The cedars in the garden of God did not hide him, the fir-trees were not like his boughs, and the plane-trees were not as his branches, nor was any tree like unto him in his beauty (Ezek. 31:8);
where the subject treated of is the knowledges and rational things that appertain to the man of the spiritual church. The “garden of God” is the spiritual church; the “cedars” are rational things the “fir-trees” and “plane-trees,” are natural things; the “fir-trees,” natural things as to good; and the “plane-trees,” as to truth.
 With the things which enter into the memory the case is this: Those which enter without affection fall into its shade; but those which enter with affection come into its light; and the things that are in light there are seen and appear clearly and vividly whenever a similar subject is called up; but not so those which lie hid round about in the shade. Such is the effect of the affection of love. It may be seen from this that all the implantation of truth, and the conjunction thereof with good, is effected by means of affection; and the greater the affection, the stronger the conjunction. The “ardor of affection” is here inmost affection.
 But truths cannot be implanted in good and conjoined with it, except by means of the affections of truth and good, which affections well forth as from their fountains, from charity toward the neighbor, and from love to the Lord. But evils and falsities are implanted and conjoined by means of the affections of evil and falsity, which affections well forth as from their fountains, from the love of self and of the world. This being the case, and as the subject here treated of in the internal sense is the conjunction of good and truth in the natural man, therefore here and in what follows mention is made of the growing warm of the flock when they came to drink, by which such things are signified.
 The things here contained in the supreme sense concerning the Lord, how by His own power He made the natural in Himself Divine, are such as surpass even the angelic understanding. Something of them may be seen in the regeneration of man, because man’s regeneration is an image of the Lord’s glorification (n. 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490). Of this regeneration man may have some idea (no one, however, except the man who has been regenerated), but only an obscure idea so long as he lives in the body; for the corporeal and worldly things in which even such a man is, continually cast shadows on his mind and keep it in lower things. But they who have not been regenerated can have no apprehension of the matter, being without knowledges because without perceptions; nay, they know nothing whatever of what regeneration is, nor do they believe that it is possible. They do not even know what the affection of charity is by means of which regeneration is effected; and therefore they do not know what conscience is; still less what the internal man is; and less still what is the correspondence of the internal man with the external. The words they may indeed know, and many do know them, but they are ignorant of the thing. Seeing therefore that even the idea of these things is wanting, however clearly the arcana here contained in the internal sense should be set forth, it would still be like presenting something to sight in the dark, or telling something to the deaf. Moreover, the affections of the love of self and of the world that reign with them do not permit them to know, nor even to hear such things; for they immediately reject them, nay, spew them out. Very different is the case with those who are in the affection of charity. These are delighted with such things; for the angels with them are in their happiness when the man is in them, because they are then in things that treat of the Lord, in whom they are; and also in those which treat of the neighbor and his regeneration. From the angels (that is, through the angels from the Lord) delight and bliss flow in with the man who is in the affection of charity while reading these things, and more so when he believes what is holy to be within them, and still more when he apprehends anything of that which is contained in the internal sense.
 The subject here treated of is the influx of the Lord into the good of the internal man, and indeed through the good into the truth therein; also the influx therefrom into the external or natural man, and the affection of good and truth into which the influx takes place; and also the reception of truth and its conjunction with the good therein; and likewise the good that serves as a means, here signified by “Laban” and his “flock.” Concerning these subjects the angels, who are in the internal sense of the Word, or to whom the internal sense is the Word, see and perceive innumerable things of which scarcely anything can come to man’s understanding; and that which does come to it falls into his obscurity-which is the reason why these things are not explained more particularly.
 That all the conjunction of truth and good is effected in freedom, or from what is spontaneous, and consequently all reformation and regeneration, may be seen from the passages cited above (n. 4029); and consequently that in the absence of freedom (that is, by compulsion) no conjunction, and thus no regeneration, can be effected. (What freedom is, and whence it is, may be seen above, n. 2870-2893, where man’s freedom is treated of.) He who while reasoning concerning the Lord’s Providence, man’s salvation, and the damnation of many, is not aware that no conjunction of truth and good, or appropriation, and thus no regeneration, can be effected except in man’s freedom, casts himself into mere shades, and consequently into grave errors. For he supposes that if the Lord wills, He can save everyone, and this by means innumerable-as by miracles, by the dead rising again, by immediate revelations, by the angels withholding men from evil and impelling them to good by an open strong force, and by means of many states, on being led into which a man performs repentance, and by many other means.
 But he does not know that all these means are compulsory, and that no man can possibly be reformed thereby. For whatever compels a man does not impart to him any affection; or if it is of such a nature as to do this, it allies itself with the affection of evil. For it appears to infuse something holy, and even does so; but when the man’s state is changed, he returns to his former affections, namely, evils and falsities, and then that holy thing conjoins itself with the evils and falsities, and becomes profane, and is then of such a nature as to lead into the most grievous hell of all. For the man first acknowledges and believes, and is also affected with what is holy, and then denies, and even holds it in aversion. (That they who once acknowledge at heart, and afterwards deny, are those who profane, but not they who have not acknowledged at heart, may be seen above, n. 301-303, 571, 582, 593, 1001, 1008, 1010, 1059, 1327, 1328, 2051, 2426, 3398, 3399, 3402, 3898.) For this reason open miracles are not wrought at the present day, but miracles not open, or not conspicuous; which are such as not to inspire a sense of holiness, or take away man’s freedom; and therefore the dead do not rise again, and man is not withheld from evils by immediate revelations, or by angels, or moved to good by open force.
 Man’s freedom is what the Lord works in, and by which he bends him; for all freedom is of his love or affection, and therefore of his will (n. 3158). If a man does not receive good and truth in freedom, it cannot be appropriated to him, or become his. For that to which anyone is compelled is not his, but belongs to him who compels, because although it is done by him, he does not do it of himself. It sometimes appears as if man were compelled to good, as in temptations and spiritual combats; but that he has then a stronger freedom than at other times, may be seen above (n. 1937, 1947, 2881). It also appears as if man were compelled to good, when he compels himself to it; but it is one thing to compel one’s self, and another to be compelled. When anyone compels himself, he does so from a freedom within; but to be compelled is not from freedom. This being the case, it is evident into what shades, and thus into what errors, those are able to cast themselves who reason concerning the Providence of the Lord, the salvation of man, and the damnation of many, and yet do not know that it is freedom by which the Lord works, and by no means compulsion; for compulsion in things of a holy nature is dangerous, unless it is received in freedom.
 Speaking generally, there are in man three things, namely, the corporeal, the natural, and the rational. The corporeal is the outermost, the natural is the intermediate, and the rational is the interior. So far as one of these reigns in man above another, he is said to be either corporeal, or natural, or rational. These three parts of man communicate in a wonderful manner; the corporeal with the natural, and the natural with the rational. When first born, man is merely corporeal, but within has the capacity of being perfected. Afterwards he becomes natural, and at last rational; from which it may be seen that there is communication of one part with another. The corporeal communicates with the natural by means of the senses, and does so in a distinct and separate manner by those which belong to the understanding, and by those which belong to the will, for both of these faculties must be perfected in man in order that he may become and may be a man. The senses of sight and hearing are especially those which perfect his intellectual faculty; and the other three senses have especial regard to the will. By means of these senses man’s corporeal communicates with his natural, which as before said is the middle part. For the things that enter by the senses, place themselves in the natural as in a kind of receptacle, which is the memory. The delight, the pleasure, and the desire therein, belong to the will, and are called natural goods; and the memory-knowledges belong to the understanding, and are called natural truths.
 By means of the things just spoken of, man’s natural communicates with his rational, which as before said, is the interior part. Such things as elevate themselves from the natural toward the rational, also place themselves in the rational, as in a kind of receptacle, which is the interior memory (concerning which see above, n. 2469-2480). What is blessed and happy therein belongs to the will, and is of rational good; and the interior mental views of things and perceptions belong to the understanding, and the things that belong to these are called rational truths. These three are what constitute man, and there are communications among the three. The external senses are the means by which man’s corporeal communicates with his natural; and the interior senses are those by which man’s natural communicates with his rational. And therefore those things in the natural that partake of the external senses, which are proper to the body, are those which are called the exterior and external truths of good; but those which partake of the internal senses which are proper to his spirit, and which communicate with the rational, are what are called interior goods and truths. Those which are between the two, and partake of both, are what are called mediate goods and truths. These three are in order from the interiors, and are what are signified in the internal sense by “flocks, and maidservants, and menservants, and camels, and asses.”
The correspondence of the heart and lungs with the Grand Man, or heaven, was treated of at the end of the preceding chapter. Here the subject to be treated of is the correspondence of the cerebrum and the cerebellum, and of the medullas connected with them. But before entering upon this correspondence, some things must be premised concerning the form of the brain in general, whence it is, and what it represents.
 When I afterwards applied my hand to the left side of the skull or head, I felt a pulsation under the palm, undulating in a similar manner downward and upward; from which indication I knew that they belonged to the brain. When I asked who they were, they were not willing to speak. It was said by others that they do not willingly speak. Being at last compelled to speak, they said that if they did so their quality would be disclosed. I perceived that they were of those who constitute the province of the dura mater, which is the general integument of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. It was then disclosed of what quality they were, for I was permitted to know this by speaking with them. They were (as before when they had lived as men) those who had thought nothing about spiritual and heavenly things, nor had they spoken about them; because they were such as to believe in nothing except that which is natural, and this because they had not been able to penetrate further, but yet had not confessed this unbelief. Nevertheless like others they had worshiped the Divine, had said their prayers, and had been good citizens.
 There were afterwards others who also flowed into the heartbeat, but by an undulation not downward and upward, but crosswise; and others who flowed in not with a reciprocating action, but more continuously; and also others under whose action the beating jumped from one place to another. It was said that these had relation to the outer lamella of the dura mater, and that they were of those who had thought of spiritual and heavenly things solely from such things as are objects of the external senses, not conceiving of interior things in any other manner. These were heard by me as of the female sex. They who reason concerning the things of heaven, or the spiritual things of faith and love, from outward things of sense, and therefore from what is worldly and earthly, insofar as they make them a one and confound them together, wend their way more and more outward, even to the outer skin of the head, which they represent. Nevertheless provided they have led a good life, these are within the Grand Man, although in its extremes or outermost parts; for everyone is saved who is in the life of good from the affection of charity.
 I asked what these things signified and represented, and was told that it was a representation of the infundibulum in the brain, above which is the brain itself, which was signified by the starry heaven; and that what was next seen was that vessel, signified by the well and called the infundibulum; and that the cloud or vapor arising from it was the lymph that passes through and is piped out of it; and that this lymph is of two kinds, namely, that mixed with the animal spirits, which is among the useful lymphs; and that mixed with serosities, which is among the excremental lymphs.
 I was next shown the quality of those who belong to this province, but only those of the viler sort, whom I also saw running about hither and thither, applying themselves to those whom they saw, paying attention to everything, and reporting to others what they heard; and being prone to suspicions, impatient and restless, in close resemblance to the lymph which is therein, and is borne hither and thither; their reasonings being the fluids there which they represent. But these are of the middle sort.
 But those who have relation to the excremental lymphs are they who drag down spiritual truths to earthly things, and there defile them-as for example, those who when they hear anything about conjugial love apply it to whoredoms and adulteries, and thus drag down the things of conjugial love to these; and the same with everything else. These appeared in front at some distance to the right. But those who are of the good sort are similar to those described just above in n. 4049.
These are the obstructions of the brain, and induce on it stupidity. Many societies of such spirits have been with me, and their presence was perceived by a dullness, sluggishness, and loss of affection; and I have sometimes spoken with them. They are pests and banes, although in the civic life of this world they had appeared good, delightful, witty, and also talented; for they know the proprieties of society, and how to insinuate themselves thereby, especially into friendships. What it is to be a friend to good, or what the friendship of good is, they neither know, nor desire to know. A sad lot awaits them; for at last they live in squalor, and in such stupidity that scarcely any human apprehension remains. For it is the end that makes the man, and such as is the end, such is the man; consequently such is his human after death.
[END OF THE THIRD PART OR VOLUME OF THE ORIGINAL LATIN WORK.]
In volume 3, by way of preface to chapters 26, 27, 28, 29, and 30, there have been unfolded the things spoken and foretold by the Lord concerning the consummation of the age or Last Judgment, in the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew, from the third to the twenty-eighth verse. The words which follow there in order remain to be explained, in this place the contents of verses 29, 30, and 31, where we read these words:
But immediately after the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken. And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven, and then shall all the tribes of the earth wail; and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And He shall send forth His angels with a trumpet and a great voice, and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from the end of the heavens even to the end thereof (Matt. 24:29-31).
* This statement was published in the year 1752, five years before the Last Judgement on the Church in question. [REVISER.]
Then shall two men be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left; two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left (Matt. 24:40-41).
But immediately after the affliction of those days;
signifies the state of the church in respect to the truth of faith (concerning which just above). In the Word the desolation of truth in various places is called “affliction.” (That “days” are states may be seen above, n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785.) From this it is manifest that by these words is signified that after there is no longer any faith, there will be no charity. For faith leads to charity, because it teaches what charity is, and charity receives its quality from the truths of faith; but the truths of faith receive their essence and their life from charity, as has been repeatedly shown in the preceding volumes.
 The sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light; signifies love to the Lord, which is the “sun;” and charity toward the neighbor, which is the “moon.” “To be darkened and not to give their light” signifies that they will not appear, and thus will vanish away. (That the “sun” is the celestial of love, and the “moon” the spiritual of love; that is, that the “sun” is love to the Lord, and the “moon” charity toward the neighbor, which comes forth through faith, may be seen above, n. 1053, 1529, 1530, 2120, 2441, 2495.) The reason why this is the signification of the “sun and moon,” is that in the other life the Lord appears as a sun to those in heaven who are in love to Him, and who are called the celestial; and as a moon to those who are in charity toward the neighbor, and who are called the spiritual (see n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531, 3636, 3643).
 The sun and moon in the heavens (that is, the Lord) is never darkened, nor does it lose its light, but it shines perpetually; and so neither is love to the Lord darkened with the celestial, nor does charity toward the neighbor lose its light with the spiritual, in the heavens; nor on earth with those with whom these angels are, that is, those who are in love and charity. Those however who are in no love and charity, but in the love of self and of the world, and consequently in hatred and revenge, bring that “darkening” upon themselves. The case herein is as it is with the sun of this world, which shines continuously; but when the clouds interpose, it does not appear (n. 2441).
 And the stars shall fall from heaven;
signifies that the knowledges of good and truth will perish. Nothing else is signified by “stars” when these are mentioned in the Word (n. 1808, 2849).
And the powers of the heavens shall be shaken; signifies the foundations of the church, which are said to be “shaken” and “made to quake” when they perish. For the church on earth is the foundation of heaven, because the influx of good and truth from the Lord through the heavens finally terminates in the goods and truths that are with the man of the church. When therefore the man of the church is in such a perverted state as no longer to admit the influx of good and truth, the powers of the heavens are said to be “shaken.” For this reason it is always provided by the Lord that something of the church shall remain; and that when an old church perishes, a new one shall be set up again.
sRef Matt@24 @3 S5′ aRef Ex@19 @18 S5′ aRef Gen@18 @1 S5′  And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven;
signifies the appearing of Divine truth at that time; the “sign” signifies the appearing; the “Son of man,” the Lord as to Divine truth (see n. 2803, 2813, 3704). It was this appearing or this “sign,” concerning which the disciples asked when they said, “Tell us when shall these things be, and what shall be the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age” (verse 3). For they knew from the Word that when the age should be consummated, the Lord would come; and they learned from the Lord Himself that He would “come again,” by which they understood that the Lord would once more come into the world; not yet knowing that the Lord has come whenever the church has been vastated, not indeed in person, as when He assumed the human by birth and made it Divine; but by means of appearings-either manifest, as when He appeared to Abraham in Mamre, to Moses in the bush, to the people of Israel on Mount Sinai, and to Joshua when he entered the land of Canaan; or not so manifest, as by inspirations through which the Word was given, and afterwards through the Word; for the Lord is present in the Word, because all things in the Word are from Him and concerning Him, as may be seen from what has already been frequently shown. This latter is the appearing here signified by the “sign of the Son of man,” and which is described in this verse.
 And then shall all the tribes of the earth wail;
signifies that all who are in the good of love and the truth of faith shall be in grief. That “wailing” signifies this, may be seen in Zechariah 12:10-14; and that “tribes” signify all things of good and truth, or of love and faith, and consequently those who are in them, may be seen above (n. 3858, 3926). They are called the “tribes of the earth,” because those are meant who are within the church. (That the “earth” is the church may be seen above, n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2928, 3355.)
 And they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of the heavens with power and great glory;
signifies that the Word will then be revealed as to its internal sense, in which the Lord is; the “Son of man” is the Divine truth therein (n. 2803, 2813, 3704); the “cloud” is the literal sense; “power” is predicated of the good, and “glory” of the truth, therein. (That these things are signified by “seeing the Son of man coming in the clouds of the heavens,” see the preface to the eighteenth chapter.) This is the “coming of the Lord” here meant, and not that He will literally appear in the clouds. Now follows the subject of the setting up of a New Church, which takes place when the old one is vastated and rejected.
 He shall send forth His angels with a trumpet and a great voice;
signifies election, not by visible angels, still less by trumpets, and by great voices; but by the influx of holy good and holy truth from the Lord through angels; and therefore by “angels” in the Word there is signified something of the Lord (n. 1925, 2821, 3039); here, there are signified things that are from the Lord and concerning the Lord. By the “trumpet” and the “great voice” there is signified evangelization, as elsewhere in the Word.
 And they shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from the end of the heavens even to the end thereof;
signifies the setting up of a New Church. The “elect” are those who are in the good of love and of faith (n. 3755-3900); the “four winds” from which they shall be gathered together, are all states of good and truth (n. 3708); “from the end of the heavens to the end of them” denotes the internals and the externals of the church. Such therefore are the things signified by these words of the Lord.
1. And he heard the words of Laban’s sons, saying, Jacob hath taken all that was our father’s; and from that which was our father’s hath he made all this abundance.
2. And Jacob saw the faces of Laban, and behold he was not at all with him as yesterday and the day before.
3. And Jehovah said unto Jacob, Return unto the land of thy fathers, and to thy nativity, and I will be with thee.
4. And Jacob sent, and called Rachel and Leah to the field unto his flock.
5. And he said unto them, I see your father’s faces, that he is not at all toward me as yesterday and the day before; and the God of my father hath been with me.
6. And ye know that with all my strength I have served your father.
7. And your father hath deceived me, and hath changed my reward ten ways, and God hath not suffered him to do evil with me.
8. If he said thus, The speckled shall be thy reward, then all the flock bare speckled; and if he said thus, The party-colored shall be thy reward, then all the flock bare party-colored.
9. And God hath taken away the acquisition of your father, and hath given it to me.
10. And it came to pass at the time that the flock grew warm, that I lifted up mine eyes, and saw in a dream, and behold the he-goats which leaped upon the flock were party-colored, speckled, and grizzled.
11. And the angel of God said unto me in the dream, Jacob; and I said, Behold me!
12. And he said, Lift up I pray thine eyes, and see all the he-goats which leap upon the flock, party-colored, speckled, and grizzled; for I have seen all that Laban doeth unto thee.
13. I am the God of Bethel, where thou anointedst a pillar, where thou vowedst a vow unto me; now arise, go forth out of this land, and return unto the land of thy nativity.
14. And Rachel and Leah answered and said unto him, Have we any longer a portion and inheritance in our father’s house?
15. Are we not counted of him strangers? For he hath sold us, and devouring hath also devoured our silver.
16. For all the riches which God hath taken away from our father, they are ours and our sons’; and now all that God hath said unto thee, do.
17. And Jacob arose, and lifted his sons and his women upon the camels.
18. And he carried away all his acquisition, and all his substance which he had gathered, the acquisition of his purchase, which he had gathered in Paddan-aram, to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan.
19. And Laban was gone to shear his flock; and Rachel stole the teraphim which were her father’s.
20. And Jacob stole the heart of Laban the Aramean, in that he told him not that he was fleeing.
21. And he fled, he and all that he had; and he arose and passed over the river, and set his face toward the mountain of Gilead.
22. And it was told Laban on the third day, that Jacob was fled.
23. And he took his brethren with him, and pursued after him a way of seven days, and joined him in the mountain of Gilead.
24. And God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream by night, and said unto him, Take heed to thyself lest thou speak with Jacob from good even to evil.
25. And Laban came up with Jacob, and Jacob pitched his tent in the mountain; and Laban pitched with his brethren in the mountain of Gilead.
26. And Laban said to Jacob, What hast thou done, that thou hast stolen my heart, and hast carried away my daughters as captives of the sword?
27. Wherefore hast thou concealed thyself to flee? and hast stolen me? and hast not told me? And I would have sent thee away with gladness, and with songs, with timbrel, and with harp.
28. And thou hast not suffered me to kiss my sons and my daughters; now thou hast acted foolishly.
29. Let my hand be to God to do you evil! And the God of your father spake unto me yesternight, saying, Take heed to thyself that thou speak not with Jacob from good even to evil.
30. And now going thou hast gone, because longing thou hast longed toward thy father’s house; wherefore hast thou stolen my gods?
31. And Jacob answered and said to Laban, Because I was afraid, for I said, Perchance thou wilt take away thy daughters from me by force.
32. With whomsoever thou findest thy gods, he shall not live before our brethren; search thou what is with me, and take it to thee. And Jacob knew not that Rachel had stolen them.
33. And Laban came into Jacob’s tent, and into Leah’s tent, and into the tent of the two handmaids, and found them not; and he went out of Leah’s tent, and came into Rachel’s tent.
34. And Rachel had taken the teraphim, and put them in the camel’s straw, and sat upon them; and Laban felt about all the tent, and found them not.
35. And she said to her father, Let there not be anger in the eyes of my lord, that I cannot rise up before thee, for the way of women is upon me. And he searched and found not the teraphim.
36. And Jacob was wroth, and chode with Laban; and Jacob answered and said to Laban, What is my trespass? What is my sin, in that thou hast hotly pursued after me?
37. Whereas thou hast felt about all my vessels, what hast thou found of all the vessels of thy house? Set it here before my brethren and thy brethren, and let them judge between us two.
38. These twenty years have I been with thee, thy sheep and thy she-goats have not cast their young, and the rams of thy flock have I not eaten.
39. The torn I brought not unto thee, I bare the loss of it, from my hand didst thou require it, whether stolen by day or stolen by night.
40. Thus I was; in the day the heat consumed me, and the cold in the night, and my sleep has been chased from mine eyes.
41. These twenty years have I served thee in thy house, fourteen years for thy two daughters, and six years for thy flock, and thou hast changed my reward ten ways.
42. Except the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the Dread of Isaac, had been with me, surely now hadst thou sent me away empty. God hath seen my misery and the weariness of my hands, and judged yesternight.
43. And Laban answered, and said unto Jacob, The daughters are my daughters, and the sons are my sons, and the flock is my flock, and all that thou seest is mine; and what can I do this day unto these my daughters, or unto their sons which they have borne?
44. And now come, let us make a covenant, I and thou, and let it be for a witness between me and thee.
45. And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar.
46. And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and made a heap, and they did eat there upon the heap.
47. And Laban called it Jegar-sahadutha, and Jacob called it Galeed.
48. And Laban said, This heap is a witness between me and thee this day; therefore he called the name of it Galeed;
49. And Mizpah; for he said, Jehovah watch between me and thee, for we shall be hidden a man from his fellow.
50. If thou shalt afflict my daughters, and if thou shalt take women over my daughters, there is no man with us; see God is witness between me and thee.
51. And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold the pillar which I have set up between me and thee.
52. This heap be witness, and the pillar be witness, that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not pass over this heap to me, and this pillar, for evil.
53. The God of Abraham and the God of Nahor judge between us, the God of their father; and Jacob swear by the Dread of his father Isaac.
54. And Jacob sacrificed a sacrifice in the mountain, and called his brethren to eat bread; and they did eat bread, and tarried all night in the mountain.
55. And in the morning Laban arose early, and kissed his sons and his daughters, and blessed them; and Laban departed and returned to his place.
The subject here treated of in the internal sense is the separation of the good and truth represented by Jacob and his women, from the good signified by “Laban,” in order that the former might be conjoined with the Divine from a direct Divine stock; and also the state of both as regards the separation.
Verses 1-3. And he heard the words of Laban’s sons, saying, Jacob hath taken all that was our father’s; and from that which was our father’s hath he made all this abundance. And Jacob saw the faces of Laban, and behold he was not at all with him as yesterday and the day before. And Jehovah said unto Jacob, Return unto the land of thy fathers, and to thy nativity, and I will be with thee. “And he heard the words of Laban’s sons, saying,” signifies the truths of the good signified by “Laban,” of what quality they were relatively to the good acquired thereby by the Lord in the natural; “Jacob hath taken all that was our father’s,” signifies that all things of the good now meant by “Jacob” had been given Him therefrom; “and from that which was our father’s hath he made all this abundance,” signifies that He gave it to Himself; “and Jacob saw the faces of Laban,” signifies a change of state with that good, when the good meant by “Jacob” receded; “and behold he was not at all with him as yesterday and the day before,” signifies the state altogether changed toward the good signified by “Jacob,” although nothing was taken away from it, but that it had its own as before, except the state in respect to conjunction; “and Jehovah said unto Jacob,” signifies the Lord’s perception from the Divine; “return unto the land of thy fathers,” signifies that He should now betake Himself nearer to good Divine; ” and to thy nativity,” signifies that He should betake Himself to the derivative truth; “and I will be with thee,” signifies that it would then be Divine.
 How the case is with the good signified by “Laban” relatively to the good of truth represented by Jacob, may be seen from what has been stated and shown in the foregoing chapter. This may be further illustrated by the states of man’s regeneration, which in the representative sense is also here treated of. When a man is being regenerated, he is kept by the Lord in a kind of mediate good. This good serves for introducing genuine goods and truths; but after these have been introduced, it is separated from them. Everyone who has learned anything about regeneration and about the new man, can understand that the new man is altogether different from the old; for the new man is in the affection of spiritual and heavenly things, and these produce its delights and pleasantnesses; whereas the old man is in the affections of worldly and earthly things, and these produce its delights and pleasantnesses; consequently the new man has regard to ends in heaven, but the old man to ends in the world. From this it is manifest that the new man is altogether different and diverse from the old.
 In order that a man may be brought from the state of the old man into that of the new, the concupiscences of the world must be put off, and the affections of heaven must be put on. This is effected by innumerable means, which are known to the Lord alone, and many of which have also been made known by the Lord to angels; but few if any to man. Nevertheless all of them both in general and particular have been made manifest in the internal sense of the Word. When therefore a man, from being the old man is made a new one (that is, when he is being regenerated), it is not done in a moment, as some believe, but through a course of years; nay, during the man’s whole life, even to its end; for his concupiscences have to be extirpated, and heavenly affections have to be insinuated; and the man has to be gifted with a life which he had not before, and of which indeed he knew scarcely anything. Seeing therefore that the man’s states of life have to be so greatly changed, it must needs be that he is long kept in a kind of mediate good, that is, in a good which partakes both of the affections of the world, and of the affections of heaven; and unless he is kept in this mediate good, he in no wise admits heavenly goods and truths.
 This mediate or middle good is what is signified by “Laban and his flock.” But man is kept in this middle good no longer than until it has served this use; but this having been served, it is separated. This separation is treated of in this chapter. That there is an intermediate good, and that it is separated after it has subserved its use, may be illustrated by the changes of state which every man undergoes from infancy even to old age. It is known that a man’s state is of one kind in infancy, of another in childhood, another in youth, another in adult age, and another in old age. It is also known that a man puts off his state of infancy with its toys when he passes into the state of youth; that he puts off his state of youth when he passes into the state of young manhood; and this again when he passes into the state of mature age; and at last this state when he passes into that of old age. And if one will consider he may also know that every age has its delights, and that by these he is introduced by successive steps into those of the age next following; and that these delights had served the purpose of bringing him thereto; and finally to the delight of intelligence and wisdom in old age.
 From all this it is manifest that former things are always left behind when a new state of life is put on. But this comparison can serve only to show that delights are means, and that these are left behind when the man enters into the state next following; whereas during man’s regeneration his state becomes altogether different from his former one; and he is led to it, not in any natural manner, but by the Lord in a supernatural manner; nor does anyone arrive at this state except by the means or media of regeneration, which are provided by the Lord alone, and thus by the mediate good of which we have been speaking. And when the man has been brought to that state in which he has no longer worldly, earthly, and corporeal things as his end, but those which are of heaven, then this mediate good is separated. To have anything as the end is to love it more than anything else.
 In order that it may be comprehended how the case is in regard to the goods and truths in man, what is known to scarcely anyone must be revealed. It is indeed known and acknowledged that all good and all truth are from the Lord; and it is also acknowledged by some that there is an influx, but of such a nature that man is not aware of it. Yet as it is not known, at least is not acknowledged at heart, that there are spirits and angels around man, and that his internal man is in the midst of them, and is thus ruled by the Lord, it is little believed, although said. There are innumerable societies in the other life that are disposed and set in order by the Lord according to all the genera of good and truth; and there are societies in the opposite that are disposed according to all the genera of evil and falsity; insomuch that there is not any genus of good and truth, nor any species of that genus, nor indeed any specific variety, which does not have such angelic societies, or to which there are not angelic societies that correspond. Nor on the other hand, is there any genus of evil and falsity, nor any species of that genus, nor indeed any specific variety, to which there are not diabolical societies that correspond. In a society of such is every man as to his interiors (that is, as to his thoughts and affections) although he is not aware of it. Everything that a man thinks and wills is from this source, insomuch that if the societies of spirits and angels in which he is were taken away, he would that moment have no thought and no will, and would even fall down absolutely dead. Such is the state of man, although he believes that he has all things from himself, and that there is neither a hell nor a heaven; or that hell is far removed from him, and heaven also.
 Moreover the good in a man appears to him as what is simple or one, and yet is so manifold, and consists of things so various, that the man cannot possibly explore so much as its generals. It is the same with the evil in a man. Such as is the good in a man, such is the society of angels with him; and such as is the evil in a man, such is the society of evil spirits with him. The man summons these societies to himself, that is, he places himself in a society of such spirits; for like is associated with like. For example: the man who is avaricious summons to himself societies of like spirits who are in the same cupidity. The man who loves himself in preference to others, and who despises others, summons those who are like himself. He who takes delight in revenge summons such as are in a like delight; and so in all other cases. These spirits communicate with hell, and the man is in the midst of them, and is altogether ruled by them, insomuch that he is not at his own disposal, but is at theirs, although from the delight and consequent freedom that he enjoys he supposes that he directs himself. But the man who is not avaricious, or who does not love himself in preference to others, nor despise others, and who does not take delight in revenge, is in a society of similar angels, and is led by the Lord by their means, and indeed by means of his freedom, to all the good and truth to which he suffers himself to be led; and in proportion as he suffers himself to be led to more interior and more perfect good, in the same proportion he is brought to more interior and perfect angelic societies. The changes of his state are nothing else than changes of societies. That this is the case is evident to me from the continuous experience of many years, whereby the fact has become as familiar to me as is that which has been familiar to a man from his infancy.
 From all this it is now evident how the case is with man’s regeneration, and with the mediate delights and goods by means of which he is brought by the Lord from the state of his old man to the state of his new man-namely, that this is effected by means of angelic societies, and by changes of them. Mediate goods and delights are nothing else than such societies, which are applied to man by the Lord, to the intent that by their means he may be introduced to spiritual and celestial goods and truths; and when he has been brought to these, the societies are separated, and more interior and more perfect ones are adjoined to him. Nothing else is meant by the mediate good signified by “Laban,” and by the separation of that good, which is the subject treated of in this chapter.
 When the societies of spirits and angels which are in mediate good recede, then new societies which are in a more perfect good draw near. Man’s state is altogether according to the societies of spirits and angels in the midst of whom he is; such is his will, and such his thought. But his changes of state are quite different when he adjoins the societies to himself, or himself to them, from what they are when the societies are adjoined to him by the Lord. When he adjoins himself to them, he is in evil; but when they are adjoined to him by the Lord, he is in good. When he is in good, such good as serves for the reformation of his life flows in through the societies. What is here said in the internal sense respecting the good represented by Jacob, the affections of truth, which are “Rachel and Leah,” and the application of these when he departed from the good signified by “Laban,” is in exact accordance with the societies and their changes. From the societies the angels perceive the states the man has, thus the quality of his goods and truths, and consequently innumerable things which scarcely appear to the man as one general thing. Thus the angels are in the very causes, for they see and perceive the societies with the man, while the man is in the effects and does not see them, but has only an obscure perception of them, through some changes of state thence resulting; and sees nothing in regard to what is good and true, unless he is enlightened through angels by the Lord.
 The societies which are such as to believe that good is from themselves, and thereby to place merit in goods, were of service to Him by introducing Him into memory-knowledge concerning such good, and thence into wisdom concerning good that is devoid of self-merit, such as is that which is from the Divine. This knowledge and the derivative wisdom were not from those societies, but were obtained by their means. Take another example: the societies which believe themselves to be very wise, and yet reason about good and truth, and about everything as to whether it is so, are for the most part societies of the spiritual; and these societies were of service to Him by introducing Him into knowledge in regard to such persons, and how greatly they are relatively in shade, and that unless the Lord should have mercy on them they would perish; and also into knowledge of many more things from the Divine, which were not from these societies, but by means of them.
 Take as yet another example the societies which are in love to God, and believe that if they look to the Infinite, and worship a hidden God, they can be in love to Him; when yet they are not so, unless by some idea they make that Infinite finite, or present the hidden God as visible within themselves by finite intellectual ideas; for otherwise it would be a looking into thick darkness, and embracing with love that which is therein, whence there would arise many fanciful and undigested conceits, in accordance with each man’s ideas. Such societies were also of service to Him by introducing Him into a knowledge of the quality of their interiors, and also of the quality of their love, and likewise into pity that they too could not be saved unless the Lord’s human should become also Divine, for them to look upon. This wisdom was not from these societies, but by their means from the Divine. The case was the same with everything else. From this it is evident how the case stands with the matter now under consideration-that nothing was taken from the good signified by “Laban,” but that all things which the Lord had were from the Divine, that is, from Himself.
 The case is similar with every man who is being regenerated, namely, that societies are applied to him by the Lord which serve for introducing genuine goods and truths, not from themselves, but by their means; and when he who is being regenerated is transferred to other societies, those who had previously been with him are indignant. But these things do not appear to the man, because he does not believe that he is in the company of spirits and angels; but they appear manifestly to the angels, and to those also to whom of the Lord’s Divine mercy it is granted to speak with them, and to be among them as one of them. By this means it has been given me to know that such is the case.
 The spirits lament greatly that man does not know this, nor even that they are with him; and still more that many deny not only their presence, but also that there is a hell and a heaven. This however they ascribe to man’s stupidity; the fact being that man has not the least of thought, nor the least of will, which does not come from the Lord by influx through spirits; and it is by them as means that the Lord governs the human race, and each person in particular.
 But these things are of such a nature that they do not fall into any understanding except that which has been instructed, and which perceives delight in the memory-knowledge of such things, and which therefore has spiritual knowledges as its end. Others care nothing for such things, and cannot even apply their minds to them. For they who have worldly and earthly things as their end, cannot withdraw their senses from them; and even if they did so, they would perceive what is undelightful; in which case they would be departing and withdrawing from the things they have as their end, that is, which they love. Let anyone who is of such a nature put himself to the test, as to whether he desires to know how good adjoins itself to the affections of truth; and how the affections of truth apply themselves to good; and whether knowing this is irksome to him or not; and he will say that such things are of no benefit to him, and that he apprehends nothing about them.
 But if such things are told him as relate to his business in the world, even though they are of the most abstruse character, or if he be told the nature of another man’s affections, and how he may thereby join the man to himself by adapting himself both mentally and orally, this he not only apprehends, but also has a perception of the interior things connected with the matter. In like manner he who studies from affection to investigate the abstruse things of the sciences, loves to look and does look into things still more intricate. But when spiritual good and truth are in question, he feels the subject irksome and turns his back on it. These things have been said in order that the quality of the existing man of the church may be known.
 But how the case is with good when it adjoins truths to itself by affections, and with truths when they apply themselves to it, cannot so well appear when the idea or thought is directed to good and truth, but better when it is directed to the societies of spirits and angels through which these flow in; for as before said (n. 4067), man’s willing and thinking come from these societies, that is, flow in from them, and appear as if they were in him. To know how the case herein is from the societies of spirits and angels, is to know it from causes themselves; and to know it from the heaven of angels is to know it from the ends of these causes. There are also historical things which adjoin themselves, and illustrate these things, causing them to appear more plainly.
 The internal sense treats of the adjunction of good to truths, and of the application of these latter, in the natural; for as often before said Jacob is the good in the natural, and his women are the affections of truth. The good which is of love and charity flows in from the Lord, and does so through angels who are with man; but not into anything else in him than his knowledges. And as good is there fixed, the thought is kept in the truths of the knowledges; and from these many things are called up which are related and are in agreement; and this until the man thinks that it is so, and until he wills it from affection because it is so. When this is being done, good conjoins itself with truths, and the truths apply themselves in freedom; for all affection causes freedom (n. 2870, 2875, 3158, 4031).
 Even then, however, doubts and sometimes denials are excited by the spirits who have been joined to the man; but insofar as affection prevails, so far he is led to the affirmative, and he is then confirmed in truths by these very things. When good flows in in this manner, it is not perceived that it comes through angels, because it flows in so interiorly, and into the man’s obscurity which he has from worldly and corporeal things. Be it known however that good does not flow in from the angels, but through the angels from the Lord; and this all the angels confess, and therefore they never claim for themselves any good, and are even indignant when anyone attributes it to them. From all this then, as from causes themselves, it may be seen how the case is with the adjoining of good to truths, and with the application of these latter, which are the subjects here treated of in the internal sense.
 These two kinds of societies are in action about a man who is being regenerated; and insofar as he is initiated by the angels into heavenly things, so far are the spirits who are in worldly things removed; and unless they are removed, truths are dissipated. For worldly things and heavenly things are in agreement in man when heavenly things rule over worldly ones; but they are in disagreement when worldly things rule over heavenly things. When they are in agreement, truths are multiplied in the man’s natural; but when they are in disagreement truths are diminished, and even consumed, because worldly things darken heavenly things, and so consequently place them in doubt; but when heavenly things have rule, they throw light upon worldly things, and place them in clear light, and dispel doubts. Those things rule which are loved above all others. All this shows what is meant by the truth of affections being consumed if these were not separated; which is signified by “devouring he hath also devoured our silver.”
 He who does not know how the case is with representations and correspondences, cannot believe that these words, “he lifted his sons and his women upon the camels,” have such a signification; for they appear to him too remote from such matters to involve and contain within themselves any such spiritual meaning, for he thinks about sons, women, and camels. But the angels, who see and perceive all such things spiritually, do not think about sons, but when “sons” are mentioned they think of truths; nor do they think about women, but when “women” are mentioned they think of the affections of truth, of knowledges, and of memory-knowledges; nor do they think about camels, but instead they think of general things in the natural. For such is the correspondence of all these things; and such is angelic thought; and wonderful to say such is the thought of the internal spiritual man while living in the body, although the external man is entirely unaware of it. For the same reason, when a man who has been regenerated dies, he comes into the like thought, and can think and speak with angels, and this without instruction; which would be quite impossible unless he had had such interior thought. That the thought is of this character comes from the correspondence of natural and spiritual things; and from this it is evident that although the literal sense of the Word is natural, it nevertheless contains within itself and every particular of it spiritual things; that is, such as are of the interior or spiritual thought and the derivative speech; or in other words, such as exist in the thought and speech of the angels.
 As regards the elevation of truths and of the affections of them, and their orderly arrangement in generals, the case is this: The truths and the affections are elevated when the things of eternal life and of the Lord’s kingdom are set before those which belong to life in the body and to the kingdom of the world. When a man acknowledges the former as the principal and primary, and the latter as the instrumental and secondary, then with him truths and the affections of them are elevated; for in the same proportion the man is carried away into the light of heaven, within which there are intelligence and wisdom; and in the same proportion the things which are of the light of the world become to him images and as it were mirrors in which he sees the things of the light of heaven. The contrary happens when the man sets the things of the life of the body and of the kingdom of the world before those of eternal life and the Lord’s kingdom; as when he believes that the latter have no existence because he does not see, them, and because no one has come from there and made them known; and also when he believes that if they do exist, nothing worse will happen to him than to others; and when he confirms himself in these ideas, and lives the life of the world, and utterly despises charity and faith. With such a man, truths and the affections of them are not elevated, but are either suffocated, or rejected, or perverted; for he is in natural light, into which nothing of heavenly light inflows. From all this it is evident what is meant by the elevation of truths and of the affections of them.
 As regards their orderly arrangement in generals, this is a necessary consequence; for insofar as a man sets heavenly things before worldly ones, so far are the things in his natural arranged in order according to the state of heaven, so that as before said they appear therein as images and mirrors of heavenly things, for they are corresponding representatives. It is the ends that effect the arrangement into order, that is, the Lord through the ends in the man. For there are three things that follow in order, namely, ends, causes, and effects. Ends produce causes, and through causes, effects. Such therefore as are the ends, such come forth the consequent causes, and such the consequent effects. Ends are the inmost things with man; causes are middle or mediates, and are called mediate ends; and effects are ultimates, and are called last or ultimate ends. Effects are also what are called generals. From all this it is evident in what consists orderly arrangement in generals, namely, that when the things of eternal life and of the Lord’s kingdom are regarded as the end, all the middle ends or causes, and all the ultimate ends or effects, are arranged in order in accordance with the end itself; and this in the natural, because the effects are there; or what is the same, the generals are there.
 Every man of adult age who possesses any judgment, and will give the matter any consideration, is able to know that he is in two kingdoms, namely, in a spiritual kingdom and in a natural kingdom; and also that the spiritual kingdom is interior, and the natural kingdom exterior; and consequently that he can set one before the other, that is, he can regard one as the end in preference to the other; and thus that the one which he regards as his end, or prefers, rules with him. If therefore he regards the spiritual kingdom as his end, and prefers it (that is, the things that belong to this kingdom), he then acknowledges as the principal and primary, love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, and consequently all things that confirm this love and charity, and are said to be of faith; for these belong to that kingdom; and in this case all things in his natural are arranged and set in order in accordance therewith, in order that they may be subservient and obedient. But when a man has as his end and sets first the natural kingdom (that is, the things it contains), he then extinguishes all that is of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor, and all that is of faith, insomuch that he makes them of no account whatever; but makes the love of the world and of self, and all that belongs thereto, to be everything. When this is the case, all things in his natural are arranged in order in accordance with these ends, thus in utter contrariety to the things of heaven; and in this way he makes hell in himself. To regard as an end is to love, for every end is of the love, because whatever is loved is regarded as the end.
 As regards the conjunction of the rational and the natural in man, be it known that the rational is of the internal man and the natural of the external; and that their conjunction produces the human, of such a quality as is the conjunction, and that there is conjunction when they act as a one; and they act as a one when the natural ministers and is subservient to the rational. With man this is impossible unless it is done by the Lord; but with the Lord it was done by Himself.
 There are good spirits, there are spirits of a middle sort, and there are evil spirits, who are adjoined to man during his regeneration, to the end that by their means he may be introduced into genuine goods and truths, and this by the Lord by means of angels; but they are such spirits or societies of spirits as are not in agreement with the person to be regenerated, except for a time; and therefore, when they have performed their use, they are separated. Their separation is effected in various ways-that of the good spirits in one way, that of the spirits of a middle sort in another way, and that of the evil spirits in still another way. The separation of the good spirits is effected without their being aware of it, for they know that of the Lord’s good pleasure it is well with them wherever they may be, or whithersoever they may be by Him transferred. But the separation of the spirits of a middle sort is effected by many means, even until they withdraw in freedom. For they are remitted into the state of their good, and therefore into a state of use and of the consequent end, in order that they may perceive therein their delight and their bliss. But inasmuch as they had found pleasure in their previous association with the regenerating man, they are by turns brought to it and sent away from it, until at last they feel discomfort in any further stay, and so withdraw in freedom. The evil spirits also are indeed removed in freedom, but in a freedom which only appears to them as freedom. They are adjoined for the purpose of introducing opposing ideas and feelings which are to be rejected, in order that the man may be the better confirmed in truths and goods; and when he begins to be confirmed in these, they perceive a discomfort in remaining, and a delight in separation, and in this manner they are separated in a freedom that comes of their delight. Such is the case with the separation of the spirits from a man when he is being regenerated, and consequently with the changes of his state as to good and truth.
sRef Deut@15 @20 S3′ sRef Gen@38 @13 S3′ sRef 2Sam@13 @23 S3′ sRef 2Sam@13 @24 S3′ sRef Deut@15 @19 S3′  That “to shear a flock” denotes to perform use, is evident from the fact that in the internal sense the “shearing of a flock” is nothing else than use, for wool is obtained thereby. That “sheepshearing” denotes use, is also plain from these words in Moses:
Every firstling male which is born of thy herd and of thy flock thou shalt sanctify unto Jehovah thy God; thou shalt do no work with the firstling of thine ox, nor shear the firstling of thy flock; but thou shalt eat it before Jehovah thy God year by year in the place which Jehovah shall choose (Deut. 15:19);
where “not to shear the firstling of the flock” denotes not to make a household use from it. As “sheep-shearing” signified use, it was in those days an office and function of distinction to shear the flock and to be present at the shearings, as may be seen from what is said of Judah, that “he sheared his flock” (Gen. 38:12, 13); and of the sons of David, in the second book of Samuel:
It came to pass after two years of days, that Absalom had sheep-shearers in Baalhazor, which is in Ephraim; and Absalom called all the king’s sons; and Absalom came to the king, and said, Behold now thy servant hath sheep-shearers; let the king, I pray thee, and his servants, go with thy servant (2 Sam. 13:23-24).
 What these things involve may also be seen from the state of spirits when they are being separated. The states of spirits in respect to good and truth are in accordance with the societies in which they are; for as before shown all thought inflows through others, and proximately through those with whom the subjects of the thought are in society; and therefore when these are removed from one society and are sent into another, the states of their thoughts and affections are changed, and consequently their state as to truth and good. But if they are sent into unaccordant societies, they have a sense of discomfort, and consequently a sense of restraint, and therefore they are separated from those societies and are carried away into accordant ones. It is for this reason that the evil cannot be present or stay in societies of the good, nor the good in societies of the evil; and that all spirits and angels have been distinguished into societies in accordance with the affections which are of love. But every affection of love contains within it manifold and various things (n. 3078, 3189, 4005); and yet one thing is regnant, so that each spirit can be in a number of societies, but still strives continually toward that one which is of his reigning affection, and is at last brought into it.
 As regards the good signified by “Laban,” and its change of state, so long as it was with the good represented by Jacob, it was nearer the Divine, for “Jacob” is that good in the natural; and as it was nearer the Divine, it was also then in a more perfect state of truth and good; but when it was separated from this good, it came into another state both as to truth and as to good. For speaking generally, the changes of state in the other life are nothing else than approaches to the Divine and removals from the Divine. From this it is now manifest what is meant by the change of state when the good signified by “Laban” was being separated.
sRef Gen@31 @30 S4′ sRef Gen@31 @32 S4′  That “Rachel stole the teraphim which were her father’s,” signifies a change of state as to truths, is because by the “teraphim” are meant his gods, as is evident from what follows, for Laban says to Jacob:
Wherefore hast thou stolen my gods? And Jacob answered, With whomsoever thou findest thy gods, he shall not live before our brethren (Gen. 31:30, 32);
and in the internal sense “gods” signify truths, for which reason in the Word “God” is named when the subject is truth (see n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822).
sRef Hos@3 @4 S5′ sRef Zech@10 @2 S5′  The teraphim were idols that were used when they consulted or inquired of God, and because the answers which they received were to them truths Divine, truths were therefore signified by “teraphim,” as in Hosea:
The sons of Israel sat many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without ephod and teraphim (Hos. 3:4);
“ephod and teraphim” denote the truths Divine they received by the answers, for when they inquired of God, they put on the ephod (1 Sam. 23:9-12). In Zechariah:
The teraphim speak iniquity, and the diviners see a lie, and the dreams speak vanity (Zech. 10:2);
where also the “teraphim” denote answers, but in that state iniquitous ones.
sRef Judg@17 @5 S6′ sRef 1Sam@19 @13 S6′ sRef 1Sam@19 @16 S6′ sRef Judg@18 @14 S6′ sRef Judg@18 @22 S6′ sRef Judg@18 @20 S6′ sRef Judg@18 @24 S6′ sRef Judg@18 @18 S6′  And because such things were signified by “teraphim,” they were found with some, although they were forbidden; as with Micah, in the book of Judges:
Micah had a house of God, and he made an ephod and teraphim, and filled the hand of one of his sons, that he might become his priest. And some of the Danites said to their brethren, Do ye know that there is in these houses an ephod and teraphim, and a graven image and a molten image? And when these went into the house of Micah, they took the graven image, the ephod and the teraphim, and the molten image. And the priest’s heart was good, and he took the ephod and the teraphim and the graven image. And Micah followed the sons of Dan, and said, Ye have taken away my gods which I made, and the priest, and are gone away, and what have I more? (Judg. 17:5; 18:14, 18, 20, 24).
Michal also, David’s wife, had them, as related in the first book of Samuel:
And Michal took the teraphim, and laid them in the bed, and covered them with a garment. And Saul’s messengers came, and behold, the teraphim were in the bed (1 Sam. 19:13, 16).
That nevertheless they were idols, which were forbidden, is manifest from what is said of them elsewhere (1 Sam. 15:23; 2 Kings 23:24; Ezek. 21:26).
If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve, and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. If his master give him a wife, and she bear him sons and daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master’s, and he shall go out with his body (Exod. 21:2, 4).
That he had so thought, is manifest from Jacob’s words in what follows in this chapter:
Except the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the Dread of Isaac had been with me, surely now hadst thou sent me away empty (Gen. 31:42);
and from Laban’s:
Laban answered and said unto Jacob, The daughters are my daughters, and the sons are my sons, and the flock is my flock, and all that thou seest is mine (Gen. 31:43);
not considering that Jacob was not a bought servant, nor indeed a servant at all, and that he was of a more noble family than he, and also that he had received as his reward both his wives and his flock; so that the law did not apply to Jacob. Now as Jacob by his fleeing had deprived Laban of this hope, and thus had reduced him to a state of distress, it is said that he “stole the heart of Laban the Aramean, by not telling him that he was fleeing.” But by these words in the internal sense is signified the change by the separation of the state signified by “Laban” in respect to good. Concerning change of state by separation, see what has been said just above (n. 4111).
sRef Judg@5 @17 S2′ sRef Deut@34 @1 S2′  The land of Gilead, where the mountain stood, was within the limits of the land of Canaan as understood in a broad sense. It was on the hither side of the Jordan,* and passed as an inheritance to the Reubenites and the Gadites, and especially to the half tribe of Manasseh; and as the inheritances extended thus far, it is said that it was within the limits of the land of Canaan as understood in a broad sense. That it passed as an inheritance to them, is evident in Moses (Num. 32:1, 26-41; Deut. 3:8, 10-16; Josh. 13:24-31). Therefore when the land of Canaan was presented in one complex, it was said, “from Gilead even unto Dan,” and in another sense, “from Beersheba even unto Dan,” for Dan also was a boundary (n. 1710, 3923). As regards the expression “from Beersheba even unto Dan,” see above (n. 2858, 2859). “From Gilead even unto Dan” is found in Moses:
Moses went up from the plains of Noah upon Mount Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho; and Jehovah showed him all the land of Gilead even unto Dan (Deut. 34:1-2);
and in the book of Judges:
Gilead dwelleth in the passage of the Jordan; and Dan, why shall he fear the ships? (Judg. 5:17).
 Because Gilead was a boundary, it signified in the spiritual sense the first good, which is that of the senses of the body; for it is the good or the pleasure of these into which the man who is being regenerated is first of all initiated. In this sense is “Gilead” taken in the Prophets, as in Jer. 8:20, 22; 22:6; 46:11; 50:19; Ezek. 47:18; Obad. 19; Micah 7:14; Zech. 10:10; Ps. 60:7; and in the opposite sense in Hos. 6:8; 12:12.
* That is, on the side next Syria, where Jacob at present was, and thus was really “beyond Jordan,” in the ordinary sense of the expression. [REVISER.]
 On earth they are so named with reference to a common parentage, however they may differ in regard to affections; but this brotherhood or relationship is dissipated in the other life, and unless they have been in similar good on earth, they there come into other brotherhoods. At first indeed they for the most part come together, but in a short time are separated; for in that world it is not wealth that keeps men together, but as just said, affections, the quality of which is then manifest as in clear day, and also the kind of affection which one has had toward another.
And as these are manifest, and as everyone’s affection draws him to his society, those who have been of a discordant disposition are dissociated; and all the brotherhood and friendship which had been of the external man are obliterated on both sides, and that which is of the internal man remains. That by “he took his brethren with him” are signified goods in place of those which it had lost, is because as before said when one society is separated from another, it comes to a different society, and therefore to other goods in place of the former (n. 4077, 4110, 4111).
 That this is really the case is not apparent to the man, for he does not know how goods are varied with him, still less how the state of every good is changed, nor even how the good of infancy is varied and changed into the good of childhood, and this into the succeeding good which is that of youth, and afterwards into the good of adult age, and at last into the good of old age. With those who are not being regenerated, it is not goods that are changed, but affections and their delights. But with those who are being regenerated there are changes of state of goods, and this from infancy even to the close of life. For the Lord foresees what kind of a life a man is going to lead, and how he is going to suffer himself to be led by the Lord; and because all things are foreseen both in general and in particular-nay, the veriest singulars-they are also provided. But the man knows nothing of how the case is then with the changes of state of the goods; and this chiefly because he has no knowledges on the subject, nor at this day does he desire to have any. And as the Lord does not inflow immediately with man and teach him, but as He inflows into his knowledges, thus mediately, the man cannot possibly be acquainted with the changes of state of these goods. And as man is in such a condition as to be without knowledges on this subject, and moreover as at the present day there are but few who suffer themselves to be regenerated, even if these things were more fully explained they would not be comprehended.
 That at the present day there are few who know anything of spiritual good, and also few who know anything of freedom, has been made known to me by experience from those who come into the other life from the Christian world. For the sake of illustration a single example may be given. There was a certain prelate who had believed himself to be more learned than others, and who during his life had been acknowledged to be so; but because he had led an evil life he was in such stupid ignorance concerning good and freedom, and concerning the consequent delight and bliss, that he was not aware of the least difference between infernal delight and freedom, and heavenly delight and freedom, and in fact he said that there was not any. Such being the ignorance even among those who are reputed to be more learned than others, it may be inferred into what shades, nay into what great and insane delusions would be turned what might here be said concerning good and freedom, which are the subjects here treated of in the internal sense. And yet the truth is that there is not so much as a single expression in the Word which does not involve a heavenly arcanum, although it may appear to man of no moment, and this because of the lack of knowledges or the ignorance in which at the present day man is, and is willing to be, in regard to heavenly things.
sRef Isa@24 @11 S2′ sRef Jer@33 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@35 @10 S2′ sRef Joel@1 @16 S2′ sRef Jer@48 @33 S2′ sRef Jer@7 @34 S2′ sRef Isa@51 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@22 @13 S2′ sRef Zech@8 @19 S2′  There is occasional mention in the Word of “gladness” and of “joy,” and sometimes they are mentioned together; but “gladness” is mentioned when the subject treated of is truth and its affection, and “joy” when it is good and its affection, as in Isaiah:
Behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen and killing sheep, eating flesh and drinking wine (Isa. 22:13);
where “joy” is predicated of good, and “gladness” of truth. In the same:
There is a cry in the streets because of the wine; all gladness shall be made desolate, and all joy shall be banished (Isa. 24:11).
In the same:
The redeemed of Jehovah shall return, and shall come to Zion with singing, and everlasting joy upon their head; they shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away (Isa. 35:10; 51:11).
In the same:
Jehovah shall comfort Zion; joy and gladness shall be found therein, confession and the voice of singing (Isa. 51:3).
I will cause to cease from the cities of Judah and from the streets of Jerusalem the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, for the land shall become a waste (Jer. 7:34; 25:10).
In the same:
The voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say, Confess ye to Jehovah Zebaoth (Jer. 33:11).
In the same:
Gladness and exultation have been gathered from Carmel, and from the land of Moab (Jer. 48:33).
Is not the food cut off before our eyes, gladness and exultation from the house of our God? (Joel 1:16).
The fast shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladness and good feasts (Zech. 8:19).
 He who does not know that in everything of the Word there is the heavenly marriage (that is, the marriage of good and truth), might believe that joy and gladness are one thing, and that both are mentioned merely for the sake of greater emphasis, thus that one of the expressions is superfluous. But this is not the case, for not the smallest part of a word is used without a spiritual meaning. In the passages that have been adduced, and in others also, “joy” is predicated of good, and “gladness” of truth (see also n. 3118). That “songs” also are predicated of truth is evident from many passages in the Word, where “songs” are mentioned, as Isa. 5:1; 24:9; 26:1; 30:29; 42:10; Ezek. 26:13; Amos 5:23; and other places.
 Be it known that all things in the Lord’s kingdom relate either to good or to truth, that is, to the things of love, and to those of the faith of charity. Those which relate to good, or which are of love, are called celestial; but those which relate to truth, or which are of the faith of charity, are called spiritual. For in all things of the Word both in general and in particular the Lord’s kingdom is treated of, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself; and the Lord’s kingdom is the marriage of good and truth, or the heavenly marriage; and the Lord Himself is He in whom is the Divine marriage, and from whom is the heavenly marriage; and therefore in everything of the Word there is this marriage, as is especially evident in the Prophets, where repetitions of one thing occur, with merely a change of words. But these repetitions are never without meaning, and by one of the expressions is signified what is celestial (that is, what is of love and good), and by the other what is spiritual (that is, what is of the faith of charity or of truth); all of which shows in what manner the heavenly marriage (that is, the Lord’s kingdom), and in the supreme sense the Divine marriage itself (that is, the Lord) is in everything of the Word.
 In the churches of ancient times there were employed many kinds of musical instruments, such as timbrels, psalteries, pipes, harps, decachords, and various others. Some of these belonged to the class of celestial, and some to the class of spiritual things; and when they are mentioned in the Word, such things are implied, insomuch that it may be known from them what kind of good is treated of, whether spiritual good or celestial good. The timbrel and the harp belonged to the class of spiritual things, and therefore it is here said “in respect to spiritual good.” (That the “harp” is predicated of spiritual things, and that by stringed instruments are signified spiritual things, but by wind instruments celestial things, may be seen above, n. 418-420.)
 Every man who is being regenerated is first in mediate good, in order that it may serve for introducing genuine goods and truths; but after it has served this use, this good is separated, and the man is brought to good which flows in more directly. Thus the man who is being regenerated is perfected by degrees. For example: he who is being regenerated believes at first that the good which he thinks and does is from himself, and that he also merits something; for he does not yet know, and if he knows he does not comprehend, that good can flow in from some other source, nor that it can be otherwise than that he should be recompensed, because he does it from himself. Unless at first he believed this, he would never do any good. But by this means he is initiated not only into the affection of doing what is good, but also into knowledges concerning good and also concerning merit; and when in this manner he has been led into the affection of doing what is good, he then begins to think differently and to believe differently, namely, that good flows in from the Lord, and that by the good which he does from his own he merits nothing; and at last when he is in the affection of willing and doing what is good, he altogether rejects self-merit, and even has an aversion for it, and is affected with good from good. When he is in this state, good flows in directly.
 Take also as an example conjugial love: the good which precedes and initiates is beauty, or agreement of manners, or an outward adaptation of the one to the other, or equality of condition, or a desired condition. These goods are the first mediate goods of conjugial love. Afterwards comes conjunction of minds, wherein the one wills as the other, and perceives delight in doing that which pleases the other. This is the second state; and then the former things, though still present, are no longer regarded. Finally there follows a unition in respect to celestial good and spiritual truth, in that the one believes as the other, and the one is affected by the same good as the other. When this state comes, both are together in the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth, and thus are in conjugial love-for conjugial love is nothing else-and the Lord then flows into the affections of both as into one affection. This is the good that flows indirectly; but the former goods, which flowed in indirectly, served as means of introduction to this.
 With this arcanum the case is this: Every spiritual good has its own truths; for where this good is, there are its truths. Regarded in itself good is one, but it becomes various by means of truths; for truths may be compared to the fibers that compose one of the bodily organs, in accordance with the form of which fibers there results the organ, and consequently its operation, which operation is effected by means of the life that flows in through the soul; and this life is from the good which is from the Lord. It is thus that good, although one, is yet various with every individual, so various as never to be similar in every respect with one as with another. Hence also it is that the truth of one can never subsist in the good of another. For all the truths with everyone who is in good communicate with one another, and produce a certain form, and therefore the truth of one cannot be transferred into another; but when it is transferred, it passes into the form of him who receives it, and puts on another aspect. But this arcanum is too deep to be expounded in a few words. From this it follows that the mind of one is never altogether like that of another; but that great as is the number of men, so great is the variety in respect to affections and thoughts; and also that the universal heaven consists of angelic forms in perpetual variety, which being disposed by the Lord into the heavenly form act as and produce a one. For a one is never composed of the same things, but of things various in form, which make a one according to their form. From all this it is now evident what is meant by his [Laban’s] truth not subsisting in his [Jacob’s] good.
 How the case herein is cannot be seen except from what happens in the other life; for the things which there happen near a man appear to him as if they were in him; and the case is nearly the same with the spirits in the other life. When societies of spirits which are in mediate good are in company with angels, it then appears to them exactly as if the truths and goods which belong to the angels are theirs, and indeed they know no otherwise. But when they are separated, they then perceive that this is not the case; and they therefore complain, as believing them to be taken away by those in whose company they have been. This is what is here signified in the internal sense by what is narrated concerning the teraphim.
 Speaking generally, the case is that no one ever has good and truth which is his own, but all good and truth flow in from the Lord, both immediately, and also mediately through angelic societies; and yet it appears as if the good and truth were the man’s, to the intent that they may be appropriated to him, until he comes into a state to know, and then to acknowledge, and at last to believe, that they are not his, but the Lord’s. Moreover it is known from the Word, and thereby in the Christian world, that all good and truth are from the Lord, and that nothing of good is from man; nay, the doctrinals of the church which are from the Word declare that man cannot even strive after good of himself, and thus cannot will it, and therefore cannot do it-for doing good is from willing good-and that all faith also is from the Lord; so that a man can have no faith at all unless it flows in from the Lord.
 These things are declared by the doctrinals of the church, and are taught by preachings. But that few, nay, very few, believe it to be so, may be seen from the fact that they suppose all life to be in themselves, and scarcely any think that life flows in. All man’s life consists in the faculty of being able to think and of being able to will; for if the faculty of thinking and willing is taken away, nothing of life remains. And the veriest life consists in thinking good and willing good, and also in thinking truth, and in willing that which we think to be true. As it is in accordance with the doctrinals of the church which are from the Word that these things are not of man, but of the Lord, and that they flow in from the Lord through heaven, those who possess any judgment and are able to reflect, might conclude therefrom that all life flows in.
 The same is the case with evil and falsity. According to the doctrinals from the Word, the devil is continually endeavoring to seduce man, and is continually inspiring evil; and therefore when anyone commits a great crime; it is said that he has suffered himself to be led astray by the devil. And this is the real fact, although few if any believe it; for as all good and truth are from the Lord, so all evil and falsity are from hell, that is, from the devil, for hell is the devil. From this we can also see that as all good and truth flow in, so also do all evil and falsity, and consequently also all the thinking and willing of evil. As these also flow in, all who have any judgment and are able to reflect, can infer that all life flows in, although it appears as if it were in man.
 That this is the case has frequently been shown to spirits who had come recently from the world into the other life. But some of them have said that if all evil and falsity also flow in, nothing of evil and falsity can be attributed to them, and they are not in fault, because these come from another source. But they received for answer that they had appropriated evil and falsity by believing that they think and will of themselves; whereas if they had believed as the case really is, they would not then have appropriated the evil and falsity, for they would have believed all good and truth to be from the Lord; and if they had believed this, they would have suffered themselves to be led by the Lord, and therefore would have been in a different state; and then the evil which entered into their thought and will would not have affected them, because not evil but good would have gone out of them; for it is not the things that enter in, but those which go out that affect us; according to the Lord’s words in Mark 7:15.
 Many can know this, but few believe it. Even those who are evil can know, but still not believe it, for they desire to be in what is their own, and they love this to such a degree that when they are shown that everything flows in, they come into anxiety and urgently entreat that they may be permitted to live in what is their own, insisting that if this should be taken away from them, they could live no longer. Such is the belief even of those who know. These things have been said in order that it may be known how the case is with societies of spirits which are in mediate good, when they are conjoined with others and when they are separated from them; namely, that when they are conjoined, they know no otherwise than that the goods and truths are their own, although they are not theirs.
 The goods and truths of each degree are most distinct from one another, and are by no means confused together. Those which are more interior are component, and those which are more exterior are composite. Although these goods and truths are most distinct from one another, they nevertheless do not appear to man as distinct. The sensuous man sees no otherwise than that all interior things, nay, internal things themselves, are only sensuous, for he sees from sensuous things, thus from outermost ones. Interior things cannot be seen from outermost things, but outermost things can be seen from interior things. He who is a natural man (that is, who thinks from memory-knowledges) knows no otherwise than that the natural things from which he thinks are inmost, when in fact they are external. The interior man, who judges and concludes from analytic principles that have been disclosed by virtue of natural memory-knowledges, believes in like manner that these are the inmost things which man possesses, because they appear as the inmost to him; and yet these are below his rational things, so that relatively to genuine rational things they are exterior or lower. Such is the case with man’s apprehension. The things just spoken of are those of the natural or external man in three degrees; but as before said those of the internal man are also in three degrees such as there are in the three heavens.
 From all that has been said it may now be seen how the case is with the truths signified by the “teraphim,” in that they were not found in the tents of Jacob, Leah, or the handmaids, but in Rachel’s tent, that is, in the holy of the affection of interior truth. All the truth that is from the Divine is in that which is holy, for it cannot be otherwise, because the truth that is from the Divine is holy. It is said to be holy from the affection (that is, from the love) which flows in from the Lord, and causes the man to be affected with the truth.
 That memory-knowledges are relatively gross and devoid of order, and are therefore signified by “straw,” and also by “thickets,” is not apparent to those who are in mere memory-knowledges, and are on this account reputed learned. These believe that the more a man knows, or the more memory-knowledge he possesses, the wiser he is. But that the case is very different has been made evident to me from those in the other life who when they had lived in the world had been in mere memory-knowledges, and thereby had gained the name and reputation of being learned, for they are sometimes more stupid than those who have no such skill in memory- knowledges. The reason of this has also been disclosed, namely, that memory-knowledges are indeed a means of becoming wise, but are also a means of becoming insane. To those who are in the life of good, memory-knowledges are a means of becoming wise; but to those who are in a life of evil, they are a means of becoming insane; for by means of memory-knowledges these persons confirm not only their life of evil, but also principles of falsity, and this arrogantly and with persuasion, because they believe themselves to be wiser than others.
 From this it comes to pass that they destroy their rational; for it is not the man who can reason from memory-knowledges, even when he can apparently do so in a more lofty manner than others, who is in the enjoyment of the rational faculty; for this skill is the result of a mere fatuous light. But that man excels in the rational who is able clearly to see that good is good, and truth truth, consequently that evil is evil, and falsity falsity; whereas the man who regards good as evil and evil as good, and also the man who regards truth as falsity and falsity as truth, can by no means be said to be rational, but rather, irrational, however able he may be to reason. With him who clearly sees that good is good and that truth is truth, and on the other hand that evil is evil and falsity is falsity, light flows in from heaven, and enlightens his intellectual faculty, and causes the reasons which he sees in his understanding to be so many rays of that light. The same light also illuminates the memory-knowledges, so that they confirm the truth, and moreover disposes them into order and into heavenly form. But they who are against good and truth, as are all who are in the life of evil, do not admit that heavenly light, but are delighted solely with their own fatuous light, the nature of which is to see as one who in the dark beholds spots and streaks on a wall, and out of them fancifully makes all kinds of figures, which however are not really figures, for when the light of day is let in, it is seen that they are nothing but spots and streaks.
 From all this we can see that memory-knowledges are a means of becoming wise, and also a means of becoming insane; that is, that they are a means of perfecting the rational, and also a means of destroying the rational. In the other life therefore they who by means of such knowledges have destroyed their rational, are much more stupid than they who have not been versed in them. That these knowledges are relatively gross, is manifest from their belonging to the natural or external man; whereas the rational, which is cultivated by their means, belongs to the spiritual or internal man. How far these differ and are distant the one from the other in regard to purity, may be known from what has been said and shown concerning the two memories (n. 2469-2494).
 The reason why truths from the Divine are signified by the “teraphim,” is that those who were of the Ancient Church distinguished the Divine (that is, the Lord) by various names, and this according to the different appearances in the effects; as for instance by the name “God Shaddai,” from the temptations in which the Lord combats for man, and after which He confers benefits upon him (see n. 1992, 3667); His Providence lest man should of himself enter into the mysteries of faith, they called “cherubs” (n. 308); the truths Divine which they received by answers, they said were “teraphim;” and other of the Divine attributes they also called by particular names.
 They who were wise among them understood by all these names none but the one only Lord; but the simple made for themselves so many representative images of that Divine; and when Divine worship began to be turned into idolatry, they fashioned for themselves so many gods. From this arose so many idolatries among the Gentiles also, who increased the number of them. But as in ancient times Divine things were understood by these names, some of them were retained, as “Shaddai,” and also “cherubs,” and “teraphim,” by which in the Word such things as have been stated are signified. That by “teraphim” are signified the truths Divine which came from answers, is evident in Hosea 3:4.
“And Jacob was wroth, and chided with Laban,” signifies the zeal of the natural; “and Jacob answered and said to Laban, What is my trespass? What is my sin, that thou hast hotly pursued after me?” signifies that it was not of evil that He separated Himself; “whereas thou hast felt about all my vessels, what hast thou found of all the vessels of thy house?” signifies that no truths of good had been his own, but all had been given; “set it here before my brethren and thy brethren, and let them judge between us two,” signifies that there be judgment from what is just and equitable; “these twenty years have I been with thee,” signifies His own; “thy sheep and thy she-goats have not cast their young,” signifies its state as to good and the good of truth; “and the rams of thy flock have I not eaten,” signifies the truth of good in that He had taken nothing of his; “the torn I brought not unto thee,” signifies that evil not by His fault was with that good; “I bore the loss of it,” signifies that good came of it; “from my hand didst thou require it,” signifies that it was from Him; “whether stolen by day or stolen by night,” signifies the evil of self-merit in like manner; “thus I was; in the day the heat consumed me, and the cold in the night, and my sleep has been chased from mine eyes,” signifies temptations; “these twenty years have I served thee in thy house,” signifies His own; “fourteen years for thy two daughters,” signifies the first period in order that He might acquire to Himself therefrom the affections of truth; “and six years for thy flock,” signifies that He might afterwards acquire good; “and thou hast changed my reward ten ways,” signifies its state toward Him when He was applying these goods to Himself; “except the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the Dread of Isaac, had been with me,” signifies unless the Divine and the Divine Human; “surely now hadst thou sent me away empty,” signifies that it would have claimed all things for itself; “God hath seen my misery and the weariness of my hands, and judged yesternight,” signifies that all things were from Him by His own power.
 The interior plane or interior conscience is where are good and truth in the genuine sense; for the good and truth that inflow from the Lord actuate this conscience. But the exterior plane is the exterior conscience, and is where there is what is just and equitable in the proper sense; for that which is just and equitable of both a moral and a civil kind, which likewise flows in, actuates it. There is also an outermost plane, which likewise appears as conscience, but is not conscience, namely, the doing of what is just and equitable for the sake of self and the world, that is, for the sake of one’s own honor or fame, and for the sake of the world’s wealth and possessions, and also for fear of the law. These three planes are what rule man, that is, they are the means through which the Lord rules him. By means of the interior plane (that is, by means of a conscience of spiritual good and truth) the Lord rules those who have been regenerated. By means of the exterior plane (or by means of a conscience of what is just and equitable, that is to say, by means of a conscience of what is good and true of both a moral and a civic kind) the Lord rules those who have not yet been regenerated, but who can be regenerated, and also are being regenerated; if not in the life of the body, yet in the other life. But by means of the outermost plane, which appears like conscience, and yet is not conscience, the Lord rules all the rest, even the evil; for without this government these would rush into all wicked and insane things, and do so rush when they are without the restraints of this plane. All those who do not suffer themselves to be ruled by means of these planes are either insane, or are punished according to the laws.
 With the regenerate these three planes act as a one; for the one flows into the other, and an interior one disposes an exterior one. The first plane, or conscience of spiritual good and truth, is in man’s rational; but the second plane, or conscience of moral and civic good and truth (that is, of what is just and equitable) is in man’s natural. From this it is now manifest what the justice and equity are which are signified by the “brethren,” namely, justice by “my brethren,” and equity by “thy brethren;” for they are called justice and equity because the subject is the natural man, of which these are properly predicated.
sRef Matt@10 @5 S2′ sRef Matt@10 @6 S2′  That “sheep” signify goods, may be seen from many passages in the Word, of which the following only shall be adduced. In Isaiah:
He was afflicted, and He opened not His mouth; He is led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers, and He opened not His mouth (Isa. 53:7);
concerning the Lord, where He is compared to a sheep, not from truth, but from good. In Matthew:
Jesus said to the twelve whom He sent out, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not; but go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel (Matt. 10:5-6);
the “Gentiles to whom they should not go,” denote those who are in evils. (That the “Gentiles” denote evils may be seen above, n. 1259, 1260, 1849.) The “cities of the Samaritans” denote those who are in falsities; “sheep,” those who are in goods.
sRef Matt@25 @31 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @33 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @32 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @40 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S3′ sRef John@21 @16 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S3′ sRef John@21 @15 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @34 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S3′ sRef John@21 @17 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S3′  In John:
Jesus after His resurrection said to Peter, Feed My lambs; the second time He said, Feed My sheep; and the third time, Feed My sheep (John 21:15-17);
“lambs” here denote those who are in innocence; “sheep” as first mentioned, those who are in good from good; and “sheep” as last mentioned, those who are in good from truth. In Matthew:
When the Son of man shall come in His glory, He shall set the sheep on His right hand, and the goats on His left; and He shall say unto them on His right hand, Come ye blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was a hungered, and ye gave Me to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me to drink; I was a stranger, and ye took Me in; I was naked, and ye clothed Me; I was sick, and ye visited Me; I was in prison, and ye came unto Me. Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of the least of these My brethren, ye did it unto Me (Matt. 25:31-40);
that “sheep” here denote goods (that is, those who are in good) is very evident. All kinds of the goods of charity are here contained in the internal sense, as of the Lord’s Divine mercy will be shown elsewhere. By “he-goats” are specifically signified those who are in faith and in no charity.
sRef Ezek@34 @17 S4′  In like manner in Ezekiel:
As for you, O My flock, saith the Lord Jehovih, behold I judge between cattle and cattle, between the rams of the sheep, and the he-goats (Ezek. 34:17);
that the “he-goats” are specifically those who are in the faith of no charity, may be seen from the signification of “he-goats,” as being in a good sense those who are in the truth of faith, and thence in some charity; but in the opposite sense, those who are in the faith of no charity, and who reason concerning salvation from the starting point that faith saves. The same appears also from what the Lord says concerning the goats in Matthew, as cited above. But they who are in no truth of faith, and at the same time in no good of charity, are carried away into hell without such a judgment, that is, without any conviction that they are in falsity.
sRef Ezek@44 @31 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @14 S2′ sRef Ex@22 @31 S2′ sRef Lev@17 @16 S2′ sRef Lev@17 @15 S2′ sRef Lev@22 @8 S2′  Hence it was that, as in the Ancient Church, so also in the Jewish, it was forbidden to eat that which had died of itself, or a carcass, and also that which had been torn; concerning which we read in Moses:
Every soul that eateth a carcass and that which is torn, whether he be homeborn or a stranger, he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the even; then shall he be clean. And if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, he shall bear his iniquity (Lev. 17:15-16).
A carcass and that which is torn he shall not eat, to defile himself therewith: I am Jehovah (Lev. 22:8);
“that which is torn” denotes the evil which is from falsity that is injected by the evil, who are the wild beasts in the forest which tear; for in the Word the infernals are compared to wild beasts. In the same:
Men of holiness shall ye be unto Me; therefore ye shall not eat any flesh that is torn in the field, ye shall cast it to the dogs (Exod. 22:30).
The prophet says to Jehovah, my soul hath not been defiled; and a carcass and that which is torn have I not eaten from my youth up, neither came there abominable flesh into my mouth (Ezek. 4:14).
The priests shall not eat of any carcass or that which is torn, of fowl or of beast (Ezek. 44:31);
speaking of the Lord’s kingdom, that the new earth is there.
 From these passages it may be seen what is meant in the internal sense by “that which is torn;” but to make this still more manifest, let us take an example. If a man who is leading a life of good, or who does well to another from willing well, suffers himself to be persuaded by another who is in evil that the life of good effects nothing toward salvation, for the reason that all are born in sins; and because no one can will good of himself, and therefore cannot do it; and that on this account a means of salvation has been provided which is called faith; and therefore that a man can be saved by faith without a life of good, and this even though he should receive faith in death’s last hour-if such a person who has lived in a life of good suffers himself to be so persuaded, and then becomes careless in regard to life, and even treats it with contempt, he is said to be “torn”; for “torn” is predicated of good into which falsity is insinuated, and thereby the good becomes no longer living.
sRef Jer@5 @6 S4′  Take also as an example the conjugial, which in the beginning some one regards as heavenly, but afterwards one of the married partners or both of them suffer themselves to be persuaded that it is only for the sake of order in the world, and for the education and individual care of children, and for the sake of inheritance; and further that the bond of marriage is nothing but a matter of compact, which may be dissolved or relaxed by either party, provided that it is done by consent; the result being that after he has received this persuasion the individual has no heavenly idea of marriage; and supposing that lasciviousness is the consequence, there then comes into existence that which is called “torn”; and so in all other cases.
sRef Amos@1 @12 S5′ sRef Amos@1 @11 S5′  That it is the evil who tear, and this by reasonings from external things, into which internal things cannot be insinuated on account of the evil of life, may be seen from the following passages. In Jeremiah:
A lion out of the forest hath slain the great ones, a wolf of the deserts hath laid them waste, a leopard watcheth over their cities, everyone that goeth out from thence is torn, because their transgressions are multiplied, their backslidings are increased (Jer. 5:5-6).
And in Amos:
Edom did pursue his brother with the sword, and destroyed his compassions, and his anger did tear perpetually, and he keeps his fury continually (Amos 1:11).
 As to the Divine truth which is from the Lord carrying fear with it to those who are not in good, but not the Divine good, the case is this: The Holy which proceeds from the Lord has in itself Divine good and Divine truth. These proceed continually from the Lord. From them is the light which is in the heavens, and therefore the light which is in human minds, and consequently wisdom and intelligence, for these are within that light. But that light, or wisdom and intelligence, affects all according to their reception. Those who are in evil do not receive the Divine good, for they are in no love and charity; for all good is of love and charity. The Divine truth however can be received even by the evil, but only by their external man, not by their internal.
 This is like the heat and light from the sun. Spiritual heat is love, and thus good; but spiritual light is faith, and thus truth. When heat is received from the sun, the trees and flowers vegetate and produce leaves, flowers, and fruits or seeds. This comes to pass in the time of spring and summer. When however heat is not received from the sun, but only light, nothing vegetates, but all vegetation grows torpid, as in the time of autumn and winter. So also it is with spiritual heat and light, which are from the Lord. If man is like spring or summer, he receives the good of love and charity, and produces fruits; but if he is like autumn and winter, he does not receive the good of love and charity, and accordingly does not produce fruits. Yet he may still receive light, that is, may know the things of faith or truth. Wintry light has a similar effect, for it presents colors and beauties and makes them conspicuous, like summer light, but with the difference that it does not penetrate toward the interiors, because there is no heat in it, and hence no quickening.
 When therefore good is not received, but only light, it is as when heat is not received in objects, but only an image of form and beauty from the light, and hence there is cold within; and where there is cold within, there is a torpor of everything there, and as it were a shrinking and shuddering when light introduces itself there. This is what causes fear, dread, and terror in living things. By this comparison it may in some degree be comprehended how it is with the fear, dread, and terror that come to the evil-that is, that they do not come from the Divine good, but from the Divine truth, and this when they do not receive the Divine good, and yet receive the Divine truth. Also, that Divine truth without good cannot penetrate toward the interiors, but merely adheres to the extremes, that is, to the external man, and mostly to its sensuous part; and that from this a man sometimes appears beautiful in the external form, when yet he is foul in the internal form. From this it may also be seen what is the nature of the faith that exists with very many, which they say saves without good works, that is, without willing well and acting well.
sRef John@1 @12 S5′ sRef John@1 @13 S5′  As the Divine truth proceeds from the Divine Human, but not from the Divine Itself, it is therefore the Divine Human which is here signified by the “Dread of Isaac;” for, as just now said, it is the Divine truth which terrifies, but not the Divine good. That the Divine truth proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human, but not from the Divine Itself, is an arcanum not hitherto disclosed. The case is this: Before the Lord came into the world the Divine Itself flowed into the whole heaven; and as heaven then consisted for the most part of the celestial, that is, of those who were in the good of love, through this influx, by the Divine Omnipotence, there was brought forth the light which was in the heavens, and thereby wisdom and intelligence. But after the human race had removed itself from the good of love and charity, that light could no longer be produced through heaven, nor, consequently, the wisdom and intelligence that would penetrate down to the human race. For this cause, from the necessity of their being saved, the Lord came into the world, and made the Human in Himself Divine, in order that as to His Divine Human He might become the Divine Light, and might thus illuminate the universal heaven and the universal world. From eternity He had been the Light itself, for that Light was from the Divine Itself through heaven. And it was the Divine Itself which took on the human, and made this Divine; and when this was made Divine, He could then thereby illuminate not only the celestial heaven itself, but also the spiritual heaven, and likewise the human race, which received and receives the Divine truth in good, that is, in love to Him and in charity toward the neighbor, as is manifest in John:
As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, to them that believe on His name; who were born, not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God (John 1:12-13).
sRef John@1 @18 S6′ sRef John@1 @3 S6′ sRef John@1 @1 S6′ sRef John@1 @4 S6′ sRef John@1 @2 S6′ sRef John@1 @9 S6′  From what has now been said we can see what is signified by these words in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. That was the true light, that lighteth every man that cometh into the world (John 1:1-4, 9 seq.).
The “Word” here signifies the Divine truth. Nevertheless that the Lord is Divine good as to each essence, and that the Divine truth proceeds from Him, may be seen above (n. 3704). For the Divine good cannot be received by man, nor even by an angel, but only by the Lord’s Divine Human, as is meant by these words in John:
No one hath seen God at any time; the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath exhibited Him (John 1:18).
But the Divine truth can be received, but in such a quality as is possible with the man who receives; and in this the Divine good can dwell, with a difference according to the reception.
 Such are the arcana which are presented to the angels when these words are read by man: “Except the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the Dread of Isaac, had been with me.” From this it is manifest how much that is heavenly there is in the Word, and in every particular of it, even when nothing of it is apparent in the sense of the letter; and also what angelic wisdom is in comparison with human wisdom; and that the angels are in the highest arcana while the man does not even know that there is any arcanum within. Rut these things which have been mentioned are only a very few, for in these arcana the angels see and perceive things innumerable, nay, things relatively unlimited, which cannot possibly be uttered, because human speech is not adequate to express them, nor is the human mind capable of receiving them.
 That by “Laban” are here signified the goods of works in which are those who are aside, or the Gentiles, is for the reason that as Laban is now separated from Jacob (that is, mediate good from the good Divine of the natural), he can no longer represent mediate good; but as he had served for a means, he therefore represents some good, and indeed good that is aside, or collateral good. Before Laban had been thus conjoined with Jacob, he represented collateral good (see n. 3612, 3665, 3778), and accordingly good that is aside, the nature of which will be stated in what follows. It is similar with Laban as with Lot and Ishmael. So long as Lot was with Abraham, he represented the Lord as to the external sensuous man (n. 1428, 1434, 1547, 1597, 1598, 1698); but when he had been separated from Abraham, he represented those who are in external worship, but yet in charity (n. 2317, 2324, 2371, 2399), and also several states of the church successively (n. 2422, 2459).
 It was so with Ishmael: so long as he was with Abraham, he represented the Lord’s first rational (n. 1893, 1949-1951); but when he was afterwards separated, he represented those who are called the spiritual (n. 2078, 2691, 2699, 3263, 3268). Such also is the case with Laban. The reason is, that although a separation has been made, conjunction still remains, but not that which existed before. It is for this reason that Laban here and in what now follows represents the goods of works, such as are with those who are aside, that is, with the Gentiles. The Gentiles are said to be aside, or in collateral good, because they are outside of the church. Those within the church who are in truth and good are not in a collateral line, but in the direct line, for they have the Word, and through the Word they have direct communication with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord; but not so the Gentiles, for these have not the Word, and know not the Lord. For this reason they are said to be aside. Those Gentiles are meant who are in the goods of works, that is, who are in externals within which there is the good of charity. These are what are called the “goods of works,” but not “good works;” for good works may exist without having goods within, but not so the goods of works.
 It has at times been given me to speak with Christians in the other life concerning the state and lot of the Gentiles outside of the church, in that they receive the truths and goods of faith more easily than do Christians who have not lived according to the precepts of the Lord; and that Christians think cruelly about them, in assuming that all who are out of the church are damned, and this from the received canon that without the Lord there is no salvation. This indeed, as I have said to them, is true; but the Gentiles who have lived in mutual charity, and have done from a kind of conscience what is just and equitable, receive faith and acknowledge the Lord more easily in the other life than those within the church who have not lived in such charity. Moreover Christians are in what is false, in believing that heaven is for them alone, because they have the book of the Word, written on paper but not in their hearts; and because they know the Lord, and yet do not believe that He is Divine as to His Human; but acknowledge Him only as a common man in respect to His other essence, which they call His human nature, and therefore when left to themselves and their own thoughts, they do not even adore Him. Thus it is they who are out of the Lord, for whom there is no salvation.
Jesus looking round on them which sat about Him, saith, Behold My mother, and My brethren; for whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is My brother, and sister, and mother (Mark 3:31, 34-35).
All conjunction is through love and charity, as everyone can see; for spiritual conjunction is nothing else than love and charity. That love to the Lord is conjunction with Him is manifest; and that charity toward the neighbor is the same, is evident from the words of the Lord in Matthew:
Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of the least of these My brethren, ye did it unto Me (Matt. 25:40);
the subject treated of here being the works of charity.
This heap be witness, and the pillar be witness, that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that thou shalt not pass over this heap to me, and this pillar, for evil (Gen. 31:52).
From this it is manifest what “Jegar-sahadutha” (or “the heap of witness”) involves. But in the internal sense it signifies the quality of good from truths on the part of Laban, that is, on the part of those who are in the goods of works, that is, on the part of the Gentiles.
In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak with the lips of Canaan, and that swear to Jehovah Zebaoth. In that day shall there be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to Jehovah. And it shall be for a sign and for a witness to Jehovah Zebaoth in the land of Egypt (Isa. 19:18-20).
sRef Josh@24 @24 S3′ sRef Josh@24 @22 S3′ sRef Josh@24 @23 S3′ sRef Josh@24 @26 S3′ sRef Josh@24 @27 S3′ sRef Josh@24 @25 S3′  That a “witness” denotes the confirmation of good by truth, and of truth by good, and that hence a “testimony” denotes the good from which is truth, and the truth which is from good, may be seen from the Word in other passages. That a “witness” denotes the confirmation of good by truth and of truth by good, is evident from the following passages. In Joshua:
Joshua said unto the people, Ye are witnesses against yourselves, that ye have chosen Jehovah to serve Him. And they said, We are witnesses. Now therefore put away the strange gods which are in the midst of you, and incline your heart unto Jehovah the God of Israel. And the people said unto Joshua, Jehovah our God will we serve, and unto His voice will we be obedient. And Joshua made a covenant with the people that day, and set them a statute and a judgment in Shechem. And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God; and he took a great stone, and set it up there under an oak that was in the sanctuary of Jehovah. And Joshua said unto all the people, Behold, this stone shall be for a witness to us, for it hath heard all the words of Jehovah which He spake unto us; and it shall be to you for a witness, lest ye deny your God (Josh. 24:22-27);
that a “witness” here is confirmation, is manifest, and indeed the confirmation of a covenant, and accordingly of conjunction; for a “covenant” signifies conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021). And as conjunction with Jehovah or the Lord is not possible except by good; nor the good which conjoins except that which has its quality from truth; it follows that a “witness” denotes the confirmation of good by truth. The good here meant is conjunction with Jehovah or the Lord by their choosing Him to serve Him; the truth by which the confirmation was made being the “stone.” (That a “stone” denotes truth may be seen above, n. 643, 1298, 3720.) In the supreme sense, the “stone” is the Lord Himself, because all truth is from Him, and therefore He is called the “Stone of Israel” (Gen. 49:24); and it is also said, “Behold, this stone shall be for a witness to us, for it hath heard all the words of Jehovah which He spake unto us.”
sRef Rev@11 @7 S4′ sRef Rev@11 @6 S4′ sRef Rev@11 @4 S4′ sRef Rev@11 @5 S4′ sRef Rev@11 @11 S4′ sRef Rev@11 @3 S4′  In John:
I will give unto my two witnesses, that they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth. These are the two olive-trees and the two lampstands that stand before the God of the earth. And if any man desire to hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies; these have power to shut heaven. And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that cometh up out of the abyss shall make war with them, and shall overcome them, and shall kill them. And after three days and a half, the breath of life from God entered into them, so that they stood upon their feet (Rev. 11:3-7, 11);
that the “two witnesses” here mentioned are good and truth (that is, the good in which is truth, and the truth which is from good), both confirmed in hearts, is manifest from its being said that the two witnesses are the two olive-trees and the two lampstands. (That an “olive-tree” is such good, may be seen above, n. 886.) The “two olive-trees” denote celestial good and spiritual good. Celestial good is that of love to the Lord, and spiritual good is that of charity toward the neighbor. The “lampstands” are the truths of these goods, as will appear when of the Lord’s Divine mercy the subject of lampstands is treated of. That these goods and truths have power to shut heaven and to open heaven may be seen in the preface to the twenty-second chapter. That “the beast out of the abyss (that is, out of hell) will kill them,” signifies the vastation of good and truth within the church; and that “the spirit of life from God entered into them, so that they stood upon their feet,” signifies a new church.
sRef Josh@22 @28 S5′ sRef Josh@22 @34 S5′  That as in ancient times heaps were placed as witnesses, so afterwards were altars, is evident in Joshua:
The Reubenites and the Gadites said, Behold the pattern of the altar of Jehovah which our fathers made, not for burnt-offering, and not for sacrifice; but it is a witness between us and you. And the sons of Reuben and the sons of Gad called the altar, A witness between us that Jehovah is God (Josh. 22:28, 34).
(An “altar” is the good of love, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, n. 921, 2777, 2811.) In the internal sense a “witness” denotes the confirmation of good by truth.
sRef Rev@1 @5 S6′ sRef Rev@3 @14 S6′ sRef Isa@55 @3 S6′ sRef Isa@55 @4 S6′  As by a “witness” is signified the confirmation of good by truth and of truth by good, therefore in the supreme sense by a “witness” is signified the Lord, because He is the Divine truth that confirms; as in Isaiah:
I will make an everlasting covenant with you, even the true mercies of David; behold I have given Him for a Witness to the peoples, a prince and commander to the peoples (Isa. 55:4).
And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful Witness, the firstborn from the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth (Rev. 1:5).
In the same:
These things saith the faithful and true Witness, the beginning of the creation of God (Rev. 3:14).
 The command given in the representative church, that all truth shall stand on the word of two or three witnesses, and not on that of one (Num. 35:30; Deut. 17:6, 7; 19:15; Matt. 18:16), is founded on the Divine law that one truth does not confirm good, but a number of truths; for one truth without connection with others is not confirmatory, but a number together, because from one may be seen another. One does not produce any form, and thus not any quality, but only a number that are connected in a series. For as one tone does not produce any melody, still less harmony, so neither does one truth. These are the things on which the law in question is founded, although in the outward form it appears to be founded in the civic state; the one however is not contrary to the other, as is also the case with the precepts of the Decalogue, concerning which see above (n. 2609).
sRef Ex@25 @16 S8′ sRef Lev@16 @13 S8′ sRef Num@17 @4 S8′ sRef Ex@25 @22 S8′ sRef Ex@25 @21 S8′ sRef Ex@40 @20 S8′ sRef Ex@31 @18 S8′  That a “testimony” denotes the good from which is truth, and the truth which is from good, follows from what has been said; and also from the fact that the ten precepts of the Decalogue written upon the tables of stone are called in one word the “testimony,” as in Moses:
Jehovah gave unto Moses, when He had made an end of speaking with him upon Mount Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God (Exod. 31:18).
In the same:
Moses went down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand, tables that were written on their two sides (Exod. 32:15).
And as the tables were placed in the ark, the ark is called the “ark of the testimony,” as in Moses:
Jehovah said to Moses, Thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I shall give thee (Exod. 25:16, 21).
Moses took and put the testimony into the ark (Exod. 40:20).
In the same:
I will meet with thee, and I will speak with thee from above the mercy-seat from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony (Exod. 25:22).
In the same:
That the cloud of incense may cover the mercy-seat, that is upon the testimony (Lev. 16:13).
In the same:
The rods of the twelve tribes were left in the tent of meeting before the testimony (Num. 17:4).
(That from this the ark was also called the “ark of the testimony,” see, besides the passage cited, Exod. 25:22; 31:7; Rev. 15:5.)
 The precepts of the Decalogue were therefore called the “testimony,” because they were of the covenant, thus of the conjunction between the Lord and man; which conjunction cannot come into existence unless man keeps the precepts, not only in external form, but also in internal. What the internal form of these precepts is, may be seen above (n. 2609); and therefore it is good confirmed by truth, and truth derived from good, which is signified by the “testimony.” Because this is so, the tables were also called the “tables of the covenant;” and the ark, the “ark of the covenant.” From all this it is manifest what in the genuine sense is signified in the Word by the “testimony” (as in Deut. 4:45; 6:17, 20; Isa. 8:16; 2 Kings 17:15; Ps. 19:7; 25:10; 78:5; 93:5; 119:2, 22, 24, 59, 79, 88, 138, 167; 122:3-4; Rev. 6:9; 12:17; 19:10).
 How the case herein is shall be briefly stated. The truths with man, no matter what they may be, or of whatever nature, enter into his memory by means of affection, that is, by a certain delight which is of love. Without affection (or without the delight which is of love) nothing can enter to man, for in these is his life. The things which have entered are reproduced whenever a similar delight recurs, together with many other things which have associated or conjoined themselves with them; and in the same way when the same truth is reproduced by one’s self or by another, the affection or delight of love which there was when it entered, is in like manner excited again; for being conjoined they cohere. From this it is evident how the case is with the affection of truth; for the truth which has entered together with an affection of good, is reproduced when a similar affection recurs; and the affection also is reproduced when a similar truth recurs. It is also manifest from this that no truth can ever be implanted with genuine affection, and become rooted interiorly, unless the man is in good; for the genuine affection of truth is from the good which is of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor. The good flows in from the Lord, but is not fixed except in truths; for in truths good is welcomed, because they are in accord. From all this it is also evident that the reception of good is according to the nature of the truths. The truths that exist with those Gentiles who have lived in mutual charity are of such a nature that the good which inflows from the Lord can also find in them a welcome; but so long as they live in this world, not in the same way as with those Christians who have truths from the Word and live from them in spiritual charity (n. 2589-2604).
 The reason why it is here said, “the God of Abraham, the God of Nahor, the God of their father” (that is, of Terah) and “the Dread of Isaac,” Jacob’s father, is that the sons of Terah acknowledged this number of gods, for they were idolaters (n. 1353, 1356, 1992, 3667). And it was a peculiarity in that house that each family worshiped its own god. This is the reason why it is here said, “the God of Abraham, the God of Nahor, the God of their father, and the Dread of Isaac.” Nevertheless it was enjoined upon the family of Abraham to acknowledge Jehovah as their God; and yet they did not acknowledge Him otherwise than as another god, by whom they might distinguish themselves from the Gentiles, thus they acknowledged Jehovah merely as to the name, and it was in consequence of this that they so often fell away to other gods, as may be seen from the historic parts of the Word. The reason of this merely nominal acknowledgment was that they were solely in externals, and what internal things were they knew not at all, and did not desire to know.
 Insofar as they were concerned the very rituals of their church were merely idolatrous, because they were separated from internal things; for when separated from its internal every ritual of the church is idolatrous. Nevertheless what is genuine of the church could be represented by them; for representations do not regard the person, but the thing (n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147). Yet in order that a representative church might come into existence, and that there might thus be some communication of the Lord through heaven with man, it was of especial importance that they should be kept in the acknowledgment of Jehovah, if not in heart, still with the mouth; for with them the representatives did not issue from internal, but from external things; and it was in this way that they had communication with the Lord; quite otherwise than in the genuine church, in which the communication is effected by means of internal things. For this reason their Divine worship did not at all affect their souls, that is, did not make them blessed in the other life, but only prosperous in this world.
 Therefore in order that they might be kept in these external things, there were so many miracles performed among them, which would never have taken place if they had been in internal things; and for this reason they were so many times driven to their worship by punishments, captivities, and threats; whereas no one is driven by the Lord to internal worship, but this is implanted through freedom (n. 1937, 1947, 2874-2881, 3145, 3146, 3158, 4031). Their principal external was that they should confess Jehovah; for Jehovah was the Lord, who was represented in all things of that church. (That Jehovah was the Lord may be seen above, n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3035.)
aRef Gala@3 @19 S2′ aRef Hebr@8 @6 S2′ sRef John@1 @18 S2′ aRef Hebr@12 @24 S2′ aRef Hebr@9 @15 S2′ aRef John@14 @6 S2′ aRef 1Tim@2 @5 S2′ aRef Gala@3 @20 S2′  The reason why the expression “the appropriation of good from the Lord’s Divine natural” is made use of, is that the subject treated of is the good of the Gentiles, and it is this good which is now represented by Laban (n. 4189). Man’s conjunction with the Lord is not a conjunction with His Supreme Divine Itself, but with His Divine Human; for man can have no idea whatever of the Lord’s Supreme Divine, which so transcends his idea as altogether to perish and become nothing; but he can have an idea of His Divine Human. For everyone is conjoined by thought and affection with one concerning whom he has some idea, but not with one concerning whom he has no idea. If when anyone is thinking about the Lord’s Human, he has holiness in his idea, he is thinking also of that holy which coming from the Lord fills heaven, so that he is also thinking of heaven; for in its complex heaven bears relation to a man, and it does this from the Lord (n. 684, 1276, 2996, 2998, 3624-3649); and this accounts for the fact that no conjunction is possible with the Lord’s Supreme Divine, but only with His Divine Human, and through His Divine Human with His Supreme Divine. Hence it is said in John that no one hath seen God at any time, except the Only begotten Son (1:18); and that no one can come to the Father except through Him; and hence also He is called the Mediator. That such is the case may be very well known from the fact that all within the church who say they believe in a Supreme Being, and make no account of the Lord, are precisely those who believe nothing at all, not even that there is a heaven, or that there is a hell, and who worship nature. Moreover, if such persons are willing to be instructed by experience, they will see that the evil, even the worst of them, say the same thing.
 But as regards the Lord’s Human, men think in various ways, one in one way and another in another, and one in a more holy way than another. They who are within the church are able to think that His Human is Divine, and also that as He says He is one with the Father, and that the Father is in Him, and He in the Father. But they who are without the church cannot do this, both because they know nothing about the Lord and because they have no idea of the Divine except from the images which they see with their eyes, and the idols which they can touch with their hands. And yet the Lord conjoins Himself with these by means of the good of their charity and obedience that is within their gross idea of Him. For this reason it is here said that such have an “appropriation of good from the Lord’s Divine natural;” for the conjunction of the Lord with man is according to the state of his thought and the derivative affection. They who are in the most holy idea concerning the Lord, and at the same time in the knowledges and affections of good and truth-as those can be who are within the church-are conjoined with the Lord in respect to His Divine rational; whereas they who are not in such holiness, nor in such interior idea and affection, and yet are in the good of charity, are conjoined with the Lord in respect to His Divine natural. They who have a holiness of a still grosser kind are conjoined with the Lord in respect to His Divine sensuous; and this conjunction is what is represented by the brazen serpent, in that those who looked at it recovered from the bite of the serpents (Num. 21:9). In this conjunction are those among the Gentiles who worship idols, and yet live in charity in accordance with their religion. From all this it is now evident what is meant by the appropriation of good from the Lord’s Divine natural, which is signified by Jacob’s calling his brethren to eat bread.
 Most people believe that those men are enlightened who are able to reason about good and truth and about evil and falsity; and that their enlightenment is the greater in proportion to the subtlety and acuteness with which they can speak about these things, and at the same time confirm them by many memory-knowledges, and likewise make what they say appear probable by comparisons, especially those drawn from things of sense, and by other modes of persuasion. And yet such men may be in no enlightenment, in spite of their power of imagination and perception. This power is of two kinds, one which comes from the light of heaven, and the other from a fatuous light; and in the outward form these two appear alike, although in the inward form they are quite different. That which is from the light of heaven is in good, that is, is with those who are in good, and who from good are able to see truth, and to know as in clear day whether a thing is so, or is not so. But that which is from fatuous light is in evil, that is, is with those who are in evil; and their being able to reason about such things comes from the fact that they possess some capacity of knowing them, but no affection of doing them; and that this is to be in no enlightenment everyone can comprehend.
 As regards fatuous light the case in the other life is this: They who have been in such light in this world are in the like in the other life, and there reason about good and truth and about evil and falsity, and this much more perfectly and excellently than when in the life of the body; for their thoughts are not there beclogged and impeded by the cares of the body and of the world, nor so terminated or bounded in them, as when they were in the body and the world. But still it at once appears (not to them, but to good spirits and angels) that their reasonings are those of fatuous light, and that the light of heaven that inflows with them is instantly turned into such a light; so that that which was the light of heaven with them is either suffocated, as when the light of the sun falls upon something opaque and becomes black; or is reflected, as with those who are in principles of falsity; or is perverted, as when the sun’s light flows into ugly and unclean objects, and produces repulsive colors and offensive smells. Such is the case with those who are in fatuous light and believe themselves to be more enlightened than others simply because they are able to reason intelligently and wisely, while nevertheless living an evil life.
 Who these are, and what is their character, appears from everything they speak, provided they do not counterfeit what is good for the sake of deceiving. Among them are those who deny or despise the Lord, and within themselves ridicule those who confess Him. Among them are those who love adulteries, and who ridicule those who believe marriages to be holy, and by no means to be violated. Among them are those who believe the precepts and doctrinal things of the church to be for the sake of the common people, that they may thereby be kept in bonds, and who in themselves make them of no account. Among them in like manner are those who ascribe all things to nature, and believe those to be simple-minded and of feeble judgment who ascribe them to the Divine. Among them also are those who attribute everything to their own prudence, and who say, and have confirmed themselves in the opinion, that there is a Supreme Being that exercises some government in general or in the universal, but nothing in particular or individually. And so in other cases.
 Such persons are in fatuous light even in the other life, and among their like they also reason acutely; but when they approach any heavenly society, this light is extinguished and becomes darkness; and consequently their thought is obscured to such a degree that they cannot think at all; for they are then cramped and constricted by the light of heaven, which as before said is with them either suffocated, reflected, or perverted; and they therefore throw themselves down headlong, and cast themselves into hell, where such light prevails. From all this can be seen what true enlightenment is, namely, that it comes from the good which is from the Lord; and also what false enlightenment is, namely, that it comes from the evil which is from hell.
 It is from the correspondence that “kissing” signifies conjunction from affection; for there is a correspondence of heaven with all the organs and members of the body, as shown at the end of the chapters. There is a correspondence of the internal things of man with all things of the face, and hence the animus shines forth from the countenance, and the interior animus or mind from the eyes. There is also a correspondence of the thoughts and affections with the actions and gestures of the body; as is well known in regard to those which are of a voluntary as well as those which are of an involuntary character.
For humiliation of heart produces kneeling, which is an external gesture of the body; humiliation still greater and more internal produces prostration to the earth; gladness of heart and joy of mind produce singing and joyful shouting; sadness and internal mourning produce weeping and wailing; but conjunction from affection produces kissing. From all this it is evident that because such external acts correspond, they are signs of things internal; and that in them as signs there is an internal from which they take their quality. But with those who desire to counterfeit internal things by means of external, such externals are also signs, but signs of simulation, hypocrisy, and deceit. Such is the case with kissing, by which everyone wishes to signify that he loves another from the heart; for he knows that the act of kissing comes from such love, and is a mark of conjunction from affection, and he thereby desires to persuade his neighbor that he loves him for the sake of the good that is in him; when in fact it may be for his own sake, and for his own honor and gain, and thus not for the sake of good, but of evil. For he who regards himself as the end, and not as an intermediate end to good, and desires to be conjoined with another as to that end, is in evil.
And because they perceive the Lord, they perceive what is from the Lord, thus His love toward the universal human race; and they then perceive at the same time man’s reciprocal love to the Lord; for these two things cohere in one idea of thought and affection.
 Not unlike this are the thoughts of the man who is in a holy state when receiving the bread of the Holy Supper; for he then thinks not of bread, but of the Lord and His mercy, and of what is of love to Him and of charity toward the neighbor, because he thinks of repentance and amendment of life; but this with variety according to the holiness in which he is, not only as to his thought, but also as to his affection. From this it is manifest that “bread” as mentioned in the Word suggests to the angels no idea of bread, but the idea of love, together with innumerable things that are of love. It is the same with “wine,” which when read of in the Word, and also when received in the Holy Supper, suggests to the angels no thought of wine, but of charity toward the neighbor. This being the case, and as in this way there is a connection of man with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord, the bread and wine have become symbols, and unite the man who is in holiness of life with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord.
 The same is the case with everything in the Word, and therefore the Word is a medium uniting man with the Lord; and unless there were such a uniting medium, heaven could not inflow with man; for without a medium there would be no unition, but heaven would remove itself away from man; and if this were removed, no one could any longer be led to good, not even to corporeal and worldly good; but all bonds whatever, even those which are external, would be broken. For the Lord rules the man who is in good by means of internal bonds, which are of conscience; but one who is in evil by external bonds alone; and if these should be broken, every such man would become insane; even as is the man who is without fear of the law, without fear for his life, and without fear of the loss of honor and gain, and thus of reputation-for these are the external bonds-and so the human race would perish. From all this it may be seen why the Word exists, and what the character of the Word is. (That the church of the Lord where the Word is, is like the heart and the lungs, and that the church of the Lord where the Word is not, is like the rest of the viscera which live from the heart and the lungs, may be seen above, n. 637, 931, 2054, 2853.)
At the end of the preceding chapters, I have related matters granted me to see and perceive in the world of spirits and in the heavens of angels; and in the last place the subject of the Grand Man and Correspondence has been dealt with. In order to make fully known how the case is with man, and that he is in connection with heaven, not only as to the thoughts and affections, but also as to the organic forms both interior and exterior, and that without this connection he could not subsist for a single moment, we may in this volume continue the consideration of the subject of correspondence with the Grand Man which was commenced at the end of the preceding chapters.
 This shows that the use existed before the organic forms of the body came forth; and that the use produced and adapted them to itself, and not the reverse. But when the forms have been produced, and the organs adapted, the uses proceed from them; and then it appears as if the forms or organs were prior to the uses, when yet such is not the case. For use flows in from the Lord, and this through heaven, according to order, and according to the form in which heaven has been ordinated by the Lord, thus according to correspondences. Thus does man come into existence, and thus also does he subsist. And hence again does it appear why it is that man corresponds to the heavens in regard to both generals and particulars.
 But they who are in the Grand Man breathe freely when they are in the good of love; but nevertheless they are distinguished according to the quality and the amount of the good. Hence there are so many heavens, which in the Word are called “mansions” (John 14:2). And everyone when in his own heaven is in his life, and receives influx from the universal heaven, each person there being a center of all the influxes, and therefore in the most perfect equilibrium; and this according to the amazing form of heaven, which is from the Lord alone; thus with all variety.
 I discovered this by living experience among such spirits when they have been with me, for they then acted in a similar manner, but still more craftily and ingeniously; for spirits act more subtly than men, being released from all connection with the body, and from the bonds of gross modes of sensation. They were so subtle that sometimes I did not perceive that their intention and end was to exercise command; and when they spoke among themselves they took care that I should not hear and perceive it; but I was told by others who heard them that their designs were wicked; and that they were studying to attain their end by magic arts, and thus by assistance from the diabolical crew. The murder of the upright they accounted as a matter of no moment; and as for the Lord (under whom they said that they desired to exercise command), they made Him very cheap, regarding Him merely as another man, to whom worship is paid by ancient custom, as among other nations which made men gods and worshiped them, and whom they durst not speak against, because they were born in that worship, and would thereby injure their reputation. Concerning these spirits I am able to state that they obsess the thoughts and the will of the men who are like them, and insinuate themselves into their affection and intention, so that without the Lord’s mercy the men cannot possibly know that such spirits are present, and that they themselves are in a society of such.
 These spirits correspond to the corruptions of man’s purer blood, called the animal spirit, into which corruptions enter in a disorderly manner; and wherever they diffuse themselves they are like poisons which induce cold and torpor upon the nerves and fibers, from which break forth the most grievous and fatal diseases. When such act together in company, they are known by their acting-so to speak-in a quadruped manner,* and they beset the back of the head under the cerebellum to the left; for they who act under the occiput operate more clandestinely than others, and they who act upon the back parts desire to exercise command.
 They reasoned with me about the Lord, and said that it was strange that when they prayed He did not hear their prayers, and thus did not aid those who made supplication. But I was permitted to reply that they could not be heard, because they had as their end such things as are contrary to the welfare of the human race; and because they pray for themselves against all others; and that when they pray in this manner heaven is closed, for they who are in heaven attend solely to the ends of those who are praying. These things they indeed would not acknowledge, but still they could make no answer.
 I have met male spirits of this kind who were accompanied by some of the female sex, and who said that they can avail themselves of many of the suggestions of women, because these are more quick-witted and deft in seeing how to manage such matters. These men are greatly pleased with the society of women who had been harlots. In the other life such persons for the most part apply themselves to secret and magical arts; for a host of such arts are there known which are quite unknown in this world; and no sooner do persons of this character arrive in the other life than they apply themselves to these arts, and learn to fascinate those with whom they are, and especially those under whom they desire to reign. For wicked deeds they have no abhorrence. Their hell, and the nature of this their abode when not in the world of spirits, shall be spoken of elsewhere. From all that has been said it is evident that after death every man’s life remains with him.
* That is, with “a quadruplicate step, so that the sound is like a quadruped” (Spiritual Experiences 1031, 1127). The reason why the speech and action of such spirits is attended with this bestial sound is doubtless on account of the abnormal development within them of what is merely natural. A quadruped has no hands, but only feet, and the feet correspond to that which is lowest and most external in man. [Reviser.]
4228. The subject of the grand man and correspondence will be continued at the end of the following chapter, where correspondence with the senses in general will be treated of.
1. That the members of the church would begin not to know what good and truth are, and would dispute about them.
2. That they would hold them in contempt.
3. That at heart they would not acknowledge them.
4. That they would profane them.
5. And because the truth of faith and the good of charity would still remain with some, who are called the “elect,” a description is given of the state of the faith as it then existed.
6. Next of the state of the charity.
7. And finally the commencement of a New Church is treated of, which is meant by the words that were last explained:
He shall send forth His angels with a trumpet and a great voice, and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from the end of the heavens even to the end thereof (Matt. 24:31),
by which is meant the commencement of a New Church (see n. 4060e).
* That is, of the original Latin work.
Tell us when shall these things be, especially what is the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age? (Matt. 24:3).
It remains therefore to unfold the things predicted by the Lord concerning this very time of His Coming and of the Consummation of the age which is the Last Judgment; but in the preface to this chapter only those contained in verses 32 to 35:
Now learn a parable from the fig-tree. When her branch is now become tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that the summer is nigh. So also ye, when ye see all these things, know that it is nigh, even at the doors. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away till all these things be accomplished. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away (Matt. 24:32-35).
The internal sense of these words is as follows.
signifies the first of a new church; the “fig-tree” is the good of the natural; her “branch” is the affection of this; and the “leaves” are truths. The “parable from which they should learn” is that these things are signified. He who is not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word, cannot possibly know what is involved in the comparison of the Lord’s coming to a fig-tree and its branch and leaves; but as all the comparisons in the Word are also significative (n. 3579), it may be known from this signification what is meant. A “fig-tree” wherever mentioned in the Word signifies in the internal sense the good of the natural (n. 217); that her “branch” is the affection of this, is because affection springs forth from good as a branch from its trunk; and that “leaves” are truths may be seen above (n. 885). From all this it is now evident what the parable involves, namely, that when a new church is being created by the Lord, there then appears first of all the good of the natural, that is, good in the external form together with its affection and truths. By the good of the natural is not meant the good into which man is born, or which he derives from his parents, but a good which is spiritual in respect to its origin. Into this no one is born, but is led into it by the Lord through the knowledges of good and truth. Therefore until a man is in this good (that is, in spiritual good), he is not a man of the church, however much from a good that is born with him he may appear to be so.
 So also ye, when ye see all these things, know that it is nigh, even at the doors;
signifies that when those things appear which are signified in the internal sense by the words spoken just before (verses 29-31), and by these concerning the fig-tree, then it is the consummation of the church, that is, the Last Judgment, and the Coming of the Lord; consequently that the old church is then being rejected, and a new one is being set up. It is said, “at the doors,” because the good of the natural and its truths are the first things which are insinuated into a man when he is being regenerated and is becoming the church.
Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all these things be accomplished;
signifies that the Jewish nation shall not be extirpated like other nations, for the reason shown above (n. 3479).
 Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away;
signifies that the internals and the externals of the former church would perish, but that the Word of the Lord would abide. (That “heaven” is the internal of the church, and “earth” its external, may be seen above, n. 82, 1411, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355e). By the Lord’s “words” are plainly meant not only these now spoken respecting His coming and the consummation of the age, but also all that are in the Word. These words were said immediately after what was said about the Jewish nation, because that nation was preserved for the sake of the Word, as may be seen from the number already cited (n. 3479). From all this it is now evident that the beginnings of a New Church are here foretold.
1. And Jacob went to his way, and the angels of God ran to meet him.
2. And Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God; and he called the name of that place Mahanaim.
3. And Jacob sent messengers before him, to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the field of Edom.
4. And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau: Thus saith thy servant Jacob, I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now.
5. And I had ox and ass, flock and manservant and handmaid; and I send to tell my lord, to find grace in thine eyes.
6. And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with him.
7. And Jacob feared exceedingly, and was distressed; and he halved the people that was with him, and the flock, and the herd, and the camels, into two camps.
8. And he said, If Esau come to the one camp, and smite it, then there will be a camp left for escape.
9. And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Jehovah, that saith unto me, Return unto thy land, and to thy birth, and I will do well with thee;
10. I am less than all the mercies, and all the truth, which Thou hast done with Thy servant; for in my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am in two camps.
11. Rescue me I pray from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau, for I fear him, lest he come and smite me, the mother upon the sons.
12. And Thou saidst, I will surely do well with thee, and I will make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which is not numbered for multitude.
13. And he passed the night there in that night, and he took of that which came into his hand a present for Esau his brother:
14. Two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams:
15. Thirty milch camels and their colts, forty heifers and ten bullocks, twenty she-asses and ten foals.
16. And he gave into the hand of his servants each drove by itself; and said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space between drove and drove.
17. And he commanded the first, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh thee, saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are these before thee?
18. Then thou shalt say, Thy servant Jacob’s; this is a present sent unto my lord Esau; and behold he also is behind us.
19. And he commanded also the second, and the third, and all that went after the droves, saying, According to this word shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him.
20. And ye shall also say, Behold thy servant Jacob is behind us. For he said, I will expiate his faces in a present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his faces; peradventure he will lift up my faces.
21. And the present passed over before him, and he passed the night in that night in the camp.
22. And he rose up in that night, and took his two women, and his two handmaids, and his eleven sons, and passed over the passage of Jabbok.
23. And he took them, and caused them to pass the river, and caused to pass what he had.
24. And Jacob remained alone, and there wrestled a man with him until the dawn arose.
25. And he saw that he prevailed not over him, and he touched the hollow of his thigh, and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was out of joint in his wrestling with him.
26. And he said, Let me go, for the dawn ariseth. And he said, I will not let thee go, unless thou bless me.
27. And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob.
28. And he said, Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel; for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed.
29. And Jacob asked and said, Tell I pray thy name. And he said, Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name? And he
blessed him there.
30. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel; for I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered.
31. And the sun arose to him as he passed over Penuel, and he halted upon his thigh.
32. Therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, even unto this day, because he touched in the hollow of Jacob’s thigh the nerve of that which was displaced.
The subject here treated of in the internal sense is the inversion of state in the natural, in order that good may be in the first place, and truth in the second. The implantation of truth in good is treated of (verses 1 to 23); and the wrestlings of the temptations which are then to be sustained (verses 24 to 32). At the same time the Jewish nation is also treated of, because although that nation could receive nothing of the church, it nevertheless represented the things of the church.
Verses 1, 2. And Jacob went to his way, and the angels of God ran to meet him. And Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God; and he called the name of that place Mahanaim. “And Jacob went to his way,” signifies the successive advance of truth toward its conjunction with spiritual and celestial good; “and the angels of God ran to meet him,” signifies enlightenment from good; “and Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God,” signifies heaven; “and he called the name of that place Mahanaim,” signifies the quality of the state.
 But the good with which this truth was to be conjoined is represented by Esau. (That Esau is the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine natural, may be seen above, n. 3300, 3302, 3494, 3504, 3527, 3576, 3599, 3669, 3677.) It is this very conjunction of truth Divine with the good Divine of the Lord’s Divine natural, that is now treated of in the supreme sense. For after Jacob withdrew from Laban and came to the Jordan, thus to the first entrance into the land of Canaan, he advances into the representation of this conjunction; for in the internal sense the land of Canaan signifies heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord’s Divine Human (n. 3038, 3705). It is for this reason that by the words, “and Jacob went to his way,” is signified the successive advance of truth toward conjunction with spiritual and celestial good.
 But these things are of such a nature as to prevent their being fully set forth to the apprehension; the cause of which is that the most general things of this subject are unknown in the learned world, even among Christians. For it is scarcely known what the natural in man is, and what the rational, and that these are altogether distinct from each other; and scarcely even what spiritual truth is, and what its good, and that these also are most distinct from each other. Still less is it known that when man is being regenerated, truth is conjoined with good, in one distinct way in the natural, and in another distinct way in the rational, and this by innumerable means. It is not even known that the Lord made His Human Divine according to the same order as that in which He regenerates man.
 Since therefore these most general things are unknown, it must needs be that whatever is said about them will appear obscure. Nevertheless they have to be stated, because otherwise the Word cannot be unfolded as to its internal sense. At the very least this may be the means of showing how great angelic wisdom is, and also of what kind it is, for the internal sense of the Word is chiefly for the angels.
sRef Num@24 @2 S2′ sRef Num@24 @5 S2′ sRef Num@24 @6 S2′ sRef Num@24 @3 S2′  The tribes signified all goods and truths in the complex (see n. 3858, 3862, 3926, 3939, 4060). It was for this reason that when Balaam saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, and the spirit of God came upon him, he uttered his enunciation, saying:
How good are thy tabernacles, O Jacob, thy dwelling places, O Israel, as the valleys are they planted, as gardens by the river (Num. 24:5-6).
That by this prophecy was not meant the people named Jacob and Israel, but that it was the heaven of the Lord that was represented, is very manifest. For the same reason their marshallings in the wilderness, that is, their encampings by tribes, are called “camps” in other passages of the Word; and by a “camp” is there signified in the internal sense heavenly order; and by “encamping” a marshalling in accordance with this order, namely, the order in which goods and truths are disposed in heaven (as in Lev. 4:12; 8:17; 13:46; 14:8; 16:26, 28; 24:14, 23; Num. 2; 4:5-33; 5:2-4; 9:17 to the end; 10:1-10, 28; 11:31, 32; 12:14, 15; 31:19-24; Deut. 23:10-14).
sRef Rev@20 @9 S3′ sRef Zech@9 @8 S3′  That the “camp of God” denotes heaven may also be seen in Joel:
The earth quaked before Him, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon were blackened, and the stars withdrew their brightness, and Jehovah uttered His voice before His army, for His camp is exceeding many, for numerous is he that doeth His word (Joel 2:10-11).
I will encamp at my house from the army, on account of him who passeth by, and on account of him who goeth away, lest the extortioner should pass over them (Zech. 9:8).
Gog and Magog went up over the plain of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city; but fire came up from God and consumed them (Rev. 20:9);
“Gog and Magog” denote those who are in external worship that is separated from internal and made idolatrous (n. 1151); the “plain of the earth” denotes the truth of the church (that a “plain” is the truth which is of doctrine may be seen above, n. 2450; and that the “earth” is the church, n. 556, 662, 1066, 1067, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355); the “camp of the saints” denotes the heaven or kingdom of the Lord on the earth, which is the church.
sRef Ps@53 @5 S4′ sRef Isa@37 @36 S4′ sRef Ps@27 @3 S4′  As most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so likewise has a “camp,” which then signifies evils and falsities, consequently hell; as in David:
Though the evil should encamp against me, my heart shall not fear (Ps. 27:3).
In the same:
God hath scattered the bones of them that encamp against me; thou hast put them to shame, because God hath rejected them (Ps. 53:5).
By the camp of Assyria, in which the angel of Jehovah smote a hundred and eighty-five thousand (Isa. 37:36), nothing else is meant; and the same by the camp of the Egyptians (Exod. 14:20).
sRef Deut@33 @2 S2′ sRef Judg@5 @5 S2′ sRef Num@24 @17 S2′ sRef Num@24 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@21 @12 S2′ sRef Judg@5 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@21 @11 S2′  From all this it is now evident what is signified in the Word by “Seir.” As in Moses:
Jehovah came from Sinai, and arose from Seir unto them, He shone forth from Mount Paran and He came from the ten thousands of holiness (Deut. 33:2-3).
In the song of Deborah and Barak in the book of Judges:
O Jehovah, when thou wentest forth out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also dropped, the clouds also dropped water, the mountains flowed down, this Sinai, before Jehovah the God of Israel (Judg. 5:4-5).
In the prophecy of Balaam:
I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not nigh; there shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise up out of Israel; and Edom shall be an inheritance; Seir also shall be an inheritance of his enemies, and Israel maketh strength (Num. 24:17-18).
Everyone can see that in these passages “Seir” signifies something of the Lord, for it is said that Jehovah “arose from Seir,” that He “went forth out of Seir, and marched out of the field of Edom,” and that “Edom and Seir shall be an inheritance.” Yet what of the Lord it signifies, no one can know except from the internal sense of the Word; but that it is the Lord’s Divine Human, and specifically the Divine natural as to good, may be seen from what has been said above. To “arise,” and to “go forth out of Seir” denote that He made even His natural Divine, in order that from this also there might be light, that is, intelligence and wisdom; and that in this way He might become Jehovah, not only as to His Human Rational, but also as to His Human Natural; and therefore it is said, “Jehovah arose from Seir,” and “Jehovah went forth out of Seir.” (That the Lord is Jehovah may be seen above, n. 1343, 1736, 2004, 2005, 2018, 2025, 2156, 2329, 2921, 3023, 3035.) The “prophecy concerning Dumah” in Isaiah involves a like meaning:
He calleth unto me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night; watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night (Isa. 21:11-12).
sRef Isa@21 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@21 @12 S3′  By the “land of Seir” in the relative sense is properly signified the Lord’s kingdom with those who are out of the church, that is, with the Gentiles, when the church is being set up among them, on the former or old church falling away from charity and faith. That those who are in darkness then have light is evident from many passages in the Word. This is properly signified by “arising from Seir,” and “going forth out of Seir, and marching out of the field of Edom,” and by “Seir being an inheritance;” as also by the above words in Isaiah: “He calleth unto me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night;” “the morning cometh” denotes the Lord’s advent (n. 2405, 2780), and the consequent enlightenment to those who are in night (that is, in ignorance), but enlightenment from the Lord’s Divine natural (n. 4211). As most of the things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so likewise has “Seir;” as in Ezekiel 25:8, 9; 35:2-15, and occasionally in the historicals of the Word.
By thy sword shalt thou live, and thou shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck (Gen. 27:40).
It is the inversion of state foretold in these prophetic words which is treated of in the present chapter.
 The case herein is this: Truth cannot be implanted in good except by mediate things, such as have been treated of in the preceding chapters, in which is described Jacob’s sojourning and tarrying with Laban, and his acquisition of a flock there. In the present chapter is described the process of conjunction, and thus the inversion of state, in the order which exists when truth is being made subordinate to good. Truth is apparently in the first place, when a man is learning truth from affection, but does not yet live so much in accordance with it. But good is in the first place when he lives according to the truth which he has learned from affection; for truth then becomes good, inasmuch as the man then believes it to be good to do according to the truth. They who have been regenerated are in this good; and they also who have conscience, that is, who no longer reasoned whether a thing is true, but do it because it is true, and thus have imbued themselves with it in faith and in life.
 From what has been said several times before on this subject, it may be seen how the case is with good and truth, and with the influx of good into truth, and with the appropriation of truth by good, namely, that good is continually flowing in, and that truth receives it, for truths are the vessels of good. The Divine good cannot be applied to any other vessels than genuine truths, for they correspond to each other. When a man is in the affection of truth (in which he is in the beginning before he begins to be regenerated), even then good is continually flowing in, but as yet has no vessels (that is, truths) into which to apply itself (that is, to be appropriated); for in the beginning of regeneration man is not as yet in knowledges. At that time, however, as good is continually flowing in, it produces the affection of truth; which is from no other source than the continual endeavor of Divine good to flow in. From this it is evident that even at that time good is in the first place, and acts the principal part, although it appears as if it were truth that did this. But when a man is being regenerated (which takes place in adult age when he is in knowledges), good then manifests itself; for the man is not then so much in the affection of knowing truth, as in the affection of doing it. Heretofore truth had been in his understanding, but now it is in his will; and when it is in the will, it is in the man; for the will constitutes the man himself. Such is the constant circle in man that everything of knowledge is insinuated through the sight or through the hearing into the thought, and from this into the will, and from the will through the thought into act. Or again from the memory, which is like an internal eye, or internal sight, there is a similar circle-from this sight through the thought into the will, and from the will through the thought into act; or if anything hinders, into the endeavor to act, which, as soon as that which hindered is removed, goes forth into act.
 From this it is evident how the case is with influx, and with the appropriation of truth by good, namely, that first of all the truths of faith are insinuated through the hearing or through the sight, and are then stored up in the memory; from which they are successively elevated into knowledge, and at last flow into the will, and when in this they proceed thence through thought into act; and if they cannot go into act, they are in endeavor, which is itself an internal act, and whenever there is an opportunity this becomes an external act. Be it known, however, that while there is this circle, nevertheless it is good which produces the circle; for the life which is from the Lord does not flow in except into good, thus through good, and this from the inmosts. That the life which flows in through the inmosts produces this circle, may be seen by everyone, for without life nothing is produced; and as the life which is from the Lord does not flow in except into good and through good, it follows that good is that which produces; and that it flows into truths, and appropriates them to itself, insofar as the man is in the knowledges of truth, and is at the same time desirous to receive them.
 For the things that come forth with the spirits and angels who are with a man are perceived by the man exactly as if they were in him; for while a man is living in the body, and does not believe that all things flow in, he supposes that the things which come forth interiorly are not produced by causes outside of him, but that all the causes are within him, and are his very own; yet such is not the case. For whatever a man thinks and whatever he wills (that is, his every thought and his every affection) are either from hell or from heaven. When he thinks and wills evils, and is delighted with the consequent falsities, he may know that his thoughts and affections are from hell; and while he is thinking and willing goods, and is delighted with the derivative truths, he may know that they are from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord. But the thoughts and affections that appertain to a man appear for the most part under another aspect; as for example, the combat of evil spirits with angels that arises from the things which appertain to a man who is to be regenerated, appears under the aspect of fear and distress, and of temptation.
 These statements cannot but appear to man as paradoxes, because almost every man of the church at this day believes that all the truth which he thinks, and the good which he wills and does, are from himself, although he says otherwise when he speaks from the doctrine of faith. Nay, of such a nature is man that if anyone should say to him that there are evil spirits from hell who are flowing into his thought and will when he thinks and wills evils, and angels from heaven when he thinks and wills goods, he would stand amazed that anyone should maintain such a thing; for he would say that he feels life in himself, and thinks from himself and wills from himself. From this feeling in himself he forms his belief, and not from his doctrine; when yet the doctrine is true, but the feeling fallacious. It has been given me to know this from an almost continual experience of many years, and so to know it that no doubt whatever remains.
4252a. And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Jehovah. That this signifies the holy of preparation and disposal, is evident from the signification of “God of my father Abraham,” as being the Divine Itself of the Lord (see n. 3439); and from the signification of “God of my father Isaac,” as being His Divine Human (n. 3704, 4180). And because each is Jehovah, it is said, “O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Jehovah.” But here is signified the holy which proceeds from the Divine, for all the holy is therefrom. That the holy is signified is because it was in the natural which is represented by Jacob wherein the good represented by Esau was not yet conjoined with truth. For the subject is now the state of the reception of good; here, the state of preparation and disposal for its being received. Jacob’s supplication involves nothing else; and therefore by these words is signified the holy of preparation and disposal.
sRef Ps@114 @2 S3′ sRef Ps@42 @6 S3′ sRef Ps@114 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@114 @5 S3′  That the “Jordan” signifies these things is also evident from other passages in the Word, as in David:
O my God, my soul is bowed down upon me, therefore will I remember thee from the land of Jordan and of the Hermons, from the mountain of littleness (Ps. 42:6);
“to remember from the land of Jordan” denotes from what is last, thus from what is low. Again:
Judah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominion; the sea saw it and fled, Jordan turned itself away backwards (Ps. 114:2-3, 5);
where “Judah” denotes the good of celestial love, and “Israel” the good of spiritual love (n. 3654); the “sea” denotes the knowledges of truth (n. 28); “Jordan” the knowledges of good, which are said to “turn themselves backwards” when the good of love obtains the dominion; for then knowledges are regarded from this good, but not good from them-according to what has been often shown above.
sRef Judg@5 @17 S4′  In the book of Judges:
Gilead dwelleth in the passage of the Jordan; and Dan, why shall he fear ships? (Judg. 5:17);
“Gilead” denotes sensuous good, or pleasure, by which man is first initiated when being regenerated (n. 4117, 4124); “to dwell in the passage of the Jordan” denotes in those things which are for initiation, and which are thus the first and the last of the church and kingdom of the Lord. These were also represented by the Jordan when the sons of Israel entered into the land of Canaan (Josh. 3:14-17; 4:1-24). For by the land of Canaan was represented the kingdom of the Lord (n. 1413, 1437, 1607, 3038, 3481, 3686, 3705). And by the Jordan’s being divided, and their passing over on dry ground, was signified the removal of evils and falsities, and the admission of those who are in goods and truths. Similar is the meaning of the waters of the Jordan being divided by Elijah when he was taken up into heaven (2 Kings 2:8); and by Elisha when he entered upon the prophetic office in Elijah’s place (2 Kings 2:14).
 Naaman’s being healed of his leprosy by washing himself seven times in the Jordan according to the command of Elisha (2 Kings 5:1-14), represented baptism; for baptism signifies initiation into the church and into those things which are of the church; thus regeneration and the things of regeneration. Not that anyone is regenerated by baptism, but that this is the sign of it, which he should remember. And as the things of the church are signified by baptism, and the same by the Jordan, as stated above, the people were therefore baptized in the Jordan by John (Matt. 3:6; Mark 1:5). And the Lord also willed to be Himself baptized in it by John (Matt. 3:13-17; Mark 1:9).
 Because the Jordan signifies the things which are first and last of the Lord’s kingdom and church, such as the knowledges of good and truth (for by these man is introduced), the Jordan is also mentioned as a boundary of the New Earth or Holy Land, in Ezekiel 47:18. That the New Earth or Holy Land is the Lord’s kingdom, and also the New Church, which is the Lord’s kingdom on the earth, may be seen above (n. 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118e, 3355e).
 That a “present” signifies initiation, is because it was given to gain good will and favor; for in old time the presents which were given and offered had various significations; those which were given on approaching kings and priests signified one thing, and those which were offered upon the altar, another; the former signified initiation, but the latter, worship (n. 349). For all sacrifices in general, of whatever kind, were called “presents;” but the meat offerings which were bread and wine, or cakes with a libation, were specifically so called; for in the original language “meat offering” signifies a “present.”
sRef 1Ki@10 @24 S3′ sRef 1Ki@10 @25 S3′  That they gave presents to kings and priests on approaching them, is evident from many passages in the Word, as when Saul consulted Samuel (1 Sam. 9:7-8); when they who despised Saul did not offer him a present (1 Sam. 10:27); when the queen of Sheba came to Solomon (1 Kings 10:2); and also all the others of whom it is said:
All the earth sought the faces of Solomon, to hear his wisdom; and they offered every man his present, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, and arms, and spices, horses, and mules (1 Kings 10:24-25).
And as this was a holy ritual, signifying initiation, the wise men from the east also, who came to Jesus just after His birth, brought presents-gold, frankincense, and myrrh (Matt. 2:11); “gold” signified celestial love; “frankincense,” spiritual love; and “myrrh,” these loves in the natural.
 That this ritual was commanded, is evident in Moses:
The faces of Jehovah shall not be seen empty (Exod. 23:15; Deut. 16:16-17);
and that the presents given to priests and kings were as if given to Jehovah, is evident from other places in the Word. That presents which were sent signified initiation, is manifest from the presents which the twelve princes of Israel sent to initiate the altar, after it was anointed (Num. 7); where their presents are called “the initiation” (Num. 7:88).
 I have sometimes wondered that when the speech of the angels fell down into the world of spirits, it fell also into various numbers; and also that where numbers were read in the Word, real things were understood by the angels. For number never penetrates into heaven, because numbers are measures of both space and of time, these being of the world and of nature, to which in the heavens correspond states and changes of states. The most ancient people, who were celestial men and had communication with angels, knew what was signified by every number, even by the compound ones; and from them their signification was handed down to their posterity, and to the sons of the Ancient Church. These are things which will hardly be credited by the man of the church at this day, who believes nothing to have been stored up in the Word more holy than what appears in the letter.
sRef Luke@17 @21 S2′  From this it is manifest what the nature of the Word is, and how the case is with the Word when it is being read by a man who is in what is holy, that is, in good and truth. For it then appears to him as worldly, or as historical, within which there is nevertheless what is holy; but in the first heaven it appears as celestial and spiritual natural, within which there is nevertheless what is Divine; in the second heaven it is spiritual; in the third heaven it is celestial; and in the Lord it is Divine. The sense of the Word is circumstanced in accordance with the heavens; the supreme sense of the Word, in which the subject treated of is the Lord, is for the inmost or third heaven; its internal sense, in which the subject treated of is the Lord’s kingdom, is for the middle or second heaven; but the lower sense of the Word, in which the internal sense is determined to the nation that is named, is for the lowest or first heaven; and the lowest or literal sense is for man while still living in the world, and who is nevertheless of such a nature that the interior sense, and even the internal and the supreme senses, can be communicated to him. For man has communication with the three heavens, because he is created after the image of the three heavens, even so that when he lives in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, he is a heaven in the least form. Hence it is that within man is the Lord’s kingdom, as the Lord Himself teaches in Luke:
Behold, the kingdom of God is within you (Luke 17:21).
 These things have been said in order that it may be known that in the Word there is not only the supreme sense, and the internal sense, but also a lower sense, and that in the lower sense the internal sense is determined to the nation there named; and when this is done, the sense manifestly appears from the series of things. That this wrestling of the man with Jacob, and the dislocation and displacement of his thigh, are predicated also of Jacob and his posterity, is manifest; and therefore I may unfold these same words according to this sense. This sense will be called in what follows the INTERNAL HISTORICAL SENSE, and this for the additional reason that it is wont to be occasionally represented to the life and in form in the first heaven, as also I have sometimes been permitted to see. (See the explication premised in the second paragraph of number 4272.)
 That the “thigh” denotes conjugial love, and the “feet” natural good, is among the things that are now obsolete and lost. The Ancient Church, which was in representatives and significatives, knew these things very well. The knowledge of such things was their intelligence and wisdom, and this not only of those who were of the church, but also of those who were out of the church, as is evident from the oldest books of the Gentiles, and from the things which at this day are called fables; for significatives and representatives were derived to them from the Ancient Church. With them also the thighs and the loins signified what is conjugial, and the feet what is natural. The thighs and the feet have this signification from the correspondences of all man’s members, organs, and viscera with the Grand Man, which correspondences are now being treated of at the end of the chapters. Of the correspondences with the thigh and the feet more will be said in what follows, where it will be confirmed by living experience that such is their signification.
 At the present day these things cannot but appear paradoxical, because, as before said, this knowledge is altogether obsolete and lost. And yet how much this knowledge surpasses other knowledges, may be seen from the fact that without it the Word cannot possibly be known as to its internal sense; and because the angels who are with man perceive the Word according to this sense; and also because by means of this knowledge communication is given to man with heaven. And (what is incredible) the internal man itself thinks in no other way; for when the external man apprehends the Word according to the letter, the internal man apprehends it at the same time according to the internal sense, although the man while living in the body is not aware of this. Especially may this be seen from the fact that when a man comes into the other life and becomes an angel, he knows the internal sense as of himself without instruction.
 What conjugial love is, which is signified by the thighs and also by the loins, may be seen above (n. 995, 1123, 2727-2759); and that conjugial love is the fundamental of all loves (n. 686, 3021); and hence it is that those who are in genuine conjugial love are also in celestial love (that is, in love to the Lord), and in spiritual love (that is, in charity toward the neighbor); and therefore by conjugial love not only is this love itself meant, but also all celestial and spiritual love. These loves are said to be conjoined with natural good when the internal man is conjoined with the external, or the spiritual man with the natural. This conjunction is that which is signified by the “hollow of the thigh.” That with Jacob and his posterity in general there was no such conjunction, will appear from what follows; for this is the subject here treated of in the internal historical sense.
 That Jacob and his posterity were of such a character that with them celestial and spiritual love could not be conjoined with natural good (that is, the internal or spiritual man with the external or natural man), is manifest from everything which is related of that nation in the Word; for they did not know, nor were they willing to know, what the internal or spiritual man is, and therefore this was not revealed to them; for they believed that nothing exists in man except that which is external and natural. In all their worship they had regard to nothing else, insomuch that Divine worship was to them no otherwise than idolatrous; for when internal worship is separated from external, it is merely idolatrous. The church that was instituted with them was not a church, but only the representative of a church; for which reason that church is called a representative church. That a representative of a church is possible with such people may be seen above (n. 1361, 3670, 4208).
 For in representations the person is not reflected upon, but the thing which is represented; and therefore Divine, celestial, and spiritual things were represented not only by persons, but also by inanimate things, as by Aaron’s garments, the ark, the altar, the oxen and sheep that were sacrificed, the lampstand with its lamps, the bread of arrangement upon the golden table, the oil with which they were anointed, the frankincense, and other like things. Hence it was that their kings, the evil as well as the good, represented the Lord’s royalty; and the high priests, the evil as well as the good, represented the things that belong to the Lord’s Divine priesthood, when they discharged their office in an outward form according to the statutes and precepts. In order therefore that the representative of a church might come forth among them, such statutes and laws were given them by manifest revelation as were altogether representative; and therefore so long as they were in them and observed them strictly, so long they were able to represent; but when they turned aside from them, as to the statutes and laws of other nations, and especially to the worship of another god, they then deprived themselves of the faculty of representing. For this reason they were driven by outward means, such as captivities, disasters, threats, and miracles, to laws and statutes truly representative; but not by internal means, as are those who have internal worship in external. These things are signified by the “hollow of Jacob’s thigh being out of joint,” taken in the internal historical sense, which regards Jacob and his posterity.
 In the internal historical sense, in which Jacob and his posterity are treated of, by the same words are signified the things which follow; by “Let me go, for the dawn ariseth,” is signified that what was representative before they came into representatives of the land of Canaan should depart from the posterity of Jacob; by “and he said, I will not let thee go unless thou bless me,” is signified that they would insist upon being representative; by “and he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob,” is signified that they were the posterity of Jacob with their quality; by “and he said, Thy name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel,” is signified that they could not represent as Jacob, but as from a new quality given them; by “for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed,” is signified because of the contumacy which was in their cupidities and phantasies.
 That there are three heavens, is known, namely, an inmost heaven, a middle, and an ultimate; or what is the same, a third, a second, and a first. The inmost or third heaven is celestial; for the angels there are called celestial because they are in love to the Lord, and are therefore most fully conjoined with the Lord, and are consequently in wisdom above all the rest, are innocent, and hence are called innocences and wisdoms. These angels are distinguished into the internal and the external, the internal being more celestial than the external. The middle or second heaven is spiritual; for the angels there are called spiritual because they are in charity toward the neighbor, that is, in mutual love, which is such that the one loves the other more than himself; and because they are such they are in intelligence, and are hence called intelligences. These angels are also distinguished into the internal and the external, the internal being more spiritual than the external. The ultimate or first heaven is likewise celestial and spiritual, but not in the same degree as the prior ones; for what is natural adheres to these angels, and they are therefore called the celestial natural and the spiritual natural. These also are in mutual love, yet do not love others more than themselves, but as themselves. They are in the affection of good and knowledge of truth, and are likewise distinguished into the internal and the external.
 But what the celestial spiritual is, shall also be briefly told. Those are called the celestial spiritual who were said just above to be the spiritual, and they are in the middle or second heaven; they are termed “celestial” from mutual love, and “spiritual” from the derivative intelligence. The internal angels there are those who are represented by Joseph, and are also called “Joseph” in the Word; but the external there are those who are represented by Israel, and are also called “Israel” in the Word. The former (that is, the internal angels who are called “Joseph”) partake of the rational; but the external who are called “Israel,” partake of the natural, for these are midway between the rational and the natural. This is the reason why it is said that Israel is the celestial spiritual man which is in the natural, and thus is natural; and that Joseph is the celestial spiritual man itself, which is rational. For in the universal sense all the good which is of love and charity is called celestial, and all the derivative truth of faith and intelligence is said to be spiritual.
 These things have been stated in order that it may be known what “Israel” denotes. But in the supreme sense “Israel” signifies the Lord as to the Divine celestial spiritual, and in the internal sense signifies the Lord’s spiritual kingdom in heaven and on earth. The Lord’s spiritual kingdom on earth is the church which is called the Spiritual Church. And because “Israel” denotes the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, “Israel” likewise denotes the spiritual man, for in every such man there is the Lord’s kingdom; for a man is a heaven, and is also a church, in the least form (n. 4279). As regards Jacob, by him in the supreme sense is represented the Lord as to the natural, both celestial and spiritual; and in the internal sense the Lord’s kingdom such as it is in the ultimate or first heaven, and consequently also the same in the church. Good in the natural is what is here called celestial, and truth in the same is what is called spiritual. From these things it is evident what is signified by “Israel” and by “Jacob” in the Word, and also why Jacob was named Israel.
 But these things which have been said must needs appear obscure, especially for the reason that it is known to few what the spiritual man is, and to scarcely anyone what the celestial man is, consequently that there is any distinction between the spiritual and the celestial man. The reason why this has not been known, is that there is no distinct perception of the good of love and charity, and of the truth which is of faith; and these are not perceived because there is no longer any genuine charity, and where anything is not, there is no perception of it. Another reason is that man is little solicitous about the things that belong to the life after death, thus about the things of heaven, but is very much so about those which belong to the life of the body, and thus about the things that are of the world. If man were solicitous about the things that belong to the life after death, thus about the things of heaven, he would easily apprehend all the things that have been said above; for that which a man loves he easily imbibes and apprehends, but with difficulty what he does not love.
sRef Gen@46 @5 S6′ sRef Gen@47 @10 S6′ sRef Gen@47 @29 S6′ sRef Gen@47 @28 S6′ sRef Gen@45 @28 S6′ sRef Gen@49 @2 S6′ sRef Gen@49 @1 S6′ sRef Gen@47 @27 S6′ sRef Gen@45 @27 S6′ sRef Gen@48 @2 S6′ sRef Gen@47 @8 S6′ sRef Gen@49 @33 S6′ sRef Gen@47 @7 S6′ sRef Gen@42 @5 S6′ sRef Gen@48 @3 S6′ sRef Gen@42 @1 S6′ sRef Gen@47 @9 S6′ sRef Gen@46 @8 S6′ sRef Gen@45 @25 S6′ sRef Gen@46 @2 S6′ sRef Gen@37 @1 S6′ sRef Gen@46 @1 S6′  That “Jacob” signifies one thing and “Israel” another, is plainly evident from the Word; for in the historical parts, and also in the prophetical, it is now said “Jacob,” and now “Israel,” and sometimes both are said in the same verse; from which it is evident that there is an internal sense in the Word, and that without this sense this circumstance cannot possibly be understood. That “Jacob” is now said, and now “Israel,” is evident from the following passages:
Jacob dwelt in the land of his father’s sojournings. These are the births of Jacob; Joseph was a son of seventeen years, and Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons (Gen. 37:1-3);
where Jacob is first called “Jacob” and presently “Israel;” and he is called Israel when Joseph is treated of. Again:
Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons. And the sons of Israel came to buy in the midst of those who came (Gen. 42:1, 5).
They went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan unto Jacob their father; and when they told him all the words of Joseph, which he spoke unto them, the spirit of Jacob their father revived; and Israel said, It is much, Joseph my son is yet alive (45:25, 27-28).
And Israel journeyed, and all that he had. God said unto Israel in the visions of the night, and He said, Jacob, Jacob, who said, Behold me. And Jacob rose up from Beersheba, and the sons of Israel carried down Jacob their father (Gen. 46:1-2, 5).
And in the same chapter:
These are the names of the sons of Israel that came into Egypt, of Jacob and his sons (Gen. 46:8).
Joseph brought in Jacob his father, and set him before Pharaoh. Pharaoh said unto Jacob, and Jacob said unto Pharaoh (Gen. 47:7-9).
And in the same chapter:
And Israel dwelt in the land of Goshen; and Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years; and the days of Israel drew near to die; and he called his son Joseph (Gen. 46:27-29).
And one told Jacob, and said, Behold thy son Joseph cometh unto thee; and Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed. And Jacob said unto Joseph, God Shaddai appeared to me in Luz (Gen. 48:2-3).
And he is called Israel in the same chapter (verses 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 21). And lastly:
Jacob called his sons, and said, Assemble yourselves, and hear, ye sons of Jacob, and listen unto Israel your father. And when Jacob had made an end of charging his sons (Gen. 49:1-2, 33)
From these passages it is very evident that Jacob is now called Jacob, and now Israel, and thus that Jacob means one thing, and Israel another; or that one thing is signified when it is said “Jacob,” and another when “Israel,” and also that this arcanum cannot possibly be understood except from the internal sense.
sRef Num@23 @23 S7′ sRef Micah@2 @12 S7′ sRef Num@24 @17 S7′ sRef Num@24 @5 S7′ sRef Num@23 @10 S7′ sRef Isa@44 @1 S7′ sRef Isa@44 @5 S7′ sRef Isa@44 @3 S7′ sRef Isa@44 @2 S7′ sRef Gen@49 @23 S7′ sRef Isa@48 @12 S7′ sRef Isa@27 @6 S7′ sRef Gen@49 @24 S7′ sRef Isa@48 @11 S7′ sRef Jer@30 @10 S7′ sRef Gen@49 @24 S7′  But what “Jacob” signifies, and what “Israel,” has been told above. In general by “Jacob” in the Word is signified what is external of the church, and by “Israel” what is internal; for every church has an external and also an internal, or is internal and also external. And as that which is of the church is signified by “Jacob” and by “Israel,” and as everything of the church is from the Lord, hence in the supreme sense both “Jacob” and “Israel” denote the Lord, “Jacob” as to the Divine natural, and “Israel” as to the Divine spiritual. Thus the external which is of the Lord’s kingdom and of His church, is “Jacob,” and the internal is “Israel”-as is further evident from the following passages, in which each is named in its own sense. In the prophecy of Jacob, then Israel:
By the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob, from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel (Gen.49:24).
Hear, O Jacob, My servant, and Israel whom I have chosen; I will pour out My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thy sons; this one shall say to Jehovah, I and this one shall call himself by the name of Jacob, and that one shall write with his hand unto Jehovah, and surname himself by the name of Israel (Isa. 44:1, 3, 5);
where “Jacob” and “Israel” manifestly denote the Lord, and the “seed and sons of Jacob and Israel,” those who are in faith in Him. In the prophecy of Balaam in Moses:
Who shall number the dust of Jacob, and the number with the fourth part of Israel? (Num. 23:10).
There is no divination against Jacob, nor sorceries against Israel; at this time it shall be said to Jacob and to Israel, What hath God wrought! (Num. 23:23).
How good are thy tabernacles O Jacob, thy dwelling places, O Israel (Num. 24:4-5).
There shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a scepter out of Israel (Num. 24:17).
My glory will I not give to another. Attend to me, O Jacob, and Israel My called. I am the same; I am the first, I also am the last (Isa. 48:11-12).
In the same:
Jacob shall enroot those who come; and Israel shall blossom and flower; and the faces of the world shall be filled with produce (Isa. 27:6).
Fear not thou, O Jacob My servant, and be not terrified, O Israel; for lo I have saved thee from afar (Jer. 30:9-10).
In gathering I will gather Jacob, all of thee; in assembling I will assemble the remains of Israel; I will put them together as the sheep of Bozrah (Micah 2:12).
sRef Gen@35 @10 S8′ sRef Gen@35 @9 S8′  For what reason Jacob was named Israel is evident from the very words when this name was given him: “Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel; for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed.” For in the original language “Israel” means “one that contends with God as a prince,” by which is signified in the internal sense that He overcame in the combats of temptations; for temptations and combats in temptations were the means by which the Lord made His Human Divine (n. 1737, 1813, and elsewhere); and temptations and victories in temptations are what make man spiritual; for which reason Jacob was for the first time named Israel after he wrestled. (That “wrestling” denotes being tempted may be seen above, n. 4274.) It is known that the Church, or the man of the Christian Church, calls himself Israel; and yet no one in the Church is Israel but he who has become a spiritual man by means of temptations. The name itself also involves the same. That it was afterwards confirmed that Jacob should be called Israel, is evident from what follows in another chapter, where are these words:
God appeared unto Jacob again, when he came from Paddan-aram, and blessed him; and God said unto him, Thy name is Jacob; thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name; and He called his name Israel (Gen. 35:9-10).
The reason of this confirmation will be told hereafter.
 As in the supreme sense the Lord is treated of, it is He who is meant in this sense by “him that contended as a prince with God and men;” for He endured all temptations by His own power, and by means of them conquered the hells; for He admitted all the hells into Himself in their order, yea, even to the angels-of which in the following pages. And He thus reduced into order all things in the heavens and in the hells, and at last glorified Himself, that is, made the Human in Himself Divine.
 From this it is manifest that in the supreme sense the Lord is “Jacob” and “Israel” (as shown just above, n. 4286), not only in that He contended as a prince, that is, endured all the combats of temptations, and conquered in them, but in that He also endures them in every man. But see what has been said on these subjects many times before, namely: That the Lord beyond all endured the most grievous temptations (n. 1663, 1668, 1787, 2776, 2786, 2795, 2816): That the Lord fought from Divine love, differently from all men (n.1690, 1691, 1789, 1812, 1813, 1820): That the Lord fought against hereditary evil from the mother, so that at last He was not her son, although He had no actual evil (n. 1444, 1573, 2025, 2574, 2649, 3318): That the Lord through combats of temptations and continual victories disposed all things into a heavenly form (n. 1928): That by continual victories in the combats of temptations He united the Divine Essence to the Human (n. 1616, 1737, 1813, 1921, 2025, 2026, 2500, 2523, 2632, 2776): And that the Lord endures temptations in man, and subjugates evil and the hells (n. 987, 1661, 1692).
 That “to contend with God and with men” denotes to be tempted as to truths and as to goods, is a secret which does not appear from the letter. That it was not God with whom Jacob contended must be evident to everyone, and will also appear from the explication below; for it cannot be predicated of any man that he contends with God and prevails. But the internal sense teaches what is here signified by “God” and by “men”-namely, that by “God” is signified truth and by “men” good, and this for the reason that in the internal sense the name “God” signifies truth, and hence that when the subject treated of is truth, this name is used (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822); and that when “man” is mentioned, good is meant. That “man” denotes good is because the Lord is the only man, and because man is called man from Him (see n. 49, 288, 565, 1894); also because from Him heaven is a man, and is called the Grand Man (n. 684, 1276, 3624-3649, 3741-3751).
sRef Jer@4 @25 S5′ sRef Isa@13 @12 S5′ sRef Ezek@27 @13 S5′ sRef Isa@33 @8 S5′ sRef Ezek@34 @31 S5′ sRef Jer@4 @23 S5′ sRef Ezek@36 @38 S5′ sRef Jer@31 @27 S5′ sRef Isa@24 @6 S5′  For this reason the Most Ancient Church also, which was in celestial good, was called “man” (n. 478); and therefore also in the Word, where good is treated of, good is signified by “man,” as in Isaiah:
I will make a man [vir homo]* more rare than gold, and man [homo] than the gold of Ophir (Isa. 13:12).
The inhabitants of the earth shall be burned, and few shall be the man [vir homo] left (Isa. 24:6);
a “man” [vir homo] denotes spiritual good, or the good of truth; a “man” [homo], good.
In the same:
The paths are laid waste, the wayfaring man hath ceased; he hath made vain the covenant, he hath loathed the cities, he regardeth not a man [vir homo] (Isa. 33:8).
I beheld the earth, and lo it was a void and emptiness, and the heavens, and they had no light; I beheld and lo there was no man, and all the birds of heaven had flown away (Jer. 4:23, 25).
In the same:
Behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast (Jer. 31:27).
Thy merchants with the soul of man and vessels of brass they gave thy trading (Ezek. 27:13).
In the same:
Ye My flock, the flock of My pasture, ye are man, and I am your God (Ezek. 34:31).
The waste cities shall be filled with the flock of man (Ezek. 36:38).
In these passages “man” [homo] denotes those who are in good, thus good, because man is man from good. But the truth which is from good is called in the Word a “man” [vir homo], and also the “son of man.”
 But be it known what a representative church is, and what the representative of a church. A representative church is when there is internal worship in external, and the representative of a church when there is no internal worship, but nevertheless there is external. In both there are nearly similar outward rituals, that is, similar statutes, similar laws, and similar precepts. But in the representative church the externals correspond with the internals, so as to make a one; whereas in the representative of a church there is no correspondence, because the externals are either devoid of internals, or are at variance with them. In a representative church celestial and spiritual love is the principal, but in the representative of a church bodily and worldly love is the principal. Celestial and spiritual love is the internal itself; but where there is no celestial and spiritual love, but only bodily and worldly love, the external is devoid of an internal. The Ancient Church, which was after the flood, was a representative church; but that which was instituted among the posterity of Jacob was only the representative of a church.
 To make this evident let the distinction be illustrated by examples. In the Representative Church Divine worship took place on mountains, because mountains signified celestial love, and in the supreme sense the Lord (n. 795, 1430, 2722, 4210); and when they were holding worship on mountains, they were in their holy state, because they were at the same time in celestial love. In the Representative Church Divine worship took place also in groves, because groves signified spiritual love, and in the supreme sense the Lord as to this love (n. 2722); and when they were holding worship in groves, they were in their holy state, because at the same time in spiritual love. In the Representative Church when they were holding Divine worship, they turned their faces to the rising of the sun, because by the rising sun was also signified celestial love (n. 101, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643). And so when they looked at the moon they were in like manner penetrated with a certain holy reverence, because the moon signified spiritual love (n. 1529-1531, 2495, 4060). It was similar when they looked at the starry heaven, because this signified the angelic heaven or the Lord’s kingdom. In the Representative Church they had tents or tabernacles, and Divine worship in them, and this holy; because tents or tabernacles signified the holy of love and worship (n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3312); and so in innumerable other things.
 In the representative of a church there was indeed in the beginning a like Divine worship upon mountains, and also in groves, and they also turned their faces toward the rising of the sun, and looked at the moon and the stars, and similarly held worship in tents or tabernacles. But as they were in external worship without internal, or in bodily and worldly love, and not in celestial and spiritual love, and thus worshiped the mountains and groves themselves, and the sun, moon, and stars, as also their tents or tabernacles, and thus made the rituals idolatrous which in the Ancient Church were holy, they were therefore restricted to what was common to all, namely, to the mountain where Jerusalem was, and at last where Zion was, and to the rising of the sun as seen thence and from the temple, and also to a tent in common, which was called the tent of meeting, and finally to the ark in the temple; and this to the intent that a representative of a church might exist when they were in a holy external; as otherwise they would have profaned holy things.
 From this it is evident what the distinction is between a representative church and a representative of a church; in general, that they who were of the representative church communicated with the three heavens as to their interiors, to which these external things served as a plane; but they who were in the representative of a church did not communicate with the heavens as to their interiors; but still the external things in which they were kept could serve as a plane, and this miraculously of the Lord’s providence, to the intent that something of communication might exist between heaven and man, by means of some semblance of a church; for without the communication of heaven with man through something of a church, the human race would perish. What the correspondence of internal things is, cannot be told in few words, but will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told in the following pages.
 It was therefore provided by the Lord that the genuine representative of a church (that is, what is internal) should depart from the posterity of Jacob before they came into the representatives of the land of Canaan, insomuch that they did not know anything at all concerning the Lord. They did indeed know that the Messiah was to come into the world, but to the end that He should exalt them to glory and eminence over all nations of the whole earth – not to save their souls to eternity. Neither did they know anything about the heavenly kingdom, nor about the life after death, and not even about charity and faith. In order that they might be reduced to this ignorance they were kept some hundreds of years in Egypt; and when they were called out thence, they did not know even the name of Jehovah (Exod. 3:12-14). Moreover, they had lost all the worship of the representative church, insomuch that after the commandments of the Decalogue had been promulgated before them from Mount Sinai, within a month they fell back to the Egyptian worship, which was that of a golden calf (Exod. 32).
 And because the brood that had been brought out of Egypt was of such a character, they all perished in the wilderness. For nothing more was required of them than to keep the statutes and precepts in the outward form, because this was to act as the representative of a church; but those who had grown up in Egypt could not be reduced to this; yet their children could, although with difficulty, in the beginning by miracles, and afterwards by fears and captivities, as is manifest from the books of Joshua and Judges. From this it is evident that all genuine or internal representation of the church had departed from them before they came into the land of Canaan, where the external representative of the church was begun among them in full form. For the land of Canaan was the veriest land of all where the representatives of the church could be presented, because all the places and all the boundaries of this land had been representative from ancient times (see n. 3686).
sRef Ex@33 @7 S2′ sRef Ex@33 @3 S2′ sRef Ex@33 @13 S2′ sRef Ex@33 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@33 @14 S2′ sRef Ex@33 @1 S2′ sRef Ex@33 @4 S2′  That the posterity of Jacob were not chosen, but insisted that a church should be among them, may be seen from many passages of the Word, from its internal historical sense, and openly in the following. In Moses:
Jehovah spoke unto Moses, Go up hence, thou and the people which thou hast made to go up out of the land of Egypt, into the land of which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, Unto thy seed will I give it; I will not go up in the midst of thee, for thou art a stiffnecked people; lest I consume thee in the way. And when the people heard this evil word, they mourned, and put off everyone his ornament from upon him. And Moses took the tent, and pitched it for himself without the camp, in removing far from the camp. And Moses said unto Jehovah, See, Thou sayest unto me, Make this people go up, and Thou hast not made known to me whom Thou wilt send with me. Now therefore I pray If I have found grace in Thine eyes, make known to me I pray Thy way, that I may know concerning Thee, that I have found grace in Thine eyes; behold also that this nation is Thy people. He said therefore, My faces shall go until I give thee rest (Exod. 33:1-7, 12-14).
It is here said that Moses made the people go up out of the land of Egypt, and then that they put off their ornament and mourned, and that Moses pitched his tent without the camp, and that thereby Jehovah assented; thus plainly showing that they themselves insisted.
sRef Num@14 @13 S3′ sRef Num@14 @22 S3′ sRef Num@14 @20 S3′ sRef Num@14 @21 S3′ sRef Num@14 @11 S3′ sRef Num@14 @30 S3′ sRef Num@14 @23 S3′ sRef Num@14 @12 S3′ sRef Num@14 @31 S3′  In the same:
Jehovah said unto Moses, How long will this people provoke Me, and how long will they not believe in Me, for all the signs which I have wrought in the midst of them? I will smite them with the pestilence, and will extinguish them, and will make of thee a nation greater and mightier than they. But Moses supplicated, and Jehovah being entreated said, I will be gracious according to thy word: nevertheless, I live, and the whole earth shall be filled with the glory of Jehovah; for as to all those men who have seen My glory, and My signs which I wrought in Egypt, and in the wilderness, yet have tempted Me these ten times, and have not obeyed my voice, surely they shall not see the land which I sware unto their fathers, neither shall any of them that provoked Me see it. Your bodies shall fall in this wilderness; but your little children will I bring in (Num. 14:11-12, 20-23, 29, 31).
From these words it is also manifest that Jehovah willed to extinguish them, and consequently not to set up a church among them, but that they insisted and it was therefore done – besides many other times also, when Jehovah willed to utterly destroy that nation so often rebellious, but as often suffered Himself to be entreated by their supplications.
 The like is also involved in Balaam’s not being permitted to curse that people (Num. 22, 23, 24); and in other places also, where it is said that Jehovah repented that He had brought in that people; also that Jehovah was entreated; and also that He so often made a new covenant with them. Such things are signified in the internal historical sense by the words “I will not let thee go, unless thou bless me.” The same is also signified by Jacob’s taking away the birthright from Esau, and also by his taking the blessing from him by fraud (Gen. 25 and 27).
 As regards the matter itself (that they could not represent as Jacob, but as from a new quality given them, which is “Israel”) the case is this. It was specifically Jacob’s posterity who represented the church, but not Isaac’s specifically; for Isaac’s posterity were not from Jacob only, but also from Esau. Still less was it Abraham’s posterity specifically; for Abraham’s posterity were not from Jacob only, but also from Esau, and likewise from Ishmael, as also from his sons by his second wife Keturah – thus from Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah, and their sons (see Gen. 25:1-4). Now as Jacob’s posterity insisted on being representative (as shown just above n. 4290), they could not represent as Jacob, nor as Isaac, nor as Abraham. That they could not as Jacob was because Jacob represented the external of the church, but not its internal; and they could not as Isaac at the same time, nor as Abraham at the same time, for the reason just adduced.
 There was therefore no other way by which they could represent the church than by a new name being given to Jacob, and thereby a new quality; which new quality should signify the internal spiritual man, or what is the same, the internal spiritual church. This new quality is “Israel.” Every church of the Lord is internal and external, as has been repeatedly shown. The internal church is what is represented, and the external is what represents. Moreover the internal church is either spiritual or celestial. The internal spiritual church was represented by Israel, and the internal celestial church was afterwards represented by Judah. Therefore also a division was made, and the Israelites were a kingdom by themselves, and the Jews were a kingdom by themselves; but on this subject of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter. Hence it is evident that Jacob (that is, the posterity of Jacob) could not represent a church as Jacob, for this would be to represent only the external of a church; but must also do so as Israel, because “Israel” is the internal.
 That the internal is what is represented, and the external what represents, has been shown before, and may likewise be seen from man himself. Man’s speech represents his thought, and his action represents his will. Speech and action are man’s externals, and thought and will are his internals. Furthermore, man’s face itself, by its varying looks, represents both his thought and his will. That the face by its looks represents, is known to everyone; for with the sincere their interior states may be seen from the looks of the face. In a word, all things of the body represent what is of the animus and of the mind.
 The case is similar with the externals of the church, for these are like a body, and the internals are like a soul – as the altars and the sacrifices upon them, which as is known were external things; in like manner the showbreads; also the lampstand with its lights; and likewise the perpetual fire: that these represented internal things may be known to everyone; and it is the same with the rest of the rites. That these external things could not represent external but internal things, is evident from what has been adduced. Thus Jacob could not represent as Jacob, because “Jacob” is the external of the church; but Jacob could represent as Israel, because “Israel” is its internal. This is what is meant by the new quality given in order that the posterity of Jacob might represent.
 That this nation insisted on being representative, that is, they insisted that they should be the church above all nations in the whole world, may be seen above (n. 4290). That this was also permitted on account of the contumacy that was in their phantasies and cupidities, is here meant. The nature of their phantasies and their cupidities no one can know who has not had some interaction with them in the other life; and in order that I might know it, this has been granted me, so that I have occasionally spoken with them there. More than all others they love themselves and they love the wealth of the world; and more than all others they fear the loss of this honor, and also the loss of gain; and therefore also at this day, as of old, they despise all others in comparison with themselves, and likewise seek wealth for themselves with the most intense application, and moreover are timid. As this nation had been of this character from ancient times, they could more than others be kept in a holy external without any holy internal, and thus could represent in external form the things of the church. It is these phantasies and these cupidities that have produced such contumacy.
 The same also appears from many things related of them in the historicals of the Word. After being punished they could be in such external humiliation as could no other people, for they could lie prostrate on the ground for entire days and wallow in the dust, not getting up until the third day; they could wail for many days, go in sackcloth, in rent garments, with ashes or dust sprinkled upon their heads; they could fast continuously for several days, and meanwhile burst forth into bitter weeping. But these things they did solely from bodily and earthly love, and from the fear of the loss of preeminence and worldly wealth; for it was not anything internal that affected them, because they knew not at all and did not even want to know what anything internal is, such as that there is a life after death, and that there is an eternal salvation.
 From this it is evident that, being of such a nature, they must needs be deprived of all holy internal, for this in no wise agrees with such a holy external, because the two things are utterly contrary to each other; and also that they could, better than others, serve as the representative of the church, that is, could represent holy things in an external form without any holy internal; and thus that by means of this nation something of communication with the heavens could be possible (see n. 4288).
 In the internal historical sense, in which the posterity of Jacob is treated of, by “Jacob asked and said, Tell I pray thy name,” evil spirits are signified; by “he said, Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name?” is signified that from evil spirits they did not acknowledge; by “he blessed him there,” is signified that it was so done; by “Jacob called the name of the place Peniel,” is signified the state in that they put on representations; by “for I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered,” is signified that He was present representatively; by “the sun arose to him,” is signified when they came into representations; by “as he passed over Penuel,” is signified when they came into the land of Canaan; by “he halted upon his thigh,” is signified that goods and truths were altogether destroyed with that posterity; by “therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced, which is upon the hollow of the thigh,” is signified that the posterity ought to know this; by “unto this day,” is signified that they are such forever; by “because he touched in the hollow of Jacob’s thigh the nerve of that which was displaced,” is signified because they had a heredity which could not be eradicated by regeneration, because they would not allow this.
God stood in the congregation of god, He judged in the midst of the gods. I said, Ye are gods, and all of you sons of the Most High (Ps. 82:1, 6);
where it is plainly evident that the “congregation of god,” and the “gods,” denote the angelic heaven. In the same:
Who in the sky can be compared unto Jehovah? Who among the sons of the gods can be likened unto Jehovah? (Ps. 89:6).
Confess ye to the God of gods; confess ye to the Lord of lords (Ps. 136:2-3).
From these passages, as also from the fact that no one can contend as a prince with God and prevail, and likewise from the fact that he who is called “God” was not willing to reveal his name, it is evident that it was the angelic heaven with which the Lord fought. That a deep secret lies hidden in these words is plainly evident from the words themselves: “Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name?” for if it had been Jehovah God, He would not have concealed his name; nor would Jacob have asked, “What is thy name?” for to ask the name implies that it is another or others than God Himself.
sRef Job@15 @15 S2′  That the Lord in temptations at last fought with the angels themselves, nay, with the whole angelic heaven, is a secret that has not yet been disclosed. But the case with regard to this matter is that the angels are indeed in the highest wisdom and intelligence, but have all wisdom and intelligence from the Divine of the Lord. From themselves, or from what is their own, they have nothing of wisdom and intelligence. So far therefore as they are in truths and goods from the Divine of the Lord, so far they are wise and intelligent. That the angels have nothing of wisdom and intelligence from themselves, they themselves openly confess; nay, they are indignant if anyone ascribes to them anything of wisdom and intelligence, for they know and perceive that this would be to take away from the Divine that which is Divine, and to claim for themselves that which is not theirs, and thus to incur the crime of spiritual theft. The angels also say that all that is their own is evil and false, both from their heredity and from actual life when they were men in the world (n. 1880); and that the evil and falsity is not separated or wiped away from them, they being thus justified, but that it all remains with them, and that it is by the Lord that they are withheld from evil and falsity and are kept in good and truth (n. 1581). All the angels confess these things, and no one is admitted into heaven unless he knows and believes them; for otherwise they cannot be in the light of wisdom and intelligence which is from the Lord, consequently not in good and truth. From this it may also be known how it is to be understood that heaven is not pure in the eyes of God, as we read in Job 15:15.
 This being the case, in order that the Lord might reduce the universal heaven into heavenly order, He admitted into Himself temptations from the angels also, who, insofar as they were in what is their own, were so far not in good and truth. These temptations are the inmost of all, for they act solely into the ends, and with such subtlety as cannot possibly be noticed. But insofar as they are not in what is their own, so far they are in good and truth, and so far cannot tempt. Moreover the angels are continually being perfected by the Lord, and yet can never to eternity be so far perfected that their wisdom and intelligence can be compared to the Divine wisdom and intelligence of the Lord; for they are finite, and the Lord is infinite; and there is no comparison between what is finite and what is infinite. From all this it can now be seen what is meant by the god with whom Jacob as a prince contended; as also why he was not willing to reveal his name.
sRef Luke@23 @30 S2′ sRef Rev@6 @16 S2′  Conscience is a new will and a new understanding from the Lord; thus it is the Lord’s presence in a man; and this the nearer, in proportion as the man is in the affection of good or of truth. If the Lord’s presence is nearer than in proportion as the man is in the affection of good or of truth, the man comes into temptation. The reason is that the evils and falsities which are in the man, tempered by the goods and truths that are in him, cannot endure a nearer presence. This may be seen from the things that take place in the other life: that evil spirits cannot possibly approach any heavenly society without beginning to feel anguish and torment; also that evil spirits cannot endure to have angels look upon them, for they are instantly tortured and fall into a swoon; and also from the fact that hell is remote from heaven, for the reason that it cannot endure heaven, that is, the Lord’s presence which is in heaven. This is the reason why it is said of such in the Word:
Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall upon us; and to the hills, Hide us (Luke 23:30).
They shall say to the mountains and to the rocks, Fall down upon us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne (Rev. 6:16).
Moreover the foggy and pitch-dark sphere which exhales from the evils and falsities of those who are in hell appears like a mountain or rock, under which they are hidden (see n. 1265, 1267, 1270).
 From all this it can now be known that the words, “I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered,” signify the most grievous temptations as if they were from the Divine. Temptations and torments appear as if from the Divine, because, as before said, they come forth through the Lord’s Divine presence; but still they are not from the Divine, or from the Lord, but from the evils and falsities which are in him who is being tempted or tormented. For from the Lord nothing proceeds but the Holy which is good and true and merciful. This Holy, which is good and true and merciful, is what those who are in evils and falsities cannot endure, because they are opposites or contraries. Evils, falsities, and unmercifulness are continually intent upon doing violence to these holy things; and insofar as they assault them, so far they are tormented; and when they assault them, and are consequently tormented, they suppose that it is the Divine which torments them. These things are what are meant by the words “as if they were from the Divine.”
sRef Judg@13 @22 S4′ sRef Judg@6 @23 S4′ sRef Ex@33 @20 S4′ sRef Judg@6 @22 S4′  That no one can see Jehovah face to face, and live, was known to the ancients, and this knowledge was handed down from them to the posterity of Jacob; for which reason they rejoiced so greatly when they saw an angel and yet lived. As in the book of Judges:
Gideon saw that he was the angel of Jehovah; and therefore Gideon said, Lord Jehovih! Forasmuch as I have seen the angel of Jehovah face to face. And Jehovah said unto him, Peace be unto thee, fear not, thou shalt not die (Judg. 6:22-23).
In the same book:
Manoah said unto his wife, We shall surely die, because we have seen God (Judg. 13:22).
And in Moses:
Jehovah said unto Moses, Thou canst not see My faces, for man shall not see Me, and live (Exod. 33:20).
sRef Ex@33 @11 S5′ sRef Deut@34 @10 S5′  When it is said of Moses that he spoke with Jehovah face to face (Exod. 33:11), and that Jehovah knew him face to face (Deut. 34:10), the meaning is that Jehovah appeared to him in a human form adapted to his reception, which was external, namely, as an old man with a beard, sitting with him – as I have been instructed by the angels. It was from this also that the Jews had no other idea of Jehovah than as of a very old man, with a long and snowy beard, who could do greater miracles than other gods. Not that they accounted Him the most holy, for what holiness was they did not know; still less that they could by any possibility see the Holy that proceeds from Him, because they were in bodily and earthly love, without any holy internal (n. 4289, 4293).
 As regards the state of truth in good, this can indeed be described, but yet it cannot be apprehended, except by those who have celestial perception. Others cannot even have an idea of the conjunction of truth with good, because with them truth is in obscurity; for they call that truth which they have learned from doctrinal things, and that good which is done according to this truth; whereas they who have perception are in celestial light as to their understanding (that is, as to their intellectual sight), and they are affected with truths which are conjoined with good, as the eye or bodily sight is affected with flowers in gardens and meadows in the time of spring; and they who are in interior perception are affected with these truths as with a fragrance that is exhaled from them. Such is the angelic state, and therefore such angels perceive all the differences and all the varieties of the instilling and conjunction of truth in good, and thus endless things more than man; for man does not even know that there is any instilling and conjunction, and that a man becomes spiritual thereby.
 A few words shall be added in order to convey some notion of this matter. There are two things which constitute the internal man-the understanding and the will. To the understanding pertain truths, and to the will goods; for what a man knows and understands to be so, he calls truth; and what he does from will, thus what he wills, he calls good. These two faculties should constitute a one. This may be illustrated by comparison with the sight of the eye, and with the pleasantness and delight that are experienced by means of this sight. When the eye sees objects, it experiences a pleasantness and delight from them in accordance with their forms, colors, and their consequent beauties both in general and in their parts; in a word, in accordance with the order or dispositions into series. This pleasantness and delight are not of the eye, but of the animus and its affection; and insofar as the man is affected with them, so far he sees them and retains them in memory, while the things that the eye sees from no affection, are passed over and are not implanted in the memory, thus are not conjoined with it.
 From this it is evident that the objects of the external sight are implanted in accordance with the pleasantness and delight of the affections; and that they are in this pleasantness and delight; for when a similar pleasantness or delight recurs, such objects also recur; and in like manner when similar objects recur, such pleasantness and delight also recur, with variety according to the states. It is the same with the understanding, which is the internal sight – its objects are spiritual, and are called truths; the field of these objects is the memory; the pleasantness and delight of this sight is good; and thus good is that in which truths are inseminated and implanted. From this it may in some measure appear what the instilling of truth into good is, and what the conjunction of truth in good; also, what the good is which is here treated of, and in regard to which angels perceive things so innumerable, while man perceives scarcely anything.
 As regards the order in which truths must be when they enter into good (here celestial spiritual good), neither can this be set forth to the apprehension; for it must first be known what order is, and then what is the order of truths; also what celestial spiritual good is, and then how truths enter into it by means of good. Although these things should be described, they still would not be manifest except to those who are in heavenly perception, and by no means to those who are in natural perception alone. For they who are in heavenly perception are in the light of heaven from the Lord, in which light there is intelligence and wisdom. But they who are in natural light are not in any intelligence and wisdom, except insofar as the light of heaven flows into this light, and so disposes it that the things which are of heaven may appear as in a mirror, or in a certain representative image, in the things which are of natural light; for without the influx of the light of heaven, natural light presents nothing of spiritual truth to view.
 This only can be said respecting the order in which truths must be in order that they may enter into good – that all truths, like goods, both as to generals and as to particulars, and even as to the veriest singulars, in heaven are disposed into such an order that the one regards the other in such a form as do the members, organs, and viscera of the human body, or their uses, have mutual regard to one another, in general, also in particular, and likewise in the veriest singulars, and thus effect that all are a one. It is from this order in which truths and goods are disposed that heaven itself is called the Grand Man. Its life itself is from the Lord, who from Himself disposes all things in general and in particular into such order; and hence heaven is a likeness and an image of the Lord; and therefore when truths are disposed into such an order as that in which heaven is, they are then in heavenly order and can enter into good. The truths and goods with every angel are in such an order; and the truths and goods with every man who is being regenerated are also being disposed, into such an order. In a word, the order of heaven is the disposal of the truths that are of faith in the goods that are of charity toward the neighbor, and the disposal of these goods in the good that is of love to the Lord.
sRef Micah@4 @6 S4′ sRef Micah@4 @7 S4′ sRef Isa@35 @6 S4′ sRef Zeph@3 @19 S4′ sRef Isa@35 @5 S4′ sRef Jer@31 @8 S4′  That “to halt” denotes to be in good in which there are not yet genuine truths, but nevertheless general truths into which genuine truth can be insinuated, and such as do not disagree with genuine truths; and thus that the “lame” are those who are in good, but not in genuine good because of their ignorance of truth (that is, in such good as are the Gentiles who live in mutual charity), may be seen from those passages in the Word where the “lame” and the “halt” are mentioned in a good sense. As in Isaiah:
The eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be opened; then shall the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing (Isa. 35:5-6).
Behold, I bring them from the land of the north, and I will gather them from the sides of the earth, among them the blind and the lame one, the woman with child and her that travaileth with child together (Jer. 31:8).
In that day, saith Jehovah, I will gather her that halteth, and I will assemble her that is driven, and I will make her that halteth for remains, and her that was driven a numerous nation; and Jehovah shall reign over them in the mountain of Zion, from henceforth and to eternity (Micah 4:6-7).
At that time I will save her that halteth, and assemble her that was driven, and I will make them a praise and a name (Zeph. 3:19).
That in these passages by the “lame” and the “halt” are not meant the lame and the halt, may be seen by everyone, for it is said of them that they “shall leap,” “shall be assembled,” “shall be made for remains,” and “shall be saved;” but it is evident that those are signified who are in good and not so much in truths, as is the case with well-disposed Gentiles, and also with those of a similar nature within the church.
sRef Luke@14 @13 S5′ sRef Luke@14 @14 S5′ sRef Luke@14 @21 S5′  Such are also meant by the “lame” of whom the Lord speaks in Luke:
Jesus said, When thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, and the blind; then thou shalt be blessed (Luke 14:13-14).
And in the same:
The master of the house said to his servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and the maimed, and the lame, and the blind (Luke 14:21).
The Ancient Church distinguished into classes the neighbor or neighbors toward whom they were to perform the works of charity; and some they called “maimed,” some “lame,” some “blind,” and some “deaf,” meaning those who were spiritually so. Some also they called the “hungry,” the “thirsty,” “strangers,” the “naked,” the “sick,” the “captives” (Matt. 25:33-36); and some “widows,” “orphans,” the “needy,” the “poor,” and the “miserable;” by whom they meant no other than those who were such as to truth and good, and who were to be suitably instructed, led on their way, and thus provided for as to their souls. But as at this day charity does not make the church, but faith, what is meant in the Word by these persons is altogether unknown; and yet it is manifest to everyone that it is not meant that the maimed, the lame, and the blind are to be called to a feast, and that it was not commanded by the master of the house that such should be brought in, but that those are meant who are spiritually such; also that in every thing spoken by the Lord there is what is Divine, consequently a celestial and spiritual sense.
sRef Mark@9 @45 S6′  Similar is the meaning of the Lord’s words in Mark:
If thy foot cause thee to stumble, cut it off; it is good for thee to enter into life lame, rather than having two feet to be cast into the gehenna of fire, into fire unquenchable (Mark 9:45; Matt. 18:8);
by the “foot which must be cut off” if it caused stumbling, is meant the natural, which is constantly opposing itself to the spiritual – that it must be destroyed if it attempt to impair truths; and thus that on account of the disagreement and dissuasion of the natural man, it is better to be in simple good, although in the denial of truth. This is signified by “entering into life lame.” (That the “foot” is the natural may be seen above, n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280.)
sRef Ps@35 @15 S7′ sRef Isa@33 @23 S7′  By the “lame” in the Word are also signified those who are in no good, and thence in no truth, as in Isaiah:
Then shall the prey that multiplieth be divided, the lame shall plunder the prey (Isa. 33:23).
When I am halting they are glad and gather themselves together; the lame whom I knew not gather themselves together against me (Ps. 35:15).
And because such are signified by the “lame,” it was forbidden to sacrifice anything that was lame (Deut. 15:21, 22; Mal. 1:8, 13); and also that anyone of the seed of Aaron who was lame should discharge the office of the priesthood (Lev. 21:18). It is similar with the lame as with the blind, for the “blind” in a good sense signify those who are in ignorance of truth, and in the opposite sense those who are in falsities (n. 2383).
 In the original language the “lame” is expressed by one word, and “he that halteth” by another, and by the “lame” in the proper sense are signified those who are in natural good into which spiritual truths cannot flow, on account of natural appearances and the fallacies of the senses; and in the opposite sense those who are in no natural good, but in evil, which altogether obstructs the influx of spiritual truth; whereas by “him that halteth,” in the proper sense, are signified those who are in natural good into which general truths are admitted, but on account of their ignorance, not particular and singular truths; and in the opposite sense, those who are in evil and thus do not admit even general truths.
Thus said the Lord Jehovih unto these bones, I will put sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and I will put breath in you; and I beheld, and lo, there were sinews upon them, and flesh came up (Ezek. 37:5-6, 8).
Here the subject treated of is the new creation of man, that is, his regeneration. But when truths have been distorted, they then no longer become truths, but in proportion as they are distorted to what is opposite, they accede to falsities; and hence it is that by the “nerve of that which was displaced” is signified falsity. (That the hollow of the thigh is where there is the conjunction of conjugial love with natural good, consequently where there is influx of spiritual truth into natural good, may be seen above, n. 4277, 4280.) Hence it is evident that by “therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced which is upon the hollow of the thigh,” is signified that those truths were not appropriated in which were falsities. That these things are said of the sons of Israel because by “Israel” is signified the Divine celestial spiritual, may be seen above (n. 4286), and by “sons” truths (n. 489, 491, 2623); and thus the meaning is that the truths of the Divine celestial spiritual did not appropriate to themselves any falsities.
* The Latin word nervus means both a nerve and a sinew. That in Gen. 32 the great nervus ischiadicus or sciatic nerve is meant, see n. 5051. [Reviser]
 The reason why the spirit called himself God was that Jacob believed this; like his posterity, who constantly believed that Jehovah was in their holy external, when yet Jehovah was present only representatively, as will be evident from what follows. They also believed that Jehovah led into temptations, that all evil was from Him, and that He was in anger and fury when they were punished. For this reason it was so expressed in the Word, in accordance with their belief, when yet Jehovah never leads into temptations, nor is there ever anything evil from Him, nor is He ever in anger, and still less in fury (see n. 223, 245, 592, 696, 1093, 1683, 1874, 1875, 2395, 3605, 3607, 3614). This is also the reason why he who wrestled with Jacob was not willing to reveal his name. That in the internal spiritual sense by him who wrestled with Jacob is meant the angelic heaven (n. 4295), is because the Lord, who in the supreme sense is there represented by Jacob, allowed angels also to tempt Him; and because the angels were at that time left to what is their own, as was shown in the number cited.
 What it is to be present representatively, must be briefly told. A man who is in bodily and worldly love and not at the same time in spiritual and heavenly love, has none but evil spirits with him, even when he is in a holy external; for good spirits cannot possibly be present with such a person, because they at once perceive in what kind of love a man is. There is a sphere which is exhaled from his interiors, which spirits perceive as manifestly as a man perceives by his sense of smell offensive and foul vapors floating around him in the air. That nation which is here treated of, was in such a state as to good and truth, or as to love and faith. In order, however, that they might serve as the representative of a church, it was miraculously provided by the Lord that when they were in a holy external, and were at the same time surrounded by evil spirits, the holy in which they were might yet be uplifted into heaven; and this by good spirits and angels not within but without them, for within them there was nothing but emptiness or uncleanness. Communication was therefore given not with the man himself, but with the holy itself in which they were when they fulfilled the statutes and precepts given them, which were all representative of spiritual and heavenly things of the Lord’s kingdom. This is signified by the Lord’s being present with that nation representatively. But the Lord is present in a very different way with those within the church who are in spiritual love and thence in faith. With these there are good spirits and angels not only in their external worship, but also at the same time in their internal; and therefore with them there exists a communication of heaven with themselves; for the Lord flows into them through heaven through their internals into their externals. To these the holy of worship is profitable in the other life, but not to the former.
 It is similar with priests and elders who preach holy things, and yet are in evil life and evil belief. With these there are not good, but evil spirits, even when they are in worship that appears holy in the external form. For it is the love of self and of the world, or a love for securing honors and acquiring gain and thereby fame, that fires them and presents an appearance of affection for what is holy, sometimes to such a degree that no simulation is perceived, nor is at the time believed by them to exist; when yet they are in the midst of evil spirits, who are then in a similar state, and who breathe upon them and into them. That evil spirits can be in such a state, and are so when they are in their externals, and are inflated with the love of self and of the world, has been given me to know by manifold experience, which of the Lord’s Divine mercy will be described hereafter at the end of the chapters. Such preachers have no communication with heaven in themselves; and yet those have who hear and receive the words from their mouth, if they are in a pious and holy internal; for it matters not from whom the voice of good and truth flows forth, provided their life is not manifestly wicked; for this life causes a scandal.
 That the nation descended from Jacob was of such a character (namely, that they were surrounded with evil spirits, and yet the Lord was present with them representatively), may be seen from many passages in the Word; for they were very far from worshiping Jehovah with the heart, and as soon as miracles were lacking, they immediately turned to other gods and became idolaters. This was a manifest proof that at heart they worshiped other gods and confessed Jehovah with the mouth only, and this merely for the reason that they might be the greatest and have preeminence over all the nations round about. That this people at heart worshiped an Egyptian idol, and only confessed Jehovah with the mouth on account of His miracles (with Aaron himself among them), is plainly evident from the golden calf which Aaron made for them, and this but a month after they had seen such great miracles on Mount Sinai, besides those which they had seen in Egypt (see Exod. 32). That Aaron also was of the same character is plainly stated at verses 2 to 5, and especially in verse 35. The same appears also from many other passages in Moses, in the book of the Judges, in the books of Samuel, and in the books of the Kings.
sRef Lev@16 @16 S5′  That they were only in external worship and not in any internal worship, is evident also from the fact that they were forbidden to come near to Mount Sinai when the Law was promulgated, and were told that if they touched the mountain, they should surely die (Exod. 19:11-13; 20:16, 19). The reason was that their internal was unclean. It is also said in Moses:
That Jehovah dwelt with them in the midst of their uncleannesses (Lev. 16:16).
The quality of that nation is evident also from the song of Moses (Deut. 32:15-43), and from many passages in the Prophets. From all this it may be known that with that nation there was not any church, but only a representative of a church, and that the Lord was present with them only representatively.
 Compare also what has previously been stated in regard to them:
That with the posterity of Jacob there was a representative of a church, but not a church (n. 4281, 4288);
That the representative of a church was not instituted with them until after they had been altogether vastated as to a holy internal, and that they would otherwise have profaned holy things (n. 3398, 4289);
That when they remained in their statutes they could represent, but not when they turned aside from them (n. 3881e);
That on this account they were kept strictly in rituals, and that they were driven thereto by external means (n. 3147, 4281);
That their worship was made external without internal in order that they might serve as a representative of a church (n. 4281);
That for this reason also the interior things of the church were not disclosed to them (n. 301-303, 2520, 3398, 3479, 3769);
That they were of such a nature that they could more than others be in a holy external without an internal (n. 4293);
That for this reason they have been preserved to this day (n. 3479);
And that their holy external does not affect them at all as to their souls (n. 3479).
sRef Matt@21 @36 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @34 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @19 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @41 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @42 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @18 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @17 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @39 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @38 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @37 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @16 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @40 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @35 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @45 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @23 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @24 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @20 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @21 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @43 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @44 S2′ sRef Luke@14 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @31 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @30 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @32 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @33 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @28 S2′ sRef Matt@21 @29 S2′  The quality of that nation is also plainly evident from many things spoken by the Lord Himself in parables, which in their internal historical sense were said of that nation-as in the parable of the man that was a king, who took account with his servant in whom there was no mercy toward another (Matt. 18:23-35); in the parable of the householder who let out his vineyard to husbandmen, and went abroad, and the husbandmen seized the servants whom he sent, and beat one with rods, and killed another, and stoned another; and at last he sent his son, whom they cast out of the vineyard and killed; on hearing which parable the Scribes and Pharisees recognized it as spoken of themselves (Matt. 21:33-45; Mark 12:1-9; Luke 20:9-19); in the parable of the man who gave talents to his servants, and he who received the one talent went and hid it in the earth (Matt. 25:14-30; Luke 19:13-16); in the parable of those who came to him that was wounded by the robbers (Luke 10:30-37); in the parable of those who were invited to the great supper, and all excused themselves, of whom the Lord says, I say to you that none of those men who were bidden shall taste of my supper (Luke 14:16-24); in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31); in the parable of those who despise others in comparison with themselves (Luke 18:10-14); in the parable of the two sons, one of whom said, I will go into the vineyard, but went not; and Jesus said, “Verily I say unto you, that the publicans and harlots go into the kingdom of heaven before you” (Matt. 21:28-32).
sRef Mark@7 @13 S3′ sRef Mark@7 @10 S3′ sRef Mark@7 @9 S3′ sRef Mark@7 @12 S3′ sRef Mark@7 @8 S3′ sRef Mark@7 @7 S3′ sRef Mark@7 @11 S3′ sRef John@8 @33 S3′ sRef Matt@23 @32 S3′ sRef Matt@23 @33 S3′ sRef John@8 @44 S3′ sRef Matt@23 @31 S3′ sRef Mark@7 @6 S3′ sRef Matt@12 @34 S3′  The quality of that nation the Lord openly declared in Matthew 23:13-39, where He says: “Ye witness against yourselves, that ye are the sons of them that killed the prophets, and ye fill up the measure of your fathers” (Matt. 23:13-33). In Mark, “Jesus said unto them, Rightly did Esaias prophesy of you, This people honoreth Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me; in vain do they worship Me, teaching for doctrines the precepts of men, forsaking the commandments of God” (Mark 7:6-13). In John: The Jews answered Jesus that they were the seed of Abraham; but Jesus said to them, “Ye are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father ye will to do; he was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth, because the truth is not in him; when he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own; because he is the speaker of a lie, and the father of it” (John 8:33, 44). Because they were such, they are also called an “evil and adulterous generation” (Matt. 12:39), and the “offspring of vipers” (Matt. 3:7; 23:33; Luke 3:7); “O offspring of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things?” (Matt. 12:34).
sRef Matt@21 @19 S4′  That not even any natural good was left with that nation, is signified by the fig-tree spoken of in Matthew:
Jesus seeing a fig-tree in the way, came to it, but found nothing thereon but leaves only; therefore He said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee henceforth forever, and presently the fig-tree withered away (Matt. 21:19);
that the fig-tree denotes natural good may be seen above (n. 217).
 From these passages it may be seen that goods and truths were altogether destroyed with that nation. Goods and truths are said to be destroyed when there are none interiorly. The goods and truths which appear outwardly derive their being and their living from those which are internal; and therefore such as are the internal ones, such are the external, howsoever the latter may appear to the eyes of man. There are some whom I knew in their bodily life, and who then appeared as having zeal for the Lord, for the church, for their country and the common good, and for justice and equity; and yet in the other life these same are among the infernals, and (what astonished me) among the worst there. The reason was, that their interiors had been foul and profane, and that they had counterfeited that zeal for the sake of reputation, in order to acquire honors and also to gain wealth; thus for their own sakes, and not for the sake of what they professed with the mouth. When therefore these externals are put off, which takes place when men die, the internals are laid open and appear as they had been within, and which during life they had hidden from the world. This is what is meant by the goods and truths being altogether destroyed.
sRef Gen@38 @11 S2′ sRef Gen@38 @5 S2′  The quality of Judah may also be seen from the fact that he took a Canaanitess for his wife (Gen. 38:1, 2), which nevertheless was contrary to what had been commanded, as may be seen from Abraham’s words to his servant, whom he sent to betroth Rebekah to his son Isaac (Gen. 24:3, 6); and from many other passages in the Word. A third part of that nation was from this stock, that is, from his son Shelah who was born of the Canaanitish mother (Gen. 38:11; 46:12; see Num. 26:20; 1 Chron. 4:21, 22). The same may be further seen from the wicked deed of these and the other sons of Jacob against Joseph (Gen. 37:18-36). The quality of their posterity in Egypt is manifest from what is related of them when they were in the wilderness, where they were so often rebellious; and afterwards in the land of Canaan, where they so frequently became idolaters. Lastly, their quality in the Lord’s time has been shown just above (see n. 4314); and what they are at this day is known, namely, opposed to the Lord, to the things of the church, to charity toward the neighbor, and to one another. From all this it may be seen that this nation has ever been of this nature. Let no one therefore any longer entertain the opinion that there was any church among them, or more than a representative of a church, and still less that they were chosen in preference to others.
sRef Deut@29 @2 S2′ sRef Deut@29 @4 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @31 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @34 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @28 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @33 S2′ sRef Deut@31 @21 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @29 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @30 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @32 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @27 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @26 S2′ sRef Deut@32 @20 S2′  That they had such a heredity and that they could not be regenerated, is very evident from all that is related of them in the Word, and particularly from these passages in Moses:
Moses called all Israel, and said unto them, Ye have seen all things that Jehovah hath done in your eyes in the land of Egypt unto Pharaoh and unto all his servants, and unto all his land; and Jehovah hath not given you a heart to know, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, even unto this day (Deut. 29:2, 4).
In the same:
I know the figment of the people which they do at this day, before I bring them into the land which I sware (Deut. 31:21).
I will hide My faces from them, I will see what is the last of them; for they are a generation of perversities, sons in whom is no truth. I would exterminate them, I would cause their memory to cease from man, were it not that I feared the indignation of the enemy. For they are a nation that perisheth in counsels, and there is no intelligence in them; for their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and their grapes are of the fields of Gomorrah; their grapes are hemlock, the clusters are bitter to them. Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel head of asps. Is not this laid up in store with Me, sealed in My treasures? (Deut. 32:20, 26-34);
and in many other places, especially in Jeremiah.
sRef Hos@12 @3 S3′ sRef Hos@12 @4 S3′ sRef Hos@12 @2 S3′  That this was signified by the “touch upon the hollow of Jacob’s thigh,” and his consequent lameness, is manifest in Hosea:
The controversy of Jehovah with Judah, to visit upon Jacob, according to his ways, and according to his works He will render to him; he supplanted his brother in the womb; in his grief he contended with God, and contended toward the angel, and prevailed; he wept and entreated him (Hos. 12:3-5).
where “to contend with God,” in the internal historical sense, is to be urgent that the representative of a church should be with them (see n. 4290, 4293). From this it is evident that they had such a heredity from Jacob himself, and the same might be shown from many more passages which must be passed over for the present.
 As regards heredity specifically, it is believed in the church at this day that all hereditary evil is from the first parent, and that all are therefore condemned in regard thereto. But the case is not so. Hereditary evil derives its origin from everyone’s parents and parents’ parents, or from grandparents and ancestors successively. Every evil which they have acquired by actual life, even so that by frequent use or habit it has become like a nature, is derived into the children, and becomes hereditary to them, together with that which had been implanted in the parents from grandparents and ancestors. The hereditary evil from the father is more inward, and the hereditary evil from the mother is more outward. The former cannot be easily rooted out, but the latter can. When man is being regenerated, the hereditary evil inrooted from his nearest parents is plucked up by the roots; but with those who are not being regenerated, or who cannot be regenerated, it remains. This then is hereditary evil (see also n. 313, 494, 2122, 2910, 3518, 3701). This is also evident to everyone who reflects, and also from the fact that every family has some peculiar evil or good by which it is distinguished from other families; and that this is from parents and ancestors is known. It is similar with the Jewish nation remaining at this day, which is evidently distinct from other nations, and is known from them, not only by its peculiar genius, but also by manners, speech, and face.
 But what hereditary evil is, few know; it is believed to consist in doing evil; but it consists in willing and hence thinking evil; hereditary evil being in the will itself and in the thought thence derived; and being the very conatus or endeavor that is therein, and which adjoins itself even when the man is doing what is good. It is known by the delight that is felt when evil befalls another. This root lies deeply hidden, for the very inward form that receives from heaven (that is, through heaven from the Lord) what is good and true, is depraved, and so to speak, distorted; so that when good and truth flow in from the Lord, they are either reflected, or perverted, or suffocated. It is from this cause that no perception of good and truth exists at this day, but in place of it, with the regenerate, conscience, which acknowledges as good and true what is learned from parents and masters. It is from hereditary evil to love self more than others, to will evil to others if they do not honor us, to perceive delight in revenge, and also to love the world more than heaven; and from the same source come all the derivative cupidities or evil affections. Man is ignorant that such things are in hereditary evil, and still more that they are opposite to heavenly affections; and yet it is manifestly shown in the other life how much of evil from what is hereditary each one has drawn to himself by actual life, and also how far he has removed himself from heaven by evil affections from this source.
 That hereditary evil could not be eradicated from the posterity of Jacob by regeneration because they would not allow it, is likewise manifest from the historicals of the Word; for they gave way in all the temptations in the wilderness as recorded by Moses: and also afterwards in the land of Canaan, whenever they did not see miracles; and yet those temptations were outward but not inward or spiritual. In respect to spiritual things they could not be tempted, because as before shown they knew no internal truths, and had no internal good; and no one can be tempted except as to what he knows and what he has. Temptations are the veriest means of regeneration. These things are signified by their not allowing regeneration. As regards their state and lot in the other life, see above (n. 939-941, 3481).
It is the main point of intelligence with the angels to know and perceive that all life is from the Lord, and also that the universal heaven corresponds to His Divine Human; and consequently that all angels, spirits, and men correspond to heaven; and also to know and perceive the nature of this correspondence. These are the first principles of the intelligence in which angels are more than men; and from this they know and perceive innumerable things that are in the heavens and hence also those which are in the world; for the things which come forth in the world and its nature are causes and effects from the former as beginnings; for universal nature is a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom.
 The evil who had confirmed themselves in this opinion – that they live from themselves, and consequently that whatever they think, will, and act is from themselves-when shown that the case is exactly in accordance with the doctrine, said that they now believed. But they were told that knowing is not believing, and that believing is internal, and is impossible except in the affection of good and truth, consequently is possible to none but those who are in the good of charity toward the neighbor. Being evil, the same spirits insisted that they now believed because they saw. But examination was made by an experience familiar in the other life, namely, by their being looked into by angels; and when they were looked into, the upper part of their head appeared to be withdrawn, and the brain to be rough, hairy, and dark, which showed what is the inward quality of those who have only a faith of memory knowledge, but not a true faith; and that to know is not to believe. For the head of those who know and believe appears as human, and the brain well ordered, snow-white, and lucid; for heavenly light is received by them. But with those who only know and suppose that they thereby believe, and yet do not believe, because they live in evil, heavenly light is not received, consequently neither are the intelligence and wisdom which are in that light; and therefore when they draw near to angelic societies, that is, to heavenly light, this light is turned with them into darkness. This is the reason why their brain appeared dark.
 Influx from the cerebellum insinuates itself especially into the face, as is evident from the fact that the animus has been inscribed on the face, and the affections appear in the face, and this for the most part without the man’s will-such as fear, reverence, shame, various kind of gladness, and also of sadness, besides many other things, which are thereby made known to another in such manner that it is known from the face what affections are in the man, and what changes of animus and of mind. These things come from the cerebellum through its fibers, when there is no simulation within. It was thus shown that in the earliest times, or with the most ancient people, the general sense had possession of the whole face, and successively after those times only of the left side of it, and at last in still later times it emptied itself away from the face, so that at this day there is scarcely any general involuntary sense left in the face. The right side of the face together with the right eye corresponds to the affection of good, and the left to the affection of truth, the region where the ear is corresponding to obedience alone without affection.
 For with the most ancient people, whose age was called the Golden Age, because they were in a certain state of perfection or wholeness, and lived in love to the Lord and in mutual love as angels live, all the involuntary of the cerebellum was manifest in the face, and they did not at all know how to present anything in the countenance other than exactly as heaven flowed into their involuntary conatus or endeavors and thence into the will. But with the ancients, whose age was called the Silver Age, because they were in a state of truth, and thence in charity toward the neighbor, the involuntary of the cerebellum was not manifest in the right side of the face, but only in the left. But with their posterity, whose time was called the Iron Age, because they lived not in the affection of truth, but in obedience to truth, the involuntary was no longer manifest in the face, but betook itself to the region around the left ear. I have been instructed that the fibers of the cerebellum have thus changed their efflux into the face, and that instead of them fibers from the cerebrum have been transferred thither, which now control those which are from the cerebellum, and this from an endeavor to form the expressions of the face according to the behests of man’s own will, all of which is from the cerebrum. It does not appear to man that these things are so, but they are plainly manifest to the angels from the influx of heaven and from correspondence.
 These are they who at this day constitute for the most part the general involuntary sense. In ancient times it was these who were the most celestial of all; but at this day it is these who are the most wicked of all, and this especially from the Christian world. They are very numerous, and appear beneath the occiput and at the back, where I have often seen and perceived them. For those who at this day relate to this sense are they who think deceitfully and devise evils against the neighbor, and put on a friendly countenance, nay, most friendly, with gestures of like import, and speak kindly as if endued with charity above others, and yet are the bitterest enemies, not only of him with whom they have interaction, but also of the human race. Their thoughts have been communicated to me, and they were wicked and abominable, full of cruelties and butcheries.
 Presently the column became quite black; and around the column there was a lucidity which was variegated by something of shining white, presenting colors; by which was signified the state of the spiritual church. The black column signified the voluntary as being altogether destroyed, and as being nothing but evil; the lucidity variegated by something of shining white signified the intellectual in which was a new voluntary from the Lord; for the intellectual is represented in heaven by what is lucid.
 But there was given them an intermediate spirit, through whom they spoke with me; for such a general thing could not fall into speech except through others. When I spoke with them through the intermediate, I said (as was my opinion), that generals cannot present a distinct idea of anything, but only one so obscure that it is as it were no idea. But after a quarter of an hour they showed that they had a distinct idea of generals, and of many things in the generals; and especially by this, that they accurately and distinctly observed all the variations and changes of my thoughts and affections, together with the singulars of them, so that no other spirits could do it better. From this I was able to conclude that it is one thing to be in a general idea which is obscure, as are those who have but little knowledge, and are thus in obscurity in regard to all things; and that it is another thing to be in a general idea which is clear, as are those who have been instructed in the truths and goods which are insinuated into the general in their order and series, and are so well-ordered as to be distinctly seen from the general.
 These are they who in the other life constitute the general voluntary sense, and are those who by knowledges of good and truth have acquired the faculty of looking at things from the general, and thence contemplating things broadly together, and distinguishing instantly whether a thing is so. They do indeed see the things as it were in obscurity, because they see from the general the things that are therein, but as these are well ordered in the general, they are for this reason nevertheless in clearness to them. This general voluntary sense falls to none but the wise. That these spirits were of this character was also proved, for they viewed in me all things both in general and particular from which inference could be drawn, and from these they drew inferences so skillfully in regard to the interiors of my thoughts and affections that I began to be afraid to think any more; for they disclosed things which I did not know to be in me, and yet from the inferences made by them I could not but acknowledge them. Hence I perceived in myself a torpor in speaking with them, and when I took note of this torpor it appeared as if it were a hairy thing, with something in it speaking mutely; and it was said that by this was signified the general sensitive corporeal that corresponds to these spirits. On the following day I again spoke with them, and once more found that they had a general perception not obscure, but clear; and that as the generals and the states of the generals were varied, so were the particulars and their states varied, because the latter relate in order and series to the former.
 It was said that general voluntary senses still more perfect exist in the interior sphere of heaven; and that when the angels are in a general or universal idea, they are at the same time in the singulars, which are set in distinct order by the Lord in the universal; also that the general and universal are not anything unless there are particulars and singulars in them from which they exist and are so called, and that they exist just insofar as these are in them; and that from this it is evident that a universal providence of the Lord, without the veriest singulars being in it, and from which it exists, is nothing at all; and that it is stupid to maintain that there exists with the Divine a universal, and then to take away the singulars from it.
 It has been shown by living experience how these are opposed to the internal man. There were present very many spirits from this earth, who when they had lived in the world had been of this character, and there came into their sight spirits who relate to the internal sensuous man, and they at once began to infest them, almost as irrational persons infest those who are rational, by constantly speaking and reasoning from the fallacies of the senses, and from the illusions thence arising, and from mere hypotheses, believing nothing but what could be confirmed by external sensuous things, and moreover treating the internal man with contumely.
 But those who had relation to the internal sensuous man cared nothing for such things, and wondered not only at the insanity of the former spirits, but also at their stupidity; and wonderful to say, when the external sensuous spirits drew near the internal sensuous ones, and came almost into the sphere of their thoughts, the external sensuous began to breathe with difficulty (for spirits and angels breathe equally as do men, but their breathing is relatively internal, n. 3884-3895), and thus to be almost suffocated, so that they withdrew. And the further away they retired from the internal sensuous spirits, because they breathed more easily, the more tranquil and quiet it became with them; and again the nearer they approached, the more intranquil and unquiet.  The cause was that when the external sensuous are in their fallacies, phantasies, and hypotheses, and thence in falsities, they have tranquillity; but when on the contrary such things are taken away from them, which comes to pass when the internal man flows in with the light of truth, they then have intranquility. For in the other life there exist spheres of the thoughts and affections, and these are mutually communicated according to presence and approach (n. 1048, 1053, 1316, 1504-1512, 1695, 2401, 2489). This conflict lasted for several hours; and it was thus shown how the men of this earth are at the present day opposed to the internal man, and that the external sensuous makes almost all with them.
THE LAST JUDGMENT
But of that day and hour knoweth no one, not the angels of the heavens, but My Father only. And as were the days of Noah, so shall be the coming of the Son of man. For as they were in the days before the flood, eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and knew not until the flood came, and took them all away, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. Then shall two be in the field; one shall be taken, and one shall be left. Two women shall be grinding at the mill; one shall be taken, and one shall be left (Matt. 24:36-42).
 Second, when the spiritual church, which was after the flood, and is called the Ancient, being spread over much of the Asiatic world, ceased of itself.
 Third, when the representative of a church among the posterity of Jacob was destroyed, which took place when the ten tribes were carried away into perpetual captivity and dispersed among the nations; and finally when Jerusalem was destroyed, and the Jews also were dispersed. Because there was then a consummation of the age after the Lord’s coming, therefore also many things said by the Lord in the Evangelists concerning the consummation of that age are also applicable to the Jewish nation, and are likewise applied to them by many at this day. Nevertheless the subject treated of in the above words is specifically and especially the consummation of the age now at hand,* namely, the end of the Christian Church, which is also treated of by John in Revelation. This will be the fourth Last Judgment on this globe. What the words involve that are contained in verses 36 to 42 adduced above, will appear from their internal sense, which is as follows.
* That is, in the year 1762.
signifies the state of the church at that time as to goods and truths, that it would not appear to anyone, neither on earth nor in heaven. For by “day and hour” here is not meant day and hour, or time; but state as to good and truth. That times in the Word signify states, see n. 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356; as also do “days,” n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785; and thence also hours, but specifically state. That it is here state as to good and truth, is because the subject treated of is the church, for good and truth make the church.
 Not the angels of the heavens, but My Father only;
signifies that heaven does not know the state of the church as to good and truth specifically, but the Lord alone, and also when that state of the church will come. That the Lord Himself is meant by the “Father,” see n. 15, 1729, 2004, 2005, 3690; and that the Divine Good in the Lord is what is called the “Father,” and the Divine Truth from the Divine Good “the Son,” n. 2803, 3703, 3704, 3736; and therefore they who believe that the Father is one and the Son another, and who separate them from each other, do not understand the Scriptures.
 For as they were in the days before the flood;
signifies the state of vastation of those who are of the church, which is compared to the state of vastation of the first or Most Ancient Church; the consummation of the age or Last Judgment of which is described in the Word by the “flood.” That by the “flood” is signified an inundation of evils and falsities and the consequent consummation of that age, see n. 310, 660, 662, 705, 739, 790, 805, 1120. That “days” signify states, see above.
 Eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage;
signifies their state as to the appropriation of evil and falsity, and the consequent conjunction with these. That “to eat” denotes the appropriation of good, and “to drink” the appropriation of truth, see n. 3168, 3513e, 3596; thus in the opposite sense the appropriation of evil and falsity. That “to marry” denotes conjunction with evil, and “to give in marriage,” conjunction with falsity, may be seen from what has been said and shown respecting marriage and conjugial love (n. 686, 2173, 2618, 2728, 2729, 2737-2739, 2803, 3132, 3155), namely, that in the internal sense this is the conjunction of good and truth, but here in the opposite sense the conjunction of evil and falsity. Whatever the Lord spoke, being Divine, is not the same in the internal sense as in the letter. Thus eating and drinking in the Holy Supper do not signify in the spiritual sense eating and drinking, but the appropriation of the good of the Lord’s Divine love (n. 2165, 2177, 2187, 2343, 2359, 3464, 3478, 3735, 4211, 4217). And as when predicated of the church and the Lord’s kingdom the conjugial is the conjunction of the good of love with the truth of faith, therefore from this conjunction the Lord’s kingdom is called in the Word the heavenly marriage.
 Until the day that Noah entered into the ark;
signifies the end of the former church, and the beginning of the new. For by “Noah” is signified the Ancient Church in general which succeeded the Most Ancient after the flood (n. 773, and elsewhere); and by the “ark,” the church itself (n. 639). “Day,” which is mentioned several times in these verses, signifies state, as shown just above.
 And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away;
signifies that the men of the church will not then know that they are inundated by evils and falsities, because on account of the evils and falsities in which they are they will not know what the good of love to the Lord is, and the good of charity toward the neighbor, and also what the truth of faith, and that this is from that love and charity, and is not possible except with those who live in this love and in this charity. They will also be ignorant that the internal is what saves and condemns, but not the external separate from the internal.
 So shall the coming of the Son of man be;
signifies the Divine Truth, and that they will not receive it. It has been said before (Mat. 24:27, 30), that the “coming of the Son of man” is the Divine Truth which will then be revealed (also in n. 2803, 2813, 3004-3009, and 3704).
 Then shall two be in the field; one shall be taken, and one shall be left;
signifies those within the church who are in good, and those within the church who are in evil-that they who are in good will be saved, and that they who are in evil will be condemned. That a “field” denotes the church as to good, see n. 2971, 3196, 3310, 3317, 3766.
 Two women shall be grinding at the mill; one shall be taken, and one shall be left;
signifies those within the church who are in truth, that is, in the affection of it from good, that they will be saved; and those within the church who are in truth, that is, in the affection of it from evil, that they will be condemned. That in the Word “to grind,” and a “mill” have this signification, will be evident from what now follows. From all this it is now evident that by these words is described what the state as to good and truth will be within the church when it is being rejected, and a new church is being adopted.
Come down, and sit upon the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon; sit in the earth, there is not a throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans; take a millstone and grind meal, uncover thy hair, make bare the foot, uncover the thigh, pass through the rivers (Isa. 47:1-2);
the “daughter of Babylon” denotes those whose externals appear holy and good, but their interiors are profane and evil (n. 1182, 1326); the “daughter of the Chaldeans,” those whose externals appear holy and true, but their interiors are profane and false (n. 1368, 1816); “to take a millstone and grind meal” denotes to hatch doctrinal things from the truths which they pervert; for as meal is from wheat or barley, it signifies truths from good, but in the opposite sense truths which they pervert in order to mislead. In Jeremiah:
I will destroy from them the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of the millstones and the light of the lamp; and this whole land shall be for a waste and a desolation (Jer. 25:10-11).
sRef Rev@18 @22 S2′ sRef Rev@18 @23 S2′ sRef Lam@5 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@18 @21 S2′ sRef Lam@5 @14 S2′ sRef Lam@5 @11 S2′ sRef Lam@5 @13 S2′  And in John:
Every craftsman of every craft shall not be found in Babylon any more, every voice of the millstone shall not be heard therein any more; and the light of a lamp shall not shine therein any more; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall not be heard therein any more (Rev. 18:21-23);
“the voice of a millstone being heard no more in Babylon” denotes that there will be no truth; and “the light of a lamp shining no more,” that there will be no intelligence of truth. In Lamentations:
They ravished the women in Zion, the virgins in the cities of Judah; princes were hanged up by their hand, the faces of the old men were not honored; the young men were carried away to grind, and the children fall in the wood (Lam. 5:11-14);
“the young men being carried away to grind” denotes to hatch falsities by applying truths, and thus persuading.
sRef Ex@11 @5 S3′  In Moses:
Every firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, to the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mills (Exod. 11:5);
the “firstborn of Egypt” denotes the truths of faith separated from the good of charity, which truths become falsities (n. 3325); the “firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mills” denotes the affection of such truth, whence come falsities. These things were represented by these historicals.
sRef Deut@24 @6 S4′  In the same:
He shall not take in pledge the mills or the millstone, for they are the soul of him that pledgeth (Deut. 24:6).
This law was enacted because by “mills” were signified doctrinal things, and by a “millstone,” the truths thereof, which are what are called the “soul of him that pledgeth.” It is manifest that this law would not have been given, nor would it have been said that it was his “soul,” unless mills and a millstone had a spiritual signification.
 That grinding derives its signification from representatives that come forth in the world of spirits, has been shown me; for I have seen there those who were as if grinding without any end of use, and merely for their own pleasure. And as in such a case truths are devoid of their own affection from good, they do indeed appear as truths in the outward form; but as there is no internal in them, they are phantasms; and if there is an evil internal, they are then employed to confirm the evil; and thus by application to evil they become falsities.
1. And Jacob lifted up his eyes, and saw, and behold Esau came, and with him four hundred men. And he divided the children over unto Leah, and over unto Rachel, and over unto the two handmaids.
2. And he put the handmaids and their children first, and Leah and her children after, and Rachel and Joseph after.
3. And he himself passed over before them, and bowed himself to the earth seven times, until he drew near even unto his brother.
4. And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell upon his neck, and kissed him; and they wept.
5. And he lifted up his eyes, and saw the women and the children; and said, Who are these to thee? And he said, The children whom God hath graciously bestowed upon thy servant.
6. And the handmaids drew near, they and their children, and they bowed themselves.
7. And Leah also and her children drew near, and they bowed themselves; and afterwards Joseph and Rachel drew near, and bowed themselves.
8. And he said, What to thee are all these camps which I met? And he said, To find grace in the eyes of my lord.
9. And Esau said, I have much my brother, be to thee what is to thee.
10. And Jacob said, Nay I pray, if I pray I have found grace in thine eyes, then accept my present from my hand; for because that I have seen thy faces like seeing the faces of God, and thou hast accepted me.
11. Take I pray my blessing that is brought to thee; because God hath graciously bestowed upon me, and because I have all. And he urged him, and he took it.
12. And he said, Let us journey, and go, and I will go close by thee.
13. And he said unto him, My lord knoweth that the children are tender, and that the flocks and the herds are suckling with me, and if they drive them on in one day, all the flocks will die.
14. Let my lord I pray pass over before his servant, and I will proceed slowly to the foot of the work that is before me, and to the foot of the children, until I come unto my lord unto Seir.
15. And Esau said, Let me set I pray with thee of the people who are with me. And he said, Wherefore is this? Let me find grace in the eyes of my lord.
16. And Esau returned in that day unto his way, unto Seir.
17. And Jacob journeyed to Succoth, and built him a house, and made booths for his acquisition; therefore he called the name of the place Succoth.
18. And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came thither from Paddan-aram, and encamped to the faces of the city.
19. And he bought the portion of the field, where he had stretched his tent, from the hand of the sons of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for a hundred kesitah.
20. And he erected there an altar, and he called it El Elohe Israel.
The subject here treated of in the internal sense is the conjunction of Divine good natural which is “Esau,” with the good of truth which is “Jacob;” thus the submission of the latter, and its instilling into Divine good natural. The process by which this is effected is described. Lastly the acquisition of interior truths is treated of.
In the foregoing chapters, where “Jacob” is spoken of, the subject treated of in the internal sense was the acquisition of truth in the natural, which acquisition is made in order that this truth may be conjoined with good, for all truth is for the sake of this end. “Jacob,” in the internal sense, is this truth, and “Esau” is the good with which the truth is to be conjoined. Before the conjunction is effected, truth appears to be in the first place; but after the conjunction, good is actually in the first place (see n. 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 3995). This is also what is signified by the prophecy of Isaac to Esau: “Upon thy sword shalt thou live, and thou shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shall break his yoke from off thy neck” (Gen. 27:40). And this state is what is described in the present chapter. For this reason Jacob calls Esau his “lord,” and himself his “servant” (verses 5, 8, 13, 14).
 Be it known that Jacob here represents the good of truth. But regarded in itself the good of truth is only truth; for so long as truth is in the memory only, it is called truth; but when in the will and thence in act, it is called the good of truth; for to do truth is nothing else. Whatever proceeds from the will is called good, for the essential of the will is love and the derivative affection; and everything that is done from love and its affection is named good. Neither can truth be conjoined with the good that flows in through the internal man and is in its origin Divine (which is here represented by Esau), until the truth is truth in will and act; that is, the good of truth. For the good that flows in through the internal man and is in its origin Divine, flows into the will, and there meets the good of truth that has been instilled through the external man.
 The good itself which is to be conjoined with truth is not tempted, but the truth. And moreover truth is not tempted by good, but by falsities and evils, and also by fallacies and illusions and the affection of these, which adhere to truths in the natural. For when good flows in, which is effected by an internal way, or through the internal rational man, the ideas of the natural man, formed from the fallacies of the senses and the derivative illusions, cannot endure its approach, for they are in disagreement with it, and hence comes anxiety in the natural, and temptation. These are the things which are described in this chapter in the internal sense by Jacob’s coming into fear and thence into anxiety, and consequently into a state of submission and humiliation, when Esau came with four hundred men; for their conjunction is not effected in any other way. From this it may be seen that by the “four hundred men” is signified a state of temptations; by “four hundred,” this state itself, and by “men,” the rational truths which are conjoined with good when it flows into the natural. (That by “men” are signified intellectual and rational things, may be seen n. 265, 749, 1007, 3134.)
 But these things are such as fall into obscurity with man, for the reason that when he is living in the body, the distinction between the rational and the natural does not appear-not at all to those who are not regenerate, and very little even to those who are regenerate. For they do not reflect upon it, nor indeed do they care about it, for the knowledges of the interior things of man have been almost obliterated, and yet in old time these made the all of intelligence with men within the church. These things may however in some degree appear from what has been shown before concerning the rational and its influx into the natural, namely, that the natural is regenerated through the rational (n. 3286, 3288), and that the rational receives truths before the natural (n. 3368, 3671). These truths, which inflow with good from the rational into the natural, are what in the internal sense are signified by the “four hundred men” who came with Esau.
 With regard to generals, these are called generals because they consist of particulars, consequently because they contain particulars within them. Generals without particulars are not generals, but are so called from particulars. The case herein is like that of a whole and its parts. A whole cannot be called a whole unless there are parts, for the whole consists of parts. For in the nature of things there is nothing which does not come forth and subsist from other things, and because it comes forth and subsists from other things it is called a general, and the things of which it consists and from which it subsists are said to be particulars. External things are what consist of internal things, and therefore external things are relatively general. It is so with man and his faculties; the more exterior these are, the more general they are; for they consist of things more interior, and these of inmost things in order.
 The body itself, and the things of the body, such as those called the external senses and the actions, are relatively the most general. The natural mind and the things of this mind are less general, because more interior, and relatively are called particulars. But the rational mind and the things of this mind are still more interior, and relatively are singulars. All this is manifest to the life when man puts off the body and becomes a spirit; for it is then manifest to him that his bodily things had been no other than the most general of the things of his spirit, and that the bodily things had come forth and subsisted from those of his spirit; thus that the things of the spirit had been relatively particulars. And when the same spirit becomes an angel (that is, when he is uplifted into heaven), it is manifest to him that the same things which he had previously seen and felt in general, and thus in obscurity, he now sees and feels in particular and in clearness; for he now sees and feels innumerable things which he had previously seen and felt as one.
 This is also evident from man himself during his life in the world-the things which he sees and feels in infancy are most general; but those which he sees and feels in childhood and youth are the particulars of these generals; and those which he sees and feels in adult age are the singulars of these particulars. For as a man advances in age, he instills particulars into the generals of infancy, and afterwards singulars into the particulars. For he advances successively toward things more interior, and infills the generals with particulars, and the particulars with singulars. From this it may now be seen what is meant by “order from the generals in which were all the rest,” which is signified by his placing the handmaids and their children first, and Leah and her children after, and Rachel and her children after.
 When a man is being regenerated, or what is the same, when the truths in him are being conjoined with good, the case is similar, and this is the subject here treated of. Then general affections with their truths (which here are the “handmaids” and their “children”), are first instilled into good; then those less general (that is, those which are relatively particulars), which here are “Leah” and her “children;” and finally those still less general (that is, those which are relatively singulars), which here are “Rachel” and “Joseph.” For man then passes in like manner as it were through ages, first being in his infancy, and then in childhood and youth, and finally in adult age.
 As regards humiliation and submission, few know why this must be in presence of the Divine when man is in worship; and consequently they do not know what it effects. They who are not in the knowledge of interior things cannot believe otherwise than that the Divine wills the humiliation and submission of man, as a man does who is in the lust of glory; and consequently that the Divine wills glory therefrom, and is affected with the glory which man ascribes to Him. But the case is altogether different. The Divine is not in any affection of glory, for what glory has the Divine from man? But He wills humiliation and submission, not for His own, but for man’s sake. For when man is in humiliation he feels aversion for the evil and falsity in him (n. 2327, 2423, 3994), and thus removes them, and on their removal the Divine can flow in with good and truth. Everyone may be aware of this in himself. He who is of elated mind is in the love of self, and not only sets himself above others, but also cares nothing for the Divine, and consequently rejects the influx of good, and thence its conjunction with truths. This is the genuine reason for man’s humiliation before the Divine.
 It is therefore manifest that good cannot be conjoined with truths, thus that man cannot be regenerated, unless he humbles and submits himself. Humiliation and submission are predicated of truths because truths flow in through the external man, but good through the internal; and the things that inflow through the external man are attended with fallacies and the consequent falsities with their affections; whereas this is not the case with the things that inflow through the internal man, because it is the Divine that flows in through this, and comes to meet truths, in order that they may be conjoined. From this it is now manifest what is meant by the submission of all things, which is signified by Jacob’s “bowing himself to the earth seven times, until he drew near even unto his brother.”
 The conjunction of good with truths in the natural is here described, with which the case is this: Good flows in through the internal man into the external, and there conjoins itself with the truths that have been instilled through the external man. For the good that flows in through the internal is of love, because there is not any spiritual and celestial good that is not of love, from this it is, and from this it is called good in man. The love itself which is in good and with good is that which conjoins. Unless love were within and present, there could not possibly be any conjunction; for love is nothing else than spiritual conjunction, because this is effected by it. The love is from no other source than the Lord, for He is the fountain and origin of all celestial and spiritual love, consequently of all the good thence derived. This love is twofold-celestial and spiritual. Celestial love is love to the Lord, and spiritual love is love toward the neighbor, which is called charity. It is these loves from which is all celestial and spiritual good, and which conjoin themselves with the truths which are called the truths of faith; for the truths of faith regarded without love are only words without life; but through love, and thus through conjunction with the good of love, they receive life. It may be seen from this, that there is never anything of faith except with those who are in the good of love, and that the faith is according to the love.
 And as there is never anything of faith except with those who are in the good of love, therefore neither is there any confidence or trust. With all those who are not in love and charity, the trust or confidence which is called the trust or confidence of faith, is either spurious, or such as is also possible with diabolical spirits when they are in a state of fear or of anguish, or in a state of persuasion from the love of self and of the world. But because at this day men have made faith saving without the goods of charity, and yet see from afar that the truths of faith cannot save, because these exist also with the wicked, therefore they acknowledge confidence and trust, and call this faith, not knowing what it is, and that it is possible even with the wicked, and that there is no spiritual confidence except that which flows in through the good of love and charity-not at the time when the man is in fear and anguish, or in persuasion from the love of self and of the world, but when he is in a state of freedom; and not with any but those in whom good has been conjoined with truths, and inrooted by the previous course of life; thus not in sickness, misfortunes, perils of life, or when death is at hand. If this confidence or trust which appears in a state of compulsion would save a man, all mortals would be saved; for to this kind of confidence everyone is easily reduced, and there are none to whom the Lord, who wills the salvation of all, would not impart it. But as regards the confidence or trust which is called faith-what this is, what is its nature and with whom it is found, will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told elsewhere.
 It is manifest from what has been explained that the conjunction of good with truths (by which regeneration is effected) progresses more and more interiorly; that is, truths are successively conjoined more interiorly with good. For the end of regeneration is that the internal man may be conjoined with the external, thus the spiritual with the natural through the rational. Without the conjunction of both of these there is no regeneration. Nor can this conjunction be effected until good has first been conjoined with truths in the natural; for the natural must be the plane, and the things that are in the natural must correspond. This is the reason why when the natural is being regenerated, the conjunction of good with truths becomes successively more interior. For the spiritual conjoins itself first with the things which are inmost in the natural, and then by means of these with those which are more exterior. Nor can man’s internal conjoin itself with his external, unless the truth in the external becomes the good of truth, that is, truth in will and act (n. 4337); for then for the first time they can be conjoined, inasmuch as the Lord flows in with man through his internal man, and in fact through the good therein. This good can be conjoined with good in the external man, but not good with truth immediately.
 From this it may be seen that the truth in man must first become truth in will and act (that is, the good of truth), before the conjunction of the rational with the natural, or the internal man with the external, can take place. But how truth becomes the good of truth, must be evident to everyone who pays attention. All Divine truth regards these two precepts-to love God above all things, and the neighbor as one’s self. It is these precepts from which and for the sake of which truths are, and to which truths tend, more nearly and more remotely. Therefore when truths are put into act, they are instilled successively into their beginning and their end, namely, into charity toward the neighbor, and into love to the Lord; and thereby truth becomes good, which is called the good of truth; and when this takes place, it can then be conjoined with the internal man, which conjunction becomes successively more interior, in proportion as more interior truths are implanted in this good. Act precedes, man’s willing follows; for that which a man does from the understanding, he at last does from the will, and finally puts it on as a habit; and it is then instilled in his rational or internal man. And when it has been instilled in this, the man no longer does good from truth, but from good; for he then begins to perceive therein somewhat of blessedness, and as it were somewhat of heaven. This remains with him after death, and by means of it he is uplifted into heaven by the Lord.
 The case is the same in spiritual things, or in matters of faith, when these are being conjoined with the good of charity. Man believes that goods and truths flow in immediately from heaven, thus without mediums within him; but he is much mistaken. The Lord leads everyone by means of his affections, and thus bends him by a tacit providence, for He leads him through freedom (n. 1937, 1947). That all freedom is of affection or love, may be seen above (n. 2870, 2873); and hence all the conjunction of good with truth is effected in freedom, but not in compulsion (n. 2875-2878, 2881, 3145, 3146, 3158, 4031). When therefore man has been led in freedom to good, truths are then accepted and implanted, and he begins to be affected by them, and is thus introduced little by little into heavenly freedom. When one who has been regenerated (that is, who loves his neighbor, and still more who loves the Lord) reflects upon his past life, he will find that he has been led by many things of his thought and by many of his affection.
 What is here specifically meant by the special things which are thence derived, may be seen more clearly from examples. Let the truth which is to be instilled into good be this-that man has life after death. This truth is not accepted unless it is confirmed by special things, as by these-that a man can think not only of the things he sees and feels, but also of those which he does not see and feel; that he can also be affected by them; that he can be conjoined with them by affection, consequently with heaven, nay with the Lord Himself; and that he who can be conjoined with the Divine, can never die. These and many more such things are the special things which first occur, before this truth is being instilled into good, that is, before it is fully believed. This truth does indeed first submit itself, but still the special things cause it to be accepted.
 Take as another example the truth that man is a spirit, and that he is clothed with a body while he lives in the world. This also is a truth which is to be instilled into good; for unless it has been so instilled, the man cares nothing for heaven, for he then thinks of himself as he does of the brute animals. But this truth cannot be instilled except by means of special things, as by these-that the body which he carries about serves for uses in this world, namely, that he may see the things that are in the world with material eyes, and may act by material muscles, thereby having powers that are adapted to the heavy things in the world; and that nevertheless there is something more interior which thinks and wills of which the body is the instrumental or material organ; and that a man’s spirit is himself, or the man himself, who acts and feels through these organic forms; and that he can confirm this by many of his own experiences if he is once in the belief that the case is so. All these are special things, which are set forth in advance, and which cause the truth itself that is in question to be instilled into good; and they are derived from it. It is these and similar things that are here signified by the “camps.”
 The reason why this kind of thing does not appear in spiritual life as in civil life, is that there are few in whom good is being conjoined with truths, that is, who are being regenerated; and moreover the few who are being regenerated do not reflect upon such things; nor can they do so, for they do not know what spiritual good is, because they do not know what charity is and what in the genuine sense the neighbor is. And as they do not know these things, neither can they have an interior idea of the truth that belongs to faith. And moreover they separate spiritual life from civil life so widely, that they would not dare to draw any idea of the one from the other. That the two correspond, and that spiritual life is represented in civil life, they know not at all, and some do not even allow any comparison; when yet the case really is that no idea can be had of spiritual life except from the things that are in civil life; and therefore if the latter is set aside, the former falls to the ground, until at last it is no longer believed in-as may be plainly evident from the fact that it is no longer believed that spirits and angels associate and converse together as men do, and reason in like manner as men do about what is honorable and becoming, just and fair, and good and true, and this much more perfectly; still less that they see, hear, and explore one another, join together in societies, dwell together, and many other like things.
 By the reciprocal of affection, which is instilled by the good which is Esau into the truth which is Jacob, there is meant the affection of truth. For there are two affections which are heavenly-the affection of good, and the affection of truth (occasionally treated of already). The affection of truth originates solely from good. The affection itself comes from this source; for truth has no life from itself, but receives life from good; and therefore when a man is affected by truth, this is not from truth, but from the good that flows into the truth, and produces the affection itself. This is what is here meant by the “reciprocal of affection in order that it might be instilled.” It is known that there are many within the church who are affected by the Word of the Lord, and who bestow much pains on the reading of it; but still there are few who have as their end that they may be instructed in the truth, for most remain in their own dogma, the confirmation of which from the Word is their sole aim. These seem to be in the affection of truth, but are not; for those alone are in the affection of truth who love to be instructed about truths, that is, to know what the truth is, and to search the Scriptures for this end. No one is in this affection except the man who is in good, that is, who is in charity toward the neighbor, and still more he who is in love to the Lord. With these good itself flows into truth, and produces the affection, for the Lord is present in this good. This may be illustrated by the following examples.
sRef Matt@16 @18 S3′ sRef Matt@16 @19 S3′ sRef Matt@16 @16 S3′ sRef Matt@16 @18 S3′ sRef Matt@16 @15 S3′ sRef Matt@16 @17 S3′ sRef Matt@16 @19 S3′  They who are in the good of genuine charity, and read the words which the Lord spoke to Peter:
I say unto thee that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it; and I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in the heavens (Matt. 16:15-19);
these (namely those who are in the affection of truth from the good of genuine charity) love to be taught what is meant by these words; and when they hear that by the rock there upon which the church will be built (and consequently by Peter) is signified the faith of charity, and that it is in this way that the keys for opening and shutting heaven are given to this faith (see the preface to Genesis 22), they then rejoice and are affected by this truth, because in this way the Lord alone, the source of faith, has this power. But they who are not in the affection of truth from the good of genuine charity, but in the affection of truth from some other good, and especially if from the love of self and of the world, are not affected with this truth, but are made sad, and are also made angry, because they desire to claim this power for the priesthood. They are made angry because they are thus deprived of dominion; and they are made sad because they are deprived of respect.
 Take also as an example those who are in the affection of truth from the good of genuine charity: if these hear that charity makes the church, but not faith separated from charity, they receive this truth with joy; whereas they who are in the affection of truth from the love of self and of the world do not receive it. Moreover when those who are in the affection of truth from the good of genuine charity hear that love toward the neighbor does not begin from self, but from the Lord, they rejoice; whereas they who are in the affection of truth from the love of self and of the world, do not receive this truth, but sharply maintain that this love begins from themselves. Thus they do not know what it is to love the neighbor as one’s self. They who are in the affection of truth from the good of genuine charity rejoice when they hear that heavenly blessedness consists in doing good to others from good will, and not for the sake of any selfish end; whereas they who are in the affection of truth from the love of self and of the world, do not desire this, nor even apprehend it.
 When they who are in the affection of truth from the good of genuine charity are instructed that the works of the external man are nothing unless they proceed from the internal man, and thus from good willing, they receive this with joy; whereas they who are in the affection of truth from the love of self and of the world laud the works of the external man, but care nothing for the good willing of the internal man, and in fact do not know that the good willing of the internal man remains after death, and that the works of the external man separate from it are dead, and perish. And the case is the same with everything else. From these examples it is evident that the truths of faith can never be conjoined with anyone unless he is in the good of genuine charity; thus with nothing but good; and also that every genuine affection of truth is from this good. Everyone can see this confirmed from his daily experience, namely, that they who are in evil do not believe, but that they believe who are in good. From this it is plainly evident that the truth of faith is conjoined with good, and never with evil.
 To those who keep the mind in the mere historicals, it does not indeed appear that the internal sense of these and the foregoing words is of such a nature, for they think of Esau and Jacob, and of the gift that was sent forward; not knowing that by Esau is represented Divine good in the natural, and by Jacob the truth which is to be conjoined with the Divine good there; and that by their friendly conference is here signified affection inspired into truth by good. And yet when these things are being read by man the angels understand these historicals in no other way; for the angels have no other idea than a spiritual one, and with them the historical sense is turned into this idea. In this way do angelic thoughts correspond with human thoughts. It is such perpetual correspondences that make the Word holy and Divine; for thus by ascent the literal sense becomes spiritual, and this even to the Lord, where it is Divine. This is inspiration.
 But still these particulars, nay, the singulars of the particulars, are nothing but generals relatively to those which exist beyond them; for there are indefinite things yet in every single entity. The angels (who notwithstanding that relatively to man they are in wisdom so great that there are unutterable things which they know and perceive) also confess that they know only the relatively most general things, and that those which they do not know are indefinite-they dare not say infinite, because there is no relation and no ratio between the finite and the infinite! From this we can also infer of what nature is the Word, which being Divine, from its first origin contains within itself infinite things; and consequently unutterable things that belong to angelic wisdom; and finally only such things as are adapted to human comprehension.
Jehovah came from Sinai, and arose from Seir unto them; He shone forth from Mount Paran, and He came from the ten thousands of holiness (Deut. 33:2).
In the prophecy of Balaam:
I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not nigh; there shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel; and Edom shall be an inheritance, and Seir shall be an inheritance, of his enemies, and Israel shall perform strength (Num. 24:17-18).
In the song of Deborah and Barak:
O Jehovah, when Thou wentest forth out of Seir, when Thou departedst out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the mountains flowed down, this Sinai before Jehovah the God of Israel (Judges 5:4-5).
He crieth to me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night (Isa. 21:11-12).
Besides these passages in regard to Seir, see also those cited above (n. 4240).
 That these things are signified by these words is by no means apparent from their historical sense, but nevertheless these are the things involved in the spiritual or internal sense. For heaven, which is in man, that is, the angels who are with him, care nothing whatever for worldly historicals, neither do they know what Esau was, nor Seir, and neither do they think of the day which Esau returned, nor of the way to Seir; but from the spiritual things which correspond to them they receive ideas, and instantly draw from them such a sense; for this is effected by the correspondences, which are circumstanced almost as when anyone is speaking in a foreign tongue, and his hearer instantly understands the meaning as if from his own; nor is he hindered by the words having a foreign sound and articulation. So is it with the internal sense of the Word, which coincides altogether with the universal language in which the angels are, or with the spiritual speech of their thought. Their speech is spiritual, because their thought is from the light of heaven, which is from the Lord.
 The reason why good and truth are mentioned so frequently in the explications, is that all things in heaven, and consequently all in the Lord’s church, bear relation to good and truth. Speaking generally these two include all things that belong to doctrine and to life; truths, all things that belong to doctrine; and goods, all things that belong to life. Moreover, it is a universal fact that the human mind has no other objects than those which are of truth and good; its understanding, those which are of truth; and its will, those which are of good. Hence it is evident that truth and good are terms of the widest signification, and that their derivations are unutterable in number. This is the reason why truth and good are so often mentioned.
sRef Ps@18 @10 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @11 S2′ sRef 2Sam@22 @11 S2′ sRef 2Sam@22 @12 S2′ sRef 2Sam@22 @10 S2′  That this is the signification of the booths or tents which are called “Succoth,” is evident also from the following passages in the Word. In David:
Jehovah God rode upon a cherub and did fly, and was carried upon the wings of the wind; He made darkness His hiding place, and His surroundings His tent [succoth], darkness of waters, clouds of the heavens (Ps. 18:11-12).
He bowed the heavens when He came down, and thick darkness was under His feet; and He rode upon a cherub and did fly, and was carried upon the wings of the wind; and He put darkness round about Him for tents (succoth), bindings of the waters, clouds of the heavens (2 Sam. 22:10-12);
where the subject treated of is Divine revelation or the Word. To “bow the heavens when He came down” denotes to hide the interiors of the Word; “thick darkness under His feet” denotes that the things which appear to man are relatively darkness (such is the literal sense of the Word.) To “ride upon a cherub” denotes that it was so provided; to “put darkness round about Him for tents,” or “His surroundings for His tent,” denotes the holy of truth in its hiding place, namely, within the literal sense; the “bindings of the waters” and “clouds of the heavens,” denote the Word in the letter. (That the “clouds of the heavens” denote the Word in the letter, may be seen above, preface to Gen. 18, and n. 4060.)
sRef Ps@31 @20 S3′ sRef Isa@4 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@4 @6 S3′  The like is signified by these words in Isaiah:
Jehovah will create over every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and over her convocations, a cloud by day, and a smoke and the shining of a flame of fire by night; for over all the glory there shall be a covering. And there shall be a tent [succah] for a shade by day, and for refuge and hiding against flood and rain (Isa. 4:5-6);
a “cloud” here also denotes the literal sense of the Word; and “glory,” the internal sense; as also in Matthew 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 21:27; a “tent” here also denotes the holy of truth. Interior truths are said to be in “hiding,” for the reason that if they had been revealed, they would in that case have been profaned (see n. 3398, 3399, 4289); which is also set forth by these words in David:
Thou hidest them in the hiding place of Thy faces from the ensnaring counsels of a man; Thou hidest them in a tent [succah] by reason of the strife of tongues (Ps. 31:21).
sRef Amos@9 @11 S4′  That a “tent” denotes the holy of truth is evident also in Amos:
In that day will I set up the tent [succah] of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches, and I will set up the ruins, and I will build according to the days of eternity (Ps. 9:11);
to “set up the tent of David that is fallen,” denotes to restore the holy of truth after it has perished; “David” denotes the Lord relatively to Divine truth (n. 1888), for a “king” denotes Divine truth (n. 2015, 2069, 3009). As a “tent” signified the holy of truth, and “dwelling in tents,” the derivative worship, therefore the feast of tents, which is called the “feast of tabernacles,” was instituted in the Jewish and Israelitish Church (Lev. 23:34, 42, 43; Deut. 16:13, 16); where also this feast is called the “feast of Succoth,” or “of tents.”
* Latin, acquisitio. The Hebrew mikneh means what is acquired, but is always used of cattle, in which the riches of nomads consist.
I will divide Shechem, and mete out the valley of Succoth; Gilead is Mine, and Manasseh is Mine; Ephraim also is the strength of My head, Judah is My lawgiver (Ps. 60:6-7; 108:7-8).
In Judah is God known, His name is great in Israel; in Shalem also is His tent, and His dwelling place in Zion; there brake He the live coals of the bow, the shield, and the sword, and the war (Ps. 76:1-3);
where it is evident that “Shalem” denotes the tranquillity of peace, for it is said that “He there brake the live coals of the bow, the shield, and the sword, and the war;” and also from its signification in the original language, for “Shalem” means tranquillity and perfection. (What the tranquillity of peace is, may be seen, n. 1726, 3696.) In this peace there are interior truths; that is, those who are in interior truths in faith and in life. But so long as men are in exterior truths, and especially when they are coming from exterior into interior truths, the state is then untranquil, for then there are temptation combats. The same is also here represented by Jacob, in that after he had been in fear and anxiety on account of Esau, he had now arrived at a state of tranquillity.
consequently what is full. But properly by a “hundred” is here signified much, for the subject treated of is the appropriation of good from interior truths, which are signified by the “sons of Hamor the father of Shechem” (n. 4399). By the “kesitah,” which were coins, in the internal sense are signified such truths. This word is also derived from a word which means “truth” (Ps. 60:6). The conjunction of good with these truths will be spoken of below (n. 4402).
 The spiritual man is not the interior rational man, but the interior natural. The interior rational man is what is called the celestial man. What the difference is between the spiritual and the celestial man has already been frequently stated. A man is made spiritual by having the truths in him conjoined with good, that is, the things of faith conjoined with those of charity, and this in his natural. Exterior truths are there first conjoined with good, and afterwards interior truths. The conjunction of exterior truths in the natural was treated of in this chapter from verses 1 to 17; and the conjunction of interior truths with good, from verse 17 to the end. Interior truths are not conjoined with good in any other way than by enlightenment flowing in through the internal man into the external man. From this enlightenment Divine truths are manifest only in a general manner, comparatively as innumerable objects are seen by the eye as one obscure thing without distinction. This enlightenment from which truths are manifest only in a general manner, was signified by Esau’s words to Jacob, “Let me set I pray with thee of the people that are with me;” and by Jacob’s answer, “Wherefore is this? Let me find grace in thine eyes” (as explained above, n. 4385-4386).
 That the spiritual man is relatively in obscurity see n. 2708, 2715, 2716, 2718, 2831, 2849, 2935, 2937, 3241, 3246, 3833. It is this spiritual man who is represented by Israel (n. 4286). The spiritual man is so called from the fact that the light of heaven, in which is intelligence and wisdom, flows into those things in man which are of the light of the world, and causes the things which are of the light of heaven to be represented in those which are of the light of the world, and thereby to correspond. For regarded in itself the spiritual is the Divine light itself which is from the Lord, consequently it is the intelligence of truth and the wisdom thence derived. But with the spiritual man this light falls into the things which are of faith in him, and which he believes to be true; whereas with the celestial man it falls into the good of love. But although these things are clear to those who are in the light of heaven, they are nevertheless obscure to those who are in the light of the world, thus to most people at this day, and possibly so obscure as to be scarcely intelligible; and yet as they are treated of in the internal sense, and are of such a nature, the opening of them is not to be dispensed with; the time is coming when there will be enlightenment.
 The reason why the altar was called El Elohe Israel, and by it was signified interior worship from the Divine Spiritual, is that in the supreme sense “El Elohe” is the same as the Divine Spiritual, and so also is “Israel.” (That “Israel” denotes the Lord as to the Divine Spiritual, and in the representative sense the Lord’s spiritual church, or what is the same, the man who is spiritual, may be seen above, n. 4286, 4292.) In the original tongue “El Elohe” means “God God,” and strictly according to the words, “God of gods.” In the Word, Jehovah or the Lord is in many places called “El,” in the singular, also “Eloah;” and He is likewise called “Elohim,” in the plural; sometimes both in one verse, or in one series. He who is not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word cannot know why this is so. That “El” involves one thing, and “Eloah” another, and “Elohim” another, everyone may judge from the fact that the Word is Divine, that is, derives its origin from the Divine, and that it is thereby inspired as to all the words, nay, as to the least point of all.
 What “El” involves when mentioned, and what “Elohim,” may be seen from what has been occasionally shown above, namely, that “El Elohim” or “God” is mentioned when truth is treated of (see n. 709, 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921e, 4287). Hence it is that by “El” and “Elohim” in the supreme sense is signified the Divine Spiritual, for this is the same as the Divine truth, but with the difference that by “El” is signified truth in the will and act, which is the same as the good of truth (n. 4337, 4353, 4390). The expression “Elohim” is used in the plural, because by truth Divine are meant all truths which are from the Lord. Hence also angels are sometimes called in the Word “Elohim” or “gods” (n. 4295), as will also appear from the passages adduced from the Word below. Now as in the supreme sense “El” and “Elohim” signify the Lord as to truth, they also signify Him as to power; for truth is that of which power is predicated, because good acts by truth when it exerts power (n. 3091, 4015). Therefore wherever power from truth is treated of in the Word, the Lord is called “El” and “Elohim,” that is, “God.” Hence also it is that in the original language “El” also signifies one who is powerful.
sRef Deut@10 @17 S6′ sRef Gen@46 @3 S6′ sRef Gen@46 @2 S6′ sRef Gen@35 @7 S6′  That “El” and “Elohim,” or “God,” are mentioned in the Word where the Divine Spiritual is treated of, or what is the same, the Divine truth, and hence the Divine power, may be still more evident from the following passages. In Moses:
God said unto Israel in the visions of the night, I am the God of gods [El Elohe] of thy father; fear not to go down into Egypt, for I will there make of thee a great nation (Gen. 46:2-3);
as these words were spoken to Israel, whom He would make a great nation, and thus the subject treated of is truth and its power, it is here said “El Elohe,” which in the proximate sense signifies “God of gods.” That in the proximate sense “Elohim” denotes “gods,” because predicated of truths and the derived power, is also evident in the same:
Jacob built there an altar, and called the place El-Beth-El, because there the Elohim were revealed unto him, when he fled before his brother (Gen. 35:7).
And also elsewhere:
Jehovah your God, He is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great God [El], powerful and formidable (Deut. 10:17);
where “God of gods” is expressed by “Elohe Elohim,” and afterwards “God” by “El,” to whom greatness and power are ascribed.
sRef Ps@89 @6 S7′ sRef Ps@89 @7 S7′ sRef Ps@89 @8 S7′ sRef Ps@95 @4 S7′ sRef Ps@95 @3 S7′  In David:
Jehovah is a great God [El], and a great King above all gods [Elohim]. In His hand are the searchings out of the earth; and the strengths of the mountains are His (Ps. 95:3-4);
here “God” or “El” is used because the subject treated of is the Divine truth and the derivative power; and also “gods,” because the subject treated of is also the truths thence derived; for in the internal sense a “king” signifies truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670). Hence it is evident what a “great king above all gods” involves. The “searchings out of the earth” also denote the truths of the church, which are called the “strengths of the mountains” from the power from this good. In the same:
Who in heaven shall compare himself to Jehovah? Who among the sons of the gods [Elim] shall be likened to Jehovah ? God [El] mighty in the secret of the holy ones. O Jehovah God Zebaoth, who is as Thou the strong Jah? (Ps.89:6-8).
Here the “sons of the gods” or “of Elim,” denote truths Divine, of which it is evident that power is predicated; for it is said a “God [El] mighty, Jehovah God of Armies, who is strong as Thou?”
sRef Dan@11 @36 S8′ sRef Ps@82 @6 S8′ sRef Ps@136 @2 S8′ sRef Ps@29 @1 S8′ sRef Ps@136 @3 S8′  So in another place in David:
Give unto Jehovah, O ye sons of the gods, give unto Jehovah glory and strength (Ps. 29:1);
They fell upon their faces, and said, God of gods [El Elohe] of the spirits of all flesh (Num. 14:22).
I said, ye are gods [Elohim] and ye are all sons of the Most High (Ps. 82:6; John 10:34);
where they are called “gods” from truths, for “sons” are truths (see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2628, 3373, 3704).
Confess ye to the God of gods [Elohe Elohim]; confess ye to the Lord of lords (Ps. 136:2-3).
The king will act according to his own pleasure, and will puff himself up, and will exalt himself above every god [El], and above the God of gods [El Elohim] will speak wondrous things (Dan. 11:36);
from this it is evident that in the proximate sense “El Elohe” is “God of gods,” and that in the internal sense “gods” are predicated of the truths which are from the Lord.
sRef Gen@31 @29 S9′ sRef Micah@2 @1 S9′ sRef Ps@10 @13 S9′ sRef Ps@89 @26 S9′ sRef Deut@28 @32 S9′ sRef Ps@10 @12 S9′ sRef Ps@10 @11 S9′ sRef Ps@89 @25 S9′  It is said “El,” or “God,” in the singular, where the subject treated of is the power which is from the Divine truth, or what is the same, from the Lord’s Divine Spiritual, as may be seen from the following passages.
Let my hand be as God [El] to do evil to thee (Gen. 31:29).
Neither is there a hand for God [El] (Deut. 28:32).
And in Micah:
Neither is there a hand for God (Micah 2:1).
“A hand for God” denotes that there may be power. (That “hand” denotes power may be seen above, n. 878, 3387; and that “hand” is predicated of truth, n. 3091.) In David:
I will set his hand also in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers; He shall call Me, Thou my Father, my God [El], the rock of my salvation (Ps. 89:25-26);
speaking of power from truths. Again:
The wicked saith in his heart, God [El] hath forgotten, He hath hidden His faces, He will never see: arise, Jehovah God [El], lift up Thy hand wherefore doth the wicked despise God [Elohim]? (Ps. 10:11-13);
denoting the same.
sRef 2Sam@22 @32 S10′ sRef Jer@32 @18 S10′ sRef Isa@10 @21 S10′ sRef 2Sam@22 @33 S10′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S10′ sRef Isa@12 @2 S10′ sRef 2Sam@22 @31 S10′ sRef 2Sam@22 @30 S10′ sRef Ps@18 @2 S10′  Again:
Jehovah is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God [El], my rock (Ps. 18:2);
where power is treated of. In Isaiah:
The residue shall return, the residue of Jacob, to the powerful God [El](Isa. 10:21).
Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called, Wonderful, Counselor, God (El), Mighty, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6).
Behold the God [El] of my salvation, I will trust, and not be afraid; for He is my strength (Isa. 12:2).
I am God [El] yea, from this day, I am He, and there is none that can rescue out of My hand, I am doing, and who shall withdraw it? (Isa. 43:12-13);
said of power. In Jeremiah:
God [El] the great, the powerful, whose name is Jehovah of Armies (Jer. 32:18).
In the second book of Samuel:
With my God [El] I will leap over a wall. God [El], His way is perfect, the discourse of Jehovah is pure. Who is God [El] save Jehovah? Who is a rock save our God [Elohim] ? God [El] is the strength of my refuge (2 Sam. 22:30-33).
sRef Num@24 @8 S11′ sRef Num@23 @19 S11′ sRef Num@23 @22 S11′ sRef Isa@57 @5 S11′ sRef Num@23 @23 S11′  In Moses:
God [El] is not a man that He should lie, or the son of man that He should repent; hath He said, and shall He not do ? or hath He spoken, and shall He not establish? He brought them forth out of Egypt, He hath as it were the strengths of a unicorn; in that time it shall be said to Jacob and Israel, What hath God [El] wrought? (Num. 23:19, 22-23);
where in the internal sense power and truth are treated of. And again:
God [El] who brought him forth out of Egypt; He hath as it were the strengths of a unicorn; He shall consume the nations His enemies, and shall break their bones, and shall crush his darts (Num. 24:8).
That “horns” and “strengths of a unicorn” signify the power of truth from good, see n. 2832. Not to mention many other passages. As most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so also have “god” and “gods,” which names are used when falsity and power from falsity are treated of; as in Ezekiel:
The gods [Elim] of the strong shall speak to him in the midst of hell (Ezek. 32:21).
Ye have been in heat in the gods [Elim] under every green tree (Isa. 57:5);
where the term “gods” is used from falsities. In like manner in other places.
* The printed version has Num. 14:22, which is incorrect.
Of what quality spirits were, and to what province of the body they belonged, it has also been given me to observe and know from their position and place with me, and also from the plane in which they were, and from their distance therein. Those who were seen near me were for the most part subjects of entire societies; for societies send spirits from themselves to others, and through these spirits they perceive the thoughts and affections, and thus effect communication. But concerning these so-called Subjects that is, emissary spirits-something shall of the Lord’s Divine mercy be said in particular. The following facts have been observed in connection with these emissary spirits. Those who appear above the head, and near it, are those who teach, and who also easily suffer themselves to be taught. Those who are under the back of the head are those who act silently and prudently. Those who are near the back act similarly, with a difference. Those who are at the chest or breast are those who are in charity. Those who are at the loins are those who are in conjugial love. Those who are at the feet are those who are natural, and those who are at the soles of the feet are the more gross of this kind. But those who are at the face vary in genius, according to their correspondence with the sensories of this part, those for instance who are at the nostrils are those who excel in perception, those who are at the ears are those who obey, and those who are at the eyes are those who are intelligent and wise, and so on.
 But they who are in evil and thence in falsities, appear in a light like that of a charcoal fire. This light becomes quite dusky in the light of heaven; but the very lights from which they see are varied in accordance with the falsity and evil in which they are. This showed very plainly why those who lead a life of evil can never have faith in Divine truths from a sincere heart; for they are in that smoky light which, when heavenly light falls upon it, becomes dark to them, so that they see neither with their eyes nor with their mind; and besides they then fall into agonies, and some into a kind of swoon. Hence it is that the evil cannot possibly receive truth, but only the good.
 The man who leads a life of evil cannot believe that he is in such a light, because he cannot see the light in which his spirit is, but only that in which is the sight of his eyes and from this his natural mind. But if he could see the light of his spirit, and could make proof of what it would become if the light of truth and good from heaven were to flow into it, he would then very well know how far he is from receiving the things which are of this light, that is, those which are of faith, and how much further he is from becoming imbued with those which are of charity, thus how far distant he is from heaven.
 To convince them they were shown the quality of their life, which when seen appeared like the light from a coal fire mingled with smoke. When they are in this light, they cannot but suppose that the life of their thought and of their will is the only life there is, and this the more from the fact that the light of the intelligence of truth, which is that of life itself, cannot appear to them at all, for the moment they come into this light their own light becomes dark, so that they can see nothing at all, thus neither can they perceive anything. They were further shown what was then the state of their life, by the withdrawal of the delight they had from what is false, which in the other life is effected by separating the associate spirits. On this being done they appeared with ghastly faces, like those of the dead, so that they might have been called images of death. But as regards the life of animals, of the Lord’s Divine mercy this subject shall receive particular treatment.
 He was then shown by angels what is the nature of intelligence from self, and what the nature of intelligence from the Divine, and this by means of lights, for in the other life such things are presented to view in a wonderful manner by means of variegations of light. Intelligence from self was shown by a light which appeared as a fatuous light, surrounded by a dark border, and extending but a little distance from its focus; and it was further shown that this light is at once extinguished when it is looked at by an angelic society, exactly as is a fatuous light in the light or daytime of the sun. He was then shown what is the quality of intelligence from the Divine, and this also by means of a light which was brighter and more full of light than the noonday light of the sun, and which also extended itself to every distance and terminated as does the light of the sun in the universe; and it was said that intelligence and wisdom enter from all sides into the sphere of this light, and cause truth and good to be perceived by an almost unlimited mental view; but this in accordance with the quality of the truth from good.
THE LAST JUDGMENT
Prefatory to this chapter the Lord’s words in Matthew 24, verse 42 to the end, remain to be unfolded. These words are the last in that chapter which treat of the consummation of the age, or the advent of the Lord, and which in the letter are these: Watch therefore, for ye know not what hour your Lord cometh. But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would assuredly have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken through. Therefore be ye also ready, for in an hour that ye think not the Son of man will come. Who therefore is the faithful and prudent servant, whom his lord hath set over his domestics, to give them their food in due season? Blessed is that servant whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. Verily I say unto you, that he will set him over all his goods. But if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth to come; and shall begin to beat his fellow servants, and to eat and drink with the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour when he knoweth not, and shall cut him asunder, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. What these words involve may be seen from the series of things, for the subject treated of in this whole chapter of the evangelist is the last period of the church, which in the internal sense is the consummation of the age and the advent of the Lord. That this is the case is evident from the explication of all the contents of the chapter, as may be seen in the prefaces to the immediately preceding chapters of Genesis (namely, 26, n. 3353-3356; 27, n. 3486-3489; 28, n. 3650-3655; 29, n. 3751- 3757; 30, n. 3897-3901; 31, n. 4056-4060; 32, n. 4229-4231; 33, n. 4332-4335).
 What these contents are in a series has also been there stated, namely, that when the Christian Church that was set up after the Lord’s coming began to vastate itself, that is, to recede from good, then: (1) They began not to know what good and truth are, but disputed about them. (2) They despised them. (3) Next they did not at heart acknowledge them. (4) Afterwards they profaned them. (5) And as the truth of faith and the good of charity were still to remain with some, who are called the “elect,” the state of faith at that time is described. (6) And then the state of charity. (7) Lastly, the beginning of a new church is treated of; and, (8) The state as to good and truth within the so-called church, when that church is being rejected and a new church is being adopted. From this series it may appear what is involved in the words that have been transcribed above, and are the last of the chapter, namely, that they are words of exhortation to those in the church, that they should be in the good of faith, and that if not they must perish.
 They who are then of the old church, and thus are removed from heaven, are in a kind of inundation as to their interiors, and in fact in an inundation over the head. This inundation the man himself does not observe while he lives in the body, but he comes into it after death. In the other life this inundation plainly appears like a thick cloud by which they are encompassed and separated from heaven. The state of those who are in this thick cloud is that they cannot possibly see what the truth of faith is, and still less what is its good; for the light of heaven, in which is intelligence and wisdom, cannot penetrate into this cloud. This is the state of a vastated church.
He shall cut him asunder;
signifies separation and removal from goods and truths; for they who are in knowledges of good and truth, as are those who are within the church and yet in a life of evil, are said to be “cut asunder” when they are removed from these knowledges. For the knowledges of good and truth are separated from them in the other life, and they are kept in evils, and therefore also in falsities; which is done in order to prevent them from communicating with heaven by the knowledges of truth, and with hell by evils and the derivative falsities, and thus hanging between the two; and also to prevent them from profaning goods and truths, which is done when these are commingled with falsities and evils. The same is also signified by the Lord’s words to him who hid the talent in the earth: “Take therefore the talent from him; and give it unto him that hath ten talents; for unto everyone that hath shall be given, and from him that hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken away” (Matt. 25:28, 29); also by what the Lord says in another place in Matthew 13:12; and in Mark 4:25; and in Luke 8:18.
 And appoint his portion with the hypocrites;
signifies his lot (which is his “portion”) with those who outwardly appear to be in truth as to doctrine and in good as to life, but inwardly believe nothing of truth and will nothing of good, who are the “hypocrites.” In this manner they are “cut asunder.” Therefore when their externals are taken away from them, as takes place with all in the other life, they appear such as they are as to their internals, namely, devoid of faith and charity, of which they nevertheless have made a show in order to win others and acquire honors, gain, and reputation. Those within a vastated church are almost all of this character, for they have externals, but no internals. This is the origin of that inundation of their interiors which has been already spoken of (n. 4423).
sRef Matt@8 @12 S3′  There shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth;
signifies their state in the other life, “wailing,” their state as to evils, and “gnashing of teeth,” their state as to falsities. For in the Word the “teeth” signify the lowest natural things, in the genuine sense the truths of these natural things, and in the opposite sense their falsities. The teeth moreover correspond to these things, and therefore the “gnashing of teeth” is the collision of falsities with truths. They who are in mere natural things, and who are in these from the fallacies of the senses, and who believe nothing but what they see thereby, are said to be in the “gnashing of teeth,” and also in the other life appear to themselves to be so when they draw conclusions from their fallacies concerning the truths of faith. In a church vastated as to good and truth such persons abound. The like is signified elsewhere also by the “gnashing of teeth,” as in Matthew:
The sons of the kingdom shall be cast forth into the outer darkness, there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth (Matt. 8:12);
the “sons of the kingdom” are those who are in a vastated church; the “darkness” is falsities (n. 4418), for they are in darkness when they are in the thick cloud mentioned above; the “gnashing of teeth” is the collision of falsities therein with truths. In like manner elsewhere, as in Matt. 13:42, 50; 22:13; 25:30; and Luke 13:28.
1. And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land.
2. And Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her, and took her, and lay with her, and forced her.
3. And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spoke upon the heart of the damsel.
4. And Shechem said unto Hamor his father, saying, Get me this girl for a woman.
5. And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; and his sons were with his acquisition in the field; and Jacob was silent until they came.
6. And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him.
7. And the sons of Jacob came from the field as they heard it, and the men were grieved, and they were very angry, because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob’s daughter, and so it ought not to be done.
8. And Hamor spoke with them, saying, Shechem my son, his soul longs for your daughter, give her I pray to him for a woman.
9. And share kinships with us; give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to you.
10. And ye shall dwell with us, and the land shall be before you, dwell ye, and range through it trading, and get you possession therein.
11. And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brothers, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give.
12. Multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gift, and I will give as ye say unto me; and give me the damsel for a woman.
13. And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father in fraud, and spoke, because he had defiled Dinah their sister.
14. And they said unto them, We cannot do this word, to give our sister to a man that hath a foreskin, because this would be a reproach unto us.
15. Nevertheless in this will we consent to you, if ye be as we to circumcise for you every male.
16. We will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you, and we will be for one people.
17. And if ye will not listen unto us to circumcise, we will even take our daughter and go.
18. And their words were good in the eyes of Hamor, and in the eyes of Shechem Hamor’s son.
19. And the lad delayed not to do the word, because he was well pleased in Jacob’s daughter; and he was honored above all the house of his father.
20. And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and spoke unto the men of their city, saying,
21. These men are peaceable with us, and let them dwell in the land, and range through it trading, and behold the land is broad in spaces before them; let us take their daughters to us for women, and let us give our daughters to them.
22. Nevertheless in this will the men consent to us to dwell with us, to be for one people, in every male being circumcised to us, even as they are circumcised.
23. Their acquisition, and their purchase, and all their beast, will they not be ours? Only let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us.
24. And they listened to Hamor and to Shechem his son, all that went out of the gate of his city; and they circumcised every male, all that went out of the gate of his city.
25. And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain, that the two sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, brothers of Dinah, took each his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew every male.
26. And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son at the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem’s house, and went forth.
27. The sons of Jacob came upon those who were pierced, and plundered the city, because they had defiled their sister.
28. Their flocks and their herds and their asses, and whatever was in the city, and whatever was in the field, they took;
29. And all their wealth, and all their babe, and their women, they took captive and made a prey of, and all that was in the house.
30. And Jacob said to Simeon and to Levi, Ye have troubled me, to make me to stink to the inhabitant of the land, to the Canaanite and the Perizzite; and I am mortals [few] of number, and they will be gathered together upon me, and will smite me, and I shall be destroyed, I and my house.
31. And they said, Shall he make our sister as a harlot?
The subject here treated of in the internal sense is the posterity of Jacob – that they extinguished all the truth of doctrine which was of the Ancient Church. Hamor and Shechem, together with the people of their city, represent this truth. For the representative of a church among the posterity of Jacob consisted solely in externals without internals, whereas the representative church among the ancients consisted in externals with internals.
Verses 1-4. And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land. And Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her and took her, and lay with her, and forced her. And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spoke upon the heart of the damsel. And Shechem said unto Hamor his father, saying, Get me this girl for a woman. “And Dinah went out,” signifies the affection of all things of faith, and the church thence derived; “the daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob,” signifies in externals; “to see the daughters of the land,” signifies to become acquainted with the affections of truth and the churches thence derived; “and Shechem saw her,” signifies truth; “the son of Hamor the Hivite,” signifies from the ancients; “the prince of the land,” signifies what is primary among the churches; “and he took her, and lay with her, and forced her,” signifies that in no other way could this truth be conjoined with the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob her brothers; “and his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob,” signifies an inclination to conjunction; “and he loved the damsel, and spoke upon her heart,” signifies love; “and Shechem said unto Hamor his father,” signifies thought from the truth that was among the ancients; “saying, Get me this girl for a woman,” signifies that it desired to be conjoined with the affection of that truth.
 The signification of the things contained in this verse may be seen from what follows, for the subject treated of is the representative of a church that was to be instituted among the descendants of Jacob. That this representative could not be instituted among them until they had been completely vastated in respect to interior truths – that is, until they no longer knew them – may be seen above (n. 4289). These interior truths are all those represented and signified by the rituals that were commanded them; for all the rituals represented and signified something in the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, and consequently something in the Lord’s kingdom on earth, that is, in the church; and the things that were signified and represented are the interior truths here meant. That each and all of the things commanded the descendants of Jacob when the representative of a church was being instituted among them (as described in the books of Moses, especially in Exodus and Leviticus) were representative and significative of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom, has been everywhere shown in the explications. All these things were unknown to the descendants of Jacob, because these were of such a nature that if they had known them they would have profaned them (n. 301-303, 2520, 3398, 3479, 3769, 4281, 4293); and therefore they did not come into these representatives until they had been completely vastated in respect to their interiors; and therefore the truths in question and the extinguishing of them by the Israelites are described in this chapter.
 The representatives that were commanded to the descendants of Jacob were not new, but for the most part were such as had previously been in use among the ancients; but the ancients did not worship the externals, as did the descendants of Jacob (that is, the Jews and Israelites), but they worshiped the internal things, and by means of these they acknowledged the Lord Himself. There were still remains in the land of Canaan of the church of ancient time, especially among those called Hittites and Hivites, and this is the reason why by these nations are represented the truths that had been of the church. From what has been said it may in some measure appear what is signified by Dinah, Jacob’s daughter by Leah, going out to see the daughters of the land; for by Dinah is represented the external church, such as was instituted among the descendants of Jacob, and by the daughters of the land are signified the churches among the ancients. That in the internal sense of the Word “daughters” everywhere signify churches, has been shown above (n. 2362, 3024); and that the “land” signifies the region and nation where the church is, and thus the church (n. 662,1066, 1067, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 3686, 3705).