many places; and also in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence (n. 124); and Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 221). It is known that the Divine because it is infinite, does not fall into the ideas of the thought of any man nor of any angel, because they are finite, and the finite does not have the capacity of perceiving the infinite; still, that it may in some manner be perceived, it has pleased the Lord to describe His infinity by these words:
I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End; Who is, and Who was, and Who is to come, the Almighty.
These words, therefore, include all things which angel and man can ever think, spiritually and naturally, concerning the Divine; which things, in general, are what were adduced above universally.

AR (Whitehead) n. 32 sRef Matt@23 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 32. Verse 9. I, John, who also am your brother and companion, signifies those who are in the good of charity, and thence in the truths of faith. It was said above (n. 5), that the apostle John represented those who are in the good of charity; and those who are in the good of charity are also in the truths of faith, because charity is the soul and life of faith; hence it is, that John calls himself the brother and companion of those in the church to whom he writes, for he wrote to the seven churches. By “brother,” in the spiritual sense of the Word, is meant one who is in the good of charity; and by “companion” one who is thence in the truths of faith; for all are, as it were, in consanguinity by charity, but in affinity by faith; for charity conjoins; not so faith, except it be from charity. When faith is from charity, then charity conjoins, and faith consociates; and since they make one, therefore the Lord commanded that all should be “brethren,” for he says:
One is your Teacher, Christ, but all ye are brethren (Matt. 23:8).
sRef Luke@8 @21 S2′ sRef John@13 @13 S2′ [2] The Lord, also, calls those “brethren” who are in the good of charity, or in the good of life; for He said:
My mother and my brethren are these, who hear the Word of God, and do it (Luke 8:21; Matt. 12:49; Mark 3:33-35).
By “mother,” is meant the church, and by “brethren,” those who are in charity; and because the good of charity is a “brother,” therefore the Lord calls those who are in it “brethren,” also in Matt. 25:40, and so also disciples (Matt. 28:10; John 20:17). But we do not read that the disciples called the Lord brother, because “brother” is the good which is from the Lord; this is comparatively as it is with a king, prince, and magnate, who call their relatives and neighbors brethren, but yet the latter do not in their turn call them so; for the Lord says:
One is your Teacher, Christ, but all ye are brethren (Matt. 23:8);
also:
Ye call me Master and Lord; and ye say rightly, for so I am (John 13:13).
sRef Deut@15 @2 S3′ sRef Deut@15 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@41 @6 S3′ sRef Jer@34 @17 S3′ sRef Ps@122 @8 S3′ sRef Jer@9 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@19 @2 S3′ sRef Jer@23 @35 S3′ [3] The sons of Israel called all those brethren who were from their father Jacob; and in a more extensive sense, those also who were from Esau; but such as were not from them they called companions. But because the Word, in its spiritual sense, treats only of those who are in the Lord’s church, therefore in that sense, by “brethren,” are meant those who are in the good of charity from the Lord, and by “companions,” those who are in the truths of faith; as in the following passages:
Thus shall ye say everyone to his companion, and everyone to his brother, What hath Jehovah answered? (Jer. 23:35).
Ye have not proclaimed liberty everyone to his brother, and everyone to his companion (Jer. 34:17).
Let no one press his companion, nor his brother (Deut. 15:1, 2).
For my brethren and companions’ sakes, I will now say (Ps. 122:8).
Everyone helpeth his companion, and saith to his brother, Strengthen thyself (Isa. 41:6).
And in the opposite sense:
Take ye heed everyone of his companion, and trust not in any brother; for every brother will supplant, and every companion slandereth (Jer. 9:4).
I will mingle Egypt with Egypt, that one may fight against his brother, and against his companion (Isa. 19:2);
and in other places. These are adduced, that it may be known why John calls himself “brother and companion;” and that by “brother” in the Word, is meant one who is in charity or in good, and, by “companion” one who is in faith or in truth. But because charity is from faith, therefore none are called “companions” by the Lord, but “brethren” or “neighbor;” everyone also is a neighbor according to the quality of good (Luke 10:36-37).

AR (Whitehead) n. 33 sRef Matt@24 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S0′ 33. In affliction and in the kingdom and patient expectation of Jesus Christ, signifies which in the church are infested by evils and falsities, but which will be removed by the Lord when He comes. By “affliction” is meant the state of the church when there are no longer any goods of charity and truths of faith, but in place of them evils and falsities; by “the kingdom,” is meant the church; and, by “patient expectation of Jesus Christ,” is meant the Lord’s coming; therefore these words, “In affliction and in the kingdom and patient expectation of Jesus Christ,” when collated into one sense, signify when the goods and truths of the church are infested by evils and falsities, but which will be removed by the Lord when he comes. That by “affliction” is meant the state of the church when it is infested by evils and falsities, is evident from the following:
In the consummation of the age, they shall deliver you up into affliction, and shall kill you. There shall be great affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the world, nor shall be. After the affliction of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven (Matt. 24:9, 21, 29; Mark 13:19, 24).
That “the kingdom” signifies the church, will be seen in what follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 34 sRef Isa@42 @4 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @10 S0′ sRef Zeph@2 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @12 S0′ sRef Isa@49 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@60 @9 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @15 S0′ sRef Isa@51 @5 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 34. I was in the island called Patmos, signifies a state and place in which he could be enlightened. The reason that the Revelation was made to John in Patmos, was, because it was an island in Greece, not far from the land of Canaan, and between Asia and Europe; and by “islands” are signified the Gentiles more remote from the worship of God, but yet which are about to draw near to it, because they can be enlightened. The same is signified by Greece; but the church itself is signified by “the land of Canaan”; by “Asia,” those of the church who are in the light of truth from the Word; and, by “Europe,” those to whom the Word is about to come; thence it is, that by “the island of Patmos,” is signified a state and place in which he could be enlightened. That by “islands” in the Word are signified the nations which are more remote from the worship of God, but which yet will draw near to it, is evident from these passages:
Honor Jehovah in the Urim, the name of the God of Israel in the Islands of the sea (Isa. 24:15).
He shall not extinguish nor break until He set judgment in the earth, and let the islands hope in His law. Sing unto Jehovah a new song, the islands and the inhabitants thereof shall give glory unto Jehovah; and proclaim His praise in the islands (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12).
Attend O Islands unto Me; and ye peoples from afar (Isa. 49:1).
The islands shall hope in Me, and on Mine arm shall they trust (Isa. 51:5).
The islands shall trust in Me, and the ships of Tarshish (Isa. 60:9).
Hear the Words of Jehovah, O ye nations, and proclaim it in the Islands from afar (Jer. 31:10).
And that they should adore Jehovah everyone in his place, all the Islands of the nations (Zeph. 2:11);
and elsewhere. That the same is signified by “Greece,” is not so evident from the Word, because Greece is mentioned only in Daniel 8:21; 10:20; 11:2; as also in John 12:20; Mark 7:26. That by “the land of Canaan” is meant the Lord’s church, which is thence called “the Holy Land,” and “the heavenly Canaan,” is evident from many passages in the Word; that by “Asia” are meant those in the church who are in the light of truth from the Word, may be seen above (n. 11); and that by “Europe,” those to whom the Word is about to come, is evident.

AR (Whitehead) n. 35 sRef Rev@1 @9 S0′ 35. For the Word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ, signifies that the Divine truth from the Word may be received from the heart and so in the light, and that the Lord’s Human might be acknowledged to be Divine; this was explained above (n. 6).

AR (Whitehead) n. 36 sRef Rev@1 @10 S0′ 36. Verse 10. I became in the spirit on the Lord’s day, signifies a spiritual state then from Divine influx. “I became in the spirit,” signifies the spiritual state in which he was when he was in visions, which state is treated of in what follows. “On the Lord’s day,” signifies influx then from the Lord; for on that day the Lord is present, because the day is holy. From which it is evident, that “I became in the spirit on the Lord’s day,” signifies a spiritual state then from Divine influx. Of the prophets we read that they were “in the spirit” or “in vision,” also that the Word came to them from Jehovah. When they were in the spirit or in vision, they were not in the body, but in their spirit, in which state they saw such things as are in heaven; but when the Word came to them, then they were in the body, and heard Jehovah speaking. These two states of the prophets are to be carefully distinguished. In the state of vision the eyes of their spirit were opened, and the eyes of their body shut; and then they heard what the angels spoke; or what Jehovah spoke through the angels, and they also saw the things which were represented to them in heaven; and then they sometimes seemed to themselves to be carried from place to place, the body remaining in its place.
sRef Zech@1 @8 S2′ sRef Ezek@3 @14 S2′ sRef Ezek@11 @1 S2′ sRef Ezek@3 @12 S2′ sRef Ezek@8 @3 S2′ sRef Ezek@11 @24 S2′ [2] In this state was John when he wrote Revelation; and sometimes also Ezekiel, Zechariah, and Daniel; and then it is said that they were ” in vision,” or “in the spirit”; for Ezekiel says:
The spirit took me up, and brought me back into Chaldea to the captivity in a vision of God, in the Spirit of God; thus the vision which I saw went up upon me (Ezek.11:1, 24).
It is said also that the spirit took him up, and he heard behind him an earthquake, and other things (Ezek. 3:12, 24); also that:
The spirit lifted him up between the earth and heaven, and brought him in the visions of God to Jerusalem, and he saw abominations (Ezek. 8:3 seq.).
In like manner he was in a vision of God, or in the spirit, when he saw the four animals which were cherubs (Ezek. 1 and 10); as also when he saw the new earth and the new temple, and the angel measuring them (Ezek. 40-48); and it is said that he was in the visions of God (Ezek. 40:2); and that the spirit took him up (Ezek. 43:5).
sRef Zech@5 @6 S3′ sRef Zech@1 @18 S3′ sRef Zech@5 @1 S3′ sRef Dan@7 @1 S3′ sRef Zech@2 @1 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @1 S3′ sRef Zech@4 @1 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @1 S3′ sRef Zech@3 @1 S3′ [3] The same was the case with Zechariah, with whom there was an angel at the time, when he saw the man riding among the myrtle trees (Zech. 1:8 seq.); when he saw four horns, and afterwards a man, in whose hand was a measuring line (Zech. 2:1, 5 seq.); when he saw Joshua, the high priest (Zech. 3:1 seq.); when he saw the lampstand and the two olive trees (Zech. 4:1 seq.); when he saw the flying roll and the ephah (Zech. 5:1, 6); and when he saw the four chariots coming out from between two mountains, and horses (Zech. 6:1 seq.). In a similar state was Daniel; when he saw four beasts coming up out of the sea (Dan. 7:1 seq.). And when he saw the battle of the ram and the he-goat (Dan. 8:1 seq.). That he saw these things in visions, he himself said (Dan. 7:1-2, 7, 13; 8:2; 10:1, 7-8), and that the angel Gabriel was seen by him in a vision (Dan. 9:21).
[4] It was the same with John; as when he saw the Son of man in the midst of the seven lampstands (Rev. 1); when he saw a throne in heaven, and Him that sat thereon, and four animals round about the throne (Rev. 4); when he saw the book sealed with seven seals (Rev. 5); when he saw the four horses going forth out of the book that was opened (Rev. 6); when he saw the four angels standing upon the four corners of the earth (Rev. 7); when he saw the locusts going forth out of the bottomless pit (Rev. 9); when he saw the angel in whose hand was a little book, which he gave him to eat (Rev. 10); when he heard the seven angels sound with their trumpets (Rev. 11); when he saw the dragon, and the woman whom the dragon persecuted, and the combat of the latter with Michael (Rev. 12); and afterwards, two beasts coming up, one out of the sea, and the other out of the earth (Rev. 13); when he saw the seven angels having the seven last plagues (Rev. 15-16); when he saw the harlot sitting upon the scarlet beast (Rev. 17-18); and afterwards, a white horse, and One sitting thereon (Rev. 19); and lastly, a new heaven and a new earth, and then the New Jerusalem coming down out of heaven (Rev. 21-22). That John saw these things “in the spirit,” and “in vision,” he himself says (Rev. 1:10; 4:2; 9:17; 21:10); this also is meant by “I saw” wherever it occurs.
sRef 2Ki@6 @17 S5′ [5] From these things it is evident that to be “in the spirit” is to be “in vision”; which is effected by the opening of the sight of man’s spirit; which, when it is opened, the things which are in the spiritual world appear as clearly as the things which are in the natural world appear before the sight of the body. I can testify that it is so, from the experience of many years. In this state the disciples were when they saw the Lord after His resurrection, wherefore it is said that: “Their eyes were opened” (Luke 24:30, 31). Abraham was in a similar state when he saw the three angels, and spoke with them. So were Hagar, Gideon, Joshua, and others, when they saw the angels of Jehovah; and, in like manner, the boy of Elisha, when he saw the mountain full of chariots and horses of fire round about Elisha; for:
Elisha prayed and said, Jehovah, I pray, open his eyes that he may see; and Jehovah opened the eyes of the boy, and he saw (2 Kings 6:17).
But as to the Word, it was not revealed in a state of the spirit or in vision, but was dictated to the prophets by the Lord by the living voice; therefore, it is nowhere said that they spoke it from the Holy Spirit, but from Jehovah; see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 53).

AR (Whitehead) n. 37 sRef Ps@29 @4 S0′ sRef John@10 @16 S0′ sRef Ps@68 @33 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@68 @32 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @9 S0′ sRef John@10 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @6 S0′ sRef John@10 @27 S0′ sRef John@5 @25 S0′ sRef Joel@3 @16 S0′ sRef John@10 @4 S0′ sRef Joel@2 @11 S0′ 37. And I heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet, signifies manifest perception of the Divine truth revealed from heaven. “A great voice,” when heard from heaven, signifies the Divine truth, of which presently; it was heard “as a trumpet,” because when the Divine truth descends from heaven, it is sometimes so heard by the angels of the lowest heaven, and then is manifestly perceived. Therefore, by “a voice as of a trumpet,” is signified manifest perception; of the signification of trumpet, more will be seen below (n. 397, 519). That “a great voice” when heard from heaven signifies Divine truth is evident from these passages:
The voice of Jehovah is upon the water, the voice of Jehovah is in power, the voice of Jehovah is with honor, the voice of Jehovah breaketh the cedars, the voice of Jehovah falleth as a flame of fire; the voice of Jehovah maketh the wilderness to tremble; the voice of Jehovah maketh the hinds to bring forth (Ps. 29:3-9).
Sing psalms to the Lord ye kingdoms of the earth, behold He will give forth His voice, a voice of strength (Ps. 68:32-33).
Jehovah gave forth His voice before His army, for numberless, it doeth His Word (Joel 2:11).
Jehovah will give forth His voice from Jerusalem (Joel 3:16).
And since “voice” signifies the Divine truth from the Lord, therefore the Lord said that:
The sheep hear His voice; they know His voice; and other sheep I have, them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice; My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me (John 10:3-4, 16, 27).
And in another place:
The hour cometh, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of man, and they that hear shall live (John 5:25).
“Voice” here is the Divine truth of the Lord from his Word.

AR (Whitehead) n. 38 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 38. Verse 11. Saying, I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, signifies Who is the self-existing, and the Only from firsts to ultimates, from whom are all things; thus Who is love itself and the only love, wisdom itself and the only wisdom, and the life itself and the only life in Himself; and thus the Creator Himself and the only Creator, Saviour, and Enlightener from Himself; and thence the All in all of heaven and the church: Who alone is infinite and eternal, and Jehovah; and that He is the Lord. That all these things, and infinitely more, are contained in these words, may be seen above (n. 13, 29). It was there said, that all the syllables or letters of the alphabet, in the spiritual world, signify things; and that their speech and writing there are thence; and that therefore the Lord describes His Divinity and infinity by Alpha and Omega; by which is signified that He is the All in all of heaven and the church. Since every letter signifies a thing in the spiritual world, and thence in the angelic language; therefore David wrote the 119th Psalm, in order, according to the letters of the alphabet, beginning with Aleph and ending with Thau, as may appear from the initials of the verses there; the like appears in Psalm 111, but not so evidently. Therefore, also, Abram was called Abraham, and Sarai was called Sarah; which was done for the reason that in heaven by Abraham and Sarah, they should not be understood, but the Divine, as is also the case; for the letter “H” involves infinity, because it is only an aspirate; more on this subject may be seen above (n. 29).

AR (Whitehead) n. 39 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 39. And what thou seest, write in a book; that this signifies that it may be revealed to posterity, is evident without explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 40 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 40. And send to the churches which are in Asia, signifies for those in the Christian world, who are in the light of truth from the Word. That they are meant by the “churches in Asia,” may be seen above (n. 10, 11).

AR (Whitehead) n. 41 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ 41. Unto Ephesus, and Smyrna, and Pergamos, and Thyatira, and Sardis, and Philadelphia, and Laodicea, signifies in particular according to the state of reception of each. That all the states of reception of the Lord and of His church are signified by those seven names, in the spiritual sense, will be seen below; for John, when he received this command, was in a spiritual state, and in that state nothing is mentioned by name which does not signify some thing or state; therefore these things which were written by John, were not sent to any church in those places, but were told to their angels, by whom are meant those who receive. That by all the names of places and persons throughout the whole Word, are meant spiritual things, is shown in many places in Arcana Coelestia, published in London, as what is meant by “Abraham,” “Isaac,” and “Jacob;” also by “Israel,” and by the names of his twelve sons; as also, what is meant by various places in the land of Canaan, and by places in the vicinity of that land; as what by Egypt, Syria, Assyria, and other places. It is the same with these seven names. But he who wishes to remain in the sense of the letter, let him remain, since that sense conjoins; only let him know, that by those names the angels perceive things and states of the church.

AR (Whitehead) n. 42 sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @12 S0′ 42. Verse 12. And I turned to see the voice that spoke with me, signifies inversion of the state of those who are in the good of life, as to the perception of truth in the Word, when they turn themselves to the Lord. John says that he heard a voice behind him (verse 10), and now, that he turned to see the voice; and again, that being turned, he saw seven lampstands; from which it is evident, that he heard a voice from behind, and that he turned himself, to see from whence it proceeded; that there is an arcanum in this, is evident. The arcanum is that before man turns himself to the Lord, and acknowledges Him as the God of heaven and earth, he cannot see the Divine truth in the Word. The reason is, that God is one, both in Person and in essence, in whom there is the Trinity; and that God is the Lord. Therefore, they who acknowledge a Trinity of Persons, look primarily to the Father, and some to the Holy Spirit, and rarely to the Lord, and if to the Lord, they think of His Human as of an ordinary man. When a man does this, he can by no means be enlightened in the Word, for the Lord is the Word, for it is from Him and concerning Him. Therefore they who do not approach the Lord alone, see Him and His Word behind them, and not before them; or backward, and not in front. This is the arcanum which lies concealed in these words: “That John heard a voice behind him, and that he turned to see the voice, and, being turned, saw seven golden lampstands, and in the midst of them the Son of man;” for the voice which he heard came from the Son of man, who is the Lord.
sRef Rev@1 @8 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @8 S2′ [2] That the Lord alone is the God of heaven and earth, He now teaches in a manifest voice, for He says:
I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, saith the Lord, Who is, and Who was, and Who is to come (Rev. 1:8);
and here:
I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last (Rev. 1:11);
and afterwards:
I am the First and the Last (Rev. 1:17; 2:8).
That by a “voice,” when from the Lord is meant the Divine Truth, may be seen above (n. 37). And that by “John” are meant those of the church, who are in the good of life (n. 5, 6). From these things it may now appear, that by these words:
And I turned to see the voice which spake with me, is signified an inversion of the state of those who are in the good of life, as to the perception of truth in the Word, when they turn themselves to the Lord.

AR (Whitehead) n. 43 sRef Rev@1 @12 S0′ 43. And having turned, I saw seven golden lampstands, signifies the New Church, which will be in enlightenment from the Lord out of the Word. That the “seven lampstands” are the seven churches, is said in the last verse of this chapter; and that by the seven churches are meant all who are in the Christian world, and draw near to the church, may be seen above (n. 10); and in particular according to the state of reception of each (n. 41). The reason why the New Church is meant by “the seven lampstands” is, because in it, and in the midst of it, the Lord is; for it is said, that “in the midst of the seven lampstands he saw one like unto the Son of man,” and by “the Son of man” is meant the Lord as to the Word. The lampstands were seen to be golden, because gold signifies good, and every church is a church from good which is formed by truths; that “gold” signifies good, will be seen in what follows.
sRef Rev@22 @5 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @23 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @24 S2′ [2] Those lampstands were not placed one close to another, or in contact, but at certain distances, forming a kind of circle, as is evident from these words in the subsequent chapter:
These things saith He, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands (Rev. 2:1).
Nothing is said of the lamps of those lampstands; but in what follows it is said, that:
The Holy Jerusalem (that is, the New Church), hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, for its lamp is the Lamb, and the nations which are saved shall walk in the light of it (Rev. 21:23-24).
And further:
They need no lamp, for the Lord God giveth them light (Rev. 22:5);
for they who will be of the Lord’s New Church, are only lampstands which will give light from the Lord.
[3] By the “golden lampstand in the tabernacle,” nothing else was represented than the church as to enlightenment from the Lord, concerning which lampstand see (Exod. 25:31 to the end; 37:17-24; Lev. 24:3, 4; Num. 8:2-4). That it represented the Lord’s church as to Divine spiritual love, which is love towards the neighbor, may be seen in Arcana Coelestia, published at London (n. 9548, 9555, 9558, 9561, 9570, 9783); also, below (n. 493). By the “lampstand” in Zech. 4 is also signified the New Church to be established by the Lord, because it signifies the new house of God, or the new temple; as is evident from what follows there; and by “the house of God,” or “the temple,” the church is signified, and in the highest sense, the Lord’s Divine Human, as He Himself teaches (John 2:19-21 and elsewhere). But it shall be told what is signified in its order, in Zech. (chap. 4), when “the lampstand” was seen by him.
[4] By those things contained from verses 1 to 7, is signified the enlightenment of the New Church by the Lord, from the good of love by truth, “the olive trees” there signify the church as to the good of love; by the things there from verse 8 to 10, is signified that these things are from the Lord; by “Zerubbabel,” who is to build the house, thus the church, the Lord is represented; by the things from verse 11 to 14, is signified that in that church there will also be truths from a celestial origin. This explanation of that chapter was given me by the Lord through heaven.

AR (Whitehead) n. 44 sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ 44. Verse 13. And in the midst of the seven lampstands One like unto the Son of man, signifies the Lord as to the Word, from whom that church is. It is known from the Word, that the Lord called Himself “the Son of God,” and also “the Son of man;” that by “the Son of God” He meant Himself as to the Divine Human, and by the “Son of man,” Himself as to the Word, is fully demonstrated in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 19-28); and as it is there fully confirmed from the Word, it is unnecessary to add any further confirmation here. Now, because the Lord represented Himself before John as the Word, therefore as seen by him, He is called “the Son of man.” He represented Himself as the Word, because the New Church is treated of, which is a church from the Word, and according to the understanding of it. That the church is from the Word, and that such as its understanding of the Word is, such is the church, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 76-79). As the church is a church from the Lord through the Word, therefore the Son of man was seen in the midst of the lampstands; “in the midst” signifies in the inmost, from which the things which are round about, or which are without, derive their essence, here, their light or intelligence. That the inmost is the all in the things which are round about, or without, is shown in many places in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom; it is like light and flame in the midst, from which all the circumferences receive light and heat.
sRef Isa@12 @6 S2′ sRef Ex@23 @21 S2′ sRef Ps@48 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@23 @20 S2′ sRef Ps@82 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@74 @12 S2′ [2] “In the midst,” has the same signification in the following passages in the Word:
Cry out and shout, O inhabitant of Zion; for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee (Isa. 12:6).
God is my King working salvation in the midst of the earth (Ps. 74:12).
God doing mercy in the midst of the temple (Ps. 48:9).
God standeth in the assembly of God; he will judge in the midst of the gods (Ps. 82:1).
They are called “gods” who are in Divine truths from the Lord, and, abstractly, the truths themselves:
Behold, I send an angel before thee; beware of his face, for My name is in the midst of him (Exod. 23:20-21).
“The name of Jehovah” is all the Divine; “in the midst,” is in the inmost, and thence in everything of it. “The midst” also signifies the inmost, and thence the all, in many other passages in the Word, where evils are also treated of, as in Isa. 24:13; Jer. 23:9; Ps. 5:9; Jer. 9:4, 5; Ps. 36:1; 55:4; 62:4. These passages are adduced in order to show, that “in the midst of the lampstands” signifies in the inmost, from which the church and everything of it is derived; for the church and everything of it is from the Lord through the Word. That “lampstands” signify the New Church, may be seen above (n. 43).

AR (Whitehead) n. 45 sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ 45. Clothed with a garment down to the foot, signifies the proceeding Divine, which is the Divine truth. The reason why “a garment down to the foot” signifies the proceeding Divine, which is the Divine truth, is, because garments in the Word, signify truths, thence “a garment down to the foot” [talaris], which is an outer garment, when the Lord is treated of, signifies the proceeding Divine truth. That garments in the Word signify truths is because in heaven they are clothed according to the truths proceeding from their good, concerning which see in the work on Heaven and Hell, published in London in the year 1758 (n. 177-182). In what follows it will also be seen, that nothing else is meant by garments in the Word in its spiritual sense; therefore that nothing else is meant by the Lord’s garments, when He was transfigured, which appeared white as the light (Matt. 17:1-4; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36). Nor is anything else meant by the Lord’s garments which the soldiers divided (John 19:23, 24). That similar things are represented, and thence signified, by the garments of Aaron, may be seen in The Arcana Coelestia, published at London (n. 9814, 10,068); particularly what is signified by “the ephod” (n. 9477, 9824, 10,005); what by “the robe” (n. 9825, 10,005); what by “the tunic” (n. 9826, 9942); and what by “the miter” (n. 9827): for Aaron represented the priestly office of the Lord. Concerning the signification of garments from the Word, see below (n. 166, 328).

AR (Whitehead) n. 46 sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ sRef Isa@11 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@11 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@3 @24 S0′ 46. And girt about the paps with a golden girdle, signifies the proceeding, and, at the same time, the conjoining Divine, which is the Divine good. That “a golden girdle” has this signification, is, because by “the Lord’s breast,” and especially by “the paps,” His Divine love is signified; thence, by “the golden girdle” which girded them, is signified the proceeding and at the same time the conjoining Divine, which is the Divine good of the Divine love: moreover “gold” signifies good; see below (n. 913). “A zone” or “girdle,” in the Word, also signifies the common bond, whereby all things are held together in order and connection; as in Isaiah:
There shall go forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, justice shall be the girdle of His loins, and truth the girdle of His thighs (Isa. 11:1, 5).
“The rod going forth out of the stem of Jesse” is the Lord. That the girdle of the ephod and the belt of Aaron’s coat, signified conjunction, may be seen in The Arcana Coelestia, published at London (n. 9837, 9944). Since “a girdle” signifies the bond conjoining the goods and truths of the church, therefore when the church with the sons of Israel was destroyed, Jeremiah the prophet was commanded:
To buy himself a girdle, and put it upon his loins, and then to hide it in a hole of a rock near the Euphrates; and at the end of days, when he took it, behold it was rotten, and was profitable for nothing (Jer. 13:1-12).

By this was represented that at that time there was no good in the church, and thence that truths were dissipated. The like is signified by “girdle” in Isaiah:
Instead of a girdle there shall be a rent (Isa. 3:24);
and elsewhere. That by the “paps” or “breasts” the Divine love is signified, is evident from those passages in the Word where they are named, as also from their correspondence with love.

AR (Whitehead) n. 47 sRef Rev@1 @14 S0′ 47. Verse 14. And his head, and hairs, were white as wool, like snow, signifies the Divine love of the Divine wisdom in firsts and in ultimates. By the head of man is signified the all of his life; and the all of man’s life has relation to love and wisdom, therefore by “the head” is signified wisdom, and also love. But as there is no love without its wisdom, nor wisdom without its love, therefore it is the love of wisdom, which is meant by “the head;” and when the Lord is spoken of, it is the Divine love of the Divine wisdom. But the signification of “the head” will be shown from the Word, below (n. 538, 568). Since, therefore, by “the head” is meant love and at the same time wisdom in their firsts, it follows that by “hair” is meant love and wisdom in their ultimates; and because “hairs” are here spoken of the Son of man, who is the Lord as to the Word, by His “hairs” are signified the Divine good which is of love, and the Divine truth which is of wisdom, in the ultimates of the Word; and the ultimates of the Word are what are contained in the sense of its letter.
aRef 2Ki@2 @23 S2′ aRef 2Ki@2 @24 S2′ [2] That the Word in this sense is signified by “the hairs of the Son of man,” or of the Lord, seems a paradox, but yet it is true; this may appear from the passages in the Word quoted in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 35-49) where it is also shown, that the Nazarites in the Israelitish church represented the Lord as to the Word in ultimates, which is the sense of its letter. For “Nazarite,” in the Hebrew language is hair, or lock of hair; hence Samson, who was a Nazarite from the womb, had power in his hairs. That in like manner the Divine truth is in its power, in the sense of the letter of the Word, may be seen in the above-mentioned Doctrine concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 37-49). Therefore, also, the high priest and his sons were severely prohibited from shaving the head. For this reason, forty-two boys were torn in pieces by two bears, because they called Elisha, “bald.” Elisha, like Elijah, represented the Lord as to the Word; “bald” signifies the Word without its ultimate, which, as was observed, is the sense of the letter, and “bears” signify that sense of the Word separated from its internal sense. They who separate them, appear also in the spiritual world, at a distance, like bears, whence it is evident why it was so done with the boys. Therefore also to induce baldness was the greatest disgrace, and a mark of extreme mourning.
sRef Lam@4 @8 S3′ sRef Lam@4 @7 S3′ sRef Ezek@7 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@29 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @1 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @2 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @4 S3′ sRef Ezek@5 @3 S3′ [3] For which reason, when the Israelitish nation had perverted all the sense of the letter of the Word, this lamentation was made over them:
Her Nazarites were whiter than snow, bright white above milk; their form was darkened more than blackness, they are not known in the streets (Lam. 4:7-8).
Also:
Every head was made bald, and every shoulder was plucked of its hair (Ezek. 29:18).
Shame shall be upon all faces, and baldness upon all heads (Ezek. 7:18).
In like manner, Isa. 15:2; Jer. 48:37; Amos 8:10. Because the sons of Israel dispersed by falsities all the sense of the letter of the Word, therefore the Prophet Ezekiel was commanded to represent it by this, that:
He should shave the head with a razor, and burn with fire a third part of the hairs, a third part he should smite with a sword, and scatter a third part in the wind, and bind up some in his skirts, and afterwards cast them also into the fire (Ezek. 5:1-4 seq.).
sRef Lev@10 @6 S4′ sRef Num@6 @11 S4′ sRef Num@6 @10 S4′ sRef Num@6 @16 S4′ sRef Num@6 @1 S4′ sRef Num@6 @3 S4′ sRef Num@6 @17 S4′ sRef Dan@4 @33 S4′ sRef Num@6 @15 S4′ sRef Num@6 @12 S4′ sRef Num@6 @2 S4′ sRef Num@6 @13 S4′ sRef Num@6 @4 S4′ sRef Num@6 @20 S4′ sRef Dan@7 @9 S4′ sRef Num@6 @19 S4′ sRef Num@6 @5 S4′ sRef Num@6 @14 S4′ sRef Num@6 @21 S4′ sRef Num@6 @8 S4′ sRef Num@6 @18 S4′ sRef Num@6 @9 S4′ sRef Num@6 @6 S4′ sRef Num@6 @7 S4′ sRef Micah@1 @16 S4′ [4] Therefore, also, it is said in Micah:
Induce baldness and poll thee for sons of thy delights, enlarge thy baldness as the eagle; for they are removed from thee (Micah 1:16).
The “sons of delights” are the genuine truths of the church from the Word. And as Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, represented the Babylonian falsification of the Word, and destruction of all truth therein, therefore it came to pass that:
His hairs were grown like eagles’ feathers (Dan. 4:33).
By reason that “hairs” signified that holiness of the Word it is said of the Nazarite that:
They should not shave the hair of his head, because that is the Naziriteship of God upon their head (Num. 6:1-21);
and therefore it was ordained that:
The high priest and his sons should not shave their head, lest they should die, and lest wrath should come upon the whole house of Israel (Lev. 10:6).
sRef Isa@9 @6 S5′ sRef Micah@5 @2 S5′ [5] Now as by “hairs” is signified the Divine truth in ultimates, which, in the church, is the Word in the sense of the letter, therefore, also the like is said of “the Ancient of Days” in Daniel:
I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit, his garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like clean wool (Dan. 7:9).
That “the Ancient of Days” is the Lord, appears evidently in Micah:
Thou Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall go forth unto Me He who shall be ruler in Israel, and whose goings forth have been from of old, from the days of eternity (Micah 5:2).
And in Isaiah, where He is called “the Father of Eternity” (Isa. 9:6).
[6] From these passages, and many others, which are not adduced by reason of their abundance, it may appear, that by the “head” and “hairs” of the Son of man, which were “bright white like wool, like snow” is meant the Divine of love and wisdom, in firsts and in ultimates. And as by the Son of man, the Lord is meant as to the Word, it follows, that this also is meant in firsts and in ultimates. Otherwise to what purpose would the Lord here in Revelation, and the Ancient of Days in Daniel, be described as to the hair? That by “hair,” the sense of the letter of the Word is signified, appears evidently from those who are in the spiritual world; they who have held the sense of the letter of the Word in contempt, appear bald there; and on the contrary, they who have loved the sense of the letter of the Word, appear there with becoming hair. It is said “as wool,” and “as snow,” because “wool” signifies good in ultimates, and “snow,” truth in ultimates; as also in Isaiah (1:18); for “wool” is from sheep, by which is signified the good of charity, and “snow” is from water, by which are signified the truths of faith.

AR (Whitehead) n. 48 sRef Rev@1 @14 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@43 @8 S1′ sRef Isa@29 @18 S1′ sRef Isa@35 @6 S1′ sRef Isa@35 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S1′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S1′ 48. And His eyes were as a flame of fire signifies the Divine wisdom of the Divine love. By “eyes,” in the Word, is meant the understanding, and thence, by the sight of the eyes, intelligence; therefore, when spoken of the Lord, the Divine wisdom is meant; but by a “flame of fire” is signified spiritual love, which is charity; wherefore, when spoken of the Lord, the Divine love is meant; hence, then, by “His eyes were like a flame of fire” is signified the Divine wisdom of the Divine love. That the “eye” signifies the understanding is because they correspond; for as the eye sees from natural light, so does the understanding from spiritual light; wherefore “to see” is predicated of both. That by “eye” in the Word, the understanding is signified, is evident from the following passages:
Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears (Isa. 43:8).
In that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of thick darkness (Isa. 29:18).
Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf (Isa. 35:5).
I will give thee for a light of the Gentiles, to open the eyes of the blind (Isa. 42:6-7).
This is spoken of the Lord, who, when He comes, will open the understanding of those who are in ignorance of the truth.
sRef Isa@33 @15 S2′ sRef Zech@12 @4 S2′ sRef Ezek@12 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@13 @3 S2′ sRef John@12 @40 S2′ sRef Zech@11 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@29 @10 S2′ sRef Zech@14 @12 S2′ [2] That this is meant by “opening the eyes” is further evident from these passages:
Make the heart of this people fat, and smear their eyes, lest they perchance see with their eyes (Isa. 6:9-10; John 12:40).
Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes; the prophets, and your heads, the seers, hath He covered (Isa. 29:10; 30:10).
Who shutteth his eyes lest he should see evil (Isa. 33:15).
Hear ye this, O foolish people, which have eyes and see not (Ezek. 12:2).
The punishment of the shepherd that deserteth the flock; the sword shall be upon his right eye, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened (Zech. 11:17).
The plague with which Jehovah shall smite all the people that have fought against Jerusalem; their eyes shall consume away in their sockets (Zech. 14:12).
I will smite every horse with amazement, and every horse of the people with blindness (Zech. 12:4).
“Horse,” in the spiritual sense, is the understanding of the Word (n. 298).
Hear me, O Jehovah, my God, enlighten mine eyes, lest I sleep death (Ps. 13:3).
sRef Lev@21 @18 S3′ sRef Lev@22 @22 S3′ sRef Matt@6 @23 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @22 S3′ sRef Matt@6 @22 S3′ sRef Matt@5 @29 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @21 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @20 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @19 S3′ sRef Lev@21 @23 S3′ [3] That in these passages, by “eyes” is signified the understanding, everyone sees. Hence it is evident what the Lord meant by “eye” in these places:
The lamp of the body is the eye; if thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be light; if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be darkened. If therefore the light [lumen] that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness (Matt. 6:22-23; Luke 11:34).
If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee; for it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast out into the Gehenna of fire (Matt. 5:29; 18:9).
By “eye” in these places is not meant the eye, but the understanding of truth. Since by “eye” is signified the understanding of truth, therefore it was among the statutes of the sons of Israel, that:
One blind, or disordered in the eye from the seed of Aaron, should not come nigh to offer sacrifice; nor enter within the veil (Lev. 21:18, 20);
Then that anything blind should not be offered in sacrifice (Lev. 22:22; Mal. 1:8).
sRef Ps@33 @18 S4′ sRef Rev@4 @6 S4′ sRef Ps@11 @4 S4′ sRef Ezek@10 @12 S4′ sRef Jer@24 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@37 @17 S4′ sRef Rev@4 @8 S4′ [4] From these things it is evident what is meant by “eye,” when predicated of a man; hence it follows, that by “eye,” when predicated of the Lord, His Divine wisdom is meant, as also His Divine omniscience and providence; as in these passages:
Open thine eyes, O Jehovah, and see (Isa. 37:17).
I will set mine eyes upon them for good, and I will build them (Jer. 24:6).
Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear Him (Ps. 33:18).
Jehovah is in the temple of holiness, His eyes behold, His eyelids try the sons of man (Ps. 11:4).
Since by “cherubs” is signified the guard and providence of the Lord lest the spiritual sense of the Word should be injured; therefore it is said of the four animals which were cherubs, that:
They were full of eyes before and behind, and their wings were likewise full of eyes (Rev. 4:6, 8);
The wheels upon which the cherubs were drawn, were full of eyes round about (Ezek. 10:12).
sRef Ezek@13 @3 S5′ [5] That by “a flame of fire” is meant His Divine love, will be seen in what follows, where “flame” and “fire” are mentioned; and because it is said, that “His eyes were as a flame of fire,” the Divine wisdom of the Divine love is signified. That in the Lord there is the Divine love of the Divine wisdom, and the Divine wisdom of the Divine love, and thus a reciprocal union of both, is an arcanum disclosed in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 34-39; and elsewhere).

AR (Whitehead) n. 49 sRef Rev@1 @15 S0′ 49. Verse 15. And His feet were like unto fine brass, as if glowing in a furnace, signifies the Divine good natural. “The feet” of the Lord signify His Divine natural; “fire” or “glowing” signifies good; and “fine brass” signifies the good of natural truth; therefore, by “the feet of the Son of man like unto fine brass, as if glowing in a furnace,” is signified the Divine good natural. That “His feet” signify this is from correspondence. There is in the Lord, and therefore from the Lord the Divine celestial, the Divine spiritual, and the Divine natural; the Divine celestial is meant by the “head” of the Son of man; the Divine spiritual, by His “eyes,” and by the “breast,” which was girt about with a golden girdle; and the Divine natural, by His “feet.”
[2] Because these three are in the Lord, therefore also they are in the angelic heaven; the third or highest heaven is in the Divine celestial; the second or middle heaven is in the Divine spiritual; and the first or ultimate heaven in the Divine natural. In like manner, the church on the earth; for the whole heaven before the Lord is as one man, in which they who are in the Lord’s Divine celestial make the head; they who are in the Divine spiritual make the body; and they who are in the Divine natural make the feet. Hence, also, in every man, because he was created in the image of God, there are these three degrees, and, as these are opened, he becomes an angel either of the third, or of the second, or of the ultimate heaven. Hence, also it is, that in the Word there are three senses; the celestial, the spiritual, and the natural. This may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom, particularly in chapter 3, which treats of these three degrees. That the feet, the soles, and the heels, correspond to natural things with man, and therefore in the Word signify things natural, may be seen in The Arcana Coelestia, published in London (n. 2162, 4938-4952).
sRef Rev@10 @1 S3′ sRef Dan@10 @5 S3′ sRef Dan@10 @6 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @7 S3′ [3] The Divine natural good is also signified by feet in the following places; in Daniel:
I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, behold a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with gold of Uphaz; His body was like the beryl, and His eyes as torches of fire, His arms and His feet like the splendor of polished brass (Dan. 10:5-6).
In Revelation:
I saw an angel come down from heaven, his feet as pillars of fire (Rev. 10:1).
And in Ezekiel:
The feet of the cherubs were sparkling like the splendor of polished brass (Ezek. 1:7).
The reason why the angels and cherubs were seen thus, was because the Divine of the Lord was represented in them.
sRef Ps@132 @7 S4′ sRef Matt@28 @9 S4′ sRef Isa@66 @1 S4′ sRef Lam@2 @1 S4′ sRef Ps@99 @5 S4′ sRef Isa@60 @14 S4′ sRef Isa@60 @13 S4′ sRef Ps@132 @6 S4′ [4] The Lord’s church being under the heavens, thus under the Lord’s feet, it is therefore called “the footstool of His feet” in the following places:
The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, to decorate the place of My sanctuary; and I will render the place of My feet honorable; and they shall bow themselves down at the soles of thy feet (Isa. 60:13-14).
The heaven is My throne, and the earth is the footstool of My feet (Isa. 66:1).
God remembereth not the footstool of His feet in the day of anger (Lam. 2:1).
Adore Jehovah at the footstool of His feet (Ps. 99:5).
Lo, we heard of Him in Ephratah [Bethlehem]. We will go into His habitations; we will bow ourselves down at the footstool of His feet (Ps. 132:6-7).
Thence it is that:
They fell down at the Lord’s feet adoring (Matt. 28:9; Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41; John 11:32).
Also that:
They kissed His feet and wiped them with their hairs (Luke 7:37, 38, 44-46; John 11:2; 12:3).
sRef Luke@7 @46 S5′ sRef John@13 @10 S5′ sRef Luke@7 @37 S5′ sRef John@3 @15 S5′ sRef Luke@7 @38 S5′ sRef John@3 @14 S5′ sRef Luke@7 @44 S5′ [5] As by “feet” is signified the natural, therefore the Lord said to Peter, when He washed his feet:
He that is washed, needeth not save to wash his feet, and the whole is clean (John 13:10).
“To wash the feet” is to purify the natural man; and when this is purified, the whole man is also purified; as is shown in many passages in The Arcana Coelestia and in The Doctrines of the New Jerusalem. The natural man, which is also the external man, is purified, when he shuns the evils which the spiritual or internal man sees to be evils and that they ought to be shunned.
sRef Mark@9 @45 S6′ [6] Now since the natural of man is meant by “feet,” and this perverts all things if it be not washed or purified; therefore the Lord says:
And if thy foot offend thee cut it off; it is better for thee to enter into life halt, than having two feet to be cast into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire (Mark 9:45).
Here the foot is not meant, but the natural man. The same is meant by “trampling under foot the good pasture,” and by “troubling the waters with their feet” (Ezek. 32:2; 34:18-19; Dan. 7:7, 19; and in other places).
[7] Since by the Son of man is meant the Lord as to the Word, it is evident, that by His “feet” is also meant the Word in its natural sense; which is much treated of in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture; as also that the Lord came into the world, that He might fulfill all things of the Word, and thereby be made the Word also in ultimates (n. 98-100). But this arcanum is for those who will be in the New Jerusalem.
[8] The Lord’s Divine Natural is also signified by:
The brazen serpent, which was set up by the command of Moses in the wilderness; by looking upon which, all who had been bitten by serpents were healed (Num. 21:6, 8-9).
This signified the Lord’s Divine natural, and that they are saved who look to it, the Lord Himself teaches in John:
As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have eternal life (John 3:14-15).
The reason why the serpent was made of brass, is because brass, as also fine brass signifies the natural as to good, see below (n. 775).

AR (Whitehead) n. 50 sRef Ps@147 @19 S0′ sRef John@4 @12 S0′ sRef Ps@23 @2 S0′ sRef Jer@17 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@148 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@63 @1 S0′ sRef Ps@23 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@41 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@41 @17 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @16 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @17 S0′ sRef Isa@58 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@14 @2 S0′ sRef John@4 @10 S0′ sRef Isa@44 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@58 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@147 @18 S0′ sRef Ezek@43 @2 S0′ sRef Isa@41 @20 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @9 S0′ sRef Isa@12 @3 S0′ sRef John@4 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@22 @1 S0′ sRef Amos@8 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@22 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @6 S0′ sRef Amos@8 @13 S0′ sRef Jer@14 @3 S0′ sRef John@3 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@11 @9 S0′ sRef Amos@8 @11 S0′ sRef Jer@2 @13 S0′ sRef John@4 @15 S0′ sRef John@4 @14 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @3 S0′ sRef Zech@14 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @15 S0′ sRef John@4 @13 S0′ sRef John@7 @37 S0′ sRef Isa@33 @15 S0′ sRef John@4 @7 S0′ sRef John@7 @38 S0′ sRef John@4 @9 S0′ sRef John@4 @8 S0′ sRef Isa@33 @16 S0′ 50. And His voice as the voice of many waters, signifies the Divine truth natural. That a “voice” when from the Lord signifies the Divine truth, may be seen above (n. 37); that “waters” signify truths, and, specifically, natural truths, which are knowledges from the Word, is evident from many passages in the Word; of which only the following are adduced:
The earth is full of the knowledge of Jehovah, as the waters cover the sea (Isa. 11:9).
Therefore, with joy shall ye draw waters out of the fountains of salvation (Isa. 12:3).
He that walketh righteously and speaketh uprightness bread shall be given him, and water shall be sure (Isa. 33:15-16).
The poor and needy seek water, but there is none; their tongue faileth for thirst; I will open rivers on the hillsides, and I will put fountains in the midst of the valleys; I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of waters, that they may see, acknowledge, attend and understand (Isa. 41:17-18, 20).
I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground, I will pour out my spirit (Isa. 44:3).
Thy light shall rise in darkness and thou shalt be like a watered garden, and like a spring of waters whose waters fail not (Isa. 58:10-11).
My people have committed two evils; they have deserted me, the fountain of living waters, to cut out for themselves pits, that can hold no waters (Jer. 2:13).
And their great men sent their little ones for the waters, they came to the pits and found no waters, they returned with their vessels empty (Jer. 14:3).
They have deserted Jehovah, the fountain of living waters (Jer. 17:13).
They shall come with weeping; and with weeping will I lead them, I will lead them to the fountain of waters in a straight way (Jer. 31:9).
I will break the staff of bread; and they shall drink waters by measure and with astonishment, that they may consume away for their iniquities (Ezek. 4:16-17; 12:18-19; Isa. 51:14).
Behold the days shall come, in which I will send a famine in the land, not a famine for bread, nor a thirst for waters, but for hearing the words of Jehovah; and they shall wander from sea to sea; they shall run to and fro to hear the Word of Jehovah, and shall not find it. In that day shall the virgins and youths fail for thirst (Amos 8:11-13).
And it shall be in that day that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem (Zech. 14:8).
Jehovah is my shepherd, He will lead me to the waters of quietness (Ps. 23:1-2).
They shall not thirst, He will make waters to flow out of the rock for them, He will cleave the rock that the waters may flow forth (Isa. 48:21).
O God, I seek thee in the morning, my soul thirsteth, I am weary without waters (Ps. 63:1).
Jehovah sendeth the Word, He causeth the wind to blow, that the waters may flow (Ps. 147:18).
Praise Jehovah, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters above the heavens (Ps. 148:4).
Jesus, sitting at the fountain of Jacob, said unto the woman, Whosoever drinketh of this water, shall thirst again; but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give, shall not thirst to eternity; and the water that I shall give, shall be in him a fountain of water springing up into eternal life (John 4:7-15).
Jesus said, If anyone thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink. He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow streams of living water (John 7:37-38).
I will give unto him that thirsteth of the fountain of the water of life freely (Rev. 21:6).
He showed me a river of water of life, going out of the throne of God, and of the Lamb (Rev. 22:1).
The Spirit and the Bride say, Come; and let him that heareth say, Come; and let him that thirsteth come, and whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely (Rev. 22:17).
By “waters” in these passages are meant truths; hence it is evident that by “the voice of many waters” is meant the Divine truth of the Lord in the Word; as, also, in these places:
Behold, the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east, and His voice was like the voice of many waters; and the earth was lighted by His glory (Ezek. 43:2).
I heard a voice from heaven as the voice of many waters (Rev. 14:2).
The voice of Jehovah is upon the waters, Jehovah is upon many waters (Ps. 29:3).
When it is known that by “waters” in the Word are meant truths in the natural man, it may appear what was signified by washings, in the Israelitish church; and also what is signified by baptism; and likewise by these words of the Lord, in John:
Except a man be born of water, and of the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God (John 3:5).
To be born “of water” signifies to be born by truths; and “of the Spirit” signifies by a life according to them. That “waters” in the opposite sense signify falsities, will be seen in what follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 51 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ 51. Verse 16. And having in His right hand seven stars, signifies all the knowledges of good and truth in the Word, which are thence with the angels of heaven and with the men of the church. Around the angels, when they are below the heavens, there appear, as it were, little stars in great abundance; and in like manner, around spirits, who, when they lived in the world, had acquired to themselves knowledges of good and truth, or truths of life and doctrine from the Word. These stars appear fixed, with those who are in genuine truths from the Word; but wandering with those who are in falsified truths. Concerning those little stars, as also concerning the stars which appear there in the firmament, I could relate wonderful things, but it does not belong to this work: hence it is evident that by “stars” are signified the knowledges of good and truth from the Word. “The Son of man had them in His right hand,” signifies, that they are from the Lord alone through the Word. That “seven” signify all, may be seen above (n. 10).
sRef Isa@13 @9 S2′ sRef Rev@6 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@32 @7 S2′ sRef Rev@9 @1 S2′ sRef Joel@2 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@13 @10 S2′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S2′ sRef Ezek@32 @8 S2′ [2] That the knowledges of good and truth from the Word, are signified by “stars,” may also appear from these passages:
I will lay the earth waste; The stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shall not give their light (Isa. 13:9-10).
“The earth” which shall be laid waste, is the church; which being vastated, the knowledges of good and truth in the Word do not appear:
And when I shall extinguish thee, I will cover the heavens and make the stars thereof dark: All the luminaries of light will I make dark over thee, and I will set darkness upon the land (Ezek. 32:7-8).
“Darkness upon the land,” means falsities in the church:
The sun and the moon have been darkened, and the stars have withdrawn their splendor (Joel 2:10; 3:15).
After the affliction of those days shall the sun be obscured, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven (Matt. 24:29; Mark 13:24).
The stars of heaven fell to the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs (Rev. 6:13).
A star fell from heaven to the earth (Rev. 9:1).
By “stars falling from heaven” are not meant stars, but that the knowledges of good and truth will perish.
sRef Rev@12 @4 S3′ sRef Dan@12 @3 S3′ sRef Judg@5 @20 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @11 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @10 S3′ sRef Ps@147 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@148 @3 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @9 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @8 S3′ sRef Dan@8 @12 S3′ [3] This is still more evident from its being said, that:
The dragon drew down the third part of the stars from heaven (Rev. 12:4).
Also that:
The he-goat cast down some of the stars and trampled them (Dan. 8:9-11).
Therefore in the next verse in Daniel it is also said that:
It cast down the truth to the earth (Dan. 8:12).
The knowledges of good and truth are also signified by “stars,” in these passages:
Jehovah telleth the number of the stars; he calleth them all by names (Ps. 147:4).
Praise Jehovah, all ye stars of light (Ps. 148:3).
The stars fought in their ways (Judges 5:20).
From hence it appears what is meant by these words in Daniel:
And the intelligent shall be resplendent as the splendor of the expanse, justifying many as the stars for ages of ages (Dan. 12:3).
The “intelligent” are those who are in truths; “justifying” those who are in goods.

AR (Whitehead) n. 52 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ 52. And out of his mouth a sharp two-edged sword going forth, signifies the dispersion of falsities by the Word, and by doctrine thence from the Lord. Mention is very often made in the Word of “sword,” “saber,” and “long sword,” and by them nothing else is signified but truth fighting against falsities and destroying them; and, also, in the opposite sense, the falsity fighting against truths; for by “wars” in the Word, are signified spiritual wars, which are wars of truth against falsity, and of falsity against truth; wherefore, by “the arms of war,” such things are signified as are made use of in spiritual wars. That the dispersion of falsities by the Lord is here meant by sword [romphoea] is evident, because, it was seen “to go out of his mouth;” and to go out of the mouth of the Lord, is to go out of the Word, for this the Lord spoke with His mouth; and as the Word is understood by doctrine, thence this is also signified. It is called “a sharp two-edged sword,” because it penetrates the heart and soul.
sRef Jer@50 @37 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @35 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @36 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @38 S2′ [2] To show that by “sword” is here meant the dispersion of falsities by the Word from the Lord, some passages shall be adduced in which sword [gladius] is mentioned:
A sword against Babylon, her princes, and her wise ones; O sword against the liars that they may become foolish; O sword against the mighty, that they may be dismayed; O sword against her horses, and her chariots; O sword against her treasures, that they may be despoiled. A drought is upon her waters, that they may be dried up (Jer. 50:35-38).
These things are said of Babylon, by which those are meant who falsify and adulterate the Word, therefore by the “liars” who will become foolish, and the “horses and chariots” upon whom there is a sword, and the “treasures” which will be despoiled, are signified the falsities of their doctrine. That the “waters” upon which is a drought that they may be dried up, signify truths, may be seen above (n. 50).
sRef Ezek@21 @20 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@64 @2 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @19 S3′ sRef Ps@59 @7 S3′ sRef Lam@5 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@66 @16 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @14 S3′ sRef Ps@64 @3 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @15 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @13 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @10 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@21 @12 S3′ sRef Zech@11 @17 S3′ sRef Jer@12 @12 S3′ [3] Prophesy, and say, A sword is sharpened, and also furbished, sharpened to make a great slaughter; and let the sword be repeated the third time; the sword of the pierced; the sword of a great piercing, penetrating the inner parts, that stumbling blocks may be multiplied (Ezek. 21:9-20).
By “sword” is here also meant the devastation of truth in the church.
Jehovah will plead by His sword with all flesh, and the pierced of Jehovah shall be multiplied (Isa. 66:16).
They are called “the pierced of Jehovah” here, and in other parts of the Word, who perish by falsities.
The wasters are come upon all the hills in the wilderness; the sword of Jehovah is devouring from the end of the earth, even to the end of the earth (Jer. 12:12).
We get our bread with the peril of our lives, because of the sword of the wilderness (Lam. 5:9).
Woe to the worthless shepherd that deserteth the flock; the sword shall be upon his arm and upon his right eye (Zech. 11:17).
The sword upon the right eye of the shepherd is the falsity of his understanding.
The sons of men are inflamed, their tongue is a sharp sword (Ps. 57:4).
Behold they belch out with their mouth; a sword is in their lips (Ps. 59:7).
The workers of iniquity whet their tongue like a sword (Ps. 64:3).
The same is signified by sword in other places, as in Isa. 13:13, 15; 21:14-15; 27:1; 31:7-8; Jer. 2:30; 5:12; 11:22; 14:13-18; Ezek. 7:15; 32:10-12.
sRef Matt@26 @52 S4′ sRef Luke@22 @36 S4′ sRef Matt@10 @34 S4′ sRef Luke@21 @24 S4′ sRef Luke@22 @38 S4′ sRef Matt@26 @51 S4′ [4] Hence it may appear what the Lord meant by “sword” in the following passages:
Jesus said, He came not to send peace on earth, but a sword (Matt. 10:34).
Jesus said, He that hath not a purse and a scrip, let him sell his garments and buy a sword. The disciples said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. And He said unto them, It is enough (Luke 22:36, 38).
All they that take the sword, shall perish with the sword (Matt. 26:51-52).
Jesus says, concerning the consummation of the age:
They shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations, and at length Jerusalem shall be trodden down (Luke 21:24).
“The consummation of the age” is the last time of the church; “the sword” is falsity destroying truth; the “nations” are evils; “Jerusalem” which shall be trodden down, is the church.
sRef Isa@49 @2 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @21 S5′ sRef Ps@45 @5 S5′ sRef Ps@149 @6 S5′ sRef Ps@149 @5 S5′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S5′ sRef Rev@6 @4 S5′ sRef Ps@45 @3 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @15 S5′ [5] Hence, then, it is evident, that by “a sharp sword going out of the mouth of the Son of man,” is signified the dispersion of falsities by the Lord by means of the Word. The same is signified in the following passages in Revelation:
And there was given unto him who sat upon the red horse a great sword (Rev. 6:4).
And out of the mouth of Him who sat upon the white horse goeth a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations. And the remnant were slain with the sword of Him that sat upon the horse (Rev. 19:15, 21).
By “Him who sat upon the white horse,” the Lord as to the Word, is meant, which is plainly declared (verses 13, 16). The same is meant in David:
Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O Mighty One. Ride upon the word of truth. Thine arrows are sharp (Ps. 45:3-5);
speaking of the Lord. And in another place:
The saints shall exult, and the sword of their mouths is in their hand (Ps. 149:5-6).
And in Isaiah:
Jehovah hath made my mouth a sharp sword (Isa. 49:2).

AR (Whitehead) n. 53 sRef Matt@17 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ 53. And His face was as the sun shineth in His power, signifies the Divine love and the Divine wisdom, which are Himself, and proceed from Himself. That by “the face of Jehovah,” or of the Lord, is meant the Divine Himself in His Essence, which is the Divine love and the Divine wisdom thus Himself, will be seen in the explanations below, where mention is made of “the face of God.” The same is signified by “the sun shining in His power.” That the Lord is seen as a sun in heaven before the angels, and that it is His Divine love together with His Divine wisdom, which so appear, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, published in London, 1758 (n. 116-225); and in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 83-172).
sRef Ps@89 @36 S2′ sRef Ps@72 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@89 @37 S2′ sRef Isa@60 @20 S2′ sRef Ps@72 @7 S2′ sRef 2Sam@23 @3 S2′ sRef 2Sam@23 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@72 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@30 @26 S2′ [2] It remains here only to be confirmed from the Word, that the “sun,” when mentioned in reference to the Lord, signifies His Divine love, and at the same time His Divine wisdom; this may appear from the following places:
In that day the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, it shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days (Isa. 30:26).
“That day” is the advent of the Lord when the old church is destroyed, and a new one is about to be established; “the light of the moon” is faith from charity, and “the light of the sun” is intelligence and wisdom from love, and thus from the Lord.
Thy sun shall no more go down, neither shall thy moon withdraw itself; for Jehovah shall be an everlasting light (Isa. 60:20).
The sun which shall not set, is love and wisdom from the Lord.
The rock of Israel spake unto me, as the light of the morning when the sun ariseth (2 Sam. 23:3-4).
The “rock of Israel” is the Lord:
His throne shall be as a sun (Ps. 89:36-37).
This is said of David; but by “David” is there meant the Lord.
They shall fear thee with the sun. In his days shall the just flourish, and abundance of peace until there is no moon; the name of the Son shall be before the sun; and all nations shall be blessed in Him (Ps. 72:5, 7, 17).
sRef Rev@12 @1 S3′ sRef Rev@10 @1 S3′ [3] This also is said of the Lord. Because the Lord appears as a sun in heaven before the angels, therefore:
When He was transfigured, His face did shine as the sun, and His raiment became as the light (Matt. 17:1-2).
And it is said of the strong angel who came down from heaven, that:
He was clothed with a cloud, and His face was as it were the sun (Rev. 10:1);
and of the woman, that:
She was seen clothed with the sun (Rev. 12:1).
“The sun” in these passages also signifies love and wisdom from the Lord; “the woman” is the church, which is called the New Jerusalem.
sRef Rev@8 @12 S4′ sRef Joel@3 @15 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @10 S4′ sRef Isa@13 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@6 @12 S4′ sRef Rev@9 @2 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @31 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @2 S4′ sRef Joel@3 @14 S4′ sRef Joel@2 @1 S4′ sRef Isa@13 @11 S4′ sRef Ezek@32 @7 S4′ sRef Ezek@32 @8 S4′ sRef Isa@13 @10 S4′ [4] Since, by “the sun,” is meant the Lord as to love and wisdom, it is evident what is signified by “the sun” in the following places:
Behold the fierce day of Jehovah cometh; the sun shall be darkened in its rising, and the moon shall not make her light to shine; I will visit upon the world its wickedness, and upon the impious their iniquity (Isa. 13:9-11; see also Isa. 24:21, 23).
And when I shall have extinguished thee, I will cover the heavens, and I will make the stars thereof dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine, and I will set darkness upon thy land (Ezek. 32:7-8).
The day of Jehovah cometh, a day of darkness, the sun and the moon shall not make their light to shine, and the stars have withdrawn their splendor (Joel 2:10).
The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great day of Jehovah cometh (Joel 2:31).
The day of Jehovah is near in the valley of decision. The sun and the moon shall be darkened (Joel 3:14-15).
The fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, the third part of the stars, and the day shone not for a third part of it (Rev. 8:12).
The sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood (Rev. 6:12).
The sun was obscured by the smoke of the pit (Rev. 9:2).
In these passages by “sun” is not meant the sun of this world, but the sun of the angelic heaven, which is the Divine love and the Divine wisdom of the Lord; these are said to be “obscured,” “darkened,” “covered,” and “blackened” when there are evils and falsities with man.
sRef Micah@3 @6 S5′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S5′ sRef Jer@15 @9 S5′ sRef Micah@3 @5 S5′ sRef Amos@8 @9 S5′ [5] Hence it is evident, that similar things are meant by the Lord’s words, where He speaks of the consummation of the age, which is the last time of the church:
Immediately after the affliction of those days shall the sun be obscured, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven (Matt. 24:29; Mark 13:24-25).
And in like manner in the following passages:
And the sun shall go down over the prophets, and the day shall grow black over them (Micah 3:5-6).
In that day I will cause the sun to set at noon, and I will darken the earth in the day of light (Amos 8:9).
She that hath borne seven shall breathe out her soul; her sun is set while it is yet day (Jer. 15:9).
This is said of the Jewish church, which was “to breathe out its soul,” that is, would perish; “the sun shall set,” signifies that there will be no longer any love and charity.
sRef Josh@10 @12 S6′ sRef Hab@3 @11 S6′ sRef Hab@3 @10 S6′ sRef Josh@10 @13 S6′ [6] It is said in Joshua, that:
The sun stood still in Gibeon, and the moon in the valley of Ajalon (Josh. 10:12-13).
This appears as if it was historical, but it is prophetic, being quoted from the book of Jasher, which was a prophetic book; for it is said:
Is not this written in the book of Jasher? (Josh. 13).
The same book is also mentioned as prophetic by David (2 Sam. 1:17, 18); something similar is also said in Habakkuk:
The mountains were moved, the sun and moon stood in their seat (Hab. 3:10-11).
Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon be withdrawn (Isa. 60:20).
For to make the sun and moon stand still would be to destroy the universe.
[7] Since the Lord as to the Divine love and the Divine wisdom is meant by “the sun,” therefore the ancients in their holy worship turned their face to the rising of the sun; and also their temples, which custom still continues. That the sun of the world is not meant in these places by “the sun,” is evident from its having been considered profane and abominable to adore the sun and moon of the world, as may be seen in Num. 25:1-4; Deut. 4:19; 17:3, 5; Jer. 8:1, 2; 43:10, 13; 44:17-19, 25; Ezek. 8:16; for by “the sun of the world” is meant the love of self and the pride of one’s own intelligence; and the love of self is diametrically opposite to the Divine love; and the pride of one’s own intelligence is opposite to the Divine wisdom. To adore the sun of the world is also to acknowledge nature as the creator, and one’s own prudence to be effective of all things, which involves the denial of God, and the denial of the Divine providence.

AR (Whitehead) n. 54 sRef John@15 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@33 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ sRef John@14 @21 S0′ sRef John@14 @23 S0′ sRef John@15 @4 S0′ 54. Verse 17. And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead, signifies that from such presence of the Lord there was a defect or deprivation of his own life. A man’s own life cannot sustain the presence of the Lord, such as the Lord is in Himself, yea, such as He is in the inmosts of His Word; for His Divine love is altogether like the sun, which no one can bear as it is in itself, without being consumed. This is what is meant by saying that:
No one can see God and live (Exod. 33:29; Judges 13:22).
This being the case, therefore the Lord appears to the angels in heaven as a sun, at a distance from them, as the sun of this world is from men; the reason is, because the Lord in Himself is in that sun. But yet the Lord so moderates and tempers His Divine that man can sustain His presence. This is effected by veilings. It was so done when He revealed Himself to many in the Word. Yea, by veilings He is present with everyone who worships Him; as He Himself says in John:
He that doeth My commandments, with him I will make My abode (John 14:21, 23).
That He will be in them, and they in Him (John 15:4-5).
Hence it is evident why John, when he saw the Lord in such glory, fell at His feet as dead; and also, why the three disciples, when they saw the Lord in glory, were heavy with sleep, and a cloud covered them (Luke 9:32, 34).

AR (Whitehead) n. 55 sRef Matt@17 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ 55. And He laid His right hand upon me, signifies life then inspired from Him. The reason why the Lord “laid His right hand upon him,” is, because communication is effected by the touch of the hands. The reason is that the life of the mind, and thence of the body, puts itself forth into the arms, and through them into the hands. On this account:
The Lord touched with His hands those whom He restored to life and healed (Mark 1:31, 41; 7:32-33; 8:22-26; 10:13, 16; Luke 5:12-13; 7:14; 18:15; 22:51).
And in like manner:
After His disciples saw Jesus transfigured, and they fell on the face (Matt. 17:6-7).
The origin of this is, because the presence of the Lord with man is adjunction, and thus conjunction by contiguity; and this contiguity is near and fuller in proportion as man loves the Lord, that is, does His commandments. From these few things it may appear, that by “laying His right hand upon him,” is signified inspiring him with His life.

AR (Whitehead) n. 56 sRef Matt@17 @7 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @7 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @6 S0′ sRef Luke@5 @8 S0′ sRef Luke@5 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @10 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @8 S0′ sRef Luke@5 @9 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @3 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @3 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @4 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @12 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @13 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @5 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @10 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @11 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @30 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @2 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @5 S0′ sRef Dan@10 @9 S0′ 56. Saying unto me, Fear not, signifies resuscitation, and then adoration from the deepest humiliation. That it is resuscitation to life, is a consequence of what went before (n. 55); and that it is adoration from the deepest humiliation, is evident, for he fell at the Lord’s feet. And as a holy fear seized him, the Lord said, on his being resuscitated, “Fear not.” Holy fear, which sometimes is joined with a sacred tremor of the interiors of the mind, and sometimes with horripilation, supervenes, when life enters from the Lord in place of one’s own life. One’s own life is to look from one’s self to the Lord, but life from the Lord is to look from the Lord to the Lord and yet as if from himself. When man is in this latter life, he sees that he himself is not anything, but the Lord only. Daniel also was in this holy fear, when:
He saw the man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with gold of Uphaz, his body like the beryl, his face like lightning, his eyes like torches of fire, his arms and feet as the splendor of polished brass, upon seeing whom Daniel also became as dead, and a hand touched him, and it was said, Fear not, Daniel (Dan. 10:5-12).
Something similar occurred to Peter, James, and John, when the Lord was transfigured, and was seen:
As to His face like the sun, and His garments as the light, upon which they also fell upon their faces, and feared for themselves greatly, and then Jesus coming near, touched them, saying, Fear not ye (Matt. 17:2, 6-7).
The Lord also said unto the women who saw Him at the sepulcher, Fear not (Matt. 28:10).
Likewise the angel, whose face appeared like lightning, and his garment as snow, said unto those women, Fear not ye (Matt. 28:3-5).
The angel said to Zechariah also, Fear not (Luke 1:12-13).
In like manner the angel said to Mary, Fear not (Luke 1:30).
The angels said to the shepherds also, when the glory of the Lord shone round about them, Fear not (Luke 2:9-10).
A similar holy fear seized Simon, by reason of the draught of fishes; therefore he said:
Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord; but Jesus said unto him, Fear not (Luke 5:8-10; besides other places).
These are adduced that it may be known why the Lord said to John, “Fear not,” and that by it is meant resuscitation, and then adoration from the deepest humiliation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 57 sRef Rev@1 @17 S0′ 57. I am the First and the Last, which signifies that He alone is infinite and eternal, thus the only God, may appear from the explanation above (n. 13, 29, 38).

AR (Whitehead) n. 58 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ sRef John@11 @25 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef John@1 @3 S0′ sRef John@1 @2 S0′ sRef John@1 @4 S0′ sRef John@14 @6 S0′ sRef Isa@38 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@38 @19 S0′ sRef John@14 @19 S0′ sRef John@5 @26 S0′ 58. Verse 18. And am He that liveth, signifies who alone is life, and from whom alone life is. Jehovah, in the Word of the Old Testament, calls Himself the living, and He that liveth, because He alone lives; for He is love itself and wisdom itself, and these are life. That there is one only life, which is God, and that angels and men are recipients of life from Him, is abundantly shown in Angelic Wisdom concerning Divine Love and Wisdom. Jehovah calls Himself “the living” and “He that liveth” (Isa. 38:18-19; Jer. 5:2; 12:16; 16:14-15; 23:7-8; 46:18; Ezek. 5:11). The Lord as to His Divine Human also is life, because the Father and He are one; therefore He says:
As the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:26).
Jesus said, I am the resurrection and the life (John 11:25).
Jesus said, I am the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6).
In the beginning was the Word, and God was the Word; in Him was life; and the Word became flesh (John 1:1-4, 14).
Because the Lord is the only life, it follows that from Him alone life is derived; therefore He says:
Because I live, ye shall live also (John 14:19).

AR (Whitehead) n. 59 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ 59. And was dead, signifies that He was neglected and His Divine Human not acknowledged. By “his becoming dead” is not meant that He was crucified, and so died, but that He was neglected in the church, and His Divine Human not acknowledged, for so He is dead with men. His Divine from eternity is indeed acknowledged, but this is Jehovah Himself; but His human is not acknowledged to be Divine, although the Divine and the Human in Him are like soul and body, and therefore are not two but one, yea, one Person, according to the doctrine received throughout the whole Christian world, which has its name from Athanasius. When, therefore, the Divine in Him is separated from the Human, by saying that His Human is not Divine, but like the human of another man, in this case He is dead with men. But concerning this separation and thus making dead the Lord, more may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord; and in Angelic Wisdom concerning Divine Providence (n. 262-263).

AR (Whitehead) n. 60 sRef John@3 @36 S0′ sRef John@6 @47 S0′ sRef John@11 @25 S0′ sRef John@11 @26 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ sRef John@3 @16 S0′ 60. And behold, I am alive for ages of ages, signifies that He is life eternal. Now as, “Who am living” signifies that He alone is life, and from Him alone life is (as above, n. 58), it follows that “Behold I am alive for ages of ages” signifies that He alone is life to eternity, and consequently that eternal life is from Him alone; for eternal life is in Him, and consequently from Him. “Ages of ages” signifies eternity. That eternal life is from the Lord alone is plain from the following passages:
Jesus said, Whosoever believeth in Me shall not perish, but shall have eternal life (John 3:16).
Everyone that believeth in the Son hath eternal life, but he who believeth not in the Son, shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him (John 3:36; 6:40, 47-48).
Verily, I say unto you, he that believeth in Me hath eternal life (John 6:47).
I am the resurrection and the life; he that believeth in Me, though he die, shall live; and whosoever believeth in Me, shall not die to eternity (John 11:25-26; and in other places).
Hence, then, the Lord is called, “He that liveth for ages of ages”; as also in the following passages: Rev. 4:9-10; 5:14; 10:6; Dan. 4:34.

AR (Whitehead) n. 61 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ 61. Amen, signifies the Divine confirmation that it is the truth. That “amen” is the truth, which is the Lord, may be seen above (n. 23).

AR (Whitehead) n. 62 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ 62. And I have the keys of hell and death, signifies that He alone can save. By “keys” is signified the power of opening and shutting; here the power of opening hell, that man may be brought forth, and of shutting, lest, when he is brought forth, he should enter again. For man is born in evils of all kinds, thus in hell, for evils are hell; he is brought out of it by the Lord, to whom belongs the power of opening it. That by “having the keys of hell and death,” is not meant the power of casting into hell, but the power of saving, is because it immediately follows after these words:
Behold, I am alive for ages of ages;
by which is signified that He alone is eternal life (n. 60); and the Lord never casts anyone into hell, but man casts himself. By “keys” is signified the power of opening and shutting, in Revelation also (3:7; 9:1; 20:1; also in Isa. 22:21, 22; in Matt. 16:19; and in Luke 11:52). The power of the Lord is not only over heaven, but also over hell; for hell is kept in order and connection by oppositions against heaven; for which reason, He who rules the one must necessarily rule the other; otherwise man could not be saved; to be saved is to be brought out of hell.

AR (Whitehead) n. 63 sRef Rev@1 @19 S0′ 63. Verse 19. Write the things which thou hath seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter, signifies that all the things now revealed are for the use of posterity; as may appear without explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 64 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′ 64. Verse 20. The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands, signifies arcana in visions concerning the New Heaven and the New Church. That by “seven stars” is signified the church in the heavens, and by “seven lampstands” the church on the earth, will be seen in what now follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 65 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′ 65. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, signifies the New Church in the heavens, which is the New Heaven. The church is in the heavens equally as on the earth; for the Word is in the heavens equally as it is on the earth, and there are doctrines from it, and preachings from it; on which subject see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 70-75, and n. 104-113). That church is the New Heaven, concerning which something is said in the preface. The reason why the church in the heavens, or the New Heaven, is meant by “the seven stars,” is, because it is said, that “the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches,” and by “angel” is signified a heavenly society. In the spiritual world there appears an expanse full of stars, as in the natural world, and this appearance is from the angelic societies in heaven. Each society there shines like a star before those who are below; hence they there know in what situation the angelic societies are. That “seven” does not signify seven, but all who are of the church there according to the reception of each, may be seen above (n. 10, 14, 41); therefore, by “the angels of the seven churches,” is meant the entire church in the heavens, consequently the New Heaven in the aggregate.

AR (Whitehead) n. 66 sRef Rev@1 @20 S0′ 66. And the seven lampstands which thou sawest are the seven churches, signifies the New Church upon earth, which is the New Jerusalem descending from the Lord out of the New Heaven. That “the lampstands” are the church, may be seen above (n. 43); and because “seven” signify all (n. 10), by “the seven lampstands” are not meant seven churches, but the church in the aggregate, which in itself is one, but various according to reception. Those varieties may be compared to the various diadems in the crown of a king; and they may also be compared to the various members and organs in a perfect body, which yet make one. The perfection of every form exists from various things being suitably arranged in their order. Hence it is, that the whole New Church is described as to its varieties by “the seven churches,” in what follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 67 67. THE FAITH OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW CHURCH, IN ONE UNIVERSAL IDEA, is this, that the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah, came into the world that He might subjugate the hells, and glorify His Human; and that without this no mortal could be saved; and that they are saved who believe in Him.
[2] It is said, in a universal idea, because this is the universal of faith, and the universal of faith is what must be in each and every thing of it. It is a universal of faith, that God is one in Person and in essence, in whom there is the Trinity, and that the Lord is that God. It is a universal of faith, that no mortal could be saved unless the Lord came into the world. It is a universal of faith, that He came into the world that He might remove hell from man; and that He did remove it by combats against it and by victories over it; thus He subjugated it, and reduced it into order, and under obedience to Himself. It is also a universal of faith, that He came into the world to glorify the Human, which He assumed in the world, that is, might unite it with the Divine from which it was; thus having subjugated hell, He keeps it in order and under obedience to Himself to eternity. Now as neither of these could have come to pass except by means of temptations, even to the last of them; and the last of them was the passion of the cross, therefore He endured that. These are the universals of faith concerning the Lord.
[3] The universal of the Christian faith on man’s part, is, to believe in the Lord; for by believing in Him conjunction is effected with Him, and by conjunction, salvation. To believe in Him is to have confidence that He saves, and because no one can have confidence but he who lives well, therefore this also is meant by believing in Him.
[4] These two universals of the Christian faith have been specifically treated of; the first, which relates to the Lord, in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord; and the second, which relates to man, in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning Charity and Faith, and in The Doctrine of Life; and both now in the explanations of Revelation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 68 68. Revelation 2

1. Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands.
2. I know thy works, and thy labor, and thy endurance, and that thou canst not bear the evil, and hast tried them that say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars;
3. And hast borne, and hast endurance, and for My name’s sake hast labored, and hast not fainted.
4. But I have against thee, that thou hast left thy first charity.
5. Remember therefore from whence thou hast fallen; and repent, and do the first works; but if not I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent.
6. But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.
7. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. To him that overcometh I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.
8. And unto the angel of the church of Smyrna write; These things saith the First and the Last, who was dead, and is alive.
9. I know thy works, and affliction, and poverty, and the blasphemy of them that say they are Jews and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.
10. Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer. Behold, the devil will cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried: and ye shall have affliction ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.
11. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death.
12. And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write, These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword.
13. I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s throne is; and thou holdest fast My name, and hast not denied My faith, even in those days in which Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you where Satan dwelleth.
14. But I have a few things against thee, that thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumblingblock before the sons of Israel, to eat idol-sacrifices, and to commit whoredom.
15. So thou hast, even thou, them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which I hate.
16. Repent, or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight with them with the sword of My mouth.
17. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. To him that overcometh I will give to eat of the hidden manna; and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no one knoweth but he that receiveth it.
18. And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath His eyes like unto a flame of fire, and His feet like fine brass.
19. I know thy works, and charity, and ministry, and faith, and thy endurance, and thy works; and the last to be more than the first.
20. But I have a few things against thee, that thou permittest that women Jezebel, who calleth herself a prophetess, to teach, and to seduce My servants to commit whoredom, and to eat idol-sacrifices.
21. And I gave her time to repent of her whoredom, and she repented not.
22. Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great affliction, except they repent of their works.
23. And I will kill her sons with death. And all the churches shall know that I am He that searcheth the reins and hearts; and I will give unto each one of you according to your works.
24. But unto you, I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine, and who have not known the depths of Satan, as they speak; I will put upon you none other burden.*
25. Nevertheless, that which ye have, hold fast till I come.
26. And he that overcometh and keepeth My works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations;
27. And he shall rule them with a rod of iron, as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken in pieces; even as I have received from My Father.
28. And I will give him the morning star.
29. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.
* The original Latin has “opus” for “onus,” evidently a misprint; in n. 144 we read “onus.”

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

THE CONTENTS OF THE WHOLE CHAPTER. To the churches in the Christian world: To those there who primarily regard truths of doctrine and not goods of life, who are meant by the church of Ephesus (n. 73-90). To those there who are in goods as to life and in falsities as to doctrine, who are meant by the church of Smyrna (n. 91-106). To those there who place the all of the church in good works, and not anything in truths, who are meant by the church in Pergamos (n. 107-123). And to those there who are in faith from charity, as also to those who are in faith separated from charity, who are meant by the church in Thyatira (n. 124-152). All these are called to the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem.

The contents of each verse

Verse 1. “Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write,” signifies to those and concerning those who primarily regard truths of doctrine, and not goods of life (n. 73). “These things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand,” signifies the Lord, from whom through the Word, are all truths (n. 74). “Who walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands,” signifies from whom enlightenment is to those who are of His church (n. 75). Verse 2. “I know thy works,” signifies that He sees all the interiors and exteriors of man at once (n. 76). “And thy labor and thy endurance,” signifies their study and patience (n. 77). “And that thou canst not bear the evil,” signifies that they cannot bear that evil should be called goods and the reverse (n. 78). “And hast tried them that say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars,” signifies that they scrutinize those things which are called goods and truths in the church, which nevertheless are evils and falsities (n. 79). Verse 3. “And hast borne and hast endurance,” signifies patience with them (n. 80). “And for My name’s sake hast labored, and hast not fainted,” signifies their study and endeavor to procure the things which belong to religion and its doctrine (n. 81). Verse 4. “But I have against thee, that thou hast left thy first charity,” signifies that this is against them, that they do not hold the goods of life in the first place (n. 82). Verse 5. “Remember therefore from whence thou hast fallen,” signifies remembrance of their error (n. 83). “And repent, and do the first works,” signifies that they ought to invert the state of their life (n. 84). “But if not I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent,” signifies that otherwise, of a certainty, enlightenment will not be given them to see truths any longer (n. 85). Verse 6. “But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate,” signifies that they know this from their truths, and thence are not willing that works should be meritorious (n. 86). Verse 7. “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies that he that understands, ought to obey what the Divine truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem (n. 87). “To him that overcometh,” signifies he who fights against evils and falsities, and is reformed (n. 88). “Will I give to eat of the tree of life,” signifies appropriation of the good of love and charity from the Lord (n. 89). “Which is in the midst of the paradise of God,” signifies interiorly in the truths of wisdom and faith (n. 90).
Verse 8. “And unto the angel of the church of Smyrna write,” signifies to those and concerning those who are in goods as to life, but in falsities as to doctrine alone (n. 91). “These things saith the First and the Last,” signifies the Lord, that He alone is God (n. 92). “Who was dead and is alive,” signifies that He is neglected in the church, and His Human not acknowledged to be Divine, when yet as to that also He alone is life, and from Him alone is eternal life (n. 93). Verse 9. “I know thy works,” signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once (n. 94). “And affliction and poverty,” signifies that they are in falsities, and thence not in goods (n. 95). “And the blasphemy of them that say they are Jews, and are not,” signifies the false assertion that they are in the goods of love, when yet they are not (n. 96). “But are the synagogue of Satan,” signifies, because they are in falsities as to doctrine (n. 97). Verse 10. “Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer,” signifies, despair not when infested by evils and assaulted by falsities (n. 98). “Behold the devil will cast some of you into prison,” signifies that their good of life will be infested by evils from hell (n. 99). “That ye may be tried,” signifies by falsities fighting against them (n. 100). “And ye shall have affliction ten days,” signifies that it will endure its full time (n. 101). “Be thou faithful unto death,” signifies reception of truths until falsities are removed (n. 102). “And I will give thee a crown of life,” signifies that they will then have eternal life, the reward of victory (n. 103). Verse 11. “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies here, as before (n. 104). “He that overcometh,” signifies he that fights against evils and falsities, and is reformed (n. 105). “Shall not be hurt of the second death,” signifies that afterwards they will not succumb to evils and falsities from hell (n. 106).
Verse 12. “And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write,” signifies to those and concerning those who place the all of the church in good works, and not anything in truths of doctrine (n. 107). “These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword,” signifies the Lord as to the truths of doctrine from the Word, by which evils and falsities are dispersed (n. 108). Verse 13. “I know thy works,” signifies here, as before (n. 109). “And where thou dwellest,” signifies their life in darkness (n. 110). “And thou holdest fast My name, and hast not denied My faith,” signifies when yet they have religion and worship according to it (n. 111). “Even in those days in which Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you where Satan dwelleth,” signifies when all truth was extinguished by falsities in the church (n. 112). Verse 14. “But I have a few things against thee,” signifies that the things which follow are against them (n. 113). “That thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the sons of Israel, to eat idol-sacrifices, and to commit whoredom,” signifies that there are some among them who do hypocritical works, by which the worship of God in the church is defiled and adulterated (n. 114). Verse 15. “So thou hast, even thou, them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which I hate,” signifies that there are some among them also who make works meritorious (n. 115). Verse 16. “Repent” signifies that they should take heed of such works (n. 116). “Or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight with them with the sword of My mouth,” signifies, if not, that the Lord will contend with them from the Word (n. 117). Verse 17. “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies here, as before (n. 118). “To him that overcometh,” signifies here, the same as before (n. 119). “I will give to eat of the hidden manna,” signifies the appropriation then of the good of celestial love, and thus conjunction of the Lord with those who work (n. 120) “And I will give him a white stone,” signifies truths favoring and united to good (n. 121). “And in the stone a new name written,” signifies that thus they will have good of a quality such as they had not before (n. 122). “Which no one knoweth but he that receiveth it,” signifies that it does not appear to anyone, because it is inscribed on their life.
Verse 18. “And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write,” signifies to those and concerning those who are in faith from charity, and thence in good works; and also to those and concerning those, who are in faith separated from charity, and thence in evil works (n. 124). “These things saith the Son of God who hath His eyes like unto a flame of fire,” signifies the Lord as to the Divine wisdom of His Divine love (n. 125). “And His feet like fine brass,” signifies Divine good natural (n. 126). Verse 19. “I know thy works,” signifies here, as before (n. 127). “And charity and ministry,” signifies the spiritual affection which is called charity, and its operation (n. 128). “And faith, and thy endurance,” signifies truth and the desire of acquiring and teaching it (n. 129). “And* the last to be more than the first,” signifies the increase thereof from the spiritual affection of truth (n. 130). Verse 20. “But I have a few things against thee,” signifies what follows (n. 131). “That thou permittest that woman Jezebel,” signifies that among them there are some in the church who separate faith from charity (n. 132). “Who calleth herself a prophetess,” signifies, and who make the doctrine of faith alone the doctrine of the church (n. 133). “To teach and to seduce My servants to commit whoredom,” signifies, from which it comes to pass that the truths of the Word are falsified (n. 134). “And to eat idol-sacrifices,” signifies the defilement of worship, and profanations (n. 135). Verse 21. “And I gave her time to repent of her whoredom, and she repented not,” signifies that they who have confirmed themselves in that doctrine do not recede, although they see things contrary to it in the Word (n. 136). Verse 22. “Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great affliction,” signifies that therefore they will be left in their doctrine with falsifications, and that they will be grievously infested by falsities. “Except they repent,”** signifies if they will not desist from separating faith from charity (n. 138). Verse 23. “And I will kill her sons with death,” signifies that all the truths of the Word will be turned into falsities (n. 139). “And all the churches shall know that I am He that searcheth the reins and hearts,” signifies that the church may know that the Lord sees the quality of everyone’s truth, and the quality of his good (n. 140). “And I will give unto each one according to his works,” signifies that He gives unto everyone according to the charity and its faith which is in the works (n. 141). Verse 24. “But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine,” signifies to those with whom the doctrine of faith is separated from charity, and to those with whom the doctrine of faith is joined with charity (n. 142). “And who have not known the depths of Satan,”*** signifies they who do not understand their interiors, which are mere falsities (n. 143). “I will put upon you none other burden,” signifies only that they should beware of them (n. 144). Verse 25. “Nevertheless, that which ye have, hold fast till I come,” signifies that they should retain the few things which they know concerning charity, and thence concerning faith from the Word, and live according to them until the Lord’s coming (n. 145). Verse 26. “And he that overcometh and keepeth My works unto the end,” signifies those who are in charity and thence actually in faith, and remain in them to the end of their lives (n. 146). “To him will I give power over the nations,” signifies that they shall overcome the evils in themselves which are from hell (n. 147). Verse 27. “And he shall rule them with a rod of iron,” signifies by truths from the literal sense of the Word, and at the same time by rational things from natural light (n. 148). “As the vessels of a potter shall they be broken in pieces,” signifies as of little or no account (n. 149). “Even as I have received from My Father,” signifies this from the Lord, who, when He was in the world, procured to Himself all power over the hells, from His Divine which was in Him (n. 150). Verse 28. “And I will give him the morning star,” signifies intelligence and wisdom then (n. 151). Verse 29. “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies here, as before (n. 152).
* The original Latin omits “and thy works.”
** The original Latin omits, “of their works.”
*** The original Latin omits, “as they speak.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 69 69. THE EXPLANATION.
This and the following chapter treat of the seven churches, by which are described all those in the Christian church who have any religion, and out of whom the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, can be formed; and this is formed of those who approach the Lord alone, and at the same time perform repentance from evil works. The rest, who do not approach the Lord alone, from the confirmed denial of the Divinity of His human, and who do not perform repentance from evil works, are indeed in the church, but have nothing of the church in them.

AR (Whitehead) n. 70 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @12 S0′ 70. Since the Lord alone is acknowledged as the God of heaven and earth by those who are of His New Church in the heavens, and by those who will be of His New Church upon earth; therefore, in the first chapter of Revelation the Lord alone is treated of; and in the two following chapters, it is He alone who speaks to the churches, and He alone who will give the happy things of eternal life. That it is He alone who speaks to the churches is evident from these passages:
Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write, These things saith He who holdeth the seven stars in His right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands (Rev. 2:1).
Unto the angel of the church of Smyrna write, These things saith the First and the Last (Rev. 2:8).
To the angel of the church of Pergamos write, These things saith He which hath the sharp two-edged sword (Rev. 2:12).
Unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write, These things saith the Son of God, who hath His eyes like unto a flame of fire, and His feet like fine brass (Rev. 2:18).
Unto the angel of the church in Sardis write, These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars (Rev. 3:1).
To the angel of the church in Philadelphia write, These things saith He that is holy, He that is true, He that hath the key of David (Rev. 3:7).
And unto the angel of the church in Laodicea write, These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true Witness, the Beginning of the creation of God (Rev. 3:14).
These are taken from the first chapter, in which the Lord alone is treated of, and He Himself is there described by all these things.

AR (Whitehead) n. 71 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @28 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 71. That the Lord alone will give the happy things of eternal life to those who are and will be of His church is evident from these passages:
The Lord said to the church of Ephesus, To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God (Rev. 2:7).
Unto the church in Smyrna, I will give thee a crown of life. He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death (Rev. 2:10-11).
Unto the church in Pergamos, To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new* name written, which no man knoweth but he that receiveth it (Rev. 2:17).
Unto the church in Thyatira, To him will I give power over the nations, and I will give him the morning star (Rev. 2:26, 28).
Unto the church in Philadelphia, Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of My God; and I will write upon him the name of My God, the name of the New Jerusalem, and My new name (Rev. 3:12).
Unto the church in Laodicea, To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with Me in my throne (Rev. 3:21).
From these passages it is also evident, that the Lord alone is acknowledged in the New Church. Hence it is that this church is called the Lamb’s wife (Rev. 19:7, 9; 21:9-10).
* The original Latin has “meum” (“my”) for “novum” (“new”).

AR (Whitehead) n. 72 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @19 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 72. That the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, is formed of those who repent of evil works is also manifest from the Lord’s words to the churches:
To Ephesus; I know thy works; I have against thee, that thou hast left thy first charity. Repent, and do the former works; or else I will remove thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent (Rev. 2:2, 4-5).
To the church in Pergamos; I know thy works, repent (Rev. 2:13, 16).
To the church in Thyatira; I will deliver her into affliction, except they repent of their works, I will give unto everyone of you according to his works (Rev. 2:19, 22-23).
To the church in Sardis; I have not found thy works perfect before God, repent (Rev. 3:1-3).
To the church in Laodicea; I know thy works, be zealous, and repent (Rev. 3:15, 19).
Now follows the explanation itself.

AR (Whitehead) n. 73 sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′ 73. Verse 1. Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write, signifies, to those and concerning those, who primarily regard the truths of doctrine and not the goods of life. It was shown above (n. 66), that by “the seven churches” are not meant seven churches, but the church in the whole complex, which in itself is one, but various according to reception; and that those varieties may be compared with the various members and organs in a perfect body, which yet make one. They may also be compared with the various diadems in a king’s crown; and hence it is that the whole New Church, with its varieties, is described, in what now follows, by “the seven churches.” That by the church of Ephesus, are meant those in the church who primarily regard the truths of doctrine and not the goods of life, is clear from the things written to that church, when understood in the spiritual sense. It is written to “the angel” of that church, because by an angel is meant an angelic society which corresponds to a church consisting of such, as above (n. 65).

AR (Whitehead) n. 74 sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′ 74. These things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand, signifies the Lord, from whom through the Word are all truths. That “He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand,” is the Lord, and that “the seven stars in His right hand” are all the knowledges of good and truth in the Word, which are thence from the Lord, with the angels of heaven and the men of the church, may be seen above (n. 51). The knowledges of good and truth from the Word are truths.

AR (Whitehead) n. 75 sRef Rev@2 @1 S0′ 75. Who walketh in the midst of the seven golden lampstands, signifies, from whom all those who are of His church have enlightenment. That “the seven lampstands, in the midst of which was the Son of man,” signify the church, which is in enlightenment from the Lord, may be seen above (n. 43, 66). He is here said “to be walking,” because “to walk” signifies to live (n. 167), and “in the midst,” signifies in the inmost and thence in all (n. 44, 383).

AR (Whitehead) n. 76 sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ 76. Verse 2. I know thy works, signifies that He sees all the interiors and exteriors of man at once. “Works” are often mentioned in Revelation, but few know what is meant by works. This is known, that ten men can do works which externally appear alike, but which yet are dissimilar with them all; and this because they proceed from different ends and different causes, the end and the cause rendering the works either good or evil; for every work is a work of the mind, therefore, such as is the quality of the mind, such is the work. If the mind is charity, the work becomes charity; but if the mind is not charity, the work does not become charity; still, however, they may both appear alike in externals. Works appear to men in external form, but to angels in internal form; and to the Lord their quality is apparent from inmost to outmosts. Works in their external form appear like the outside of fruits, but works in their internal form appear like the inside of fruits, where there are innumerable edible parts, and in the midst seeds, in which there are also things innumerable, which are too minute for the keenest eye to discern, yea, which are above the intellectual sphere of man. Such are all works, the internal quality of which the Lord alone sees, and which the angels also perceive from the Lord, when man is doing them. But on this subject more may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 209-220, and n. 277-281; and also below, n. 141, 641, 688). From these things it may appear, that by “I know thy works,” is signified that the Lord sees all the interiors and exteriors of man at once.

AR (Whitehead) n. 77 sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ 77. And thy labor and endurance; that this signifies their study and patience, is evident without explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 78 sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ 78. And that thou canst not bear the evil, signifies that they cannot bear that evils should be called goods, and the reverse, because this is contrary to the truths of doctrine. That this is the signification of these words, is evident from what follows, by which is signified that they scrutinize those things in the church which are called goods and truths, when yet they are evils and falsities. To know goods, whether they are goods or evils, is of doctrine, and is among its truths, but to do goods or evils is of the life; this is said, therefore, of those who primarily regard the truths of doctrine, and not the goods of life (n. 73). By “the evil” in the spiritual sense, are not meant the evil but evils, because this sense is abstracted from persons.

AR (Whitehead) n. 79 sRef Matt@19 @28 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @14 S1′ 79. And has tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars, signifies that they scrutinize those things which are called goods and truths in the church, which nevertheless are evils and falsities. That this is what is signified, cannot be seen except by the spiritual sense, and unless it is thence known what is meant by “apostles” and by “liars”: by “apostles” are not meant apostles, but all who teach the goods and truths of the church, and, in the abstract sense, the goods and truths themselves of its doctrine. That apostles are not meant by “apostles,” clearly appears from these words addressed to them:
When the Son of man shall sit on the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt. 19:28; Luke 22:30).
Who does not see that the apostles are not to judge anyone, and cannot, much less the twelve tribes of Israel, but that the Lord alone will do this according to the goods and truths of the doctrine of the church from the Word? In like manner from this passage:
The wall of the city New Jerusalem had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb (Rev. 21:14).
Because by the “New Jerusalem” is signified the New Church (n. 880, 881), and by its “foundations,” all the goods and truths of its doctrine (n. 902, and following numbers).
sRef Luke@9 @2 S2′ sRef Rev@18 @20 S2′ sRef Luke@9 @1 S2′ sRef Luke@9 @10 S2′ [2] And also from this passage:
Exult O heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets (Rev. 18:20).
What can the exultation of the apostles and prophets signify, unless by them are meant all who are in the goods and truths of doctrine in the church? By the Lord’s disciples are meant those who are instructed by the Lord in the goods and truths of doctrine; but by apostles they who, after they are instructed, teach them; for it is said:
Jesus sent His twelve disciples to preach the kingdom of God, and the apostles, when they were returned, told Him all that they had done (Luke 9:1-2, 10; Mark 6:7, 30).
That by “liars” are meant they who are in falsities, and, abstractly, the falsities themselves, may appear from many places in the Word, where “liars” and “lies” are mentioned, which, if they were adduced, would fill pages; “lies” in the spiritual sense, are nothing else than falsities. From these considerations it may appear, that by “thou hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars,” is signified that they scrutinize those things in the church which are called goods and truths, but which nevertheless are evils and falsities.

AR (Whitehead) n. 80 sRef Rev@2 @3 S0′ 80. Verse 3. And hast borne and hast endurance. That it signifies the patience with them is evident without explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 81 sRef Rev@2 @3 S0′ 81. And for My name’s sake hast labored, and hast not fainted, signifies their study and endeavor to procure for themselves and also to teach the things which are of religion and its doctrine. By the “name” of Jehovah or of the Lord, in the Word is not meant His name, but everything by which He is worshiped. And because He is worshiped in the church according to doctrine, by His “name” is meant the all of doctrine, and, in the universal sense, the all of religion. The reason why these things are meant by “the name” of Jehovah is because in heaven no other names are given but what involve the quality of anyone, and the quality of God is all that by which He is worshiped. He who does not know this signification of “name” in the Word, can only understand name; and in this alone there is nothing of worship and religion.
sRef Deut@12 @18 S2′ sRef Deut@12 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @25 S2′ sRef Deut@12 @14 S2′ sRef Mal@1 @12 S2′ sRef Deut@12 @11 S2′ sRef Mal@1 @11 S2′ sRef Deut@12 @13 S2′ sRef Mal@1 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@43 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@12 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @8 S2′ sRef Deut@5 @11 S2′ sRef Micah@4 @5 S2′ [2] He that keeps in mind, therefore, this signification of the “name of Jehovah” wherever it occurs in the Word, will understand of himself what is signified by it in the following places:
In that day shall ye say, confess Jehovah, call upon His name (Isa. 12:4).
O Jehovah, we have waited for Thee: the desire of our soul is to Thy name, by Thee only will we make mention of Thy name (Isa. 26:8, 13).
From the rising of the sun shall he call upon My name (Isa. 41:25).
From the rising of the sun even unto its setting, My name shall be great among the nations; and in every place incense shall be offered unto My name; for My name shall be great among the nations; ye have profaned My name, when ye say, the table of Jehovah is polluted; and ye puff at My name when ye bring that which is torn, and lame, and sick (Mal. 1:11-13).
All people walk in the name of his God, and we will walk in the name of Jehovah our God (Micah 4:5).
Everyone that is called by My name, I have created him in my glory, I have formed him (Isa. 43:7).
Thou shalt not take the name of thy God in vain; for Jehovah will not hold him innocent that taketh His name in vain (Deut. 5:11).
They shall worship Jehovah in one place where He will put His name (Deut. 12:5, 11, 13-14, 18; 16:2, 6, 11, 15-16; besides many other places).
Who cannot see that in these, name alone is not meant?
sRef John@1 @12 S3′ sRef John@3 @17 S3′ sRef Matt@18 @20 S3′ sRef Matt@21 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@10 @22 S3′ sRef John@3 @18 S3′ sRef John@20 @31 S3′ sRef Matt@19 @29 S3′ sRef John@2 @23 S3′ [3] The same is signified in the New Testament by the name of the Lord, as in the following:
Jesus said, Ye shall be hated of all for My name’s sake (Matt. 10:22; 24:9-10).
Where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them (Matt. 18:20).
And everyone that hath forsaken houses, brethren, sisters, for My name’s sake, shall receive an hundred-fold, and eternal life (Matt. 19:29).
As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, to them that believe on His name (John 1:12).
Many believed in His name (John 2:23).
He that believeth not is judged already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of God (John 3:17-18).
They who believe will have life in His name (John 20:31).
Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord (Matt. 21:9; 23:39; Luke 13:35; 19:38).
sRef Matt@6 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@3 @4 S4′ sRef John@12 @28 S4′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S4′ sRef John@10 @3 S4′ [4] That the Lord as to His Human is the name of the Father, appears in these places:
Father, glorify Thy name (John 12:28).
Hallowed be Thy name, Thy kingdom come (Matt. 6:9; also Exod. 23:20-21; Jer. 23:6; Micah 5:4).
That name, applied to others, signifies the quality of worship, appears in the following passages:
The shepherd of the sheep calleth his own sheep by their name (John 10:3).
Thou hast a few names in Sardis (Rev. 3:4).
I will write upon him the name of My God, and the name of the city of my God, the New Jerusalem, and My new name (Rev. 3:12 and elsewhere).
From these passages it may appear, that “for my name’s sake thou hast labored, and hast not fainted” signifies the study and endeavor to procure for themselves, and also to teach, the things which are of religion and its doctrine.

AR (Whitehead) n. 82 sRef Rev@2 @4 S0′ 82. Verse 4. But I have against thee, that thou hast left thy first charity, signifies that this is against them, that they do not hold goods of life in the first place, which, nevertheless, was and is done in the beginning of every church. This is said to this church, because by it are meant those in the church who primarily or in the first place regard the truths of doctrine, and not the goods of life (n. 73); when yet the goods of life are to be regarded in the first place, that is, primarily; for in proportion as a man is in the goods of life, in the same proportion he is really in the truths of doctrine, but not the reverse. The reason is, that the goods of life open the interiors of the mind, and these being opened, truths appear in their own light, whence they are not only understood, but also loved. It is otherwise when doctrinals are regarded primarily or in the first place. Truths may indeed then be known, but they are not seen interiorly and loved from spiritual affection; but this may be seen illustrated above (n. 17). Every church in its beginning, regards the goods of life in the first place, and the truths of doctrine in the second; but as the church declines, it begins to regard the truths of doctrine in the first place, and the goods of life in the second; and at length in the end it regards faith alone, and then it not only separates the goods of charity from faith, but also omits them. From these things it may now appear, that by, “Thou hast left thy first charity,” is signified that they do not hold the goods of life in the first place, which nevertheless is, and has been done in the beginning of every church.

AR (Whitehead) n. 83 sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ 83. Verse 5. Remember therefore whence thou hast fallen; that this signifies remembrance of their error, is plain from what has just been said.

AR (Whitehead) n. 84 sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ 84. And repent, and do the first works, signifies that they ought to invert the state of their life. Every man regards the truths of doctrine in the first place, yet so long as he does this, he is like unripe fruit; but he who is regenerated, after he has imbibed truths, regards the goods of life in the first place, and in proportion as he does so, he grows ripe like fruit; and in proportion as he grows ripe, and as far as he grows ripe, so far the seed in him becomes prolific. These two states have been seen by me, among men who had become spirits. In the first state, they appeared turned to the valleys which are above hell; and in the second, to the paradises which are in heaven. This turning of the state of life is what is here meant. That this is effected by repentance, and after it by the good of life, is meant by “Repent, and do the first works.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 85 sRef Rev@2 @5 S0′ 85. Or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy lampstand out of its place, except thou repent, signifies that otherwise of a certainty enlightenment will not be given them to see truths any longer. By “quickly” is signified certain (n. 4, 947); and by “lampstand,” the church as to enlightenment (n. 43, 66); hence, by “removing it out of its place,” is signified to remove enlightenment, that they may not see truths in their light, and at length, that they may not see them any more. This follows from what was said above (n. 82), namely, that if truths of doctrine are regarded primarily, or in the first place, they may indeed be known, but not seen interiorly, and loved from spiritual affection, therefore they successively perish; for to see truths from their own light, is to see them from man’s interior mind, which is called the spiritual mind, and this mind is opened by charity; and when it is opened, light and the affection of understanding truths flow in out of heaven from the Lord. Thence is enlightenment. The man who is in this enlightenment, acknowledges truths as soon as he reads or hears them; but not he whose spiritual mind is not opened, who is one that is not in the goods of charity, however he may be in the truths of doctrine.

AR (Whitehead) n. 86 sRef Rev@2 @6 S0′ sRef Jer@23 @5 S0′ sRef Jer@33 @16 S0′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S0′ sRef Jer@33 @15 S0′ 86. Verse 6. But this thou hast, that thou hatest the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate, signifies that they know this from their truths, and thence are not willing that works should be meritorious, because this is contrary to the merit and justice of the Lord. That “the works of the Nicolaitans” are meritorious works, it has been given to know from revelation. It is said, that they hate those works, because the church from the truths of its doctrine knows this, and thence does not will it; therefore it is said, “this thou hast.” Yet all those make works meritorious who put the truths of faith in the first place, and the goods of charity in the second; but not those who put the goods of charity in the first place. The reason is, that genuine charity does not wish to merit, for it loves to do good, for it is in it and acts from it; and from good it looks to the Lord; and from truths it knows that all good is from Him; it therefore has an aversion to merit. Now because they who regard the truths of faith in the first place, cannot do any other works than such as are meritorious, and yet know, from their truths, that these are to be hated, therefore this follows after it was said, that if they do not hold charity in the first place, they do works which ought to be held in aversion. It is said that it is contrary to the merit and justice of the Lord; for they who place merit in works, ascribe justice to themselves, for they say justice is on their side because they have merited, when yet it is the greatest injustice, because the Lord alone has merit, and alone does good in them. That the Lord alone is justice is taught in Jeremiah:
Behold, the days shall come, when I will raise up a just branch unto David, and this is His name which they shall call Him, Jehovah our justice (Jer. 23:5-6; 33:15-16).

AR (Whitehead) n. 87 sRef Matt@11 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ 87. Verse 7. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands, ought to obey what the Divine truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem. By “hearing” is signified both to perceive and to obey; because one attends that he may perceive and obey; that both these are signified by “hearing” is evident from common discourse, in which one speaks of hearing and of hearkening to anyone; the latter signifying to obey, and the former to perceive. That “hearing” has these two significations is from correspondence; for those are in the province of the ears in heaven, who are in perception and at the same time in obedience. As both these things are signified by “hearing” therefore the Lord so often said:
He that hath an ear to hear let him hear (Matt. 11:15; 13:43; Mark 4:9, 23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35).
And the same is likewise said to all the churches, as is evident from verses 11, 17, 29, of this chapter, and from verses 6, 13, and 22, of the following. But by the “Spirit” which speaks to the churches is signified the Divine truth of the Word; and by “the churches” the entire church in the Christian world. That by “the Spirit of God” which is also the Holy Spirit is meant the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 51); and as the entire church is meant, it is not said, what the Spirit saith to the church, but “what the Spirit saith to the churches.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 88 sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 88. To him that overcometh, signifies he that fights against his evils and falsities, and is reformed. Now since in what is written to the seven churches is described the state of all in the Christian church who can receive the doctrine of the New Jerusalem, and live according to it, thus who by combats against evils and falsities can be reformed; therefore it is said to each, “He that overcometh” as here:
To the church of Ephesus: to him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life (Rev. 2:7).
To the church in Smyrna; he that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death (Rev. 2:11).
To the church in Pergamos: to him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna (Rev. 2:17).
To the church in Thyatira: to him that overcometh and keepeth My works unto the end I will give power over the nations (Rev. 2:26).
To the church in Sardis; he that overcometh the same shall be clothed in white raiment (Rev. 3:5).
To the church in Philadelphia; he that overcometh, I will make him a pillar in the temple of My God (Rev. 3:12).
And to the church in Laodicea: to him that overcometh will I grant to sit with Me in My throne (Rev. 3:21).
“He that overcometh” in these places signifies he who fights against evils and falsities, and thus is reformed.

AR (Whitehead) n. 89 sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ 89. I will give to eat of the tree of life, signifies appropriation of the good of love and charity from the Lord. “To eat” in the Word signifies to appropriate; and “the tree of life” signifies the Lord as to the good of love; therefore by “eating of the tree of life” is signified the appropriation of the good of love from the Lord. “To eat” signifies to appropriate, because as natural food when it is eaten is appropriated to the life of man’s body, so spiritual food when it is received is appropriated to the life of his soul. “The tree of life” signifies the Lord as to the good of love, because nothing else is signified by the tree of life in the garden of Eden; also because man has celestial and spiritual life from the good of love and charity which is received from the Lord. “Tree” is mentioned in many places, and by it is meant the man of the church, and in the universal sense the church itself, and by its “fruit” the good of life; the reason is, that the Lord is “the tree of life,” from whom comes all good with the man of the church, and in the church; but of this in its own place. It is said the good of love and charity, because the good of love is celestial good, which is that of love to the Lord, and the good of charity is spiritual good, which is that of love towards the neighbor. What and of what quality the one and the other good is will be told in what follows. Something may be seen concerning them in the work concerning Heaven and Hell (n. 13-19).

AR (Whitehead) n. 90 sRef Rev@2 @7 S0′ 90. Which is in the midst of the paradise of God, signifies interiorly in the truths of wisdom and faith. “In the midst” signifies the inmost (n. 44, 383), here, the interior; “the paradise of God” signifies the truths of wisdom and faith; therefore “the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God,” signifies the Lord with the good of love and charity interiorly in the truths of wisdom and faith; good is also within truths, for good is the esse of life, and truth is the existere of life thence derived, as is abundantly shown in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom. That the paradise of God is the truth of wisdom and of faith, is evident from the signification of “garden” in the Word; “garden” there signifies wisdom and intelligence, because “trees” signify the men of the church, and their “fruits” the goods of life; nothing else is signified by “the garden of Eden,” for by it is described the wisdom of Adam.
sRef Ezek@28 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@28 @4 S2′ [2] The like is meant by “the garden of God” in Ezekiel:
In thy wisdom and intelligence Thou hadst made for thyself wealth; thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering (Ezek. 28:4, 13).
This is concerning “Tyre,” by which is signified the church as to the knowledges of truth and good, thus as to intelligence; therefore it is said, “In thy wisdom and intelligence thou hadst made for thyself wealth.” By “the precious stones which were a covering” are signified the truths of intelligence.
sRef Ezek@31 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@31 @8 S3′ sRef Ezek@31 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@31 @3 S3′ [3] In the same:
Assyria is a cedar in Lebanon; the cedars in the garden of God did not hide it; nor was any tree in the garden of God equal to it in beauty. All the trees of Eden that were in the garden of God emulated it (Ezek. 31:3, 8-9).
This is said of Egypt and Ashur, because by “Egypt” is signified science, and by “Assyria” rationality, by which comes intelligence; the like is signified by “cedar.” But because by his rationality he came into the pride of his own intelligence, therefore it is said of him:
To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? Since thou shalt be brought down with the trees of Eden unto the lower earth; and thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised (Ezek. 31:18).
“The uncircumcised” are they who are without the good of charity.
sRef Isa@51 @3 S4′ sRef Jer@31 @12 S4′ [4] In Isaiah:
Jehovah shall comfort Zion; and He shall make her wilderness into Eden, and her desert into the garden of Jehovah (Isa. 51:3).
“Zion” there is the church; “the wilderness” and the “desert” are the defect and ignorance of truth; “Eden” and “the garden of God” are wisdom and intelligence. Wisdom and intelligence are also signified by “garden” in Isa. 58:11; 61:11; Jer. 31:12; Amos 9:14; Num. 24:6.
[5] The man of the church is also like a garden as to intelligence, when he is in the good of love from the Lord, because the spiritual heat which vivifies him is love, and the spiritual light is intelligence therefrom. It is known that gardens in this world flourish by means of heat and light; it is the same in heaven. In heaven there appear paradisal gardens, with fruit trees according to their wisdom from the good of love from the Lord; and around those who are in intelligence and not in the good of love, there do not appear gardens, but grass; but around those who are in faith separated from charity, not even grass, but sand.

AR (Whitehead) n. 91 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ 91. Verse 8. And unto the angel of the church of Smyrna write, signifies to those and concerning those, who are in goods as to life, but in falsities as to doctrine. That these are meant by “the church of Smyrna,” is clear from the things written to it when understood in the spiritual sense.

AR (Whitehead) n. 92 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ 92. These things saith the First and the Last, signifies the Lord, that He alone is God. That the Lord calls Himself “the First and the Last,” also “the beginning and the End,” and “Alpha and the Omega,” and “He Who is, and Who was, and Who is to come,” may be seen (chap. 1:4, 8, 11, 17); and what they signify above (n. 13, 29-31, 38, 57), where it is evident that by it is also meant, that He alone is God.

AR (Whitehead) n. 93 sRef Rev@2 @8 S0′ 93. Who was dead and is alive, signifies that He is neglected in the church, and His Human is not acknowledged to be Divine, when yet as to that also He alone is life, and from Him alone is eternal life. That this is meant by these words, may be seen above (n. 58-60), where they are explained. Why these and the preceding things are said, is, because the primary falsity of those who are described by this church, is, that they do not acknowledge the Lord’s Divine Human, and therefore do not approach Him.

AR (Whitehead) n. 94 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 94. Verse 9. I know thy works; that this signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, is evident from the things explained above (n. 76); here that He sees that they are in falsities, and yet as to life in goods, which they believe to be the goods of life, when yet they are not.

AR (Whitehead) n. 95 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 95. And affliction and poverty, signifies that they are in falsities and thence not in goods. “To know their affliction” signifies to see that they are in falsities, and “to know their poverty” signifies to see that they are not in goods, for in the Word, “affliction” is predicated of falsities (as above, n. 33); and “poverty” of the lack of goods; spiritual poverty is nothing else. “The poor and needy” are often mentioned in the Word, and in the spiritual sense by “poor” is meant one who is not in truths, and by “needy” one who is not in goods. These words are also added, “yet thou art rich,” but in a parenthesis, and this because in some codices they are omitted.

AR (Whitehead) n. 96 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 96. And the blasphemy of them that say they are Jews, and are not, signifies the false assertion that the goods of love are with them, when yet they are not. “Blasphemy” here signifies a false assertion; by “Jews” are not signified Jews, but they who are in the good of love, and, abstractly, the goods of love; so by “the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not,” is signified the false assertion that the goods of love are with them, when yet they are not. By “Jews” are meant they who are in the good of love, because in the Word by “Judah,” in the supreme sense, is meant the Lord as to the Divine good of Divine love, and by “Israel” the Lord as to the Divine truth of Divine wisdom; hence by “Jews” are signified they who are in the good of love from the Lord, and by “Israel” they who are in Divine truths from the Lord. That these are meant by “Jews,” may appear from many passages, which will be adduced below (n. 350); something may also be seen on this subject in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 51).* In the abstract sense the goods of love are meant by “Jews,” because the spiritual sense is abstracted from persons, as may be seen above (n. 78, 79). He who does not know that by “Jews,” in the Word, are meant those who are of the Lord’s celestial church, who are they that are in love to Him, may fall into many mistakes when reading the Word in the prophets; but see below (n. 350).
* The original Latin has “The Lord.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 97 sRef Rev@2 @9 S0′ 97. But are the synagogue of Satan, signifies because they are in falsities as to doctrine. It is called “synagogue,” because the Jews are mentioned, and as they taught in synagogues, by “synagogue” is signified doctrine; and because by “Satan” is meant the hell of those who are in falsities, therefore it is called “the synagogue of Satan.” Hell is called “the Devil” and “Satan,” and by the hell which is called “the Devil,” are meant such there as are in evils, properly who are in the love of self; and by the hell which is called “Satan,” are meant such there as are in falsities, properly who are in the pride of their own intelligence. The hells are called the “Devil” and “Satan,” because all who are in them are called devils and satans. Hence then it may appear, that by their being “the synagogue of Satan,” is signified that as to doctrine they are in falsities.
[2] But as they who are in good as to life, and in falsities as to doctrine, are here treated of, and as such know no other than that they are in good, and that their falsities are truths, something shall be said respecting them. All the good of worship is formed by truths, and all truth is formed from good, therefore good without truth is not good, neither is truth, without good, truth; they appear indeed in external form to be so, but still they are not. The conjunction of good and truth is called the heavenly marriage; from this is the church with man, and it is heaven with him. If therefore there are falsities instead of truths with man, then he does the good of falsity, which is not good, for it is either pharisaical or meritorious, or innate natural good.
sRef John@15 @5 S3′ sRef John@15 @4 S3′ sRef John@15 @6 S3′ [3] But examples will illustrate this. He who is in this falsity, that he believes he does good from himself, because he has the faculty of doing good; his good is not good, because he himself is in it, and not the Lord. He who is in this falsity, that he can do good which is in itself good, without a knowledge of what evil is in himself, thus without repentance, although he appears to do good, yet he does not do good, because without repentance he is in evil. He who is in this falsity, that good purifies him from evils, and does not know anything of the evils in which he is, he does no other good than spurious good, which is inwardly contaminated by his evils. He who is in this falsity, that there are many gods, and confirms himself in this, the good which he does is divided good, and divided good is not good. He who is in this falsity, that he believes the Divine in the Lord’s Human is not like the soul in the body, cannot do good from Him, and good not from the Lord is not good, for it is contrary to these words of the Lord:
Except one abide in Me and I in Him, he cannot bring forth any fruit; for without Me ye cannot do anything. Except one abide in Me, he is cast forth as a dried branch, and is cast into the fire and burned (John 15:4-6; and in many other passages).
For good derives its quality from truths, and truths derive their esse from good.
[4] Who does not know, that the church is not a church without doctrine; and doctrine must teach how a man shall think of God and from God; and how he shall act from God and with God; therefore doctrine must be from truths, to act according to which is called good; whence it follows, that to act according to falsities is not good. It is believed, that in the good which a man does, there is not anything from truths or falsities, when yet the quality of good is from no other source, for they cohere together like love and wisdom, and also like love and foolishness; it is the love of the wise which does good, but the love of the foolish does what is like good in externals, but totally unlike it in internals; therefore the good of the wise is like pure gold, but the good of the foolish is like gold covering over dung.

AR (Whitehead) n. 98 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 98. Verse 10. Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer, signifies, despair not when ye are infested by evils and assaulted by falsities, since with those who are in goods as to life, and in falsities as to doctrine, it cannot be otherwise. This is plain from what now follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 99 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ 99. Behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, signifies that their good of life will be infested by evils which are from hell. That this is signified by “being cast into custody” or into “prison” by the devil, is, because by “the devil” is meant the hell where they are who are in evils, and thus, abstractly, the evil which is there and from thence (n. 97). To be cast “into custody” or “prison,” is to be infested, because they who are infested by evils from hell are as if they were bound in prison, for they cannot think anything but evil, when yet they will good; hence there is combat and interior anxiety, from which they cannot be released, being scarcely otherwise than like persons who are in chains; the reason is, that their good is not good so far as it coheres with falsities, and so far as it coheres with falsities evil is in it; therefore this is what is infested.
[2] But this infestation does not exist in the natural world, but in the spiritual world, thus after death. It has often been granted me to see their infestations. They lament, saying that they have done good, and wish to do good, and yet now they cannot, because of the evils which surround them. But still they are not all infested alike, but more severely according as they have confirmed themselves in falsities, therefore it is said “the devil shall cast some of you into prison.” That the confirmation of what is false is hurtful, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 91-97).
sRef Ps@146 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@61 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@79 @11 S3′ sRef Zech@9 @11 S3′ sRef Ps@68 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S3′ sRef Ps@102 @20 S3′ [3] In the Word, by “the bound” the like is signified as here by those “cast into prison,” as in these places:
I will give thee for a covenant of the people, to bring out the bound from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house (Isa. 42:6-7; 49:8-9).
Jehovah hath sent me to preach liberty to the captives, and to the bound (Isa. 61:1).
By the blood of Thy covenant I will send forth the bound out of the pit (Zech. 9:11).
God bringeth out those which are bound with fetters (Ps. 68:6).
Let the groaning of the bound come before thee (Ps. 79:11).
To hear the groaning of the bound, to open to the sons of death (Ps. 102:20).
Jehovah who looseth the bound (Ps. 146:7).
It is plain that by “the bound” in these places are not meant those who are bound in the world, but those who are bound by hell, thus by evils and falsities. Similar is the signification of these words of the Lord:
I was in prison, and ye came not unto Me (Matt. 25:43).
As the Lord “brings out of prison,” or delivers from infestation, those who have been in good as to life, though in falsities as to doctrine, He says: “Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer;” also, “Be thou faithful, and I will give thee a crown of life.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 100 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 100. That ye may be tried, signifies by falsities fighting against them. The reason why this is signified is, because all spiritual temptation is a combat of the devil and the Lord, which shall have possession of man. The devil or hell brings out his falsities, and reproaches and condemns him; but the Lord brings out his truths, and withdraws him from falsities, and delivers him. It is this combat which appears to man as in himself, because it is from evil spirits who are with him, and is called temptation. That spiritual temptation is nothing else, I know from experience, because in my temptations I have seen the infernals who induced them, and have perceived the influx from the Lord, who liberated.

AR (Whitehead) n. 101 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ sRef Dan@1 @20 S0′ 101. And ye shall have affliction ten days, signifies that this will endure its full time, that is, as long as they are willing to remain in falsities. “Affliction” here signifies infestation (of which above, n. 33, 95), thus temptation; and “ten days” signify the duration of that state to the full; therefore it follows, “Be thou faithful unto death,” by which is signified the reception and acknowledgment of truths, until by their means falsities are removed, and as it were abolished. That “ten days” signify duration of state even to the full is, because “days” signify states, and “ten” what is full: for times in the Word signify states (n. 947), and numbers describe their quality (n. 9).
sRef Num@14 @22 S2′ sRef Rev@17 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@17 @3 S2′ sRef Dan@7 @7 S2′ sRef Job@19 @3 S2′ sRef Zech@8 @23 S2′ sRef Rev@17 @7 S2′ sRef Rev@13 @1 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @26 S2′ [2] As “ten” signify what is full, they also signify much and many, also each and all, as may appear from these passages which follow:
The men who have seen My glory, have tempted Me ten times (Num. 14:22).
These ten times have ye treated me with ignominy (Job 19:3).
Daniel was found ten times wiser than the astrologers (Dan. 1:20).
Ten women shall bake bread in one oven (Lev. 26:26).
Ten men out of all languages of the nations shall take hold of the skirt of a man a Jew (Zech. 8:23).
Because “ten” signifies many, and also all, therefore the things which were written upon the tables of the Decalogue by Jehovah, are called the “Ten Words” (Deut. 4:13; 10:4); the “Ten Words” signify all truths, for they include them. And because “ten” signifies all and all things, therefore the Lord compared the kingdom of the heavens to “ten virgins” (Matt. 25:1). Likewise in the parable He said of the nobleman, that he gave his servants “ten pounds” to trade with (Luke 19:12-27). Many are also signified by:
The ten horns of the beast which came up out of the sea (Dan. 7:7);
And by the ten horns and the ten diadems upon the horns of the beast coming up out of the sea (Rev. 13:1);
Also by the ten horns of the dragon (Rev. 12:3);
And by the ten horns of the scarlet-colored beast, upon which the woman sat (Rev. 17:3, 7, 12).
[3] By “ten horns” is signified much power. From the signification of the number “ten,” as being what is full, much, and all, it may be seen why it was ordained, that:
A tenth part of all the produce of the earth was given to Jehovah, and by Jehovah to Aaron and the Levites (Num. 18:24, 28; Deut. 14:22);
also, why Abram gave Melchizedek tithes of all (Gen. 14:18, 20); for by this was signified that thus all they had was from Jehovah, and was sanctified (see Mal. 3:10). From these things, it may now appear, that by having “affliction ten days,” is signified that temptation will last its full time, that is, so long as they are willing to remain in falsities; for falsities are never taken away from a man against his will, but with it.

AR (Whitehead) n. 102 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 102. Be thou faithful unto death, signifies reception and acknowledgment of truths, until falsities are removed, and as it were abolished. By “be thou faithful unto death,” in the natural sense, is meant, that they must not depart from fidelity even to the end of life; but in the spiritual sense, that they must receive and acknowledge truths, even until falsities are removed by them, and as it were abolished; for this sense is properly for those who are in the spiritual world, for whom there is no death. Therefore by “death” is here meant the end of their temptation. It is said, until they are, as it were, abolished, because falsities and evils with man are not abolished, but removed, and when they are removed they appear as if they were abolished, because when evils and falsities are removed, man is kept in goods and truths by the Lord.

AR (Whitehead) n. 103 sRef Rev@2 @10 S0′ 103. And I will give thee a crown of life, signifies that they will then have eternal life, the reward of victory. Because temptations even unto death are here treated of, it is said that a crown of life will be given them, such as the martyrs had, who were faithful even unto death; and because the martyrs wished for it, therefore after death crowns were given them, by which was signified the reward of victory; they still appear in their crowns in heaven, which it has been granted me to see.

AR (Whitehead) n. 104 sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ 104. Verse 11. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; that this signifies that he who understands these things, ought to obey what the Divine truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, is evident from the explanation of like words above (n. 87).

AR (Whitehead) n. 105 sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ 105. He that overcometh; that this signifies he that fights against evils and falsities, and is reformed, is evident from the explanation (n. 88), where like words occur.

AR (Whitehead) n. 106 sRef Rev@2 @11 S0′ 106. Shall not be hurt of the second death, signifies that afterwards they shall not succumb to the evils and falsities from hell. By the first death is meant the death of the body, and by the “second death” is meant the death of the soul, which is damnation (see below, n. 853, 873); and because “Be thou faithful unto death,” signifies that they ought to acknowledge truths till by their means falsities are removed (n. 102), it follows, that by “not being hurt of the second death,” is signified that afterwards they shall not succumb under evils and falsities from hell, for thereby they are exempted from damnation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 107 sRef Rev@2 @12 S0′ 107. Verse 12. And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write, signifies to those and concerning those who place the all of the church in good works, and not anything in the truths of doctrine. That these are meant by “the church in Pergamos,” is evident from what is written to it, when understood in the spiritual sense. But something must be premised concerning these, that it may be known who they are in the church, and what is their quality. There are two kinds of men of whom the Christian church at this day for the most part consists; one, who are in works alone, and in no truths; the other, who are in worship alone, and neither in works nor in truths; the former are here treated of; the latter in what is written to the church in Sardis (n. 154). They who are in works alone and in no truths, are like those who act and do not understand, and deeds without understanding are inanimate. They appear before the angels like images carved out of wood; and they who have placed merit in their works, appear like those carved images, naked, without any covering whatever; they appear also like sheep without wool; and they who place merit in them, like such sheep covered with dung; for all works are done from the will by the understanding, and in the understanding they receive life, and at the same time clothing; hence it is, as was said, that they appear to the angels as things inanimate and naked.

AR (Whitehead) n. 108 sRef Rev@1 @16 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @12 S0′ 108. These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword, signifies the Lord as to the truths of doctrine from the Word, by which evils and falsities are dispersed. In the preceding chapter, where the Son of man is described, Who is the Lord as to the Word, it is said that:
A sharp two-edged sword was seen to go out of His mouth (Rev. 2:16).
That by this is signified the dispersion of falsities by the Word, and by doctrine thence from the Lord, may be seen above (n. 52). This is said to those and concerning those, who place the all of the church in works alone, and not anything in the truths of doctrine; to whom, because they omit or lightly esteem truths of doctrine which yet are necessary, it is said in what follows:
Repent, or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight with them with the sword of My mouth (Rev. 2:16).

AR (Whitehead) n. 109 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 109. Verse 13. I know thy works; that this signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, may be seen above (n. 76), where the same is explained; here that the Lord sees that they are in works alone, and not in doctrinals.

AR (Whitehead) n. 110 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 110. And where thou dwellest, where Satan’s throne is, signifies their life in thick darkness. That by “Satan” is meant the hell of those who are in falsities may be seen above (n. 97); and to be in falsities is to be in spiritual thick darkness. “Spiritual thick darkness,” “the shadow of death,” and “darkness” are nothing else but the states of those in hell, who are in the falsities of evil; therefore, in the Word, falsities are described by them; from which it may appear, that by “Satan’s throne” is signified mere thick darkness. But by thick darkness here is not meant that they are in mere falsities, but that they are in no truths of doctrine; for truths of the doctrine, which are from the Word, are in light, therefore not to be in truths is not to be in light, consequently to be in thick darkness. That truths are in the light of heaven, may be seen in Heaven and Hell (n. 126-140); and in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning Sacred Scripture (n. 73, 104-113).
[2] The Word in many places treats of those who are in “darkness,” in “the shadow of death,” and in “thick darkness,” whose eyes the Lord will open; and by them are meant the Gentiles, who were in good works, but not in any truths, because they did not know the Lord, nor did they have the Word. Exactly similar to these are they in the Christian world, who are in works alone and in no truths of doctrine, therefore they cannot be called anything else than Gentiles; they know the Lord indeed, but yet do not approach Him, and they have the Word, but yet do not search for the truths therein. By “I know where thou dwellest” is signified to know their quality, because in the spiritual world everyone dwells according to the quality of his affection. Hence it may appear, that by “thou dwellest where Satan’s throne is” is signified the life of their good in thick darkness.
[3] Satanic spirits also have power through those in the spiritual world who are in works alone, but without them they have none; for they adjoin them to themselves, provided one of them says, I am thy neighbor, and on this account good offices ought to be extended to me; on hearing this they approach, and give aid; nor do they inquire who and what he is, because they do not have truths, by which alone one can be distinguished from another. This also is signified by “thou dwellest where satan’s throne is.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 111 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 111. And thou holdest fast My name, and hast not denied My faith, signifies when yet they have religion and worship according to it, and also acknowledge the Word to be the Divine truth. That by the “name” of Jehovah, or of the Lord is meant all by which He is worshiped, thus the all of religion, may be seen above (n. 81); here therefore it signifies that they have religion, and, according to religion, worship. By “faith,” here is not meant that which exists in the church at this day, but the Divine truth, because faith is of truth and truth is of faith; nothing else is meant by “faith” in heaven, nor by the “faith of God” in the Word; hence it is that faith and truth are expressed in the Hebrew language by one and the same word, and are called Amuna. Since then by “the faith of God” is meant the Divine truth, and the Word is Divine truth itself, it is evident that by “thou hast not denied My faith,” is meant, that they acknowledge that the Word is the Divine truth.

AR (Whitehead) n. 112 sRef Rev@2 @13 S0′ 112. Even in those days wherein Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you where Satan dwelleth, signifies when all truth was extinguished by falsities in the church. By “martyr” is signified confession of the truth, the same as by “a witness” (above, n. 6, 16), because “martyr” and “witness” are expressed in the Greek language by one expression. “Antipas” is named from the spiritual or angelic language. Since by “Antipas the martyr” is signified a confessor of the truth, and, abstractly, the truth itself, it is evident that, by “in the days wherein Antipas was My faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth,” is signified, when truth was extinguished by falsities in the church. That by “Satan” is meant the hell where and from whence falsities are, may be seen above (n. 97).

AR (Whitehead) n. 113 sRef Rev@2 @14 S0′ 113. Verse 14. But I have a few things against thee, signifies that the things which follow are against them, as is evident without explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 114 sRef Num@25 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @14 S0′ sRef Num@25 @1 S0′ sRef Num@25 @2 S0′ sRef Num@25 @3 S0′ sRef Num@25 @9 S0′ 114. Because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the sons of Israel, to eat idol-sacrifices, and to commit whoredom, signifies that there are some among them who do hypocritical works, by which the worship of God in the church is defiled and adulterated. That by these things are meant they who do works by which worship is defiled and adulterated, is evident from the historical parts of the Word concerning Balaam and Balak king of Moab. For Balaam was a hypocrite, and a diviner; for he spoke well of the sons of Israel from Jehovah, when yet he cherished in his heart a desire to destroy them, and also he did destroy them by the counsel he gave Balak; from which it was evident that his works were hypocritical. That he was a diviner we read in Num. 22:7; 24:1; Josh. 13:22. That he spoke in favor of the children of Israel, by blessing them (see Num. 23:7-15, 18-24; 24:5-9, 16-19). But that he spoke these things from Jehovah (see Num. 23:5, 12, 16; 24:13). That he cherished in his heart a desire to destroy them, and also did destroy them by the counsel given to Balak (see Num. 31:16). The counsel which he gave is in Num. 25:1, 9, 18. This was the stumbling block which he cast before the sons of Israel, concerning which it is thus written:
In Shittim the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab, and they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; the people did eat and bowed themselves down to their gods, especially they adjoined themselves unto Baalpeor: therefore there were slain of Israel twenty-four thousand (Num. 25:1-3, 9, 18).
By “the sons of Israel” is signified the church; by eating of their sacrifices, is signified the appropriation of what is holy; therefore by eating of the sacrifices of other gods, or idol-sacrifices, is signified the defilement and profanation of what is holy; by “committing whoredom,” is signified to adulterate and pervert worship; that by “Moab,” and therefore by its king, and its daughters, are also signified they who defile and adulterate worship, may be seen in The Arcana Coelestia, published at London (n. 2468). From hence it is evident, that this is the spiritual sense of these words.

AR (Whitehead) n. 115 sRef Rev@2 @15 S0′ 115. Verse 15. So thou hast, even thou, them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which I hate, signifies that there are some among them also who make works meritorious. That the “works of the Nicolaitans” are meritorious works, may be seen above (n. 86). Among those who place the all of the church and of salvation in good works, and not anything in truths of doctrine, who are those who are meant by “the church in Pergamos,” there are some who do hypocritical works and also meritorious works, but still not all; therefore it is said, “Thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam;” as also, “So thou hast, even thou, them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans;” and all works of worship are either good, or meritorious, or hypocritical, therefore the two latter are here spoken of, and good works afterwards in what follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 116 sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ 116. Verse 16. Repent, signifies that they should guard themselves against such works, and do works which are good. That these things are signified by “repent,” is, because it now treats of meritorious and hypocritical goods, against which they should guard themselves who place the all of the church and of salvation in good works, and not anything in the truths of doctrine; when yet the truths of doctrine teach how and what is to be willed and thought, or loved and believed, that the works may be good.

AR (Whitehead) n. 117 sRef Rev@2 @16 S0′ 117. Or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight with them with the sword of my mouth, signifies, if not, that the Lord will contend with them from the Word, and convince them that their works are evil. But the explanation of these words may be seen above (n. 108).

AR (Whitehead) n. 118 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 118. Verse 17. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands these things, ought to obey what the Divine truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, as appears above (n. 87), where similar words are explained.

AR (Whitehead) n. 119 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 119. To him that overcometh, signifies he that fights against his evils and falsities and is reformed, as is also evident from the explanation given above (n. 88).

AR (Whitehead) n. 120 sRef John@6 @37 S0′ sRef John@6 @36 S0′ sRef John@6 @38 S0′ sRef John@6 @35 S0′ sRef John@6 @33 S0′ sRef John@6 @34 S0′ sRef John@6 @31 S0′ sRef John@6 @45 S0′ sRef John@6 @44 S0′ sRef John@6 @42 S0′ sRef John@6 @43 S0′ sRef John@6 @50 S0′ sRef John@6 @48 S0′ sRef John@6 @47 S0′ sRef John@6 @46 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef John@6 @49 S0′ sRef John@6 @40 S0′ sRef John@6 @52 S0′ sRef John@6 @53 S0′ sRef John@6 @51 S0′ sRef John@6 @39 S0′ sRef John@6 @41 S0′ sRef John@6 @32 S0′ 120. I will give to eat of the hidden manna, signifies wisdom, and at the same time the appropriation of the good of celestial love in works, and thus conjunction of the Lord with those who work. By “the hidden manna,” which they will have who are in good works, and who at the same time adjoin the truths of doctrine to works, is meant hidden wisdom of a quality like that which they have who are in the third heaven. For these, because they were in good works, and at the same time in truths of doctrine in the world, are in wisdom above other angels, but in hidden wisdom, for it is written in their life and not so much on their memory; therefore they are of such a nature that they do not talk of the truths of doctrine, but do them, and they do them because they know them, and also see them when others speak them. That the good of love is appropriated to them, and the Lord conjoins Himself with those who adjoin truths of doctrine to good works, and thus gives them wisdom in their good, and that this is “giving to eat of the hidden manna,” may appear from these words of the Lord:
The bread of God is He which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. I am the bread of life; your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness and are dead. This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that he who eateth thereof may not die. I am the living bread, that came down from heaven; if anyone eat of this bread he shall live forever (John 6:31-51).
From which it is evident, that the Lord Himself is “the hidden manna” which will be in their works, if they approach Him alone. Whether you say “the Lord” or “the good of celestial love,” and “the wisdom of that love,” it is the same. But this is an arcanum which enters with difficulty into the natural idea of anyone, so long as it is veiled over with a cloud from worldly things; but it does enter when the mind is serene and in the sunshine, as may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom from beginning to end.

AR (Whitehead) n. 121 sRef Jer@31 @34 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @33 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 121. And I will give him a white stone, signifies truths favoring and united to good. “A white stone” signifies this because in judgments votes were collected by stones, and by white stones those which were affirmative; that it is affirmative truths which are signified is, because “white” is predicated of truths (n. 167, 379); hence it is, that by a “white stone” are signified truths favoring good; the reason why they are also united to good, is, because good invites and unites them to itself; for all good loves truth and conjoins to itself such as agrees with itself, especially the good of celestial love; this so unites truths to itself, that they altogether make a one. Hence it is, that they see truths from good alone. These are meant by “those who have the law written in their hearts,” of whom it is said in Jeremiah:
I will put My law in the midst of them, and I will write it on their heart; neither shall they teach any longer everyone his neighbor, and everyone his brother, saying, Know ye Jehovah, for all shall know Me (Jer. 31:33-34).
Such are all who are in the third heaven. They do not speak of truths from any memory, but clearly see them when they hear others speaking of them, especially when they are reading the Word; the reason is, because they are in the very marriage of good and truth. Such do they become in the world, who have approached the Lord alone, and have done good works, because they are according to the truths of the Word; concerning whom something may be seen in the work on Heaven and Hell (n. 25-26, 270-271).

AR (Whitehead) n. 122 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ sRef Mark@9 @50 S0′ sRef Mark@9 @49 S0′ 122. And in the stone a new name written, signifies that thus they will have good of a quality such as they had not before. That “name” signifies the quality of a thing, may be seen above (n. 81), therefore here the quality of good. All the quality of good is from the truths that are united to it; for good without truths is like bread and food without wine and water, which do not nourish; and also like fruit in which there is no juice. It appears also like trees stripped of the leaves, on which there hang a few dry apples left from the autumn. This is also meant by these words of the Lord:
For everyone shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. Salt is good, but if the salt has lost its saltiness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves (Mark 9:49-50).
Salt here is the desire of truth.

AR (Whitehead) n. 123 sRef Rev@2 @17 S0′ 123. Which no one knoweth but he that receiveth it, signifies that it does not appear to anyone, because it is inscribed on their life. That truths united to good are not inscribed on their memories, but on their lives, may be seen above (n. 121, 122), and what is inscribed on the life alone, and not on the memory, does not appear to anyone, not even to themselves, except from this, that they perceive whether it is true, and what is true, when they hear and read; for the interiors of their mind are open even unto the Lord; and because the Lord is in them, and He sees all things, therefore He causes them to see as from themselves; but yet from their wisdom they know that they do not see truths from themselves, but from the Lord. Hence, it may appear what is meant by all this, “I will give him to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no one knoweth but he that receiveth it:” the sum of its signification is, that they will be angels of the third heaven, if they read the Word, draw therefrom truths of doctrine, and approach the Lord.

AR (Whitehead) n. 124 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 124. Verse 18. And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write, signifies, to those and concerning those, who are in faith from charity, and thence in good works; and also to those and concerning those, who are in faith separate from charity, and thence in evil works. That both the former and latter are described by “the church in Thyatira,” is evident from what is written to it, when understood in the spiritual sense.

AR (Whitehead) n. 125 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 125. These things saith the Son of God, who hath His eyes like unto a flame of fire, signifies the Lord as to the Divine wisdom of His Divine love. That this is the signification, may be seen explained above (n. 48).

AR (Whitehead) n. 126 sRef Rev@2 @18 S0′ 126. And His feet like fine brass, signifies the Divine good natural, as is evident from the explanation given above (n. 49).

AR (Whitehead) n. 127 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 127. Verse 19. I know thy works, signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, as may be seen above, where these words are explained (n. 76).

AR (Whitehead) n. 128 sRef Ps@104 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ps@103 @22 S0′ sRef Ps@103 @21 S0′ sRef Matt@20 @27 S0′ sRef Isa@61 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@20 @26 S0′ sRef Jer@33 @21 S0′ 128. And charity and ministry, signifies the spiritual affection which is called charity, and its operation. Charity is a spiritual affection, because charity is love towards the neighbor, and love towards the neighbor is that affection: that “ministry” is its operation, follows from their being called “ministers” in the Word who do the things which are of charity. The man who is a worshiper of God is sometimes called “a servant,” and sometimes a “minister,” and he is called “a servant of God” who is in truths, and “a minister of God” who is in goods; the reason is, because truth serves good, and good ministers to truth. That he is called “a servant” who is in truths, may be seen above (n. 3); but that he is called “a minister” who is in good, is evident from these passages:
Ye shall be called the priests of Jehovah, the ministers of our* God (Isa. 61:6).
My covenant shall not be broken with the Levites My ministers (Jer. 33:21).
They are called “ministers,” because priests represented the Lord as to Divine good.
Bless Jehovah all His hosts, ye ministers of His that do His will (Ps. 103:21-22).
Jehovah maketh His angels spirits; His ministers a flaming fire (Ps. 104:4).
“Angels spirits” are they who are in truths, and “angels ministers” they who are in goods; “flaming fire” also signifies the good of love. Jesus said:
Whosoever will be great, let him be your minister; and whosoever will be first, let him be your servant (Matt. 20:26-27; 23:11-12).
“Minister” is here predicated of good, and “servant” of truth. The same is signified by “ministering” and “ministry” in Isaiah 61:6; John 12:26; Luke 12:37; and in other places. Hence it is evident, that by “charity” and “ministry,” is signified spiritual affection and its operation; for good is of charity, and truth is of faith.
* The original Latin has “vestri” (“your”).

AR (Whitehead) n. 129 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 129. And thy faith and endurance, signifies truth, and the study to procure and teach it. That “faith” signifies truth, may be seen above (n. 111); and that in such case endurance signifies study and labor of procuring and teaching it, follows as a consequence.*
* The original Latin omits “and thy works.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 130 sRef Rev@2 @19 S0′ 130. And the last to be more than the first, signifies the increase thereof from the spiritual affection of truth, which is charity. By “the last works more than the first,” are meant all things of their charity and faith, for these are the interior things from which are works (n. 73, 76, 94). These things increase when charity is in the first place and faith in the second; for charity is the spiritual affection of doing good, and from it comes the spiritual affection of knowing truth, for good loves truth as food does drink, for it desires to be nourished, and is nourished, by truths; hence it is, that they who are in genuine charity have a continual increase of truth. This then is what is signified by “I know thy works the last more than the first.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 131 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ 131. Verse 20. But I have a few things against thee, signifies that the following things may possibly be a stumblingblock to them. For what now follows relates to faith separated from charity, which may be a stumblingblock to those who are in faith from charity.

AR (Whitehead) n. 132 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ 132. That thou permittest the woman Jezebel, signifies that among them there are some in the church who separate faith from charity, and make faith alone saving. That faith separated from charity is meant by “the woman Jezebel” is evident from the things which now follow, when they are unfolded in series by means of the spiritual sense and when they are compared with that faith; for these were the evil deeds of Jezebel the wife of Ahab:
That she went and served Baal, and built him an altar in Samaria, and made a grove (1 Kings 16:31-33).
That she slew the prophets of Jehovah (1 Kings 18:4, 13).
That she wished to kill Elijah (1 Kings 19:1-2).
That through deceit by substituting false witnesses, she took away the vineyard from Naboth, and killed him (1 Kings 21:6-7 seq.).
That on account of these evil deeds, it was foretold to her by Elijah, that the dogs should eat her (1 Kings 21:23).
That she was thrown down from the window where she stood painted, and that some of her blood was sprinkled upon the wall, and upon the horses which trampled her (2 Kings 9:30-33).
[2] As all the historical as well as the prophetical parts of the Word signify the spiritual things of the church, so also do these; and they signify faith separated from charity is evident from the spiritual sense, and from collating them together; for by “going and serving Baal” and “building him an altar” and “making a grove” is signified to serve lusts of all kinds, or what is the same, the devil, not thinking of any evil lust, nor of any sin, as they do who have no doctrine of charity and life, but of faith only. By “slaying the prophets” is signified to destroy the truths of doctrine from the Word. By “wishing to kill Elijah” is signified to wish to do the same to the Word itself. By “taking away the vineyard from Naboth and killing him” is signified the church, for “the vineyard” is the church: by “the dogs” which ate her, are signified lusts. By “casting from the window, sprinkling the blood on the wall, and being trampled by the horses” is signified their destruction, for the particulars signify that also; “window” signifies truth in the light; “blood” falsity; “wall” truth in ultimates, “horse” the understanding of the Word. Hence it may be concluded, that these things, collated together, coincide with faith separated from charity, as may further appear from what follows in Revelation, where this faith is treated of.

AR (Whitehead) n. 133 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ 133. Who calleth herself a prophetess, signifies and who make it the very doctrine of the church, and found all theology upon it. That by “prophet” in the Word is signified the doctrine of the church, may be seen above (n. 8); therefore the like is signified by “prophetess.” It is known that in the Reformed Christian church faith alone has been accepted as the only means of salvation, and that thence the works of charity have been separated from faith, as not saving; hence it is that the entire doctrine of the salvation of man, which is called theology, at this day is that faith, consequently “the woman Jezebel.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 134 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ sRef Ex@34 @15 S0′ 134. To teach and to seduce My servants to commit whoredom, signifies, from which it comes to pass that the truths of the Word are falsified. By “to teach and to seduce the servants of the Lord,” is meant those who are able and willing to be instructed in truths from the Word; that they are called “servants of the Lord” who are in truths, may be seen above (n. 3, 128); and by “committing whoredom,” is signified to adulterate and falsify the Word: that this is signified by “committing whoredom,” is, because in every particular of the Word there is the marriage of good and truth, and this marriage is broken when good is separated and taken away from truth. That in every particular of the Word there is the marriage of the Lord and the church, and thence the marriage of good and truth, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 80-90). From this it is, that “to commit whoredom” signifies to adulterate the goods and falsify the truths of the Word; and because this is spiritual whoredom, therefore also they who from their own reason have falsified the Word, after death, when they come into the spiritual world, become whoremongers: and, what has hitherto been concealed from the world, they who have confirmed themselves in faith alone to the exclusion of works of charity, are in the lust of committing the adultery of a son with his mother. That they are in the lust of committing so abominable a kind of adultery, has often been perceived in the spiritual world. Remember this, and inquire after death, and you will be confirmed.
sRef Gen@49 @4 S2′ sRef 1Chr@5 @1 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @3 S2′ [2] I have not ventured to reveal this before, because it offends the ears. This adultery is signified by the adultery of Reuben with Bilhah his father’s concubine (Gen. 35:22); for by “Reuben” that faith is signified, for which cause he was cursed by his father Israel, and afterwards his birthright was taken away from him; for his father Israel, prophesying concerning his sons, said of Reuben:
Reuben my firstborn, thou art my strength, and the beginning of my power, light as water, thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed; then thou didst profane it: he went up to my couch (Gen. 49:3-4).
Therefore his birthright was taken from him.
Reuben was the firstborn of Israel; but because he polluted his father’s couch, his birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph (1 Chron. 5:1).
That by “Reuben” was represented truth from good, or faith from charity, and afterwards truth separated from good, or faith separated from charity, will be seen in the explanation of chapter 7:5.
sRef Ezek@16 @35 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @15 S3′ sRef 2Ki@9 @22 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @33 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @28 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @26 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @32 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @29 S3′ sRef Lev@20 @6 S3′ sRef Num@14 @33 S3′ [3] That by “whoredoms” are signified adulterations of good and falsifications of truth in the Word, may appear from the following passages:
When Joram saw Jehu, he said, Is it peace, Jehu? Who said, What peace, so long as the whoredoms of thy mother Jezebel, and her incantations are so many? (2 Kings 9:22).
By “the whoredoms of Jezebel” are not meant any whoredoms, but her deeds, of which above (n. 132).
Your sons shall be pasturing in the wilderness forty* years, and they shall bear your** whoredoms (Num. 14:33).
And I will cut off the soul that looketh back to pythons and soothsayers to go a whoring after them (Lev. 20:6).
Lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they go a whoring after their gods (Exod. 34:15-16).
Jerusalem, thou didst trust in thy beauty, and didst commit whoredom on account of thy fame, even so that thou didst pour out thy whoredoms on everyone that passed by. Thou didst commit whoredom with the sons of Egypt, thy neighbors, great of flesh, and didst multiply thy whoredom. Thou didst commit whoredom with the sons of Assyria even when there was no satiety to thee with whom thou didst commit whoredom. Thou hast multiplied thy whoredom even to Chaldea. A woman, an adulteress, that taketh strangers instead of her husband. All give reward to their harlots; but thou hast given rewards to all, that they may come unto thee on every side in thy whoredoms. Wherefore, O harlot, hear the word of Jehovah (Ezek. 16:15-16, 26, 28-29, 32-33, 35 seq.).
“Jerusalem” in this passage is the Israelitish and Jewish church; by her “whoredoms” are meant adulterations and falsifications of the Word; and because in the Word by “Egypt” is signified the science of the natural man, by “Assyria” ratiocination thence, by “Chaldea” profanation of truth, and by “Babylon” profanation of good, therefore it is said that she committed whoredom with them.
sRef Ezek@23 @5 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @14 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @8 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @11 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @7 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @16 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @3 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @2 S4′ sRef Ezek@23 @17 S4′ [4] There were two women, the daughters of one mother; they committed whoredom in Egypt; they committed whoredom in their youth; one committed whoredom under Me, and she doted on her lovers, the Assyrians her neighbors. Thus she gave her whoredoms with them; yet she did not abandon her whoredoms in Egypt. The other corrupted her love more than she, and her whoredoms more than the whoredoms of her sister. She added to her whoredoms, she loved the Chaldeans. The sons of Babel came to her to the bed of loves, and they polluted her by their whoredoms (Ezek. 23:2-3, 5, 7-8, 11, 14, 16-17 seq.).
Here “the two daughters of one mother” are likewise the Israelitish and Jewish church, whose adulterations and falsifications of the Word are here described as above by “whoredoms.”
sRef Hos@4 @13 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @1 S5′ sRef Hos@6 @10 S5′ sRef Jer@23 @14 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @8 S5′ sRef Jer@29 @23 S5′ sRef Hos@4 @10 S5′ sRef Hos@5 @3 S5′ sRef Jer@5 @1 S5′ sRef Jer@5 @7 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @9 S5′ sRef Hos@4 @7 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @2 S5′ sRef Jer@13 @27 S5′ sRef Hos@4 @11 S5′ sRef Jer@3 @6 S5′ [5] So in the following passages:
Thou hast committed whoredom with many companions; thou hast profaned the land with thy whoredoms and with thy wickedness. Hast thou seen that which backsliding Israel hath done? going up upon every high mountain, and committing whoredom. Also perfidious Judah went and committed whoredom. So that by the voice of her whoredom, she hath profaned the land; she hath committed adultery with stone and wood (Jer. 3:1-2, 6, 8-9; and in other places).
Run ye to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, seek if you can find a man, who doeth judgment, and seeketh the truth. When I had satiated them, they committed whoredom and came into the harlot’s house in a crowd (Jer. 5:1, 7).
I have seen thy adulteries, thy neighings, the crime of thy whoredoms, thy abominations on the hills in the field. Woe unto thee, O Jerusalem, wilt thou not be made clean? (Jer. 13:27).
I have seen also in the prophets of Jerusalem a horrible stubbornness, in committing adultery and walking in lies (Jer. 23:14).
They have committed foolishness in Israel, they committed whoredom and spoke My word in My name with lying (Jer. 29:23).
They sinned against Me, I will turn their glory into reproach; they committed whoredom, because they have forsaken Jehovah. Whoredom occupied their heart. Your daughters commit whoredom, and your daughters-in-law commit adultery (Hos. 4:7, 10-11, 13).
I know, Ephraim, that he hath altogether committed whoredom, and Israel is polluted (Hos. 5:3).
I have seen a foul thing in the house of Israel; there Ephraim committeth whoredom; Israel is polluted (Hos. 6:10).
“Israel” here is the church, and “Ephraim” is the understanding of the Word, from which, and according to which, the church is; therefore it is said “Ephraim hath committed whoredom, and Israel is polluted.”
sRef Nahum@3 @3 S6′ sRef Nahum@3 @4 S6′ sRef Hos@3 @1 S6′ sRef Nahum@3 @1 S6′ sRef Hos@1 @2 S6′ [6] Because the church had falsified the Word, the prophet Hosea was commanded to take unto himself a harlot to wife, saying:
Take unto thee a woman of whoredoms, and children of whoredoms; for the land, by committing whoredom, hath committed whoredom against Jehovah (Hos. 1:2).
Again:
Love a woman beloved of her companion, and an adulteress (Hos. 3:1).
As the Jewish church was such, therefore the Jewish nation was called by the Lord “an adulterous generation” (Matt. 12:39; 16:4; Mark 8:38); and in Isaiah, “a seed of adulterers” (57:3); and in Nahum:
Woe to the city of bloods, wholly in a lie, a multitude of those pierced, above the multitude of the whoredoms of the harlot, that selleth nations by her whoredoms (Nahum 3:1, 3-4).
sRef Rev@18 @3 S7′ sRef Rev@19 @2 S7′ sRef Rev@14 @8 S7′ sRef Rev@17 @1 S7′ sRef Rev@17 @2 S7′ [7] Since “Babylon” adulterates and falsifies the Word more than others in the Christian world, she is therefore called “the great harlot,” and the following is said of her in Revelation:
Babylon hath made all nations to drink of the wine of the anger of her whoredom (Rev. 14:8).
For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her whoredom, and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her (Rev. 18:3).
The angel said, I will show unto thee the judgment of the great harlot, with whom the kings of the earth have committed whoredom (Rev. 17:1-2).
He hath judged the great harlot, which did corrupt the earth with her whoredom (Rev. 19:2).
From these passages it manifestly appears, that “to commit adultery” and “to commit whoredom” signify to adulterate and falsify the goods and truths of the Word.
* The original Latin has “seventy” instead of “forty.”
** The original Latin has “their” for “your.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 135 sRef Rev@2 @20 S0′ 135. And to eat idol-sacrifices, signifies the defilement of worship thence, and profanations, as is clear from the explanation given above (n. 114); for they who adulterate goods appropriate to themselves unclean things, by which they defile and profane worship.

AR (Whitehead) n. 136 sRef Matt@22 @40 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @21 S0′ 136. Verse 21. And I gave her time to repent of her whoredom, and she repented not, signifies that they who have confirmed themselves in that doctrine, will not recede, although they see things contrary to it in the Word. By receding from whoredom, is here signified to recede from falsifying the Word. That they see things contrary to their doctrine, is evident from a thousand passages in the Word, where it is said that evils are to be shunned, and that goods are to be done; also that they who do goods come into heaven, and they who do evils into hell, as also that faith without works is dead and diabolical. But it may be asked, what part of the Word have they falsified, or where have they spiritually committed whoredom with the Word? It may be answered, that they have falsified the whole Word; for the whole Word is nothing else but the doctrine of love to the Lord, and of love towards the neighbor, for the Lord says, that on the commandments concerning those two loves hang all the law and the prophets (Matt. 22:40). There is also in the Word the doctrine of faith, yet not of such faith, but of the faith of love.

AR (Whitehead) n. 137 sRef John@5 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ sRef John@5 @10 S0′ sRef John@5 @9 S0′ sRef John@5 @11 S0′ sRef John@5 @8 S0′ 137. Verse 22. Behold I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great affliction, signifies that thus they will be left in their doctrine with the falsifications, and that they will be grievously infested by falsities. That by “bed” is signified doctrine, will be seen presently; that by “committing adultery” falsifications of truth are signified, may be seen above (n. 134, 136); and that by “affliction” is signified infestation from falsities (n. 33, 95, 101); and hence by “great affliction” is signified grievous infestation. That “a bed” signifies doctrine is from correspondence, for as the body rests in its bed, so does the mind rest in its doctrine. But by “bed” is signified the doctrine which everyone acquires to himself either from the Word, or from his own intelligence, for therein the mind rests and, as it were, sleeps. The beds in which they lie in the spiritual world, are from no other origin; for there everyone’s bed is according to the quality of his science and intelligence, magnificent for the wise, mean for the unwise, and filthy for falsifiers.
sRef Luke@17 @34 S2′ sRef Mark@2 @5 S2′ sRef Mark@2 @12 S2′ sRef Mark@2 @11 S2′ sRef Mark@2 @9 S2′ [2] This is signified by “a bed” in Luke:
I say unto you, in that night there shall be two in one bed; the one shall be taken and the other left (Luke 17:34).
This is concerning the Last Judgment; “two in one bed” means two in one doctrine, but not in similar life. In John:
Jesus saith unto the sick man, Rise, take up thy bed, and walk; and he took up his bed, and walked (John 5:8-9);
and in Mark:
Jesus said unto the palsied, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee; and He said unto the Scribes, Whether is it easier to say, thy sins be forgiven thee, or to say, take up thy bed, and walk? then He said, Arise, take up thy bed, and walk; and he took up the bed, and went forth from them (Mark 2:5, 9, 11-12).
That here something is signified by “bed” is evident, because Jesus said, “Whether is it easier to say, thy sins be forgiven thee, or to say, take up thy bed and walk?” By “carrying his bed and walking” is signified to meditate in doctrine; it is so understood in heaven.
sRef Amos@3 @12 S3′ sRef Gen@47 @31 S3′ sRef Gen@49 @33 S3′ sRef Gen@48 @2 S3′ [3] Doctrine is also signified by “bed” in Amos:
As the shepherd rescueth from the mouth of the lion, so shall the sons of Israel be rescued that dwell in Samaria, in the corner of a bed, and in the extremity of a couch (Amos 3:12).
“In the corner of a bed” and “in the extremity of a couch” means what is more remote from the truths and goods of doctrine. “Bed” and “couch” and “bed chamber” have a similar signification in other places (as in Isa. 28:20; 57:2, 7-8; Ezek. 23:41; Amos 6:4; Micah 2:1; Ps. 4:4; Ps. 36:4; Ps. 41:3; Job 7:13; Lev. 15:4-5). Since by “Jacob” in the Propheticals of the Word is signified the church as to doctrine, therefore it is said of him, that:
He bowed himself upon the head of the bed (Gen. 47:31).
That when Joseph came, he sat upon the bed (Gen. 48:2).
That he gathered up his feet upon the bed, and expired (Gen. 49:33).
The doctrine of the church is signified by “Jacob” therefore sometimes when I have thought of Jacob, there has appeared to me above, in front, a man lying in a bed.

AR (Whitehead) n. 138 sRef Rev@2 @22 S0′ 138. Except they repent of their works, signifies if they will not desist from separating faith from charity, and from falsifying the Word, as may appear without further explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 139 sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ 139. Verse 23. And I will kill her sons with death, signifies that all the truths of the Word with them will be turned into falsities. By “sons” in the Word, are signified truths, and in the opposite sense, falsities; therefore “to kill sons” signifies to turn truths into falsities, for thus they perish; neither is anything else meant by “the slain and pierced of Jehovah;” by “killing her sons with death” is also signified to condemn their falsities. That “sons” signify truths, and in the opposite sense falsities is because in the spiritual sense of the Word by generations, are meant spiritual generations, and in like manner by consanguinities and affinities; thus by their names, as by father, mother, sons, daughters, brethren, sisters, sons-in-law, daughters-in-law, and the rest; neither does spiritual generation give birth to any other sons and daughters, than truths and goods. See (n. 542, 543), below.

AR (Whitehead) n. 140 sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ sRef Ps@7 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@26 @2 S0′ 140. And all the churches shall know that I am He which searcheth the reins and hearts, signifies that the church shall know that the Lord sees the quality of everyone’s truth and the quality of everyone’s good. By “the seven churches” is signified the whole church, as before; and by “searching the reins and hearts,” is signified to see all the things which a man believes and loves, thus the quality of his truth and of his good. That this is the signification of “searching the reins and hearts,” is from correspondence, for the Word in its literal sense consists of mere correspondences. The correspondence is from this, that as the reins purify the blood from the impurities which are called urinous, and the heart purifies the blood from the unclean things which are called foul, so the truth of faith purifies man from falsities, and the good of love from evils.
sRef Ps@139 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@139 @15 S2′ sRef Ps@51 @6 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @3 S2′ sRef Jer@11 @20 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@73 @21 S2′ sRef Ps@73 @22 S2′ sRef Jer@17 @10 S2′ [2] Thence it is that the ancients placed love and its affections in the heart, and intelligence and its perceptions in the reins; as may appear from these passages in the Word:
Behold, thou desirest truth in the reins, and in the hidden part thou makest wisdom known to me (Ps. 51:6).
Thou possessest my reins, my bone was not hid from thee when I was made in secret (Ps. 139:13, 15).
My heart was grieved, and I was pricked in my reins, but I am stupid, I do not know (Ps. 73:21-22).
I Jehovah search the heart, and try the reins, even to give everyone according to his ways (Jer. 17:10).
Thou art near in their mouth, and far from their reins; Thou, O Jehovah, wilt see me, and try my heart (Jer. 12:2-3).
Jehovah is a judge of justice, trying the reins and the heart (Jer. 11:20; 20:12).
Confirm the just, for it is the just God who trieth the hearts and reins (Ps. 7:9).
Prove me, O Jehovah, and try me, explore my reins and my heart (Ps. 26:2).
By “reins” in these places are signified truths of intelligence and faith, and by “heart,” the good of love and charity. That “heart” signifies the love and its affections, may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 371-393).

AR (Whitehead) n. 141 sRef Rev@2 @23 S0′ 141. And I will give unto everyone according to his works, signifies that He gives unto everyone according to the charity and its faith which are in his works. That “works” are the containers of charity and faith, and that charity and faith without works are only like airy images, which vanish as soon as they have appeared, may be seen above (n. 76).

AR (Whitehead) n. 142 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 142. Verse 24. But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine, signifies both to those with whom the doctrine of faith is separated from charity, and to those with whom the doctrine of faith is joined with charity, is evident from what is said above, without further explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 143 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 143. And who have not known the depths of Satan, as they speak, signifies they who do not understand their interiors, which are mere falsities. That by “Satan” is meant the hell of those who are in falsities, and abstractly, falsities, may be seen above (n. 97); therefore by its “depths” are signified the interiors of the doctrine separated from charity, which are mere falsities. The depths and interiors of that doctrine are what are delivered in their books and lectures in the universities, and thence in their preachings, the nature of which is pointed out in what is prefixed to the first chapter, where their doctrines are quoted; and particularly in what is there adduced concerning Justification by Faith and concerning Good Works; where it may be seen stated that the clergy alone know the arcana of that doctrine, but not the laity, therefore the latter principally are meant by those “who have not known the depths of Satan.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 144 sRef Rev@2 @24 S0′ 144. I will put upon you none other burden, signifies, only that they should beware of them. The reason is, because they confirm their falsities by reasonings from the natural man, and by some things from the Word which they falsify, for by these they can seduce. They are like serpents in the grass which bite those that pass by; or like concealed poisons which kill the unwary.

AR (Whitehead) n. 145 sRef Rev@2 @25 S0′ 145. Verse 25. Nevertheless, that which ye have, hold fast till I come, signifies that they should retain the few things which they know from charity and faith, thence from the Word, and live according to them, until the New Heaven and the New Church are formed, which are the Lord’s coming. For these and no others receive the things which the doctrine of the New Jerusalem teaches concerning the Lord and charity.

AR (Whitehead) n. 146 sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 146. Verse 26. And he that overcometh and keepeth My works unto the end, signifies those who fight against evils and falsities and are reformed, and are actually in charity, and thence faith, and remain in them to the end of life. That “to overcome” is to fight against evils and falsities, may be seen above (n. 88); and that “works” are charity and thence faith in act (n. 76, 141); that “to keep them unto the end,” is to be in them, and remain in them to the end of life, is evident.

AR (Whitehead) n. 147 sRef Rev@2 @26 S0′ 147. To him will I give power over the nations, signifies that they shall overcome evils in themselves which are from hell. That by “nations” in the Word are meant those who are in good, and in the opposite sense, those who are in evil, thus, abstractly, goods and evils, may be seen below (n. 483); therefore here by “giving power over the nations,” is signified to give them to overcome the evils from hell in themselves.

AR (Whitehead) n. 148 sRef Rev@19 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@12 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ sRef Isa@11 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@2 @9 S0′ 148. Verse 27. And He shall rule them with a rod of iron, signifies by truths from the literal sense of the Word, and at the same time by rational things from natural light. These things are signified by “a rod or staff of iron” because “a rod or staff” in the Word signifies power, and “iron” signifies natural truth, consequently the natural sense of the Word, and at the same time the natural light of man; in these two consists the power of truth. That Divine truth in the natural sense of the Word, which is the sense of its letter is in its power, may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 37-49); from this cause the literal sense is the basis, container, and support of its spiritual sense (n. 27-36). And that all power is in the ultimates which are called things natural, may be seen in Angelic Wisdom concerning Divine Love and Wisdom (n. 205-221); consequently in the natural sense of the letter of the Word, and in the natural light of man. These, therefore, are “the rod of iron” by which He shall “rule the nations” that is, overcome the evils which are from hell. The like is signified by a “rod of iron” in these passages:
Thou shalt break the nations in pieces with a rod of iron, thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel (Ps. 2:9).
The woman brought forth a male who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron (Rev. 12:5).
Out of the mouth of Him that sat upon the white horse went a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations; but He shall rule them with a rod of iron (Rev. 19:15).
Jehovah shall smite the wicked with the rod of His mouth (Isa. 11:4).

AR (Whitehead) n. 149 sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ sRef Ps@2 @9 S0′ 149. As the vessels of a potter shall they be broken in pieces, signifies, as of little or no account. It is said “the vessels of a potter” because by them are signified the things which are of one’s own intelligence, which are all falsities, and in themselves of no account; so in David:
Thou shall break the nations in pieces with a rod of iron, Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel (Ps. 2:9).

AR (Whitehead) n. 150 sRef Rev@2 @27 S0′ 150. Even as I have received from My Father, signifies that they have this from the Lord, who, when He was in the world procured to Himself all power over the hells, from His Divine which was in Himself. That the Lord, when He was in the world, by admitting temptations into Himself, and finally by the last of them, which was the passion of the cross, subjugated the hells and glorified His Human, may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 29-36); as also above (n. 67); from which it may appear, that “to receive from His Father” is to receive from the Divine which was in Him, for He said that “the Father is in Him and He in the Father”; that “the Father and He are one”; as also “the Father who is in Me”; and more.

AR (Whitehead) n. 151 sRef Rev@2 @28 S0′ sRef Rev@2 @25 S1′ 151. Verse 28. And I will give him the morning star, signifies intelligence and wisdom then. That by “stars” are signified the knowledges of good and truth, may be seen above (n. 51); and because by them is intelligence and wisdom, therefore these are signified by “the morning star.” It is called “the morning star” because intelligence and wisdom will be given them by the Lord, when He shall come to establish the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem; for He says:
That which ye have, hold fast till I come (Rev. 2:25).
By which is signified, that they must retain the few truths which they know concerning charity and its faith from the Word, and live according to them, even until the New Heaven and the New Church are formed, which is the Coming of the Lord (n. 145).
sRef Isa@21 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@7 @7 S2′ sRef Ezek@7 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@21 @12 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @7 S2′ sRef Dan@8 @26 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @8 S2′ sRef Dan@8 @14 S2′ sRef Zeph@3 @5 S2′ sRef Ezek@7 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @5 S2′ [2] It is called “the morning star” because by “morning” is signified the Coming of the Lord, when there is a New Church. That this is meant by “morning” in the Word, appears from the following passages:
Until the evening and morning two thousand three hundred; then shall the sanctuary be justified; the vision of the evening and morning is truth (Dan. 8:14, 26).
He calleth to me out of Seir, Watchman, watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night (Isa. 21:11-12).
By “the evening” and “the night” is signified the last time of the old church, and by “the morning” the first time of the New Church.
The end is come, the morning is come upon thee, O thou inhabitant of the earth; behold the day it is come, the morning hath gone forth (Ezek. 7:6-7, 10).
Jehovah in the morning, in the morning He will give His judgment in light, He faileth not (Zeph. 3:5).
God is in the midst of her, God shall help her when the morning appeareth (Ps. 46:5).
I have waited for Jehovah; my soul doth wait for the Lord more than they that watch for the morning, that watch for the morning; for with Him is plenteous redemption, and He shall redeem Israel (Ps. 130:5-8; and in other places).
sRef 2Sam@23 @4 S3′ sRef 2Sam@23 @3 S3′ sRef Rev@22 @16 S3′ [3] By “morning” in these passages is meant the Lord’s Coming, when He came into the world and established a New Church; in like manner now. And because the Lord alone gives those who will be of His New Church intelligence and wisdom; and all things which the Lord gives are Himself because they are of Himself, therefore the Lord says that He Himself is “the morning star”:
I am the root and offspring of David, the bright and morning star (Rev. 22:16).
He is called also “the morning” in 2 Samuel:
The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me, He is as the light of the morning, a morning without clouds (2 Sam. 23:3-4).

AR (Whitehead) n. 152 sRef Rev@2 @29 S0′ 152. Verse 29. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands these things, ought to obey what the Divine truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, as above (n. 87).

AR (Whitehead) n. 153 153. To the above I will add something Memorable, concerning the lot of those after death, who have confirmed themselves in faith alone even to justification, both in doctrine and life.
1. When they are dead and revive as to the spirit, which generally takes place on the third day after the heart has ceased to beat, they appear to themselves in a body like that which they had before in the world, even so that they know no otherwise than that they are living in the former world; yet they are not in a material body, but in a spiritual body, which appears before their senses, which are also spiritual, as if it was material, although it is not.
2. After some days they see that they are in a world where there are various societies instituted, which world is called the world of spirits, and is intermediate between heaven and hell. All the societies there, which are innumerable, are wonderfully arranged according to natural affections, good and evil. The societies arranged according to good natural affections communicate with heaven, and the societies arranged according to evil affections communicate with hell.
3. The novitiate spirit, or the spiritual man, is conducted and introduced to various societies, both good and evil, and is explored whether he is affected by truths, and how; and whether he is affected by falsities, and how.
4. If he is affected by truths, he is withdrawn from evil societies, and introduced into good societies, and also into various ones, until he comes into a society corresponding with his Own natural affection, and there he enjoys the good which agrees with that affection; and this until he has put off his natural affection and has put on a spiritual affection, and then he is elevated into heaven. But this takes place with those who in the world have lived a life of charity, and thus also a life of faith, which consists in believing in the Lord, and shunning evils as sins.
5. But they who have confirmed themselves in doctrine and life even to justification by faith alone, by reason of their not being affected by truths, but by falsities, and because they have rejected the goods of charity, which are good works, from the means of salvation, are withdrawn from good societies, and introduced into evil societies, and also into various ones, until they come into the society corresponding to the concupiscences of their love; for he who loves falsities cannot but love evils.
6. But because in the world they had feigned good affections in externals, although in their internals there was nothing but evil affections or concupiscences, they are at first kept by turns in externals; and they who in the world presided over companies of men, are here and there set over societies in the world of spirits, in general or in part according to the extent of the offices they had exercised: but because they neither love truth nor justice, nor are capable of being enlightened so as to know what truth and justice are, therefore after some days they are dismissed. I have seen such transferred from one society to another, and some administration given them in each, but after a short time as often are dismissed.
7. After frequent dismissals, some out of weariness will not, and others from the fear of losing reputation dare not, seek for offices anymore, therefore they withdraw, and sit sad, and then they are led away into a desert, where there are cottages, into which they enter, and work of some kind is given them to do, and as they do it, they receive food, and if they do not do it, they are hungry and receive none, wherefore necessity compels. Food there is similar to the food in our world, but it is from a spiritual origin, and is given from heaven by the Lord to all according to the uses they perform; to the idle, nothing is given, because they are useless.
8. After some time they loathe work, and then they go out of the cottages; and if they have been priests, they desire to build; and there appear then immediately heaps of hewn stones, bricks, rafters, and boards, also heaps of reeds and bulrushes, clay, lime, and bitumen, which when they see, the lust of building is kindled, and they begin to construct a house, taking now a stone, and then wood, now a reed, and then clay, and placing them one upon another without order; but in their own sight in order. But what they build by day falls down by night; and the next day they collect from the rubbish, and build again, and this they continue to do, until they are tired of building. This is done, because they have collected together falsities to confirm salvation by faith alone, and such falsities do not build up the church in any other manner.
9. Afterwards from weariness they go away, and sit solitary and idle; and as the idle have no food given them from heaven, as was before observed, they begin to hunger, and they think of nothing else than how they may get food and satisfy their hunger. When they are in this state, there come to them some of whom they ask alms; and they say, Why do ye thus sit idle? come with us to our houses, and we will give you work to do, and we will feed you. And then they rise up gladly, and go with them to their houses, and there each has his work given him, and food for his work. But because all who have confirmed themselves in falsities of faith are unable to do works of good use, but only works of evil use, neither do they do these faithfully, but only so as to appear for the sake of honor or gain; therefore they leave their works, and only love to converse, talk, walk about, and sleep. And then, because they cannot any longer be induced by their masters to work, they are cast out as useless.
10. When they are cast out, their eyes are opened, and they see a way leading to a certain cavern. When they are come thither, the door is opened, and they enter, and inquire whether there is any food there; and when they receive for answer that there is, they ask leave to remain, and are told that they may, and are introduced and the door shut after them. And then the overseer of that cavern comes and says to them, Ye cannot go out hence any more; behold your companions, they all labor, and as they labor food is given them from heaven. I tell you this that ye may know. And their companions also say, Our overseer knows what work each one is fitted for, and assigns it to each one daily; on the day you finish it, food is given you, but if you do not, neither food nor clothing is given; and if anyone does evil to another, he is cast into a corner of the cavern, upon a certain bed of accursed dust, where he is miserably tormented, until such time as the overseer sees signs of repentance in him, and then he is released, and commanded to do his work. He is told also, that everyone after his task is done is permitted to walk about, to converse, and afterwards to sleep. And he is led into an interior part of the cavern, where there are harlots, from among whom each is permitted to take one for his woman, and promiscuous whoredom is forbidden under punishment. Of such caverns, which are nothing but eternal workhouses, the entire hell consists. It has been granted to me to enter into and have a view of some of them, to the end that I might make it known, and they all were seen to be vile, neither did anyone of them know who, or in what office he had been in the world. But the angel who was with me, told me, that this one had been a servant in the world, this a soldier, this a governor, this a priest, this one in dignity, and that in opulence, and yet that none of them knew otherwise than that they had always been servants and had similar companions, for this reason, because they were all interiorly alike, although they had been unlike exteriorly, and interiors consociate all in the spiritual world. Such is the lot of those who have removed the life of charity, and who thence have not lived that life in the world.
11. With respect to the hells in general, they consist merely of such caverns and workhouses, but those inhabited by satans are different from those inhabited by devils. Satans are they who have been in falsities and thence in evils, and devils are they who have been in evils and thence in falsities. Satans appear in the light of heaven like corpses, and some of them black like mummies; and devils appear in the light of heaven of a dark and fiery color, and some of them black like soot; but they are all as to their faces and bodies, monstrous; yet in their own light, which is like the light of a coal fire, they appear not as monsters, but men: this is granted them that they may be consociated.

AR (Whitehead) n. 154 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 154. Revelation 3

1. And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write: these things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars: I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest and art dead.
2. Be watchful and strengthen the remaining things which are about to die: for I have not found thy works full before God.
3. Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard; and observe, and repent. If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come upon thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know in what hour I will come upon thee.
4. Thou hast a few names even in Sardis, which have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white; because they are worthy.
5. He that overcometh shall be clothed in white garments; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life; and I will confess his name before My Father, and before His angels.
6. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.
7. And unto the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: these things saith He that is holy, He that is true, He that hath the key of David, He that openeth and no one shutteth, and shutteth and no one openeth.
8. I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door and no one is able to shut it: because thou hast a little power, and hast kept My Word, and hast not denied My name.
9. Behold, I will give from the synagogue of Satan, those who say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and adore at thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.
10. Because thou hast kept the word of My endurance, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.
11. Behold, I come quickly; hold fast that thou hast, that no one take thy crown.
12. Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of My God, and he shall go no more out; and I will write upon him the name of My God; and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from My God; and My new name.
13. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.
14. And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write: these things saith the Amen, the faithful and true Witness, the beginning of the work of God.
15. I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot. I would thou wert cold or hot.
16. Therefore because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will vomit thee out of My mouth.
17. Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased in goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked.
18. I counsel thee to buy of Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white garments that thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear; and anoint thine eyes with eye salve that thou mayest see.
19. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten; be zealous, therefore, and repent.
20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock: If anyone hear My voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with Me.
21. To him that overcometh will I give to sit with Me on My throne, as I overcame, and sit with the Father on His throne.
22. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

The contents of the whole chapter

This chapter treats of those in the Christian world who are in dead worship, which is without charity and faith; who are described by the church in Sardis (n. 154-171). Those who are in truths from good from the Lord; who are described by the church in Philadelphia (n. 172-197). Those who alternately believe from themselves, and from the Word, and thus profane holy things; who are described by the church in Laodicea (n. 198-223). All of these likewise are called to the New Church of the Lord.

The contents of each verse

Verse 1. “And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write,” signifies to those and concerning those, who are in dead worship, or in worship which is without the goods of charity, and without the truths of faith (n. 154). “These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars,” signifies the Lord, from whom are all truths, and all the knowledges of good and truth (n. 155). “I know thy works,” signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once (n. 156). “That thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead,” signifies that it may be seen and believed by themselves and by others, that they are spiritually alive, when yet they are spiritually dead (n. 157). Verse 2. “Be watchful,” signifies to be in truths and in a life according to them (n. 158). “And strengthen the remaining things which are about to die,” signifies that the things which pertain to their worship may receive life (n. 159). “For I have not found thy works full before God,” signifies that the interiors of their worship are not conjoined with the Lord (n. 160). Verse 3. “Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard,” signifies that they should consider that all worship in the beginning is natural, and afterwards by truths becomes spiritual, besides many other things (n. 161). “And observe and repent,” signifies that they should attend to these things, and give life to their dead worship (n. 162). “If therefore thou shalt not watch,” signifies here the same as above (n. 163). “I will come upon thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know in what hour I will come upon thee,” signifies that the things which are of worship shall be taken from them, and that they shall not know when and how this is done (n. 164). Verse 4. “Thou hast a few names even in Sardis,” signifies that among them there are also some who have life in their worship (n. 165). “Which have not defiled their garments,” signifies who are in truths, and have not defiled worship by evils of life and falsities thence derived (n. 166). “And they shall walk with Me in white,”* signifies that they shall live with the Lord, because they are in truths from Him (n. 167). Verse 5. “He that overcometh shall be clothed in white garments,” signifies that he who is reformed becomes spiritual (n. 168). “And I will not blot out his name out of the book of life,” signifies that he shall be saved (n. 169). “And I will confess his name before My Father, and before His angels,” signifies that they will be received who are in Divine truths from the Lord (n. 170). Verse 6. “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies here, as before (n. 171).
Verse 7. “And unto the angel of the church in Philadelphia write,” signifies to those and concerning those, who are in truths from good from the Lord (n. 172). “These things saith He that is holy, He that is true,” signifies the Lord as to the Divine truth (n. 173). “He that hath the key of David, He that openeth and no one shutteth, and shutteth and no one openeth,” signifies who alone has omnipotence to save (n. 174). Verse 8. “I know thy works,” signifies here, as above (n. 175). “Behold, I have set before thee an open door,” signifies that heaven is open to those who are in truths from good from the Lord (n. 176). “And no one is able to shut it,” signifies that hell cannot prevail against them (n. 177). “Because thou hast a little power,” signifies because they know that they can do nothing from themselves (n. 178). “And hast kept My Word,” signifies because they live according to the Lord’s commandments in His Word (n. 179). “And hast not denied My name,” signifies that they are in the worship of the Lord (n. 180). Verse 9. “And I will give from the synagogue of Satan,” signifies those who are in falsities as to doctrine (n. 181). “Who say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie,” signifies who say that the church is with them, and yet it is not (n. 182). “Behold I will make them to come and adore at thy feet,” signifies that many who are in falsities as to doctrine, will receive the truths of the New Church (n. 183). “And to know that I have loved thee,” signifies that they shall see that they are loved and received into heaven by the Lord (n. 184). Verse 10. “Because thou hast kept the Word of My endurance,” signifies because they have fought against evils (n. 185). “I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth,” signifies that they will be protected and preserved in the day of the Last Judgment (n. 186). Verse 11. “Behold I come quickly,” signifies the Lord’s coming (n. 187). “Hold fast that thou hast,” signifies that in the meantime they should remain in their truths and goods (n. 188). “That no one take thy crown,” signifies lest wisdom should perish, from which is eternal felicity (n. 189). Verse 12. “Him that overcometh,” signifies they who persist in truths from good (n. 190). “Will I make a pillar in the temple of My God,” signifies that truths from good from the Lord, with those in whom they abide, sustain the church (n. 191). “And he shall go no more out,” signifies that they shall remain there to eternity (n. 192). “And I will write upon him the name of My God,” signifies that Divine truth shall be inscribed on their hearts (n. 193). “And the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem,” signifies that the doctrine of the New Church shall be inscribed on their hearts (n. 194). “Which cometh down out of heaven from My God,” signifies which will be from the Divine truth of the Lord such as it is in heaven (n. 195). “And My new name,” signifies the worship of the Lord alone, with new things which were not in the former church (n. 196). Verse 13. “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies here, as before (n. 197).
Verse 14. “And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write,” signifies to those and concerning those, in the church, who alternately believe from themselves, and from the Word, and thus profane things holy (n. 198). “These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true Witness,” signifies the Lord as to the Word, which is the Divine truth from Him (n. 199). “The beginning of the work of God,” signifies the Word (n. 200). Verse 15. “I know thy works,” signifies here, as before (n. 201). “That thou art neither cold nor hot,” signifies that they who are such, sometimes deny that the Word is Divine and holy, and at other times acknowledge it (n. 202). “I would thou wert cold or hot,” signifies that it is better for them either from the heart to deny the holy things of the Word and of the church, or from the heart to acknowledge them (n. 203). Verse 16. “Therefore because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will vomit thee out of My mouth,” signifies profanation and separation from the Lord (n. 204). Verse 17. “Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased in goods,” signifies that they believe they possess in all abundance the knowledges of good and truth, which are of heaven and the church (n. 206). “And have need of nothing,” signifies that they have no need of more wisdom (n. 207). “And knowest not that thou art wretched,” signifies that all things which they know concerning them do not at all cohere (n. 208). “And miserable and poor,” signifies that they are without the understanding of truth, and without the will of good (n. 209).** Verse 18. “I counsel thee to buy of Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich,” signifies an admonition to acquire to themselves the good of love from the Lord by means of the Word, that they may become wise (n. 211). “And white garments that thou mayest be clothed,” signifies that they should acquire to themselves the genuine truths of wisdom (n. 212). “And that the shame of thy nakedness may not appear,” signifies lest the good of celestial love should be profaned and adulterated (n. 213). “And anoint thine eyes with eye salve, that thou mayest see,” signifies that their understanding may be healed (n. 214).
Verse 19. “As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten,” signifies that because they are now beloved, they cannot but be admitted into temptations (n. 215). “Be zealous, therefore, and repent,” signifies that this should be done from the affection of truth (n. 216). Verse 20. “Behold I stand at the door, and knock,” signifies that the Lord is present to everyone in the Word, and is there pressing to be received, and He teaches how (n. 217). “If anyone hear My voice, and open the door,” signifies he who believes in the Word and lives according to it (n. 218). “I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with Me,” signifies that the Lord conjoins Himself with them and they with Him (n. 219).
Verse 21. “To him that overcometh,” signifies such as are in conjunction with the Lord by a life according to His precepts in the Word (n. 220). “Will I give to sit with Me in My throne,” signifies that they will have conjunction with the Lord in heaven (n. 221). “As I overcame, and sit with the Father in His throne,” signifies as He and the Father are one and are heaven (n. 222). Verse 22. “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches,” signifies here, as before (n. 223).
* The original Latin omits “for they are worthy.”
** The original Latin omits, “and blind and naked.”

THE EXPLANATION

Verse 1. And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write, signifies to those and concerning those, who are in dead worship, or in worship which is without the goods of charity and without the truths of faith. That they who are in such worship are meant by “the church in Sardis,” is evident from what is written to it when understood in the spiritual sense. By dead worship is meant worship alone, which is to frequent temples, to hear preachings, to go to the Holy Supper, to read the Word and books of piety, to talk about God, of heaven and hell, of the life after death, especially of piety, to pray morning and evening, and yet they do not desire to know the truths of faith, nor do they will to do the goods of charity, believing that they have salvation by means of worship alone; when yet worship without truths, and without a life according to them, is only the external sign of charity and faith, within which there may lie concealed all kinds of evils and falsities, if charity and faith are not in them; for of these genuine worship consists; or else the worship is like the skin or surface of any kind of fruit, in which there lies concealed putrid and worm-eaten pulp, which fruit is dead. That such worship reigns in the church at this day, is known.

AR (Whitehead) n. 155 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 155. These things saith He that hath the seven spirits of God, and the seven stars, signifies the Lord, from whom are all truths, and all the knowledges of good and truth. That by “the seven spirits of God” is meant the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, or the Divine verity, may be seen above (n. 14); and that by “the seven stars” are meant all the knowledges of good and truth from the Word (n. 51), from which is the church in heaven (n. 65). These things are now said by the Lord, because the subject treated of is concerning dead worship and concerning living worship, and worship lives from truths, and from a life according to them.

AR (Whitehead) n. 156 sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 156. I know thy works, signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, as above (n. 76).

AR (Whitehead) n. 157 sRef Luke@13 @26 S0′ sRef Luke@13 @27 S0′ sRef Luke@13 @25 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @1 S0′ 157. That thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead, signifies that it may be seen and believed by themselves and by others, that they are spiritually alive, when yet they are spiritually dead. By “having a name,” is signified to seem and to be believed to be such; here that they are alive, when yet they are dead; for spiritual life, which is properly life, does not consist in worship alone, but is inwardly in worship, and inwardly there ought to be Divine truths from the Word, and when man lives according to them, there is life in the worship; the reason is, because the external derives its quality from internals, and the internals of worship are truths of life. These are they who are meant by these words of the Lord:
Then shall ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, open unto us; but he shall answer and say, I know you not whence you are. And ye shall begin to say, We have eaten before Thee and drank before Thee and Thou hast taught in our streets; but I will say to you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from Me, all ye workers of iniquity (Luke 13:25-27).
[2] I have also been permitted to hear many in the spiritual world say, that they have often gone to the holy communion, and thus have eaten and drunk what is holy, and have as often been absolved from their sins; that every Sabbath day they have hearkened to their teachers; and have devoutly prayed at home morning and evening, besides other things. But when the interiors of their worship were laid open, they appeared full of iniquities and infernal things, therefore they were rejected. And when they asked the reason of it, they had for answer, that they were not at all solicitous about Divine truths. And yet a life not according to Divine truths, is not life such as they have who are in heaven; and they who are not in the life of heaven, cannot bear the light of heaven, which is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord as the sun there; still less can they bear the heat of heaven, which is the Divine love. But although they heard and also understood these things, yet when they were let into themselves and their own worship, they said, “What need is there of truths, and what are truths?” But as they were no longer able to receive truths, they were left to their concupiscences, which were within their worship, and these at length rejected from them all their worship of God. For the interiors accommodate the exteriors to themselves, and reject the things which do not agree with themselves; for with all after death the exteriors are rendered analogous to the interiors.

AR (Whitehead) n. 158 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ sRef Luke@12 @40 S0′ sRef Luke@12 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @42 S0′ sRef Mark@13 @35 S0′ sRef Isa@26 @19 S0′ sRef Mark@13 @36 S0′ sRef Mark@13 @37 S0′ 158. Verse 2. Be watchful, signifies that they should be in truths and in a life according to them. By “watching,” in the Word, nothing else is signified; for he who learns truths and lives according to them, is like one who is awakened out of sleep and becomes watchful. But he who is not in truths, but only in worship, is like one who sleeps and dreams. Natural life, considered in itself, or without spiritual life, is nothing else but sleep; but natural life, in which there is spiritual life, is watchfulness; and this cannot be acquired otherwise than by truths, which are in their own light and in their own day, when man is in the life according to them. Such is signified by “watching” in the following passages:
Watch, for ye know not in what hour the Lord will come (Matt. 24:42).
Happy are those servants whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching: Be ye therefore ready, for the Son of man will come at an hour when ye think not (Luke 12:37, 40).
Watch ye, for ye know not when the lord of the house shall come; lest coming suddenly, he find you sleeping; what I say unto you, I say unto all, Watch (Mark 13:35-37).
While the bridegroom tarried, the virgins slumbered and slept, and the five foolish came and said, Lord, open to us; but the lord shall answer, I know you not; watch therefore, for ye know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man will come (Matt. 25:1-13).
Because the Lord’s coming is called “morning” (n. 151), and then truths are opened, and there is light, therefore that time is called “the beginning of the watches” (Lamentations 2:19); and the Lord is called “a Watcher” (Daniel 4:13); and it is written in Isaiah:
Thy dead shall live; Awake, ye that dwell in the dust (Isa. 26:19).
But that the state of a man who is not in truths is called “slumbering” and “sleeping,” may be seen (Jeremiah 51:39, 57; Psalm 13:3; Psalm 76:6; Luke 8:23; and in other places).

AR (Whitehead) n. 159 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ 159. And strengthen the remaining things which are about to die, signifies, that the things which pertain to their worship may receive life, and not be extinguished. How these things are to be understood shall be stated. Dead worship is altogether similar to living worship in its external form, because they who are in truths do the same things, for they hear preachings, go to the Holy Supper, pray on their knees morning and evening, besides other things which are common and customary in worship; therefore they who are in dead worship, have need of nothing more than to learn truths and live according to them; so that “the remaining things which are ready to die” may be confirmed.

AR (Whitehead) n. 160 sRef Rev@3 @2 S0′ 160. For I have not found thy works full before God, signifies that the interiors of their worship are not conjoined with the Lord. That by “works” are meant the interiors and exteriors, and that by “I know thy works,” is signified that the Lord sees all the interiors and exteriors of man at once, may be seen above (n. 76); which are called “full before God,” when they are conjoined with the Lord. It must be known, that dead worship or worship which is only external, causes the Lord’s presence, but not conjunction; but external worship, in which the interiors live, causes both presence and conjunction. For the conjunction of the Lord is with the things with man which are from the Lord, which are truths from good, and unless these are in worship, the works are not full before God, but are empty. A man is said to be “empty” in the Word, in whom there are nothing but falsities and evils (as in Matthew 12:44, and in other places). Hence a man is said to be “full,” in whom there are truths and goods.

AR (Whitehead) n. 161 sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ 161. Verse 3. Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard, signifies that it should come into the thought that all worship in its beginning is natural, and afterwards by truths out of the Word, and by a life according to them, becomes spiritual, besides many other things. These are the things that are to be understood by these words; as also, that everyone may know from the Word, from the doctrines of the church from the Word, and from preachings, that truths ought to be learned, and that by truths man has faith, charity, and all things of the church.
[2] That this is the case, is abundantly shown in The Arcana Coelestia; published at London; that by truths comes faith (n. 4353, 4977, 7178, 10,367). That by truths comes love towards the neighbor, or charity (n. 4368, 7623, 7624, 8034). That by truths comes love to the Lord (n. 10,143, 10,153, 10,310, 10,578, 10,645). That by truths come intelligence and wisdom (n. 3182, 3190, 3387, 10,064). That by truths regeneration is effected (n. 1555, 1904, 2046, 2189, 9088, 9959, 10,028). That by truths there is power against evils and falsities, and against hell (n. 3091, 4015, 10,488). That by truths there is purification from evils and falsities (n. 2799, 5954, 7044, 7918, 10,229, 10,237). That by truths the church exists (n. 1798, 1799, 3963, 4468, 4672). That by truths heaven exists (n. 6690, 9832, 9931, 10,303). That by truths comes the innocence of wisdom (n. 3183, 3494, 6013). That by truths there is conscience (n. 1077, 2053, 9113). That by truths there is order (n. 3316, 3417, 3470, 4104, 5339, 5343, 6028, 10,303). That by truths is the beauty of angels, and also of men as to the interiors which are of their spirit (n. 553, 3080, 4985, 5199). That by truths man is man (n. 3175, 3387, 8370, 10,298). But all this by truths from good, and not by truths without good, and good is from the Lord (n. 2434, 4070, 4736, 5147). That every good is from the Lord (n. 1614, 2016, 2904, 4151, 5147, 9981).
[3] But who thinks this? Is it not at this day a matter of indifference what truths a man knows, provided he is in worship? And because few search the Word for the purpose of learning truths and living according to them, therefore nothing is known concerning worship, whether it be dead or living, and yet according to the quality of worship man himself is either dead or living. Otherwise of what use would the Word be, and doctrine thence, or what would be the use of sabbaths and preachings, as well as of books of instruction, yea to what purpose would the church and religion be? That all worship in its beginning is natural, and afterwards by truths from the Word, and a life according to them, becomes spiritual, is known; for man is born natural, but is educated in order that he may become civil and moral, and afterwards spiritual, for thus he is born again. These things therefore are signified by “Remember how thou hast received and heard.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 162 sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ 162. And observe and repent, signifies that they should attend to these things and vivify their dead worship. That “to observe” is to attend to those things which are meant by “Remember how thou hast received and heard,” is evident; and that “to repent” is to vivify dead worship, by truths from the Word, and by a life according to them, follows therefrom.

AR (Whitehead) n. 163 sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ 163. If therefore thou shalt not watch, signifies, if they are not in truths and in a life according to them, as is evident from the explanation above (n. 158).

AR (Whitehead) n. 164 sRef Rev@3 @3 S0′ 164. I will come upon thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know in what hour I will come upon thee, signifies that the things which are of worship shall be taken away from them, and that they shall not know when and how. It is said that the Lord “will come like a thief,” because from the man, who is in dead worship, the external good of worship is taken away. For there is something of good in dead worship, because they think of God and of eternal life; but still good without its truths is not good, but meritorious or hypocritical, and evils and falsities take it away like a thief. This is done successively in the world, and after death fully, and also the man not knowing when and how. It is attributed to the Lord that “He will come like a thief,” but, in the spiritual sense, it is meant that hell will take away and steal it. This is similar to its being said in the Word, that God does evil to man, vastates him, avenges, is wrathful, and leads into temptation; when yet hell does them, for it is so said from the appearance before man. That the talent and pound to trade with, is taken away from the man if nothing is gained by it, may be seen in Matt. 25:26-30; Luke 19:24-26. “To trade” and “to gain” signifies to acquire to one’s self truths and goods.
sRef Matt@24 @43 S2′ sRef Obad@1 @5 S2′ sRef Rev@16 @15 S2′ sRef Hos@7 @1 S2′ sRef Matt@6 @19 S2′ sRef Matt@6 @20 S2′ sRef Joel@2 @9 S2′ sRef Matt@24 @42 S2′ [2] Since good and truth are taken away from those who are in dead worship, as if it were done by a thief in the dark, therefore in the Word the same is sometimes likened to a thief, as in the following passages:
Behold, I come as a thief. Happy is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked (Rev. 16:15).
Watch therefore, for ye know not what hour your Lord will come. But know this, that if the householder had known in what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken through (Matt. 24:42-43).
If thieves came to thee, if destroyers by night, how wilt thou be cut off, would they not have stolen till they had enough? (Obad. 5).
They shall run to and fro in the city, they shall run upon the wall, they shall go up upon the houses, they shall enter in through the windows like a thief (Joel 2:9).
They have done a lie, and the thief cometh in, and the troop spreadeth itself without (Hos. 7:1).
Lay not up treasures upon earth, but in heaven, where thieves do not come nor steal (Matt. 6:19-20).
The reason why man must watch, and not know the hour in which the Lord cometh, is, that man may think and act as from himself, thus in freedom according to his reason, and lest any fear intrude; for everyone, if he knew, would be in fear; and what man does from himself in freedom remains to eternity; but what he does from fear, does not remain.

AR (Whitehead) n. 165 sRef Rev@3 @4 S0′ 165. Verse 4. Thou hast a few names even in Sardis, signifies that among them there are also some who have life in their worship. By “a few names” are signified some who are such, as now follows, for “name” signifies the quality of anyone; the reason is that everyone in the spiritual world is named according to his quality (n. 81). The quality of those who are now treated of, is, that they have life in their worship.

AR (Whitehead) n. 166 sRef Rev@3 @4 S0′ sRef Matt@17 @2 S0′ 166. Who have not defiled their garments, signifies, who are in truths, and have not defiled worship by evils of life, and falsities thence derived. By “garments” in the Word are signified truths which clothe good, and in the opposite sense, falsities which clothe evil; for man is either his own good or his own evil, the truths or falsities thence proceeding are his “garments.” All angels and spirits appear clothed according to the truths of their good, or according to the falsities of their evil; on which subject see the work concerning Heaven and Hell, published at London (n. 177-182); from which it is evident, that by “not defiling their garments,” is signified to be in truths, and not to defile worship by evils of life and falsities thence derived.
sRef Ezek@16 @16 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @12 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @17 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @10 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @15 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @14 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@52 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @14 S2′ [2] That in the Word “garments” signify truths, and, in the opposite sense, falsities appears from the following passages:
Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Zion; put on the garments of thy comeliness, O Jerusalem (Isa. 52:1).
O Jerusalem, I have clothed thee with needlework, I have shod thee with badger’s skin, I have girded thee with fine linen, and adorned thee with ornaments; thou art arrayed in gold and silver, and thy garments are fine linen, silk, and needlework, whence thou hast become exceedingly beautiful. But thou hast taken off thy garments, and hast made for thyself high places with divers colors, that thou mightest commit whoredom upon them; thou hast also taken thy garments of needlework, and hast made images of a male, with which thou committedst whoredom (Ezek. 16:10-18).
The Jewish church is here described, that to it were given truths, because it had the Word; but that they falsified them; “to commit whoredom” is to falsify (n. 134).
sRef Matt@22 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @26 S3′ sRef Zeph@1 @8 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @12 S3′ sRef Zech@3 @4 S3′ sRef Zech@3 @5 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @13 S3′ sRef Zech@3 @3 S3′ sRef 2Sam@1 @24 S3′ [3] The king’s daughter is all glorious within, and her clothing is of woven gold; in needlework shall she be brought to the king (Ps. 45:13-14).
“The king’s daughter” is the church as to the affection of truth.
Daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who arrayed you in scarlet double-dyed with delights, and put an ornament of gold upon your garment (2 Sam. 1:24).
This is said of Saul because by him as king the Divine Truth is signified (n. 20).
I will visit upon the princes and upon the king’s sons, and upon all that are clothed in the garments of the stranger (Zeph. 1:8).
The enemies shall put off thy garments from thee, and shall take away thy adornments (Ezek. 23:26).
Joshua was clothed in polluted garments, and stood so before the angel; who said, Remove ye the polluted garments from him, and clothe him with other garments (Zech. 3:3-5).
The king came in, and saw them that were reclining; and he saw a man not clothed with a wedding garment; and he said unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment (Matt. 22:11-12).
“The wedding garment” is the Divine truth from the Word.
sRef Matt@7 @15 S4′ sRef Rev@4 @4 S4′ sRef Rev@6 @11 S4′ sRef Luke@5 @36 S4′ sRef Rev@7 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@7 @14 S4′ sRef Rev@19 @14 S4′ sRef Rev@7 @13 S4′ [4] Beware of false prophets, who come unto you in sheep’s clothing (Matt. 7:15).
No one putteth a piece of a new garment on an old garment; otherwise the new rendeth the old, and the piece from the new agreeth not with the old (Luke 5:36).
Because “a garment” signifies truth, the Lord therefore compares the truths of the former church, which were external and representative of spiritual things, to “a piece of an old garment;” and the truths of the new church, which were internal and spiritual, to “a piece of a new garment.”
Upon the thrones were twenty-four elders sitting, clothed in white garments (Rev. 4:4).
They who were standing before the throne and in the sight of the Lamb, were arrayed in white robes; who washed their robes and made their robes white in the blood of the Lamb (Rev. 7:9, 13, 14).
There were given to everyone of those who were under the altar white robes (Rev. 6:11).
The armies of Him that sat upon the white horse followed Him clothed in fine linen white and clean (Rev. 19:14).
sRef Dan@7 @9 S5′ sRef Luke@9 @29 S5′ sRef Mark@9 @3 S5′ sRef Gen@49 @11 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @13 S5′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @16 S5′ sRef Matt@28 @3 S5′ sRef Isa@63 @2 S5′ sRef Isa@63 @3 S5′ [5] Because “angels” signify Divine Truths, therefore:
The angels seen in the Lord’s sepulcher appeared in garments white and shining (Matt. 28:3; Luke 24:4).
Because the Lord is the Divine good and the Divine truth, and truths are meant by “garments,” therefore when He was transfigured:
His face shone as the sun, and His garments became as the light (Matt. 17:2).
And were white, glistening (Luke 9:29).
And shining white as snow, such as no fuller upon earth could whiten (Mark 9:3).
Concerning the Ancient of Days, who also is the Lord, it is said that:
His garment was white as snow (Dan. 7:9).
And these things are said of the Lord besides:
He hath anointed all thy garments with myrrh, and aloe, and cassia (Ps. 45:8).
He washeth His garment in wine, and His covering in the blood of grapes (Gen. 49:11).
Who is this that cometh from Edom, sprinkled as to His garments from Bozrah? this that is honorable in His apparel; wherefore art Thou red as to Thy garment? Thy garments are as of one that treadeth in the winepress. Victory is sprinkled upon My garments; and I have polluted all My raiment (Isa. 63:1-3).
This is also concerning the Lord. His “garments” here are the truths of the Word.
He that sat upon the white horse, was clothed in a garment dipped in blood, and His name is called the Word of God (Rev. 19:13, 16).
sRef Ps@22 @18 S6′ sRef Matt@21 @8 S6′ sRef Matt@21 @9 S6′ sRef John@19 @24 S6′ sRef John@19 @23 S6′ sRef Matt@21 @7 S6′ [6] From the signification of “garments,” it may be seen why:
The Lord’s disciples laid their garments upon the ass and the colt, when the Lord entered into Jerusalem; and why the people then strewed their garments in the way (Matt. 21:7-9; Mark 11:7-8; Luke 19:35-36).
And what is signified by:
The soldiers divided the Lord’s garments into four parts (John 19:23-24).
And thus what is signified by these words in David:
They divided My garments, and upon my vestment they cast a lot (Ps. 22:18).
sRef Ps@104 @2 S7′ sRef Isa@37 @1 S7′ [7] From the signification of “garments” it is also manifest why they rent their garments, when anyone spoke against the Divine truth of the Word (Isa. 37:1, and elsewhere); also why they washed their garments, that themselves might be purified (Exod. 19:4; Lev. 11:25, 40; 14:8, 9; Num. 19:11 to the end); and why, on account of transgressions against Divine truths, they put off their garments, and put on sackcloth (Isa. 15:3; 22:12; 37:1, 2; Jer. 4:8; 6:26; 48:37; 49:3; Lam. 2:10; Ezek. 27:31; Amos 8:10; Jonah 3:5, 6, 8). He who knows what “garments” signify in general and in particular can know what was signified by the garments of Aaron and his sons, which were the ephod, the robe, the checkered coat, the belt, the breeches, and the miter. Because “light” signifies the Divine truth, and “garment” likewise, therefore it is said in David:
Jehovah covereth Himself with light as with a garment (Ps. 104:2).

AR (Whitehead) n. 167 sRef Rev@3 @4 S0′ sRef Mark@7 @1 S0′ 167. And they shall walk with me, in white,* signifies that they will live with the Lord in His spiritual kingdom, because they are in truths from Him. That this is the meaning of these words is because “to walk,” in the Word signifies to live, and “to walk with God” signifies to live from Him; and because “in white” signifies in truths; for in the Word, “white” is predicated of truths, because it draws its origin from the light of the sun; and “red” is predicated of goods, because it draws its origin from the fire of the sun; and “black” is predicated of falsities, because it draws its origin from the darkness of hell. They who are in truths from the Lord, because they are conjoined with Him are called “worthy,” for all worth in the spiritual world is from conjunction with the Lord. From these things it is evident, that “they shall walk with me in white, for they are worthy” signifies that they shall live with the Lord, because they are in the truths from Him. It is said that they will live with the Lord in the spiritual kingdom, because the whole heaven is divided in two kingdoms, the celestial and the spiritual, and they are in the celestial kingdom who are in the good of love from the Lord, and they are in the spiritual kingdom who are in the truths of wisdom from the Lord; and the latter are said “to walk with the Lord in white;” and they are also clothed in white garments.
sRef Lev@26 @23 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @28 S2′ sRef Isa@38 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @24 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @27 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @24 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @11 S2′ sRef Ps@56 @13 S2′ sRef Lev@26 @12 S2′ sRef Mark@7 @5 S2′ sRef Rev@2 @1 S2′ sRef Micah@4 @5 S2′ sRef John@12 @36 S2′ sRef John@12 @35 S2′ sRef 1Ki@14 @8 S2′ [2] That “to walk” signifies to live, and “to walk with God” signifies to live with Him because from Him, appears from the following passages:
He walked with me in peace and rectitude (Mal. 2:6).
Thou hast delivered my feet from stumbling, to walk before God in the light of the living (Ps. 56:13).
David hath kept My commandments, and hath walked after Me with the whole heart (1 Kings 14:8).
O Jehovah, remember that I have walked before Thee in truth (Isa. 38:3).
If ye will walk contrary to Me, and will not obey My voice, I also will walk contrary to you (Lev. 26:23-24, 27-28).
They would not walk in the ways of Jehovah (Isa. 42:24; Deut. 11:22; 19:9; 26:17).
All peoples walk in the name of their god, and we will walk in the name of Jehovah (Micah 4:5).
Yet a little while is the light with you; walk while ye have the light; believe in the light (John 12:35-36; 8:12).
The scribes asked, Why walk not the disciples according to the tradition of the elders? (Mark 7:5).
“To walk” is also said of Jehovah that “He walks among them,” that is, lives in them and with them.
I will give my habitation in the midst of them,** and will walk in the midst of you, and will be unto you for God (Lev. 26:11-12).
From these passages it is manifest what is meant above by:
These things saith he that walketh in the midst of the seven golden lamp stands (Rev. 2:1).
* The original Latin omits “for they are worthy,” but it is explained in the text below.
** The original Latin has “illorum” (“them”), the Hebrew is “you.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 168 sRef Rev@3 @5 S0′ 168. Verse 5. He that overcometh, shall be clothed in white garments signifies that he who is reformed becomes spiritual. That “he that overcometh” signifies he who is reformed, may be seen above (n. 88); and that “to be clothed in white garments” signifies to become spiritual by means of truth (n. 166, 167). All those become spiritual who are in truths, and in a life according to them.

AR (Whitehead) n. 169 sRef Rev@3 @5 S0′ 169. And I will not blot out his name out of the book of life, signifies that he shall be saved. What the signification of “name” is, has been shown before, and what “the book of life” is, will be explained below. That “not to blot out his name out of the book of life,” is to be saved, is evident to everyone.

AR (Whitehead) n. 170 sRef Rev@3 @5 S0′ 170. And I will confess His name before the Father, and before His angels, signifies that they will be received who are in Divine good and in Divine truths from the Lord, thus who have the life of heaven in themselves. That “to confess the name” is to acknowledge the quality of anyone, or that he is such, is evident from the signification of “name,” as given above (n. 81, 122). By “Father,” is meant Divine good, and by “angels” are meant Divine truths, both from the Lord. In the Word of the evangelist “the Father” is often mentioned by the Lord, by whom is everywhere meant Jehovah, from Whom and in Whom He was, and Who was in Him, and never any Divine separate from Him: this is abundantly proved indeed in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord; and also in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence (n. 262, 263); that the Lord Himself is the Father, may be seen (n. 21, 960). The Lord made mention of the Father, because by “Father” in the spiritual sense is signified good, and by “God the Father” the Divine good of Divine love; the angels never understand anything else by “Father” when it is read in the Word, nor can they understand anything else, because no one in the heavens knows any Father, of whom they are said to be born, and whose sons and heirs they are called, except the Lord; this is meant by the Lord’s words (Matt. 23:9). Hence it is evident that by “confessing His name before the Father,” is signified that they will be received among those who are in Divine good from Him. The reason why by “angels” are meant those who are in Divine truths from the Lord, and, abstractly, Divine truths, is because angels are the recipients of Divine good in the Divine truths which are with them from the Lord.

AR (Whitehead) n. 171 sRef Rev@3 @6 S0′ 171. Verse 6. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands these things, should obey what the Divine truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, as above (n. 87).

AR (Whitehead) n. 172 sRef Rev@3 @7 S0′ 172. Verse 7. And unto the angel of the church in Philadelphia write, signifies to those and concerning those who are in truths from good from the Lord. That these are meant by “the church in Philadelphia” is clear from what is written to it, when understood in the spiritual sense.

AR (Whitehead) n. 173 sRef Rev@3 @7 S0′ 173. These things saith He that is holy, He that is true, signifies the Lord as to the Divine truth. That it is the Lord, is evident; the reason why “He that is holy, He that is true,” is the Lord as to the Divine truth, is because the Lord is called “holy” from His Divine truth, and “just” from His Divine good; hence it is, that His Divine proceeding, which is the Divine truth, is called “the Holy Spirit,” and the Holy Spirit here is “He that is holy, He that is true.”
[2] “Holy” often occurs in the Word, and everywhere relates to truth, and as all truth, which in itself is truth, is from good, and is from the Lord, it is that truth which is called holy; but good from which the truth is, is called just. Hence it is, that the angels who are in the truths of wisdom, and are called spiritual, are said to be “holy,” and the angels who are in the good of love, and are called celestial, are said to be “just;” in like manner men in the church. It is also from this, that the prophets and apostles are called “holy,” for by “the prophets” and “apostles,” are signified the truths of doctrine of the church. For the same reason also the Word is called holy, for the Word is the Divine truth; the law in the ark in the tabernacle was also called the Holy of Holies, and also “the Sanctuary.” In like manner Jerusalem is called holy, for by “Jerusalem” is signified the church, which is in Divine truths. So likewise the altar, the tabernacle, and the garments of Aaron and his sons were called holy after they were anointed with oil, for oil signifies the good of love, and this sanctifies, and everything sanctified has relation to truth.
sRef Isa@45 @11 S3′ sRef John@17 @19 S3′ sRef Isa@47 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@10 @20 S3′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @15 S3′ sRef John@17 @17 S3′ [3] That the Lord alone is holy, because He is the Divine truth itself, is evident from the following passages:
Who shall not glorify Thy name, O Lord, for Thou only art holy (Rev. 15:4).
Thy Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel, the God of the whole earth shall He be called (Isa. 54:5).
Thus saith Jehovah the Redeemer of Israel, His Holy One (Isa. 49:7).
As for our Redeemer, Jehovah of Hosts is His name, the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 47:4).
Thus saith Jehovah your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel (Isa. Isa. 43:14).
In that day they shall lean upon Jehovah the Holy One of Israel in truth (Isa. 10:20).
Besides other places; Isa. 1:4; 5:19; 12:6; 17:7; 29:19; 30:11, 12; 41:16; 45:11, 15; 48:17; 55:5; 60:9; Jer. 50:29; Dan. 4:13, 23; Ps. 78:41. As the Lord is holiness itself, therefore the angel said unto Mary:
The Holy One that shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God (Luke 1:35).
And the Lord said of Himself:
Father, sanctify them in the truth, Thy Word is truth; for their sakes I sanctify Myself; that they also might be sanctified in the truth (John 17:17, 19).
sRef John@14 @26 S4′ sRef Rev@19 @8 S4′ sRef Rev@22 @11 S4′ sRef Luke@1 @75 S4′ sRef John@16 @13 S4′ sRef Rev@15 @3 S4′ sRef John@16 @15 S4′ sRef Mark@6 @20 S4′ sRef John@16 @14 S4′ [4] Hence it appears, that the truth, which is from the Lord, is holiness itself, because He alone is holy; on which subject the Lord says:
When He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will lead you into all truth; for He shall not speak from Himself, for He shall receive of mine and shall announce it unto you (John 16:13-15).
The Comforter, the Holy Spirit, He shall teach you all things (John 14:26).
That the “Holy Spirit” is the life of the Lord’s wisdom, thus the Divine truth, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 51). From hence it may appear, that “He that is holy, He that is true,” is the Lord as to His Divine truth. That “holy” is said of truth, and “just” of good, is evident from those passages in the Word where both expressions occur; as from the following:
He that is just let him be justified still, and he that is holy let him be sanctified still (Rev. 22:11).
Just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of saints (Rev. 15:3).
To serve Him in holiness and justice (Luke 1:75).
Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just man and holy (Mark 6:20).
Fine linen is the justice of the saints (Rev. 19:8).

AR (Whitehead) n. 174 sRef Matt@18 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@22 @21 S0′ sRef Isa@22 @22 S0′ 174. He that hath the key of David, and that openeth and no one shutteth, and shutteth and no one openeth, signifies, who alone is omnipotent to save. By “David” is meant the Lord as to the Divine truth; by “key” is signified the Lord’s omnipotence over heaven and hell; and by “opening that no one can shut,” and by “shutting that no one can open,” is signified to lead forth out of hell and introduce into heaven, thus to save, in like manner as above (n. 62), where it is explained. That by “David” is meant the Lord as to the Divine truth, may be seen in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 43, 44). The same, which is here signified by “the key of David,” is also signified by “the keys of Peter” (Matt. 16:15-19); which may be seen explained below (n. 798), as also by these words to all the disciples:
Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven (Matt. 18:18).
For the twelve disciples represented all things of the church as to its goods and truths, and Peter represented it as to truth, and truths and goods save man, consequently the Lord alone from whom they are. The same is also signified by the “key of David which was given to Eliakim,” concerning which it is thus written:
I will give the government into his hands, and he shall be a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and to the house of Judah, and I will give the key of the house of David upon his shoulder, so he shall open and none shall shut, and he shall shut and none shall open (Isa. 22:21-22).
He was over the king’s house, and by “the king’s house” is signified the church as to the Divine truth.

AR (Whitehead) n. 175 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′ 175. Verse 8. I know thy works, signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, as above (n. 76).

AR (Whitehead) n. 176 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′ 176. Behold, I have set before thee an open door, signifies that heaven is open to those who are in truths from good from the Lord. That by “an open door” is signified admission, is evident. The door is said to be open to those who are of the church in Philadelphia, because by that church are meant those who are in truths from good from the Lord, and to them the Lord opens heaven. But on this subject something not before known shall be declared. The Lord alone is the God of heaven and earth (Matt. 28:18); they therefore who do not directly approach Him, cannot see the way to heaven, nor can they find the door, and if haply they are permitted to approach it, it is shut, and if they knock it is not opened. In the spiritual world there are actually ways which lead to heaven, and there are here and there gates, and they who are led to heaven by the Lord, take the ways which lead thither, and enter through the gates. That there are ways there, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell (n. 479, 534, 590); and also gates (n. 429-430, 583-584). For all things which are seen in the heavens are correspondences, thus also, ways and gates; for ways correspond to truths, and thence signify them, and gates correspond to admission, and thence signify it.
sRef Matt@25 @11 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @25 S2′ sRef Ps@24 @9 S2′ sRef Matt@25 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@24 @7 S2′ sRef Matt@25 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @2 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @24 S2′ sRef Rev@21 @12 S2′ sRef John@14 @6 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @25 S2′ sRef John@10 @7 S2′ sRef John@10 @9 S2′ [2] Since the Lord alone leads man to heaven, and opens the door, therefore He calls Himself “the way” and also “the door”: “the way” in John:
I am the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6).
The door in the same Evangelist:
I am the door of the sheep, by Me, if any man enter in, he shall be saved (John 10:9).
Since there are both ways and doors in the spiritual world, and angelic spirits actually go in those ways, and enter into heaven by doors, therefore “doors,” “gates,” and “portals” are frequently mentioned in the Word, by which is signified entrance; as in these places:
Lift up your heads, O ye gates, lift them up, ye doors of the world, and the King of Glory shall come in (Ps. 24:7, 9).
Open ye the gates, that the just nation, which doeth fidelity, may enter in (Isa. 26:2).
The five prudent virgins went in to the wedding, and the door was shut; and the five foolish virgins came and knocked, but it was not opened (Matt. 25:10-12).
Jesus said, Strive to enter in at the straight gate, for many will seek to enter in, and shall not be able (Luke 13:24; besides others).
Since “a door” signifies entrance, and “the New Jerusalem” signifies the church consisting of those who are in truths from good from the Lord, therefore the New Jerusalem is described also as to “its gates, upon which there were angels,” and it is said, They should not be shut (Rev. 21:12-13, 25).

AR (Whitehead) n. 177 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′ 177. And no one is able to shut it, signifies that hell cannot prevail against it. For the Lord alone opens and shuts the doors to heaven, and the door, which He opens, is perpetually open to those who are in truths from good from the Lord, and perpetually shut to those who are in falsities from evil; and since the Lord alone opens and shuts, it follows that hell cannot prevail against them: more may be seen on this subject above (n. 174).

AR (Whitehead) n. 178 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′ 178. Because thou hast a little power, signifies because they know that they can do nothing from themselves. They who are in truths from good from the Lord, know that they have not any power against evils and falsities, thus against hell, from themselves, and they also know that they cannot, out of any power from themselves, do good and introduce themselves into heaven, but that all power is the Lord’s, and thus is in them from the Lord, and in proportion as they are in truths from good, in the same proportion they are in power from the Lord, which yet appears to them as their own. This then is what is meant by “For thou hast a little power.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 179 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′ 179. And hast kept My Word, signifies because they live according to the Lord’s commandments in His Word, as is evident without any explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 180 sRef Rev@3 @8 S0′ 180. And hast not denied My name, signifies that they are in the worship of the Lord. That “the name of Jehovah,” or of the Lord, in the Word, signifies all by which He is worshiped, thus every doctrine of the church, and universally the whole of religion, may be seen above (n. 81); from which it is plain what is here signified by “thou hast not denied My name.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 181 sRef Rev@3 @9 S0′ 181. Verse 9. And I will give from the synagogue of Satan, signifies those who are in falsities as to doctrine, as may be seen above (n. 97).

AR (Whitehead) n. 182 sRef Rev@3 @9 S0′ 182. Who say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie, signifies who say that the church is with them, when yet there is no church with them. By “Jews” here are meant they who are of the church, because the church was instituted among them, therefore also by their Jerusalem is still meant the church as to doctrine: but, especially, by “Jews” are meant they who are in the good of love, as above (n. 96), thus also the church, for from the good of love the church exists. That still there is no church with them is signified by “and are not, but do lie.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 183 sRef Rev@3 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@99 @5 S0′ 183. Behold, I will make them to come and adore at thy feet, signifies that those who are in falsities as to doctrine, provided they are not in falsities from evil, will receive and acknowledge the truths of the New Church. This is said of those who are of “the synagogue of Satan, and say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie,” by whom are meant those who are in falsities as to doctrine, yet not in falsities from evil, but in falsities as to doctrine but in good as to life. The latter, and not the former, receive and acknowledge truths when they hear them. The reason is, that good loves truth, and truth from good rejects what is false. To receive and acknowledge truths is signified by “coming and adoring at thy feet”; not at their feet, but at the feet of the Lord, from whom they have the truths from good; therefore the following passage in David has a like signification:
Adore Jehovah our Lord, adore at His footstool (Ps. 99:5).

AR (Whitehead) n. 184 sRef Rev@3 @9 S0′ 184. And to know that I have loved thee, signifies that they shall see that they who are in truths from good, are beloved and received into heaven by the Lord. This follows in a series from the foregoing.

AR (Whitehead) n. 185 sRef Rev@3 @10 S0′ 185. Verse 10. Because thou hast kept the word of My endurance, signifies because they have fought against evils, and then have rejected falsities. That “the word of endurance” signifies spiritual combat, which is called temptation, is plain from what next follows: “I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation which shall be”; for he who is tempted in the world, is not tempted after death. Spiritual combat, which is temptation, is called the word of the Lord’s endurance or patience, because in temptations the Lord fights for man, and He fights by means of truths out of His Word.

AR (Whitehead) n. 186 sRef Rev@3 @10 S0′ 186. I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth, signifies that they will be protected and preserved in the day of the Last Judgment. That their protection and preservation in the day of the Last Judgment is meant by these words, may be seen from what is written and related concerning The Last Judgment in the work on that subject, and afterwards in The Continuation of the same, from which it is manifest, that they who underwent it were let into temptation, and explored as to their qualities, and that such as were interiorly evil were rejected and such as were interiorly good were saved; and they were interiorly good who were in truths from good from the Lord.

AR (Whitehead) n. 187 sRef Matt@24 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @11 S0′ 187. Verse 11. Behold, I come quickly, signifies the Lord’s coming, and then the New Church from them. The Lord says here, “Behold, I come quickly,” because by the foregoing words is meant the Last Judgment, and the Last Judgment is also called the Lord’s coming, as in Matthew:
The disciples said unto Jesus, What shall be the sign of Thy coming and of the consummation of the age? (Matt. 24:3).
“The consummation of the age” is the last time of the church, when the Last Judgment is at hand. The reason why by these words, “Behold, I come quickly,” the New Church is also meant, is, because after the Last Judgment, the church is established by the Lord; that church now is the New Jerusalem, into which those will enter who are in truths from good from the Lord, to whom this is addressed.

AR (Whitehead) n. 188 sRef Rev@3 @11 S0′ 188. Hold fast that thou hast, signifies that in the meantime they should remain in their truths and in their good, as is manifest without explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 189 sRef Rev@3 @11 S0′ 189. That no one take thy crown, signifies lest wisdom should perish, from which comes eternal happiness. Wisdom in man is from no other source than good by truths from the Lord. The reason why man has wisdom through these, is, because the Lord conjoins Himself to man, and man to Himself by them, and the Lord is wisdom itself; therefore wisdom perishes with man when he ceases to do truths, that is, to live according to them, for then he ceases to love wisdom, and thus the Lord. By wisdom is meant wisdom in things spiritual, from which, as from a fountain, is derived wisdom in other things, which is called intelligence, and by intelligence, science, which exists from the affection of knowing truths. “A crown” signifies wisdom, because wisdom holds the supreme place with man, and thus crowns him. Nor does “a king’s crown” signify anything else, for “king,” in the spiritual sense, is the Divine truth (n. 20), and from the Divine truth is all wisdom.
sRef Isa@28 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@132 @18 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @12 S2′ sRef Ps@132 @17 S2′ [2] Wisdom is also signified by “crown” in the following places:
There will I make the horn of David to bud, but upon himself shall his crown flourish (Ps. 132:17-18).
Jehovah gave ear-rings upon thine ears, and a crown of ornament upon thy head (Ezek. 16:12).
Speaking of Jerusalem, by which is signified the church as to doctrine, therefore “a crown of ornament” is wisdom from the Divine truth or the Word.
In that day shall Jehovah of Hosts be for a crown of ornament and for a miter of beauty unto the residue of His people (Isa. 28:5).
These things are concerning the Lord, because it is said “in that day”; “the crown of ornament” which He will be, is wisdom, and “the miter of beauty” is intelligence; “the residue of the people” are they with whom His church will be.
sRef Job@19 @9 S3′ sRef Lam@5 @15 S3′ sRef Lam@5 @16 S3′ sRef Ps@89 @39 S3′ sRef Jer@13 @18 S3′ [3] The same is signified by “crown” and “miter” in Isa. 62:1, 3; as also by “the plate upon Aaron’s miter” (Exod. 28:36, 37), which was also called “the coronet.” Likewise in these places:
Say unto the king, and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down, for the ornament of your head is come down, the crown of your comeliness (Jer. 13:18).
The joy of our heart is ceased, the crown of our head is fallen (Lam. 5:15-16).
He hath stripped me of my glory, and taken the crown of my head (Job 19:9).
Thou hast condemned the crown of Thine anointed to the earth (Ps. 89:39).
In these places, by “crown” is signified wisdom.

AR (Whitehead) n. 190 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ 190. Verse 12. Him that overcometh, signifies they who persist in truths from good from the Lord, as appears from the series, and thus without explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 191 sRef Matt@23 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @16 S0′ sRef John@2 @19 S1′ sRef Mal@3 @1 S1′ sRef John@2 @21 S1′ sRef Rev@21 @22 S1′ sRef Jonah@2 @7 S1′ sRef Jonah@2 @4 S1′ sRef Ps@138 @2 S1′ 191. Will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, signifies that truths from good from the Lord, with those in whom they abide, sustain the Lord’s church in heaven. By “temple” the church is signified, and by “the temple of my God,” the Lord’s church in heaven; hence it is evident, that by “pillar” is signified that which sustains the church and makes it firm, and this is the Divine truth of the Word. By “temple,” in the supreme sense, the Lord is signified as to the Divine Human, in particular as to the Divine truth; but, in the representative sense, by “temple” is signified the Lord’s church in heaven, and likewise the Lord’s church in the world. That “temple,” in the supreme sense signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human, and in particular as to the Divine truth, is evident from these passages:
Jesus said to the Jews, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up; He spoke of the temple of His body (John 2:19, 21).
I saw no temple in the New Jerusalem, for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it (Rev. 21:22).
Behold, the Lord shall suddenly come to His temple, and the angel of the covenant whom ye seek (Mal. 3:1).
I will bow down towards the temple of Thy holiness (Ps. 138:2).
Yet I will again look to the temple of Thy holiness and my prayer shall come to Thee, to the temple of Thy holiness (Jonah 2:4, 7; Hab. 2:20).
“The temple of holiness of Jehovah,” or the Lord, is His Divine Human, for that is bowed down to, looked to, and prayed to, and not to the temple only, for the temple in itself is not holy. It is called “the temple of holiness,” because holiness is predicated of the Divine truth (n. 173). The temple which sanctifieth the gold (Matt. 23:16, 17) means nothing else than the Lord’s Divine Human.
sRef Rev@15 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @6 S2′ sRef Rev@15 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@66 @6 S2′ sRef Rev@15 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@11 @19 S2′ [2] That by “temple” in a representative sense, is signified the Lord’s church in heaven, appears from these passages:
The voice of Jehovah from the temple (Isa. 66:6).
There came a great voice out of the temple of heaven (Rev. 16:17).
The temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in the temple the ark of His covenant (Rev. 11:19).
The temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened; and the seven angels came out of the temple; and the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God (Rev. 15:5-6, 8).
I called upon Jehovah, and cried unto my God; He heard my voice out of His temple (Ps. 18:6).
I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple (Isa. 6:1).
sRef Hag@2 @7 S3′ sRef Hag@2 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @2 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@64 @11 S3′ [3] That temple signifies the church in the world is manifest from these passages:
Our house of holiness has become a conflagration (Isa. 64:11).
I will shake all nations, that I may fill this house with glory: the glory of the latter house shall be greater than of the former (Hag. 2:7, 9).
The church to be established by the Lord is described by the “new temples in Ezek. 40 to 48; and is meant by “the temple which the angel measured” (Rev. 11:1); and so in other places; as Isa. 44:28; Jer. 7:2-4, 9-11; Zech. 8:9.
The disciples came to Jesus, to show Him the buildings of the temple; and Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, there shall not be left stone upon stone, which shall not be thrown down (Matt. 24:1, 2; Mark 13:1-5; Luke 21:5-7).
By “the temple” here is signified the church at this day; and by its dissolution that “there is not one stone upon another,” is signified the end of this church, in that no truth whatever would then be left. For when the disciples spoke to the Lord concerning the temple, the Lord foretold the successive states of this church even to its end, or “the consummation of the age,” and by “the consummation of the age” is meant its last time, which is at this day. This was represented by that temple being destroyed to its foundation.
[4] “The temple” signifies these three, namely the Lord, the church in heaven, and the church in the world, because these three make one, and cannot be separated, consequently one of them cannot be meant without the other. Therefore he who separates the church in the world from the church in heaven, and these from the Lord, is not in the truth. The reason why the church in heaven is here meant by “the temple,” is because the church in the world is treated of afterwards (n. 194).

AR (Whitehead) n. 192 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ 192. And he shall go no more out, signifies that they will remain there to eternity, as is evident without explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 193 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ 193. And I will write upon him the name of My God signifies that the Divine truth will be written in their hearts. “To write” upon anyone signifies to inscribe, so that it may be in him as his own; and “the name of My God” signifies the Divine truth. Here something shall be said of this, that “My God” is the Divine truth. In the Word of the Old Testament, in innumerable places, “Jehovah God” occurs, as also separately, sometimes “Jehovah,” and sometimes “God,” and by “Jehovah” is meant the Lord as to the Divine good, and by “God” is meant the Lord as to the Divine truth; or what is the same, by “Jehovah” is meant the Lord as to the Divine love, and by “God” is meant the Lord as to the Divine wisdom; both terms are used for the sake of the heavenly marriage in all the particulars of the Word, which is the marriage of love and wisdom, or the marriage of good and truth, concerning which marriage see Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning Sacred Scripture (n. 80-90).
sRef John@12 @28 S2′ [2] But in the Word of the New Testament it is not said Jehovah God, but “Lord God;” for “Lord,” like “Jehovah” signifies the Divine good or the Divine love. From these things it may appear, that by “the name of My God” is signified the Divine truth of the Lord. That “name,” when spoken of the Lord, is the all by which He is worshiped, may be seen above (n. 81); and the all by which He is worshiped, has relation to the Divine good and the Divine truth. As it is not known what is meant by the following words of the Lord, it shall be told:
Father, glorify Thy name; then came forth a voice from heaven, I have glorified it, and will glorify it again (John 12:28).
The Lord, when He was in the world, made His Human the Divine truth, which also is the Word, and when He went out of the world, He fully united the Divine truth to the Divine good, which was in Him from conception; for the Lord glorified His Human, that is, made it Divine, as He makes man spiritual; for He first introduces into man truths from the Word, and afterwards unites them to good, and by that union man is made spiritual.

AR (Whitehead) n. 194 sRef Isa@24 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@12 @25 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ 194. And the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem signifies that the doctrine of the New Church shall be written in their hearts. By “the New Jerusalem” is signified the New Church, and by the same, when it is called “city,” is signified the New Church as to doctrine; therefore by “writing upon him the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem,” is signified that the doctrine of the New Church will be written in their hearts. That by “Jerusalem” is signified the church, and by it as a city, the church as to doctrine, may be seen below (n. 880, 881). A city signifies doctrine, because “land,” and in particular “the land of Canaan,” signifies the church in the aggregate, and thence by the inheritances into which the land of Canaan was divided, are signified the various things of the church, and, by the cities in them, doctrinals. It is from this that the angels understand nothing else by cities when they are named in the Word; which has also been testified to me by much experience. Similar is the signification of mountains, hills, valleys, fountains, rivers, all which signify such things as are of the church.
sRef Ps@46 @4 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @28 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @7 S2′ sRef Rev@16 @19 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @26 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @27 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @29 S2′ sRef Jer@1 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@26 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@24 @12 S2′ sRef Jer@48 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@24 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@24 @10 S2′ sRef Ezek@40 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @2 S2′ [2] That “cities” signify doctrinals, may in some measure appear from the following passages:
The land shall be emptied, the land shall be confounded, the land shall be profaned, the empty city shall be broken, the remnant in the city is a waste, and the gate shall be beaten down even to devastation (Isa. 24:3-4, 10, 12).
The lion has come up from the thicket, to reduce the land to a waste; thy cities shall be destroyed; I saw Carmel a wilderness, and her cities desolate: the land shall mourn; the whole city shall flee, being deserted (Jer. 4:7, 26-29).
“The land” here is the church, and “the city” is its doctrine. Thus is described the devastation of the church by the falsities of doctrine.
The waster shall come upon every city, and no city shall escape, and the valley shall perish, and the plain be destroyed (Jer. 48:8).
In like manner:
Behold, I have made thee a fortified city against the whole land (Jer. 1:18).
This was said to the prophet, because by “a prophet” the doctrine of the church is signified (n. 8).
In that day it shall be sung in the land of Judah, We have a strong city; salvation will He put for walls, and bulwarks (Isa. 26:1).
The great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell (Rev. 16:19).
The prophet saw upon a high mountain the structure of a city to the south, and an angel measured the wall, the gates, the chambers, the porch of the gate; and the name of the city was Jehovah there (Ezek. 40:1 seq.).
A river, whose streams made glad the city of God (Ps. 46:4).
I will confound Egypt with Egypt, that city may fight against city, and kingdom against kingdom (Isa. 19:2).
Every kingdom divided against itself is desolated, and every city divided against itself shall not stand (Matt. 12:25).
In these places by cities, in the spiritual sense, are meant doctrines; as also in Isa. 6:11; 14:12, 17, 21; 19:18, 19; 25:1-3; 33:8, 9; 54:3; 64:10; Jer. 7:17, 34; 13:18, 19; 32:42, 44; 33:4; Zeph. 3:6; Ps. 48:2; 55:9; 107:4, 7; Matt. 5:14, 15, and elsewhere.
sRef Luke@19 @18 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @19 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @13 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @14 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @16 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @17 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @12 S3′ sRef Luke@19 @15 S3′ [3] From the signification of “city” it may appear what is meant by cities in this parable of the Lord:
A nobleman going away to receive for himself a kingdom, gave his servants pounds to trade with: when he returned, he called the servants: the first approached, saying, Thy pound hath gained ten pounds; to whom he said, Good servant, thou shalt have authority over ten cities; and the second came, saying, Thy pound hath gained five pounds; to whom he said, Be thou over five cities (Luke 19:12-19).
By “cities” here, also, doctrinals or truths of doctrine are signified, and by “being over them” is meant to be intelligent and wise, thus to give “authority over them” is to give intelligence and wisdom; “ten” signifies much, and “five” something; that by “trading” and “gaining” is meant to acquire intelligence by the exercise of one’s faculties, is evident.
[4] That “the holy city Jerusalem” signifies the doctrine of the New Church, is plainly manifest from the description of it (Rev. 21); for it is described as to its dimensions, also as to the gates, and as to the wall, and its foundations, which, when Jerusalem signifies the church, cannot signify any other than things belonging to its doctrines. The church is a church from no other source. Since by “the city of Jerusalem” is meant the church as to doctrine, therefore it is called “the city of truth” (Zech. 8:3-4), and in many places “the holy city,” and this because holy is predicated of truths from the Lord (n. 173).

AR (Whitehead) n. 195 sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ 195. Which cometh down out of heaven from My God, signifies which will be from the Divine truth of the Lord, such as it is in heaven. Since by “My God” is signified the Divine truth (n. 193), it follows, that by “coming down out of heaven from God,” when it is said of the Lord, and of the doctrine of the New Church, is signified which will be from the Divine truth from the Lord, such as it is in heaven.

AR (Whitehead) n. 196 sRef Rev@21 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @12 S0′ 196. And My new name, signifies the worship of the Lord alone, with new things which were not in the former church. That by “the name of the Lord” is signified all that by which He is worshiped, may be seen above (n. 81), therefore here the worship of the Lord alone, with new things which were not in the former church. That in the New Church the Lord alone is worshiped, is evident from chapter 21:9, 10, where that church is called the “Lamb’s Wife.” That there are new things in that church, appears from chap. 21:5, where it is said, “Behold, I make all things new.” Such therefore is the signification of “My new name,” which was to be written upon them.

AR (Whitehead) n. 197 sRef Rev@3 @13 S0′ 197. Verse 13. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands, ought to obey what the Divine truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, as above (n. 87).

AR (Whitehead) n. 198 sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′ 198. Verse 14. And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write, signifies to those and concerning those in the church who alternately believe from themselves, and from the Word, and thus profane things holy. But concerning these something must be premised. There are in the church those who believe and do not believe; as that there is a God, that the Word is holy, that there is eternal life, and many other things which are of the church and its doctrine; and still they do not believe. They believe them when in their natural sensual, but they do not believe when they are in their natural rational; thus they believe them when they are in externals, therefore when they are in society and discourse with others; but they do not believe them when they are in internals, consequently when they are not in society with others, but are discoursing with themselves; concerning these it is said that “they are neither cold nor hot,” and that “they shall be vomited out.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 199 sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′ 199. These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, signifies the Lord as to the Word, which is the Divine truth from Him. That “amen” is Divine confirmation from the truth itself, which is the Lord, thus from the Lord, may be seen above (n. 23); and that “a faithful and true witness,” when spoken of the Lord, is the Divine truth which is from Him in the Word (n. 6, 16). Whether you say that the Lord testifies of Himself, or that the Word testifies of Him, it is the same, because “the Son of man,” who here speaks to the churches, is the Lord as to the Word (n. 44). These things are premised to this church, because those in the church are here treated of who both believe from themselves and from the Word; and they who believe from the Word, believe from the Lord.

AR (Whitehead) n. 200 sRef Rev@3 @14 S0′ sRef John@1 @6 S1′ sRef John@1 @3 S1′ sRef John@1 @11 S1′ sRef John@1 @4 S1′ sRef John@1 @10 S1′ sRef John@1 @5 S1′ sRef John@1 @9 S1′ sRef John@1 @8 S1′ sRef John@1 @2 S1′ sRef John@1 @1 S1′ sRef John@1 @14 S1′ sRef John@1 @7 S1′ sRef John@1 @12 S1′ sRef John@1 @13 S1′ 200. The beginning of the work of God, signifies the Word. That the Word is “the beginning of the work of God,” is not yet known in the church, because they have not understood these words in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. He was in the world, and the world was made by Him, but the world knew Him not. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father (John 1:1-14).
He who understands these words in their interior sense, and at the same time compares them with what is written in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, as also with some things in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, may see that the Divine truth itself in the Word which was formerly in this world (as mentioned in n. 11), which likewise is in the Word which is at this day, is meant by “the Word which was in the beginning with God, and which was God;” but not the Word regarded as to the words and letters of the languages in which it is written, but regarded in its essence and life, which from the inmost is in the senses of its words and letters. From this life the Word vivifies the affections of the will of the man who reads it as holy, and from the light of that life it enlightens the thoughts of his understanding; therefore it is said in John:
In the Word was life, and the life was the light of men (John 1:4);
this constitutes the Word, because the Word is from the Lord, and concerning the Lord, and thus is the Lord. All thought, speech, and writing, derives its essence and life from him who thinks, speaks, and writes; the man with his quality is therein; but the Lord alone is in the Word. No one however feels and perceives the Divine life in the Word but he who is in the spiritual affection of truth when he reads it, for he is in conjunction with the Lord through the Word. There is something intimately affecting the heart and spirit, which flows with light into the understanding and bears witness.
sRef Gen@1 @3 S2′ sRef Gen@1 @1 S2′ sRef Gen@1 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@33 @6 S2′ sRef John@1 @4 S2′ [2] What is said in John has a similar signification to that of these words in the first chapter of Genesis:
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth, and the Spirit of God moved itself upon the face of the waters; and God said, Let there be light, and there was light (Gen. 1:1-3).
“The spirit of God” is the Divine truth, and also the Light; the Divine truth is the Word, therefore when the Lord calls Himself the Word, He also calls Himself “the Light” (John 1:4, 8-9).
Similar things are also meant by this passage in David:
By the Word of Jehovah were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the Spirit of His mouth (Ps. 33:6).
In short, without the Divine truth of the Word, which in its essence is the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love, and the Divine truth of His Divine wisdom, man cannot have life. By the Word there is the conjunction of the Lord with man, and of man with the Lord, and by that conjunction there is life. There must be something from the Lord, which can be received by man, by which there can be conjunction and thence eternal life.
sRef John@6 @63 S3′ [3] From these things it may appear, that by “the beginning of the creation of God” is meant the Word, and if you will believe it, the Word such as it is in its literal sense, for this sense is the complex of its interior sanctities, as is abundantly shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture. And what is wonderful, the Word is so written, that it communicates with the entire heaven, and in particular with every society there, which it has been given me to know by living experience, of which elsewhere. That the Word in its essence is such, is moreover evident from these words of the Lord:
The words that I speak to you, they are spirit, and they are life (John 6:63).

AR (Whitehead) n. 201 sRef Rev@3 @15 S0′ 201. Verse 15. I know thy works, signifies that the Lord sees all their interiors and exteriors at once, as above (n. 76).

AR (Whitehead) n. 202 sRef Rev@3 @15 S0′ 202. That thou art neither cold nor hot, signifies that they who are such, sometimes deny that the Word is Divine and holy, and at other times acknowledge it. At one time to deny the holiness of the Word, and at another time to acknowledge it, is “to be neither cold nor hot,” for they are against the Word and also for the Word. They are also such concerning God, at one time they deny, and at another time acknowledge Him; in like manner as to all things of the church; for which reason they are sometimes with those who are in hell, and at other times with those who are in heaven. They fly as it were between both, up and down, and wherever they fly, thither they turn the face. They become such who have confirmed with themselves the belief in the existence of God, of heaven and hell, and of life eternal, and afterwards recede from it. When the first confirmation returns, they acknowledge, but when it does not return, they deny. They recede because they afterwards think only of themselves and the world, continually aspiring to preeminence, and thereby they immerse themselves in their proprium; thus hell swallows them up.

AR (Whitehead) n. 203 sRef Rev@3 @15 S0′ 203. I would thou wert cold or hot, signifies that it is better for them either from the heart to deny the holy things of the Word and of the church, or from the heart to acknowledge them. The reason will be explained in the next article.

AR (Whitehead) n. 204 sRef Hab@2 @16 S0′ sRef Isa@28 @8 S0′ sRef Jer@48 @26 S0′ sRef Isa@28 @9 S0′ sRef Hab@2 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @16 S0′ 204. Verse 16. Therefore because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will vomit thee out of My mouth, signifies profanation and consequent separation from the Lord. “To vomit out of My mouth,” signifies to be separated from the Lord, and to be so separated from the Lord is to be neither in heaven nor in hell, but in a place apart, deprived of human life, where there are mere phantasies. The reason is, because they have mixed truths with falsities, and goods with evils, thus holy things with profane, even so that they cannot be separated. And since man cannot then be prepared, either to be in heaven or in hell, the whole of his rational life is destroyed, and the ultimates of life alone remain, which, when separated from the interiors of life, are mere phantasies. Concerning their state and lot more may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence (n. 226-228, 231), which will suffice to give a knowledge of them. It is said of them that “they are vomited out,” because the world of spirits, which is in the midst between heaven and hell, and into which every man first comes after death, and is there prepared, corresponds to the stomach, in which all the things put in are prepared either to become blood and flesh, or to become excrement and urine, the latter having a correspondence with hell, but the former with heaven. But the things that are vomited out of the stomach are those that have not been separated, but remain commixed. By reason of this correspondence, the expression “to vomit” and “vomit” are used in the following passages:
Drink and be drunken, and let thy foreskin be uncovered; and the cup of Jehovah shall go around unto thee, and the shameful vomiting shall be upon the glory (Hab. 2:15-16).
Make Moab drunken, that he may clap the hands in his vomit (Jer. 48:26).
All tables are full of the vomit of emptying; what one shall he teach knowledge? (Isa. 28:8-9).
Besides other places (as Jer. 25:27; Lev. 18:24, 25, 28). That warm water excites vomiting, is also from correspondence.

AR (Whitehead) n. 206 sRef Zech@9 @4 S0′ sRef Ezek@28 @4 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @25 S0′ sRef Isa@10 @13 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @24 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @23 S0′ sRef Luke@6 @25 S0′ sRef Ps@112 @1 S0′ sRef Ezek@26 @12 S0′ sRef Ezek@28 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@10 @14 S0′ sRef Luke@16 @19 S0′ sRef Ps@112 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@45 @12 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @53 S0′ sRef Isa@45 @3 S0′ 206.* Verse 17. Because thou sayest, I am rich and increased in goods, signifies that they think they possess in all abundance the knowledges of truth and good which are of the church and heaven. “To be rich and increased in goods,” here signifies nothing else than to know and understand fully such things as are of the church and heaven which are called spiritual and theological, because these are here treated of; spiritual riches and abundance are nothing else. They who believe from themselves, and not from the Lord through the Word, also believe that they know and understand all things. The reason is, that their spiritual mind is shut, and their natural mind alone open; and this mind, without spiritual light, sees no otherwise. That by “riches” and “wealth” in the Word are signified spiritual riches and wealth, which are the knowledges of truth and good, is manifest from the following passages:
In thy wisdom and in thy understanding thou hast gotten thee wealth, gold and silver in thy treasures; by the multiplication of thy wisdom thou hast multiplied thy wealth (Ezek. 28:4-5).
This is spoken of Tyre, by which is signified the church as to the knowledges of truth and good. In like manner:
The daughter of Tyre shall bring thee a gift; O daughter of the king, the rich peoples shall entreat thy faces (Ps. 45:12).
Jehovah will impoverish Tyre; He will shake off her wealth into the sea (Zech. 9:4).
O Tyre, they shall plunder thy wealth (Ezek. 26:12).
Assyria said, By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom, because I am intelligent; whence I will plunder the treasures of the peoples, my hand shall find the wealth of the peoples (Isa. 10:13-14).
By Assyria the rational is signified; here that it perverts the goods and truths of the church, which here are the “treasures and wealth of the peoples,” which he will plunder.
I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and the hidden wealth of the lurking-places (Isa. 45:3).
Happy is the man that feareth Jehovah; wealth and riches are in his house, and his justice standeth forever (Ps. 112:1, 3).
God hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich He hath sent away empty (Luke 1:53).
Woe unto you that are rich, for ye have received your joy; woe unto you that are filled, for ye shall hunger (Luke 6:24-25).
By the “rich” here are meant those who were in possession of the knowledges of truth and good because they had the Word, who were the Jews: the same is meant by the rich man, who was clothed in purple and fine linen (Luke 16:19); and in like manner by the “rich” and “riches” in other places (as in Isa. 30:6; Jer. 17:11; Micah 4:13; 6:12; Zech. 14:14; Matt. 12:35; 13:44; Luke 12:21).
* There is no number 205 in the original Latin.

AR (Whitehead) n. 207 207. And have need of nothing, signifies that they have no need of more knowledge and wisdom, and from any other source, is evident from what has been said above, because it is a consequence.

AR (Whitehead) n. 208 sRef Isa@47 @11 S0′ sRef Ezek@7 @26 S0′ sRef Ezek@7 @27 S0′ sRef Isa@47 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@5 @9 S0′ 208. And knowest not that thou art wretched, signifies that they do not know that all they know and think concerning the truths and goods of the church, do not at all cohere, and are uncemented walls. By “being wretched” is here signified no coherence, thus by “the wretched,” those who think incoherently concerning the things of the church; the reason is, because they of whom this is said, at one time deny God, heaven, eternal life, and the sanctity of the Word, and at another time acknowledge them; therefore what they build with one hand they destroy with the other. Thus they are like those that build a house, and presently pull it down; or that clothe themselves in becoming garments, and presently tear them off. Their houses are therefore rubbish, and their garments rags. Such are all things which they think concerning the church and heaven, but they do not know this. These things are also meant by “wretchedness” in the following passages:
Thy wisdom and thy knowledge hath seduced thee, when thou saidst in thine heart, I am, and none besides; therefore shall wretchedness fall upon thee (Isa. 47:10-11).
Wretchedness shall come upon wretchedness, the king shall mourn, and the prince shall be clothed with astonishment (Ezek. 7:26-27).
“The king who shall mourn,” and “the prince who shall be clothed with astonishment,” are they who are in the truths of the church.
The right is not in their mouth, wretchedness is in the midst of them (Ps. 5:9).
Such also is the signification of “uncemented walls” (in Jer. 49:3; Ezek. 13:10, 11; Hos. 2:6).

AR (Whitehead) n. 209 sRef Ps@86 @1 S0′ sRef Ps@37 @14 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @13 S0′ sRef Isa@29 @19 S0′ sRef Ps@40 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@5 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@32 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@35 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@109 @16 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @4 S0′ 209. And miserable and poor, signifies that they are without truths and goods. By “miserable and poor,” in the spiritual sense of the Word, are meant they who are without the knowledges of truth and good, for they are spiritually miserable and poor; the same are meant hereby in the following passages:
I am miserable and poor, O Lord; remember me (Ps. 40:17; 70:5).
O Jehovah, incline Thine ear, and answer; for I am miserable and poor (Ps. 86:1).
The wicked draw the sword, and bend their bow, to cast down the miserable and poor (Ps. 37:14).
The wicked persecuteth the miserable and the poor, and to slay the dejected in heart (Ps. 109:16).
God will judge the miserable of the people; He will keep the sons of the poor; He will deliver the poor that crieth and the miserable (Ps. 72:4, 12-13).
Jehovah rescueth the miserable from him that is stronger than he, and the poor from them that spoil him (Ps. 35:10).
The wicked deviseth crimes to destroy the miserable by the words of a lie, even when the poor speaketh judgment (Isa. 32:7).
The miserable shall have joy in Jehovah, and the poor among men shall exult in the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 29:19).
Happy are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens (Matt. 5:3; besides other places, as Isa. 10:2; Jer. 22:16; Ezek. 16:49; 18:12; 22:29; Amos 8:4; Ps. 9:18; Ps. 69:32-33; Ps. 74:21; Ps. 109:22; Ps. 140:12; Deut. 15:11; 24:14; Luke 14:13, 21, 23).
By the “miserable and poor” are chiefly meant those who are not in the knowledges of truth and good and yet desire them, since by the “rich” are meant those who possess the knowledges of truth and good (n. 206).

AR (Whitehead) n. 210 sRef John@9 @41 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S0′ sRef Deut@27 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@56 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@15 @14 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @16 S0′ sRef Isa@35 @4 S0′ sRef Isa@35 @5 S0′ sRef John@9 @39 S0′ sRef John@9 @40 S0′ sRef Isa@56 @10 S0′ sRef John@12 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @24 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @17 S0′ sRef Isa@29 @18 S0′ sRef Lev@19 @14 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @16 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @19 S0′ sRef Lev@21 @18 S0′ 210. And blind and naked, signifies that they are without the understanding of truth, and the will of good. By “the blind,” in the Word, are meant those who are without truths, either from a defect thereof in the church and so from ignorance, or from not understanding them; and by “the naked” are meant those who thence are without goods; for all spiritual good is acquired by truths. No others are meant by “the blind” in the following passages:
Then in that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of thick darkness (Isa. 29:18).
Behold, your God will come; then the eyes of the blind shall be opened (Isa. 35:4-5).
I will give thee for a light of the Gentiles, to open the blind eyes (Isa. 42:6-7).
I will lead the blind in a way that they knew not, I will make their darkness light (Isa. 42:16).
Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears (Isa. 43:8).
His watchmen are all blind, and do not know to understand (Isa. 56:10-11).
He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart, that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart (John 12:40).
Jesus said, For judgment am I come into the world, that they which see not might see, and that they which see, might be made blind (John 9:39-41).
Blind, foolish, infatuated guides (Matt. 23:16, 17, 19, 24).
Blind, leaders of the blind (Matt. 15:14; Luke 6:39).
By reason of the signification of “blind” and “blindness,” it was forbidden to offer for sacrifice anything that was blind (Lev. 21:18; Deut. 15:21). That they should not cast a stumbling-block before the blind (Lev. 19:14). That he was cursed who made the blind to wander (Deut. 27:18). Concerning the signification of “naked” and “nakedness,” see below (n. 213).

AR (Whitehead) n. 211 sRef Dan@2 @33 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @18 S0′ sRef Dan@2 @32 S0′ 211. Verse 18. I counsel thee to buy of Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich, signifies an admonition to acquire to themselves the good of love from the Lord through the Word, that they may become wise. For “to buy” signifies to acquire to oneself; “of Me,” signifies of the Lord through the Word; “gold” signifies good, and “gold tried in the fire,” the good of celestial love; and “to be enriched” thereby, signifies to understand and be wise. “Gold” signifies good, because metals in their order signify such things as are of good and truth, gold celestial and spiritual good, silver the truth of those loves, brass natural good, and iron natural truth. These are signified by the metals of which the statue of Nebuchadnezzar consisted:
The head of which was of gold, the breast and arms of silver, the belly and thighs of brass, the legs iron, the feet part iron and part clay (Dan. 2:32-33).
By which are represented the successive states of the church as to the good of love and the truth of wisdom. From this succession of the states of the church, the ancients gave similar names to times, calling them ages of gold, silver, brass, and iron; and by the golden age they understood the first time, when the good of celestial love reigned; celestial love is love to the Lord from the Lord; from this love they at that time had wisdom. That “gold” signifies the good of love may be seen below (n. 913).

AR (Whitehead) n. 212 sRef Rev@3 @18 S0′ 212. And white garments, that thou mayest be clothed, signifies that they should acquire to themselves genuine truths of wisdom. That “garments” signify truths clothing good, may be seen above (n. 166), and that “white” is spoken of truths (n. 167), therefore “white garments” signify the genuine truths of wisdom, and this, because “gold purified in the fire” signifies the good of celestial love, the truths of this love being genuine truths of wisdom.

AR (Whitehead) n. 213 sRef Rev@3 @18 S0′ 213. That the shame of thy nakedness may not appear, signifies lest the good of celestial love should be profaned and adulterated. No one can know what “the shame of nakedness” signifies, unless he knows that the members of generation in both sexes, which are also called the genitals, correspond to celestial love. That there is a correspondence of man and all his members with the heavens, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell, published in London in the year 1758 (n. 87-102); and that the genital members correspond to celestial love, in The Arcana Coelestia, also published in London (n. 5050-5062). As those members correspond to celestial love, which is the love of the third or inmost heaven, and man is born from his parents in loves which are opposite to that love, it is evident, that if he does not acquire to himself the good of love and the truth of wisdom from the Lord, signified by “gold tried in the fire,” and by “white garments,” he will appear in the opposite love, which is profane.
sRef Nahum@3 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @3 S2′ sRef Nahum@3 @4 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @6 S2′ sRef Rev@16 @15 S2′ sRef Hab@2 @15 S2′ sRef Nahum@3 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @1 S2′ sRef Hab@2 @16 S2′ sRef Lam@1 @8 S2′ [2] This is signified by “uncovering nakedness” and “revealing shame,” in the following passages:
Happy is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame (Rev. 16:15)
Daughter of Babylon and of Chaldea, sit on the earth; uncover thy locks, uncover the thigh, pass over the stream; let thy nakedness be uncovered, and let thy reproach also be seen (Isa. 47:1-3).
Woe to the city of bloods, because of the multitude of her whoredoms: I will uncover the skirts upon thy face, and will show the nations thy nakedness, and the kingdoms thy disgrace (Nahum 3:1, 4-5).
Contend with your mother, lest perchance I set her naked (Hos. 2:2-3).
When I passed by thee, I covered thy nakedness, and washed thee, and clothed thee; but thou committedst whoredom; not recollecting thy youth, when thou wast naked and stripped bare; therefore thou hast revealed thy nakedness (Ezek. 16:6 seq.).
Jerusalem hath grievously sinned; therefore all speak ill of her, because they saw her nakedness (Lam. 1:8).
By “Jerusalem,” of which these things are said, the church is meant; and by “committing whoredom” is signified to adulterate and falsify the Word (n. 134).
Woe to him that maketh his companion drink, making him drunk, that thou mayest look upon his nakedness: drink also thyself, that thy foreskin may be uncovered (Hab. 2:15-16).
sRef Gen@9 @21 S3′ sRef Ex@28 @42 S3′ sRef Ex@28 @43 S3′ sRef Ex@20 @26 S3′ sRef Gen@9 @23 S3′ sRef Gen@9 @22 S3′ [3] He who knows what “nakedness” signifies can understand what is signified by:
Noah, when drunken with wine lay naked in the midst of his tent, and Ham saw and laughed at his nakedness, and Shem and Japheth covered his nakedness, turning away their faces lest they should see it (Gen. 9:21-23).
Also why it was ordained that:
Aaron and his sons should not go up by steps upon the altar, lest their nakedness should be uncovered (Exod. 20:26).
As also that:
They should make for them breeches of linen to cover the flesh of nakedness, and that they should be upon them when they approached to the altar, and that otherwise they should carry their iniquity, and should die (Exod. 28:42-43).
By “nakedness” in these passages are signified the evils into which a man is born, which, because they are opposite to the good of celestial love, are in themselves profane; which are not removed except by truths, and by a life according to them: “linen” also signifies truth (n. 671).
sRef Ezek@18 @7 S4′ sRef Isa@58 @7 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S4′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S4′ sRef Isa@58 @6 S4′ sRef Gen@2 @25 S4′ [4] By “nakedness” is also signified innocence, and likewise ignorance of good and truth; innocence in the passage:
They were both naked, the man and his wife, and had no cause for shame (Gen. 2:25).
Ignorance of good and truth by these:
This is the fast which I choose; to break bread to the hungry; and when thou seest the naked, to cover him (Isa. 58:6-7).
Let him give his bread to the hungry, and cover the naked with a garment (Ezek. 18:7).
I hungered, and ye gave Me to eat; I was naked, and ye clothed Me (Matt. 25:35-36).

AR (Whitehead) n. 214 sRef Rev@3 @18 S0′ 214. And anoint thine eyes with eye salve, that thou mayest see, signifies that their understanding may be healed, lest the genuine truths of wisdom should be profaned and falsified. That by “the eyes” is signified the understanding, and by “the eye-sight” intelligence and wisdom, may be seen (n. 48). And since by “eye-salve” a medicine for the same is signified, it follows that by “anoint thine eyes with eye-salve,” is signified to heal the understanding, that it may see truths and be wise; for unless this is the case, the genuine truths of the Word are profaned and adulterated.

AR (Whitehead) n. 215 sRef Rev@3 @19 S0′ 215. Verse 19. As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten, signifies that those of them who do so are loved by the Lord, and that then they cannot but be admitted to temptations that they may fight against themselves. That this is the sense of these words, is evident, for it is said, “As many as I love,” by whom are meant they who “buy of the Lord gold purified in the fire,” and who “anoint their eyes with eye-salve that they may see.” It is said, “I rebuke and chasten” them, by which is meant temptation as to falsities and as to evils; by “rebuking” temptation as to falsities, and by “chastening” temptation as to evils. Such as are here treated of, could not but be admitted into temptations, because, without them, negations and confirmations against Divine truth could not be extirpated. Temptations are spiritual combats against the falsities and evils in one’s self, thus against one’s self. What temptations are, whence they proceed, and what good they produce, see the work concerning The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly Doctrine, published at London in the year 1758 (n. 187-201).

AR (Whitehead) n. 216 sRef Rev@3 @19 S0′ 216. Be zealous, therefore, and repent, signifies that this should be done from the affection of truth, and aversion from what is false. It is here said, “Be zealous,” because it was said above (verse 15), “I would thou wert either cold or hot,” here hot, for “zeal” is spiritual heat, and spiritual heat is the affection of love, here the affection of the love of truth, and he who acts from the affection of the love of truth acts also from aversion to what is false; therefore this is signified by “repent.” “Zeal” in the Word, when it treats of the Lord, signifies love, and wrath; love in John 2:17; Psalm 69:9; Isaiah 37:32; 63:15; Ezekiel 39:25; Zechariah 1:14; 8:2. Wrath in Deuteronomy 32:16, 21; Psalm 79:5-6; Ezekiel 8:3, 5; 16:42; 23:25; Zephaniah 1:18; 3:8. But “zeal” in the Lord is not wrath, it only appears so in externals, interiorly it is love. It appears so in externals, because the Lord seems to be angry when He rebukes man, especially when man’s own evil punishes him. It is so permitted from love, that his evil may be removed; just like a parent, who, if he loves his children, suffers them to be chastised for the sake of removing their evils. Hence it is evident, why Jehovah calls Himself “zealous” (Deuteronomy 4:24; 5:9, 10; 6:14-15).

AR (Whitehead) n. 217 sRef Luke@12 @36 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @20 S0′ 217. Verse 20. Behold, I stand at the door, and knock, signifies that the Lord is present to everyone in the Word, and is there pressing to be received, and teaches how. Something similar to this is said by the Lord in Luke:
Be ye like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately (Luke 12:36).
That “door” signifies admission and entrance, may be seen above (n. 176).

AR (Whitehead) n. 218 sRef John@14 @24 S0′ sRef John@14 @23 S0′ sRef John@14 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @20 S0′ sRef John@14 @21 S0′ 218. If anyone hear my voice, and open the door, signifies he who believes in the Word and lives according to it. “To hear His voice,” is to believe in the Word, for the Divine truth of the Word is “the voice of Jehovah” (n. 37, 50); and “to open the door” is to live according to it, because the door is not opened, and the Lord received, by merely hearing the voice, but by living according to it, for the Lord says:
He that hath My commandments, and doeth them, I will manifest Myself to him, and I will come unto him and make an abode with him (John 14:21-24).
That man ought to open the door as from himself, by shunning evils as sins, and doing goods, is shown in The Doctrine of Life for the New Jerusalem; and that this is the case, is also evident from the Lord’s words here, “If anyone open”; as also from His words in Luke 12:36.

AR (Whitehead) n. 219 sRef Rev@3 @20 S0′ 219. I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with Me, signifies that the Lord joins Himself with them and them with Himself. “To come in and sup with him,” signifies to join Himself to him, and, since there must be a reciprocal that there may be conjunction, it is also said, “and he with Me.” That to be conjoined is signified by “coming in and supping,” appears from the Holy Supper instituted by the Lord, by means of which the Lord’s presence is effected with those who hear His voice, that is, who believe in the Word, but there is conjunction with those who live according to the Word; to live according to the Word is to do the work of repentance, and to believe in the Lord. “To sup,” and “the Lord’s Supper,” are mentioned, because supper takes place in the evening, and by “the evening” is signified the last time of the church; therefore when the Lord departed out of the world, the last time of the church being then arrived, He supped with His disciples, and instituted the Sacrament of the Supper. That “evening” signifies the last time of the old church and “morning” the first of the New Church may be seen above (n. 151).

AR (Whitehead) n. 220 sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ 220. Verse 21. To him that overcometh, signifies such as are in conjunction with the Lord by a life according to His precepts in the Word, is evident from what has been said above.

AR (Whitehead) n. 221 sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ 221. Will I give to sit with Me in My throne, signifies that they will have conjunction with the Lord in heaven. That “the Lord’s throne” is heaven, may be seen above (n. 14), therefore “to sit with the Lord in His throne,” signifies conjunction with Him in heaven.

AR (Whitehead) n. 222 sRef Rev@3 @21 S0′ sRef John@15 @5 S0′ 222. As I overcame, and sit with the Father in His throne, signifies as He and the Father are one, and are heaven. That the Father and the Lord are one is fully shown in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, and elsewhere. That heaven is not heaven from anything proper to the angels, but from the Divine of the Lord, which is in the angels and with them; therefore by these words, “as I sit with the Father in His throne,” is signified as He and the Father are one, and are heaven; “throne” is heaven (n. 14, 221). “As I also overcame” signifies that by temptations admitted into His Human, and by the last of them, which was the passion of the cross, as also by the fulfilling of all things of the Word, He overcame the hells and glorified His Human, that is, he united it to his Divine which was in Him from conception, and is called Jehovah the Father, on which subject see the above-mentioned Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 8-11, 12-14, 29-36), and also above (n. 67).
sRef John@1 @18 S2′ sRef John@14 @6 S2′ [2] The reason why the Lord says, “To him that overcometh will I give to sit with Me in my throne, as I overcame and sit with the Father in His throne,” is because the union of the Lord with the Father, that is, with His Divine within Himself, took place, to the end that it might be possible for man to be conjoined to the Divine which is called the Father in the Lord; because it is impossible for man to be conjoined with the Divine of the Father immediately, but mediately through His Divine Human, which is the Divine natural; therefore the Lord says:
No one hath seen God at any time; the Only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath manifested Him (John 1:18).
I am the way, the truth, and the life, no one cometh to the Father, but by Me (John 14:6).
sRef John@14 @20 S3′ sRef John@17 @17 S3′ sRef John@17 @21 S3′ sRef John@17 @23 S3′ sRef John@17 @19 S3′ [3] The Lord’s conjunction with man is by His Divine truth, and this in man is of the Lord, thus the Lord, and by no means man’s, consequently is not man. Man, indeed, feels it as his own, but still it is not his, for it is not united to him, but adjoined; not so the Divine of the Father, this is not adjoined but united to the Lord’s Human, as the soul to its body. He who understands these things may understand the following words of the Lord:
He that abideth in Me and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit, for without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:5).
In that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you (John 14:20).
Sanctify them in Thy truth; Thy Word is truth; for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also might be sanctified in the truth: that they all may be one, as Thou, Father, art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in Us; I in them and thou in me (John 17:17, 19, 21, 23).

AR (Whitehead) n. 223 sRef Rev@3 @22 S0′ 223. Verse 22. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, signifies that he who understands, ought to obey what the Divine truth of the Word teaches those who will be of the New Church, which is the New Jerusalem, as above (n. 87).

AR (Whitehead) n. 224 224. To this I will add this Relation. I saw an assembly of spirits, all upon their knees, praying to God to send angels to them, that they might converse with them face to face, and open to them the thoughts of their hearts. And when they arose, there appeared three angels in fine linen, standing before them, and they said, “The Lord Jesus Christ has heard your prayers, and has therefore sent us to you; open unto us the thoughts of your hearts.”
[2] And they answered, “We have been told by our priests, that in matters of a theological nature the understanding avails nothing, but only faith, and that in such things intellectual faith is of no service to anyone, because it is derived from man. We are Englishmen, and have heard many things from our sacred ministry, which we believed; but when we have conversed with others, who also called themselves the Reformed, and with others who called themselves the Roman Catholics, and likewise with sectaries, they all appeared to us learned, and yet, in many things, one did not agree with another, and still they all said, `Believe us;’ and some of them, `We are God’s ministers, and know.’ But as we know that the Divine truths, which are called truths of faith, and which appertain to the church, are not derived to anyone from his native soil, nor by inheritance, but out of heaven from God; and as these show the way to heaven, and enter into the life together with the good of charity, and so lead to eternal life, we became anxious, and prayed to God upon our knees.”
[3] Then the angels answered, “Read the Word, and believe in the Lord, and you will see the truths which should constitute your faith and life; for all in the Christian world draw their doctrinals from the Word as from the only fountain.” But two of the company said, “We have read, but did not understand.”
[4] And the angels replied, “You did not approach the Lord, and you have also confirmed yourselves in falsities”; and the angels said further, “What is faith without light, and what signifies thinking without understanding? This is not human; even magpies and ravens can learn to speak without understanding. We can affirm to you, that every man whose soul desires it is capable of seeing the truths of the Word in the light; there does not exist an animal that does not know the food proper to its life when it sees it, and man is a rational and spiritual animal, who sees the food of his life, not that of his body, but of his soul, which is the truth of faith, provided indeed he hungers after it, and seeks it from the Lord; whatsoever is not received also in the understanding is not fixed in the memory in reality, but only verbally; therefore, when we have looked down out of heaven into the world, we have not seen anything, but have only heard sounds, that are for the most part dissonant.
[5] “But we will enumerate some things which the learned among the clergy have removed from the understanding, not knowing that there are two ways to the understanding, one from the world, and the other from heaven, and that the Lord withdraws the understanding from the world when He enlightens it; but if the understanding be closed by religion, the way into it from heaven is closed, and then man sees no more in the Word than a blind person. We have seen many such fall into pits, out of which they have never risen again. Examples must serve for illustration: are you not able to understand what charity is, and what faith is; that charity consists in doing well by your neighbor, and that faith consists in thinking well of God and of the essentials of the church, and therefore that he who does well and thinks well, that is, who lives well and believes well, is saved?” They replied, that they understood these things.
[6] The angels said further, “Do you not understand, that repentance from sins is to be performed, in order that man may be saved, and that, unless a man actually repents, he abides in the sins into which he was born, and that the work of repentance consists in not willing evils because they are against God, and in examining himself once or twice a year, in seeing his evils, in confessing them before the Lord, imploring assistance, desisting from them, and leading a new life, and as far as he does this, and believes in the Lord, so far his sins are remitted?” Then some of the company replied, “This we understand, and thence also what remission of sins is.”
[7] And then they solicited the angels to give them further information, and especially concerning God, the immortality of the soul, regeneration and baptism. To this the angels replied, “We will not say anything but what you can understand, otherwise our discourse will fall like rain upon sand, and upon seeds therein, which although watered from heaven, still wither and perish.” Concerning God they said, “All who come into heaven have their place allotted them there, and thence eternal joy, according to their idea of God, because this idea reigns universally in every particular of worship. The idea of an invisible God is not determined to anyone, nor does it terminate in any, therefore it ceases and perishes. The idea of God as Spirit, when a spirit is believed to be like ether or wind, is an empty idea; but the idea of God as Man is a just idea, for God is the Divine love and the Divine wisdom, with every quality belonging thereto, and the subject of these is man, and not ether or wind. The idea of God in heaven is the idea of the Lord. He is the God of heaven and earth, as He Himself taught. Let your idea of God be like unto ours, and we shall be consociated together.” On saying these words, their faces became resplendent.
[8] Concerning the Immortality of the Soul, they said, “Man lives to eternity, because he can be conjoined with God by love and faith, this indeed is possible with everyone. That this possibility constitutes the immortality of the soul you may understand, if you think of it a little more deeply.”
[9] Concerning Regeneration;” “Who does not see that everyone is at liberty to think of God, or not to think of Him, provided he be instructed that there is a God; so that everyone has liberty in spiritual things, equally as in things civil and moral; the Lord gives this liberty to all continually; for which reason he becomes guilty, if he does not think of God. Man is man from this ability; but a beast is a beast from not having this ability; therefore man can reform and regenerate himself as from himself, provided he acknowledges in heart that it is from the Lord. Everyone who does the work of repentance, and believes in the Lord, is reformed and regenerated. Man must do both as from himself, but this ‘as from himself’ is from the Lord. It is true that man cannot contribute anything thereto, no not in the least, nevertheless you were not created statues, but you were created men, that you might do that from the Lord as from yourselves. This is the only reciprocal of love and faith, that it is altogether the Lord’s will that it should be done by man unto Him. In a word, do it from yourselves, and believe that you do it from the Lord, thus do it as from yourselves.”
[10] But then the Englishmen inquired, Whether to act as from oneself, is a faculty implanted in man from creation? The angel answered, “It is not implanted, because to act from Himself is the Lord’s alone, but it is communicated continually, that is, adjoined continually, and then so far as man does good and believes what is true, as from himself, so far he is an angel of heaven; but so far as he does evil and thence believes what is false, which is done also as from himself, so far he is an angel of hell. That this also is as from himself surprises you, but still you see that it is so, when you pray that you may be preserved from the devil, lest he should seduce you, and enter into you, as he did into Judas, fill you with all iniquity, and destroy you, soul and body. But everyone incurs guilt who believes that he acts from himself, whether it be good, or whether it be evil; but he does not incur guilt, who believes that he acts as from himself.”
[11] Concerning Baptism, they said, “That it is spiritual washing, which is reformation and regeneration; and that an infant is reformed and regenerated, when, on becoming an adult, he does the things which his sponsors promised for him, which are two, repentance and faith in God; for they promise first that he shall renounce the devil and all his works; and second, that he shall believe in God. All infants in heaven are initiated into these two, but to them the devil is hell, and God is the Lord. Moreover baptism is a sign before the angels that a man is of the church.
[12] On hearing these things, some of the assembly said, “This we understand.” But a voice was heard from one side, exclaiming, “We do not understand;” and another voice, “We will not understand;” and inquiry was made from whence these voices proceeded, and it was found that they came from those who had confirmed themselves in falsities of faith, and who wished to be believed as oracles, and thus to be adored.
The angels said, “Be not surprised: there are very many such at this day; they appear to us from heaven like graven images, made with such art as to be able to move the lips, and utter sounds like organs, but without knowing whether the breath, by means of which they utter these sounds, comes from hell or from heaven, because they do not know whether a thing be false or true. They reason and reason; they confirm and confirm, nor do they ever see whether it is so. But know, that human ingenuity can confirm whatsoever one wishes, even until it appears to be so; therefore heretics and impious persons, yea atheists can confirm that there is no God, but nature only.”
[13] Afterwards the assembly of Englishmen, enkindled with the desire of being wise, said to the angels, “So many various opinions are spoken of the Holy Supper, tell us what is the truth.” The angels replied, “The truth is that the man who looks to the Lord and performs repentance, is conjoined with the Lord by means of that most holy sacrament, and is introduced into heaven.” But some of the company said, “This is a mystery.” To which the angels replied, “It is a mystery, but still such that it can be understood. The bread and wine do not produce this effect, for there is nothing holy in them, but material bread and heavenly bread correspond mutually to each other, and so do material wine and heavenly wine; and heavenly bread is the holy of love, and heavenly wine is the holy of faith, both from the Lord, and both the Lord. Thence there is a conjunction of the Lord with man, and of man with the Lord, not with the bread and wine, but with the love and faith of the man who had done the work of repentance; and conjunction with the Lord is also introduction into heaven.” And after the angels had taught them something concerning correspondence and its effect, some of the company said, “Now for the first time we understand.” And when they said, “We understand,” behold a flame with light descending from heaven, consociated them with the angels, and they loved one another.

AR (Whitehead) n. 225 sRef Rev@4 @1 S0′ 225. Revelation 4

1. After these things I saw, and behold a door opened in heaven. And the first voice, which I heard, as of a trumpet speaking with me, said, Come up hither, and I will show thee the things which must be hereafter.
2. And immediately I was in the spirit. And, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and One sitting on the throne.
3. And He that sat was in appearance like a jasper and a sardius stone; and there was a rainbow round about the throne in appearance like an emerald.
4. And round about the throne were four-and-twenty thrones; and upon the thrones I saw four-and-twenty elders sitting, clothed in white garments; and they had on their heads golden crowns.
5. And out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thunders, and voices; and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God.
6. And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal. And in the midst of the throne and round about the throne, were four animals full of eyes before and behind.
7. And the first animal was like a lion, and the second animal like a calf, and the third animal having a face like a man, and the fourth animal was like a flying eagle.
8. And the four animals each by himself had six wings about him; and they were full of eyes within; and they had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, who was, and who is, and who is to come.
9. And when the animals gave glory, and honor, and thanks to Him that sat upon the throne, who liveth for ages of ages,
10. The four-and-twenty elders fell down before Him that sat on the throne, and adored Him that liveth for ages of ages, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying,
11. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honor and power, for Thou hast created all things, and by Thy will they are and were created.

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

The contents of the whole chapter

It treats of the arrangement and preparation of all things in heaven for the judgment, to be executed from the Word, and according to it; likewise concerning the acknowledgment that the Lord is the only judge.

The contents of each verse

Verse 1. “After these things, I saw and behold a door opened in heaven,” signifies a manifestation concerning the arrangement of the heavens preparatory to the Last Judgment from the Lord, about to be performed according to His Divine truths in the Word (n. 225). “And the first voice which I heard, as of a trumpet, speaking with me, said, Come up hither,” signifies Divine influx, and thence an elevation of the mind, followed by manifest perception (n. 226). “And I will show thee the things which must be hereafter,” signifies revelations of things to come before the Last Judgment, and concerning it, and after it (n. 227). Verse 2. “And immediately I was in the spirit,” signifies that he was let into a spiritual state, in which the things which exist in heaven manifestly appear (n. 228). “And, behold, a throne was set in heaven,” signifies the Judgment in a representative form. “And One sitting on the throne,” signifies the Lord (n. 230). Verse 3. “And He that sat was in appearance like a jasper and a sardine stone,” signifies the appearance of the Lord’s Divine wisdom and Divine love in ultimates (n. 231). “And there was a rainbow round about the throne in appearance like an emerald,” signifies the appearance of the same also round about the Lord (n. 232). Verse 4. “And round about the throne were four-and-twenty thrones, and upon the thrones I saw four-and-twenty elders sitting,” signifies the arrangement of all things in heaven preparatory to the Judgment (n. 233). “Clothed in white garments,” signifies from the Divine truths of the Word (n. 234). “And they had on their heads golden crowns,” signifies the things which are of wisdom from love (n. 235). Verse 5. “And out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thunders, and voices,” signifies enlightenment, perception, and instruction from the Lord (n. 236). “And there were seven lamps of fire before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God,”* signifies the New Heaven from among Christians (n. 237-238). Verse 6. “And in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, there were four animals,” signifies the Word of the Lord from first to ultimates, and its guards (n. 239). “Full of eyes before and behind,” signifies the Divine wisdom therein (n. 240). Verse 7. “And the first animal was like a lion,” signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to power (n. 241). “And the second animal like a calf,” signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to affection (n. 242). “And the third animal having a face like a man,” signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to wisdom (n. 243). “And the fourth animal was like a flying eagle,” signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to knowledges and thence understanding (n. 244). Verse 8. “And the four animals each by himself had six wings about him,” signifies the Word as to its powers and as to its guards (n. 245). “And they were full of eyes within,” signifies the Divine Wisdom in the Word in its natural sense from its spiritual and celestial sense (n. 246). “And they had no rest day and night, saying, `Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty,'” signifies that the Word continually teaches the Lord, and that He alone is God, and thence that He alone is to be worshiped (n. 247). “Who was, and who is, and who is to come,” signifies the Lord (n. 248). Verse 9. “And when the animals gave glory, and honor, and thanks to Him that sat upon the throne,” signifies that the Word ascribes all truth, and all good, and all worship to the Lord Who is to judge (n. 249). “Who liveth for ages of ages,” signifies that the Lord alone is life, and that life eternal is from Him alone (n. 250). Verse 10. “The four-and-twenty elders fell down before Him that sat on the throne, and adored Him that liveth for ages of ages,” signifies the humiliation of all in heaven before the Lord (it. 251). “And cast their crowns before the throne,” signifies the acknowledgment that their wisdom is from Him alone (n. 252). Verse 11. ” Saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honor, and power,” signifies that the kingdom is the Lord’s by merit and justice, because He is the Divine truth and the Divine good (n. 253). “For Thou hast created all things, and by Thy will they are, and were created,” signifies that all things of heaven and the church were made and formed, and men reformed and regenerated from the Lord’s Divine love by His Divine wisdom, or from His Divine good by His Divine truth, which also is the Word.
* The original Latin omits “burning.”

THE EXPLANATION

Verse 1. After these things I saw, and behold a door opened in heaven, signifies the manifestation of the arrangement of the heavens preparatory to the Last Judgment from the Lord, about to be performed according to His Divine truths in the Word. By “an open door,” when it relates to heaven, is signified admission, as above (n. 176); here, also, manifestation, because he says, “I saw and behold;” and because then were seen the things which are recorded in this chapter, which refer to the arrangement of the heavens for the Last Judgment by the Lord, to be executed according to His Divine truths in the Word, therefore by “I saw, and behold a door opened in heaven,” is signified a manifestation concerning them.

AR (Whitehead) n. 226 sRef Num@10 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @1 S0′ sRef Num@10 @8 S0′ sRef Num@10 @6 S0′ sRef Num@10 @7 S0′ sRef Num@10 @3 S0′ sRef Num@10 @2 S0′ sRef Num@10 @9 S0′ sRef Num@10 @4 S0′ sRef Num@10 @11 S0′ sRef Num@10 @10 S0′ sRef Num@10 @1 S0′ 226. And the first voice which I heard, as of a trumpet speaking with me, said, Come up hither, signifies Divine influx, and thence an elevation of the mind, and then manifest perception. That “a voice,” when heard from heaven, is the inflowing Divine truth may be seen above (n. 37, 50), thus Divine influx; and that by “a voice as of a trumpet,” is signified manifest perception, may also be seen above (n. 37); and by “Come up hither,” is signified elevation of the mind; for in the spiritual world, the higher anyone ascends, so much the more does he come into purer light, by which the understanding is by degrees opened, that is, the mind is elevated. Therefore it also follows, that he was then in the spirit, by which is meant that he was let into a spiritual state, in which the things which are in the heavens manifestly appear. The voice was heard “as of a trumpet,” because it treats of the arrangement of the heavens for the Last Judgment; and voices as of a trumpet are heard in heaven when convocations and arrangements are made. Therefore also among the sons of Israel with whom all things were representative of heaven and the church, it was also commanded:
That they should make trumpets of silver, and that the sons of Aaron should sound them for the calling of assemblies, and for the journeyings, in days of rejoicing, in festivals, in the beginnings of months, over burnt offerings, for a memorial, and for war (Num. 10:1-10).
But we shall speak of “trumpets,” and of “sounding” them, in the explanation of chap. 8, where the seven angels are mentioned, to whom were given seven trumpets.

AR (Whitehead) n. 227 sRef Rev@4 @1 S0′ 227. And I will show thee things which must be hereafter, signifies revelations of things to come before the Last Judgment, and concerning it, and after it. These things are signified, because in Revelation nothing else is treated of but the state of the church at its end, thus the things that are to be before the Last Judgment, and concerning it, and after it, as above (n. 2).

AR (Whitehead) n. 228 sRef Rev@4 @2 S0′ 228. Verse 2. And immediately I was in the spirit, signifies that he was let into a spiritual state, in which the things which exist in heaven manifestly appear. That “to be in the spirit” is to be let into a spiritual state from Divine influx, as also what a spiritual state is and its quality, and that a man in that state sees as manifestly the things which are in the spiritual world, as in the natural state of the body he sees the things which are in this world, may be seen above (n. 36).

AR (Whitehead) n. 229 sRef Ps@122 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@9 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@9 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@122 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @2 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@122 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@9 @7 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @31 S0′ 229. And, behold, a throne was set, signifies a representation of the Judgment. That “a throne” signifies heaven may be seen (n. 14); that a throne also signifies judgment, is evident from the following passages:
When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory (Matt. 25:31 seq.).
The Last Judgment is here treated of:
O Jehovah, Thou hast done my judgment, Thou sattest upon the throne a Judge of justice. Jehovah will prepare His throne for judgment (Ps. 9:4-5, 7).
I saw when the Ancient of Days did sit; His throne was as a flame of fire; a thousand and thousands ministered unto Him, and a myriad of myriads stood before Him, the judgment was set and the books were opened (Dan. 7:9-10).
Jerusalem is built; thither the tribes go up; and there are set thrones for judgment (Ps. 122:3-5).
I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them (Rev. 20:4).
“The throne” built by Solomon, mentioned (1 Kings 10:18-20) signifies both kingdom and judgment; since kings, when they executed judgment, sat upon thrones. It is said that “the throne” signifies judgment in a representative form, because the things which John saw were visions which represented. They were seen as he has described; but they were forms representative of future things, as may be evident from what follows; as that there were seen animals, a dragon, beasts, a temple, a tabernacle, the ark, and many other things. Similar were the things which were seen by the prophets, spoken of above (n. 36).

AR (Whitehead) n. 230 sRef Rev@4 @2 S0′ 230. And one sitting on the throne, signifies the Lord, as appears manifestly from what follows, and from passages in the Word where it is said that the Lord will execute judgment (as in Matt. 25:32, 33; and following verses; John 5:22, 27; and elsewhere).

AR (Whitehead) n. 231 sRef Rev@4 @3 S0′ 231. Verse 3. And He that sat was in appearance like a jasper and sardius stone signifies the appearance of the Lord’s Divine wisdom and Divine love in ultimates. “A stone,” in the Word, signifies truth in ultimates, and “a precious stone,” truth transparent from good (n. 915). There are two colors fundamental of the rest in the spiritual world, the color white and the color red, the color white derives its origin from the light of the sun in heaven, thus from spiritual light, which is shining white; and the color red derives its origin from the fire of the sun there, thus from celestial light, which is flaming. The spiritual angels, because they are in truths of wisdom from the Lord, are in that shining white light, therefore they are clothed in white; and the celestial angels, because they are in the good of love from the Lord, are in that flaming light, therefore they are clothed in red; thence those two colors also are in the precious stones in heaven, where they are in great abundance. This is the reason why precious stones, in the Word, signify such things as are of the truth of wisdom, or of the good of love, and that “the jasper,” because it is shining white, signifies the things which are of the truth of wisdom; and “the sardius,” because it is red, the things which are of the good of love. These stones signify the appearance of the Divine wisdom and the Divine love in ultimates, because all precious stones in heaven derive their origin from the ultimates of the Word, and their transparency from the spiritual sense of the ultimates. That this is the case, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 44, 45). The ultimates of the Word are the truths and goods of the sense of the letter. That this is the origin of precious stones in heaven can scarcely be believed by anyone in our world, because he does not know that all the things which exist in the spiritual world are correspondences, and that from thence all the things which exist in the natural world derive their spiritual origin. That this is the origin of precious stones in heaven has been granted me to know from speech with angels, and also to see it with my eyes, but the formation of them is from the Lord alone. But black colors, which are also two in number, derive their origin from hell; one in opposition to white, this blackness being with those who have falsified the truths of the Word; the other in opposition to red, this blackness being with those who have adulterated the goods of the Word; the latter blackness is diabolical, but the former satanic. The signification of “the jasper” and “the sardius” may be seen in the explanation of chap. 21:11, 18-20.

AR (Whitehead) n. 232 sRef Rev@4 @3 S0′ 232. And there was a rainbow round about the throne in appearance like an emerald, signifies the appearance of the same also round about the Lord. In the spiritual world there appear rainbows of many kinds, they appear of various colors as upon the earth, and they appear of one color; here of one color, because it is said “like unto an emerald.” This appearance was round about the Lord, because it is said “round about the throne;” round about Him is also in the angelic heaven. The Divine sphere which surrounds the Lord is from His Divine love, and at the same time from His Divine wisdom, which, when it is represented in the heavens, appears in the celestial kingdom red like a ruby, in the spiritual kingdom blue like the lapis lazuli, in the natural kingdom green like the emerald; everywhere with ineffable splendor and radiance.

AR (Whitehead) n. 233 sRef Rev@4 @4 S0′ sRef John@5 @27 S1′ sRef John@12 @47 S1′ sRef John@5 @22 S1′ sRef John@12 @48 S1′ 233. Verse 4. And round about the throne were four-and-twenty thrones, and upon the thrones I saw four-and-twenty elders sitting, signifies the arrangement of all things in heaven preparatory to the Last Judgment. He who does not know the spiritual sense of the Word, and at the same time the genuine truths of the church, may believe, that when the Last Judgment shall come, the Lord will sit upon a throne, and that there will be other judges also upon thrones around Him. But he who knows the spiritual sense of the Word, and at the same time the genuine truths of the church, knows that the Lord will not then sit upon a throne, and that neither will there be other judges about Him; and further, that neither will the Lord judge anyone to hell, but that the Word will judge everyone, the Lord moderating that all things may be done according to justice. The Lord says, indeed:
The Father judgeth no one, but hath committed all judgment to the Son, and hath given Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of man (John 5:22, 27).
But in another place he says:
I came not to judge the world, but to save the world; the Word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day (John 12:47-48).
These two passages agree, when it is known that “the Son of man” is the Lord as to the Word (see above, n. 44); therefore the Word will judge, the Lord moderating.
sRef Ps@122 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@122 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@3 @14 S2′ sRef Matt@19 @28 S2′ sRef Rev@20 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@122 @3 S2′ [2] That by the twelve tribes of Israel and their elders are signified all who are of the Lord’s church in the heavens and on earth, and, abstractly, all the truths and goods therein, may be seen (n. 251, 349, 369, 808); and the same by the apostles (n. 79, 790, 903); hence it is plain what is signified by these words of the Lord:
Jesus said unto the disciples, Ye which have followed Me, when the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt. 19:28; Luke 22:30).
“Twelve” signifies all, and is predicated of the truths and goods of heaven and the church (n. 348); the same is signified by “twenty-four”; therefore “the twelve apostles” and the “twenty-four elders” signify all things of the church; and “twelve,” as also “twenty-four thrones,” signify the all of judgment. Who cannot understand, that the apostles and elders will not judge; and that they cannot? From these considerations it may appear why “thrones” and “elders” are mentioned when the Judgment is treated of; as also in Isaiah:
Jehovah will enter into judgment with the elders of His people (Isa. 3:14).
In David:
Jerusalem is builded, whither the tribes go up; and there are set thrones for judgment (Ps. 122:3, 5).
And in Revelation:
And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them (Rev. 20:4).

AR (Whitehead) n. 234 sRef Rev@4 @4 S0′ 234. Clothed in white garments, signifies from the Divine truths of the Word. That “white garments” signify genuine truths of the Word, may be seen above (n. 166, 212).

AR (Whitehead) n. 235 sRef Rev@4 @4 S0′ 235. And they had on their heads golden crowns, signifies such things as are of wisdom from love. That “a crown” signifies wisdom, may be seen above (n. 189); and that “gold” signifies the good of love (n. 211, 913); hence “a golden crown” signifies wisdom from love. As from this wisdom are derived all the things of heaven and the church, which are signified by the four-and-twenty elders (n. 233); therefore golden crowns were seen upon their heads. It is to be known, that the spiritual sense is abstracted from persons, as above (n. 78, 79, 96), so also here.

AR (Whitehead) n. 236 sRef Rev@4 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@97 @3 S1′ sRef Ps@97 @4 S1′ sRef Ps@81 @7 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @6 S1′ sRef Ps@77 @15 S1′ 236. Verse 5. And out of the throne proceeded lightnings, and thunders, and voices, signifies enlightenment, perception, and instruction from the Lord. “Lightnings,” by reason of the flash which strikes the eyes signify enlightenment, and “thunders,” by reason of the noise which strikes the ears signify perception, and when these two signify enlightenment and perception, then “voices” signify instruction. These were seen to proceed “from the throne,” because they proceed from the Son of man, or from the Lord as to the Word, and from the Lord through the Word come all enlightenment, perception, and instruction. “Lightnings, thunders, and voices,” have a similar signification in other parts of the Word, as in these passages:
Thou hast with Thine arm redeemed Thy people: the skies gave forth a voice; the voice of thunder went into the world; the lightnings enlightened the world (Ps. 77:15, 17-18).
The lightnings of Jehovah shall enlighten the world (Ps. 97:4).
Thou didst call upon Me in straitness, and I rescued thee: I answered thee in the secret place of the thunder (Ps. 81:7).
I heard the sound of a great multitude, as the sound of mighty thunders, saying, Hallelujah, because the Lord, our God, the Almighty, hath taken the kingdom (Rev. 19:6).
sRef Rev@10 @3 S2′ sRef John@12 @29 S2′ sRef Rev@14 @2 S2′ sRef Ex@19 @16 S2′ sRef John@12 @28 S2′ sRef Rev@11 @19 S2′ sRef Rev@10 @4 S2′ sRef Rev@6 @1 S2′ sRef Rev@8 @5 S2′ [2] Because enlightenment, perception, and instruction are signified by “lightnings, thunders, and voices,” therefore:
When Jehovah descended upon Mount Sinai, and promulgated the Law, there were thunders and voices (Exod. 19:16).
And when:
A voice was sent down from heaven to the Lord, it was heard as thunder (John 12:28-29).
And as James and John represented charity and its works, and all perception of truth and good is from these:
They were called by the Lord, Boanerges, that is, sons of thunder (Mark 3:17).
From these things it is manifest that similar things are signified by “lightnings, thunders, and voices,” in the following passages in Revelation:
I heard a voice from the four animals, as it were a voice of thunder (Rev. 6:1).
I heard a voice out of heaven as a voice of great thunder (Rev. 14:2).
When the angel cast the censer unto the earth, there were thunders, voices, and lightnings (Rev. 8:5).
When the angel cried out, seven thunders uttered their voices (Rev. 10:3-4).
When the temple of God was opened in heaven, there were lightnings, and voices, and thunders (Rev. 11:19; in like manner elsewhere).

AR (Whitehead) n. 237 sRef Rev@4 @5 S0′ 237. And there where seven lamps of fire* before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God signifies the New Church in heaven and on earth from the Lord through the Divine truth proceeding from Him. Here by “seven lamps” the same is signified as by “the seven lamp stands;” and also by “the seven stars” above. That by “the seven lamp stands” is meant the New Church upon earth, which will be in enlightenment from the Lord, may be seen above (n. 43), and by “the seven stars,” the New Church in the heavens (n. 65); and because the church is a church from the Divine which proceeds from the Lord, which is the Divine truth, and is called the Holy Spirit, therefore it is said, “which are the seven spirits of God.” That by “the seven spirits of God” is signified that proceeding Divine, may be seen above (n. 14, 155).

AR (Whitehead) n. 238 sRef Ps@77 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@77 @17 S0′ 238. Verse 6. And before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal, signifies the New Heaven from Christians who are in general truths from the literal sense of the Word. In the spiritual world there appear atmospheres, and also waters, like as in our world; the atmospheres, in which the angels of the highest heaven dwell, are as it were ethereal; the atmospheres, in which the angels of the middle heaven dwell, are as it were aerial; and the atmospheres, in which the angels of the lowest heaven dwell, are as it were aqueous; and these last appear as seas at the boundaries of heaven, where they dwell who are in general truths from the literal sense of the Word. That “waters” signify truths, may be seen above (n. 50); hence “the sea,” in which waters terminate and are collected, signifies the Divine truth in its boundaries. Since, therefore, by “One sitting on the throne” is meant the Lord (n. 230), and by “the seven lamps,” which are “the seven spirits of God before the throne,” is meant the New Church, which will be in Divine truth from the Lord (n. 237), it is evident that, by “the sea of glass” which was before the throne, is meant the church among those who are at the boundaries.
[2] It has also been granted me to see the seas which are at the boundaries of the heavens, and to converse with those who were therein, and thus to know the truth of this matter from experience. They seemed to me to be in the sea, but they said that they are not in the sea, but in an atmosphere; from which it was manifest to me, that the sea is an appearance of the Divine proceeding from the Lord in its boundaries. That there are seas in the spiritual world, is fully evident from their having been seen by John frequently (as also here, in chap. 5:13; 7:1-3; 8:8, 9; 10:2, 8; 12:12; 13:1; 14:7; 15:2; 16:3; 18:17, 19, 21; 20:13). It is called “a sea of glass like unto crystal,” from the pellucidity of the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord.
sRef Ps@24 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@104 @6 S3′ sRef Zech@14 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@104 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@43 @16 S3′ sRef Ps@77 @19 S3′ [3] Because Divine truth at its boundaries causes the appearance of a sea in the spiritual world, therefore “sea,” in other parts of the Word, has a similar signification, as in these passages:
In that day living waters shall go forth from Jerusalem, part of them toward the eastern sea, and part of them toward the hinder sea (Zech. 14:8).
“Living waters from Jerusalem,” are the Divine truths of the church from the Lord, therefore “the sea” is where they terminate:
Thy way, O Jehovah, is in the sea, and Thy highway in many waters (Ps. 77:19).
Thus saith Jehovah, which maketh a way in the sea, and a highway in many waters (Isa. 43:16).
Jehovah hath founded the world upon the seas, and established it upon the floods (Ps. 24:2).
Jehovah hath founded the earth upon its bases that it should not be removed to eternity. Thou coveredst it with the deep [or sea] as with a garment (Ps. 104:5, 6).
“The earth is founded upon the sea,” is the church, which is meant by “the earth,” is founded upon general truths; for these are its bases and foundations.
sRef Ps@33 @7 S4′ sRef Amos@9 @6 S4′ sRef Jer@51 @42 S4′ sRef Isa@50 @2 S4′ sRef Jer@51 @36 S4′ sRef Hos@11 @10 S4′ sRef Ps@33 @6 S4′ [4] And I will dry up the sea of Babylon and make her springs dry; He shall make the sea to ascend over Babylon, she shall be covered with the multitude of the waves (Jer. 51:36, 42).
“Drying up the sea of Babylon and making her springs dry,” signifies to extinguish every truth of its church from firsts to lasts.
They shall walk after Jehovah, then the sons shall approach with honor from the sea (Hos. 11:10).
“Sons from the sea” are they who are in general or ultimate truths.
Jehovah who buildeth His steps in the heavens, and calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the faces of the earth (Amos 9:6).
By the word of Jehovah were the heavens made, He gathereth the waters of the sea together as a heap, giving the abysses in treasuries (Ps. 33:6-7).
At My rebuke I dry up the sea, I make the rivers a wilderness (Isa. 50:2: besides in other places).
[5] As by “sea” is signified the Divine truth with those who are in the borders of heaven, therefore by “Tyre and Zidon,” from their being near the sea, is signified the church as to the knowledges of good and truth; and also by the “islands of the sea” are signified those who are in more remote Divine worship (n. 34): and therefore “the sea,” in the Hebrew language, is called “the west,” that is, where the light of the sun declines towards its evening, or truth into obscurity. That “sea” also signifies the natural of man separated from the spiritual, thus also hell, will be seen in what follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 239 sRef 1Ki@6 @28 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @24 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @26 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @25 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @27 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @23 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @22 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@26 @31 S0′ 239. And in the midst of the throne and round about the throne, there were four animals, signifies the Word of the Lord from first to ultimates, and its guards. I know they will wonder that it should be said, “the four animals” signify the Word; that this is their signification, will however be seen in what follows. These “animals” are the same as “the cherubim” in Ezekiel, where they are also called “animals” in chapter 1, but “cherubim” in chapter 10, and were, in like manner as here, a lion, an ox, a man, and an eagle. In the Hebrew language they are there called “chajoth,” a word which indeed signifies animals, but is derived from “chaja,” which is life, whence also the wife of Adam was called “Chaja” (Genesis 3:20). “Animal” in the singular number is also called “chaja” in Ezekiel, therefore those animals may also be called living things. Neither is it anything extraordinary that the Word is described by animals, since the Lord Himself in many parts of the Word is called “a lion,” and often “Lamb,” and they who are in charity from the Lord are called “sheep”; and the understanding also of the Word, in what follows, is called “a horse.” That the Word is signified by these “animals” or “cherubim,” is evident from this, that they were seen “in the midst of the throne and round about the throne,” and in the midst of the throne was the Lord, and, as the Lord is the Word, they could not be seen anywhere else. That they were round about the throne also, was, because they were in the angelic heaven, where also the Word is.
sRef Gen@3 @24 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @23 S2′ [2] That by “cherubim” is signified the Word, and its guards, is shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 97), where are the following words:
The sense of the letter of the Word serves as a guard for the genuine truths which lie within; and the guard consists in this, that the literal sense can be turned hither and thither, that is, can be explained according to everyone’s apprehension, without its internal being hurt or violated; for no harm ensues from the literal sense being understood differently by different people; but it does harm when the Divine truths which are within are perverted, for it is by this that the Word suffers violence. To prevent this, the literal sense guards, and it guards with those who are in falsities from religion, but yet do not confirm them, for from these the Word suffers no violence. This guard is signified by “cherubim,” and is also described by them in the Word. This guard is signified by “the cherubim,” which after the expulsion of Adam and his wife from the garden of Eden, were placed at its entrance; concerning which we read:
When Jehovah God had driven out the man, He made to dwell from the east to the garden of Eden cherubim, and a flame of a sword, which turned every way, to guard the way of the tree of life (Gen. 3:23-24).
By “cherubim” is signified a guard; by “the way of the tree of life” is signified admission to the Lord, which is given to men through the Word; by “a flame of a sword which turned every way,” is signified the Divine truth in ultimates, which is as the Word in the sense of the letter, that allows of being turned this way and that.
sRef Ps@18 @10 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @32 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @35 S3′ sRef 1Ki@6 @29 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @19 S3′ sRef Ps@18 @9 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @21 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @18 S3′ sRef Ex@25 @20 S3′ [3] The same is meant by:
The cherubim made of gold over the two extremities of the mercy-seat, which was above the ark in the Tabernacle (Exod. 25:18-21).
Because this was signified by “cherubim,” therefore:
Jehovah spoke from between them with Moses (Exod. 25:22; 30:6; Num. 7:89).
Nor was anything else understood by:
The cherubim over the curtains of the tabernacle and over the veil there (Exod. 26:31).
For the curtains and veil of the tabernacle represented the ultimates of heaven, and the church, thus also the ultimates of the Word. Nothing else is signified by the cherubim in the middle of the temple of Jerusalem (1 Kings 6:23-28); and by the cherubim carved upon the walls and doors of the temple (1 Kings 6:29, 32, 35); and also by the cherubim in the new temple (Ezek. 41:18-20).
sRef Ezek@28 @16 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @12 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @13 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @14 S4′ [4] Since by “cherubim” was signified a guard that the Lord, heaven, and the Divine truth such as it is interiorly in the Word, be not approached immediately, but mediately by ultimates, therefore it is said of the king of Tyre:
Thou sealest up the measure, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. Thou hast been in the garden of Eden; every precious stone was thy covering; thou O spreading cherub that covereth; I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, in the midst of the stones of fire (Ezek. 28:12-14, 16).
By “Tyre” is signified the church as to the knowledges of truth and good, and thence, by its “king,” the Word where and whence those knowledges are. That the Word in its ultimate, which is the sense of the letter, is here signified by him, and a guard, by “the cherub,” is evident, for it is said, “Thou sealest up the measure, every precious stone was thy covering,” and, “thou O spreading cherub that covereth;” by “the precious stones” which are also mentioned there, are signified the truths of the sense of the letter of the Word (n. 231).
sRef Ps@99 @1 S5′ sRef Ps@80 @1 S5′ [5] Because by “cherubim” is signified the Divine truth in ultimates as a guard, therefore it is said in David:
O Shepherd of Israel, that sitteth upon the cherubim, shine forth (Ps. 80:1).
Jehovah sitteth upon the cherubim (Ps. 99:1).
Jehovah bowed the heavens and came down, and rode upon the cherubim (Ps. 18:10-11).
“To ride upon cherubim,” “to sit” and “to be seated upon them,” means upon the ultimate sense of the Word. The Divine truth in the Word, and its quality, is described by the cherubim in Ezekiel, in chapters 1, 9, 10, but because no one can know what the particulars by which they are described signify, unless the spiritual sense has been opened to him, therefore, as it has been disclosed to me, I will explain, in a summary way, the signification of those things which are related concerning the four animals or cherubim in the first chapter of Ezekiel, which is as follows:
[6] The Divine external sphere of the Word is described (Ezek. 1:4).
It is represented as a man (Ezek. 1:5).
Its conjunction with things spiritual and celestial (Ezek. 1:6).
The natural of the Word, its quality (Ezek. 1:7).
The conjunction of the spiritual and celestial senses of the Word with the natural, its quality (Ezek. 1:8-9).
The Divine love of celestial, spiritual, and natural good and truth therein, jointly and severally (Ezek. 1:10-11).
That they regard one end (Ezek. 1:12).
The sphere of the Word from the Lord’s Divine good and Divine truth, from which the Word lives (Ezek. 1:13-14).
The doctrine of good and truth in the Word and from the Word (Ezek. 1:15-21).
The Divine of the Lord above it and in it (Ezek. 1:22-23).
And out of it (Ezek. 1:24-25).
That the Lord is above the heavens (Ezek. 1:26).
That the Divine love and the Divine wisdom are His (Ezek. 1:27-28).
These are summaries.

AR (Whitehead) n. 240 sRef Rev@4 @6 S0′ sRef Ezek@10 @12 S0′ 240. Full of eyes before and behind, signifies the Divine wisdom, therein. By “eyes,” when spoken of man, is signified the understanding, and when of the Lord, the Divine wisdom (n. 48, 125); the same when said of the Word, as here, because the Word is from the Lord, and concerning the Lord, and thus is the Lord. The like is said of the cherubim in Ezekiel, that “they were full of eyes” (10:12). “Before and behind,” when it relates to the Word from the Lord, signifies the Divine wisdom and Divine love therein.

AR (Whitehead) n. 241 sRef Rev@4 @7 S0′ sRef Micah@5 @8 S0′ sRef Amos@3 @8 S1′ sRef Rev@5 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@31 @4 S1′ sRef Gen@49 @9 S1′ 241. Verse 7. And the first animal was like a lion, signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to power. That “a lion” signifies truth in its power, here the Divine truth of the Word as to power, may appear from the power of the lion above every animal of the earth, as also from lions in the spiritual world, where they are images representative of the power of Divine truth; and likewise from the Word, where they signify the Divine truth in its power. What the power of the Divine truth in the Word is, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture, n. 49, and in the work on Heaven and Hell, (n. 228-233). Hence it is that Jehovah, or the Lord is compared to “a lion,” and is also called “a lion”; as in the following passages:
The lion roareth, who will not fear? the Lord Jehovah hath spoken, who will not prophesy? (Amos 3:8).
I will not return to destroy Ephraim, they shall walk after Jehovah. He roareth as a lion (Hos. 11:9-10).
As the lion roareth and the young lion, so shall Jehovah come down to fight upon Mount Zion (Isa. 31:4).
Behold the Lion which is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David hath conquered (Rev. 5:5).
Judah is a lion’s whelp, he coucheth, he lay down, as an old lion, who shall rouse him up? (Gen. 49:9).
sRef Ps@58 @7 S2′ sRef Hos@11 @10 S2′ sRef Ps@58 @6 S2′ sRef Num@24 @9 S2′ sRef Hos@11 @9 S2′ sRef Rev@10 @3 S2′ sRef Num@23 @24 S2′ [2] In these passages the power of Divine truth which is from the Lord, is described by “the lion.” “To roar” signifies to speak and act from power against the hells which wish to carry man away, but from which the Lord rescues him as a lion his prey; to “couch himself,” is to put himself in power; “Judah,” in the highest sense, signifies the Lord (n. 96, 266).
The angel cried with a great voice as a lion roareth (Rev. 10:3).
He couched, he lay down as an old lion, who shall stir him up? (Num. 24:9).
Behold, the people shall rise up as an old lion, and lift up himself as a young lion (Num. 23:24)
This is concerning Israel, by whom is signified the church, whose power, which is in Divine truths, is thus described. In like manner:
The remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of the people, as a lion among the beasts of the forests, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep (Micah 5:7-8; besides many other places; as Isa. 11:6; 21:6-9; 35:9; Jer. 2:15; 4:7; 5:6; 12:8; 50:17; 51:38; Ezek. 19:3, 5-6; Hos. 13:7-8; Joel 1:6-7; Nahum 2:12; Ps. 17:12; 22:13; 57:4; 58:6; 91:13; 104:21-22; Deut. 33:20).

AR (Whitehead) n. 242 sRef Isa@27 @10 S0′ sRef Hos@14 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@27 @11 S0′ sRef Mal@4 @2 S1′ sRef Ps@29 @6 S1′ 242. And the second animal like a calf signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to affection. By the beasts of the earth are signified the various natural affections, for such indeed they are; and by “a calf,” is signified the affection of knowing; in the spiritual world this affection is represented by a calf, therefore it is also signified by “a calf” in the Word, as in Hosea:
We will render unto Jehovah the calves of our lips (Hos. 14:2).
“Calves of the lips” are confessions from the affection of truth. In Malachi:
But unto you that fear My name, shall the sun of justice arise, and healing in his wings, that ye may grow up as fatted calves (Mal. 4:2).
They are compared to “fatted calves” because by them are signified those who are filled with the knowledges of truth and good from the affection of knowing them. In David:
The voice of Jehovah maketh the cedars of Lebanon to skip like a calf (Ps. 29:6).
By “the cedars of Lebanon” are signified the knowledges of truth; hence it is said that “the voice of Jehovah maketh them to skip like a calf.” “The voice of Jehovah” is the Divine truth, here affecting.
sRef Hos@13 @2 S2′ [2] Since the Egyptians loved the sciences, they made to themselves calves as a sign of their affection for them; but afterwards they began to worship the calves as gods, then by them, in the Word, are signified the affections of knowing falsities as in Jeremiah (46:20, 21; Psalm 68:30); and in other places; therefore the same is signified by the calf which the sons of Israel made for themselves in the wilderness (Exodus 32); as also by the calves of Samaria (1 Kings 12:28-32; Hosea 8:5; 10:5). Therefore it is said in Hosea:
They make for themselves a molten image of silver, sacrificing a man, they kiss the calves (Hos. 13:2).
To “make for themselves a molten image of silver,” signifies to falsify truth, “to sacrifice a man” signifies to destroy wisdom, and “to kiss calves” signifies to acknowledge falsities from affection. In Isaiah:
There shall the calf feed, and there shall he lie down and consume the branches thereof (Isa. 27:10).
The same is signified by calf in Jeremiah 34:18-20.
[3] Since all Divine worship is from the affections of truth and good, and thence from the knowledge of them, therefore sacrifices, in which the worship of the church with the sons of Israel chiefly consisted, were made of various beasts, such as lambs, goats, kids, sheep, he-goats, calves, oxen; they were from calves, because they signified the affection of knowing truths and goods, which is the first natural affection. This is what was signified by “sacrifices of calves” (Exodus 29:11, 12; Leviticus 4:3, 13 and following verses; 8:14 and following verses; 9:2; 16:3; 23:18; Numbers 8:8 and following verses; 15:24; 28:19, 20; Judges 6:25-29; 1 Samuel 1:25; 16:2; 1 Kings 18:23-26, 33). The second animal appeared like a calf, because the Divine truth of the Word, which is signified by it, affects minds and thus instructs and imbues.

AR (Whitehead) n. 243 sRef Ezek@34 @31 S0′ sRef Jer@4 @23 S0′ sRef Jer@4 @25 S0′ sRef Hos@13 @2 S0′ sRef Ezek@36 @38 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @17 S0′ sRef Isa@13 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @7 S0′ sRef Jer@31 @27 S0′ 243. And the third animal having a face like a man, signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to wisdom. By “a man,” in the Word, is signified wisdom, because he is born that he may receive wisdom from the Lord, and become an angel; therefore in proportion as anyone is wise, in the same proportion he is a man. Wisdom truly human consists in knowing that there is a God, what God is, and what is of God; this the Divine truth of the Word teaches. That by “a man” is signified wisdom, is plain from the following places:
I will make a man [vir] more rare than pure gold; even a man [homo] than the gold of Ophir (Isa. 13:12).
Man [vir homo] is intelligence, and man [homo] is wisdom:
The inhabitants of the earth shall be burned, and rare shall be the man that is left (Isa. 24:6).
I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man and with the seed of beast (Jer. 31:27).
And ye, my flock, are man, I am your God (Ezek. 34:31).
The devastated cities shall be filled with the flocks of man (Ezek. 36:38).
I beheld the earth, and lo, it was vacant and empty; and the heavens, and they had no light; I beheld, and lo, there was no man (Jer. 4:23, 25).
They sacrifice a man, they kiss calves (Hos. 13:2).
He measured the wall of the holy Jerusalem a hundred and forty-four cubits, the measure of a man, that is of an angel (Rev. 21:17).
Besides many other places in which by man is signified one that is wise, and, in the abstract sense, wisdom.

AR (Whitehead) n. 244 sRef Ezek@17 @4 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @7 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @5 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @6 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @8 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @3 S0′ sRef Job@39 @27 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @7 S0′ sRef Job@39 @29 S0′ sRef Job@39 @26 S0′ sRef Ps@103 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@40 @31 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @1 S0′ sRef Ezek@17 @2 S0′ 244. And the fourth animal was like a flying eagle, signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to knowledges, and thence understanding. By “eagles” various things are signified, and by “flying eagles” are signified knowledges from which understanding is derived, because when they fly they both know and see; for they have sharp eyes that they may see clearly, and by “eyes” are signified the understanding (n. 48, 214): by “flying” is signified to receive and instruct, and, in the highest sense, in which it has relation to the Lord, it signifies to foresee and provide. That “eagles” in the Word have such a signification, appears from these passages:
They that wait for Jehovah shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles (Isa. 40:31).
“To mount up with wings as eagles,” is to be elevated into the knowledges of truth and good, and thence into intelligence:
Is it by thy intelligence and according to thy mouth that the eagle lifteth himself and searcheth out his food; his eyes see clearly afar (Job. 39:26-27, 29).
The faculty of knowing, understanding, and seeing clearly, is here described by “the eagle,” and that this is not from man’s own intelligence.
Jehovah who satisfieth thy mouth with good so that thy youth is renewed like the eagle (Ps. 103:5).
“To satisfy the mouth with good,” is to give understanding by knowledges; hence a comparison is made with the eagle.
A great eagle, great in wings, long in feathers, came upon Lebanon, and took a twig of a cedar, and placed it in a field of seed, and it grew. And there was also another great eagle, to which the vine applied its roots (Ezek. 17:1-8).
Here by “the two eagles” is described the Jewish and Israelitish churches, both as to the knowledges of truth and consequent intelligence. But “eagles” in the opposite sense signify the knowledges of what is false, from which the understanding is perverted (as in Matt. 24:28; Jer. 4:13; Hab. 1:8, 9; and other places).

AR (Whitehead) n. 245 sRef Rev@4 @8 S0′ 245. Verse 8. And the four animals each by himself had six wings about him, signifies the Word as to its powers and as to its guards. That by “the four animals” the Word is signified, was shown above; that by wings are signified powers, and also guards, will be seen below. By “six” is signified all as to truth and good, for six is composed of “three” and “two” multiplied together, and by “three” is signified all as to truth (n. 505), and by “two” all as to good (n. 762). By “wings” are signified powers, because by them birds lift themselves up, and wings with birds are in the place of arms with men, and by “arms” are signified powers. Since by “wings” are signified powers, and each animal had six wings, it is evident, from what has been said above, what kind of power is signified by the wings of each, namely, that by “the wings of the lion” is signified the power of fighting against evils and falsities from hell; which power is of the Divine truth of the Word from the Lord. That by “the wings of the calf” is signified the power of affecting minds, for the Divine truth of the Word affects those who read it as holy. That by “the six wings of the man” is signified the power of being wise as to what God is, and what is of God, for this is properly man’s in reading the Word: and that by “the wings of the eagle” is signified the power of knowing truth and good, and thereby acquiring intelligence for oneself.
sRef Ezek@1 @23 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @2 S2′ sRef 2Sam@22 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@1 @24 S2′ sRef Rev@14 @6 S2′ [2] Concerning the wings of the cherubim we read in Ezekiel that:
The wings kissed each other, and that they also covered their bodies, and that under them there was the likeness of hands (Ezek. 1:23-24; 3:13; 10:5, 21).
By “kissing each other,” is signified to act in conjunction and unanimously; by “covering their bodies,” is signified to guard lest the interior truths which belong to the spiritual sense of the Word be violated; and by “the hands under the wings” are signified powers. Concerning “the seraphim,” it is also said, that:
They had six wings; with two of which they covered the face, and with two the feet, and with two they flew (Isa. 6:2).
By “seraphim” in like manner is signified the Word, properly doctrine from the Word, and by “the wings with which they covered the faces and feet,” in like manner are signified guards, and by “the wings with which they flew,” powers, as above. That by “flying” is signified to perceive and instruct, and in the highest sense to look out for and provide, is also evident from these passages:
God rode upon a cherub, He did fly, and was carried upon the wings of the wind (Ps. 18:10; 2 Sam. 22:11).
I saw an angel flying through the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel (Rev. 14:6).
sRef Deut@32 @12 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@17 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@91 @4 S3′ sRef Deut@32 @11 S3′ sRef Ps@36 @7 S3′ sRef Matt@23 @37 S3′ sRef Mal@4 @2 S3′ [3] That by wings are signified guards, is plain from the following passages:
Jehovah shall cover thee under His wings (Ps. 91:4).
To be hid under the shadow of God’s wings (Ps. 17:8).
To confide in the shadow of His wings (Ps. 36:7; 57:1; 63:7).
I stretched out a wing over thee, and covered thy nakedness (Ezek. 16:8).
Unto you shall be healing in His wings (Mal. 4:2).
As an eagle stirreth up her nest, fluttereth over her young, spreadeth abroad her wings, beareth them on her wings, so Jehovah leadeth him (Deut. 32:11-12).
Jesus said, O Jerusalem, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings (Matt. 23:37; Luke 13:34).

AR (Whitehead) n. 246 sRef Rev@4 @8 S0′ 246. And they were full of eyes within, signifies the Divine wisdom in the Word, in its natural sense from its spiritual and celestial senses. That by “the animals were full of eyes before and behind” is signified the Divine wisdom in the Word, may be seen above (n. 240); in like manner here, by “their wings were full of eyes.” And because the Divine wisdom of the Word in its natural sense is from its spiritual and celestial senses, which are concealed within, it is therefore said, that “within they were full of eyes.” Concerning the spiritual and celestial senses, which are contained in every particular of the Word, see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 5-26).

AR (Whitehead) n. 247 sRef Rev@4 @8 S0′ 247. And they had no rest day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, signifies that the Word continually teaches of the Lord, and that He alone is God, and thence that He alone is to be worshiped. “The animals had no rest day and night,” signifies that the Word continually, and without intermission, teaches; and that it teaches what the animals say, namely, “Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty,” that is, that the Lord alone is God, and thence that He alone is to be worshiped. This is what is signified by holy three times repeated, for the triplication involves all holiness in Him alone. That the Divine Trinity is in the Lord, is fully shown in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord; as also that the Word treats of the Lord alone, and that thence is its sanctity. That the Lord alone is holy, may be seen above (n. 173).

AR (Whitehead) n. 248 sRef Rev@4 @8 S0′ sRef Deut@1 @23 S0′ 248. Who was, and who is, and who is to come, signifies the Lord. That it is the Lord is plain from chap. 1:4, 8, 11, 17, where it treats of the Son of man who is the Lord as to the Word, and there it is expressly said that:
He is the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last, who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty (Rev. 1:8).

But what is signified by these words, is explained (n. 13, 29-31, 38, 57); here that the Lord is meant by “Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, who was, and who is, and who is to come.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 249 sRef Ps@45 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S0′ 249. Verse 9. And when these animals gave glory, and honor, and thanks to Him that sat upon the throne, signifies that the Word ascribes all truth, and all good, and all worship to the Lord, who is to judge. “The animals” are the Word, as has been shown; “glory and honor,” when ascribed to the Lord, mean, that all truth and all good are His and from Him; “thanks” signify the all of worship; “He that sat on the throne” signifies the Lord as to judgment, as above. Hence it is evident, that by “when the animals gave glory, and honor, and thanks to Him that sat on the throne,” is signified that the Word ascribes all truth, and all good, and all worship, to the Lord who is to judge. By “giving the Lord glory and honor,” nothing else is meant in the Word than to acknowledge and confess that all truth and all good is from Him, thus that He alone is God, for He has glory from the Divine truth, and honor from the Divine good.
sRef Ps@8 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@21 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@21 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@96 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@104 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@96 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@111 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@35 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@111 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@35 @2 S2′ [2] This is signified by “glory and honor” in the following passages:
Jehovah made the heavens, glory and honor are before Him (Ps. 96:5-6).
O Jehovah, O God, Thou art very great, Thou art clothed with glory and honor (Ps. 104:1).
The works of Jehovah are great, glory and honor are His work (Ps. 111:2-3).
Glory and honor Thou layest upon Him, blessings for ever (Ps. 21:5-6).
Concerning the Lord:
Gird Thy sword upon the thigh, O mighty, in glory and honor; in Thy honor mount up, ride upon the Word of truth (Ps. 45:3-4).
Thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, Thou hast crowned him with glory and honor (Ps. 8:5).
The glory of Lebanon is given unto it, the honor of Carmel and Sharon; they shall see the glory of Jehovah and the honor of our God (Isa. 35:2).
These things refer to the Lord (besides other places, as Psalms 145:4-5, 12; Revelation 21:24, 26). Moreover, when the Divine truth is treated of in the Word, it is called “glory” (n. 629); and when the Divine good is treated of it is called “honor.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 250 sRef Rev@4 @9 S0′ 250. Who liveth for ages of ages, signifies the Lord that He alone is life, and from Him alone is life eternal, as seen above (n. 58, 60).

AR (Whitehead) n. 251 sRef Rev@4 @10 S0′ 251. Verse 10. The four-and-twenty elders fell down before Him that sat upon the throne and adored Him that liveth for ages of ages, signifies the humiliation of all in heaven before the Lord. That by ” the four-and-twenty elders” are meant all who are of the Lord’s church, may be seen above (n. 233); here all who are of His church in heaven; “the elders,” as heads, represented all. That it is humiliation before the Lord, and from humiliation adoration, is evident without explanation.

AR (Whitehead) n. 252 sRef Rev@4 @10 S0′ 252. And cast their crowns before the throne, signifies the acknowledgment that their wisdom is from Him alone. That “a crown” signifies wisdom, may be seen above (n. 189, 235); therefore by “casting their crowns before the throne,” is signified to acknowledge that wisdom is not their own, but the Lord’s with them.

AR (Whitehead) n. 253 sRef Rev@4 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @11 S0′ 253. Verse 11. Saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory, and honor, and power, signifies the confession that the kingdom is the Lord’s from merit and justice, because He is the Divine truth and the Divine good. Confession is signified by “saying.” That it is from merit and justice is signified by “thou art worthy, O Lord;” that He is the Divine truth and the Divine good, is signified by “glory and honor,” as above (n. 249). That His is the kingdom is signified by “receiving power”: these, therefore, collected into one sense, signify the confession that the kingdom is the Lord’s from merit and justice, because He is the Divine truth and the Divine good.

AR (Whitehead) n. 254 sRef Rev@4 @11 S0′ 254. For Thou hast created all things, and by Thy will they are, and were created, signifies that all things of heaven and the church were made and formed, and men reformed and regenerated from the Divine love of the Lord through His Divine wisdom, or from the Divine good through the Divine truth, which also is the Word. This is the spiritual sense of these words, because by “creating” is signified to reform and regenerate by the Divine truth, and by “the will of the Lord” is signified the Divine good. Whether you call it the Divine good and the Divine truth, or the Divine love and the Divine wisdom, it is the same, because all good is of love, and all truth is of wisdom. That from the Divine love and the Divine wisdom are all things of heaven and the church, yea and the world itself was created from them is shown in many places in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom; also that love and good is of the will, and wisdom and truth of the understanding; hence it appears, that by “the Lord’s will” is meant His Divine good or Divine love.
sRef Isa@43 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@43 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@65 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@65 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@104 @28 S2′ sRef Ezek@28 @15 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@104 @30 S2′ sRef Ezek@28 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @20 S2′ sRef Ps@51 @10 S2′ sRef Ps@102 @18 S2′ [2] That “to create,” in the Word, signifies to reform and regenerate, is plain from these passages:
Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a firm spirit in the midst of me (Ps. 51:10).
Thou openest Thine hand, they are filled with good; Thou sendest forth Thy Spirit; they are created (Ps. 104:28, 30).
The people which shall be created shall praise Jah (Ps. 102:18).
Behold, I create a new heaven and a new earth, rejoice for ever in that which I create; behold I create Jerusalem an exultation (Isa. 65:17-18).
Jehovah createth the heavens, He that stretcheth out the earth, He giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein (Isa. 42:5; 45:12, 18).
Thus saith Jehovah thy Creator, O Jacob, thy Former, O Israel; I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by My name; everyone that is called by My name, I have created him in My glory (Isa. 43:1, 7).
They were prepared in the day that thou wast created; thou was perfect in thy ways in the day that thou was created, until perversity was found in thee (Ezek. 28:13, 15).
These things are concerning the king of Tyre, by whom are signified they who are in intelligence by the Divine truth.
That they may see, know, consider, and understand that the hand of Jehovah hath done this, and the Holy one of Israel hath created it (Isa. 41:20).

AR (Whitehead) n. 255 255. Here I will add this Relation. Lest anyone should enter into the spiritual sense of the Word, and pervert the genuine truth which pertains to that sense, there are placed guards by the Lord, which are meant by cherubim in the Word, which are the four animals here: that guards are placed, was thus represented to me.
[2] It was given to see great purses, which seemed like bags, in which silver in great abundance was stored up; and as they were open, it was perceived as though anyone might take the silver out of them, and even carry it off. But near the purses there sat two angels who were guards. The place where they were deposited appeared like a manger in a stable; in the next apartment were seen some modest virgins with a chaste wife; and near that apartment stood two infants; and it was said, that they were not to be played with in an infantile manner, but wisely; and afterwards there appeared a harlot, and also a dead horse.
[3] On seeing which I was instructed, that by these was represented the sense of the letter of the Word, in which is the spiritual sense. The great purses full of silver signified the knowledges of truth and good in great abundance. Their being open, and yet guarded by angels, signified that anyone might take from thence the knowledges of truth, but that care is taken lest anyone should falsify the spiritual sense, in which were nothing but truths. The manger in the stable, in which the purses lay, signified spiritual instruction for the understanding; this is the signification of a manger, and the same is signified by the manger in which the Lord lay when an infant, because a horse, which eats therefrom, signifies the understanding of the Word.
[4] The modest virgins, who were seen in the adjoining apartment, signified affections of truth, and the chaste wife, the conjunction of good and truth. The infants signified the innocence of wisdom in the Word. They were angels from the third heaven, who all appear like infants. The harlot with the dead horse signified the falsification of the Word by many at this day, by which all the understanding of truth perishes; a harlot signifies falsification, and a dead horse no understanding of truth.
[5] It has been granted me to speak with many after death, who believed they should shine like stars in heaven, because, as they said, they had held the Word as holy, had read it frequently, and collected many things from it by which they had confirmed the dogmas of their faith, and were therefore celebrated as men of learning in the world, for which reason they thought they would be Michaels or Raphaels. But many of them were explored, as to the love from which they had studied the Word, and it was found, that some had studied it from self-love, that they might appear great in the world, and be reverenced as primates of the church; but others from the love of the world, that they might gain wealth. When they were examined as to what they knew from the Word, it was found, that they knew nothing of genuine truth therefrom, but only such as is called truth falsified, which in itself is falsity, and this, in the spiritual world, is a stench to the nostrils of the angels. And it was said to them that this was the case with them, because they themselves and the world were their ends, or what is the same, their loves, and not the Lord and heaven; and when themselves and the world are ends, then, when they read the Word, their mind cleaves to self and the world, and therefore they think constantly from their own proprium, which is in thick darkness as to all things of heaven. In this state man cannot be withdrawn from his own light, and so elevated into the light of heaven, nor thence receive any influx from the Lord through heaven.
[6] I also saw them admitted into heaven, and when they were found to be without truths, they were stripped of their garments and appeared in nakedness. And they who had falsified truths, were, by reason of their stench, expelled, but still their pride remained with them, and the belief in their own merit. It was otherwise with those who had studied the Word from the affection of knowing truth because it is truth, and because it subserves the uses of spiritual life, not only to a man’s self, but also to his neighbor. These I saw taken up into heaven, and thus into the light, in which the Divine truth is there, and at the same time they were then exalted into angelic wisdom and its felicity, which is life eternal.

AR (Whitehead) n. 256 sRef Rev@5 @1 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S1′ 256. Revelation 5

1. And I saw in the right hand of Him that sat on the throne, a book written within and on the back, sealed with seven seals.
2. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a great voice, Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof?
3. And no one in heaven, nor on earth, neither under the earth, was able to open the book, neither to look thereon.
4. And I wept much because no one was found worthy to open and to read the book, neither to look thereon.
5. And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not; behold, the Lion which is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.
6. And I saw, and, behold, in the midst of the throne and of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders, a Lamb standing as if slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.
7. And He came and took the book out of the right hand of Him that sat upon the throne.
8. And when He had taken the book, the four animals, and the twenty-four elders, fell down before the Lamb, having everyone of them harps, and golden vials full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints.
9. And they sang a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof; because Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God in Thy blood, out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation.
10. And Thou hast made us unto our God kings and priests, and we shall reign on the earth.
11. And I saw, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne, and the animals, and the elders; and the number of them was myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands;
12. Saying with a great voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and honor, and glory, and blessing.
13. And every created thing which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, for ages of ages.
14. And the four animals said, Amen. And the twenty-four elders fell down, and adored Him that liveth for ages of ages.

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE

The contents of the whole chapter

That the Lord in the Divine Human will execute judgment from the Word and according to it, because He Himself is the Word; and that this is acknowledged by all in the three heavens.

The contents of the whole chapter

Verse 1. “And I saw in the right hand of Him that sat on the throne, a book written within and on the back,” signifies the Lord as to His Divine itself from eternity, who is omnipotent and omniscient, and who is the Word (n. 256). “Sealed with seven seals,” signifies that it is altogether hidden from angel and man (n. 257). Verse 2. “And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a great voice,” signifies the Divine truth from the Lord inflowing interiorly with angels and men (n. 258). “Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose the seals thereof?” signifies, Who has power to know the states of life of all in the heavens and on the earths, and to judge everyone according thereto? (n. 259). Verse 3. “And no one in heaven, nor on earth neither under the earth, was able,” signifies that no one in the higher heavens or in the lower heavens, was able (n. 260); “to open the book,” signifies to know the states of the life of all, and to judge everyone according to his state (n. 261); “Neither to look thereon,” signifies not in the least (n. 262). Verse 4. “And I wept much because no one was found worthy* to open and to read the book, neither to look thereon,” signifies grief of heart, because if no one could do it, all must perish (n. 263). Verse 5. “And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not,” signifies consolation (n. 264); “Behold, the lion which is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David hath prevailed,” signifies the Lord, who by His own power subjugated the hells and reduced all things to order when He was in the world by the Divine good united to the Divine truth in His Human (n. 265, 266): “To open the book and to loose the seven seals thereof,” signifies here as before (n. 267). Verse 6. “And I saw, and behold, in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders,” signifies from the inmost and thence in all things of heaven, the Word, and the church (n. 268). “A Lamb standing as if slain,” signifies the Lord as to His Human, not acknowledged in the church to be Divine (n. 269). “Having seven horns,” signifies His omnipotence (n. 270). “And seven eyes” signifies His omniscience and Divine wisdom (n. 271). “Which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth,” signifies that from the Divine wisdom is derived the Divine truth throughout the whole world, wheresoever there is any religion (n. 272). Verse 7. “And He came and took the book out of the right hand of Him that sat upon the throne,” signifies that the Lord as to His Divine Human is the Word, and this from His Divine in Himself and that therefore He will execute judgment from His Divine Human (n. 273). Verse 8. “And when He had taken the book,” signifies when the Lord determined to execute the judgment, and thereby to reduce all things in the heavens and upon the earth to order (n. 274). “The four animals and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb,” signifies humiliation and adoration of the Lord from the higher heavens (n. 275). “Having everyone of them harps” signifies confession of the Lord’s Divine Human from spiritual truths (n. 267). “And golden vials full of incense,” signifies confession of the Lord’s Divine Human from spiritual goods (n. 277). “Which are the prayers of the saints,” signifies thoughts which are of faith from affections which are of charity with those who worship the Lord from spiritual goods and truths (n. 278). Verse 9. “And they sang a new song,” signifies the acknowledgment and glorification of the Lord, that He alone is the Judge, Redeemer, and Savior, thus the God of heaven and earth (n. 279). “Saying, Thou art worthy to take the book and to open the seals thereof,” signifies here as before (n. 280). “Because Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God in Thy blood,” signifies deliverance from hell and salvation by conjunction with Him (n. 281). “Out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation,” signifies that they in the church, or in any religion, who are in truths as to doctrine, and in goods as to life are redeemed by the Lord (n. 282). Verse 10. “And hast made us unto our God kings and priests,” signifies that from the Lord they are in wisdom from Divine truths and in love from Divine goods (n. 283). “And we shall reign on the earth,” signifies, and will be in His kingdom, He in them and they in Him (n. 284,285). Verse 11. “And I saw, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne, and the animals, and the elders,” signifies confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lower heavens (n. 286).** Verse 12. “Saying with a great voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and honor, and glory,” signifies confession from the heart, that to the Lord as to His Divine Human is omnipotence, omniscience, Divine good, and Divine truth (n. 288). “And blessing,” signifies all these in Him, and from Him in them (n. 289). Verse 13. “And every created thing which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying,” signifies confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lowest heavens (n. 290). “Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ages of ages,” signifies that in the Lord from eternity, and thence in His Divine Human, is the All of heaven and the church, Divine good, and Divine truth, and Divine power, and from Him in them (n. 291). Verse 14. “And the four animals said, Amen,” signifies Divine confirmation from the Word (n. 292). “And the twenty-four elders fell down and adored Him that liveth for ages of ages,” signifies humiliation before the Lord, and from humiliation, adoration of Him by all in the heavens, from whom and in whom is life eternal (n. 293).
* The original Latin omits “worthy.”
** The original Latin omits “and the number of them was myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands.”

THE EXPLANATION

Verse 1. And I saw in the right hand of Him that sat on the throne a book, written within and on the back, signifies the Lord as to His Divine Itself from eternity, who has omnipotence and omniscience, and who is the Word; who also knows from Himself the state of the life of all in the heavens and on the earths, in every particular and in general. By “Him that sat on the throne” is meant the Lord as to His Divine, from which is His Human, for it follows that “the Lamb took the book out of the right hand of Him that sat on the throne” (verse 7), and by “the Lamb” is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human. By “the book written within and on the back” is meant the Word in every particular and in every general; by “within,” in every particular, and by “on the back” in every general. By “within and on the back” is also meant the interior sense of the Word, which is spiritual, and its exterior sense, which is natural; by “right hand” is meant Himself as to omnipotence and omniscience, because the exploration of all in the heavens and on the earths, upon whom the Last Judgment is to be executed, and their separation, is treated of. The Lord, as the Word, knows the states of life of all in the heavens and on the earths from Himself, because He is the Divine truth itself, and the Divine truth itself knows all things from itself; but this is an arcanum, which is revealed in Angelic Wisdom concerning Divine Love and Wisdom. That the Lord as to His Divine from eternity was the Word, that is, the Divine truth, is evident from these words in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word (John 1:1).
And that the Lord as to His Human also was made “the Word,” in the same:
And the Word became flesh (John 1:14).
Hence it may appear what it means that the book was in the right hand of Him that sat on the throne, and that the Lamb took the book thence (Rev. 5:7).
sRef Rev@21 @27 S2′ sRef Rev@20 @15 S2′ sRef Dan@7 @10 S2′ sRef Dan@7 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@32 @32 S2′ sRef Luke@3 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@139 @16 S2′ sRef Ex@32 @33 S2′ sRef Rev@13 @8 S2′ sRef Rev@20 @12 S2′ sRef Ps@69 @28 S2′ sRef Luke@20 @42 S2′ sRef Ps@40 @7 S2′ sRef Ezek@2 @9 S2′ sRef Dan@12 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@139 @15 S2′ sRef Ezek@2 @10 S2′ [2] Since the Lord is the Word, and the Word is the Divine truth, which in general makes heaven and the church, and in particular each angel, that heaven may be in Him, and man that the church may be in Him; and because the Word is here meant by “the book,” from which and according to which all are to be judged, therefore in many places occur the expressions, “to be written in the book,” “to be judged from the book,” “to be blotted out of the book,” where the state of eternal life of anyone is treated of, as in these passages:
The Ancient of days did sit in judgment, and the books were opened (Dan. 7:10).
Every people shall be delivered that shall be found written in the book (Dan. 12:1).
My bone was not hid from Thee, in Thy book all my days were written, not one of them is wanting (Ps. 139:15, 16).
Moses said, blot me, I pray thee, out of the book which Thou hast written. And Jehovah said, Whosoever hath sinned against Me will I blot out of the book (Exod. 32:32, 33).
Let them be blotted out of the book of life, and not be written with the just (Ps. 69:28).
I saw that the books were opened, and another book was opened, which is the book of life, and the dead were judged according to those things which were written in the book according to their works, and whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:12, 15).
None shall enter into the New Jerusalem, but them that are written in the Lamb’s book of life (Rev. 21:27).
All shall adore the beast whose names are not written in the Lamb’s book of life (Rev. 13:8; 17:8).
That by “the book” is meant the Word, in David:
In the volume of the book it is written of me (Ps. 40:7).
And in Ezekiel:
I saw, and behold a hand sent forth unto me, and in it the volume of a book, written before and behind (Ezek. 2:9, 10).
The book of the words of Isaiah (Luke 3:4).
The book of Psalms (Luke 20:42.)

AR (Whitehead) n. 257 sRef Rev@5 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @3 S0′ 257. Sealed with seven seals, signifies that it is altogether hidden from angel and man. That “to be sealed with a seal” signifies to be hidden is evident, hence “to be sealed with seven seals” signifies to be altogether hidden, for “seven” signifies all (n. 10), and therefore altogether; that it was altogether hidden from angel and man, is presently said in these words:
And no one in heaven, nor on earth, neither under the earth, was able to open and read the book, neither to look thereon (Rev. 5:3).
Such is the Word to all to whom the Lamb, that is, the Lord, does not open it. Here, because the exploration of all before the Last Judgment is treated of, it is the states of life of all in general and in particular, which are altogether hidden.

AR (Whitehead) n. 258 sRef Rev@5 @2 S0′ 258. Verse 2. And I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a great voice, signifies the Divine truth from the Lord flowing in deeply into the thought of angels and men, and investigation. By “an angel” proclaiming, is meant in the spiritual sense, the Lord, because an angel does not proclaim and teach from himself but from the Lord, but still as from himself. It is said “a strong angel,” because with power, and that which is proclaimed with power flows in deeply into the thought. “A great voice” signifies the Divine truth from the Lord in power or virtue. It also signifies investigation, because he asks, “Who is worthy to open the book?” as now follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 259 sRef Rev@5 @2 S0′ 259. Who is worthy to open the book and to loose the seals thereof? signifies who has power to know the states of life of all in the heavens and on the earth, and to judge everyone according to his state? “Who is worthy?” signifies who is able, or who has the power? “to open the book and to loose the seals thereof,” signifies here to know the states of life of all in the heavens and on the earth, and also to judge everyone according to his state; for when “the book is opened,” there is an examination into their quality, and then sentence or judgment, comparatively as a judge does with a book of the law and acts from it. That by “opening the book,” is signified investigation into the quality of the states of life in all and everyone, is evident from the following chapter, where is described what was seen, when the Lamb opened the seven seals in their order.

AR (Whitehead) n. 260 sRef Isa@44 @23 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @13 S0′ sRef Rev@4 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @3 S0′ 260. Verse 3. And no one in heaven, nor on earth, neither under the earth, was able, signifies that no one in the higher heavens or the lower heavens was able. “In heaven, on earth, and under the earth,” mean in the higher and in the lower heavens, in like manner as in the 13th verse, where it is said:
And every created thing which is in heaven, on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying (Rev. 5:13).
Since he heard the latter and the former saying, it is evident that they were angels and spirits who spoke; for John was in the spirit, as he himself says in the preceding chapter (4:2), in which state no other earth appeared to him than the earth of the spiritual world; for there are earths there as well as in the natural world, as may appear from the description of that world in the work concerning Heaven and Hell; as also in The Continuation concerning the Spiritual World (n. 32-38). The higher heavens appear there upon mountains and hills, the lower heavens in the earth beneath, and the ultimate heavens as it were under the earth. For the heavens are expanses one above another, and each expanse is like the earth under the feet of those who are there. The highest expanse is like the top of a mountain, the next expanse is under it, but extending itself more widely on all sides round about, and the lowest expanse more widely still; and since this last is under the other, they who are there are “under the earth.” The three heavens also appear thus to the angels who are in the higher heavens, because to them there appear two heavens beneath them; therefore in like manner they appeared to John, because he was with them, for he had ascended to them, as is evident from chap. 4:1, where it is said:
Come up hither, and I will show thee things which must be hereafter (Rev. 4:1).
He who does not know anything of the spiritual world and the earths there, can by no means know what is meant by “under the earth,” nor by “the lower parts of the earth,” in the Word, as in Isaiah:
Sing, O heavens, shout, ye lower parts of the earth, resound with singing, ye mountains, for Jehovah hath redeemed Jacob (Isa. 44:23; and in other places).
Who does not see that the earths of the spiritual world are here meant? for no man lives under the earth in the natural world.

AR (Whitehead) n. 261 sRef Rev@5 @13 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @3 S0′ 261. To open the book, signifies to know the states of life of all, and to judge everyone according to his state, as appears from the explanation above (n. 259).

AR (Whitehead) n. 262 sRef Rev@5 @3 S0′ 262. Neither to look thereon, signifies not in the least. Since by “opening the book,” is signified to know the states of life of all, by “looking on it” is signified to see what the state of life of this or that person is, therefore by “no one being able to open the book nor to look thereon,” is signified that they were not able in the least. For the Lord alone sees the state of everyone from inmosts to outmosts, as also what a man has been from infancy to old age, and what he will be to eternity, and likewise what place will be allotted to him either in heaven or in hell; and this the Lord sees in an instant, and from Himself, because He is the Divine truth itself or the Word; but angels and man do not see this in the least, because they are finite, and the finite see only a few things, and those only external, and not these indeed from themselves, but from the Lord.

AR (Whitehead) n. 263 sRef Rev@5 @4 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @22 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S0′ 263. Verse 4. And I wept much because no one was found* to open and to read the book, neither to look thereon, signifies grief of heart, because if no one could do it, all must perish. That “to weep much” is to grieve at heart, is evident; the reason why he grieved at heart, was, because otherwise all would have perished; for if all things in the heavens and on the earth were not reduced to order by the Last Judgment, it could not be otherwise; for Revelation treats of the last state of the church, when it comes to its end, the nature of which state is described by the Lord in these words:
There shall be great affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the world to this time, nor shall be; therefore except those days should be shortened, no flesh would be saved (Matt. 24:21, 22).
These are concerning the last time of the church, when judgment takes place.
[2] That such is the state of the church at this day, may be known solely from these considerations, that the greatest part of the Christian world is occupied by those who have transferred to themselves the Divine power of the Lord, and wish to be worshiped as gods, and who invoke dead men, and scarce any of them the Lord; and that the rest of the church make God three, and the Lord two, and place salvation, not in amendment of life, but in certain words uttered with a devout tone; thus not in repentance, but in confidence that they are justified and sanctified, provided they do but fold their hands and look upwards, and pray in the customary form.
* The original Latin omits “worthy.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 264 sRef Rev@5 @5 S0′ 264. Verse 5. And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not; that this signifies consolation, is evident.

AR (Whitehead) n. 265 sRef Rev@5 @5 S0′ 265. Behold, the Lion hath prevailed, signifies the Lord, that from His own power He had subjugated the hells, and reduced all things to order when He was in the world. That “a lion” signifies the Divine truth of the Word as to its power, may be seen above (n. 241); and because the Lord is the Divine truth itself, or the Word, He is called “a Lion.” That the Lord, when He was in the world, subjugated the hells and reduced all things in the heavens to order, and likewise glorified His Human, may be seen above (n. 67); and how He did this, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 12-14). Hence it is evident, what is meant by “the Lion hath prevailed.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 266 sRef Rev@5 @5 S0′ 266. Which is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, signifies by the Divine good united to the Divine truth in His Human. By “Judah,” in the Word, is meant the church which is in the good of love to the Lord, and in the highest sense the Lord as to the Divine good of the Divine love; and by “David” is meant the Lord as to the Divine truth of the Divine wisdom. That this is meant by “David,” may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 43, 44); and that the former is meant by ” Judah,” may be seen (n. 96, 266, 350). Hence it appears that by “Behold the Lion which is of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David hath prevailed,” is signified that the Lord overcame the hells and reduced all things to order by the Divine good united to the Divine truth in His Human. That this is the sense of these words, cannot be seen in the sense of the letter, but only that it is He Himself who was born in the world of the tribe of Judah and of the stock of David. Still, however, these words contain in them a spiritual sense, in which by the names of persons are meant things, as has frequently been observed above, thus by “Judah” is not meant Judah, nor by “David,” David; but by “Judah,” the Lord as to the Divine good, and by “David,” the Lord as to the Divine truth. Hence it is that this sense results therefrom. The reason why this sense is here explained is because Revelation as to its spiritual sense is now opened.

AR (Whitehead) n. 267 sRef Rev@5 @5 S0′ 267. To open the book, and loose the seven seals thereof, signifies to know the states of life of all in the heavens and on the earth, and to judge everyone according to his state, as above (n. 258, 259).

AR (Whitehead) n. 268 sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′ 268. Verse 6. And I saw, and behold, in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders, signifies from inmosts, and thence in all things of heaven, the Word, and the church. “In the midst” signifies in the inmosts, and thence in all things (n. 44); “a throne” signifies heaven (n. 14); “the four animals” or cherubs signify the Word (n. 239) and the “twenty-four elders” signify the church as to all things belonging thereto (n. 233, 251). From these things it follows, that, “in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, and in the midst of the elders,” signifies from inmosts in all things of heaven, the Word, and the church.

AR (Whitehead) n. 269 sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′ 269. A Lamb standing as if slain, signifies the Lord as to His Human, not acknowledged in the church as Divine. By “Lamb,” in Revelation, is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human, and by “a Lamb slain,” that His Human is not acknowledged in the church as Divine; in like manner as in chapter 1:18, where it is said:
I was made dead, and behold I am alive for ages of ages (Rev. 1:18).
By which is meant that the Lord is neglected in the church, and His Human not acknowledged as Divine (n. 59); that this is the case may be seen below (n. 294). Since, therefore, the Lord as to the Divine Human is meant by “the Lamb,” and it is said of Him, that “He took the book out of the right hand of Him that sat upon the throne,” and afterwards that “He opened it, and loosed the seven seals thereof,” and since no mortal could do this, but God alone, it follows, that by “the Lamb” is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human, and by “slain,” that He is not acknowledged as God as to His Human.

AR (Whitehead) n. 270 sRef Ps@89 @24 S0′ sRef Ps@89 @21 S0′ sRef Ps@89 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@89 @20 S0′ sRef Ps@89 @8 S0′ sRef Lam@2 @17 S0′ sRef Amos@3 @14 S0′ sRef Hab@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@148 @14 S0′ sRef Jer@48 @25 S0′ sRef Lam@2 @3 S0′ sRef Lam@2 @2 S0′ sRef Ps@18 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@17 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@17 @12 S0′ sRef Micah@4 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@18 @1 S0′ sRef Ps@75 @10 S0′ sRef Amos@6 @13 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@17 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@75 @5 S0′ sRef Ezek@34 @21 S0′ sRef Ps@75 @4 S0′ 270. Having seven horns, signifies His omnipotence. “A horn” is frequently mentioned in the Word, and by it is everywhere signified power; therefore when “a horn” is predicated of the Lord, it signifies omnipotence. The reason why “seven horns” are mentioned, is, because “seven” signifies all (n. 10), thus omnipotence. That “a horn” signifies power, and when applied to the Lord, omnipotence, may appear from the following passages:
They who rejoice at a thing of naught, who say, have we not taken us horns by our own strength? (Amos 6:13).
I said unto the wicked, Lift not up the horn, lift not up your horn on high; All the horns of the wicked I will cut off; but the horns of the just shall be exalted (Ps. 75:4, 5, 10).
Jehovah hath exalted the horn of thine enemies (Lam. 2:17).
The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken (Jer. 48:25).
Ye thrust with side and shoulder, and strike all the feeble sheep with your horns (Ezek. 34:21).
Jehovah hath exalted the horn of his people (Ps. 148:14).
Jehovah God of hosts, the glory of our* strength, hath exalted our horn (Ps. 89:17).
The brightness of Jehovah God shall be as the light, He had horns out of His hand, and there was the hiding of His power (Hab. 3:4).
My arm shall strengthen David, and in My name shall his horn be exalted (Ps. 89:21, 24).
Jehovah is my strength, my rock, my horn (Ps. 18:2-3; 2 Sam. 22:3).
Arise, O daughter of Zion, for I will make thy horn iron, and thou shalt beat in pieces many people (Micah 4:13).
Jehovah** hath destroyed in His wrath the stronghold of the daughter of Judah, and hath cut off all the horn of Israel (Lam. 2:2-3).
Powers are also signified by:
The horns of the dragon (Rev. 12:3).
By the horns of the beast which came up out of the sea (Rev. 13:1).
By the horns of the scarlet beast upon which the woman sat (Rev. 17:3, 7, 12).
By the horns of the ram and the he-goat (Dan. 8:3, 4-5, 7-12, 21, 25).
By the horns of the beast which came up out of the sea (Dan. 7:3, 7-8, 20-21, 23-24).
By the four horns which scattered Judah and Israel (Zech. 1:18-21).
By the horns of the altar of burnt-offerings, and the altar of incense (Exod. 27:2; 30:2-3, 10).
By these last was signified the power of Divine truth in the church; and, on the other hand, that power would perish is signified by “the horns of the altars in Bethel,” in Amos:
I will visit upon the transgressions of Israel, I will visit upon the altars of Bethel, that the horns of the altar may be cut off, and fall to the earth (Amos 3:14).
* The Hebrew has “their.”
** The Hebrew has “Lord.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 271 sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@5 @37 S0′ 271. And seven eyes, signifies His omniscience and Divine wisdom. That “eyes,” when spoken of the Lord, signify His Divine wisdom, may be seen above (n. 48, 125), thus also omniscience; and that “seven” signifies all, and is predicated of anything holy (n. 10); hence by “the seven eyes of the Lamb,” is signified the Divine wisdom of the Lord, which is also omniscience.

AR (Whitehead) n. 272 sRef Rev@5 @6 S0′ 272. Which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth, signifies that from the Divine wisdom is derived Divine truth into the whole world, where there is religion. “The seven spirits of God” are the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord as above (n. 14, 155). “To be sent forth into all the earth,” is into the whole world where there is religion, is evident; for where there is religion, it is taught that there is a God, and that there is a devil, and that God is good itself, and that all good is from Him, and that the devil is evil itself, and that all evil is from him; and, as they are opposites, so evil, because it is from the devil, is to be shunned, and good, because it is from God, is to be done; consequently, in proportion as anyone does evil, so far he loves the devil, and acts against God. Such Divine truth is in the whole world where there is any religion; so that it is only necessary to know what evil is, and this also is known by all who have any religion; for the precepts of all religions are similar to those contained in the Decalogue, that one must not kill, nor commit whoredom, nor steal, nor bear false witness. These are in general Divine truths from the Lord “sent forth into all the earth,” see The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 101-118). Therefore he who lives according to them because they are Divine truths, or the commandments of God, and thence of religion, is saved. But he who only lives according to them because they are civil and moral truths, is not saved, for he that denies God may also so live, but not he that confesses God.

AR (Whitehead) n. 273 sRef Matt@24 @30 S0′ sRef Luke@21 @36 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @7 S0′ sRef John@5 @27 S0′ sRef John@5 @22 S0′ sRef Matt@16 @27 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @28 S0′ 273. Verse 7. And He came and took the book out of the right hand of Him that sat upon the throne, signifies that the Lord as to His Divine Human is the Word, and this is from His Divine in Himself and that therefore He will execute judgment from His Divine Human. Here it manifestly appears, that “He that sat upon the throne” and “the Lamb” are one Person, and that by “Him that sat upon the throne” is meant His Divine from which all things are, and by “the Lamb,” His Divine Human; for it is said in the preceding verse, that “he saw a Lamb standing in the midst of the throne,” and in this, that “He took the book from Him that sat upon the throne.” That the Lord will execute judgment from His Divine Human, because He is the Word, is evident from these passages:
And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man; and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory (Matt. 24:30).
When the Son of man shall sit on His throne He will judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt. 19:28).
The Son of man shall come in the glory of His Father, and then shall He render to everyone according to his deeds (Matt. 16:27).
Watch always, that ye may be accounted worthy to stand before the Son of man (Luke 21:36).
In such an hour as ye think not, the Son of man cometh (Matt. 24:44).
For the Father judgeth no one, but hath given all judgment unto the Son, because He is the Son of man (John 5:22, 27). “The Son of man” is the Lord as to the Divine Human, and this is the Word, which was God, and became flesh (John 1:1, 14).

AR (Whitehead) n. 274 sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′ 274. Verse 8. And when He had taken the book, signifies when the Lord decided to execute the judgment, and thereby to reduce all things in the heavens and in the earths to order. By “taking the book” and opening it, is signified to explore the states of life of all, and to judge everyone according to his state, as above. Therefore here by “His taking the book,” is signified His decision to execute the Last Judgment; and as the Last Judgment is executed for the purpose of reducing all things to order in the heavens, and through the heavens, in the earths, this also is signified.

AR (Whitehead) n. 275 sRef Rev@4 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′ 275. The four animals and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, signifies humiliation, and from humiliation, adoration of the Lord from the higher heavens. Now follows the glorification of the Lord on the above account, for, as was observed above (n. 263), unless the Lord should now execute the Last Judgment, and thereby reduce all things in the heavens and in the earths to order, all would perish. The glorification of the Lord, which now follows, takes place first in the higher heavens, afterwards in the lower heavens, and lastly in the lowest heavens; the glorification by the higher heavens (verses 8-10); by the lower heavens (verses 11, 12); and by the lowest heavens (verse 13); and lastly confirmation and adoration by the higher heavens (verse 14). Therefore the higher heavens are signified by the “four animals” and “the twenty-four elders;” for by “the cherubim,” which are the four animals “in the midst of the throne,” is signified the Lord as to the Word; but by “the cherubim,” or four animals “round about the throne,” is signified heaven as to the Word; for it is said:
That in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, were seen four animals, full of eyes before and behind (Rev. 4:6).
For the heavens are heavens from the reception of the Divine truth through the Word from the Lord. By “the twenty-four elders” are also signified the angels in the higher heavens, because those elders were nearest around the throne (4:4). That “to fall down before the Lamb” is humiliation, and from humiliation, adoration, is evident.

AR (Whitehead) n. 276 sRef Ps@92 @2 S0′ sRef Ps@92 @1 S0′ sRef 1Sam@16 @23 S0′ sRef 1Sam@16 @16 S0′ sRef Ps@147 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@92 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@71 @22 S0′ sRef 1Sam@16 @15 S0′ sRef Ps@33 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@98 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@43 @3 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@43 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@57 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@57 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@57 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@33 @2 S0′ sRef 1Sam@16 @14 S0′ sRef Ps@98 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@98 @4 S0′ 276. Having everyone of them harps, signifies confession of the Lord’s Divine Human from spiritual truths. It is known that confessions of Jehovah were made in the temple at Jerusalem by singing, and at the same time by instruments of music which corresponded; the instruments were principally trumpets and timbrels, and psalteries and harps; the trumpets and timbrels corresponded to celestial goods and truths, and the psalteries and harps to spiritual goods and truths; the correspondences were with their sounds. What celestial good and truth is, and what spiritual good and truth, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell (n. 13-19, and 20-28). That “harps” signify confessions of the Lord from spiritual truths, may appear from these passages:
Confess to Jehovah with the harp, sing unto Him with the psaltery of ten strings (Ps. 33:2).
I will confess to Thee on the harp, O God, my God (Ps. 43:4).
I will confess to Thee on the instrument of the psaltery, I will sing unto Thee with the harp, O Thou Holy One of Israel (Ps. 71:22).
Arouse me psaltery and harp, I will confess Thee among the nations, O Lord (Ps. 57:8, 9; 108:2-4).
Answer to Jehovah by confession, play on the harp to our God (Ps. 147:7).
It is good to confess to Jehovah upon the psaltery, and upon higgaion on the harp (Ps. 92:2-4).
Make a joyful noise unto Jehovah all the earth, sing unto Jehovah with the harp, with the harp and the voice of singing (Ps. 98:4-6; and in many other places; as Ps. 43:4; 137:2; Job 30:31; Isa. 24:7-9; 30:31, 32; Rev. 14:2; 18:22).
Because “the harp” corresponded to confession of the Lord, and evil spirits could not endure it, therefore David by the harp caused the evil spirit to depart from Saul (1 Samuel 16:14-16, 23). That they were not harps, but that confessions of the Lord were heard by John as harps, may be seen below (n. 661).

AR (Whitehead) n. 277 sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′ 277. And golden vials full of incense, signifies confession of the Lord’s Divine Human from spiritual good. The reason why “incense” signifies worship from spiritual goods, but in this instance confession from such goods, is because the principal worship in the Jewish and Israelitish church consisted in sacrifices and incense; wherefore there were two altars, one for sacrifices and the other for incense; the latter altar was within the tabernacle, and was called the golden altar, but the former was without the tabernacle, and was called the altar of burnt-offering; the reason was, because there are two kinds of goods, from which all worship exists, celestial good and spiritual good: celestial good is the good of love to the Lord, and spiritual good is the good of love towards the neighbor. Worship by sacrifices was worship from celestial good, and worship by incense was worship from spiritual good. Whether you call it worship or confession, it is the same thing, for all worship is confession. What is signified by “incense,” is also signified by “the vials” in which the incense is contained, because the thing containing and the thing contained, like the instrumental and principal, act as one cause.
sRef Ps@66 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@66 @15 S2′ sRef Deut@33 @10 S2′ sRef Matt@2 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@60 @6 S2′ sRef Mal@1 @11 S2′ sRef Jer@17 @26 S2′ [2] Worship from spiritual good is signified by “incense” in the following passages:
For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same, My name shall be great among the Gentiles, and in every place incense shall be offered unto My name (Mal. 1:11).
They shall teach Jacob Thy judgments, they shall put incense in Thy nostril and a burnt-offering upon Thine altar (Deut. 33:10).
I will offer unto Thee burnt-offerings of fatlings, with incense (Ps. 66:13, 15).
And they shall come from the circuit of Judah, offering a burnt-offering, and a sacrifice, a meal-offering and incense (Jer. 17:26).
They shall come from Sheba; they shall bring gold and incense, and they shall declare the praises of Jehovah (Isa. 60:6).
By “frankincense” the same is signified as by “incense,” because frankincense was the principal aromatic from which incense was made. Likewise in Matthew:
The wise men from the east opened their treasures, and offered to the Lord recently born, gold, frankincense, and myrrh (Matt. 2:11).
The reason why they offered these three was, because “gold” signified celestial good, “frankincense” spiritual good, and “myrrh” natural good, and from those three goods all worship is made.

AR (Whitehead) n. 278 sRef Rev@5 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@8 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@141 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@8 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@141 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@8 @4 S0′ 278. Which are the prayers of saints, signifies thoughts which are of faith, from affections which are of charity, with those who worship the Lord from spiritual goods and truths. By “prayers” are meant the things which are of faith, and at the same time things which are of charity, with those who pour forth prayers, because prayers without them are not prayers, but empty sounds. That “saints” mean those who are in spiritual goods and truths, may be seen above (n. 173). The reason why incense is called “the prayers of saints” is because fragrant odors correspond to the affections of good and truth; hence it is, that “a grateful odor” and “an odor of rest to Jehovah,” so often occur in the Word (as in Exodus 29:18, 25, 41; Leviticus 1:9, 13, 17; 2:2, 9, 12; 3:5; 4:31; 6:15, 21; 8:28; 23:13, 18; 26:31; Numbers 15:3, 7; 28:6, 8, 13; 29:2, 6, 8, 13, 36; Ezekiel 20:41; Hosea 14:7). “Prayers” which are called “incense” have a similar signification in the following passages in Revelation:
An angel stood at the altar having a golden vial, and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar; And the smoke of the incense with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before God out of the angel’s hand (Rev. 8:3-5).
And in David:
Give ear unto my voice; my prayers have been accepted before Thee as incense (Ps. 141:1-2).

AR (Whitehead) n. 279 sRef Rev@5 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @14 S1′ 279. Verse 9. And they sung a new song, signifies acknowledgment and glorification of the Lord, that He alone is the Judge, Redeemer, and Savior, thus the God of heaven and earth. These things are contained in the song which they sung, and the things which are contained are also signified; as an acknowledgment that the Lord is the Judge, in these things which now follow:
Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof (Rev. 5:9).
That He is the Redeemer, in this:
Because Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us in Thy blood (Rev. 5:9).
That He is the Saviour, in this:
Thou hast made us unto our God kings and priests, and we shall reign upon the earth (Rev. 5:10).
That He is the God of heaven and earth, in this:
They fell down and adored Him that liveth for ages of ages (Rev. 5:14).
Since the acknowledgment that the Lord alone is the God of heaven and earth, and that His Human is Divine, and that in no other way could He be called the Redeemer and Saviour, was not before in the church, it is therefore called a “new song.”
[2] The reason why “a song” also signifies glorification, which is confession from joy of heart, is because singing exalts, and causes affection to break out from the heart into sound, and show itself intensely in its life. Nor are the Psalms of David any other than songs; for they were played and sung, and therefore were also called songs in many passages (as Ps. 18:1; 33:1; 45:1; 46:1; 48:1; 65:1; 66:1; 67:1; 68:1; 75:1; 76:1; 87:1; 88:1; 92:1; 96:1; 98:1; 108:1; 120:1; 121:1; 122:1; 123:1; 124:1; 125:1; 126:1; 127:1; 128:1; 129:1; 130:1; 132:1; 133:1; 134:1).
sRef Ps@81 @2 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @2 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@81 @3 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @11 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@44 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @6 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @9 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @8 S3′ sRef Isa@52 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@57 @7 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@52 @8 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @12 S3′ sRef Isa@42 @10 S3′ sRef Ps@81 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@149 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@149 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@149 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@51 @3 S3′ sRef Isa@12 @1 S3′ [3] That songs were for the sake of exalting the life of love, and the joy derived from it, is evident from the following passages:
O sing unto Jehovah a new song, make a joyful noise unto Jehovah all the earth, resound, shout (Ps. 98:1, 4-8).
Sing unto Jehovah a new song, let Israel rejoice in His Maker, sing psalms to Him (Ps. 149:1-3).
Sing unto Jehovah a new song, lift up the voice (Isa. 42:10, 12).
Sing, O ye heavens, shout ye lower parts of the earth, resound with singing, ye mountains (Isa. 44:23; 49:13).
Shout unto God our strength, cry out to the God of Jacob; lift up a song (Ps. 81:1-3).
Gladness and joy shall be found in Zion, confession and the voice of singing (Isa. 51:3; 52:8, 9).
Sing unto Jehovah, cry out and shout, O daughter of Zion, for great is the Holy One of Israel in the midst of thee (Isa. 12:1-6).
My heart is fixed, I will sing and sing psalms. Arouse thee, my glory, I will confess Thee, O Lord, among the nations, I will sing psalms unto Thee among the peoples (Ps. 57:7-9; and in many other places).

AR (Whitehead) n. 280 sRef Rev@5 @9 S0′ 280. Saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof, signifies that He alone can know the states of life of all, and judge every man according to his own state, as above (n. 256, 259, 261, 267, 273).

AR (Whitehead) n. 281 sRef Rev@5 @9 S0′ 281. For thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God in Thy blood, signifies deliverance from hell, and salvation by conjunction with Him. It is not necessary to explain by the spiritual sense what is specifically signified by all the particulars here mentioned, as what by “being slain,” by “redeeming us to God,” and what by “His blood,” for they are arcana which do not appear in the sense of the letter; suffice it to know that it is redemption which is thus described; and since it is redemption it is deliverance from hell, and salvation by conjunction with the Lord, which are signified. Here it shall only be confirmed from the Word that Jehovah Himself came into the world, was born a Man, and became the Redeemer and Savior of all, who by a life of charity and its faith are conjoined with His Divine Human, and that Jehovah is the Lord from eternity, consequently that the Divine Human of the Lord, with which there must be conjunction, is the Divine Human of Jehovah Himself.
sRef Isa@49 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@55 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@55 @18 S2′ sRef Ps@31 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@44 @26 S2′ sRef Isa@54 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@130 @7 S2′ sRef Ps@19 @14 S2′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@49 @26 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @34 S2′ sRef Isa@48 @17 S2′ sRef Hos@13 @14 S2′ sRef Hos@13 @4 S2′ [2] Here therefore some passages shall be adduced, which prove that Jehovah and the Lord are one; and since they are one and not two, that the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah Himself, by the assumption of the Human, is the Redeemer and Savior: this is evident from the following passages:
Thou, O Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer; Thy name is from everlasting (Isa. 63:16).
Thus saith the king of Israel and his Redeemer, Jehovah of Hosts, I am the First and the Last, and besides Me there is no God (Isa. 44:6).
Thus saith Jehovah thy Redeemer, and thy Former; I am Jehovah that maketh all things, alone by Myself (Isa. 44:24).
Thus saith Jehovah thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am Jehovah thy God (Isa. 48:17).
Jehovah my Rock and my Redeemer (Ps. 19:14).
Their Redeemer is strong, Jehovah of Hosts is His name (Jer. 50:34).
Jehovah of Hosts is His name, and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel, the God of the whole earth shall He be called (Isa. 54:5).
And all flesh shall know that I Jehovah am thy Savior and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob (Isa. 49:26; 60:16).
As for our Redeemer, Jehovah of Hosts is His name (Isa. 47:4).
With everlasting mercy will I have mercy on thee, saith Jehovah thy Redeemer (Isa. 54:8).
Thus saith Jehovah your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 43:14).
Thus saith Jehovah the Holy One of Israel, your Redeemer (Isa. 49:7).
Thou hast redeemed me, Jehovah of truth (Ps. 31:5).
Let Israel hope in Jehovah, for with Him there is plenteous redemption, and He shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities (Ps. 130:7, 8).
Arise, O Lord, for our help, and redeem us for Thy mercy’s sake (Ps. 44:26).
Thus saith Jehovah God, I will redeem them from the hand of hell, I will redeem them from death (Hos. 13:4, 14).
O Jehovah, hear my voice, He shall redeem my soul (Ps. 55:17, 18).
Also in Ps. 49:15; 69:18; 71:23; 103:1, 4; 107:2; Jer. 15:20, 21.
sRef Luke@1 @68 S3′ sRef Isa@62 @12 S3′ sRef Isa@62 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S3′ [3] That the Lord as to His Human is the Redeemer, is not denied in the church, because it is according to Scripture, and the following passages:
Who is this that cometh from Edom, going in the multitude of His strength? the year of His redeemed is come. He redeemed them (Isa. 63:1, 4, 9).
Say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold, thy salvation cometh, behold, His reward is with Him, and they shall call them, The people of holiness, the redeemed of Jehovah (Isa. 62:11-12).
Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for He hath visited and hath made redemption for His people (Luke 1:68; besides other places).
Many other passages, proving that the Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah Himself, came into the world, and took upon Him the Human, to redeem men, may be seen in The Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord (n. 37-46). Jehovah is also called the Savior in many places, which cannot be adduced by reason of their abundance.

AR (Whitehead) n. 282 sRef Rev@5 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@35 @28 S0′ 282. Out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation, signifies that they in the church or in any religion, who are in truths as to doctrine, and in goods as to life, are redeemed by the Lord. By “tribe” is signified the church as to religion; by “tongue” is signified its doctrine, of which we shall speak presently; by “people” are signified they who are in truths of doctrine, and, abstractly, truths of doctrine (n. 483); and by “nation” are signified they who are in the goods of life, and, abstractly, the goods of life (n. 483); from hence it appears that by these words, “Out of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation,” such things are signified as were said above (see also n. 627).
sRef Zech@8 @23 S2′ sRef Isa@35 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@32 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@66 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@45 @23 S2′ [2] It shall now be proved that “tongue,” in the spiritual sense, signifies the doctrine of the church, or of any religion; this is evident from the following passages:
My tongue also shall meditate of Thy justice, all the day Thy praise (Ps. 35:28; 71:24).
Then shall the lame leap as a stag, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing, for in the wilderness shall waters break out (Isa. 35:6).
The tongue of the stammerers shall be swift to speak (Isa. 32:4).
It appears as if in these instances, by “tongue” was meant speech, but in the spiritual sense that which is spoken is meant, which is truth of doctrine, which they will have from the Lord. In like manner:
I have sworn that unto Me every knee shall bow and every tongue shall swear (Isa. 45:23).
The time shall come to gather all nations and tongues, that they may come and see My glory (Isa. 66:18).
In those days ten men out of all the tongues of the nations, shall take hold of the skirt of a man that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you (Zech. 8:23).
This is also concerning the conversion of the Gentiles by the Lord to the truth of doctrine.
sRef Jer@5 @15 S3′ sRef Isa@33 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@3 @6 S3′ sRef Ps@31 @20 S3′ sRef Ps@140 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@3 @5 S3′ [3] But by “tongues,” in the opposite sense, are signified false doctrines in the following passages:
A man of tongue shall not subsist on the earth (Ps. 140:11).
Thou shalt hide them in Thy tabernacle from the strife of tongues (Ps. 31:20).
I will bring a nation upon you, whose tongue thou knowest not (Jer. 5:15).
To be sent to people of heavy tongue (Ezek. 3:5, 6).
To people of barbarous tongue (Isa. 33:19).
It is to be known that “tongue,” as an organ, signifies doctrine, but, as speech, it also signifies religion.
sRef Luke@16 @24 S4′ [4] He who knows that “tongue” signifies doctrine, may understand what is meant by the words of the rich man in hell to Abraham:
That he would send Lazarus that he might dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool his tongue, that he should not be tormented in the flame (Luke 16:24).
“Water” signifies truth, and “tongue” doctrine; by the falsities of which he was tormented, and not by the flame; for no one in hell is in flames, but flames there are appearances of the love of falsity; and fire is the appearance of the love of evil.

AR (Whitehead) n. 283 sRef Rev@5 @10 S0′ 283. Verse 10. And hast made us unto our God kings and priests, signifies that from the Lord they are in wisdom from Divine truths and in love from Divine goods, and thus images of His Divine wisdom, and of His Divine love; as above (n. 21).

AR (Whitehead) n. 284 sRef John@17 @23 S0′ sRef John@17 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @6 S0′ sRef John@17 @22 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @28 S0′ sRef John@17 @21 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@20 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@22 @5 S0′ sRef John@17 @24 S0′ 284. And we shall reign upon the earth, signifies, and will be in His kingdom, He in them and they in Him. By “reigning upon the earth,” nothing else is meant, than being in the Lord’s kingdom, and there one with Him, according to these words of the Lord:
That all who believe in Me, may be one; and may be one as Thou Father art in Me and I in Thee, that they also may be one in us; And the glory which thou gavest Me I have given them, that they may be one even as we are one, I in them and Thou in Me, that where I am, they also may be with Me (John 17:20-24).
As, therefore, they are thus one with the Lord, and, together with the Lord, constitute a kingdom, which is called the kingdom of God, it is evident that nothing else is signified by “reigning.” It is said “to reign” because it was before said, “Thou hast made us kings and priests;” and by “kings” are signified they who are in wisdom from Divine truths from the Lord; and by “priests,” they who are in love from Divine good from Him (n. 20); hence it is that the kingdom of the Lord is also called “the kingdom of the saints” (Dan. 7:18, 27); and it is said of the apostles, that:
With the Lord they should judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt. 19:28).
Nevertheless the Lord alone judges and reigns; for He judges and reigns from Divine good by Divine truth, which is also from Him in them; but he who believes, that what is in them from the Lord is their own, is cast out of the kingdom, that is, out of heaven. The signification of “reigning” is the same in the following passages in Revelation:
They shall be priests of God and Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years (Rev. 20:4, 6).
And concerning those who are to enter into the New Jerusalem:
The Lamb shall enlighten them, and they shall reign for ages of ages (Rev. 22:5).

AR (Whitehead) n. 285 sRef Isa@45 @12 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@75 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@24 @3 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @13 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @7 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @10 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @16 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @6 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @14 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @4 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @15 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @17 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @22 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @11 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @12 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @23 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @9 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @19 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @2 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @21 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @1 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @20 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @18 S1′ sRef Isa@24 @8 S1′ 285. It is said, “They shall reign on the earth,” because by “earth” here and elsewhere is meant the Lord’s church in the heavens and on the earth. The church, wherever it may be, is the Lord’s kingdom. Lest, therefore, anyone should believe that all who are redeemed by the Lord become kings and priests, and that they will reign on the earth, it is important that it be shown from the Word that the earth signifies the church. This may be seen from the following passages:
Behold, Jehovah maketh the earth void, and maketh the earth empty, and turneth over the face of it; the earth shall be made utterly void; the habitable earth shall mourn and be confounded; the earth shall be profaned under its inhabitants; therefore the curse shall devour the earth, and the inhabitants of the earth shall be burnt up, and few men shall be left; there shall be in the midst of the earth as the plucking of an olive tree. The cataracts from on high are opened, and the foundations of the earth are shaken; the earth is utterly broken in pieces; the earth is altogether burst asunder; the earth is thoroughly shaken; the earth staggereth like a drunkard (Isa. 24:1-23).
sRef Ps@18 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@28 @22 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @28 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @7 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@33 @9 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @23 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @21 S2′ sRef Isa@13 @9 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @6 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @12 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @11 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @27 S2′ sRef Jer@12 @4 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @23 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @7 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@60 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@34 @9 S2′ sRef Ps@46 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@60 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@13 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@34 @10 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @25 S2′ sRef Isa@28 @2 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @24 S2′ sRef Jer@4 @26 S2′ [2] The lion hath come up from the thicket to lay waste thy land; I saw the earth, when, behold, it was void and empty; Jehovah said, The whole earth shall be waste, therefore the earth shall mourn (Jer. 4:7, 23-28).
How long shall the earth mourn; the whole earth is desolate, because there is not a man that layeth it to heart (Jer. 12:4, 11-13).
The earth mourneth and languisheth, Lebanon is ashamed and is withered away (Isa. 33:9).
The earth shall become burning pitch, and be laid waste (Isa. 34:9-10).
I have heard a consummation and decree from the Lord upon the whole earth (Isa. 28:2, 22).
Behold, the day of Jehovah cometh to lay the earth waste, and the earth shall be shaken out of its place (Isa. 13:9, 13).
The earth was shaken and trembled, and the foundations of the mountains quaked (Ps. 18:7).
We will not fear when the earth is changed; when He uttereth his voice, the earth shall melt (Ps. 46:2-3, 6, 8).
Have ye not understood from the foundations of the earth? (Isa. 40:21, 23).
O God, Thou hast deserted us, Thou hast made the earth to tremble; heal its breaches, because it is shaken (Ps. 60:1-2).
sRef Isa@45 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @25 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @27 S3′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S3′ sRef Isa@44 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@27 @13 S3′ sRef Isa@18 @2 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @26 S3′ sRef Isa@18 @1 S3′ sRef Matt@5 @5 S3′ sRef Mal@3 @12 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @24 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @13 S3′ sRef Isa@9 @19 S3′ sRef Ps@75 @2 S3′ sRef Isa@38 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@75 @3 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@65 @17 S3′ [3] The earth and all its inhabitants shall melt; I will make firm its pillars (Ps. 75:3).
Woe to the land shadowed with wings; go, ye ambassadors, to a nation trodden down, whose land the rivers have spoiled (Isa. 18:1-2).
Through the wrath of Jehovah Zebaoth is the earth darkened (Isa. 9:19).
Ye shall be a land of good pleasure (Mal. 3:12).
I have given thee for a covenant of the people, to restore the earth; sing, O heavens; and exult, O earth (Isa. 49:8, 13).
Thou shalt not see Jah in the land of the living (Isa. 38:11).
Who gave terror in the land of the living (Ezek. 32:23-27).
Unless I believed to see good in the land of life (Ps. 27:13).
Blessed are the meek, for they shall receive the earth as an inheritance (Matt. 5:5).
I am Jehovah that maketh all things, that spreadeth out the heavens alone, that stretcheth out the earth by Myself (Isa. 44:23, 24; Zech. 12:1; Jer. 10:11-13; 51:15; Ps. 136:6).
Let the earth open itself, let it bring forth salvation; thus said Jehovah, that createth the heavens, that formeth the earth (Isa. 45:8, 12, 18, 19).
Behold, I create new heavens and a new earth (Isa. 65:17; 66:22).
Besides many other places, which, if they were adduced, would fill pages.
[4] The reason why the church is signified by “the earth” is because by “earth” the land of Canaan is often meant, in which was the church; “the heavenly Canaan” is no other; as, also, because when “the earth” is named, the angels, who are spiritual, do not think of the earth, but of the human race that is upon it and of its spiritual state, and its spiritual state is the state of the church. “The earth” has also an opposite sense, and in that it signifies damnation, because when there is no church with man, there is damnation; in this sense the earth is mentioned in Isaiah 14:12; 21:9; 26:19, 21; 29:4; 47:1; 63:6; Lamentations 2:10; Ezekiel 26:20; 32:24; Numbers 16:29-33; 26:10; and in other places.

AR (Whitehead) n. 286 sRef Rev@5 @11 S0′ 286. Verse 11. And I saw, and I heard the voice of many angels round about the throne, and the animals and the elders, signifies confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lower heavens. That there was confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the three heavens, may be seen above (n. 275); and by the angels of the higher heavens, (from verses 8 to 10); and therefore now by the angels of the lower heavens (verses 11, 12); wherefore by “the voice of the angels round about the throne,” is meant the confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lower heavens. That he then saw also the animals and elders together with them, because by “the animals” and “elders” are signified the angels of the higher heavens (n. 275), and the lower heavens never act separately from the higher heavens, but in conjunction with them; for the Lord inflows into all the heavens immediately from Himself; thus also into the lower heavens; and at the same time mediately through the higher heavens into the lower. This is the reason, therefore, why “he saw and heard the animals and elders” first by themselves, and afterwards in conjunction with the others.

AR (Whitehead) n. 287 sRef Ps@144 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@68 @17 S0′ sRef Micah@6 @7 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @9 S0′ sRef Ps@91 @5 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @10 S0′ sRef Num@10 @36 S0′ sRef Deut@33 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@91 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@91 @6 S0′ sRef Rev@5 @11 S0′ 287. And the number of them was myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands, signifies all in truths and in goods. By “number,” in the natural sense, is meant that which has relation to measure or weight, but by “number,” in the spiritual sense, that which has relation to quality; and here their quality is described by their being “myriads of myriads, and thousands of thousands,” for “a myriad” is predicated of truths, and “a thousand” of goods. The reason why “a myriad” is predicated of truths, and “a thousand” of goods, is because a myriad is the greater number, and a thousand a less, and truths are manifold, but goods are simple; also because where truths are treated of in the Word, goods are treated of also, on account of the marriage of good and truth existing in every particular, otherwise it would have been sufficient to have said “myriads of myriads.” Since these two numbers have such a signification, they are mentioned also in other places, as in the following:
The chariots of God are two myriads, thousands of angels of peace, the Lord is in them, Sinai in the sanctuary (Ps. 68:17).
I saw, when the Ancient of Days did sit, a thousand thousands ministered unto Him, and myriads of myriads stood before Him (Dan. 7:9-10).
Moses said of Joseph:
His horns are the horns of a unicorn; with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth; and they are the myriads of Ephraim, and the thousands of Manasseh (Deut. 33:17).
Thou shalt not be afraid for the pestilence that creepeth in thick darkness, nor for the death that wasteth at noonday, a thousand shall fall at thy side, and a myriad at thy right hand (Ps. 91:5-7).
Our flocks are thousands, myriads in our streets (Ps. 144:13).
Is Jehovah delighted with thousands of rams, or with myriads of rivers of oil? (Micah 6:7).
When the ark rested, Moses said:
Return, Jehovah, unto the myriads of the thousands of Israel (Num. 10:36).
In all these places “myriads” are spoken of truths, and “thousands” of goods.

AR (Whitehead) n. 288 sRef Rev@5 @12 S0′ 288. Verse 12. Saying with a great voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and honor, and glory, signifies confession from the heart, that the Lord as to the Divine Human has omnipotence, omniscience, Divine good, and Divine truth. “To say with a great voice,” signifies confession from the heart; “Thou art worthy,” signifies that in Him are the things which follow; “The Lamb” signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human; “power” signifies the Divine power, which is omnipotence; “riches and wisdom,” signify Divine knowledge and wisdom, which are omniscience; “honor and glory,” signify the Divine good and the Divine truth. That “riches” signify the knowledges of good and truth, and thus science, may be seen above (n. 206); therefore, when said of the Lord, they signify omniscience; and that “honor and glory,” when spoken of the Lord, signify the Divine good and the Divine truth, see above (n. 249).

AR (Whitehead) n. 289 sRef Rev@5 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@23 @39 S0′ sRef Ps@31 @21 S1′ sRef Ps@28 @6 S1′ sRef Ps@21 @5 S1′ sRef Ps@21 @6 S1′ sRef Gen@14 @19 S1′ sRef Ps@41 @13 S1′ sRef Gen@14 @18 S1′ sRef Gen@9 @26 S1′ sRef Mark@14 @61 S1′ sRef Luke@1 @68 S1′ sRef Gen@14 @20 S1′ 289. And blessing, signifies all these things in Him, and from Him in them. By “blessing” is meant every good which man receives from the Lord, as power and opulence, and all that is implied by them; but especially every spiritual good, as love and wisdom, charity and faith, and the joy and felicity thence, which are of eternal life; and because all these are from the Lord, it follows that they are in Him, for unless they were in Him, they could not be in others from Him. Hence it is, that, in the Word, the Lord is called “Blessed,” and also “Blessing,” that is, Blessing Itself. That Jehovah, that is the Lord, is called “Blessed,” is evident from these passages:
The high priest asked Jesus, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? (Mark 14:61).
Jesus said, Ye shall not see Me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord (Matt. 23:39; Luke 13:35).
Melchizedek blessed Abram, and said, Blessed be God Most High who hath given thine enemies into thy hand (Gen. 14:18-20).
Blessed be Jehovah the God of Shem (Gen. 9:26).
Blessed be Jehovah, who hath heard my voice (Ps. 28:6).
Blessed be Jehovah, for He hath made marvelous His kindness (Ps. 31:21).
Blessed be Jehovah, from everlasting to everlasting (Ps. 41:13). In like manner Ps. 66:20; 68:19, 35; 72:18, 19; 89:52; 119:12; 124:6; 135:21; 144:1; Luke 1:68).
This is the reason why “blessing” is here mentioned, as also verse 12, and 7:12; and likewise in David:
Glory and honor dost Thou lay upon Him, for Thou makest Him a blessing for ever (Ps. 21:5, 6).
sRef Ps@96 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@96 @3 S2′ sRef Luke@2 @28 S2′ sRef Ps@16 @7 S2′ sRef Luke@1 @64 S2′ sRef Ps@96 @2 S2′ [2] These are concerning the Lord. Hence it may be seen what is meant in the Word by “blessing God,” namely, to ascribe to Him all blessing; also to pray that He would bless, and to give thanks for having blessed; as may appear from the following passages:
The mouth of Zacharias was opened, and he spoke, blessing God (Luke 1:64, 68).
Simeon took up the infant Jesus in his arms, and blessed God (Luke 2:28, 30-31).
Bless ye Jehovah, who hath counselled for me (Ps. 16:7).
Bless the name of Jehovah, evangelize His salvation from day to day (Ps. 96:1-3).
Blessed be the Lord from day to day, bless ye God in the congregations, even the Lord from the fountain of Israel (Ps. 68:19, 26).

AR (Whitehead) n. 290 290. Verse 13. And every created thing which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, signifies confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lowest heavens. That this is a confession and glorification of the Lord by the angels of the lowest heavens is evident from the series, because the confessions and glorifications of the Lord which precede were made by the angels of the higher and lower heavens (n. 275, and following numbers, n. 286, and following numbers); for there are three heavens, and innumerable societies in each, and each of them is called a heaven. That by “every created thing which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and in the sea,” are meant angels, is evident, for it says, “heard I saying,” and they said, “Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne and unto the Lamb for ages of ages.”
sRef Ps@148 @7 S2′ sRef Ps@69 @34 S2′ sRef Mark@16 @15 S2′ sRef Ps@69 @35 S2′ sRef Zeph@1 @3 S2′ sRef Zeph@1 @2 S2′ sRef Job@12 @9 S2′ sRef Job@12 @8 S2′ sRef Job@12 @7 S2′ [2] Their being called “created thing” is according to the style of the Word, in which, by all created things, as well those which belong to the animal kingdom as those which belong to the vegetable kingdom, are signified various things with man, in general such things as belong to his will or affection, and such as pertain to his understanding or thought; for they signify such things, because they correspond to them. And since the Word is written by mere correspondences, similar things are said of the angels of heaven and the men of the church; in proof of which a few passages only shall be adduced, which are as follows:
Jesus said to His disciples, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature (Mark 16:15).
Ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; and the birds of heaven and they shall tell thee; or the shrub of the earth, and it shall teach thee, and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee; who knoweth not from all these, that the hand of Jehovah hath done this? (Job 12:7-9).
Let the heaven and earth praise Jehovah, the seas, and all that creepeth therein, for God will save Zion (Ps. 69:34-35).
Praise Jehovah from the earth, ye whales and all deeps (Ps. 148:7).
I will utterly consume all things from upon the face of the earth, I will consume man and beast, I will consume the birds of the heavens, and the fishes of the sea (Zeph. 1:2-3; likewise in Isa. 50:2-3; Ezek. 38:19-20; Hos. 4:2-3; Rev. 8:7-9).
The heavens shall be glad, and the earth shall rejoice; the sea shall be moved, and the fullness thereof; the field shall exult, and all that is therein; then shall all the trees of the wood sing before Jehovah, for He cometh; for He cometh to judge the earth (Ps. 96:11-13; and in many other places).
[3] It is said “every created thing,” by which is meant every reformed thing, or all the reformed, for “to create” signifies to reform and regenerate (n. 254). What is meant by “in heaven, upon the earth, and under the earth,” may be seen above (n. 260); and what by the “sea” (n. 238); hence it is evident what is signified by “such things as are in the sea, and all that are in them”; these things are meant in the Word by “the fishes of the sea,” which are the sensual affections, these being the lowest of the natural man, for in the spiritual world such affections appear at a distance like “fishes,” and as if they were “in the sea,” because the atmosphere in which they are, appears watery, and therefore to those who are in the heavens and on the earth there, it seems like “a sea,” as may be seen above (n. 238), and concerning fishes (n. 405).

AR (Whitehead) n. 291 sRef Micah@5 @2 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @13 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @14 S0′ 291. Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne and unto the Lamb for ages of ages, signifies that in the Lord from eternity, and thence in His Divine Human, is the all of heaven and the church, the Divine good, and the Divine truth, and the Divine power, and from Him in those who are in heaven and in the church. That the Lord from eternity is Jehovah, who took upon Him the Human in time, that He might redeem and save men, may be seen above (n. 281); therefore by “Him that sitteth upon the throne,” is meant the Lord from eternity, who is called the Father, and by “the Lamb,” the Lord as to the Divine Human, which is the Son; and because the Father is in the Son, and the Son in the Father, and they are one, it is evident that by both, or by “Him that sitteth upon the throne and the Lamb,” the Lord is meant; and because they are one, it is also said that “the Lamb was in the midst of the throne” (verse 6; also 7:17). That “blessing,” when spoken of the Lord, is the all of heaven and of the church in Him and from Him, in those who are in heaven and in the church, may be seen above (n. 289). That “honor and glory,” are the Divine good and the Divine truth, may also be seen above (n. 249); and that “power” when spoken of the Lord, is the Divine power, is evident. That all these are the Lord’s, may appear from what is said in Daniel:
Behold, with the clouds of the heavens one like the Son of man came and even to the Ancient of Days; and there was given Him dominion, and glory, and the kingdom, and all peoples, nations, and languages, shall worship Him; His dominion is the dominion of an age, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not perish (Dan. 7:13-14).
That “the Ancient of Days” is the Lord from eternity, appears from these words in Micah:
But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, out of thee shall come forth unto Me, He who shall be ruler in Israel; and whose goings forth have been from of old, from the days of eternity (Micah 5:2).
Also from these in Isaiah:
Unto us a Boy is born, unto us a Son is given, and the government shall be upon His shoulder: and His name shall be called Counsellor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, the Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6).

AR (Whitehead) n. 292 sRef Rev@5 @14 S0′ 292. Verse 14. And the four animals said, Amen, signifies Divine confirmation from the Word. That “the four animals” or cherubs signify the Word, may be seen above (n. 239); and that “amen” signifies Divine confirmation from truth itself (n. 23, 28, 61), thus from the Word.

AR (Whitehead) n. 293 sRef Rev@5 @14 S0′ 293. And the twenty-four elders fell down and adored Him that liveth forever and ever signifies humiliation before the Lord, and from humiliation, adoration of Him by all in the heavens, in Whom and from Whom is eternal life, as above (n. 251, and n. 58, 60).

AR (Whitehead) n. 294 sRef Matt@28 @18 S0′ sRef Matt@11 @27 S0′ 294. To the above I will add this Relation. In the natural world the speech of man is twofold, because his thought is twofold, exterior and interior; for a man can speak from interior thought and at the same time from exterior thought, and he can speak from exterior thought and not from interior, yea, contrary to interior thought, whence come dissimulations, flatteries, and hypocrisies. But in the spiritual world man’s speech is not twofold, but single. He there speaks as he thinks, otherwise the sound is harsh and offends the ear; but yet he may be silent, and so not publish the thoughts of his mind. Therefore, a hypocrite, when he comes among the wise, either goes away, or retires to a corner of the room and withdraws himself from observation, and sits silent.
[2] On one occasion there were many gathered together in the world of spirits, who were discoursing on this subject, and saying, that not to be able to speak except as one thinks, must be a hard thing for those who might be in company with the good, but yet who have not thought justly concerning God and the Lord. In the midst of the assembly were those of the Reformed, and many of the clergy, and next to them were papists and monks; and they all at first said it was not a hard thing. “What need is there to speak otherwise than one thinks, and if one should happen not to think justly, can he not close his lips and keep silence?” And one of the clergy said, “Who does not think justly of God and the Lord?” But some of the company said, “Let us, however, try.” And to those who had confirmed themselves in the idea of a Trinity of Persons in God, especially from these words in the Athanasian doctrine, “There is one Person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Spirit, and as the Father is God, so the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God,” it was said that they should say, “one God”; but they could not; they distorted and folded their lips in many ways, but could not articulate a sound in any other words than such as were consonant with the ideas of their thought, which were ideas of three Persons, and thence of three gods.
[3] They who had confirmed themselves in faith separate from charity, were then asked to name “Jesus”; but they could not; yet they could all say Christ, and also God the Father. This they wondered at, and inquired into the cause, which they found to be this, that they had prayed to God the Father for the Son’s sake, and had not prayed to the Savior Himself; for “Jesus” signifies Savior.
sRef John@17 @2 S4′ sRef John@3 @35 S4′ [4] They were then requested that from thinking of the Lord’s Divine Human, they should say, “Divine Human”; but none of the clergy that were present could do so, though some of the laity could, wherefore the matter was taken into serious discussion; and then:
1. The following passages from the Evangelists were read to them:
The Father hath given all things into the Son’s hand (John 3:35).
The Father hath given the Son power over all flesh (John 17:2).
All things are delivered unto Me by the Father (Matt. 11:27).
All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth (Matt. 28:18).
And they were directed to keep in the thought, that Christ, both as to His Divine and as to His Human, is the God of heaven and earth, and thus to pronounce “Divine Human.” But still they could not; and they said that they indeed retained from those passages something of the thought of it from their understanding concerning it, but not acknowledgment, and that on its account they were not able.
[5] 2. Afterwards was read to them out of Luke (1:32, 34, 35), that the Lord as to the Human was the Son of Jehovah God, and that everywhere in the Word He is called, as to the Human, “the Son of God,” and also “the Only-begotten,” and they were asked to hold this in the thought; and likewise that the Only-begotten Son of God born in the world cannot but be God, as the Father is God, and to utter the words, “Divine Human.” But they said, “We cannot, by reason that our spiritual thought, which is interior, does not admit into the thought which is next to the speech any other than similar ideas;” and that thence they could perceive, that it is not permitted them to divide their thoughts, as it was in the natural world.
sRef John@14 @10 S6′ sRef John@10 @30 S6′ sRef John@14 @9 S6′ sRef John@14 @11 S6′ sRef John@14 @8 S6′ [6] 3. Then were read to them these words of the Lord to Philip:
Philip said, Lord, show us the Father, and the Lord said, he who seeth Me seeth the Father; believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? (John 14:8-11).
And in another place:
The Father and He are one (John 10:30, and elsewhere).
And it was enjoined them to hold this in the thought and say, “Divine Human.” But as their thought was not rooted in the acknowledgment that the Lord was God as to His Human also, therefore they could not; they twisted and folded their lips even to indignation, and would have forced their mouth to utter and force it out, but they were not able. The reason was, because the ideas of thought, which flow from acknowledgment, make one with words uttered by the tongue, with those who are in the spiritual world; and where such ideas do not exist, there are no words, for the ideas become words in speaking.
[7] 4. Moreover there was read to them from the doctrine of the church received throughout the whole world, the following passage, taken from the Athanasian Creed: “That the Divine and Human in the Lord are not two but one, yea, one Person, united altogether like soul and body;” and it was said to them, “From this you may possibly have an idea from the acknowledgment that the Lord’s Human is Divine, because His soul is Divine, for it is from the doctrine of your church, acknowledged by you when in the world. Moreover the soul is the essence itself, and the body is its form, and the essence and form make one, like being and existing, and like the efficient cause of the effect, and the effect itself.” They retained that idea, and wished to utter “Divine Human”; but they could not; for their interior idea concerning the Lord’s Human exterminated and expunged this new supplemental idea, as they called it.
sRef Colo@2 @9 S8′ [8] 5. Again there was read to them this passage from John:
The Word was with God, and God was the Word; and the Word became flesh (John. 1:1, 14).
And the following from Paul:
In Jesus Christ dwelleth all the fullness of the Divinity bodily (Col. 2:9).
And they were told to think firmly that God, who was the Word, was made flesh, and that all the Divine dwells in Him bodily, and perhaps then they might be able to pronounce “Divine Human.” But still they could not, saying openly that they could not have the idea of the Divine Human, because God is God, and man is man, and God is spirit, and of a spirit we have never thought any otherwise than as of wind or ether.
sRef John@15 @4 S9′ sRef John@15 @5 S9′ [9] 6. At length it was said to them: you know that the Lord said:
Abide in me, and I in you, he who abideth in Me, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit, for without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:4-5).
And as some of the English clergy were present, there was read to them this passage out of one of their exhortations before the holy communion, “For when we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ, and drink the blood, then we dwell in Christ, and Christ in us.” “If now you will but think that this cannot take place, except the Lord’s Human be Divine, you may pronounce ‘Divine Human,’ from an acknowledgment in thought.” But still they could not; so deeply was the idea impressed upon them that the Lord’s Divine was one thing and His Human another, and that His Divine was like the Divine of the Father, and His Human like the human of another man. But it was said to them, “How can you think thus? Is it possible for a rational mind ever to think that God is three, and the Lord two?”
[10] 7. Afterwards they turned to the Lutherans, saying that the Augustan confession and Luther taught that the Son of God and the Son of man in Christ are one Person, and that He even as to the Human nature, is the true, omnipotent, and eternal God, and that as to this nature also, being present at the right hand of God Almighty, He governs all things in the heavens and on earth, fills all things, is with us, and dwells and operates in us; and that there is no distinction of adoration, because by the nature which is seen, the Divinity which is not seen is adored, thus that in Christ God is Man and Man is God. On hearing this, they said, “Is it so?” And they looked round, and presently they said, “This is what we did not know before; therefore we are not able.” But one and another said, “We have read it and written it, but yet when we thought of it in ourselves from ourselves, they were only words of which we had no interior idea.”
[11] 8. At length, turning to the papists, they said, “Possibly you can name the ‘Divine Human,’ because you believe that in your Eucharist, in the bread and wine and in every part, there is the whole of Christ, and also you adore Him as God, when you show and carry about the host; and likewise because you call Mary the bringer forth of God, consequently you acknowledge that she brought forth God, that is, the Divine Human.” They then wished to pronounce it from those ideas, of the thought concerning the Lord, but could not, by reason of their entertaining a material idea of His body and blood; and by reason of the assertion that the Human and not the Divine power is transferred by Him to the Pope. Then a certain monk rose up and said that he could think of the Divine Human, concerning the most holy virgin Mary, the God-bearer, and also of the saint of his monastery. And another monk came, and said, “From my idea of thought, I could rather call his holiness, the Pope, the Divine Human, than Christ;” but then some other monks pulled him back, and said, “Shame on you.”
[12] After this heaven was seen open, and there were seen tongues, as little flames, descending and flowing in with some; and they then celebrated the Divine Human of the Lord, saying, “Remove the idea of three Gods, and believe that in the Lord dwells all the fullness of Divinity bodily, and that the Father and He are one, as the soul and body are one, and that God is not wind, or ether, but that He is Man, and then you will be conjoined with heaven, and thereby have power from the Lord to pronounce the name of ‘Jesus,’ and say ‘Divine Human.'”

AR (Whitehead) n. 295 sRef Rev@6 @1 S0′ 295. Revelation 6

1. And I saw when the lamb had opened the first of the seals, and I heard one of the four animals saying, as with a voice of thunder, Come and look.
2. And I saw, and behold, a white horse, and he that sat upon him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him, and he went forth conquering and to conquer.
3. And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second animal saying, Come and look.
4. And there went out another horse that was red, and it was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.
5. And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third animal saying, Come and look. And I saw, and behold, a black horse; and he that sat upon him had a balance in his hand.
6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four animals, saying, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and hurt not the oil and the wine.
7. And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth animal saying, Come and look.
8. And I saw, and behold, a pale horse; and his name that sat upon him was Death, and hell followed with him; and power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with the sword, and with hunger, and with death, and by beasts.*
9. And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the Word of God, and for the testimony which they held.
10. And they cried with a great voice, saying, How long, O Lord, holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?
11. And white robes were given unto each of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet a little while, until their fellow-servants also, and their brethren, that would be killed as they were, should be fulfilled.
12. And I saw when he had opened the sixth seal, and behold, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood.
13. And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, as a fig tree casteth its unripe figs, when shaken by a great wind.
14. And the heaven departed as a book rolled together: and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.
15. And the kings of the earth, and the great ones, and the rich, and the rulers of thousands, and the mighty, and every servant, and every freeman, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains;
16. And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall upon us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the anger of the Lamb.
17. Because the great day of His anger is come, and who shall be able to stand?
* The original Latin omits “of the earth.”

THE SPIRITUAL SENSE
The contents of the whole chapter

It treats of the exploration of those on whom the Last Judgment is to be executed; and exploration is made as to what the quality of their understanding of the Word had been and thence the quality of their state of life. That there were those who were in truths from good (verses 1, 2); those who were without good (verses 3, 4); those who were in contempt of truth (verses 5, 6); and those who were totally vastated both as to good and truth (verses 7, 8). Of the state of those who were guarded by the Lord in the lower earth, on account of the evil, and were to be delivered at the time of the Last Judgment (verses 9-11). Of the state of those who were in evils and thence in falsities, what it is at the day of the Last Judgment (verses 12-17).

The contents of each verse

Verse 1. “And I saw when the Lamb had opened the first of the seals,” signifies exploration by the Lord of all those upon whom the Last Judgment was about to come as to their understanding of the Word, and thence as to their states of life (n. 295). “And I heard one of the four animals saying, as with a voice of thunder,” signifies, according to the Divine truth of the Word (n. 296). “Come and look,” signifies a manifestation concerning the first in order (n. 297). Verse 2. “And I saw, and behold, a white horse,” signifies the understanding of truth and good from the Word with these (n. 298); “And he that sat upon him had a bow,” signifies that they had the doctrine of truth and good from the Word, from which they fought against the falsities and evils which are from hell (n. 299); “And a crown was given unto him,” signifies their badge of combat (n. 300); “And he went forth conquering, and to conquer,” signifies victory over evils and falsities to eternity (n. 301). Verse 3. “And when He had opened the second seal, I heard the second animal saying, Come and look,” signifies the same here as above (n. 302-304). Verse 4. “And there went out another horse that was red,” signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed as to good, and thence as to life, with these (n. 305). “And it was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth,” signifies the taking away of charity, spiritual security, and internal rest (n. 306). “And that they should kill one another,” signifies intestine hatreds, infestations from the hells, and internal unrest (n. 307). “And there was given unto him a great sword,” signifies the destruction of truth by falsities of evil (n. 308). Verse 5. “And when He had opened the third seal, I heard the third animal saying, Come and look,” signifies the same here as above (n. 309-311). “And I saw, and behold, a black horse,” signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed with these as to truth, and thus as to doctrine (n. 312). “And he that sat upon him had a balance in his hand,” signifies the estimation of good and truth, what it was with these (n. 313). Verse 6. “And I heard a voice in the midst of the four animals saying,” signifies the Divine guarding of the Word by the Lord (n. 314). “A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny,” signifies, because the estimation of good and truth is so small as to be scarcely anything (n. 315). “And hurt not the oil and the wine,” signifies that it is provided by the Lord, that the holy goods and truths which lie interiorly concealed in the Word, should not be violated and profaned (n. 316). Verse 7. “And when He had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth animal saying, Come and look,” signifies the same here as above (n. 317-319). Verse 8. “And I saw, and behold, a pale horse,” signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed both as to good and as to truth (n. 320). “And his name that sat upon him was Death, and hell followed with him,” signifies the extinction of spiritual life and thence damnation (n. 321). “And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill,” signifies the destruction of all good in the church (n. 322). “With sword, and with hunger, and with death, and by the beasts of the earth,” signifies by falsities of doctrine, by evils of life, by the love of the proprium, and by lusts (n. 323). Verse 9. “And when He had opened the fifth seal,” signifies exploration by the Lord of the states of life of those who were to be saved at the day of the Last Judgment, and were in the meantime reserved (n. 324). “I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the Word of God, and for the testimony which they held,” signifies those who were rejected by the evil on account of their life according to the truths of the Word, and their acknowledgment of the Lord’s Divine Human, and who were guarded by the Lord lest they be seduced (n. 325). Verse 10. “And they cried with a great voice,” signifies grief of heart (n. 326), “Saying, How long, O Lord,* dost Thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth?” signifies by reason that the Last Judgment is delayed, and that they who offer violence to the Word and to the Lord’s Divine are not removed (n. 327). Verse 11. “And white robes were given unto each of them,” signifies their communication and conjunction with angels who are in Divine truths (n. 328); “And it was said, that they should rest yet for a little while, until their fellow-servants also, and their brethren, that would be killed as they were, should be fulfilled,” signifies that the Last Judgment would yet be delayed a little, till they should be collected, who were in like manner rejected by the evil (n. 329). Verse 12. “And I saw when He had opened the sixth seal,” signifies exploration by the Lord of their state of life, who were interiorly evil, upon whom the judgment was about to come (n. 330). “And behold, there was a great earthquake,” signifies the state of the church with those totally changed, and terror (n. 331). “And the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood,” signifies the adulteration of all the good of love with them, and the falsification of all the truth of faith (n. 332). Verse 13. “And the stars* fell unto the earth,” signifies the dispersion of all the knowledges of good and truth (n. 333). “Even as a fig tree casteth its unripe figs, when shaken by a great wind,” signifies by the reasonings of the natural man separated from the spiritual (n. 334). Verse 14. “And the heaven departed as a book rolled together,” signifies separation from heaven and conjunction with hell (n. 335). “And every mountain and island were moved out of their places,” signifies that all the good of love and truth of faith departed (n. 336). Verse 15. “And the kings of the earth, and the great ones, and the rich, and the rulers of thousands, and the mighty, and every servant, and every freeman,” signifies those who, before separation, were in the understanding of truth and good, in the science of the knowledges thereof, in erudition, either from others or from themselves, and yet not in a life according to them (n. 337). “Hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains,” signifies that they were now in evils and in falsities of evil (n. 338). Verse 16. “And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall upon us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne, and from the anger of the Lamb,” signifies confirmations of evil by falsities from evil, until they did not acknowledge any Divine of the Lord (n. 339). Verse 17. “Because the great day of His anger is come, and who shall be able to stand?” signifies that they had become such of themselves by separation from the good and the faithful on account of the Last Judgment, which otherwise they could not endure (n. 340).
* The original Latin omits “Who are holy and true.”

THE EXPLANATION
Verse 1. And I saw when the Lamb had opened the first of the seals, signifies exploration by the Lord of all those upon whom the Last Judgment was about to come, as to their understanding of the Word, and thence as to their states of life. This is signified, because now follows in order the exploration of all upon whom the Last Judgment was about to come, as to their states of life, and this from the Lord according to the Word. This then is the signification of “the Lamb’s opening the seals of the book.” That “to open the book,” and “loose the seals thereof,” signifies to know the states of the life of all, and to judge everyone according to his own, may be seen above (n. 259-265, 267, 273, 274).

AR (Whitehead) n. 296 sRef Rev@6 @1 S0′ 296. And I heard one of the four animals saying as with a voice of thunder, signifies according to the Divine truth of the Word. That by “the four animals,” or “cherubim,” is meant the Word, may be seen above (n. 239, 275, 286), and by “a voice of thunder,” the perception of the Divine truth (n. 236). It is here said “a voice of thunder,” because by this animal is meant the lion, by which is signified the Divine truth of the Word as to power (n. 241); hence it is, that this animal is said to have spoken “as a voice of thunder,” for it is said afterwards, that the second animal spoke, then the third, and the fourth.

AR (Whitehead) n. 297 sRef Rev@6 @1 S0′ 297. Come and look, signifies a manifestation concerning the first in order. It was said above, that in this chapter is described the exploration of all upon whom the judgment was about to come, as to their states of life, and this from the Lord according to the Word (n. 295); here therefore is described the exploration of the first in order, as to their understanding of the Word, and thence the states of their life. That the church is from the Word, and that it is such as is its understanding of the Word, may be seen in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Sacred Scripture (n. 76-79).

AR (Whitehead) n. 298 sRef Rev@6 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@19 @11 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @16 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @13 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @14 S1′ 298. Verse 2. And I saw, and behold, a white horse, signifies the understanding of truth and good from the Word with these. By “horse” is signified the understanding of the Word, and by “a white horse” the understanding of truth from the Word; for white is predicated of truth (n. 167). That “a horse” signifies the understanding of the Word, is shown in a separate small work on The White Horse; but as a few passages only are there quoted, others shall be here quoted by way of further confirmation. This is very manifest from this that “horses” were seen to go out of the book which the Lamb had opened, and from “the animals saying, Come and look”; for by “the animals” is signified the Word (n. 239, 275, 286); so likewise by “the book” (n. 256); and by “the Son of man,” who is here “the Lamb,” the Lord as to the Word (n. 44). From these things it is now evident, that nothing is meant here by “horse” but the understanding of the Word. This may appear more manifestly still from the following passages in Revelation:
I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and He that sat upon him is called the Word of God, and He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, King of kings and Lord of lords. And His armies in the heavens followed Him upon white horses (Rev. 19:11, 13-14, 16).
sRef Deut@32 @12 S2′ sRef Zech@14 @20 S2′ sRef Ezek@39 @21 S2′ sRef Ezek@39 @20 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @13 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @18 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @10 S2′ sRef Rev@19 @17 S2′ sRef Rev@19 @18 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @17 S2′ sRef Zech@12 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @1 S2′ sRef Hag@2 @22 S2′ sRef Hab@3 @15 S2′ sRef Job@39 @17 S2′ sRef Jer@51 @20 S2′ sRef Jer@51 @21 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@58 @14 S2′ sRef Hos@10 @11 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S2′ sRef Job@39 @18 S2′ sRef Zech@9 @10 S2′ sRef Hab@3 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@76 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @33 S2′ sRef Ezek@39 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@68 @32 S2′ [2] That “a horse” signifies the understanding of the Word, may also appear from the following passages:
Was thy wrath against the sea, O Jehovah, that Thou didst ride upon Thy horses, and Thy chariots of salvation? Thou didst tread the sea with Thy horses, the mud of the waters (Hab. 3:8, 15).
The hoofs of Jehovah’s horses are counted as flints (Isa. 5:28).
In that day I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness; and will smite every horse of the people with blindness (Zech. 12:4).
In that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses holiness unto Jehovah (Zech. 14:20).
Because God hath made her forget wisdom, neither hath imparted intelligence. What time she lifteth up herself on high she laugheth at the horse and his rider (Job 39:17-18 seq.).
And I will cut off the horse from Jerusalem, and he shall speak peace to the nations (Zech. 9:10).
At Thy rebuke, O God of Jacob, both the chariot and the horse are cast into a deep sleep (Ps. 76:6).
And I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will overthrow the chariot and those that ride in them, and the horses and their riders shall come down (Hag. 2:22).
By thee I will destroy kingdoms; and by thee I will disperse the horse and his rider (Jer. 51:20-21).
Gather yourselves on every side to My sacrifice; thus shall ye be satiated at My table with horse and chariot, thus I will give My glory among the nations (Ezek. 39:17, 20-21).
Gather yourselves together unto the great supper of God; and ye shall eat the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them (Rev. 19:17-18).
Dan shall be an asp upon the path, that biteth the heels of the horse, so that his rider shall fall backwards; I wait for thy salvation, O Jehovah (Gen. 49:17-18).
Gird on thy sword, O Mighty One, mount, ride upon the Word of truth (Ps. 45:3-4).
Sing unto God, extol him that rideth upon the clouds (Ps. 68:4).
Behold, Jehovah rideth upon a cloud (Isa. 19:1).
Sing psalms unto the Lord that rideth upon the heaven of heavens of old (Ps. 68:32-33).
God rode upon a cherub (Ps. 18:10).
Then shalt thou delight thyself in Jehovah, and I will cause thee to ride upon the high places of the earth (Isa. 58:14).
Jehovah alone did lead him, and made him to ride upon the high places of the earth (Deut. 32:12-13).
I will make Ephraim to ride (Hos. 10:11).
sRef Zech@6 @4 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @3 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @2 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @5 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @7 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @8 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @6 S3′ sRef 2Ki@2 @12 S3′ sRef 2Ki@6 @17 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @15 S3′ sRef 2Ki@13 @14 S3′ sRef Zech@6 @1 S3′ [3] Ephraim also signifies the understanding of the Word. Because Elijah and Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word, therefore they were called “the chariot of Israel and his horsemen.” Elisha said to Elijah:
My father, my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof (2 Kings 2:12).
And king Joash said to Elisha, O my father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof (2 Kings 13:14).
Jehovah opened the eyes of Elisha’s boy, and he saw, and behold the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha (2 Kings 6:17).
A “chariot” signifies doctrine from the Word, and a “horseman,” one that is wise by means of it. The same is signified by:
The four chariots which came out from between the mountains of brass, and by the four horses harnessed in them, which were red, black, white, and speckled, which are also called the four spirits, and are said to have gone forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth (Zech. 6:1-8, 15).
In these places, by “horses” is signified the understanding of the Word, or the understanding of truth from the Word, and in like manner in other places.
sRef Ps@33 @17 S4′ sRef Zech@10 @3 S4′ sRef Zech@10 @4 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @7 S4′ sRef Ps@147 @10 S4′ sRef Isa@31 @1 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @11 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @9 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @10 S4′ sRef Ezek@26 @8 S4′ sRef Isa@31 @3 S4′ sRef Zech@10 @5 S4′ sRef Hos@14 @3 S4′ sRef Isa@30 @16 S4′ sRef Isa@30 @15 S4′ sRef Ps@20 @7 S4′ sRef Isa@5 @28 S4′ sRef Nahum@3 @2 S4′ sRef Nahum@3 @1 S4′ sRef Nahum@3 @3 S4′ sRef Deut@17 @15 S4′ sRef Deut@17 @16 S4′ [4] It may appear still more clearly from the mention that is made of “horses” in the opposite sense, in which they signify the understanding of the Word and of truth falsified by reasonings, and likewise destroyed; as also one’s own intelligence; as in the following passages:
Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help; and stay on horses, but look not unto the Holy One of Israel; for Egypt is man and not God, and the horses thereof flesh and not spirit (Isa. 31:1, 3).
Thou shalt set him king over Israel whom Jehovah shall choose; but only he shall not multiply horses to himself, lest he bring back the people into Egypt to multiply horses (Deut. 17:15-16).
These things were said, because by “Egypt” are signified science and reasoning from one’s own intelligence, whence comes the falsification of the truth of the Word, which is here “a horse.”
Asshur shall not save us, we will not ride upon a horse (Hos. 14:3).
Some trust in chariots, and some in horses, but we will glory in the name of the Lord our God (Ps. 20:7).
A horse is a false thing for safety (Ps. 33:17).
Jehovah delighteth not in the strength of the horse (Ps. 147:10).
The Holy One of Israel saith, In confidence shall be your strength; but ye said, No; for we will flee upon a horse; we will ride upon the swift (Isa. 30:15-16).
Jehovah will make Judah as a horse of glory; the riders on horses shall be ashamed (Zech. 10:3, 5).
Woe to the city of blood, it is all full of a lie, the neighing horses, and the leaping chariots; the horseman lifteth up (Nahum 3:1-4).
I will bring against Tyre the king of Babylon, with horse and with chariot, and with horsemen; by reason of the abundance of horses their dust shall cover thee; thy walls shall be shaken at the voice of the horsemen and of the chariots; with the hoofs of his horses shall he tread down all thy streets (Ezek. 26:7-11).
By “Tyre” is signified the church as to the knowledges of truth, here such as are falsified in her, which are “the horses of Babylon,” besides other places (as Isa. 5:26, 28; Jer. 6:22, 23; 8:16; 46:4, 9; 50:37, 38, 42; Ezek. 17:15; 23:6, 20; Hab. 1:6, 8-10; Ps. 66:12). The understanding of the Word destroyed is also signified by the “red, black, and pale horse,” mentioned below. That it is from appearances in the spiritual world that “a horse” signifies the understanding of truth from the Word, see the small tract concerning The White Horse.

AR (Whitehead) n. 299 sRef Job@38 @22 S0′ sRef Job@38 @23 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@19 @15 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @14 S1′ 299. And he that sat upon him had a bow, signifies that they had the doctrine of truth and good from the Word, from which they fought against the falsities and evils which are from hell, thus against hell. By “Him that sat upon the white horse,” as mentioned in Revelation 19:13, is meant the Lord as to the Word; but by him that sat upon this white horse, is meant a man-angel as to the doctrine of truth and good from the Word, thus from the Lord; in like manner as by:
The Lord’s army in heaven, which followed the Lord upon white horses (Rev. 19:14).
Of Him that sat on the white horse (Revelation 19), it is said that:
Out of His mouth went forth a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations (Rev. 19:15).
And by “the sword out of His mouth,” is signified the Divine truth of the Word fighting against falsities and evils (n. 52, 108, 117); but here it is said that he who sat on this white horse had “a bow,” and by “a bow” is signified the doctrine of truth and good from the Word fighting against evils and falsities. To fight against falsities and evils is also to fight against the hells, because evils and falsities are from thence, therefore this also is signified.
sRef Gen@49 @24 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @18 S2′ sRef Hab@3 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @2 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @17 S2′ sRef Hab@3 @8 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @14 S2′ sRef Zech@9 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @28 S2′ sRef Jer@9 @3 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @23 S2′ sRef Ps@11 @2 S2′ sRef Jer@50 @29 S2′ [2] That “a bow,” in the Word, signifies doctrine combating, in both senses, may appear from these passages:
The arrows of Jehovah are sharp, and all His bows bent, the hoofs of His horses shall be counted like flints (Isa. 5:28).
The Lord bent His bow like an enemy (Lam. 2:4).
Thou, O Jehovah, ridest upon Thy horses, Thy bow shall be made naked (Hab. 3:8-9).
He gave the nations before Him and made Him rule over kings. He gave them as dust to His sword, and as stubble to His bow (Isa. 41:2).
In these places “a bow,” because it is applied to Jehovah or the Lord, signifies the Word, from which the Lord fights with man against evils and falsities.
I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and the bow of war shall be cut off; and he shall speak peace to the nations (Zech. 9:10).
They bend their tongue, their bow is a lie, and not the truth (Jer. 9:3).
Behold the wicked bend their bow, they make ready the arrows upon the string, to shoot in the darkness the upright in heart (Ps. 11:2).
They shall sorely grieve Joseph, and shoot, the archers hold him in hatred; but he shall sit in the strength of his bow, from the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob (Gen. 49:23-24).
Put yourselves in array against Babylon, all ye that bend the bow, shoot at her, spare not the arrow, for she hath sinned against Jehovah (Jer. 50:14, 29).
David lamented over Saul to teach the sons of Judah the bow (2 Sam. 1:17-18).
In that lamentation the combat of truth against falsities is treated of.
sRef Ps@127 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@127 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@127 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@76 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@46 @9 S3′ sRef Ps@76 @3 S3′ sRef Lam@2 @4 S3′ [3] Thus saith Jehovah of Hosts; Behold I break the bow of Elam, the beginning of his might (Jer. 49:35).
Jehovah hath made me a polished shaft, in His quiver hath He hidden me (Isa. 49:2).
Behold, sons are an heritage of Jehovah, happy is he that hath filled his quiver with them (Ps. 127:3-5).
“Sons” here, as in other places, signify truths of doctrine.
In Salem shall be the tabernacle of Jehovah, there broke He the string of the bow, the shield, the sword, and war (Ps. 76:2-3).
Jehovah will make wars to cease, He will break the bow, He will cut the spear in sunder, He will burn the chariot in the fire (Ps. 46:9; Ezek. 39:8-9; Hos. 2:18).
In these passages “a bow” signifies the doctrine of truth combating against falsities, and in the opposite sense, the doctrine of falsity combating against truths; therefore “arrows” and “darts” signify truths or falsities. As “war” in the Word signifies spiritual war, therefore the arms of war, such as the sword, spear, shield, buckler, bow and arrows, signify such things as belong to that war.

AR (Whitehead) n. 300 sRef 2Sam@1 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @2 S0′ 300. And a crown was given unto him, signifies his badge of combat. “A crown” signifies a badge of combat, because in ancient times kings wore crowns in battle, as may appear from history, and partly from 2 Samuel 1:10, where:
The man said to David concerning Saul, that when he died in battle, he took the crown that was upon his head, and the bracelets that were upon his arms (2 Sam. 1:10).
Then also from what is said of the king of Rabbah and David (2 Samuel 12:29-30). And as temptations are spiritual combats which the martyrs sustained, therefore crowns were given them as badges of victory (n. 103). Hence it appears, that by “a crown” is here signified the badge of their combat; therefore it follows, “And he went forth conquering, and to conquer.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 301 sRef Rev@6 @2 S0′ 301. And he went forth conquering and to conquer, signifies victory over falsities and evils to eternity. It is said “conquering and to conquer,” because he who in spiritual combats, which are temptations, conquers in this world, conquers to eternity, for the hells cannot assault anyone who has conquered them.

AR (Whitehead) n. 302 sRef Rev@6 @3 S0′ 302. Verse 3. And when He had opened the second seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of those upon whom the Last Judgment was to be executed, as to their states of life. The signification here is similar to what was shown before (n. 295), only with the difference mentioned in what follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 303 sRef Rev@6 @3 S0′ 303. I heard the second animal saying, signifies according to the Divine truth of the Word, as above (n. 296).

AR (Whitehead) n. 304 sRef Rev@6 @3 S0′ 304. Come and look, signifies manifestation concerning the second in order, as may appear from the explanation above (n. 297); but there concerning the first in order, and here concerning the second.

AR (Whitehead) n. 305 sRef Rev@6 @4 S0′ sRef Lam@4 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@49 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@49 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@1 @18 S0′ sRef Zech@1 @8 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S0′ sRef Nahum@2 @3 S0′ sRef Nahum@2 @4 S0′ 305. Verse 4. And there went out another horse that was red, signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed as to good, and thence as to life with these. By “a horse” is signified the understanding of the Word (n. 298); and by “red” [rufus] is signified good destroyed. That the color white is predicated of truths, because it is from the light of the sun of heaven, and the color red [ruber] is predicated of goods because it is from the fire of the sun of heaven may be seen above (n. 167, 231). But the reason why “red” [rufus] is predicated of good destroyed, is, because by red [rufus] an infernal red is meant, which is from infernal fire, which is the love of evil; the red which is an infernal red is hideous and abominable, there being nothing alive therein, but all dead; hence it is, that by “a red horse” is signified the understanding of the Word destroyed as to good. This may also appear from the description of it below; that “it was given him to take peace from the earth, that they should kill one another:” “the second animal” also, which was like a calf, by which is signified the Divine truth of the Word as to affection (n. 242), said, “Come and look,” and thus showed that there was no affection of good, and thence no good with them. That red is spoken of love, as well the love of good as of evil, may appear from the following passages:
Who washed His clothing in wine, His covering in the blood of grapes; His eyes are redder than wine, and His teeth whiter than milk (Gen. 49:11-12).
This is concerning the Lord:
Who is this that cometh from Edom, red as to His garment, and His garment as of him that treadeth in the winepress (Isa. 63:1-2).
This is also concerning the Lord:
The Nazarites were whiter than snow, brighter than milk; their bones were redder than red-shining gems (Lam. 4:7).
In these passages “red” is predicated of the love of good; in the following, of the love of evil:
The shield was made red, and the men were empurpled; in the fire of torches were their chariots, their aspect was as of a torch (Nahum 2:3-4).
If your sins were as scarlet, they shall be white as snow; If they were red as purple, they shall be as wool (Isa. 1:18).
Neither is anything else signified by the “red dragon” (Revelation 12:3); and by the “red horse standing among the myrtle trees” (Zechariah 1:8). Similar things are said of the colors which are derived from red, as of scarlet and purple.

AR (Whitehead) n. 306 sRef Luke@1 @79 S0′ sRef Ps@55 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @7 S0′ sRef Ps@38 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@34 @14 S0′ sRef Lam@3 @15 S0′ sRef Isa@32 @17 S0′ sRef Lam@3 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@85 @8 S0′ sRef Ps@85 @10 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @78 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@119 @165 S0′ sRef Ps@119 @166 S0′ sRef Isa@54 @10 S0′ sRef John@16 @33 S0′ sRef Ezek@34 @25 S0′ sRef Ezek@34 @27 S0′ sRef Luke@10 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@52 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @4 S0′ sRef John@14 @27 S0′ sRef Num@6 @24 S0′ sRef Luke@10 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@48 @22 S0′ sRef Num@6 @26 S0′ sRef Num@6 @25 S0′ sRef Isa@54 @13 S0′ sRef Ps@29 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@32 @18 S0′ sRef Isa@48 @18 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @3 S0′ 306. And it was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, signifies the taking away of charity, spiritual security, and internal rest. By “peace” are signified all things in their aggregate which are from the Lord, and thence all things of heaven and the church, and the happiness of life in them; these are of peace in the highest or inmost sense. It follows therefore that “peace” is charity, spiritual security, and internal rest; for when man is in the Lord, he is in peace with his neighbor, which is charity; in protection against the hells, which is spiritual security; and when he is in peace with his neighbor, and in protection against the hells, he is in internal rest from evils and falsities. Since therefore all these are from the Lord, it may appear what is signified in general and in particular by “peace” in the following passages:
For unto us a Boy is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder, and His name shall be called God, Hero, The Father of Eternity, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and peace there shall be no end (Isa. 9:6-7).
Jesus said, Peace I leave with you, My peace I give you (John 14:27).
Jesus said, These things have I spoken, that in Me ye might have peace (John 16:33).
In His days shall the just flourish, and abundance of peace (Ps. 72:3, 7).
Then I will make a covenant of peace (Ezek. 34:25, 27; 37:25, 26; Mal. 2:4-5).
How delightful upon the mountains are the feet of Him that bringeth good tidings, that maketh to hear peace, that saith unto Zion, Thy King* reigneth (Isa. 52:7).
Jehovah bless thee, and lift up His countenance upon thee, and give thee peace (Num. 6:24-26).
Jehovah will bless His people with peace (Ps. 29:11).
Jehovah will redeem my soul in peace (Ps. 55:18).
And the work of justice is peace, and the labor of justice is quietness, and security forever. That they may dwell in a tabernacle of peace and in a tent of security, and in quiet tranquil places (Isa. 32:17-18).
Jesus said unto the seventy whom He sent out, Into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house; and if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it (Luke 10:5-6; Matt. 10:12-14).
The meek shall possess the earth, and shall delight themselves in the multitude of peace: behold the upright, for the end of that man is peace (Ps. 37:11, 37).
Zacharias, prophesying, said, The day-spring from on high hath appeared, to direct our feet into the way of peace (Luke 1:78-79).
Depart from evil and do good: seek peace and pursue it (Ps. 34:14).
Much peace have they that love Thy law (Ps. 119:165-166).
O that thou hadst hearkened to My commandments! then had thy peace been as a river. There is no peace, saith Jehovah, to the wicked (Isa. 48:18, 22).
Jehovah will speak peace to His people: justice and peace shall kiss each other (Ps. 85:8, 10).
There is no peace in my bones because of my sin (Ps. 38:3).
He hath filled me with bitterness, my soul is removed from peace; I forgot good (Lam. 3:15, 17).
Besides many other passages; from which it may be seen, that the above-mentioned things are meant by “peace;” keep in mind spiritual peace, and you will clearly perceive that this is the case (so likewise in these passages, Isaiah 26:12; 53:5; 54:10, 13; Jeremiah 33:6, 9; Haggai 2:9; Zechariah 8:16, 19; Psalms 4:6-8; 120:6, 7; 122:6-9; 128:5, 6; 147:14). That peace is what inmostly affects all good with blessedness, may be seen in the work concerning Heaven and Hell (n. 284-290).
* The original Hebrew has “God.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 307 sRef Rev@6 @4 S0′ 307. And that they should kill one another, signifies intestine hatreds, infestations from the hells, and internal restlessness. These things are signified, when by “taking away peace” is signified taking away charity, spiritual security, and internal rest, and when by “the red horse” is signified the understanding of the Word destroyed as to good; for these things exist when there is no longer any good; and there is no longer any good when it is not known what good is. That intestine hatreds exist when there is no charity, likewise infestations by the hells when there is no spiritual security, and internal restlessness when there is no rest from evils and their lusts, is evident; but this is the case after death, if not in the world. That “to kill” has such a signification, is plain from the signification of “a sword,” in what follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 308 sRef Rev@6 @4 S0′ 308. And there was given unto him a great sword, signifies the destruction of truth by the falsities of evil. That “a sword” [gladius], “saber” [machaera], and “long sword” [romphaea] signify truth combating against falsities and destroying them, and in the opposite sense, falsity combating against truths, and destroying them, may be seen above (n. 52); here “a great sword” signifies the falsities of evil destroying the truths of good. They are called falsities of evil, because there are falsities which are not falsities of evil, and the latter do not destroy truths, but the former do. That such is the signification of “a great sword” is evident from its being said that presently “a black horse” was seen, by which is signified the understanding of the Word destroyed as to truth, and truth is destroyed by nothing but evil.

AR (Whitehead) n. 309 sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′ 309. Verse 5. And when He had opened the third seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of those upon whom the Last Judgment was to be executed, as to the states of their life. The same is here signified by these words as before (n. 295), only with the difference explained below.

AR (Whitehead) n. 310 sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′ 310. And I heard the third animal saying, signifies according to the Divine truth of the Word as above (n. 296).

AR (Whitehead) n. 311 sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′ 311. Come and look, signifies manifestation concerning the third in order, as may appear from the explanation (above n. 297); only there the first in order are treated of, but here the third.

AR (Whitehead) n. 312 sRef Micah@3 @6 S0′ sRef Jer@4 @27 S0′ sRef Ezek@31 @15 S0′ sRef Jer@4 @28 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @12 S0′ sRef Lam@4 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′ sRef Lam@4 @7 S0′ 312. And I saw, and behold, a black horse, signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed as to truth, thus as to doctrine with these. That “a horse” signifies the understanding of the Word, was shown above; the reason why “black” signifies what is not true, thus falsity, is because black is the opposite of white, and white is predicated of truth (n. 167, 231, 232); white also derives its origin from light, and black from darkness, thus from the absence of light, and light is truth. But in the spiritual world there exists blackness from a twofold origin, one from the absence of flaming light, which light is with those who are in the Lord’s celestial kingdom, and the other from the absence of bright light, which is the light with those who are in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; the latter blackness has the same signification as “darkness,” but the former as “thick darkness.” There is a difference between these two kinds of blackness, the one is abominable, the other not so much so; it is the same with the falsities which they signify. They who appear in the abominable kind of blackness are called devils, such holding truth in abomination as horned owls do the light of the sun. But they appear in that kind of blackness, which is not abominable, who are called satans; these do not abominate truth, but are averse to it; the latter may therefore be compared to owls, and the former to horned owls. That “black,” in the Word, is spoken of falsity, may appear from these passages:
Her Nazarites were whiter than snow, their form is darkened more than blackness (Lam. 4:7-8).
The day shall grow black over the prophets (Micah 3:6).
In the day when thou goest down into hell, I will make Lebanon black over thee (Ezek. 31:15).
The sun became black as sackcloth of hair (Rev. 6:12).
The sun, the moon, and the stars, became black (Jer. 4:27-28; Ezek. 32:7; Joel 2:10; 3:15; and elsewhere).
The reason why “the third animal” showed “a black horse,” was, because it had a face like a man, by which is signified the Divine truth of the Word as to wisdom (n. 243), therefore this animal showed that there was no longer any truth of wisdom with those who were the third in order.

AR (Whitehead) n. 313 sRef Dan@5 @27 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@40 @12 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @2 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @26 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @28 S0′ sRef Dan@5 @25 S0′ 313. And he that sat upon him had a pair of balances in his hand, signifies the estimation of good and truth, of what kind it was with these. By “the pair of balances in his hand,” is signified the estimation of truth and good; for all measures and weights, in the Word, signify the estimation of the thing treated of. That measures and weights signify such things is manifest from these words in Daniel:
There appeared a writing before Belshazzar the king of Babylon, when he was drinking wine from the vessels of gold and silver taken out of the temple of Jerusalem, Mene, Mene, Thekel, Perizin; that is, Numbered, Numbered, Weighed, Divided; the interpretation of which is this: Mene, God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it; Thekel, Thou art weighed in the balance, and found wanting; Perez, The kingdom is divided, and given to the Mede and the Persian (Dan. 5:1-2, 25-28).
By “drinking from the gold and silver vessels of the temple of Jerusalem,” and at the same time worshiping other gods, signifies the profanation of good and truth; as also by “Babylon.” By “Mene,” or to number, is signified to know his quality as to truth; by “Thekel,” or to weigh, is signified to know his quality as to good; by “Perez,” or to divide, is signified to disperse. That the quality of truth and good is signified by measures and by balances in the Word, is manifest in Isaiah:
Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of His hand, and hath meted out the heavens with the span, and hath embraced the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in balances (Isa. 40:12).
And in Revelation:
The angel measured the wall of the holy Jerusalem a hundred and forty-four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel (Rev. 21:17).

AR (Whitehead) n. 314 sRef Rev@6 @6 S0′ 314. Verse 6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four animals, saying, signifies the Divine guard of the Word by the Lord. That “the four animals” or cherubs signify the Word from firsts to ultimates, and guards lest its interior truths and goods should be violated, may be seen above (n. 239); and because these guards are from the Lord, the voice was therefore heard in the midst of the four animals. By “in the midst” of them is meant the Word as to its internal spiritual sense, which the Lord guards. That a guard is signified, is manifest from the things that it said:
A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and hurt not the oil and the wine (Rev. 6:6);
by which is signified that because the estimation of good and truth is so trifling that it is scarcely anything, it must be provided that the holy goods and truths, which lie hid interiorly in the Word, should not be violated and profaned; and this is provided by the Lord by this means, that they at length do not know any good, and thence neither any truth, but mere evil and falsity: for they who know goods and truths can violate, yea, they can profane them, but not so they who do not know them. That such is the operation of the Divine providence in guarding the Word, may be seen in The Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence (n. 221-233, n. 257, the end; n. 258, the beginning).

AR (Whitehead) n. 315 sRef Rev@6 @6 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @12 S0′ sRef Joel@1 @12 S1′ sRef Joel@1 @11 S1′ sRef Joel@1 @10 S1′ 315. A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny, signifies because the estimation of good and truth is so small as to be scarcely anything. These are signified because by “a measure” [choenix] which was the measure and the quantity measured, is signified quality, as above (n. 314); by “wheat” and “barley” is signified good and truth; and by a penny [denarius] which is a very small coin, that they are held in little or no estimation. It is said “three” measures of barley, because “three” signify all, and are predicated of truths (n. 515). The reason why “wheat” and “barley” signify good and truth, here the good and truth of the church from the Word, is, because all things which belong to the field and the vineyard, signify such things as are of the church, because “a field” signifies the church as to good and truth thence, and “a vineyard,” the church as to truth and good therefrom; therefore where these are mentioned in the Word, the angels, who perceive all things spiritually, understand nothing else; as in Joel:
The field is wasted, the land mourneth; for the corn is wasted; the must is dried up, the oil languisheth. Be ye ashamed, O ye husbandmen; howl, O ye vine dressers, for the wheat and the barley; because the harvest of the field is perished (Joel 1:10-12).
sRef Matt@13 @24 S2′ sRef Hos@3 @1 S2′ sRef Deut@8 @7 S2′ sRef Deut@8 @8 S2′ sRef Matt@13 @28 S2′ sRef Isa@28 @25 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @14 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @13 S2′ sRef Matt@13 @27 S2′ sRef Matt@3 @12 S2′ sRef Matt@3 @11 S2′ sRef Matt@13 @26 S2′ sRef Hos@3 @2 S2′ sRef Matt@13 @29 S2′ sRef Isa@28 @26 S2′ sRef Matt@13 @30 S2′ sRef Isa@28 @22 S2′ sRef Jer@31 @12 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @15 S2′ sRef Matt@13 @25 S2′ [2] All these things signify such things as are of the church. That “wheat” and “barley” signify the good and truth of the church, may be seen from these passages:
John saith concerning Jesus, that He will gather the wheat into the barn, and burn up the chaff with fire (Matt. 3:11-12).
Jesus said, Let the tares and the wheat grow together, and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares to burn, but gather the wheat into My barn (Matt. 13:24-30).
I have heard the consummation and decision from Jehovah God; he layeth up the measured wheat, and the appointed barley; for his God doth instruct him to judgment, and doth teach him (Isa. 28:22, 25-26).
Jehovah shall lead thee to a land of wheat and barley (Deut. 8:7-8).
“A land of wheat and barley” here is the land of Canaan, by which the church is signified.
They shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow together to the goodness of Jehovah, for wheat and must (Jer. 31:12).
Jehovah shall satiate thee with the fat of wheat (Deut. 32:13-14; Ps. 81:16; 147:14).
Jehovah said to the prophet Ezekiel that:
He should make himself cakes of barley mixed with dung, and eat them (Ezek. 4:12, 15).
And to the prophet Hosea that:
He should take a woman an adulteress; whom he bought for a homer of barley, and half a homer of barley (Hos. 3:1-2).
Which things were done by those prophets, that they might represent the falsifications of truth in the church, for “barley” signifies truths, and “barley mixed with dung” truths falsified and profaned; “a woman an adulteress” also signifies truth falsified (n. 134).

AR (Whitehead) n. 316 sRef Rev@6 @6 S0′ sRef Hos@14 @6 S0′ sRef Hos@14 @5 S0′ sRef Hos@14 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@55 @1 S1′ sRef Isa@16 @10 S1′ sRef Joel@3 @18 S1′ 316. And hurt not the oil and the wine, signifies that it is provided by the Lord that the holy goods and truths, which lie interiorly concealed in the Word, shall not be violated and profaned. “Oil” signifies the good of love, and “wine” truth from that good, therefore “oil” signifies holy good, and “wine” holy truth; “hurt them not,” signifies that it is provided by the Lord that they shall not be violated and profaned; for this was heard “from the midst of the four animals,” thus from the Lord (n. 314); what is said by the Lord, the same is also provided for by Him; that it is provided, may be seen above (n. 314, 255). That “oil” signifies the good of love, will be seen below (n. 778, 779); but that “wine” signifies truth from that good, is evident from the following passages:
Everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver, come ye, buy and eat, yea come, buy wine and milk without silver (Isa. 55:1).
And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down must, and the hills shall flow with milk (Joel 3:18; Amos 9:13-14).
And joy is taken away from Carmel, and in the vineyards there shall be no singing; wine shall not be trodden in the wine-press, I have made their shouting to cease (Isa. 16:10; Jer. 48:32-33).
By “Carmel” is signified the spiritual church, because vineyards were there.
sRef Joel@1 @10 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @12 S2′ sRef Joel@1 @11 S2′ sRef Gen@14 @18 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @11 S2′ sRef Gen@14 @19 S2′ sRef Matt@26 @29 S2′ sRef Joel@1 @5 S2′ [2] Howl, all ye drinkers of wine, because of the must; for it is cut off from your mouth; howl, O ye vine dressers (Joel 1:5, 10-11).
Nearly the same words occur in Hosea 9:2-3; Zephaniah 1:13; Lamentations 2:11-12; Micah 6:15; Amos 5:11; Isaiah 24:6-7, 9, 11.
He washeth his garments in wine and his covering in the blood of grapes; his eyes are red from wine (Gen. 49:11-12).
These things are concerning the Lord; “wine” signifies Divine truth. This is the reason why the Holy Supper was instituted by the Lord, in which the bread signifies the Lord as to the Divine good, and the wine the Lord as to the Divine truth, and with the recipients the bread signifies holy good, and the wine, holy truth, from the Lord; therefore He said:
I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this product of the vine, until the day when I shall drink it with you in My Father’s kingdom (Matt. 16:29; Luke 22:18).
Because “bread and wine” had this signification, therefore, also:
Melchizedek, going to meet Abram, brought forth bread and wine, and he was the priest of the most high God, and he blessed Abram (Gen. 14:18-19).
sRef John@2 @8 S3′ sRef John@2 @4 S3′ sRef John@2 @9 S3′ sRef John@2 @5 S3′ sRef John@2 @6 S3′ sRef John@2 @7 S3′ sRef John@2 @2 S3′ sRef John@2 @1 S3′ sRef Matt@9 @17 S3′ sRef John@2 @3 S3′ sRef John@2 @10 S3′ [3] Similar is the signification of the meal-offering and drink-offering, in the sacrifices, concerning which see Exodus 29:40; Leviticus 23:12, 13, 18, 19; Numbers 15:2-15; 28:6, 7, 18, to the end; 29:1-7, and the following verses. The meal offering was of fine flour of wheat, and was therefore instead of bread, and the drink-offering was of wine. From which it may appear what is signified by these words of the Lord:
Neither do men put new wine into old bottles, but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved (Matt. 9:17; Luke 5:37).
“New wine” is the Divine truth of the New Testament, thus of the new church, and “old wine” is the Divine truth of the Old Testament, thus of the old church. Similar is the signification of these words of the Lord at the marriage in Cana of Galilee:
Every man at first setteth forth good wine, and when men have had enough, the worse; thou hast kept the good wine until now (John 2:1-10).
sRef Isa@25 @6 S4′ sRef Luke@10 @34 S4′ sRef Luke@10 @33 S4′ [4] The like is also signified by “wine” in the Lord’s parable of the man that was wounded by robbers, that:
The Samaritan poured oil and wine into his wounds (Luke 10:33-34).
For by him that was “wounded by robbers,” are meant they who are spiritually wounded by the Jews by evils and falsities, to whom the Samaritan gave assistance “by pouring in oil and wine” into his wounds, that is, by teaching good and truth, and, so far as he was able, by healing. Holy truth is also signified by “must” and “wine” in other parts of the Word (as in Isaiah 1:21, 22; 25:6; 36:17; Hosea 7:4, 5, 14; 14:6-8; Amos 2:8; Zechariah 9:15, 17; Psalms 104:14, 15). Hence it is that “a vineyard,” in the Word, signifies a church that is in truths from the Lord.
sRef Rev@14 @9 S5′ sRef Rev@18 @3 S5′ sRef Rev@17 @1 S5′ sRef Rev@14 @8 S5′ sRef Rev@17 @2 S5′ sRef Hos@4 @18 S5′ sRef Rev@16 @19 S5′ sRef Rev@14 @10 S5′ sRef Ps@75 @8 S5′ sRef Hos@4 @11 S5′ sRef Jer@51 @7 S5′ [5] That “wine” signifies holy truth, may also appear from its opposite sense, in which it signifies truth falsified and profaned; as in these passages:
Whoredom, and wine, and must, occupy the heart. Their wine has failed, they have committed whoredom continually (Hos. 4:11, 17-18).
“Whoredom” signifies the falsification of truth, as do “wine and must” here.
In the hand of Jehovah is a cup, and He hath mixed it with wine; He hath filled it with mixture, and poureth it out, and the dregs of it all the wicked of the earth suck out and drink (Ps. 75:8).
Babylon is a cup of gold in the hand of Jehovah that maketh all the earth drunken; the nations have drunken of her wine; therefore they are insane (Jer. 2:7).
Babylon hath fallen, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the anger of her whoredom. If anyone adore the beast, he shall drink of the wine of the anger of God, which is prepared unmixed in the cup of the anger of God (Rev. 14:8-10).
Babylon hath made all nations drink of the wine of her whoredom (Rev. 18:3).
Great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fury of the anger of God (Rev. 16:19).
The inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her whoredom (Rev. 17:1-2).
sRef Dan@5 @2 S6′ sRef Dan@5 @4 S6′ sRef Dan@5 @3 S6′ [6] By the wine which Belshazzar, king of Babylon, and his magnates, and wives, and concubines, drank out of the vessels of the temple of Jerusalem, and at the same time:
They praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone (Dan. 5:2-4).
Nothing else is meant than the holy truth of the Word and of the church profaned. Wherefore the writing then appeared upon the wall, and the king was slain that night (verses 25, 30). “Wine” signifies truth falsified also in Isaiah 5:11, 12, 21, 22; 28:1, 3, 7; 29:9; 56:11, 12; Jeremiah 13:12; 23:9, 10. The same is signified by the drink-offering which they offered to idols (Isaiah 65:11; 57:6; Jeremiah 7:18; 44:17-19; Ezekiel 20:28; Deuteronomy 32:38). That “wine” signifies holy truth, and, in the opposite sense, truth profaned, is from correspondence; for the angels, who perceive all things spiritually, understand nothing else, when man reads “wine” in the Word; such a correspondence is there between the natural thoughts of men and the spiritual thoughts of angels.
It is similar with the wine in the Holy Supper, and hence it is, that introduction into heaven is effected by the Holy Supper (n. 224, at the end).

AR (Whitehead) n. 317 sRef Rev@6 @7 S0′ 317. Verse 7. And when He had opened the fourth seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of those upon whom the Last Judgment was to be executed, as to their states of life, as above (n. 295, 302), only with the difference explained below.

AR (Whitehead) n. 318 sRef Rev@6 @7 S0′ 318. I heard the voice of the fourth animal saying, signifies according to the Divine truth of the Word, as above (n. 296, 303).

AR (Whitehead) n. 319 sRef Rev@6 @7 S0′ 319. Come and look, signifies manifestation concerning the fourth in order, as is evident from the explanation above (n. 297); but there it is applied to the first in order, here to the fourth.

AR (Whitehead) n. 320 sRef Rev@6 @8 S0′ 320. Verse 8. And I saw, and behold, a pale horse, signifies the understanding of the Word destroyed both as to good and as to truth. “A horse” signifies the understanding of the Word (n. 298), and “pale” signifies no vitality. In the Word, this want of vitality is predicated of those who are not in goods of life from truths of doctrine; for the Word, in the sense of the letter, is not understood without doctrine, and doctrine is not perceived without a life according to it; the reason is, because a life according to doctrine which is from the Word, opens the spiritual mind, when light flows into it from heaven and enlightens and gives to perceive. That this is the case, he does not know who knows truths of doctrine, and yet does not live according to them.
The reason why “the fourth animal” showed “a pale horse,” was, because that animal was like “a flying eagle,” and by it was signified the Divine truth of the Word as to knowledges and understanding therefrom (n. 244). Therefore he showed that with those who were now seen there were no knowledges of good and truth from the Word, nor any understanding of them, and such in the spiritual world appear pale, like those who are without life.

AR (Whitehead) n. 321 sRef Hos@13 @14 S0′ sRef Ps@49 @15 S0′ sRef Ps@49 @14 S0′ sRef Ps@18 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@18 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @18 S0′ 321. And his name that sat upon him was Death, and hell followed with him, signifies the extinction of spiritual life, and thence damnation. By “death” is here signified spiritual death, which is the extinction of spiritual life; and by “hell” is signified damnation, which follows that death. Every man, indeed, has from creation, and therefore from birth, spiritual life, but that life is extinguished when he denies God, the holiness of the Word, and eternal life; it is extinguished in the will, but remains in the understanding, or rather in the faculty of understanding. By this man is distinguished from beasts. As “death” signifies the extinction of spiritual life, and “hell” damnation thence, therefore “death and hell” in some passages are named together; as in these:
I will redeem them from the hand of hell, I will liberate them from death: O death, I will be thy plagues; O hell, I will be thy destruction (Hos. 13:14).
The cords of death encompassed me; the cords of hell encompassed me; the snares of death prevented me (Ps. 18:4-5; 116:3).
Like sheep they are laid in hell; death shall feed on them, hell is their habitation, but God will redeem my soul from the hand of hell (Ps. 49:14-15).
I have the keys of hell and death (Rev. 1:18).

AR (Whitehead) n. 322 sRef Rev@6 @8 S0′ 322. And power was given them over the fourth part of the earth to kill, signifies the destruction of all the good of the church. Since by “death” is meant the extinction of man’s spiritual life, and by “hell” damnation, it follows that “to kill” here means to destroy the life of man’s soul; the life of the soul is spiritual life; “a fourth part of the earth” signifies all the good of the church; “the earth” is the church (n. 285). That “a fourth part” is all good, cannot be known by anyone, unless he knows what numbers in the Word signify. The numbers “two” and “four” in the Word, are predicated of goods, and signify them; and the numbers “three” and “six” are predicated of truths, and signify them; thus “a fourth part,” or simply “a fourth,” signifies all good, and “a third part,” or simply “a third,” signifies all truth; therefore “to kill a fourth part of the earth,” here signifies to destroy all the good of the church. That “power was not given to him that sat upon the pale horse to kill a fourth part of the habitable earth,” is evident.
[2] Besides, “four” in the Word signifies the conjunction of good and truth. That “four” has these significations, may indeed be confirmed from the Word; as by “the four animals or cherubim” (Ezekiel 1, 3, 10; Revelation 4); by “the four chariots between the two mountains of brass” (Zechariah 6); by “the four horns” (Zechariah 1:18); and by “the four horns of the altar” (Exodus 27:1-8; Revelation 9:13); by “the four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth” (Revelation 7:1; Matthew 24:31); as also by “visiting the iniquity upon the thirds and fourths” (Numbers 14:18); and in other places by “the third and fourth generation.” By these, and by many other passages in the Word, I say, it can be confirmed that “four” is predicated of goods, and signifies them, and also the conjunction of good and truth; but since this would not appear without a prolix explanation of these passages, it is sufficient to mention, that nothing else is meant in heaven by “four” and by “a fourth part.”

AR (Whitehead) n. 323 sRef Rev@6 @8 S0′ 323. With sword and with hunger, and with death, and by the beasts of the earth, signifies by falsities of doctrine, by evils of life, by the love of the proprium, and by lusts. That by “a sword” is signified truth combating against evils and falsities, and destroying them, and in the opposite sense, falsity combating against goods and truths, and destroying them, may be seen above (n. 52, 108, 117). Here, therefore, by “sword,” because the destruction of all the goods in the church is treated of, are signified falsities of doctrine. That “hunger” signifies evils of life, will be confirmed below. The reason why “death” signifies the love of man’s proprium, is, because “death” signifies the extinction of spiritual life, and thence natural life separated from spiritual life (as above, n. 321), and this life is the life of the love of man’s proprium; for from it man loves nothing but himself and the world, and thence also he loves all kinds of evils, which, from the love of that life, are delightful to him. That “beasts of the earth” signify lusts from that love, will be seen below (n. 567). Here something shall be said concerning the signification of “hunger.” (1) “Hunger” signifies deprivation and rejection of the knowledges of truth and good arising from evils of life. (2) It also signifies ignorance of the knowledges of truth and good arising from a deficiency thereof in the church. (3) And it signifies likewise a desire to know and understand them.
sRef Ezek@5 @12 S2′ sRef Jer@18 @21 S2′ sRef Jer@24 @10 S2′ sRef Ezek@7 @15 S2′ sRef Jer@34 @17 S2′ sRef Ezek@5 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@51 @19 S2′ sRef Jer@16 @4 S2′ sRef Ezek@14 @21 S2′ sRef Jer@11 @22 S2′ sRef Ezek@14 @15 S2′ sRef Ezek@14 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@6 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@6 @12 S2′ sRef Jer@29 @17 S2′ sRef Jer@29 @18 S2′ sRef Ezek@5 @17 S2′ sRef Ezek@5 @16 S2′ [2] (1) That “hunger” signifies the deprivation and rejection of the knowledges of truth and good, arising from evils of life, and thence evils of life, may appear from the following passages:
They shall be consumed by the sword and by famine, and their carcass shall be food for the birds of the heavens, and for the beasts of the earth (Jer. 16:4).
These two things shall come unto thee, devastation and breaking, and the famine and the sword (Isa. 51:19).
Behold, I will visit upon them; the young men shall die by the sword, their sons and their daughters shall die by famine (Jer. 11:22).
Give his sons to famine, and make them to flow down at the hand of the sword; that the men may be killed by death (Jer. 18:21).
I will send upon them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, and will make them like vile figs that cannot be eaten, they are so evil, and I will pursue them with the sword, famine, and pestilence (Jer. 29:17-18).
I will send among them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, till they be consumed from off the land (Jer. 24:10).
I proclaim liberty for you, to the sword, to the famine, and to the pestilence, and I will give you for a commotion to all nations (Jer. 34:17).
Because thou hast polluted My sanctuary, a third part of thee shall die with the pestilence, and with famine shall they be consumed, and a third part shall fall by the sword, when I shall send upon them the evil arrows of famine, which shall be for destruction (Ezek. 6:11-12, 16-17).
The sword without, and the pestilence and famine within (Ezek. 7:15).
For all the evil abominations they shall fall by the sword, by the famine, and by the pestilence (Ezek. 6:11-12).
I will send My four evil judgments upon Jerusalem, the sword, the famine, and the evil beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast (Ezek. 14:13, 15, 21; besides other places, as Jer. 14:12-13, 15-16; 42:13-14, 16-18, 22; 44:12-13, 17; Matt. 24:7-8; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11).
The “sword,” “famine,” “pestilence,” and “beast,” in those passages, have a signification similar to that of “the sword,” “hunger,” “death,” and “the beasts of the earth,” here mentioned; for in the Word there is a spiritual sense in every single expression, in which sense “a sword” is the destruction of spiritual life by falsities; “hunger,” the destruction of spiritual life by evils; “beasts of the earth,” the destruction of spiritual life by cupidities of falsity and evil; and “pestilence” and “death” signify plenary consumption, and thus damnation.
[3] (2) That “hunger” signifies ignorance of the knowledges of truth and good arising from a deficiency of such knowledges in the church, is also evident from various passages in the Word (as from Isaiah 5:13; 8:19-22; Lamentations 2:19; 5:8-10; Amos 8:11-14; Job 5:17, 20; and other places).
(3) That “famine” or hunger signifies the desire of knowing and understanding the truths and goods of the church, is plain from the following: Isaiah 8:21; 32:6; 49:10; 58:6, 7; 1 Samuel 2:4, 5; Psalms 33:18, 19; 34:9, 10; 37:18, 19; 107:8, 9, 35-37; 146:7; Matt. 5:6; 25:35, 37, 44; Luke 1:53; John 6:35; and elsewhere.

AR (Whitehead) n. 324 sRef Rev@6 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @9 S0′ 324. Verse 9. And when He had opened the fifth seal, signifies exploration by the Lord of their states of life, who were to be saved at the day of the Last Judgment, and in the meantime were reserved. That these are here treated of, is evident from what now follows. But it is to be known that these, and the like, are treated of throughout the twentieth chapter, the explanation of which may be seen, n. 840-874, manifesting who they are, and why reserved.

AR (Whitehead) n. 325 sRef Rev@6 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@19 @10 S1′ 325. I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the Word of God, and for the testimony which they held, signifies those who were hated, reproached and rejected by the evil on account of their life according to the truths of the Word, and their acknowledgment of the Lord’s Divine Human, and who were guarded by the Lord lest they be seduced. “Under the altar” signifies the lower earth, where they were guarded by the Lord; “an altar” signifies the worship of the Lord from the good of love; by “the souls of the slain,” are not here signified the martyrs, but they who are hated, reproached, and rejected by the evil in the world of spirits, and who could be seduced by the dragonists and heretics. “For the Word of God and for the testimony which they held” signifies for living according to the truths of the Word, and acknowledging the Lord’s Divine Human. “Testimony” in heaven is not given to any but to those who acknowledge the Lord’s Divine Human, for it is the Lord who testifies, and gives the angels to testify (n.16):
For the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy (Rev. 19:10).
[2] Since they were “under the altar,” it is evident they were guarded by the Lord; for they who have led any life of charity are all guarded by the Lord lest they be injured by the evil; and after the Last Judgment, when the evil have been removed, they are released from the guards and elevated into heaven. I have frequently seen them, since the Last Judgment, liberated from the lower earth and taken up into heaven.
sRef Matt@24 @9 S3′ sRef Zech@11 @5 S3′ sRef Zech@11 @7 S3′ sRef Zech@11 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@44 @22 S3′ sRef Isa@27 @7 S3′ sRef Ps@44 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@27 @6 S3′ sRef Jer@4 @31 S3′ [3] That by “the slain” are meant they who are rejected, reproached and hated by the evil in the world of spirits, and who could be seduced, and also who desire to know truths, but cannot, by reason of falsities in the church, may appear from these passages:
Jehovah God saith, Feed the sheep of the slaughter, whose possessors slay them; and I will feed the sheep of slaughter, on account of you, O poor of the flock (Zech. 11:4-5, 7).
We are killed all the day long; we are counted as sheep for the slaughter; O Jehovah forsake us not (Ps. 44:22-23).
Jacob shall cause them which are to come to take root, or is he slain according to the slaughter of them that were slain by him? (Isa. 27:6-7).
For I have heard the voice of the daughter of Zion, woe is me, now; my soul is wearied by the slayers (Jer. 4:31).
They shall deliver you into affliction, and shall kill you, and ye shall be hated for My name’s sake (Matt. 24:9; John 16:2-3).
This the Lord said to the disciples; but by disciples are meant all who worship the Lord and live according to the truths of His Word.
[4] The evil in the world of spirits continually desire to kill; but because there they cannot do this as to the body, they continually desire to do it as to the soul; and since they are not able to do this, they burn with such hatred against them, that nothing delights them more than to do evil to them. This is the reason why they are guarded by the Lord, and when the evil are cast into hell, which takes place after the Last Judgment, they are led forth from their guards; but see the explanation of chapter 20, n. 846, which treats of this subject. That “to kill” in the Word signifies to destroy souls, which is to kill spiritually, is evident from many passages there, as also from the following: Isaiah 14:19-21; 26:21; Jeremiah 25:33; Lamentations 2:21; Ezekiel 9:1, 6; Revelation 18:24.

AR (Whitehead) n. 326 sRef Rev@6 @10 S0′ 326. Verse 10. And they cried with a great voice, signifies grief of heart, as is evident from what now follows.

AR (Whitehead) n. 327 sRef Rev@6 @10 S0′ 327. Saying, How long, O Lord,* dost Thou not judge and avenge our blood on them that dwell on the earth? signifies, by reason that the Last Judgment is delayed, and they who offer violence to the Word and to the Lord’s Divine Human are not removed. “How long, O Lord, dost T