* The translation here represents what Sw. had in his rough draft and appears in the third Latin edition. The words used in the first and second Latin editions mean the goods and truths of the genuine Church.
 The truth that no one can be saved unless he has led a good charitable life, and so has acquired affections for that life, which exist in him as goodwill shown to others and as good deeds done to them which are motivated by that goodwill; also, the truth that no one can possibly accept the truths of faith – that is to say, take them in and make them his own – except him who leads a charitable life, have been made perfectly plain to me from those in heaven to whom I have been allowed to speak. Everyone there is a form of charity, the beauty and goodness of that form depending on the nature of the charity. The pleasure, bliss, and happiness of those there flow from their being able – because they are motivated by goodwill – to do good to others. Anyone who has not been leading a charitable life cannot possibly know that heaven and heavenly joy consist in goodwill and in good deeds motivated by that goodwill. To one of his kind heaven consists in goodwill shown to himself, with any good deeds done to others being motivated by this selfish goodwill. But this is in fact hell; for as has been stated, heaven is distinguished from hell in that heaven consists in doing good because one is motivated by goodwill, and hell in doing ill because one is motivated by ill will. Those governed by love towards the neighbour are motivated by goodwill to do good deeds, but those governed by self-love are motivated to do ill ones by ill will. The reason the latter are like this is that they love no one but themselves, and others only insofar as they see themselves in others, and others in themselves. They also hate these others, that hatred revealing itself the moment these go away from them and are no longer part of them. They are like robbers who love one another while they are in league with one another; but at heart they long to kill one another if any spoils can be gained by doing so.
 From all this one may see what heaven is, namely love towards the neighbour, and what hell is, namely self-love. Those governed by love towards the neighbour are able to accept all truths of faith, to take them in and make them their own; for love towards the neighbour holds every truth of faith within it since it has heaven within it and the Lord within it. But those governed by self-love cannot possibly accept the truths of faith since hell lies within that love. In no way can they accept the truths of faith apart from doing so for the sake of improving their own positions and for the sake of material gain; thus they cannot possibly take them in and make them their own. What they do take in and make their own are denials of the truth. For in their hearts they do not believe in the existence of hell and heaven, or in the life after death. Nor therefore do they believe anything that is said about hell and heaven, or about the life after death, and so nothing whatever from the Word and from doctrine regarding faith and charity. They seem to themselves to be believers when they take part in worship, but they do so because that state has been instilled into them since early childhood. But as soon as they leave that worship behind them they also leave that state of belief behind them. At this point, now left to think for themselves, they do not have any belief at all; and what is more, the life that their love fires them to lead causes them to think up ideas to justify it. These ideas they call truths, and also back them up from the literal sense of the Word; but they are in fact falsities. This is what all are like who in life and doctrine are adherents to faith separated from charity.
 In addition it should be recognized that a person’s love includes everything, for his love determines the life he leads, and therefore only into a person’s love does the Lord enter with His life. As is people’s love therefore, so is their life because so is their reception of it. Love towards the neighbour receives the life of heaven, while self-love receives the life of hell. Thus everything of heaven lies within love towards the neighbour, and everything of hell within self-love. The fact that love includes everything may be illustrated by many observations of nature. All living creatures, not only those that walk on dry land but also those which fly in the air or swim in water, move in response to their own love. Into their love comes whatever is of use to them in the life they lead, that is, to their feeding, housing, and reproducing themselves. Therefore every genus knows its own food, dwelling-places, and mating habits such as pairing off, building nests, laying eggs, and rearing chicks.
 Bees likewise know how to build cells, extract honey from flowers, fill honeycombs with it, and make provision for the winter. Indeed they know how to establish a system of government under a single ruler, besides many other remarkable activities. All this is a product of what is entering their love, it being merely the different forms their affections take that lead to the different results their life produces. Their love includes all this. So what would heavenly love include if the human being was governed by heavenly love? Would not the whole of wisdom and intelligence as these exist in heaven be included? From this too it is evident that those who have led charitable lives, these and no others, are accepted into heaven, and that because they have charity they have the ability to accept and take in all truths, that is, every truth of faith. The reverse however takes place with adherents to faith separated from charity, that is, to those who know some truths but have no charity. Their love accepts ideas such as are suited to itself; that is to say, self-love and love of the world accept ideas that are the reverse of truths, the kind that exist in hell.
sRef Jonah@3 @5 S2′ sRef Jonah@3 @8 S2′ sRef Jonah@3 @6 S2′ sRef Amos@8 @10 S2′  The fact that people put sackcloth over their loins to testify to this mourning becomes clear from the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word, as in Amos,
I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; so will I cause sackcloth to come up over all loins, and baldness over every head, and I will make it as the mourning for an only-begotten sore, and its end as a bitter day. Amos 8:10.
‘Causing sackcloth to come up over all loins’ stands for mourning over lost forms of good, ‘all loins’ standing for all forms of the good of love. In Jonah,
The men of Nineveh believed in God, and therefore they proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloths, from the greatest even to the least of them. And when word reached the king of Nineveh he rose up from his throne, and laid aside his royal robe from upon him, and covered himself with sackcloth and sat in ashes. And he proclaimed that man and beast were to be covered with sackcloths. Jonah 3:5-8.
Clearly this was a sign representative of mourning over evil on account of which Nineveh was to perish, and so mourning over lost good.
sRef Ezek@27 @31 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @30 S3′ sRef Jer@6 @26 S3′ sRef Lam@2 @10 S3′  In Ezekiel,
They will let forth a cry over you with their voice and will cry out bitterly; and they will cause dust to come up over their heads, and will roll themselves in ashes, and will make themselves bald over you, and will gird themselves with sackcloths. Ezek. 27:30, 31.
This refers to Tyre, each action mentioned here being representative of mourning for falsities and evils and so for lost truths and goods. ‘Letting forth a cry and crying out bitterly’ stands for lamentation over falsity or lost truth, 2240; ‘causing dust to come up over the head’ stands for having been condemned on account of evil, 278; ‘rolling themselves in ashes’ for having been condemned on account of falsities; ‘making themselves bald’ for mourning because the natural man has no truth, 3301 (end); ‘girding themselves with sackcloths’ for mourning because the natural man has no good. Similarly in Jeremiah,
O daughter of My people, gird yourself with sackcloth. and roll yourself in ashes; make mourning as for an only-begotten son, very bitter wailing; for suddenly he who lays waste will come upon you. Jer 6:26.
And elsewhere in the same prophet,
The elders of the daughter of Zion will sit on the ground, they will become silent; they will cause dust to come up over their head, they will gird themselves with sackcloths; the virgins of Jerusalem will cause their heads to come down to the ground. Lam. 2:10.
Here similar representative actions are described which, as above, were appropriate for the types of good and truth which had become lost.
sRef Isa@15 @1 S4′ sRef Jer@48 @37 S4′ sRef Isa@15 @3 S4′ sRef Jer@48 @38 S4′ sRef Isa@15 @2 S4′  In Isaiah,
A prophecy concerning Moab. He will go up to Bayith, and to Dibon into the high places to weep; over Nebo and over Medeba Moab will howl. On all heads there is baldness; every beard is shaved off; in its streets they have girded themselves untie sackcloth; on its roots and in its streets everyone will wail, descending into weeping. Isa. 15:2, 3.
‘Moab’ stands for those who adulterate all good, 2468. The mourning over that adulteration meant by ‘Moab’ is described by the kinds of things that correspond to that type of evil. Virtually the same description therefore occurs in Jeremiah,
Every head is bald, and every beard shaved off; upon all hands are cuts, and over the loins is sackcloth; on all the roofs of Moab and in its streets there is mourning everywhere. Jer. 48:37, 38.
sRef Ps@30 @11 S5′ sRef Isa@37 @1 S5′  When king Hezekiah heard the blasphemous utterances of the Rabshakeh against Jerusalem ‘he rent his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth’, Isa. 37:1; 2 Kings 19:1. The reason for mourning was that his utterances were directed against Jehovah, the king, and Jerusalem. Their being utterances made in opposition to truth is meant by the king rending his clothes, 4763, and utterances made in opposition to good by his covering himself with sackcloth; for when in the Word truth is dealt with, so also is good. This is so because of the heavenly marriage, which is a marriage of good to truth and of truth to good in every single part; as also in David,
You have turned for me my mourning into dancing; You have loosed* my sackcloth and girded me with gladness. Ps. 30:11.
Here ‘dancing’ has reference to truths, and ‘gladness’ to goods, as they also do in other parts of the Word. ‘Loosing sackcloth’ accordingly means releasing from mourning over lost good.
sRef 1Ki@21 @27 S6′ sRef 2Sam@3 @31 S6′  In 2 Samuel,
David said to Joab and to all the people who were with him, Rend your clothes, and gird sackcloth round you, and wail before Abner. 2 Sam. 3:31.
Because an outrageous act had been committed against that which was true and good David therefore commanded them to rend their clothes and gird sackcloths round them. Something similar occurred in the case of Ahab, for when he heard Elijah’s words that he was to be cut off because he had acted contrary to what was fair and right – meaning in the spiritual sense contrary to what is true and good – ‘he tore his clothes apart, and put sackcloth over his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went about slowly, 1 Kings 21:27.
sRef Rev@6 @12 S7′  The use of ‘sackcloth’ to refer to lost good is also clear in John,
When he opened the sixth seal, behold, a great earthquake took place, and the sun became black as sackcloth, and the full moon became like blood. Rev 6:12.
‘An earthquake’ stands for an alteration in the state of the Church as regards good and truth, 3355. ‘The sun’ stands for the good of love, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 4060, 4300, 4696, and therefore ‘sackcloth’ here has reference to lost good. ‘The moon’ stands for the truth of faith, 1529, 1530, 2120, 2495, 4060, and ‘blood’ has reference to this because ‘blood’ means truth that has been falsified and rendered profane, 4735.
sRef Isa@58 @5 S8′ sRef Isa@58 @6 S8′ sRef Isa@58 @7 S8′  Because ‘being clothed in sackcloth and rolling oneself in ashes’ represented mourning over evils and falsities, it also represented both humility and repentance. For humility begins first with the acknowledgement that in oneself one is nothing but a source of evil and falsity. Repentance begins with the same acknowledgement and does not become a reality except through humility, and humility does not become a reality except through heartfelt confession that in oneself one is such a source of evil and falsity. For ‘putting on sackcloth’ was an expression of humility, see 1 Kings 21:27-29, also of repentance, Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13. But the fact that this was no more than some representative, and so merely an external activity of the body and not an internal activity of the heart, is evident in Isaiah,
Is he to bow his head like a rush and to lie in sackcloth and ashes? Will you call this a fast, and a day of that which is pleasing to Jehovah? Is not this the fast that I choose, to loose** the bonds of wickedness, to break bread for the hungry? Isa. 58:5-7.
* lit. opened
** lit. to open
sRef John@3 @16 S2′ sRef John@1 @13 S2′ sRef John@1 @12 S2′  This use of explanations when one is expounding the Word – explanations which are based on the sense of the letter and which fit in with one’s own point of view – is quite evident from the fact that all religious ideas, including heretical ones, are substantiated by such explanations. For example, the accepted teaching about faith separated from charity is substantiated by the following words spoken by the Lord,
God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that everyone who believes in Him may not perish but have eternal life. John 3:16.
From these words and other places people deduce that eternal life is acquired through faith alone without works. And once these people have become convinced of this they no longer pay any attention to what the Lord said so many times about love to Him, and about charity and works, 1017, 2373, 3934. Thus they pay no attention to the following in John,
As many as received Him, to them He gave power to be sons of God, to those believing in His name, who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. John 1:12, 13.
If they are told that no one can believe in the Lord except him who has charity, they instantly take refuge in explanations like these: The law has been abolished; people are born in sins and so cannot do good of themselves, and those who do do it cannot do other than claim merit for it. These explanations too they substantiate from the sense of the letter of the Word, for example from what is stated in the parable about the Pharisee and the tax collector, Luke 18:10-14, and from other things that are stated. But these statements have an altogether different meaning from the explanations they resort to.
 Also, the adherents to faith separated from charity can have no other belief than that everyone is able by grace to be admitted into heaven, no matter what kind of life he has been leading, so that it is not a person’s life but his faith that awaits him after death. This too they substantiate from the sense of the letter of the Word. But from the spiritual sense of the Word it is clear that the Lord has mercy on everyone, so that if a person reached heaven by mercy or grace irrespective of whatever life he has led everyone would be saved. The reason the adherents to faith separated from charity believe the way they do is that they have no knowledge at all of what heaven is because they do not know what charity is. If they knew how much peace, joy, and happiness is present within charity they would know what heaven is; but this is entirely hidden from them.
sRef Luke@23 @43 S4′  Nor can the adherents to faith separated from charity have any other belief than that they will rise again with the physical body, though not until judgement day. This too they substantiate from many places in the Word, explained according to the sense of the letter. They give no thought at all to what the Lord said – many times in addition to the following – about the rich man and Lazarus, Luke 16:22-31, or to what He told the robber,
Truly I say to you, Today you will be with Me in paradise. Luke 23:43.
The reason the adherents to faith separated from charity believe the way they do is that if they were told that the body is not going to rise again they would refuse to believe in any resurrection at all, for what the internal man is they neither know nor have any conception of. Indeed no one can know what the internal man is and the internal man’s life after death is except him who has charity; for charity is an attribute of the internal man.
 The adherents to faith separated from charity can have no other belief than that the works of charity consist solely in giving to the poor and helping the distressed. This belief too they substantiate from the sense of the letter of the Word. But in fact the works of charity consist in each person doing what is right and fair in his employment, from a love of what is right and fair, and of what is good and true.
sRef Ezek@34 @21 S6′  The adherents to faith separated from charity do not see anything in the Word apart from what substantiates their own accepted teachings, for they have no real insight. Indeed people who are not moved by the affection belonging to charity have merely external sight, or an inferior insight. With this no one can possibly behold higher things, for higher things are seen by him as darkness. Consequently such people see falsities as truths, and truths as falsities, and so by explanations based on the sense of the letter they ruin the good pasture and pollute the pure waters of that sacred spring which is the Word, as accords with the following in Ezekiel,
Is it a small thing to you? You feed off the good pasture and tread down with your feet the rest of your pastures; you drink the water that has settled down* and stir up the rest with your feet. You butt with your horns all the weak [sheep] till you have scattered them abroad. Ezek. 34:17, 18, 21.
* lit. the sediment of the waters
When they came to the threshing-floor of Atad which is at the crossing of the Jordan they wailed there with an exceedingly great and grievous wailing, and he mourned for his father seven days. And the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning at the threshing-floor of Atad, and they said, This is a grievous mourning by the Egyptians. Gen. 50:10, 11.
And one reads about David weeping over Abner,
They buried Abner in Hebron, and the king lifted up his voice and wept at the grave of Abner; and all the people wept. 2 Sam. 3:32.
‘The Midianites sold him into Egypt’ means that those in whom some truth partnering simple good was present consulted facts. ‘To Potiphar, Pharaoh’s bedchamber-servant’ means facts of a more internal kind. ‘The chief of the attendants’ means those facts which are first and foremost in explanations.
 In verse 28 above it was stated that Joseph was drawn out of the pit by the Midianites, who then sold him to the Ishmaelites. From this it would seem that only the Ishmaelites could have sold him in Egypt. Yet he was not sold by the Ishmaelites but by the Midianites, and the reason for this is that the Ishmaelites represent those in whom simple good is present, 4747, whereas the Midianites represent those in whom the truth partnering that good is present. ‘Joseph’ or Divine Truth could not be sold by those who are governed by good, only by those governed by truth; for those governed by good know from good what Divine truth is, whereas those governed by truth have no such knowledge.
 Members of the Church fall into two distinct categories – those governed by good and those governed by truth, the former being called celestial, the latter spiritual. Between the two there is a wide difference. Those governed by good are moved by an affection to do good for its own sake and without thought of reward. To them being allowed to do good is itself the reward, for doing good gives them feelings of joy. Those governed by truth however are not moved by an affection to do good for its own sake; rather, they are moved to do it because they have been commanded to do it. For the most part these people do think about reward; and this, as well as boasting about what they do, is what gives them their feeling of joy.
 From this it is evident that people motivated by good to do good act from an internal affection, whereas those motivated by truth to do good act from some external affection. From this the difference between the two groups may be seen, namely that the former are internal people, the latter external ones. Those therefore who are internal people are unable ‘to sell’ – that is, to alienate – Divine Truth represented by ‘Joseph’, because good enables them to discern what is true. Neither the illusions of the senses therefore, nor consequently facts, lead them away. But those who are external people are able ‘to sell’ or alienate it because no good is present enabling them to discern what is true. They do know what is true, but only because doctrine and teachers have given them that knowledge. If they consult facts they easily let themselves be led away by illusions, for they have no inner gift to speak to them. This now explains why Joseph was not sold by the Ishmaelites but by the Midianites.
IN THIS SECTION THE CORRESPONDENCE OF TASTE AND OF THE TONGUE, AND ALSO OF THE FACE, WITH THAT GRAND MAN
The tongue provides an entrance leading into both the lungs and the stomach, and so represents a kind of forecourt leading to spiritual things and to celestial ones, to spiritual because it serves the lungs and thereby speech, to celestial because it serves the stomach which supplies nourishment to the blood and the heart. For the lungs correspond to spiritual realities, the heart to celestial ones, see 3635, 3883-3896. All this being so, the tongue corresponds in general to the affection for truth, that is, to those in the Grand Man whose affection is for truth, and after that whose affection is for good which is a product of that truth. People therefore who love the Word of the Lord and wish to gain from it a knowledge of what is good and true belong to that province. Yet they differ from one another, in that some belong to the actual tongue, some to the larynx and trachea, some to the throat, some also to the gums, while others belong to the lips. For not even the smallest part of the human being fails to have a correspondence.
 I have been allowed on many occasions to learn by experience that those governed by an affection for truth belong to that province understood in the broad sense. On one occasion they plainly entered my tongue, on another my lips; and I have been allowed to talk to them. I have also noticed that some correspond to the more internal parts of the tongue and lips, others to their more external parts. There are some who have an affection for and receive only exterior truths, not interior ones, though they do not reject them. The operation of these I have felt in the exterior but not the interior parts of my tongue.
 Interior obsession is the work of this kind of spirit. The nature of it may be seen if people pay attention to their thoughts and affections, above all to their inward intentions which they fear to reveal and which with some are so insane that if they were not kept in check by external restraints – which are position, material gain, reputation, fear for their life and of the law – they would plunge more than the obsessed themselves into murder and pillage. Who these spirits are, and what they are like, who obsess such persons interiorly, see 1983.
 To enable me to know all about it, those spirits were allowed to try and enter my own taste, which they strove to do with utmost endeavour. At that time I was told that if they did indeed penetrate my taste they would also take control of me interiorly, because taste is dependent through correspondence on what exists interiorly. But they were allowed to do it solely to enable me to know all about the correspondence of taste; for they were driven away from there in an instant.
 Those lethal spirits attempt above all to dissolve all internal restraints, which are the affections for what is good and true, right and fair; fear of God’s law; and a sense of shame at doing harm to society and one’s country. Once those internal restraints have been dissolved a person is obsessed by spirits of this kind. But if they cannot thus gain entrance to a person interiorly by their persistent effort to do so, they then attempt to enter by the use of magical devices which are many in the next life, totally unknown in the world. By these devices they debase the facts known by the one they possess and use only those which give support to their foul desires. Obsession like this is inevitable unless a person has an affection for good and consequently has faith in the Lord.
 I was also shown how those spirits were driven away, namely as follows: When they thought they would penetrate the interior parts of the head and brain, they were removed through the channels there along which waste matter is drained away to the external parts of the skin. Then they seemed to be ejected into a trench full of liquid filth. I was told that such spirits correspond to tiny holes full of filth on the surface of the skin where scabies occurs, so that they correspond to scabies.
sRef Matt@18 @3 S2′  And what was quite astonishing, the changes which affections undergo from young childhood to adult life were also shown by variations in the face. I was allowed to see how much of young childhood was preserved in adult life, and that it was this that gave adult life its essentially human quality. For innocence – the external form of it – is present in a young child, and innocence constitutes that essentially human quality; indeed innocence is so to speak the basic attribute into which love and charity from the Lord can enter. When a person is being regenerated and becoming wise the innocence of infancy which has been external becomes internal. Consequently true wisdom resides in no other abode than innocence, 2305, 2306, 3183, 3994; also, no one can enter heaven except one who has some degree of innocence, according to the Lord’s words,
Unless you become as young children you will not enter the kingdom of heaven. Matt. 18:3; Mark 10:15.
 The reason the speech of the spirits there was as described is that they are incapable of presence, that is, of thinking one thing and expressing another with their face; for they live with one another with such openness that they do not conceal anything whatever from fellow spirits. Indeed these know instantly what they are thinking and what their wishes are, also what kind of people they are, as well as what deeds they have done; for the acts done by those who live in that openness are lodged in their conscience, and therefore others can, when they first see them, discern what their inner countenances or dispositions of mind are.
 The spirits showed me that they do not strain their faces but let them move freely, unlike those people who since their youth have become accustomed to put on a presence, that is to say, to speak and act in a different way from how they think and desire. The faces of the latter are kept taut, ready to produce the kind of variation which their artfulness tells them to produce. Anything a person wishes to conceal causes his face to be made taut; and this ceases to be taut and expands when something seemingly open and sincere can be fraudulently displayed there.
 While I was reading about the Lord in the New Testament Word, the spirits from another planet were with me as well as certain Christians. I perceived that inwardly these Christians cherished offensive ideas opposed to the Lord, and also that they wished in some quiet way to communicate these. Those from another planet were astonished that they were like this, but I was allowed to tell them that in the world they had not been such in their utterances, but had been in their hearts. There even exist, I added, people like them who nevertheless preach about the Lord. When these do so it is with a pseudo-religious zeal by which they move the common people to emit groans and sometimes to shed tears; yet they communicate nothing at all of what is in their hearts. On hearing all this the spirits from another planet were astounded that such a dichotomy between interior things and exterior ones could exist, that is, between thought and speech. They said they were totally unacquainted with that kind of dichotomy, and that it was impossible for them to utter anything with the lips or to express anything in the face other than that which matched the affections of the heart; and that if it were other than this, they would be torn asunder and would perish.
 Those who have been like this in the world, that is to say, have understood truths and yet have led a life of evil, remain the same in the next life. But there they put their ability to understand truths to the misuse of gaining dominion over others; for there they know that in truths they have a means of communication with some communities of heaven, and consequently that they can exist among the evil and be strong; for truths in the next life have power within them. But because their life is one of evil they are in hell.
 I have talked to two who during their lifetime were like this. They were amazed they should be in hell even though they had believed very strongly in the truths of faith. But I told them that the light in them by which they understood truths was like that of winter in the world. I said that objects in all their beauty and colours were no less visible than in the light of summer; yet in that winter light everything died off and nothing at all pleasant and delightful showed itself. Then I told those two spirits that because the end they had in view to understanding truths had been their own exaltation and consequently had been a selfish end, the sphere emanating from their ends in view when these rose towards the interior heavens, to the angels there, who perceived solely people’s ends, could not be tolerated and were cast aside. This is why they were in hell.
 I went on to say that in former times people of this kind, more than any others, were called serpents of the tree of knowledge; for when life is the subject of their reasoning they speak against truths. They are, what is more, like a woman who has a lovely face but a foul stench, and who is therefore an outcast from society wherever she goes. Like her, when such people in the next life move towards angelic communities they are in actual fact emitting a stench, which even they themselves are aware of when they approach those communities. From this also one may see what faith is when devoid of the life of faith.
 But I was allowed to tell them that the Lord’s heaven is boundless and that it consisted of those from every people and language, and that all are in heaven in whom the good of love and faith has existed. I also showed them that those in heaven correlate with all the provinces of the body, both its exterior and its interior parts. But if their minds were set on anything beyond and out of keeping with their life, in particular if they were to condemn others outside their community, they could not receive heaven. For in this case their community is a community of interior friendship which, as has been stated, is such that when they get near others they dispossess them of the bliss which their spiritual affection gives them. They see these people as the ones who are not the elect and as those who are not living; and this thought, when it is communicated, leads to sadness. But in keeping with the law of order in the next life this sadness comes bade to themselves.
In the preliminary section of the previous chapter, in 4661-4664, an explanation was begun of what, in Matthew 25:31-end, the Lord said about judgement on the good and the evil, who are there called the sheep and the goats. What the internal sense of those words is has not yet been explained, but comes up for explanation now in the preliminary sections of this and a couple of chapters* following it. From these explanations it will be clear that by a last judgement in this parable He did not mean a last phase of the world, when – for the first time – the dead will rise again and will be gathered before the Lord and will be judged, but that He meant the last phase of a person passing over from the world to the next life, this point being his time of judgement. This is the judgement He meant. But none of this is seen from the sense of the letter, only from the internal sense. The reason the Lord spoke in the way He did is that He spoke using representatives and meaningful signs, as He has done everywhere else in the Old Testament Word and in the New. For to speak using representatives and meaningful signs is to speak simultaneously to the world and to heaven, that is, both to men and to angels. This kind of speech, being universal, is Divine and therefore proper to the Word. Consequently, those who are in the world and are interested only in worldly matters grasp nothing else from the words spoken by the Lord regarding a last judgement than the idea that everyone’s resurrection will take place at one and the same point in time, when the Lord will sit on a throne of glory and address those gathered together there in the words used in the parable. But those who are interested in heavenly matters know that each person rises again at the point in time when he dies, and that the Lord’s words in the parable carry the teaching that everyone will be judged according to what his life is, thus that everyone brings his judgement with him because he brings his life with him.
* The Latin means ‘several chapters’, but they are in fact only two.
When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory. And before Him all nations will be gathered, and He will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats; and He will place the sheep at His right hand and the goats at the left.
 And an the holy angels with Him means the angelic heaven. ‘The holy angels’ in the internal sense are truths which come from the Lord’s Divine Good, for in the Word the expression ‘angels’ is not used to mean angels but things that are from the Lord, see 1925, 4085. Angels are recipients of the life of truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Good; and in the measure they receive it they are angels. From this it is evident that ‘angels’ means those truths. Because the subject here is the state of each person after death, and the judgement of each one according to what his life is, it is said that all the holy angels will be with Him, meaning that the judgement will be effected through heaven; for every influx of Divine Truth takes places through heaven. No one can receive a direct influx.
 Then He will sit on the throne of His glory means the judgement, for ‘throne’ is used to refer to the Lord’s kingship, and the Lord’s kingship is Divine Truth, 1728, 2015, 3009, 3670, Divine Truth being the starting-point and the standard of that judgement.
 And before Him all nations will be gathered means that every good and every evil of everyone will be disclosed – for ‘nations’ in the internal sense of the Word means forms of good, and in the contrary sense forms of evil, 1259, 1260, 1416, 2588 (end), 4574. Thus it is the showing up in Divine light – that is, in light flowing from Divine Truth – of every good and every evil that is meant by ‘before Him all nations will be gathered’.
 And He will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats means the separation of good from evil, for ‘the sheep’ are those in whom good is present, and ‘the goats’ those in whom evil is present. Strictly speaking the expression ‘the sheep’ is used to describe those in whom charity, and faith derived from charity, are present, ‘the goats’ to describe those in whom faith but no charity is present. Both these types of people are referred to here. As regards ‘the sheep’ meaning those in whom charity and faith derived from it are present, see 2088, 4169, and ‘the goats’ those in whom faith but no charity is present, 4769.
 And He will place the sheep at His right hand and the goats at the left means a separation into truths derived from good, and falsities derived from evil. Those governed by truths derived from good are also visibly present in the next life on the right, while those governed by falsities are on the left. Consequently being stationed on the right hand and on the left implies an ordering in which life is the determining factor.
1 And it happened at that time, that Judah went down from his brothers, and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite; and his name was Hirah.
2 And there Judah saw the daughter of a man, a Canaanite, and his name was Shua; and he took her and came [in] to her.
3 And she conceived and bore a son, and he called his name Er.
4 And she conceived again and bore a son, and she called his name Onan.
5 And yet again she bore a son, and she called his name Shelah; and he was in Kezib as she was giving birth to him.
6 And Judah took a wife (mulier) for Er his firstborn, and her name was Tamar.
7 And Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and Jehovah caused him to die.
8 And Judah said to Onan, Come [in] to your brother’s wife (uxor) and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her, and raise up seed for your brother.
9 And Onan knew that the seed would not be his; and so it was, when he came [in] to his brother’s wife (uxor), that he spilled it on the ground,* so that he should not provide seed for his brother.
10 And what he had done was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and He caused him to die also.
11 And Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in your father’s house, until Shelah my son is grown up; for he said, In case he also dies, like his brothers. And Tamar went and remained in her father’s house.
12 And the days were multiplied, and Shua’s daughter died, the wife of Judah; and Judah was comforted, and he went up to the shearers of his flock, he and his companion Hirah the Adullamite, to Timnah.
13 And it was pointed out to Tamar, saying, Behold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his flock.
14 And she took off the clothes of her widowhood from upon her, and covered herself with a veil, and concealed herself, and sat in the gate of the fountains, which is on the road to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah had grown up, and she had not been given to him as a wife.
15 And Judah saw her and supposed that she was a prostitute, because she had covered her face.
16 And he turned aside to her at the wayside, and said, Allow me now to come [in] to you; for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, What do you give me for coming [in] to me?
17 And he said, I will send a kid of the she-goats from the flock. And she said, If you give a pledge until you send it.
18 And he said, What is the pledge which I am to give you? And she said, Your seal, your cord, and your rod which is in your hand. And he gave them to her, and came [in] to her; and she conceived from him.
19 And she rose up and went, and took off her veil from upon her and put on the clothes of her widowhood.
20 And Judah sent the kid of the she-goats by the hand of his companion the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand; and he did not find her.
21 And he asked the men of her place, saying, Where is the harlot in the fountains on the wayside? And they said, There has been no harlot there.
22 And he returned to Judah and said, I did not find her; and also the men of the place said, There has been no harlot there.
23 And Judah said, Let her keep [them]; maybe we shall be put to shame. Behold, I sent this kid, and you did not find her.
24 And so it was about three months later, that it was pointed out to Judah, saying, Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed whoredom, and also, behold, she is pregnant owing to acts of whoredom. And Judah said, Bring her out, and let her be burnt.
25 She was brought out; and she sent to her father-in-law, saying, By the man to whom these belong I am pregnant. And she said, Acknowledge now to whom these belong, the seal and the cord and the rod.
26 And Judah acknowledged them and said, She is more righteous than I am, seeing that I have not given her to Shelah my son. And he did not know her ever again.
27 And it happened at the time she was giving birth, that behold, there were twins in her womb.
28 And it happened as she was giving birth, that one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound on his hand a twice-dyed thread, saying, This one came out first.
29 And it happened as he drew back his hand, that behold, his brother came out; and she said, Why have you made a breach upon yourself? And he called his name Perez.
30 And afterwards his brother came out, on whose hand was the twice-dyed thread; and he called his name Zerah.
* lit. wasted [it] onto the earth
The internal sense deals in this chapter with the Jewish Church and the genuine Church. The Jewish Church is described by means of Judah, and the genuine Church by Tamar.
Verses 1-5 And it happened at that time, that Judah went down from his brothers, and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite; and his name was Hirah. And there Judah saw the daughter of a man, a Canaanite, and his name was Shua; and he took her and came [in] to her. And she conceived and bore a son, and he called his name Er. And she conceived again and bore a son, and she called his name Onan. And yet again she bore a son, and she called his name Shelah and he was in Kezib as she was giving birth to him.
‘It happened at that time’ means the state belonging to the things that follow. ‘That Judah went down from his brothers’ means the descendants of Jacob, in particular the tribe of Judah which was separated from the rest. ‘And turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite’ means a turning to falsity. ‘And his name was Hirah’ means the nature of that falsity. ‘And there Judah saw the daughter of a man, a Canaanite’ means the affection for evil begotten by falsity springing from evil. ‘And his name was Shua’ means the essential nature of this. ‘And he took her and came [in] to her’ means that the tribe of Judah joined itself to these.
‘And she conceived and bore a son’ means that from this came the falsity of the Church. ‘And he called his name Er’ means the essential nature of that falsity. ‘And she conceived again and bore a son’ means evil. ‘And she called his name Onan’ means the essential nature of this. ‘And yet again she bore a son’ means idolatry. ‘And she called his name Shelah’ means the essential nature of this. ‘And he was in Kezib as she was giving birth to him’ means the state.
Judah said to his brothers, What profit’ is there in our killing our brother and our concealing his blood? Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites. Gen. 37:26, 27.
The meaning there is that Divine Truth was alienated by the brothers, especially by Judah, who at that point means in the proximate sense the tribe of Judah, and in general the corrupt within the Church who are opposed to all good whatever, see 4750, 4751. A reference back to this is contained in the words ‘at that time’. For now the subject is Judah, his sons by the Canaanite woman, and after these his sons by Tamar his daughter-in-law, all of which in the internal sense describes the tribe of Judah so far as things of the Church established among that tribe were concerned.
 As for ‘time’ meaning state, and ‘it happened at that time’ consequently
meaning the state belonging to the things that follow, this is bound to appear quite strange, for the reason that no one can comprehend how the idea of a time can be turned into that of a state; that is, how when reading ‘time’ in the Word one has to understand something to do with some state. But it should be realized that angels’ thoughts are not formed from anything having a temporal or a spatial origin, because they are in heaven. When they left the world they also left behind all idea of time and space and adopted ideas of state, that is, of the state in which good and truth exist. Therefore when a person reads the Word and from this thinks of a certain time and of the things taking place at that time, the angels present with him do not perceive anything to do with a certain time but instead the aspects of a state, to which those things also correspond.
Nor indeed with his interior thought does the reader conceive of a time, only with his exterior thought, as may be recognized from the state when a person’s exterior thought lies dormant, that is, while he is asleep, as well as from many other kinds of experience.
 But it should be realized that in general there are two kinds of state – a state involving good and one involving truth. The former is called a state of being (esse), but the latter a state of manifestation (existere), for being is the essential characteristic of good, and the manifestation of this the essential characteristic of truth. Space corresponds to a state of being, time to a state of manifestation. From this it may be seen that when a person reads this statement ‘and it happened at that time’, the angels present with him cannot perceive these words at all in the way that the reader does. Similarly with every other statement, for whatever has been written in the Word is such that among angels it is converted into a corresponding meaning which cannot at all be seen in the sense of the letter; for that which is worldly belonging to the sense of the letter is converted into that which is spiritual belonging to the internal sense.
 It is well known that the tribe of Judah was separated from the rest of the tribes. The reason for the separation was so that the tribe might represent the Lord’s celestial kingdom, and the rest of the tribes His spiritual kingdom. This being so, Judah also describes, in the representative sense, the celestial man, and in the universal sense the Lord’s celestial kingdom, 3654, 3881. The rest of the tribes however were referred to by the single term ‘the Israelites’, for in the representative sense Israel describes the spiritual man, and in the universal sense the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, 3654, 4286.
sRef Ezek@23 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @37 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @30 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @31 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @46 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @32 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @47 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @48 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @43 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @49 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @34 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @33 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @11 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @8 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @7 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @35 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @10 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @12 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @23 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @24 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @25 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @20 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @21 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @22 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @41 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @40 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @26 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @28 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @27 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @42 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @38 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @39 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @15 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @13 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @14 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @29 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @45 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @44 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @36 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @16 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @17 S3′  The decline of the tribe of Judah into evil worse than that of the rest is the particular meaning of these words – ‘and Judah went down from his brothers, and turned aside’. The departure of the tribe of Judah into evil worse than that of the rest is clear from many places in the Word, in particular in the Prophets, as in Jeremiah,
Her treacherous sister Judah saw when, because of all the ways in which estranged Israel committed adultery, I sent her away and gave her a decree of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah did not fear, but she also went and committed whoredom, so much so that with the voice of her whoredom she profaned the land; she committed adultery with stone and wood. Yet for all this treacherous Judah has not returned to Me. Estranged Israel has justified her soul more than treacherous Judah. Jer 3:7-11.
And in Ezekiel,
Her sister did indeed see, yet she corrupted her own love more than she, and her own acts of whoredom beyond her sister’s acts of whoredom. Ezek. 23:11-end.
These, in addition to many others elsewhere, are references to Jerusalem and Samaria, that is, to the tribe of Judah and the tribes of Israel.
 Described in the internal sense of this chapter is the way in which that tribe sank into falsity, and from this into evil, and at length into that which was wholly idolatrous. This, it is true, is described in the internal sense even before that tribe was separated from the rest and before it came to be as mentioned above. But that which is contained in the internal sense is Divine, and to the Divine future things are also present ones. See what was foretold about that nation in Deut. 31:16-21; 32:15-43.
I will again bring an heir to you, O inhabitant of Mareshah; even to Adullam the glory of Israel will come. Micah 1:15.
But because most things in the Word also have a contrary sense, so also does Adullam, in which case it means falsity coming from evil. The reason most things also have a contrary sense is that before the land of Canaan became an inheritance for the sons of Jacob it was occupied by nations who meant falsities and evils, as it also was subsequently when the sons of Jacob entered into what was contrary. For territories take on the same representations as those of the nations or peoples inhabiting them, in accordance with the essential nature of these.
sRef Num@26 @20 S2′ sRef Lev@20 @12 S2′ sRef John@8 @41 S2′  Here the origins of the tribe of Judah must be stated first, since these are the subject in this chapter. That tribe, or the Jewish nation, has three origins, the first being Shelah, Judah’s son by his Canaanite wife, the second and third being Perez and Zerah, Judah’s sons by his daughter-in-law. The descent of the whole Jewish nation from these three sons of Judah is evident from the list of Jacob’s sons and grandsons who accompanied him into Egypt, Gen. 46:12, and also from the grouping of them into families, referred to in Moses,
The sons of Judah according to their families were: of Shelah, the family of the Shelanites; of Perez, the family of the Parzites; of Zerah, the family of the Zarhites. Num. 26:20; 1 Chron. 4:21.
From this the nature of that nation’s origin is evident; that is to say, a third of them were descended from a Canaanite mother and two thirds from a daughter-in-law. They were all therefore the product of an illicit union, because marriages to daughters of the Canaanites were strictly forbidden – as may be seen in Gen 24:3; Exod. 34:16; Deut. 7:3; 1 Kings 11:2; and Chapters 9 and 10 of Ezra – while lying with a daughter-in-law was a capital offence, as is evident in Moses,
As regards a man who has lain with his daughter-in-law, both of them shall be killed; they have committed perversion;* their blood shall be upon them. Lev. 20:12.
What Judah and his daughter-in-law had done together was linked by him to the law regarding leviratical marriages, which lays down the duty of a brother but never of a father, as is evident from verse 26 of the present chapter. Judah’s linking of their deed together to this law implies that the sons of Tamar were to be recognized as the sons of Er the firstborn, who was born from the Canaanite mother, and who was evil in Jehovah’s eyes and was therefore made to die, verse 7. For initially those born in a leviratical marriage did not belong to the one from whom they had been conceived but to him whose seed was being raised up, as is clear from Deut. 25:5, 6, and also from verses 8 and 9 of the present chapter. Furthermore, the sons whom Tamar bore were the result of whoredom, for when Judah went in to her he thought she was a prostitute, verses 15, 16, 21. From all this one can see the origin of the Jewish nation and what kind of origin this was; and one can see that their words in John were founded on a lie,
The Jews said to Him, We were not born of whoredom. John 8:41.
 As regards what that origin implies and what it represents, this is evident from what follows. That is to say, those people’s interiors were the same or had the same origin. Judah’s marriage to a Canaanite implies and represents an origin that consisted in evil begotten by falsity springing from evil, for this is what is meant in the internal sense by ‘the daughter of a man, a Canaanite’. And his lying through whoredom with his daughter-in-law implies and represents condemnation due to truth falsified by evil, for throughout the Word ‘whoredom’ means the falsification of truth, see 3703.** Evil begotten by falsity springing from evil is an evil life resulting from a false teaching hatched by the evil of self-love – that is, by those governed by this evil – and backed up by a use of the sense of the letter of the Word. This is what the origin of the evil in the Jewish nation is like, and what the origin of the evil is like in the Christian world, especially among those meant in the Word by Babel. The nature of that evil is such that it closes every path leading into the internal man, closing every path so completely that no conscience at all can be formed there. For if any evil done by a person is due to a false teaching, he believes that this is good because he believes that it is true. He accordingly does it, because he has warrant to do so, with a sense of freedom and delight. All this being so, heaven is closed so completely against him that it cannot be opened.
 As an example to explain what this evil is like, take those who from the evil of self-love believe the following: One nation alone is Jehovah’s chosen people, in comparison with whom all the rest of mankind are slaves. The rest, they believe, are so base that they may be killed at will and may be treated in a cruel fashion. Such ideas, likewise backed up by a use of the sense of the letter of the Word, were the beliefs of the Jewish nation, as they are also of the Babylonish*** nation at the present day. Whatever kind of evil done by the latter that is the result of that false teaching, and of any other false teachings built on that one as their foundation, is evil begotten by falsity springing from evil. It destroys the internal man and shuts out even the possibility of any conscience being formed there. These people are referred to in the Word as those immersed in bloodshed; for they treat in savage ways the entire human race because it does not venerate what they believe and so themselves too, and because it does not present its gifts on their altars.
 Take another example – those who from the evil of self-love and love of the world believe in the necessity for someone to act as the Lord’s vicar on earth. They believe that this person has power to open and close heaven, and so to control everyone’s mind and conscience, and they back up this falsity by a use of the sense of the letter of the Word. In their case whatever kind of evil they perform as a result of these ideas is evil begotten by falsity springing from evil, which similarly destroys the internal man in those who are led by that evil to lay claim to that power and so control others. That evil destroys the internal man so completely that people cease to know any longer what the internal man is, or to know of the existence of conscience in anyone, with the result that they cease to believe any longer in a life after death, or in the existence of hell and of heaven, however much they talk about these.
 The nature of this evil is such that people in the world cannot tell it apart from other evils; but in the next life angels recognize it quite clearly. For in the next life the countless differences in the essential nature and the origin of evils and falsities are in full view; and it is also the genera and species to which these evils and falsities belong that mark off the hells from one another. Of these countless differences man knows scarcely anything. He believes in the existence of evil but has no knowledge of its essential nature, for the simple reason that he does not know what good is, and does not know what good is because he does not know what charity is. If he knew what the good of charity was he would also know its opposites, which are evils, and also their differences.
* lit. confusion
** Reading 3703 for 3708
*** i. e. Papal
 In the Word the expression ‘man and wife’ (vir et uxor) is used many times, as also is ‘husband and wife’ (maritus et uxor). When ‘man and wife’ is used, ‘man’ means truth and ‘wife’ good; or in the contrary sense ‘men’ means falsity and ‘wife’ evil. But when ‘husband and wife’ is used, ‘husband’ means good and ‘wife’ truth; or in the contrary sense ‘husband’ means evil and ‘wife’ falsity. The reason underlying this arcanum is this In the celestial Church good resided with the husband and the truth of that good with the wife; but in the spiritual Church truth resided with the man and the good of that truth with the wife: Such is and was the actual relationship between the two, for in human beings interior things have undergone this reversal. This is the reason why in the Word, when celestial good and celestial truth from this are the subject, they are called ‘husband and wife’, but when spiritual good and spiritual truth from this are dealt with, these are called ‘man and wife’, or rather ‘man and woman’ (vir et mulier). From this, as well as from the actual expressions used, one can come to know which kind of good and which kind of truth are being dealt with in the internal sense of the Word.
 Here also is the reason why it has been stated already in various places that marriages represent the joining of good to truth, and of truth to good. Furthermore conjugial love has its origin in these two joined together. Among celestial people conjugial love has its origin in good joined to truth, but among spiritual people in truth joined to good. Marriages also correspond in actual fact to these joinings together. From all this one may see what is implied by the father giving the first son his name, but the mother giving the second and also the third sons theirs, as is clear from the original language. The father named the first son because the first son meant falsity, while the mother named the second son because the second son meant evil.
 Yet a representative of the Church was nevertheless able to exist among such people because in that which is representative no attention is paid to the person who represents, only to whatever is represented, see 665, 1097 (end), 3670, 4208, 4281, 4288. Consequently their worship did not lead them to blessing and happiness in the next life, but merely to worldly prosperity, provided they adhered to those representatives and did not turn aside to the idols of the gentiles, and in so doing did not become openly idolatrous. For if they did it was no longer possible for that nation to represent anything at all of the Church. This then is what the idolatry, meant by Judah’s third son by his Canaanite wife, is describing. This idolatry among that nation had its origin in internal idolatry, for more than all others this nation was governed by self-love and love of the world, 4459 (end), 4570. Among those governed by self-love and love of the world internal idolatry exists, for they worship themselves and they worship the world. They pay attention to holy things for the sake of personal adoration and gain; that is, they have a selfish end in view, and do not have the Lord’s Church and kingdom, and so the Lord Himself, in view.
‘Judah took a wife’ means the Church which was for his descendants. ‘For Er his firstborn’ means falsity of faith. ‘And her name was Tamar’ means the essential nature of the Church – a Church representative of spiritual and celestial things. ‘And Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah’ means that it was immersed in falsity springing from evil. ‘And Jehovah caused him to die’ means that there was no representative of the Church. ‘And Judah said to Onan’ means so as to preserve a representative of the Church. ‘Come [in] to your brother’s wife and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her’ means that that representative might be continued. ‘And raise up seed for your brother’ means so that the Church does not perish. ‘And Onan knew that the seed would not be his’ means a loathing and hatred. ‘And so it was, when he came [in] to his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground’ means the reverse of conjugial love. ‘So that he should not provide seed for his brother’ means that this being so there was no continuation. ‘And what he had done was evil in the eyes of Jehovah’ means that it was contrary to Divine order. ‘And He caused him to die also’ means that again there was no representative of the Church.
* lit. wasted [it] onto the earth
Self-corrupted; not his sons; the blemish is theirs; a perverse and crooked generation. When Jehovah saw, and rejected – with more than indignation – His sons and His daughters. And He said, I will hide My face from them; I will see what their posterity will be, for they are a perverse generation, sons in whom there is no faithfulness. I will add evils upon them, I will expend My arrows on them; they will be exhausted with famine, and consumed with burning coal, and with bitter destruction. They are a nation from whom counsel has perished, in whom there is no intelligence; from the vine of Sodom comes their vine, and from the ploughed fields of Gomorrah, their grapes are grapes of gall, their dusters are bitterness. The poison of dragons is their wine, and the cruel gall of asps. Is not this stored up with Me, sealed up in My treasures? The day of their destruction is near, and the things to come upon them are hastening on. Deut. 32:5, 10, 20, 23, 24, 28, 32-35.
In the internal sense these words describe falsity springing from evil which existed among that nation, and the fact that this falsity was rooted deeply within them.
sRef Deut@25 @6 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @7 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @9 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @8 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @10 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @5 S2′  What the law regarding the duty of a brother-in-law had been is clear in Moses,
If brothers dwell together but one of them dies, and has no son, the wife of the dead one shall not marry a stranger outside [the family]; her brother-in-law shall go in to her, and take her to himself as his wife, and so perform the duty of a brother-in-law to her. Then it will happen, that the firstborn whom she bears shall succeed to the name of his dead brother, so that his name is not wiped out from Israel. But if the man is unwilling to take his sister-in-law, his sister-in-law shall go up to the gate to the elders, and she shall say, My brother-in-law refuses to raise up for his brother a name in Israel; he is unwilling to perform the duty of a brother-in-law for me. Then the elders of his city shall call him and speak to him; and if he stands and says, I do not desire to take her, his sister-in-law shall go up to him in the sight of the elders, and she shall remove his shoe from upon his foot and spit in his face; and she shall answer and say, So will it be done to the man who does not build up his brother’s house. Therefore his name will be called in Israel, The house of him who has his shoe taken off. Deut. 25:5-10.
 Anyone who does not know what the duty of a brother-in-law represents inevitably believes that the practice existed solely for the sake of preserving a name and consequently an inheritance. But the preservation of a name and an inheritance was not in itself a great enough reason why a brother should have been required to enter into a marriage with his sister-in-law. Rather, the practice was ordained so that the preservation and continuation of the Church might be represented through it. For a marriage represented the marriage of good and truth, which is the heavenly marriage. It therefore represented the Church too, for the Church is a Church by virtue of the marriage of good and truth, and when this marriage exists within it the Church makes one with heaven, which is the true heavenly marriage. And because a marriage represented these things, ‘sons and daughters’ were therefore representations and also meaningful signs of truths and goods. This being so, ‘being without issue’ meant a lack of good and truth, and so meant that no representative of the Church existed in that house any longer, and that as a consequence it was not in communion with the Church. In addition ‘brother’ represented a kindred good to which the truth represented by a widow might be joined. For to be the kind of truth that has life, produces fruit, and thereby continues that which constitutes the Church, truth cannot be joined to any other good but that which is its own and a kindred one. This was how those in heaven perceived the duty of a brother-in-law.
 The meaning of this practice – of a sister-in-law removing the shoe from upon the foot of the man who refused to do the duty of a brother-in-law, and of her spitting in his face – was this: Anyone devoid of good and truth, external and internal, would destroy those things that constitute the Church; for ‘the shoe’ means that which is external, 1748, and ‘the face’ that which is internal, 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796. From this it is evident that ‘the duty of a brother-in-law’ represented the preservation and continuation of the Church. But when through the Lord’s Coming representatives of internal things came to an end, that particular law was done away with. It is like a person’s soul or spirit in relation to his body. A person’s soul or spirit is the internal part of him and his body the external; or what amounts to the same, the soul or spirit is the true likeness of the person, whereas the body is merely a representative image of him. When a person rises again his representative image or that which is external, namely his body, is cast aside, for he is now conscious in that which is internal, namely the true likeness of him. It is also like a person who is in darkness and from there looks at things belonging to light; or what amounts to the same, like one who is in the light of the world and from there looks at things belonging to the light of heaven. For the light of the world in comparison with the light of heaven is as darkness. Within that darkness, that is, within the light of the world, things belonging to the light of heaven as they exist essentially cannot be seen, but are seen so to speak within a representative image, even as the human mind is seen in a person’s face. Therefore when the light of heaven is seen in its own essential brightness, the darkness of representative images is dispelled. This was effected through the Lord’s Coming.
[4835a] ‘And raise up seed for your brother’ means so that the Church does not perish. This is clear from the meaning of ‘seed’ as truth derived from good, or faith grounded in charity, dealt with in 1025, 1447, 16110, 1940, 2848, 3310, 3373, 3671. The same is also meant by the firstborn who was to succeed to the name of the dead brother, 352, 367, 2435, 3325, 3494. ‘Raising up seed for a brother’ means continuing that which constitutes the Church, in line with what has been stated just above in 4834, and thus means so that the Church does not perish.
 Nothing of true marriage meant both in a spiritual sense and in a natural one existed with that nation. This is quite evident from the fact that men were permitted to marry more than one wife; for where a marriage meant in a spiritual sense exists – that is, where the good and truth of the Church exist, consequently where the Church exists – that practice is not at all permitted. Genuine marriage cannot possibly exist except among those with whom the Lord’s Church or kingdom exists, yet not with these except between pairs, 1907, 2740, 3246. The marriage of a pair in whom genuine conjugial love is present corresponds to the heavenly marriage, that is, to good and truth joined together. That is to say, the husband corresponds to good and the wife to the truth of that good. Also, when genuine conjugial love is present in them, that heavenly marriage is present too. Therefore where the Church exists men are never permitted to marry more than one wife. But because no Church existed among those descended from Jacob, only that which was a representative of the Church – that is, the external shell of the Church without its internal substance, 4307, 4500 – they were therefore permitted to have more than one. Furthermore the marriage of one husband to a number of wives would present in heaven an idea or image in which so to speak one good was joined to a number of truths which do not agree with one another, and so an image in which there was no good at all. For when its truths do not agree with one another good ceases to be good, since good receives its particular nature from truths and their agreement with one another.
 It would also present an image in which so to speak the Church was not one Church but many, set apart from one another along the lines of the truths of faith, that is, along doctrinal lines, when in fact the Church is one if good is the essential element there and this receives its particular nature from truths and is so to speak moderated by these. The Church is an image of heaven, because it is the Lord’s kingdom on earth. Heaven consists of many distinct and separate general communities, and of smaller ones subordinate to these general ones; nevertheless good makes them a united whole. Good there enables the truths of faith to stand in agreement with one another; for these look to good and are grounded in it. If the truths of faith and not good were the lines along which parts of heaven were separated from one another, heaven would cease to be heaven, because there would not be any unanimity at all. For their oneness of life or unity in soul could not come to them from the Lord and exist among them. That oneness dwells solely within good, that is, within love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour. Love binds everyone together, and when the love of what is good and true is present in each individual, everyone shares that which comes from the Lord, so that the Lord is the One who binds everyone together. The love of what is good and true is called love towards the neighbour, for the neighbour is one with whom good and accompanying truth are present, and in the abstract sense good itself and its truth. From these considerations one may see why within the Church marriage must be a relationship involving one husband and one wife, and why the descendants of Jacob were permitted to marry more than one wife. They were permitted to do so for the reason that no Church existed among them, and therefore a representative of the Church could not be established among them by means of marriages, because the reverse of conjugial love reigned among them.
* The printed text has 4835, but the Latin is 4834.
 Everyone realizes that evil is contrary to Divine order and good is in keeping with it. Divine Order is the Lord Himself in heaven, for Divine Good and Truth received from Him constitute order. They do this so completely that they are order, Divine Good being the essential element of it and Divine Truth the form given to this. When represented in a visible shape Divine order is seen as a Human Being, for the Lord alone who is the producer of it is Man, 49, 288, 477, 565, 1871, 1894, 3638, 3639. And insofar as angels, spirits, and men are recipients of Him, that is, insofar as good and accompanying truth are present in them, thus insofar as His Divine order is present there, they are human beings. This is the reason why the whole of heaven represents one complete human being, called the Grand Man, and every single thing in the human being corresponds to it, as has been shown at the ends of chapters. It also explains why all the angels in heaven are seen in a human shape; but evil spirits on the other hand are deluded into seeing one another as human beings, whereas in the light of heaven they look like monsters, ever more dreadful and horrid, depending on the evil which governs them, 4533. The reason for this is that evil itself is contrary to order and so contrary to the human form. For as has been stated, when represented in a visible form, Divine order looks like a human being.
‘Judah said’ means in general the descendants of Jacob, specifically those descended through Judah. ‘To Tamar his daughter-in-law’ means a Church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is called ‘a daughter-in-law’ from truth. ‘Remain a widow in your father’s house’ means the alienation of this Church from the Jewish Church. ‘Until Shelah my son is grown up’ means until the time. ‘For he said’ means thought. ‘In case he also dies, like his brothers’ means fear lest it should perish. ‘And she remained in her father’s house’ means the alienation of this Church from the Jewish Church.
sRef Hos@4 @14 S2′ sRef Hos@4 @13 S2′  As regards ‘a daughter-in-law’ in the internal sense of the Word meaning the truth of the Church linked to its good, and consequently in the contrary sense meaning the falsity of the Church linked to its evil, this may also be seen from places in the Word where the expression ‘daughter-in-law’ is used, as in Hosea,
They offer sacrifice on mountain-tops and burn incense on hills, under oak. and poplar, and hard oak, because its shade is good. Therefore your daughters commit whoredom, and your daughters-in-law commit adultery. Shall I not punish* your daughters, in that they commit whoredom and your daughters-in-law in that they commit adultery? Hosea 4:13, 14.
This refers to the worship of evil and falsity, the worship of evil being meant by ‘offering sacrifices on mountain-tops’ and the worship of falsity by ‘burning incense on hills’. A life of evil is meant by ‘daughters committing whoredom’, and the teaching of what is false from which a life of evil results is meant by ‘daughters-in-law committing adultery’. As regards acts of adultery and whoredom in the Word meaning adulterations of what is good and falsifications of what is true, see 2466, 2727, 3399. ‘Daughters-in-law’ therefore stands here for affections for falsity.
sRef Luke@12 @52 S3′ sRef Micah@7 @6 S3′ sRef Micah@7 @4 S3′ sRef Micah@7 @3 S3′ sRef Luke@12 @51 S3′ sRef Luke@12 @53 S3′  In Micah,
The great man utters the perversity of his soul. and he twists it out of shape. The best of them is like a brier, the upright like a thorn-bush. The son treats the father with contempt, the daughter rises up against her mother, the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; a man’s enemies are those of his own household. Micah 7:3, 4, 6.
This refers to falsity that is the offspring of evil and which exists with the Church in the last times when it has been laid waste, in the proximate sense as it existed with the Jewish Church. ‘The daughter rises up against her mother’ means that the affection for evil stands opposed to truth, and ‘the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law’ that the affection for falsity stands opposed to good.
sRef Matt@10 @35 S4′ sRef Matt@10 @36 S4′ sRef Matt@10 @34 S4′  Because the experience of a person undergoing temptations is of a similar nature to this – for in temptations a conflict takes place between evil and truth and between falsity and good, spiritual temptations being nothing else than experiences when the falsity and evil present in a person are laid waste – temptations or spiritual conflicts are described by the Lord in practically the same words,
Jesus said, Do not think that I have come to bring peace on earth; I have not come to bring peace, but a sword. For I have come to set a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; and a man’s enemies will be these of his own household. Matt. 10:34-36, 38.
The words from the Prophet that are similar to these, quoted a little above them, meant the laying waste of the Church. But here the temptations of those who belong to the Church are meant, for, as has been stated, temptations are nothing else than experiences in which falsity and evil are laid waste or taken away. For this reason also temptations as well as vastations are meant and described by deluges and floods of waters, 705, 739, 756, 790. Here also therefore ‘daughter against mother’ means the affection for evil standing opposed to truth, and ‘daughter-in-law against mother-in-law’ the affection for falsity standing opposed to good. Now because the evils and falsities present with a person undergoing temptation exist inwardly, or are his own, they are called members of his own household in the words ‘a man’s enemies will be those of his own household’. The fact that temptations are described in this passage is evident from the Lord’s saying that He had not come to bring peace on earth but a sword; for ‘a sword’ means truth engaged in conflict, and in the contrary sense falsity engaged in conflict, 2799, 4499. (Yet He did come to bring peace, John 14:27; 16:33.) The description of temptations in this passage is also clear from what the Lord goes on to say – ‘He who does not take up his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me’.
sRef Mark@10 @30 S5′ sRef Mark@10 @29 S5′  Similarly in Luke,
Do you think that I have come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but division; for from now on there will be in one house five divided, three against two, and two against three. Father will be divided against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother, mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. Luke 12:51-53.
From these words too it is evident that ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘son’, ‘daughter’, ‘daughter-in-law’, and ‘mother-in-law’ mean the kinds of things that originate in the heavenly marriage, namely goods and truths in their own order, and also their opposites; as also in Mark,
Jesus said, There is no one who has forsaken house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or fields, for the sake of Me and of the Gospel, who will not receive a hundredfold, now in this time, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and fields, with persecutions, and in the age to come eternal life. Mark 10:29, 30.
Anyone unacquainted with the internal sense of the Word will think that ‘house’, ‘brothers’, ‘sisters’, ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘wife’, ‘children’, and ‘fields’ mean house, brothers, sisters, father, mother, wife, children, and fields. But the meaning here is this: The kinds of things present in a person which are properly his own must be forsaken by him, and instead of these, spiritual and celestial things which are the Lord’s must be received by him. This change is effected by means of temptations, which are meant here by ‘persecutions’. Anyone can see that if he forsakes his mother he is not going to receive mothers, nor likewise to receive brothers and sisters by forsaking these.
* lit. visit
 ‘A widow’ also means the truth of the Church without its good; for in the representative sense ‘a wife’ means truth and ‘a husband’ good, 4823, 4843, and therefore ‘a wife without a husband’ means the truth of the Church without its good. This being so, when it is said in reference to Tamar that she should remain in the house of her father, the meaning is that the truth of the Church would be alienated, and also that it would not find acceptance in his house, even as the Jewish nation could not accept it because not good but evil was present among that nation.
 A widow is referred to many times in the Word; but anyone unacquainted with the internal sense inevitably thinks that ‘a widow’ means a widow. In the internal sense ‘a widow’ means the truth of the Church without good, that is, people who have truth that is without good but who nevertheless have a desire for good, who consequently love to be led by good; for ‘e husband’ means good which ought to take the lead. In the Ancient Church people like these were meant in the good sense by ‘the widowed’, whether they were women or men. For the Ancient Church distinguished the neighbour to whom charity was to be performed into many separate classes. Some were called the poor, some the wretched and afflicted, some the bound and in prison, some the blind and the lame, and others strangers, orphans, and widows. It performed different charitable works, whichever were appropriate to the character each class possessed. The teachings of that Church showed them what those works were, for that Church had no other teachings than these. Therefore whenever those living in those times either taught or wrote, they did so in conformity with these teachings, so that when they spoke of ‘widows’ they meant none but the kind of persons among whom truth existed without good but who nevertheless had a desire to be led to good.
 From this it is also evident that the teachings of the Ancient Church were ones that had to do with charity and the neighbour, and that all its religious knowledge and factual knowledge existed to enable people to know what was meant spiritually by external things. For the Church was representative of spiritual and celestial things, and therefore it was these spiritual and celestial things, represented and meant by that Church, that people came to know about through the Church’s teachings and through its factual knowledge. But those teachings and factual knowledge have become at the present day completely wiped out, so completely indeed that there is no knowledge of their having existed. For their place has been taken by teachings to do with faith which, if widowed and separated from those to do with charity, have virtually nothing to teach. For teachings to do with charity show what good is, but those to do with faith show what truth is. Teaching what truth is without what good is amounts to walking like someone blind, it being good that is the teacher and leader, truth the one that is taught and led. Between the two kinds of teaching there is a vast difference, as great as that between light and darkness. If the darkness is not lightened by means of the light, that is, if truth is not lightened by good, or faith by charity, it is nothing but darkness. For this reason no one knows intuitively, nor consequently by perception, whether truth is the truth; he knows it only from what he was taught and what he absorbed in childhood and substantiated in adult years. This also explains why Churches are so much at variance with one another, one giving the name truth to that which another calls falsity, and are never in agreement.
sRef Ps@146 @8 S5′ sRef Ps@146 @7 S5′ sRef Ps@146 @9 S5′  The meaning in the good sense of ‘widows’ as people who have truth existing without good but who nevertheless have a desire to be led by good may be seen from places in the Word where widows are mentioned, as in David,
Jehovah who executes judgement for the oppressed, who gives bread to the starving, Jehovah who sets the bound free; Jehovah who opens the blind [eyes]; Jehovah who lifts up the bowed down; Jehovah who loves the righteous; Jehovah who guards sojourners, upholds the orphan and the widow. Ps. 146:7-9.
This refers, in the internal sense, to those whom the Lord furnishes with truths and leads to good. But some of them are called the oppressed, some the starving, while others are called the bound, the blind, the bowed down, sojourners, orphans and widows, each name appropriate to the character of the ones to whom it is applied. No one however can know what each particular nature is except from the internal sense; but the teachings of the Ancient Church showed what any particular nature was. Here, as in many other places, sojourner, orphan, and widow are referred to jointly because ‘a sojourner’ means those who wish to be furnished with the truths of faith, 1463, 4444, ‘an orphan’ those with whom good exists without truth but who have a desire to be led to good by means of truth, and ‘a widow’ those with whom truth exists without good and who have a desire to be led to truth by means of good. These three are referred to jointly here and elsewhere in the Word because in the internal sense they form a single group, for all three together mean those who wish to be taught and to be led to good and truth.
sRef Ps@68 @5 S6′  In the same author,
A father of the orphans, and a judge of the widows, is God in the habitation of His holiness. Ps. 68:5.
‘The orphans’ stands for those with whom, like young children, the good that goes with innocence is present but no truth as yet. The Lord is said to be ‘a father’ of these because He leads them like a father; He leads them by means of truth into good, that is to say, into the good constituting life or wisdom. ‘The widows’ stands for those who as adults know the truth but are not as yet doing good. The Lord is said to be ‘a judge’ of these because He leads them; He leads them by means of good into truth, that is to say, into the truth constituting intelligence. For by ‘a judge’ a leader is meant. Good without truth, meant by ‘an orphan’, is made into good filled with wisdom by means of teaching about truth; and truth without good, meant by ‘a widow’, is made into truth filled with intelligence by means of a life of good.
sRef Isa@10 @1 S7′ sRef Isa@10 @2 S7′  In Isaiah,
Woe to those decreeing decrees of iniquity, to turn aside the poor from judgement and to carry off into judgement the wretched of My people, so that widows may be their spoil and so that they may make orphans their prey. Isa. 10:1, 2.
Here ‘the poor’, ‘the wretched’, ‘widows’, and ‘orphans’ do not mean those who are literally so but those who are spiritually such. Now because in the Jewish Church, as in the Ancient, everything was representative, so also was doing good to orphans and widows, for doing good to these represented in heaven charity towards those who are orphans and widows in the spiritual sense.
sRef Jer@22 @3 S8′  In Jeremiah,
Do judgement and righteousness, and deliver the plundered out of the hand of the oppressor; and do not defraud the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow, and do not use force, and do not shed innocent blood in this place. Jer. 22:3.
Here also ‘the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow’ means those who are spiritually such. In the spiritual world or heaven they do not know who a sojourner, orphan, or widow is, for the condition of such persons there is not the same as what it had been in the world. When therefore these words are read by man, angels perceive the spiritual or internal meaning they possess.
sRef Ex@22 @24 S9′ sRef Mal@3 @5 S9′ sRef Ezek@22 @7 S9′ sRef Ex@22 @21 S9′ sRef Ex@22 @22 S9′ sRef Ex@22 @23 S9′ sRef Ezek@22 @6 S9′  Similarly in Ezekiel,
Behold, the princes of Israel, each according to his power,* have in you been intent on shedding blood; in you they have treated father and mother with contempt; in you they have dealt with the sojourner by means of oppression; in you they have defrauded the orphan and the widow. Ezek. 22:6, 7.
Also in Malachi,
I will draw near to you to judgement, and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against those who swear falsely, and against oppressors of the hireling in his wages, of the widow and the orphan, and [against] those who turn aside the sojourner, and do not fear Me. Mal. 3:5.
Similarly in Moses,
You shall not press down a sojourner or oppress him. You shall not afflict any widow or orphan. If you do indeed afflict him, and if he indeed cries out to Me, I will surely hear his cry, and My anger will burn, and I will kill you with the sword, so that your wives become widows, and your children orphans. Exod. 22:21-24.
sRef Matt@23 @14 S10′  This, like every other commandment, judgement, and statute in the Jewish Church, was representative. Also, members of that Church were tied down to things of an external nature so that they would observe that command, and by means of their observance of it they represented the inner spirit of charity, even though they themselves had no charity, that is, they did not act from any inner affection. An inner spirit flowed from an affection to furnish with truths those who were without knowledge, and to lead those people to good by means of truths. If they had done this, members of the Jewish Church would have been doing good, in a spiritual sense, to the sojourner, orphan, and widow. But so that what was external might be kept going for the sake of what it represented, the curses declared on Mount Ebal included ‘turning aside the judgement of the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow’, Deut. 27:19. ‘Turning aside the judgement of these’ stands for doing the reverse, that is, leading through teaching and life to falsity and evil. Also, because taking goods and truths away from others, and then making them one’s own so as to enhance one’s own position and gain, was included among curses, the Lord therefore said,
Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees! for you devour widows’ houses, and for a presence you make long prayers; on account of this you will receive greater condemnation.** Matt. 23:14; Luke 20:47.
‘Devouring widows’ houses’ stands for taking truths away from those who have a desire for them, and teaching them falsities.
sRef Jer@49 @11 S11′ sRef Jer@49 @10 S11′ sRef Deut@26 @12 S11′ sRef Deut@10 @18 S11′ sRef Deut@26 @13 S11′  To leave for the sojourner, orphan, and widow that which remained in fields, olivegroves, and vineyards, Deut. 24:19-22, was likewise representative. So too was the command that when they had finished paying the tithes of their produce in the third year, the people should give to the sojourner, orphan, and widow, so that they ate within their gates and were satisfied, Deut. 26:12, 13. It being the Lord alone who teaches a person and leads him to good and truth, it is said in Jeremiah,
Leave your orphans, I will keep them alive; and the widows will trust in Me. Jer. 49:10, 11.
And in Moses,
Jehovah executes judgement for the orphan and the widow, and loves the sojourner, giving him bread and clothing. Deut. 10:18.
‘Bread’ stands for the good of love, 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, and ‘clothing’ for the truth of faith, 4545, 4763.
 It is recorded in 1 Kings 17:1-17 that Elijah was sent, when there was a famine because there was no rain in the land, to a widow in Zarephath. He asked her for a little cake, which she had to make for him first and give it to him; after that she was to make one for herself and her son. When she did so her jar of meal was not used up and her cruse of oil did not run dry. All this was representative, like everything else recorded about Elijah, and in general throughout the Word. ‘A famine in the land because there was no rain’ represented truth laid waste within the Church, 1460, 3364; ‘a widow in Zarephath’ those outside the Church who have a desire for truth; ‘a cake which she had to make for him first’ the good of love to the Lord, 2177, whom, from the very little she had, she was to love above herself and her son. ‘The jar of meal’ means truth derived from good, 2177, and ‘the cruse of oil’ charity and love, 886, 3728, 4582. ‘Elijah’ represents the Word, by means of which such things are effected, 2762.
sRef Luke@4 @24 S13′ sRef Luke@4 @25 S13′ sRef Luke@4 @26 S13′  The same is also meant, in the internal sense, by the Lord’s words in Luke,
No prophet is accepted in his own country. In truth, I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, while there was a great famine over the whole land; yet Elijah was sent to none of them, except to a woman – a widow – in Zarephath of Sidon. Luke 4:24-26.
That is, he was sent to those outside the Church who had a desire for truth. But ‘widows’ within the Church that had been laid waste, to whom Elijah was not sent, are those with whom no truth exists because no good does so; for where there is no good neither is there any truth. However much among those people truth seems to outward appearance like truth it is nothing more so to speak than a shell without any nut in it.
sRef Jer@15 @9 S14′ sRef Isa@9 @17 S14′ sRef Jer@15 @7 S14′ sRef Lam@5 @3 S14′ sRef Isa@9 @14 S14′ sRef Jer@15 @8 S14′ sRef Isa@9 @15 S14′ sRef Lam@5 @2 S14′  Those among whom this kind of truth exists, also those among whom falsity exists, are meant by ‘widows’ in the contrary sense, as in Isaiah,
Jehovah will cut off from Israel head and tail, the branch and the bulrush in one day. The old and the honourable in face is the head, and the prophet, the teacher of a lie, the tail. Therefore the Lord will not rejoice over its young men, and He will not have compassion on its orphans and its widows. Isa 9:14, 15, 17.
I will winnow them with a winnowing-fork in the gates of the land; I will bereave, I will destroy My people; they have not turned from their ways. Their widows are increased to Me more than the sand of the seas. I will bring to them, against the mother of the young men, one who lays waste at midday. She who bore seven languishes; she has breathed her last. Her sun is going down while it is still day. Jer. 15:7-9.
In the same prophet,
Our inheritance has been turned over to aliens, our houses to foreigners. We have become orphans with no father; our mothers are widows. Lam. 5:2, 3.
sRef Rev@18 @7 S15′ sRef Isa@47 @9 S15′ sRef Rev@18 @8 S15′ sRef Isa@47 @8 S15′  Because ‘widows’ meant those with whom no truth existed because no good did so, it was therefore shameful for Churches to be called widows, even those Churches governed by falsities springing from evil, as in John,
In her heart she said, A queen I sit, and I am no widow, and shall not see mourning. On account of this in one day will her plagues come, death and mourning and famine, and she will be burned with fire. Rev. 18:7, 8.
This refers to Babel. A similar reference to Babel occurs in Isaiah,
Hear this, you lover of pleasures, sitting securely, saying in her heart, I am, and there is no one else like me; a widow I shall not sit, nor shall I know loss of children. But these two things will come to you in a moment in one day – loss of children and widowhood. Isa. 47:8, 9.
sRef Lev@22 @13 S16′ sRef Lev@21 @14 S16′ sRef Lev@22 @12 S16′ sRef Lev@21 @13 S16′ sRef Lev@21 @15 S16′ sRef Ezek@44 @22 S16′  From these quotations one may now see what is meant by ‘a widow’ in the internal sense of the Word. One may see that since ‘a widow’ represented and consequently meant the truth of the Church without its good – for ‘a wife’ meant truth and ‘a husband’ good – priests in the Ancient Churches, in which every single thing was representative, were therefore forbidden to marry any widow who was not a priest’s widow, as the following in Moses declares,
The high priest shall take a wife in her virginity; a widow or a woman that has been put away or one defiled or a prostitute, these he shall not take, but a virgin of his own people shall he take as his wife. Lev. 21:13-15.
And in the references to a new temple and a new priesthood in Ezekiel,
Priests the Levites shall not take as wives for themselves a widow or a woman that has been put away, but virgins from the seed of the house of Israel; but a widow who is the widow of a priest may they take. Ezek. 44:22.
For ‘the virgins’ whom they were to marry represented and consequently meant the affection for truth, and ‘the widow of a priest’ the affection for truth from good, since ‘e priest’ in the representative sense is the good of the Church. For this reason also any widow [who was the daughter] of a priest and who had no children was allowed to eat some of the offerings or holy things, Lev. 22:12, 13.
 Those who belonged to the Ancient Church knew this meaning of ‘a widow’ from the teachings of the Church, for among them these teachings had to do with love and charity, which included countless matters which at the present day have become completely wiped out. From them they knew which particular kind of charitable act they were required to perform – that is, which service they ought to render towards the neighbour – for those who were called ‘widows’, for those who were called ‘orphans’, for those who were called ‘sojourners’, and so on. From their religious knowledge of truth and from factual knowledge they had a discernment and a knowledge of what the ritual observances of their Church represented and meant. The learned among them knew what it was that things on earth and in this world represented, for they recognized that the whole natural creation was a theatre representative of the heavenly kingdom, 2758, 2989, 2999, 3483. Such knowledge raised their minds up to heavenly things, and the teachings of their Church led the way to life. But after the Church turned aside from charity to faith, more so after it separated faith from charity, and made faith without charity and the works of charity the bringer of salvation, their minds could no longer be raised up by means of religious knowledge to heavenly things, nor be led by any means of the teachings of the Church to life. Indeed the decline has been so great that in the end scarcely anyone believes in a life after death, and scarcely anyone knows anything about heaven. Also, there is no belief at all in the existence of a spiritual sense of the Word which is not visible in the letter. In this way people’s minds have become closed.
* lit. arm
** lit. more abundant judgement
 Such being the nature of that nation, a representative Church like that which had existed among the ancients could not be established among it, only that which was a representative of the Church. Also, the Lord made provision so that through that representative of the Church some degree of communication with heaven might be established; for what is representative can exist even in people who are evil because one does not look at the person who represents, only at the reality represented by him. From this it is evident that in the case of that nation worship was nothing else than idolatrous, 4825, even though the representatives held holy and Divine realities within them. To that kind of worship – to idolatrous worship – what was internal could not be joined; for if what was internal had been linked to it, that is, if they had acknowledged internal things, they would have rendered holy things unholy. For a holy internal, if joined to an idolatrous external, is rendered unholy.
This explains why internal things were not disclosed to that nation, for if these had been disclosed to it, it would have perished.
 The inability of that nation to receive and acknowledge internal things, however fully these might have been revealed to them, is quite evident from members of it at the present day. At the present day they do, it is true, have a knowledge of internal things since they live among Christians; yet they reject these things and also deride them. Even the majority of those who have been converted do nothing else in their hearts. From these considerations it is clear that a Church representative of spiritual and celestial things did not exist among that nation, only a representative of the Church, that is, an external without an internal, which in itself is idolatrous. From them it may also be seen how mistaken is the thinking of those Christians who believe that when the Church reaches its end the Jewish nation will be converted, and will at that time be chosen in preference to Christians. Even more mistaken is the thinking of those who believe that at that time the Messiah or Lord is going to appear to them, when by means of a great prophet and great miracles He is going to lead them back into the land of Canaan. These are the errors that people fall into who take ‘Judah’, ‘Israel’, and ‘the land of Canaan’ in the prophetical parts of the Word to mean Judah, Israel, and the land of Canaan, and who consequently believe the literal sense alone and have no interest in any internal sense
‘The days were multiplied’ means a change of state. ‘And Shua’s daughter died’ means so far as evil begotten by falsity was concerned. ‘The wife of Judah’ means the semblance of religion existing among the nation descended from Jacob, specifically that from Judah. ‘And Judah was comforted’ means rest. ‘And he went up to the shearers of his flock’ means some kind of raising up to consult the interests of the Church. ‘He and his companion Hirah the Adullamite’ means that falsity was present with it still. ‘To Timnah’ means the state. ‘And it was pointed out to Tamar, saying’ means some kind of communication with the Church that was representative of spiritual and celestial things. ‘Behold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his flock’ means that the Jewish Church had a wish to consult its own interests. ‘And she took off the clothes of her widowhood from upon her’ means an imitation of truth that springs from good. ‘And covered herself with a veil’ means the truth was rendered obscure. ‘And concealed herself’ means and so was not acknowledged. ‘And sat in the gate of the fountains, which is on the road to Timnah’ means that which lies between the truths of the Church and falsities. ‘For she saw that Shelah had grown up, and she had not been given to him as a wife’ means the insight that it could not otherwise be joined to the semblance of religion existing with those descended from Jacob, specifically those descended through Judah.
 Such is the internal sense within these words, but this sense cannot in any way be seen from the letter, for when these descriptions are read the mind thinks of Judah, Timnah, and the shearing of a flock, not of spiritual entities separate from person, place. or worldly use. But living as they do amid spiritual things, angels do not perceive from these descriptions anything else than the spiritual realities that have been mentioned. For when the literal sense passes over into the spiritual sense the things descriptive of person, place, or the world fade and those descriptive of the Church, its state, and the uses served there take their place.
 It indeed seems to be unbelievable that all this can be so. But it is so because, as long as a person is living in the world, his thought is based on natural and worldly ideas, not on spiritual or celestial ones. Also, those who are immersed in bodily and earthly interests do not even know of the existence of anything spiritual or anything celestial, let alone that these are distinct and separate from what is worldly or natural, when in fact they are as distinct as a person’s spirit is from his body. Nor do they know that the spiritual sense lives within the literal sense as a person’s spirit does within his body, and that like a person’s spirit the spiritual sense continues to live when the literal sense fades away. Therefore the internal sense may be called the soul of the Word.
 Something similar was also represented by the skin on Moses’ face shining when he came down from Mount Sinai, so that he covered himself with a veil every time he spoke to the people, Exod. 34:28-end. Moses represented the Word that is called the Law, see Preface to Chapter 18; and that is why sometimes the expression ‘the Law and the Prophets’ is used, as in Matt. 5:17; 11:13; 22:36, 40, and sometimes ‘Moses and the Prophets’, as in Luke 16:29, 31; 24:27, 44. The skin shining on his face represented the inner reality of the Word, for ‘the face’ means that which is internal, 358, 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796, 4797; for being spiritual, that inner reality dwells in the light of heaven. The veiling of his face every time he spoke to the people represented the fact that for members of that nation internal truth was covered and thus was rendered obscure so that they would not be exposed to any light at all from it.
‘Judah saw her’ means the way in which at that time the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation looked on the internal features of the representative Church. ‘And supposed that she was a prostitute’ means that it supposed them to be nothing else than something false. ‘Because she had covered her face’ means that interior things were hidden from them. ‘And he turned aside to her at the wayside’ means that it associated itself because of what it was by nature. ‘And said, Allow me now to come [in] to you’ means a lustful desire to be connected with it. ‘For he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law’ means that it did not see it as the truth of the representative Church. ‘And she said, What do you give me for coming [in] to me?’ means a conditional acceptance to become joined. ‘And he said, I will send a kid of the she-goats from the flock’ means a pledge assuring a joining together. ‘And she said, If you give me a pledge until you send it’ means an acceptance provided it was made a certainty. ‘And he said, What is the pledge that I am to give you?’ means that which made it certain. ‘And she said, Your seal’ means a token of consent. ‘Your cord’ means through truth. ‘And your rod which is in your hand’ means through the power of this. ‘And he gave them to her’ means that in this way it was made certain. ‘And came [in] to her’ means the joining together. ‘And she conceived from him’ means and so reception.
 The fact that the Jewish nation looked, as also at the present day it looks, on the internal features of the Church as nothing else than falsities is meant by Judah’s supposition that Tamar his daughter-in-law was no one else than a prostitute and by his connection with her as with a prostitute. This origin of that nation represents the origin and also the essential nature of their semblance of religion. It is plain to see that this nation looks on the internal aspect of the Church as a harlot, that is, as something false. For example, if anyone tells them it is an internal truth of the Church that the Messiah, who is foretold in the prophetical parts of the Word and whom they await, is the Lord, they completely reject this as something false. If anyone tells them it is an internal truth of the Church that the Messiah’s kingdom is not a worldly and temporal but a heavenly and eternal one, they declare this too to be something false. If anyone tells them that the ritual observances of their Church represented the Messiah and His heavenly kingdom they have no idea what this is.
 If anyone tells them that the internal aspect of the Church is the good of charity and the truth of faith, both in doctrine and at the same time in life, they regard this as nothing else than a falsity. And so it is with every other truth told them. Indeed at the mere suggestion of an internal aspect of the Church they laugh nonsensically. The reason for this is that they are immersed solely in things of an external nature, and indeed in the lowest of these, which consist in the love of earthly things; for more than all others they are steeped in avarice, which is utterly worldly. Such people cannot possibly look on the interior features of the Church in any other way, since they are further removed than all others from the light of heaven, and so more than all others dwell in thickest darkness.
 All who believe solely the external sense of the Word, that is, its literal sense, and completely cast aside the whole internal – that is, spiritual – sense link themselves to internal truth as to a prostitute. This is above all the case among those who employ the external or literal sense of the Word to lend support to the desires that belong to their self-love and love of the world, that is, the desires for rule and gain. Those who behave like this cannot do other than look on internal truth in that kind of way; and if they attach themselves to it they do so with a lustful desire, like that for connection with a prostitute. Members of the Jewish nation in particular do this, and so also do those meant in the Word by Babel. But those people are different who do, it is true, have a simple belief in the literal sense of the Word, yet lead lives in keeping with what is contained in the internal sense. That is to say, they are people with whom love and charity exist, and also faith derived from these (for these three are the subject in the internal sense of the Word); also they are people who base their teachings on these. For the internal sense and the external sense come together in the two commandments, to love the Lord above all things and one’s neighbour as oneself.
 Let some examples show that the Jewish nation regards internal truth as a prostitute, and that if it associates itself with that truth it does so from a lustful desire akin to that for a connection with that kind of woman. If, for example, they are told that the Word is holy, indeed most holy, and also that every part of a letter there is holy, they acknowledge and associate themselves with what is said; yet they do so from that kind of lustful desire. For they believe that holiness lies within the actual letter of the Word and not that holiness is something which enters by means of the Word when people with an affection for what is good and true read it.
 If they are told that many of those mentioned in the Word are to be revered as holy ones – such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, or David – they acknowledge and associate themselves with this. But they do so from a like lustful desire, for they believe that these historical figures were chosen in preference to others and are on that account holy ones, who ought therefore to be worshipped as gods. Any holiness attached to these figures however is due solely to the fact that they represented the Lord. No one by being a holy representative undergoes a change of personality; indeed one can go further and say that without exception everyone’s life after death is the same as before it.
 If they are told that the ark among them, the temple, the altar of burnt offering, the altar of incense, the bread on the table, the lampstand with its lamps, the continual fire, the sacrifices, the incense, the oil, and also Aaron’s vestments, especially the breastplate with the urim and thummim on it, were holy, they acknowledge this and associate themselves with it, but from the same kind of lustful desire. For they believe that all these objects were inherently holy, thus that wood, stone, gold, silver, bread, and fire were so; they believe that they had holiness in them because Jehovah was within them. That is to say, they believe that the holiness of Jehovah which was attached to these objects resided in actual fact within them. This is their internal truth, which however is falsity when compared with genuine truth; for holiness exists solely within good and truth which, being from the Lord, reside within love to Him and love towards the neighbour, and from these within faith. It accordingly exists only within the living, that is, within those who accept these gifts from the Lord.
 If they are told that the Christian Church is one with the Church that was established among them but that the Christian was internal whereas theirs was external, so that when the external features of the Church established among them are peeled away and it is laid bare, the Christian Church is seen, they do not acknowledge this truth as anything else than a harlot, that is, as something false. Nevertheless many of them who are converted from Judaism to Christianity associate themselves with this truth; but they do so from a lustful desire. Many times in the Word these kinds of things are called acts of whoredom. As regards those however who are meant in the Word by ‘Babylon’, they likewise look in a similar way on the internal truths of the Church; yet because they have a knowledge of internal things, and in addition acknowledge these during childhood but in adult life refuse to do so, they are described in the Word by means of foul acts of adultery and unmentionable sexual unions; for they are forms of profanation.
It happened after a while,* in the days of the wheat harvest, that Samson visited his wife with a kid of the she-goats; for he said, I will go in to my wife into the chamber. Judg 15:1.
Much the same situation is described here in Genesis; but as the promised kid of the she-goats was not going to be accepted by her, Tamar asked for a pledge. The expression ‘pledge assuring a joining together’ is used, not a conjugial pledge, because on Judah’s side the joining together was as it is with a prostitute.
* lit. after days
 The joining of internal truth to something external, that is, to the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation, is represented by Tamar’s being joined to Judah as a daughter-in-law joined to her father-in-law under the pretext that the duty of a near kinsman was being performed. But the joining of the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation to the internal aspect of the Church is represented by Judah’s being joined to Tamar as to a prostitute. This is exactly what these joinings together are like, but it is not so easy to give an intelligible explanation of the essential nature of them. Their essential nature is laid quite bare before the eyes of angels and good spirits, for it is set before them in the light of heaven. In this light the arcana of the Word are laid bare in broad daylight so to speak, quite unlike their appearance in the light of the world which man sees by. Let just a brief word be said about this. The representatives which had been established among the descendants of Jacob were not exactly the same as those which existed in the Ancient Church. For the most part they were like those in the Church established by Eber, which was called the Hebrew Church. Within this Church many new forms of worship existed, such as burnt offerings and sacrifices, which had been unknown in the Ancient Church, and other forms besides these. To these representatives the internal aspect of the Church was not linked in the way it had been to the representatives of the Ancient Church. But in what way the internal aspect of the Church was linked to the representatives among the Jewish nation, and these representatives to that internal aspect, is described in the internal sense by Tamar’s being joined to Judah as a daughter-in-law to her father-in-law under the pretext that the duty of a near kinsman was being performed, and by Judah’s being joined to Tamar as to a prostitute. Regarding the Hebrew Church, see 1238, 1241, 1327, 1343, 3031, 4516, 4517; and for information about the sacrifices offered in this Church not being a feature of the Ancient Church, 923, 1128, 1343, 2180, 2818.
Every open vessel on which there is no covering [or] cord [to fasten it] is unclean. Num. 19:15.
By this was meant that nothing should exist without having an outer limit, for that which does not have an outer limit is ‘open’. Furthermore outermost truths serve as the outer limit and terminus of interior truths.
sRef Ex@10 @11 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @16 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@4 @17 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @14 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @13 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @15 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @15 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @17 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @16 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @13 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @8 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @7 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @10 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @11 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @21 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @18 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @17 S2′ sRef Ex@14 @21 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @6 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @5 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @14 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @4 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @19 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @5 S2′ sRef Ex@7 @19 S2′ sRef Ex@7 @15 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @3 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @10 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @20 S2′ sRef Ex@9 @23 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @6 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @7 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @8 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @13 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@14 @27 S2′ sRef Ex@4 @20 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @18 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @19 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @20 S2′ sRef Ex@7 @20 S2′ sRef Ex@14 @26 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @22 S2′  That ‘a rod’ represented power is evident, as has been stated, from what is recorded about Moses,
He was commanded to take a rod and use it to perform miracles; so he took the rod of God in his hand. Exod. 4:17, 20.
When the waters in Egypt were struck with the rod, they turned to blood.
Exod. 7:15, 19.
When the rod was stretched out over the streams, frogs came forth. Exod. 8:5-15.
When the dust was struck by the use of the rod, it turned into lice. Exod. 8:16-20.
When the rod was stretched out towards heaven, hail fell. Exod. 9:23.
When the rod was stretched out over the earth, locusts came forth. Exod. 10:3-21.
Since ‘the hand’, which means power, comes first, while ‘a rod’ is merely its instrument, the following references to ‘the hand’ also occur:
The miracles happened when Moses’ hand was stretched out. Exod. 10:12, 13. When he stretched out his hand towards heaven, thick darkness came over the land of Egypt. Exod. 10:21, 22. When he stretched out his hand over the Sea Suph, an east wind made the sea dry land; and when again he stretched out his hand, the waters returned. Exod. 14:21, 26, 27.
sRef Ex@17 @9 S3′ sRef Ex@17 @11 S3′ sRef Ex@17 @5 S3′ sRef Ex@17 @6 S3′  Reference is in addition made to the rod being used to strike the rock at Horeb, after which water flowed out, Exod. 17:5, 6; Num. 20:7-10. Also, when Joshua was about to fight against Amalek,
Moses said to Joshua, Choose men for us, and go out, fight with Amalek; tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill, with God’s rod in my hand. And it happened, that when Moses lifted up his hand, Israel prevailed, and when he let down his hand Amalek prevailed. Exod 17:9-11.
From these references it is quite plain that ‘a rod’, like the hand, represented power, and in the highest sense the Lord’s Divine almighty power. It is also evident that at that time representatives constituted the external features of the Church, and that its internal features – which were spiritual and celestial realities such as exist in heaven – corresponded to those external ones, which owed their efficacy to that correspondence. From this it is also evident how crazy those people are who believe that power had been infused into and therefore dwelt in Moses’ rod or hand.
sRef Isa@3 @1 S4′  The meaning in the spiritual sense of ‘a rod’ as power is also evident from many places in the Prophets, as in Isaiah,
Behold, the Lord Jehovah Zebaoth is taking away from Jerusalem rod and stay, the whole rod of bread, and the whole rod of water. Isa. 3:1.
‘The rod of bread’ stands for the support and power provided by the good of love, ‘the rod of water’ for the support and power provided by the truth of faith. For ‘bread’ means the good of love, see 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735; and ‘water’ the truth of faith’ 28, 680, 739, 2702, 3058, 3424. ‘The rod of bread’ is used with a similar meaning in Ezekiel 4:16; 5:16; 14:13; Ps. 105:16.
sRef Isa@10 @26 S5′ sRef Isa@10 @24 S5′  In addition to this, in Isaiah,
The Lord, Jehovih Zebaoth, said, Do not be afraid – O My people, inhabitant of Zion – of Asshur, who will smite you with a stick and will lift up the rod over you in the way of Egypt. Jehovah will lift up the scourge against him, as when Midian was smitten in the rock of Oreb, and his rod will be over the sea, which he will lift up in the way of Egypt. Isa. 10:24, 26.
Here ‘the rod’ stands for power provided by reasoning and knowledge, like that which those people possess who, with ideas based on factual knowledge, reason against the truths of faith and pervert these or else treat them as worthless. This is what is meant by ‘the stick with which Asshur will smite’ and by ‘the rod which he will lift up in the way of Egypt’. For ‘Asshur’ means reasoning, see 1186, and ‘Egypt’ knowledge, 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462.
sRef Isa@36 @6 S6′ sRef Zech@10 @11 S6′ sRef Isa@14 @5 S6′  Similarly in Zechariah,
The pride of Asshur will be thrown down, and the rod of Egypt will depart. Zech. 10:11.
You relied on the rod of a bruised reed, on Egypt, which, when anyone leans on it, goes into his hand and pierces it. Isa. 36:6.
‘Egypt’ stands for factual knowledge, as above; and power in spiritual things which is received from that knowledge is meant by ‘the rod of a bruised reed’. By ‘the hand which it enters and pierces’ is meant power received from the Word. In the same prophet,
Jehovah has broken the rod of the wicked, the stick of those who have dominion. Isa. 14:5
‘The rod’ and ‘the stick’ plainly stand for power.
sRef Jer@48 @17 S7′  In Jeremiah,
Grieve, all regions surrounding Moab; say, How is the rod of strength, the rod of beauty, broken! Jer 48:17.
‘The rod of strength’ stands for power received from good, and ‘the rod of beauty’ for power received from truth.
sRef Ps@125 @3 S8′ sRef Hos@4 @12 S8′ sRef Ps@23 @4 S8′  In Hosea,
My people enquire of their piece of wood, and their rod gives them a reply, for the spirit of whoredom has led them astray. Hosea 4:12.
‘Inquiring of a piece of wood’ stands for consulting evils, ‘the rod gives reply’ for the fact that falsity results from these, its power being derived from the evil to which they give support. ‘The spirit of whoredom’ stands for the life of falsity resulting from evil. In David,
Even when I walk in the valley of the shadow I will fear no evil; for You are with me; Your stick and Your rod comfort me. Ps. 23:4.
‘Your stick and your rod’ stands for Divine truth and good, which have power. In the same author,
The rod of the wicked will not rest on the lot of the righteous. Ps. 125:3.
sRef Rev@2 @26 S9′ sRef Ps@2 @9 S9′ sRef Rev@2 @27 S9′  In the same author,
You will break them in pieces with a stick of iron, you will dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel. Ps. 2:9.
‘A stick of iron’ stands for the power of spiritual truth within the natural, for all natural truth that has spiritual truth present within it possesses power. ‘Iron’ means natural truth, 425, 426. Similarly in John,
He who overcomes, and keeps My works until the end, to him I will give power over the nations to rule* them untie a stick of iron as when earthen pots are broken in pieces. Rev. 2:26, 27. (Also Rev. 12:5; 19:15.)
 Because ‘a rod’ represented the power of truth, that is, the power of good expressed by means of truth, kings therefore had sceptres; and those sceptres were shaped like short rods. For kings represent the Lord as regards truth, while kingship itself means Divine Truth, 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3670, 4581. The sceptre means the power which is theirs not by virtue of their high position but of truth which must reign. Nor must this be any other kind of truth than that which is grounded in good, and so is primarily Divine Truth, and among Christians is the Lord, the source of all Divine Truth.
* lit. pasture
‘She rose up’ means a raising up. ‘And went’ means life. ‘And took off her veil from upon her’ means the obscurity. ‘And put on the clothes of her widowhood’ means intelligence. ‘And Judah sent the kid of the she-goats’ means a conjugial pledge. ‘By the hand of his companion the Adullamite’ means by means of falsity. ‘To receive the pledge from the woman’s hand’ means instead of external pledges. ‘And he did not find her’ means because nothing of marriage existed on his side. ‘And he asked the men of her place, saying’ means that truths were consulted. ‘Where is the harlot?’ means as to whether it was something false. ‘In the fountains on the wayside’ means that had the appearance of being something true. ‘And they said’ means perception received from truths. ‘There has been no harlot there’ means that it was not something false. ‘And he resumed to Judah’ means reflection. ‘And said, I did not find her’ means that by falsity this cannot be discovered. ‘And also the men of the place said, There has been no harlot there’ means perception received from truths that it was not something false. ‘And Judah said, Let her keep [them]’ means that he was no longer interested. ‘Maybe we shall be put to shame’ means even though subject to reproach. ‘Behold, I sent this kid’ means it is enough that a pledge exists. ‘And you did not find her’ means even if nothing of marriage exists.
 I have on occasions spoken to spirits about these appearances, but those who are not governed by good, nor consequently by truth, do not wish to listen when told it is but an appearance that they live self-dependently; for their wish is to live self-dependently. But in addition to showing them from actual experience that they do not lead self-dependent lives and that every advance made from one place to another is a change to, and an advance made in, their state of life, I have also told them that for them it may be sufficient for them to know no other than that they live self-dependently, and that their life would be life no more if they did not live self-dependency. It would nevertheless be better for them to know what the situation really is, for in that case they would have the truth; and if they have the truth they also dwell in the light of heaven, since the light of heaven is the truth itself which flows from the Lord’s Divine. Furthermore, if the truth existed with them in this way they would not claim that good was their own, nor would evil cling to them. Angels possessing that truth do not merely know it; they also have a perception of it.
 Intervals of time and space in the spiritual world are states of life, and every spark of life has its origin in the Lord, as the following experience may show. Each spirit and angel sees on his right those who are good and on his left those who are evil; this is so in whatever direction he turns himself. If he turns and looks eastwards he sees the good to the right and the evil to the left. The same happens if he turns and looks to the west, and likewise to the south or the north. This is the case with every spirit or angel, so that if there were two, and one of these turned and looked to the east and the other did so to the west, each would still see the good on his right and the evil on his left. Those far removed from, even behind the backs of, those who behold them are seen in those unchanging positions. From these considerations one may deduce clearly that every spark of life has its origin in the Lord, that is, that the Lord is within the life of everyone; for in the spiritual world the Lord is seen as the Sun, the good or sheep being on His right, and the evil or goats on His left. The same is therefore the case with each spirit or angel, for the reason, as stated, that the Lord exists in every spark of life. This is bound to look like a paradox to man, for as long as he is in the world man has ideas that are formed from worldly things, and therefore from what is spatial and temporal. But as stated above, in the spiritual world no ideas are formed from what is spatial and temporal but from the state belonging to affections and the thoughts flowing from these. It is for this reason also that the intervals of space and time in the Word mean states.
 To enable the implications of all this to be seen a brief explanation is necessary. When a person knows the truth it is not truth constituting intelligence until he is led by good; but when he is led by good it starts to become the truth of intelligence. For truth does not receive its life from itself but from good; and truth receives its life from good when the person lives in conformity with that truth. When he does this, truth injects itself into the intentions of his will, and from these into his actions, and so into the entire person. Truth that is merely known or grasped intellectually by a person remains excluded from his will, and so from his life since the intentions of a person’s will constitute his life. But once he is intent on truth it stands at the gateway into his life; and when he is intent on it and therefore practices it, that truth is present within the entire person. Then, when his practice of that truth is frequent its reappearance is attributable not merely to habit but also to an affection for it and so to a free desire to practise it. Let anyone at all consider whether anything can be taken in by a person apart from that which he is intent on putting into practice. That which he merely thinks about but does not actually do, more so that which he thinks about but does not wish to do, is nothing else than something which remains excluded from that person, and is also driven away like a straw by the smallest puff of wind, and is actually blown away in that manner in the next life. From this one can know what faith without works is. These considerations now show what truth constituting intelligence is, namely truth which is rooted in good. Truth is the characteristic feature of the understanding and good that of the will; or what amounts to the same, truth is the substance of doctrine and good that of life.
 Does anyone at the present day believe anything other than this, that the Church existed among the Jewish nation, indeed that this nation was chosen and loved in preference to all others, the chief reasons for such belief being that so many and such great miracles were performed among that nation, so many prophets were sent to it, and also the Word existed among it? Yet that nation possessed nothing at all of the Church within it, for no charity existed there; of what genuine charity was they were completely unaware. Nor did any faith in the Lord exist there. It knew that He was to make His coming, but believed that this was to set it above all people throughout the world. As this did not happen it rejected Him altogether. Of His heavenly kingdom it had no wish to know anything at all. The things which constitute the internal features of the Church were not even acknowledged in what that nation taught, let alone in its life. From all this one can only conclude that no Church at all existed within that nation.
 It is one thing for the Church to exist among a nation, and another for the Church to exist within a nation. For example, the Christian Church exists among those who have the Word and use doctrine to preach about the Lord. Yet no Church at all exists within them if no marriage of good and truth is present in them, that is, if charity towards the neighbour and faith rooted in this is not present in them, thus if the internal features of the Church are not present within the external ones. Those with whom solely external features separated from internal are present do not have the Church within them. Nor do those with whom faith separated from charity is present have the Church within them. Neither do those who acknowledge the Lord in their teachings but not in life have the Church within them. From this example it is evident that it is one thing for the Church to exist among a nation, and another for it to do so within a nation.
 The subject in the internal sense of this chapter is the Church among the Jewish nation and within that nation. The essential nature of the Church existing among that nation is described by Tamar’s being joined to Judah under the pretext that the duty of a near kinsman was being performed, while the essential nature of the Church existing within that nation is described by Judah’s being joined to Tamar as a prostitute. But a more detailed explanation of these matters is abandoned here for the reason given above, that it would enter, as stated, the unlit parts of the understanding. The accommodation of these matters in the unlit parts of the understanding is evident from the fact that at the present day scarcely anyone knows what the internal aspect of the Church is. This internal aspect is essentially charity towards the neighbour present within the intentions of a person’s will, and from these in his actions, and from these again in faith within his perception; yet who knows this? When this is unknown, more so when it is denied, as is done by people who make faith without the works of charity the bringer of salvation, how unlit must those parts of the mind be, into which the ideas pass that are stated here in the internal sense about the joining of the internal aspect to the external aspect of the Church among the Jewish nation and within that nation? Those who have no knowledge of the existence of that internal and so essential aspect of the Church stand far removed from the first step towards understanding such ideas, and as a consequence from the countless, indescribable things existing in heaven, where realities connected with love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour constitute every trace of life, and consequently every trace of wisdom and intelligence.
‘So it was about three months later’ means a new state. ‘That it was pointed out to Judah’ means communication. ‘Saying, Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed whoredom’ means a perception at this point that to say anything of marriage exists between them is a falsity. ‘And also, behold, she is pregnant owing to acts of whoredom’ means, or to say anything can be brought forth from this. ‘And Judah said’ means the verdict of the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation. ‘Bring her out, and let her be burnt’ means that it should be exterminated. ‘She was brought out’ means near to being carried out. ‘And she sent to her father-in-law’ means an intimation. ‘Saying, By the man to whom these belong I am pregnant’ means that this characteristic was contained in their semblance of religion. ‘And she said, Acknowledge now to whom these belong, the seal and the cord and the rod’ means that one could recognize it from the pledges. ‘And Judah acknowledged them’ means that because these were theirs they affirmed that they were. ‘And said, She is more righteous than I am’ means that no joining of what was external to what was internal existed, only what was internal to what was external. ‘Seeing that I have not given her to Shelah my son’ means because what was external was of such a nature. ‘And he did not know her ever again’ means that there was no further joining together.
 The reason periods of time mean states is that in the next life such periods do not really exist. Spirits’ and angels’ lives do, it is true, seem to move forward within a time-sequence; but periods of time play no part in the formation of their thought, as those periods do in the formation of men’s in the world. Rather, states of life contribute to the formation of their thought, without the help of any temporal notion. Also, a further reason why such periods of time mean states is that consecutive stages in the lives of spirits and angels are not distinguished as separate times of life. For those in the next life do not age; nor are there any days or years there because the Sun there – the Lord – is always rising and never sets. Consequently no temporal notion can enter their thinking, only the notion of a state and of the stages by which this moves forward It is the things present and taking place before people’s senses that are the source of the notions gained by them.
 These matters are bound to look like a paradox, but the reason they do so is that every single idea present in a person’s thought has something of time and space attached to it. These are the source of what is in his memory and of what he recollects, and they are the source of his lower level of thought, consisting of ideas called material ones. But the memory from which such ideas are recollected is quiescent in the next life. Those who are in the next life use their interior memory and the ideas present in the thought there. Thought flowing from this interior memory does not have any temporal or spatial content, but instead of this states and the stages by which those states move forward. Consequently periods of time correspond to these, and because they correspond periods of time are used in the Word to mean states. For details about man’s possession of an exterior memory which belongs properly to him while in the body, and also of an interior memory which belongs properly to his spirit, see 2469-2494.
 The reason ‘about three months later’ means a new state is that ‘months’, into which periods of time in the world are also divided, means state, and that, as mentioned above, ‘three’ means the last and at the same time the first, or the end and at the same time the beginning. Because in the spiritual world states are constantly moving forward from one into another, and as a consequence the last phase or end of each state includes the first phase or beginning of the next, resulting in a continuous sequence, ‘about three months later’ therefore means a new state. The same applies within the Church too, which is the spiritual world or the Lord’s kingdom on earth. The last phase of the Church among one nation is always the first phase of the Church among another. Because a last phase is in this way continued into a first, the Lord is spoken of several times as the Last and the First, as in Isa. 41:4; 44:6; Rev. 21:6; 22:13; and by this is meant in the relative sense that which is perpetual, and in the highest sense that which is eternal.
 The fact that the Jewish nation were confined to what was external devoid of anything internal, so that it believed what was true to be falsity, and conversely what was false to be the truth, is quite evident from their teaching that one was allowed to hate an enemy and also from their life of hating all who did not belong to their semblance of religion. Indeed it is quite evident from their belief that they pleased and served Jehovah when they treated gentile nations in a savage and cruel fashion, that is to say, when they exposed the bodies of those whom they had slaughtered to be devoured by wild animals or birds, cut up those who were still alive, hacked them to pieces with iron picks and axes, or made them pass through the brickkiln, 2 Sam. 12:31. Indeed their teachings asserted that even an ally who for some reason had been declared an enemy was to be treated in much the same way. From these considerations it becomes quite clear that nothing internal at all lay within their semblance of religion. If anyone at that time had told them that such actions were contrary to the inner spirit of the Church they would have replied that this was a falsity. The fact that they were confined to what was external, having no knowledge at all of anything internal and leading lives contrary to what was internal, is also evident from what the Lord teaches in Matthew 5:21-48.
sRef John@3 @4 S2′  That nation had no knowledge at all of rebirth or regeneration, that is, of becoming an internal man, and as a consequence saw this as ‘a harlot’. Such ignorance may be seen from Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews, in John 3:1-13, for he said,
How can a person be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born? John 3:4.
It is well known that the Lord revealed the internal truths of His kingdom and of His Church. Even so, those truths had been known to the ancients, such as the truth that a person needed to be born again, so that he could enter into life; the truth that in this case he needed to cast aside the old man, that is, self-love and love of the world together with their lusts, and to put on the new man, that is, love towards the neighbour and towards God; and the truth that heaven needed to exist within the regenerate person; and many more truths that were internal ones. Those who belonged to the Ancient Church knew these truths, but they were led to know them through external representatives. However, because among the Jewish nation such truths had become completely lost the Lord presented those same truths in His teaching. Actual representatives were done away with by Him since the majority of them had regard to Himself; for the image must pass away when the actual likeness presents itself.
 The Lord therefore established a new Church which was not to be led to know internal truths, as that former Church had been led, by means of representatives but was to know them without the help of representatives. In place of these representatives He ordained certain external forms, baptism and the Holy Supper. Baptism was ordained so that it might enable people to call regeneration to mind, and the Holy Supper so that it might enable them to bring to mind the Lord and His love towards the entire human race, and man’s reciprocation of His love. These matters have been mentioned so that it may be recognized that the internal truths of the Church which the Lord taught had been known to the ancients but that among the Jewish nation they had become completely lost, so completely that they were regarded to be nothing else than falsities.
 If they are told that every one of the ritual observances of their Church are inwardly holy, they affirm this truth because they regard those observances to be their own. But if they are told that such holiness dwells within, yet is separate from those observances, they refuse to accept this. If they are told that the Jewish Church was celestial and the Israelitish Church spiritual, and if they are given an explanation of what the celestial is, and what the spiritual is, they affirm that also. But if they were told that these two Churches are called celestial and spiritual from the fact that all the particular aspects of them were representative of celestial and spiritual things, and that representatives have regard to the reality represented, not to the one who represents it, they refuse to accept it. If they are told that Moses’ rod had power from Jehovah, and so had Divine power within it, they affirm this and call it the truth. But if they are told that this power did not lie in the rod, only in the Divine command, they refuse to accept it and call it a falsity.
 If they are told that the bronze serpent lifted up by Moses healed those who were bitten by the serpents and that this object was for that reason miraculous, they affirm it. But if they are told that no healing or miraculous power lay within it but these came from the Lord whom that object represented, they refuse to accept this and call it a falsity. (Compare what has been narrated and stated about that serpent in Num. 21:7-9; 2 Kings 18:4; John 3:14, 15.) They react in the same way to everything else they are told. These are the kinds of things that are meant by ‘Judah acknowledged them’ and which on the part of the nation meant by him were joined to that internal aspect of the Church represented by ‘Tamar’. Also, such being the nature of those things, Judah did not go in to her as a near kinsman going in to a dead husband’s wife but as a fornicator going in to a prostitute.
‘It happened at the time’ means the subsequent state. ‘As she was giving birth’ means acknowledgement on the part of internal truth. ‘That behold, there were twins in her womb’ means the two essentials of the Church. ‘And it happened as she was giving birth’ means a bringing forth. ‘That one put out a hand’ means power. ‘And the midwife took’ means the natural. ‘And bound on his hand a twice-dyed thread’ means that a sign was placed on it – ‘twice-dyed’ meaning good. ‘Saying, This one came out first’ means that it had priority of place. ‘And it happened as he drew back his hand’ means that it concealed its own power. ‘That behold, his brother came out’ means the truth of good. ‘And she said, Why have you made a breach upon yourself?’ means this truth’s apparent separation from good. ‘And he called his name Perez’ means the essential nature of it. ‘And afterwards his brother came out’ means good which in actual fact is prior. ‘On whose hand was the twice-dyed thread’ means the acknowledgement that good is such. ‘And he called his name Zerah’ means the essential nature of it.
sRef Isa@49 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@22 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S2′ sRef Ps@58 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@22 @10 S2′ sRef Hos@13 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@46 @3 S2′  Since ‘going out of the womb’ means rebirth, and therefore the Church, the Lord is called in the Word ‘He who formed from the womb’ and ‘He who brought out of the womb’, and those who have been regenerated and become the Church are said ‘to have been carried from the womb’, as in Isaiah,
Thus said Jehovah. your Maker. He who formed you from the womb, and who helps you. Isa. 44:2.
In the same prophet,
Thus said Jehovah, your Redeemer, He who formed you from the womb. Isa. 44:24.
In the same prophet,
Thus said Jehovah. who formed me from the womb to be His servant, to bring back Jacob to Him, and that Israel might be gathered to Him. Isa. 49:5.
Jehovah who brought me out of the womb. Ps. 22:9.
Hearken to Me, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel who have been carried from the womb, and borne from the belly. Isa. 46:3.
The wicked are alienated from the womb, and go astray from the belly, with lying words. Ps. 58:3.
Here ‘being alienated from the womb’ means alienation from the good fostered by the Church, and ‘going astray from the belly’ straying from the truth. In Hosea,
The pains of childbirth will come upon him, he is an unwise son, for now he does not present himself at the womb of sons. Hosea 13:13.
‘Not presenting himself at the womb of sons’ stands for not coming to the good of truth fostered by the Church.
sRef Rev@12 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@48 @8 S3′ sRef Hos@9 @11 S3′ sRef Rev@12 @2 S3′  In the same prophet,
Their glory will fly away like a bird, away from birth, from the belly, and from conception. Hosea 9:11.
This means that the truth of the Church will perish fully – ‘from birth’ being that to which birth is given, ‘from the belly’ that which is undergoing gestation, ‘from conception’ that which is taking rise. In Isaiah,
I knew that you would certainly act treacherously, and that you were called [a man] of transgression from the womb. Isa 48:8.
This means that from the time when the Church first began he was like this. In John,
A great sign was seen in heaven – a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet. and on her head a crown of twelve stars. Carrying in the belly however, she cried out in labour, and was in anguish to give birth. Rev. 12:1, 2.
‘The woman’ is the Church, 252, 253, 255. ‘The sun’ with which she was clothed is the good of love, 30-38, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 4060, 4696; ‘the moon’ which was under her feet is the truth of faith, 30-38, 1529, 1530, 2120, 2495, 4696; ‘the stars’ are cognitions of good and truth, 2495, 2849, 4697 – there being ‘twelve stars’ because ‘twelve’ means all things, thus all aspects of faith, 577, 2089, 2129 (end), 2130 (end), 3272, 3858, 3913; ‘carrying in the belly’ is the truth of the Church that had been conceived; ‘being in labour and in anguish to give birth’ is the fact that it was received with difficulty.
sRef Jer@4 @30 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @24 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @17 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @18 S2′  As regards ‘twice-dyed’ meaning spiritual good, this is evident from places in the Word where this expression is used, as in Jeremiah,
If therefore you have been laid waste, what will you do? If you clothe yourself in twice-dyed and deck yourself with ornaments of gold, in vain will you make yourself beautiful; your lovers will abhor you. Jer. 4:30.
This refers to Judah. ‘Clothing yourself in twice-dyed’ stands for spiritual good, ‘decking yourself with ornaments of gold’ for celestial good. In 2 Samuel,
David lamented over Saul and over Jonathan, and wrote it down that they teach the children of Judah the bow. Daughters of Israel, weep over Saul who clothed you in twice-dyed delicately,* and placed an ornament of gold on your apparel. 2 Sam. 1:17, 18, 24.
Here ‘teaching the bow’ stands for teaching the doctrine of love and charity, for ‘the bow’ means that doctrine. ‘Clothing in twice-dyed’ stands for spiritual good, as previously, and ‘placing an ornament of gold on one’s apparel’ for celestial good.
sRef Ex@26 @31 S3′ sRef Ex@26 @1 S3′ sRef Ex@26 @36 S3′  Such being the meaning of ‘twice-dyed’, instructions were also given to use twice-dyed scarlet on the curtains of the Dwelling-place, the veil, the covering for the door of the tent, the covering to the gate of the court, the table of the Presence when they were about to set out, Aaron’s sacred vestments such as the ephod, the breastplate of judgement, and the fringes of the robe of the ephod:
The curtains of the Dwelling-place
You shall make for the Dwelling-place ten curtains – fine-twined linen, and violet and purple and twice-dyed scarlet. Exod 26:1.
You shall make a veil of violet and purple, and of twice-dyed scarlet, and of fine-twined linen. Exod 26:31.
The covering for the door of the tent
You shall make a covering for the door of the tent, of violet and purple and twice-dyed scarlet, and of fine-twined linen. Exod 26:36.
sRef Ex@28 @33 S4′ aRef Ex@39 @2 S4′ sRef Ex@28 @8 S4′ sRef Ex@28 @5 S4′ sRef Ex@28 @6 S4′ aRef Ex@39 @3 S4′ sRef Num@4 @8 S4′ sRef Ex@27 @16 S4′  The covering to the gate of the court
For the gate of the court you shall make a covering of violet and purple and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine-twined linen, the work of an embroiderer. Exod 27:16.
The table of the Presence when they were about to set out
When the camp sets out they shall spread over the table of the Presence a cloth of twice-dyed scarlet, and shall cover this with a covering of badger skin. Num. 4:8.
You shall make an ephod out of gold, violet and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, fine-twined linen, the work of a craftsman; and the girdle similarly. Exod. 28:5, 6, 8; 39:2, 3.
The breastplate of judgement
You shall make the breastplate of judgement, the work of a craftsman, like the work of the ephod, out of gold, violet, and purple. and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine-twined linen. Exod. 28:15.
The fringes of the robe of the ephod
Pomegranates of violet, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet. Exod. 28:33.
sRef Lev@14 @4 S5′ sRef Lev@14 @6 S5′ sRef Num@19 @6 S5′ sRef Lev@14 @52 S5′  It was because the Tent of Meeting with the Ark in it represented heaven that the colours mentioned in these places were required. They meant in their order celestial and spiritual things, as follows: ‘Violet and purple’ meant celestial kinds of good and truth, ‘twice-dyed scarlet and fine-twined linen’ spiritual kinds of good and truth. Anyone believing that the Word is holy can recognize that each has a specific meaning, and anyone believing that the Word is holy for the reason that it has been sent down from the Lord by way of heaven can recognize that the celestial and spiritual things belonging to His kingdom are meant. Similar instructions were given, in cleansings from leprosy, to use ‘cedarwood, scarlet, and hyssop’, Lev. 14:4, 6, 52; and to cast ‘cedarwood and hyssop and twice-dyed of purple’ on to the fire in which the red heifer was being burned, from which the water of separation was prepared, Num. 19:6.
sRef Rev@18 @16 S6′ sRef Rev@17 @4 S6′ sRef Rev@17 @3 S6′  The profanation of good and truth is described by similar words in John,
I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast, full of blasphemous names. It had seven heads and ten horns. The woman was clothed in purple and scarlet. and covered** with gold and precious stones and pearls. holding in her hand a golden cup, full of abominations and the uncleanness of whoredom. Rev. 17:3, 4.
And after this,
Woe, woe, the great city, you that were clothed in fine linen and purple and scarlet, and covered’ with gold and precious stones and pearls. Rev. 18:16.
This refers to ‘Babel’ by which the profanation of good is meant, 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326, in this case the profanation both of good and of truth, which is ‘Babylonian’. Among the Prophets in the Old Testament ‘Babel’ describes the profanation of good and ‘Chaldea’ the profanation of truth.
sRef Isa@1 @18 S7′  In the contrary sense ‘scarlet’ means the evil that is the contrary of spiritual good, as in Isaiah,
Though your sins are like scarlet, they will be white as snow. Though they are red as crimson,*** they will be as wool. Isa. 1:18.
The reason ‘scarlet’ means this evil is that ‘blood’, likewise, because of its red colour, in the genuine sense means spiritual good or charity towards the neighbour, and in the contrary sense violence done to charity, 374, 1005.
* lit. with delights
** lit. gilded
*** lit. purple
 The Jews and also some Christians do, it is true, believe that these, along with all other descriptions in the Word, contain some hidden meaning which they call mystical, the reason for that belief being the holiness, so far as the Word is concerned, which has been impressed on them since early childhood. But when asked what that mystical meaning may be, they do not know. One may tell them that because the Word is Divine the mystical meaning within it must of necessity be the kind of meaning the angels in heaven understand, and that the Word cannot have any other mystical content, or if it does, that content would be either mythical, magical, or idolatrous. One may in addition tell them that this mystical meaning understood by the angels in heaven is nothing else than what is called spiritual and celestial, the sole subject of which is the Lord, His kingdom and the Church, and consequently good and truth, and that if they knew what good and truth were, or what love and faith were, they would also be acquainted with that mystical sense. Yet scarcely any Jew or Christian believes any of this when told it. Indeed members of the Church are so lacking in knowledge at the present day that any mention of that which is celestial and spiritual is barely intelligible to them. But even so, because in the Lord’s Divine mercy I have been allowed to be simultaneously in heaven as a spirit and on earth as a man, and consequently to talk to angels, doing so now without a break for many years, what else can I do but disclose those things which are called the mystical contents of the Word, that is, its interiors, which are the spiritual and celestial things of the Lord’s kingdom? What the details recorded here hold within them in the internal sense – the details regarding Tamar’s two sons – will be stated in what follows below.
 From this one error very many others have been derived which have infected not only what is taught but also life, such as the error that no matter what kind of life a person leads he can be saved provided he has faith. A further derivative error is that very wicked people are accepted into heaven provided that in the final hour before they die they declare their belief in those things which are matters of faith; and another such error is that, irrespective of the kind of life one has led, one is accepted into heaven solely by grace. Because people hold to this teaching they fail at length to know what charity is or to have any concern about what it is, till in the end they do not believe in the existence of it, or consequently in the existence of heaven and hell. The reason for this is that faith without charity, or truth without good, teaches a person nothing; and the more it departs from good, the more foolish it makes him. For good is what the Lord flows into and through which He flows, imparting intelligence and wisdom and consequently a superior ability to see, and also perception whether something is really true or not.
 From these considerations one may now see the position with regard to the birthright, namely that in actual fact it belongs to good but appears to belong to truth. This is what the birth of Tamar’s two sons is used to describe in the internal sense. ‘The twice-dyed thread’ which the midwife bound on the hand that came out means good, as shown in 4922; ‘coming out first’ means priority of place, 4923; ‘withdrawing the hand’ means that good concealed its own power, as stated immediately above [in 4924]; ‘his brother came out’ means truth; ‘you have made a breach upon yourself means this truth’s apparent separation from good; ‘afterwards his brother came out’ means that good is in actual fact first; and ‘on whose hand was the twice-dyed thread’ means the acknowledgement that good is first. For it is not until after a person has been born again that good is acknowledged to be first, at which point that person’s actions spring from good, and his view of truth and what this is like springs from the same.
 These are the matters contained within the internal sense, in which teaching is given regarding the good and truth with a person who is being born anew, namely that good in actual fact occupies first place but truth appears to do so, and that good is not seen to occupy the first place while a person is being regenerated but is plainly seen to do so once he has been regenerated. But there is no need to explain these matters any further since they have been explained already – see 3324, 3325, 3494, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 4243, 4244, 4247, 4337; and the fact that controversy has taken place since ancient times over whether the birthright belonged to good or to truth, that is, to charity or to faith, 2435.
sRef Num@18 @15 S5′ sRef Num@3 @12 S5′ sRef Ex@13 @12 S5′ sRef Ex@34 @19 S5′ sRef Ex@13 @2 S5′  Because in the highest sense the Lord is the firstborn, and therefore love to Him and charity towards the neighbour are the firstborn, the law was for that reason laid down in the representative Church that firstborn things were Jehovah’s: in Moses,
Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, that which opens the womb among the children of Israel; with man and with beast let them be Mine. Exod. 13:2.
You shall make over to Jehovah all that opens the worm’, and every firstling of a beast; however many males you have they shall be Jehovah’s. Exod. 13:12.
All that opens the womb is Mine; therefore among all your cattle, you shall give the male. that among oxen and small cattle which opens [the womb]. Exod. 34:19.
All that opens the womb among all flesh which they bring to Jehovah, from men and from beasts, shall be yours. Nevertheless you shall surely redeem all the firstborn of men. Num. 18:15.
Behold, I Myself have taken the Levites from the midst of the children of Israel, instead of every firstborn, that which opens the womb, from the children of Israel, so that the Levites may be Mine. Num. 3:12.
 Because the firstborn is the one that opens the womb, the expression ‘that which opens the womb’ is therefore added, when the firstborn is mentioned in these places, so as to mean good. It is evident that this expression means good from the specific details contained in the internal sense, especially from those which are recorded regarding the sons of Tamar: Zerah is said to have opened the womb with his hand, and ‘Zerah’ represents good, as is also clear from the twice-dyed thread placed on his hand, dealt with in 4922. In addition to this ‘the womb’, to which the expression ‘opened’ is applied, means the place where good and truth, consequently the Church, lie, see 4918, while ‘opening the womb’ means supplying the power which enables truth to be born.
 Because the Lord is the only firstborn – He being Good itself, and His Good being the source of all truth – Jacob, who was not the firstborn, was therefore allowed to purchase the birthright from Esau his brother so that he might represent Him. Also, because this was not sufficient, he was called Israel, so that by this name he might represent the good of truth; for ‘Israel’ in the representative sense means good which comes through truth, 3654, 4286, 4598.
sRef Ps@144 @14 S2′ sRef Ps@144 @13 S2′  The meaning of ‘a breach’ as an infringement upon truth and a perversion of it through its separation from good is also clear from other places in the Word, as in David,
Our storehouses are full, yielding food and still more food; our flocks are thousands, and ten thousands in our streets, our oxen are laden; there is no breach. Ps. 144:13, 14.
This refers to the Ancient Church as it was in its youth. ‘The food’ with which ‘the storehouses are full’ stands for spiritual food, that is, for truth and good. ‘Flocks’ and ‘oxen’ stand for forms of good, internal and external. ‘There is no breach’ stands for the fact that truth has not suffered any infringement upon it or perversion of it through separation from good.
sRef Amos@9 @11 S3′  In Amos,
I will raise up the tent of David that is fallen down, and I will close up their breaches, and I will restore its destroyed places; and I will build it as in the days of old. Amos 9:11.
This refers to a Church where good is present. ‘The tent of David that is fallen down’ means the good of love and charity received from the Lord. For ‘a tent’ meaning that good, see 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3312, 4128, 4391, 4599, and ‘David’ the Lord, 1888. ‘Closing up the breeches’ stands for correcting falsities which have entered in through the separation of truth from good. ‘Building it as in the days of old’ stands for as the state of the Church was in ancient times. In the Word that state at that time is called ‘the days of eternity’, ‘the days of old’, and also ‘of generation upon generation’.
sRef Isa@58 @12 S4′  In Isaiah,
He that is of you is building the waste places of old; raise up the foundations of generation upon generation, and may you be called the one repairing the breach, the one restoring paths to dwell in. Isa. 58:12.
This refers to a Church where charity and life are the essential thing. ‘Repairing the breach’ again stands for correcting falsities which have crept in through the separation of good from truth, the origin of all falsity. ‘Restoring paths to dwell in’ stands for truths which are linked to good, for ‘paths’ or ways are truths, 627, 2333, and ‘dwelling in’ is used in reference to good, 2268, 2451, 2712, 3613.
sRef Ezek@13 @5 S5′ sRef Isa@22 @9 S5′ sRef Ps@106 @23 S5′ sRef Ezek@22 @30 S5′  In the same prophet,
You saw that the breaches of the city of David were very many, and you collected the waters of the lower pool. Isa. 22:9.
‘The breaches of the city of David’ stands for falsities of doctrine. ‘The waters of the lower pool’ stands for traditions by which they introduced blemishes into the truths contained in the Word, Matt. 15:1-6; Mark 7:1-13. In Ezekiel,
You have not gone up into the breaches and made a hedge for the house of Israel, so that you might stand in war on the day of Jehovah. Ezek. 13:5.
In the same prophet,
I sought from among them a man making a hedge and standing in the breach before Me for the land, that I should not destroy it; but I found none. Ezek. 22:30.
‘Standing in the breach’ stands for defending and guarding against the intrusion of falsities. In David,
Jehovah said He would destroy the people, unless Moses His chosen had stood in the breach before Him. Ps 106:23.
‘Standing in the breach’ again means guarding against the intrusion of falsities; ‘Moses’ here meaning the Word – see Preface to Chapter 18 of Genesis, and 4859 (end).
sRef Amos@4 @3 S6′ sRef 2Sam@6 @8 S6′ sRef Amos@4 @2 S6′  In Amos,
They will drag out the last of you with fish-hooks; you will go out through the breaches, every one from her own region; and you will cast down the palace. Amos 4:2, 3.
‘Going out through the breaches’ stands for doing so through falsities resulting from reasonings. ‘The palace’ means the Word and consequently the truth of doctrine that is grounded in good. And because ‘breaches’ means falsity which arises through the separation of good from truth, the same is also meant in the representative sense by ‘strengthening and repairing the breaches of the house of Jehovah’, 2 Kings 12:5, 7, 8, 12; 22:5. In the second Book of Samuel,
It grieved David that Jehovah had made a breach into Uzzah; therefore he called that place Perez Uzzah. 2 Sam. 6:8.
This refers to Uzzah, who died because he touched the ark. ‘The ark’ represented heaven, or in the highest sense the Lord, and therefore Divine Good. But ‘Uzzah’ represented that which ministers, and so represents truth since truth ministers to good. This separation is meant by ‘a breach into Uzzah’.
IN THIS SECTION THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE HANDS, THE ARMS, THE FEET, AND THE LOINS WITH IT
It has been shown already that the whole of heaven bears resemblance to a human being, together with each of his organs, members, and viscera. It has been shown too that this is so because heaven bears resemblance to the Lord; for the Lord is the All in all of heaven, so much its All that, properly speaking, heaven is essentially Divine Good and Divine Truth received from the Lord. For this reason heaven is distinguished into many so to speak separate provinces, as many as there are in a person’s viscera, organs, and members, with which also there is a correspondence. Unless such a correspondence existed of the human being with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord, he could not remain in existence for even a single moment, all things being held in connection with one another by means of influx.
 But all those provinces are linked to two kingdoms – the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom. The first of these – the celestial kingdom – is the kingdom of the heart within the Grand Man; the second – the spiritual kingdom – is the kingdom of the lungs there. And in the same way as in the human being, the heart reigns, and so do the lungs, in every single part of the Grand Man. These two kingdoms combine in a marvellous way. Their combination likewise is represented in the combination of the heart and lungs in the human being, and in the combined workings of the two within each member and interior organ.
 While a person is an embryo, that is, while still in the womb, he is in the kingdom of the heart. But once he has struggled out of the womb he enters the kingdom of the lungs. Then, if he allows the truths of faith to lead him into the good of love, he returns from the kingdom of the lungs within the Grand Man to the kingdom of the heart. For thereby he enters the womb a second time and is born again. Once again those two kingdoms become combined in him, but the order has been turned around. Previously the kingdom of the heart in him was under the control of the lungs, but now the kingdom of the lungs comes under the control of the heart. That is, first of all the truth of faith has dominion in him, but afterwards the good of charity does so. For the correspondence of the heart with the good of love and that of the lungs with the truth of faith, see 3635, 3883-3896.
Be their arm every morning. Isa. 33:2.
The Lord Jehovih is coming with might, and His arm will exercise dominion for Him. Isa. 40:10.
He works it by means of His arm of strength. Isa. 44:12.
My arms will judge the peoples. Isa. 51:5.
Put on strength, O arm of Jehovah. Isa. 51:9.
I looked around, and there was no helper, therefore My own arm brought salvation to Me. Isa. 63:5.
Cursed is he who trusts in man (homo) and makes flesh his arm. Jer. 17:5.
I have made the earth, man, and beast, by My great strength and by My outstretched arm. Jer. 27:5; 32:17.
The horn of Moab has been cut off and his arm broken. Jer. 48:25.
I am breaking the arms of the king of Egypt, but I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babel. Ezek. 30:22, 24, 25.
O Jehovah, break the arm of the wicked. Ps. 10:15.
According to the greatness of Your arm preserve those who are appointed to die.* Ps. 79:11.
They were brought out of Egypt by a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Deut. 7:19; 11:2, 3; 26:8; Jer. 32:21; Ps. 136:12.
From these places it may also be recognized that by the right hand in the Word superior power is meant, and by ‘sitting on the right hand of Jehovah’ almighty power, Matt. 26:63, 64; Luke 22:69; Mark 14:61, 62; 16:19.
* lit. cause the sons of death to remain
You have broken the yoke of his burden, and the rod of his shoulder. Isa. 9:4.
You push with side and with shoulder, and butt with your horns. Ezek. 34:21.
You will tear for them every shoulder. Ezek. 29:6, 7.
That they may serve Jehovah with one shoulder. Zeph. 3:9.
To us a Boy is born, and the government will be upon His shoulder. Isa. 9:6.
I will place the key of the house of David on His shoulder. Isa. 22:22.
 I was allowed to go on and tell them that each idea present in human thought has countless facets which to the human being, especially to one who is natural, are not seen as anything else than a simple whole, when in fact there is an unlimited number of things coming in from the spiritual world which produce in the spiritual man a superior power of sight enabling him to see and also perceive whether something is indeed the truth or not the truth. Also, because these spirits doubted what they were told, the matter was demonstrated to them through actual experience. An idea was represented to them which they saw as a simple whole, and therefore as a faint dot – a representation such as this being produced easily in the light of heaven. When that idea was opened up and at the same time their interior sight was opened, a general whole leading to the Lord was revealed. They were also told that the same was the case with every idea of good and truth; that is to say, it is an image of the whole of heaven, because it comes from the Lord, who is the All of heaven or the essential reality that is called heaven.
The preliminary section of the previous chapter contained an explanation of what the Lord said about judgement on the good and on the evil, in Matthew 25:31-33; see 4807-4810. In the present preliminary section what the Lord said next in that connection comes up for explanation, that is to say, the following words,
Then the King will say to those at His right hand, Come, O blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, naked and you clothed Me around, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to Me. Matt. 15:34-36.
 Teachings that existed among the Ancients specified all the genera and species of charity. They also taught who the neighbour was towards whom charity should be exercised, and how one person was the neighbour in a different degree and different respect from another, and consequently how charity was to be exercised in different ways according to the individual needs of the neighbour. The Ancients also made classifications of the neighbour and gave names to each of these. Some people they called the poor, the needy, the wretched, and the afflicted; some they called the blind, the lame, the maimed, as well as orphans and widows; and others they called the hungry, the thirsty, strangers, the naked, the sick, the bound, and so on. From these classifications they knew what they ought to do for one person and what for another. But, as stated, such teachings have perished, and with them any understanding of the Word too. They have perished so completely that no one at the present day knows anything else than this, that when the poor, widows, and orphans are mentioned in the Word none but those who are literally called such are meant. The same applies whenever mention is made of the hungry, the thirsty, strangers, the naked, the sick, and those in prison. But the truth of the matter is that these names are used to describe charity – what it is like in its essence and what the exercise of charity ought to be like in a charitable life.
I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, naked and you clothed Me around, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to Me.
Except from the internal sense no one can know that these words hold the essential ingredients of charity within them. The ancients who possessed teachings regarding charity knew these things, but at the present day matters such as these seem so far-fetched that everyone will be astonished by the assertion that those words hold the essential ingredients of charity within them. What is more, the angels present with a person do not perceive those words in any other way, for by ‘the hungry’ they perceive those led by affection to desire good, by ‘the thirsty’ those led by affection to desire truth, by ‘a stranger’ those wishing to receive instruction, by ‘the naked’ those acknowledging that no goodness or truth at all is present within them, by ‘the sick’ those acknowledging that within themselves there is nothing but evil, and by ‘the bound’ or ‘those in prison those acknowledging that within themselves there is nothing but falsity. All these if taken as a whole mean the aspects of charity described immediately above.
Truly I say to you, insofar as you did it to one of the least of these My brothers you did it to Me. Matt. 25:40-45.
1 And Joseph was made to go down to Egypt, and Potiphar bought him – Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant, the chief of the attendants, an Egyptian man – from the hand of the Ishmaelites who made him go down there.
2 And Jehovah was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his lord the Egyptian.
3 And his lord saw that Jehovah was with him, and everything that he did Jehovah made to prosper in his hand.
4 And Joseph found favour in his eyes, and ministered to him; and he put him in charge over his house, and whatever he had he gave into his hand.
5 And it happened from the time he put him in charge in his house and over all that he had, that Jehovah blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; and the blessing of Jehovah was on all that he had in the house and in the field.
6 And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand, and did not concern himself with anything* except the bread that he ate. And Joseph was beautiful in form and beautiful in appearance.
7 And it happened after these events, that his lord’s wife lifted up her eyes towards Joseph and said, Lie with me.
8 And he refused and said to his lord’s wife, Behold, my lord does not concern himself with anything** in the house, and all that he has he has given into my hand.
9 He himself is no greater in this house than I am, and he has not held back anything from me except yourself, in that you are his wife. How then shall I do this great evil, and sin against God?
10 And it happened as she spoke to Joseph day after day, that he did not listen to her, to lie with her, to be with her.
11 And it happened on a certain day, that he went to the house to do his work, and none of the men*** of the house was there in the house.
12 And she took hold of him by his garment, saying, Lie with me. And he left his garment in her hand and fled, and went out of doors.
13 And it happened as she saw that he had left his garment in her hand and had fled out of doors,
14 That she cried out to the men of her house, and said to them – she said, See, he has brought us a Hebrew man to make sport of us. He came to me to lie with me, and I cried out with a loud voice.
15 And it happened as he was hearing [me], that I lifted up my voice and cried out, and he left his garment with me, and fled, and went out of doors.
16 And she kept his garment with her until his lord came to his house.
17 And she spoke to him in**** these words, saying, The Hebrew slave whom you have brought to us came to me, to make sport of me.
18 And it happened as I lifted up my voice and cried out, that he left his garment with me and fled out of doors.
19 And it happened – as his lord heard his wife’s words which she spoke to him, saying, This is what***** your slave did to me – that his anger flared up.
20 And Joseph’s lord took him and committed him to the prison-house, a place where the king’s bound ones were bound; and he was there in the prison-house.
21 And Jehovah was with Joseph, and showed mercy to him, and gave him favour in the eyes of the governor****** of the prison-house.
22 And the governor****** of the prison-house gave into Joseph’s hand all the bound who were in the prison-house; and everything they did there, he was the doer of it.*******
23 The governor of the prison-house oversaw nothing whatever that was in his hand, in that Jehovah was with him; and whatever he did, Jehovah made it prosper.
* lit. did not know anything with him
** lit. does not know what is with me
*** lit. no man from the men
**** lit. according to
***** lit. According to these words
****** lit. prince or chief
******* i.e. it was done under his instructions
The internal sense deals here with the way in which the Lord made His Internal Man Divine. ‘Jacob’ was the External Man, the subject in preceding chapters, now ‘Joseph’ is the Internal Man, the subject in the present chapter and those that follow it.
Verse 1 And Joseph was made to go down to Egypt, and Potiphar bought him – Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant, the chief of the attendants, an Egyptian man – from the hand of the Ishmaelites who made him go down there.
‘And Joseph’ means the celestial of the spiritual from the rational. ‘Was made to go down to Egypt’ means to factual knowledge which the Church possessed. ‘And Potiphar bought him – Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant’ means among facts of a more internal kind. ‘The chief of the attendants’ means which facts come first and foremost in explanations. ‘An Egyptian man’ means natural truth. ‘From the hand of the Ishmaelites’ means from simple good. ‘Who made him go down there’ means a descent from this simple good to that factual knowledge.
 The Lord’s Human too had an External and an Internal because it pleased Him to be born like any other human being. The External, or His External Man, has been represented by ‘Jacob’ and after that by ‘Israel’, but His Internal Man is represented by ‘Joseph’. The latter – the Internal Man – is what is called the celestial-spiritual man from the rational; or what amounts to the same, the Lord’s Internal, which was the Human, was the celestial of the spiritual from the rational. This, and the glorification of it, are dealt with in the internal sense of the present chapter and those that follow it in which Joseph is the subject. What the celestial of the spiritual from the rational is has been explained already in 4286, 4585, 4592, 4594, namely that which comes above the celestial of the spiritual from the natural, represented by ‘Israel’.
 The Lord was indeed born like any other human being. But it is well known that everyone who is born depends for his make-up on both his father and his mother; also that he derives his inmost self from his father, but his more external aspects, or those which clothe his inmost self, from his mother. That is to say, both what he derives from his father and what he derives from his mother are defiled with hereditary evil. But in the Lord’s case it was different. That which He derived from His mother possessed a hereditary nature essentially the same as that existing in any other human being; but what He derived from His Father, who was Jehovah, was Divine. Consequently the Lord’s Internal Man was unlike the internal of any other human being, for His Inmost Self was Jehovah. Being intermediate this is therefore called the celestial of the spiritual from the rational. But in the Lord’s Divine mercy more will be said about this later on.
 Egypt was one of those parts of the world and one of those kingdoms where the Ancient Church also existed, 1138, 1385; but since in that land mainly factual knowledge was handed down from one generation to another, ‘Egypt’ means factual knowledge in general. This also explains why frequent reference is made to Egypt in the prophetical part of the Word, where that knowledge is meant specifically by ‘Egypt’. What is more, the actual magic practised by the Egyptians had its origin in the same knowledge; for they were acquainted with the correspondences of the natural world with the spiritual, and at a later time, after the Church among them had come to an end, they misused these in magical practices. Now because such factual knowledge existed among them – that is to say, knowledge which taught correspondences, and also representatives and meaningful signs – and because this factual knowledge was the servant of the doctrinal teachings of the Church, especially in their understanding of things stated in their Word (for the Word of the Ancient Church was both prophetical and historical, like the Word that exists today, though this is a different Word, see 2686) ‘he was made to go down to Egypt’ consequently means made to go down to the factual knowledge which the Church possessed.
sRef Hos@11 @1 S3′  Because the Lord is represented by ‘Joseph’ and the words ‘Joseph was made to go down to Egypt’ are used here, the meaning is that when the Lord was to glorify His Internal Man, that is, make it Divine, He first of all assimilated the factual knowledge possessed by the Church. Then, starting from and using that knowledge He advanced towards things increasingly interior and at length even to those that were Divine. For it pleased Him to glorify or make Himself Divine in conformity with the same kind of order as that by which He regenerates the human being or makes him spiritual, 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490, 4402. That is to say, there is a gradual advance from external ideas, which are known facts and the truths of faith, towards internal ones, which are ideas of charity towards the neighbour and of love to Him. From this one may see what is meant by the following words in Hosea,
When Israel was a boy I loved him, and out of Egypt I called My son. Hosea 11:1.
These words refer to the Lord, see Matt. 2:15.
 They envisaged Helicon on a mountain and took it to mean heaven, and Parnassus on a hill below that, and took it to mean factual knowledge. They spoke of a flying horse, called Pegasus by them, which broke open a fountain there with its hoof; they called branches of knowledge virgins; and so on. For with the help of correspondences and representatives they knew that ‘a mountain’ meant heaven, ‘a hill’ the heaven beneath this, which is heaven as it exists among men, a horse’ the power of understanding, ‘its wings with which it flew’ spiritual things, ‘its hoof’ that which was natural, ‘a fountain’ intelligence, while three virgins called ‘the Graces’ meant affections for good, and virgins who were named ‘the Heliconians and ‘the Parnassians’ meant affections for truth. To the sun they likewise allotted horses, whose food they called ambrosia and whose drink they called nectar; for they knew that ‘the sun’ meant heavenly love, ‘horses’ powers of the understanding which sprang from that love, while ‘food’ meant celestial things and ‘drink’ spiritual ones.
 The Ancients are also the originators of customs that are still followed when kings are crowned. The king has to sit on a silver throne, wear a purple robe, and be anointed with oil. He has to wear a crown on his head, while holding in his hands a sceptre, a sword, and keys. He has to ride in regal splendour on a white horse shed with horseshoes made of silver; and he has to be waited on at table by the chief nobles of the kingdom. And many other customs are followed besides these. The Ancients knew that ‘a king’ represented Divine Truth that is rooted in Divine Good, and from this they knew what was meant by a silver throne, a purple robe, anointing oil, crown, sceptre, sword, keys, white horse, horseshoes made of silver, and what was meant by being waited on at table by the chief nobles. Who at the present day knows the meaning of any of these customs, or where the information exists to show him their meaning? People refer to them as symbols, but they know nothing at all about correspondence or representation. All this evidence shows what the factual knowledge possessed by the Ancients was like, and that this knowledge gave them a discernment of spiritual and heavenly realities, which at the present day are scarcely known to exist.
 The factual knowledge that has replaced that of the Ancients, and which strictly speaking is called philosophical knowledge, tends to draw the mind away from knowing such things because such knowledge can also be employed to substantiate false ideas. Furthermore, even when used to substantiate true ones it introduces darkness into the mind, because for the most part mere terms are used to substantiate them, which few people can understand and which the few who do understand them argue about. From this it may be seen how far the human race has departed from the learning of the Ancients, which led to wisdom. Gentiles received their factual knowledge from the Ancient Church, whose external worship consisted in representatives and meaningful signs and whose internal worship consisted in the realities represented and meant by these. This was the kind of factual knowledge that is meant in the genuine sense by ‘Egypt’.
‘And Jehovah was with Joseph’ means that the Divine existed within the celestial of the spiritual. ‘And he was a prosperous man’ means that all things had been provided. ‘And he was in the house of his lord the Egyptian’ means to enable it to be introduced into natural good. ‘And his lord saw that Jehovah was with him’ means a perception within natural good that the Divine existed within it. ‘And everything that he did Jehovah made to prosper in his hand’ means that all things were the conferments of Divine Providence. ‘And Joseph found favour in his eyes’ means that it had found acceptance. ‘And ministered to him’ means that factual knowledge was assigned to its own good. ‘And he put him in charge over his house’ means that this good applied itself to that factual knowledge. ‘And whatever he had he gave into his hand’ means that all that belonged to that good was seemingly subject to the power and control of its associated truth. ‘And it happened from the time he put him in charge in his house and over all that he had’ means a second state, after this good had applied itself to that truth and had made all that belonged to it seemingly subject to the power and control of that truth. ‘That Jehovah blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake’ means that at this point the Divine imparted the celestial-natural to that truth. ‘And the blessing of Jehovah was’ means increases. ‘On all that he had in the house and in the field’ means in life and in doctrine. ‘And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand’ means that it seemed as though all things were subject to its power and control. ‘And did not concern himself with anything except the bread that he ate’ means that the good from there was its own. ‘And Joseph was beautiful in form means the good of life springing from this. ‘And beautiful in appearance’ means the truth of faith springing from it.
* lit. did not know anything with him
sRef Ps@136 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@136 @2 S2′ sRef Deut@10 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@136 @3 S2′  The expression ‘lord’ is used many times in the Word, but unless a person is acquainted with the internal sense he assumes that ‘lord’ has no other meaning than what the word has when used in ordinary conversation. But ‘lord’ is used nowhere in the Word other than in reference to good, as is similarly the case with the name ‘Jehovah’. When however reference is being made to truth, ‘God’ and also ‘king are used. This then is the reason why ‘lord’ means good, as may also be seen from the following places: In Moses,
Jehovah your God, He is God of gods, and Lord of lords. Deut. 10:17.
Confess Jehovah, confess the God of gods, confess the Lord of lords. Ps. 136:1-3
In these places Jehovah or the Lord is called ‘God of gods’ by virtue of Divine Truth which goes forth from Him, and ‘Lord of lords’ by virtue of Divine Good which exists within Him.
sRef Rev@19 @16 S3′ sRef Rev@17 @14 S3′  Similarly in John,
The Lamb will overcome them, for He is Lord of lords, and King of kings. Rev. 17:14.
And in the same book,
The One sitting on the white horse has on His robe and on His thigh the name written, King of kings and Lord of lords. Rev. 19:16.
The Lord is called ‘King of kings’ by virtue of Divine Truth, and ‘Lord of lords’ by virtue of Divine Good, as is evident from the individual expressions used here. ‘The name written’ is His true nature, 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006. ‘His robe’ on which it is written is the truth of faith, 1073, 2576, 4545, 4763. ‘His thigh’ on which likewise that nature is written is the good of love, 3021, 4277, 4280, 4575. From this too it is evident that by virtue of Divine Truth the Lord is called ‘King of kings and by virtue of Divine Good ‘Lord of lords’. For more about the Lord being called King by virtue of Divine Truth, see 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4581.
sRef Ps@110 @1 S4′ sRef Luke@20 @42 S4′ sRef Luke@2 @26 S4′ sRef Luke@20 @41 S4′  From this it is also plain what ‘the Lord’s Christ’ means in Luke,
Simeon received an answer from the Holy Spirit that he would not see death until he had seen the Lord’s Christ. Luke 2:26.
‘The Lord’s Christ’ is the Divine Truth that goes with Divine Good, for ‘Christ’ is one and the same as Messiah, and Messiah is the Anointed or King, 3008, 3009, ‘the Lord’ in this case being Jehovah. The name Jehovah is not used anywhere in the New Testament Word, but instead of Jehovah, the Lord and God are used, see 2921, as again in Luke,
Jesus said, How can they say that the Christ is David’s son when David himself says in the Book of Psalms, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand? Luke 20:41, 41.
The same appears in David as follows,
Jehovah said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand. Ps. 110:1.
It is obvious that Jehovah in David is called Lord in the gospel, ‘Lord’ in this case standing for the Divine Good of the Divine Human. Omnipotence is meant by ‘sitting at the right hand’, 3387, 4592, 4933 (end).
sRef Mal@3 @1 S5′  While in the world the Lord was Divine Truth, but once He was glorified, that is, had made the Human within Him Divine, He became Divine Good, from which Divine Truth subsequently goes forth. This explains why after the Resurrection the disciples did not call Him Master, as they had before, but Lord, as is evident in John 21:7, 12, 15-17, 20, and also in the other gospels. Divine Truth – which the Lord was while in the world and which subsequently goes forth from Him, that is, from Divine Good – is also called ‘the Angel of the Covenant’, in Malachi,
Suddenly there will come to His temple the Lord whom you are seeking, and the Angel of the Covenant in whom you delight. Mal. 3:1.
 Because ‘Lord’ is used to mean Divine Good and ‘King’ Divine Truth, therefore in places where the Lord is spoken of as having dominion and a kingdom ‘dominion’ has reference to Divine Good and ‘a kingdom’ to Divine Truth. For the same reason the Lord is called ‘Lord of the nations’ but ‘King of the peoples’, for ‘nations’ means those governed by good, ‘peoples’ those governed by truth, 1259, 1260, 1849, 3581
sRef Ps@105 @20 S7′ sRef Ps@105 @19 S7′ sRef Ps@105 @22 S7′ sRef Ps@105 @21 S7′ sRef Ps@105 @17 S7′  Good is called ‘lord’ as against a servant, and ‘father’ as against a son, as in Malachi,
A son should honour his father, and a servant his lord. If I am a Father, where is My honour? And if I am a Lord, where is the fear of Me? Mal. 1:6.
And in David,
To be a slave JOSEPH was sold. The word of Jehovah tested him. The king sent and released him, he who had dominion over nations set him free and placed him as lord of his house and as one with dominion over all his possessions. Ps. 115:17, 19-22.
Here, as is evident from each individual expression, ‘Joseph’ is used to mean the Lord, ‘lord’ in this instance being the Divine Good of the Divine Human.
[4975a] ‘And Joseph found favour in his eyes means that it had found acceptance, that is to say, by natural good meant by ‘his lord’. This is clear from the meaning of ‘finding favour in someone’s eyes’ as finding acceptance. The expression ‘in his eyes’ is used because ‘favour’ has reference to the understanding, and this is meant by ‘the eyes’, 2701, 3820, 4526.
 The same applies to factual knowledge in relation to delight, or truth in relation to good. That being so, good longs for and desires truth, and does so because of the purpose such truth can fulfill by ministering to it and serving it. Food and drink also correspond to these. No one in the next life is nourished by any natural food or natural drink, only by spiritual food and spiritual drink, spiritual food being good, and spiritual drink truth. This is why, when bread or food is mentioned in the Word, angels understand spiritual bread or food, which is the good of love and charity; and when water or drink is mentioned they understand spiritual water or drink, which is the truth of faith. From this one may see what the truth of faith without the good of charity is, and also what kind of nourishment the former without the latter is able to supply to the internal man; that is to say, it is like the nourishment supplied by water or drink alone without bread or food. It is well known that a person fed on water or drink alone wastes away and dies.
 While a person is governed by truth, as happens before he has been regenerated, he knows scarcely anything at all about good. For truth flows in by an external route, or that of the senses, whereas good flows in by an internal route. Before he has been regenerated a person is aware of that which flows in by the external route, but not of that which comes by the internal one. Consequently unless in that state which comes first the lordship seemed to be given to truth, that is, unless good applied itself to it, that truth could never become attached to this good as its own. This is the same factor as has been presented many times before – that truth seemingly occupies the first place, that is, it is so to speak the lord, while a person is being regenerated, but that good plainly occupies the first place and is the lord once he has been regenerated, for which see 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3607, 3701, 4925, 4926, 4928, 4930.
 The term celestial, like spiritual, is used in reference both to the rational and to the natural, that is, both to the internal man, which is the rational man, and to the external, which is the natural man. For essentially, the spiritual is Divine Truth which goes forth from the Lord, while the celestial is Divine Good present within that Divine Truth. When Divine Truth containing Divine Good is received by the rational, or by the internal man, it is called the spiritual within the rational, but when it is received by the natural, or by the external man, it is called the spiritual within the natural. The same is so with Divine Good present within Divine Truth. When this good is received by the rational, or by the internal man, it is referred to as the celestial within the rational, but when it is received by the natural, or by the external man, it is referred to as the celestial within the natural. In man’s case these two flow in both directly from the Lord and indirectly from Him through angels and spirits; but in the Lord’s case while He was in the world they flowed in from Himself because the Divine existed within Him.
 Because ‘the blessing of Jehovah (or the Lord)’ implies such increases in the genuine sense, blessing also implies countless other benefits and consequently means the various gifts which flow from it, such as enrichment with spiritual and celestial good, 981, 1731; fruitfulness resulting from the affection for truth, 2846; undergoing rearrangement into heavenly order, 3017; being endowed with the good of love and thereby being joined to the Lord, 3406, 3504, 3514, 3530, 3584; and joy, 4216. What is meant by ‘blessing’ therefore in any specific instance becomes clear from the context in which it appears. Here the meaning of ‘the blessing of Jehovah’ as increases in good and truth, that is, in life and doctrine, is evident from what follows it, for there it says that this blessing of Jehovah was ‘in the house and in the field’, and ‘house’ means good which is the good of life, while ‘field’ means truth which is the truth of doctrine. From this it is evident that increases in these are meant in this case by ‘the blessing of Jehovah’.
Let him who is on the roof of the house not go down to take anything out of his house; and let him who is in the field not turn back to get his clothing. Matt. 24:17, 18.
 From this one may see where the beauty – the beauty of the interior man – comes from. That is, it comes from the good present in the will by way of the truth of faith. The truth of faith presents that beauty in an outward form, but the good in the will is the supplier of that beauty and the producer of the outward form. Here is the reason for the indescribable beauty of the angels of heaven, for each is so to speak love and charity embodied in a form. When therefore anyone sees them in their beauty his deepest feelings are stirred. For the good of love received from the Lord shines forth from them through the truth of faith, enters into him, and stirs those feelings within him. From this, as also in 3821, one may see what is meant in the internal sense by ‘beautiful in form and beautiful in appearance.
‘And it happened after these events’ means a third state. ‘That his lord’s wife lifted up her eyes towards Joseph’ means unspiritual natural truth wedded to natural good, and its perception. ‘And said, Lie with me’ means that it desired a joining together. ‘And he refused’ means an aversion. ‘And he said to his lord’s wife’ means a perception regarding that truth. ‘Behold, my lord does not concern himself with anything in the house’ means that natural good did not have even the desire to make anything its own. ‘And all that he has he has given into my hand’ means that everything was subject to its power and control. ‘He himself is no greater in this house than I am’ means that that good is prior in respect of time but not of state. ‘And he has not held back anything from me except yourself’ means that becoming joined to the truth wedded to that good was forbidden. ‘In that you are his wife’ means because this truth must not be joined to any other good. ‘How then shall I do this great evil, and sin against God?’ means that, this being so, they exist set apart and not joined together.
* lit. does not know what is with me
* i.e. before the introduction of Masoretic pointing and punctuation
 ‘Wife’ in this instance means natural truth, but not natural truth that is spiritual, while her husband, to whom ‘lord’ refers here, means natural good, but not natural good that is spiritual. But some explanation is needed to show what is meant by natural good and truth that are not spiritual and what is meant by natural good and truth that are spiritual. With the human being, good has two different origins – one being heredity and consequently that which is adventitious, the other being the doctrine of faith and charity or, in the case of gentiles, their religious belief. Good arising from the first origin is unspiritual natural good, whereas good arising from the second is spiritual natural good. Truth too comes from a like origin, for all good has its own truth wedded to it.
 Natural good arising from the first origin, which is hereditary and consequently adventitious, bears many similarities to natural good arising from the second origin, which is the doctrine of faith and charity or some other set of religious beliefs. But those similarities are confined to outward appearances; inwardly the two are completely different. Natural good arising from the first origin may be compared to the good that is also present among living creatures of a gentle nature, whereas natural good arising from the second is peculiar to the human being who uses his reason when he acts, and who consequently knows how to administer what is good in different ways, in keeping with useful purposes that need to be served. These different ways in which good has to be administered are what the doctrine regarding what is right and fair teaches, and in a higher degree what the doctrine regarding faith and charity teaches; and in the case of people who are truly rational, reason also serves in many instances to corroborate what doctrine teaches.
 Those whose performance of good arises from the first origin are moved as if by blind instinct in their exercise of charity, whereas those whose performance of good arises from the second origin are moved by an inner sense of duty and so with their eyes so to speak fully open to what they are doing. In short, those whose performance of good arises from the first origin are not led by any conscientious regard for what is right and fair, still less by any such regard for spiritual truth and good; but those whose performance of good arises from the second origin are led by conscience. See what has been stated already on these matters in 3040, 3470, 3471, 3518, and what is said below in 4992. But what is involved in all this cannot possibly be explained intelligibly; for anyone who is not spiritual, that is, not regenerate, sees good from the point of view of the outward form it takes. He does this because he does not know what is meant by charity or by the neighbour; and the reason why he does not know this is that no doctrinal teachings regarding charity exist. Such matters can be seen very clearly in the light of heaven, and they can consequently be seen clearly by spiritual or regenerate persons because they dwell in the light of heaven.
 These meanings cannot be seen as long as the mind or thought concentrates solely on the historical details, for in that case there is no thought of anything else than Joseph, Potiphar’s wife, and Joseph’s flight after leaving behind his garment. But if the mind or thought were to concentrate on what is meant spiritually by ‘Joseph’, ‘Potiphar’s wife’, and the ‘garment’, it would be seen that some spiritual but unlawful joining together was also meant here. When this is so, the mind or thought is able to concentrate on what is meant spiritually, provided the belief is present that the historical Word is Divine not by virtue of the mere historical narrative but by virtue of what is spiritual and Divine contained within it. If a person possessed such a belief he would know that its spiritual and Divine content was concerned with the goodness and truth present in the Church and in the Lord’s kingdom, and in the highest sense with the Lord Himself. When a person enters the next life, which happens immediately after death, if he is one of those who are being raised up to heaven he will come to realize that he retains none of the historical details recorded in the Word. He knows nothing whatever about Joseph, nor anything about Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but only about the spiritual and Divine realities which he has learned from the Word and made part of his own life. These therefore are the kinds of matters inwardly present in the Word, which are called its internal sense.
 Let the following serve to shed light on the matter. If mere lust leads a man to be joined to his wife, this is something natural which is unspiritual; but if conjugial love leads him to be joined to her this is something natural which is spiritual. And if after that – when he is her husband – it is mere lust that joins him to her, he considers himself to be a sinner who is no different from someone behaving in a sexually immoral way; which being so he has no further wish to make such lust his own. Or let another example be given. To do good to a friend, regardless of his character and simply because he is one’s friend, is a natural action that is unspiritual; but to do good to a friend on account of the good residing with him, all the more so when one regards good itself as the friend to whom one is to do good, is a natural action that is spiritual. When this attitude exists with a person, he realizes that he himself is a sinner if he does good to a friend who is evil; for in that case he does evil to others through that friend. When this is his state he turns away from making his own that unspiritual natural good which had existed with him previously. The same is so with everything else.
 But with evil the opposite applies. Evil stems from self-love and love of the world. Evil stemming from self-love sets a person apart not only from the Lord but also from heaven, for he loves no one but himself and others only insofar as he sees them as part of his self-interest, or as they identify themselves with him. Consequently he turns everyone’s attention towards himself and entirely away from others, most of all away from the Lord. When a large number act like this within a single community it follows that all are set apart from one another; inwardly each sees another as his enemy. If anyone acts contrary to his self-interest he hates that person and takes delight in his destruction. The evil of the love of the world is not dissimilar, for this consists in a longing for other people’s wealth and goods, and in a longing to gain possession of everything owned by others; and these longings too lead to all kinds of enmity and hatred, though in a lesser degree. For anyone to come to know what evil is, and so what sin is, let him merely try to see what self-love and love of the world are; and to come to know what good is, let him merely try to see what love to God and love towards the neighbour are. By trying to do this he will come to see what evil is, and as a consequence what falsity is; and from this he will come to see what good is, and as a consequence what truth is.
‘And it happened’ means a fourth state. ‘As she spoke to Joseph day after day’ means thought regarding that matter. ‘That he did not listen to her, to lie with her’ means that it was filled with aversion to such a joining together. ‘To be with her’ means lest it should thereby be made one with it. ‘And it happened on a certain day’ means a fifth state. ‘That he went to the house to do his work’ means when engaged in the work of being joined to spiritual good within the natural. ‘And none of the men of the house was there in the house’ means without the help of any other. ‘And she laid hold of him by his garment’ means that unspiritual truth attached itself to the outermost existence of spiritual truth. ‘Saying, Lie with me’ means to the end that a joining together might be effected. ‘And he left his garment in her hand’ means that this outermost truth was removed. ‘And fled, and went out of doors’ means that this being so it did not have that truth with which to protect itself. ‘And it happened as she saw’ means a perception regarding this matter. ‘That he had left his garment in her hand and had fled out of doors’ means regarding the separation of that outermost truth. ‘That she cried out to the men of the house’ means falsities. ‘And said to them – she said’ means an urgent demand. ‘See, he has brought us a Hebrew man means something servile. ‘To make sport of us’ means that this rose up. ‘He came to me to lie with me’ means that that truth wanted to be joined to it. ‘And I cried out with a loud voice’ means that it was filled with aversion. ‘And it happened as he was hearing [me]’ means when it was discerned. ‘That I lifted up my voice and cried out’ means that there was a great aversion. ‘And he left his garment with me’ means evidence that an approach had been made. ‘And fled, and went out of doors’ means that it nevertheless separated itself.
* lit. no man from the men
 The same happens to civil society if everyone there is out only for himself and nobody, except for his own purposes, takes any interest in anyone else. Without laws to unite its members, and without any fears for loss of gain, position, reputation, or life, society would fall completely to pieces. Therefore the ‘being’ of such a society in which everyone is out for himself consists in its members being joined or united together, but at a purely external level. Internally that society does not have any ‘being’. Consequently in the next life people like this are confined to hell, where in a similar way they are kept in check by external restraints, especially by fears. But as often as those restraints are eased, one individual hastens to destroy another, there being nothing he wants to do more than to destroy another completely. It is different in heaven, where love to the Lord and mutual love deriving from that love join its members together at an internal level. When external restraints are removed there, angels become even more closely joined to one another. And being thereby drawn nearer to the Divine Being (Esse) coming to them from the Lord, they are filled deeper still with affection, and from this with a sense of freedom, and as a consequence with feelings of blessedness, happiness, and joy.
Who is this who is coming from Edom, with spattered clothes from Bozra, He that is glorious in His apparel, marching in the vast numbers of His strength? I have trodden the winepress alone, and from the peoples no man was with Me. I looked about but there was none helping, and I wondered, but there was not one to uphold; therefore My own arm brought salvation to Me. Isa. 63:1, 3, 5.
And elsewhere in the same prophet,
He saw that there was no man, and as it were wondered that there was no intercessor; therefore His own arm brought salvation to Him, and His righteousness lifted Him up. Consequently He put on righteousness as a breastplate, and a helmet of salvation upon His head. Isa. 59:16, 17.
For more about the Lord making the Human within Him Divine by His own power, see 1616, 1749, 1755, 1812, 1813, 1921, 1928, 1999, 2025, 2026, 2083, 2500, 2523, 2776, 3043, 3141, 3382, 3637, 4286.
 But as to what a wish on the part of unspiritual natural truth to become joined to spiritual natural truth may be and what is implied by it, this is a mystery at the present day, chiefly because few people have any concern or wish to know what spiritual truth is and what unspiritual truth is. Indeed that lack of concern is so great that people are hardly willing to listen when the word spiritual is used, for at the mere mention of this a kind of darkness instantly descends upon them, and along with this a melancholy feeling, which gives rise to a distaste for the word and so a rejection of it. The truth of this has also been demonstrated to me. While I was once pondering on these matters, some spirits from the Christian world were present, who were then taken back into the state that had been theirs in the world. The mere thought of spiritual good and truth not only gave them a melancholy feeling; it also seized them with such loathing on account of their aversion to it that they said they felt as they had done in the world when they wanted to vomit. But I was allowed to tell them that this happened because their affections were centred solely on earthly, bodily, and worldly interests; and when a person is concerned solely with these, the things of heaven nauseate him. I also told those spirits that when they had gone to church where the Word was preached they had not gone out of any wish to know the things of heaven, but out of some other desire present in them since early childhood. This experience showed me what the Christian world is like at the present day.
 The overall reason why this is the situation is that the Christian Church at the present day preaches faith alone, not charity, and so doctrine, not life. And when the Church fails to preach life, no one acquires any affection for good; and when there is no affection for good, neither is there any for truth. Consequently most people find it contrary to their life’s delight to listen to anything about the things of heaven beyond what they have known since they were young children.
 But the fact of the matter is that a person exists in the world to the end that he may be introduced through the services he renders there into the things of heaven. But his life in the world lasts barely a moment so to speak, compared with his life after death; for the latter goes on for ever. Yet there are few who believe that they will be alive after death, which explains why heavenly things are of little importance to them. And this I can positively declare, that a person is in the next life as soon as he has died, carrying on to the full the life he was leading in the world; the nature of his life remains the same as it was in the world. I can positively declare this to be so because I know it to be so. I have talked to almost all those I knew during their earthly lives after these were over. I have therefore been allowed to know through actual experience the nature of the lot that awaits everyone – that each person’s lot is determined by the life he has led. But the kind of people mentioned above do not believe any of this. As to what a wish on the part of unspiritual natural truth to become joined to spiritual natural truth may be, and what is implied by it, meant by ‘she took hold of Joseph by his garment’, this will be discussed in what follows immediately below.
 But, as has been said, examples will help to shed light on this matter. Take this one first. Within the Church there exists the unspiritual natural truth which says that good should be done to the poor, widows and orphans, and that doing good to these is the charity which is commanded in the Word. But unspiritual truth, or rather, people guided by unspiritual truth, understand the poor, widows and orphans to be those who are literally called such, whereas spiritual natural truth, or rather, people guided by this kind of truth – while giving their firm assent to this unspiritual natural truth – place such an understanding of the expression ‘poor, widows and orphans’ in the last or outermost position. For in their hearts they say that not all people calling themselves the poor are in fact such, and also that some of those who are poor lead very wicked lives, fearing neither God nor men, and ready to plunge into every unmentionable deed but for the fear that holds them back. They also say in their hearts that in the Word the expression ‘the poor’ is used to mean those who are such spiritually, that is to say, those who know and in their hearts confess that nothing good or true at all that originates in themselves resides with them and that everything that is there has been freely given them. The expressions ‘widows’ and ‘orphans’ are considered by them in a similar way, the difference being that each involves some different state. From this example it may be seen that to people guided by spiritual natural truth doing good to the poor, widows and orphans who are literally called such is an outermost truth, and that this outermost truth is like a garment covering the things within. One may also see that this outermost truth fits in with the truth as understood by those guided by unspiritual natural truth; and that even so the two are not joined together but have merely an association with each other.
 Take the example of doing good to the neighbour. Those guided by spiritual natural truth consider every individual person to be their neighbour, yet each one to be such in a different manner and degree. In their hearts they say that those governed by good are pre-eminently the neighbour to whom good should be done. They also say that those governed by evil are likewise the neighbour, but that good is done to these if they suffer the punishments prescribed by laws, because those punishments serve to correct them, as well as to prevent evil being done to the good by them and the bad examples they set. Those within the Church who are guided by unspiritual natural truth likewise call every individual person the neighbour; but they do not take into consideration the degree or manner in which each one is a neighbour. Therefore if motivated by natural goodness they do good indiscriminately, to everyone who moves them to pity, most of all to the evil rather than the good because the evil in their malice know how to arouse feelings of pity. From this example too one may see that this outermost truth brings together those guided by unspiritual natural truth and those guided by spiritual natural truth, and yet the two are still not joined together but have merely an association with each other, since one has a different idea and different perception from the other of the neighbour and of charity towards him.
 Take a further example. Those guided by spiritual natural truth say in general that the poor and the wretched are to inherit the kingdom of heaven. But for them this is an outermost truth since they gather up within this the belief that ‘the poor’ and ‘the wretched’ are those who are spiritually such, and that these are the ones meant in the Word, to whom the heavenly kingdom will belong. But those within the Church who are guided by unspiritual natural truth say that no others can inherit the kingdom of heaven but those who in the world have been reduced to poverty, live in wretched circumstances, and suffer greater affliction than everyone else. They also call riches, important positions, and worldly joys just so many distractions or means that divert a person from heaven. This example also shows what an outermost truth is and the nature of the harmony between the two kinds of natural truth; it shows that they are not joined together, but have merely an association with each other.
 Take this example too. Those guided by spiritual natural truth consider it an outermost truth that those objects which in the Word are called holy really were holy, such as the ark and mercy seat, the lampstand, the incense, the leaves, and so on, as well as the altar; also the temple; and Aaron’s vestments too, which are called vestments of holiness – in particular the ephod together with the breastplate where the urim and thummim were. Yet the idea they have so far as this outermost truth is concerned is that those objects were not in themselves holy, nor had they had any holiness instilled into them, but that they were holy in a representative sense, that is to say, they represented the spiritual and celestial realities of the Lord’s kingdom, and in the highest sense the Lord Himself. People guided by unspiritual natural truth however also call those objects holy, but holy in themselves because holiness has been instilled into them. From this one may see that the two kinds of truth meet but do not become joined to each other; for as the spiritual man’s conception of that outermost truth is different from that of the merely natural man, a different form is taken by each.
 Take yet another example. To the spiritual man it is an outermost truth that all Divine truths can be substantiated from the literal sense of the Word, and also by means of the rational or intellectual concepts known to the enlightened. That same outermost or general truth is also accepted by the natural man, but he has the simple belief that everything is true which can be substantiated from the Word, above all that which he himself has substantiated from it. The spiritual man and the natural man meet each other therefore in their common acceptance of the idea that every Divine truth can be substantiated; yet one sees this general truth in a different way from the other. The merely natural man believes that whatever he himself has substantiated for himself, or else has heard others substantiate, is a Divine truth. He does not realize that falsity can be substantiated just as easily as truth, and that, once substantiated, falsity has all the appearance of truth; indeed it appears to be more true than the truth itself, because the illusions of the senses enter in and present it in the light of the world separated from the light of heaven.
 This too shows what outermost spiritual truth seems like to the natural man – like a garment. It also shows that when this garment is removed nothing at all is left to draw the two together, as a consequence of which the spiritual man no longer has anything with which to protect himself from the natural man, which considerations are meant by Joseph’s leaving his garment behind, fleeing, and going out of doors. For the merely natural man does not acknowledge interior truths, and therefore when exterior ones are taken away or removed a severance instantly takes place. What is more, all the ideas introduced by the spiritual man to substantiate outermost truth are called falsities by the natural man since he has no ability to see whether the idea substantiated by the spiritual man is really true. It is not possible to see by natural light what belongs to spiritual light, for to do so is contrary to order. But seeing by spiritual light what belongs to natural light is in keeping with order.
 The way natural people look upon spiritual things as so to speak a body of slaves was also represented by the way the Egyptians regarded the Hebrews as nothing else than their slaves; for the Egyptians represented those who are preoccupied with natural knowledge, and so are natural people, whereas the Hebrews represented those who belong to the Church and so are spiritual when considered in relation to the Egyptians. Furthermore the Egyptians thought the Hebrews were of so low or slave-like a degree that it was an abomination to them to eat with Hebrews, Gen. 43:32; also the sacrifices which Hebrews offered were an abomination to them, Exod. 8:26.
And she kept his garment with her’ means that it retained outermost truth. ‘Until his lord came to his house’ means so that it might communicate with natural good. ‘And she spoke to him in these words’ means speaking falsely. ‘Saying, The Hebrew slave whom you have brought to us came to me’ means that servile thing. ‘To make sport of me’ means that it rose up. ‘And it happened as I lifted up my voice and cried out’ means when it discerned the great aversion. ‘That he left his garment with me’ means proof. ‘And fled out of doors’ means that at that point it separated itself.
* lit. according to
sRef Luke@11 @24 S2′ sRef Luke@11 @25 S2′ sRef Luke@11 @26 S2′  The fact that a person’s natural mind, like his rational mind, is called ‘a house’ is evident from the following places: In Luke,
When the unclean spirit has gone out of a person he passes through dry places seeking rest; and if he does not find any he says, I will return to my house out of which I came. And if when he comes he finds it swept and decorated, he goes away and brings seven other spirits more evil than himself, and they enter in and dwell there. Luke 11:24-26.
‘House’ here stands for the natural mind, which is called a house that is ’empty and swept’* when there are no forms of good and truth in it meant by ‘husband and wife’, no affections for good and truth meant by ‘daughters and sons’, nor anything such as supports these meant by ‘women servants and men servants’. The person himself is ‘the house’ because the rational mind together with the natural mind constitutes a human being. Without the inhabitants just mentioned – that is, without the forms of good and truth, and without the affections for these, and the service rendered by those affections – a person is not a human being but a beast.
sRef Luke@11 @17 S3′ sRef Mark@3 @27 S3′ sRef Mark@3 @25 S3′ sRef Mark@3 @24 S3′  The human mind is again meant by ‘a house’ in the same gospel,
Every kingdom divided against itself is laid waste, and house falls upon house. Luke 11:17.
And in Mark,
If a kingdom is divided against itself, this kingdom cannot stand. Also, if a house is divided against itself, this house cannot stand. No one can go into the house and plunder the vessels of a strong man unless he first binds the strong man, and then he may plunder his house. Mark 3:14, 25, 27.
‘Kingdom’ means truth, 1672, 2547, 4691, and ‘house’ good, 2233, 2234, 3720, 4982, ‘house’ meaning good on account of its greater importance.
sRef Luke@12 @53 S4′ sRef Luke@12 @39 S4′ sRef Luke@12 @52 S4′  In Luke,
If the householder had known at what hour the thief was coming he would certainly have been awake and would not have permitted his house to be broken into. Luke 12:39.
In the same gospel,
From now on there will be in one house five divided, three against two, and two against three. Father will be divided against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother. Luke 12:52, 53.
This refers to the spiritual conflicts which members of the Church enter into once the internal or spiritual contents of the Word have been opened up to them. ‘House’ stands for the actual person or his mind, while the ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘son’, and ‘daughter’ in it are forms of good and truth together with affections for these, or in the contrary sense evils and falsities together with affections for these, which are the source of conflict and the things to be grappled with in such conflict.
sRef Luke@10 @5 S5′ sRef Luke@10 @7 S5′ sRef Luke@10 @6 S5′  The Lord commanded His disciples, in Luke,
Whatever house you enter, first say, Peace be to this house! And if indeed a son of peace is there, your peace shall rest on it; but if not, it shall return to you. But remain in the same house; eat and drink what they have there. Do not pass on from house to house. Luke 10:5-7.
This represented the requirement for them to remain with genuine good, that is, with the good of love to the Lord and of charity towards the neighbour, and not to pass on to any other kind. For more about the actual person or his mind being meant by ‘a house’, see also 3538, 4973.
* empty and swept belongs to Matthew 12:44.
 Take another example. If one says that the purpose and end in view determine whether something is spiritual or unspiritual – spiritual when the purpose and end have the common good, the Church, and God’s kingdom in view, but unspiritual when the purpose and end have, preponderating over these, oneself and one’s own family and friends in view – the natural man is indeed able to affirm this with his lips but not in his heart. He can do so with his lips because of the instruction received by his understanding, but he cannot do so in his heart because his understanding has been ruined by evil desires. Consequently he makes ‘a lord’ out of the purpose and end that has himself in view, and ‘a slave’ out of the purpose and end that has the common good, the Church, and God’s kingdom in view. Indeed he says in his heart, How can anyone possibly be any different from this?
 In short, everything that the natural man regards as being separated from himself is considered utterly worthless by him and is cast aside; and everything that he regards as being linked to himself is considered by him to be valuable and acceptable. The natural man neither knows nor wishes to know about any spiritual way of thinking in which a person sees himself linked to everyone who is governed by good, whether or not he is actually acquainted with him, and separated from everyone who is governed by evil, whether or not he is actually acquainted with him. For when this is a person s way of thinking he is linked to those in heaven and cut off from those in hell. But since the natural man does not experience any delight in that spiritual attitude, for the reason that he does not entertain any spiritual influence, he therefore looks upon it as something utterly base and servile, thus something worthless compared with the delight he experiences, coming to him through his physical senses and through the desires of his selfish and worldly love. But this delight is a dead one because it originates in hell, whereas the delight brought by a spiritual influence is living, since this delight, which comes by way of heaven, begins in the Lord.
 The spiritual man says, just as the natural man does, that good should be done to the poor, widows, and orphans; but the spiritual man thinks that good should not be done to the poor, widows, or orphans who are evil, or who call themselves poor when in fact they are rich; for then they would mislead simply by the words they use. From this the spiritual man is led to deduce that the poor, widows, and orphans mentioned in the Word mean those who are spiritually so. But the natural man thinks that good should be done to the poor, widows, and orphans who are literally called such, and that none other than these are meant in the Word; nor is he interested in whether they are evil or good people. What the poor, widows, and orphans may be on a spiritual level he neither knows nor wishes to know. From this one may see that this outermost truth – that good should be done to the poor, widows, and orphans – appears to be the same with both the spiritual man and the natural man; but when it is explained no such similarity exists. But when the lack of any similarity comes out, the two are consequently parted from each other, and then outermost truth serves the natural man as evidence or proof that an approach has been made. Therefore it speaks falsely against the spiritual man who no longer has anything with which to protect himself. Accordingly this example too serves to show why and in what way ‘a garment’ means evidence or proof.
 Take another example. The spiritual man says, just as the natural man does, that good should be done to the neighbour. He also says that everyone is his neighbour, yet he thinks that one person is his neighbour in a different respect and degree from another, and that to do good to an evil person because he calls himself his neighbour is to do evil to the neighbour. The natural man joins the spiritual man in subscribing to that outermost truth – the truth that good should be done to the neighbour, and also the truth that everyone is the neighbour. But he supposes that the neighbour is anyone who is favourably disposed towards him; and he has no interest in whether that person is good or evil. This example too shows that the two appear to be joined together so far as outermost truth is concerned, but that there is no real joining together, also that as soon as that truth is explained they become parted from each other. Once they are parted outermost truth serves the natural man as evidence against the spiritual man that the latter has been making sport of it so to speak. The same can be seen in all the other examples [in 5008].
‘And it happened’ means a new state. ‘As his lord heard his wife’s words which she spoke to him’ means the communication of falsity which looked like the truth. ‘Saying, This is what your slave did to me means corroboration. ‘That his anger flared up’ means an aversion to spiritual truth. ‘And Joseph’s lord took him’ means temptation coming from the natural. ‘And committed him to the prison-house’ means involving false-speaking against good. ‘A place where the king’s bound ones were bound’ means the state of those governed by falsities. ‘And he was there in the prison-house’ means the duration of that temptation.
* lit. According to these words
 Dealt with here is the fact that unspiritual natural good is easily convinced, so easily that to it falsity looks altogether like truth. For what unspiritual natural good is and what it is like – that is, who those people are with whom that good resides, and what they are like – see above in 4988, 4992, 5008, 5013, 5028. In these places it is shown that they are those who by heredity and consequently adventitiously are disposed to be meek and upright, and so who do what is good from some natural inclination and not from any religious motive. Doing good from some natural inclination is entirely different from doing it from a religious motive. In the world a person cannot distinguish one from the other because he is not immediately aware of inward things; but in the next life he can clearly tell the difference because in that world inward things are laid bare. There thoughts, intentions, and ends in view reveal themselves, being laid bare as if in broad daylight.
 This being so I have been allowed to know what those people are like with whom unspiritual good resides and what those are like with whom spiritual good resides. Those with whom unspiritual natural good resides allow themselves to be persuaded by no matter whom, easily so by the evil, for evil spirits and genii are in their element or their life’s delight when they can get into another’s desires; and once they have entered them they allure that person into every kind of evil. For at such times they convince him that what is false is true. This they can easily do to those with whom unspiritual natural good resides. They cannot do the same to those with whom spiritual good resides because these know from within themselves what evil and falsity are. The reason for this is that when those with whom spiritual good resides lived in the world they welcomed whatever doctrine prescribed, and disciplined their internal man in the same, thereby enabling heaven to act upon their internal man. But when those with whom unspiritual natural good resides lived in the world they did not welcome anything prescribed by doctrine or discipline their internal man in the same. Consequently they have nothing laid down in them into which heaven can operate, but whatever enters them from heaven passes straight through; and when this enters the natural man it is not welcomed there because evil ones, that is, the devil’s crew, instantly remove it by smothering it, or repelling it, or perverting it.
 Therefore those whose good is wholly natural suffer severely in the next life. Sometimes they complain profusely about being among those in hell even though, they believe, they have done good, just as has everyone else. But they have been told that in their doing of good they were no different from harmless living creatures that are not endowed with reason. They had shown no concern, they are told, for anything good and true that is known to the Church; and since, as a consequence of this, nothing existed in their internal man to receive what was good and true, they now have nothing enabling angels to protect them. Furthermore, under a cloak of goodness, they had performed very many evil deeds.
 As for temptations themselves, they are going on while a person is in the actual process of being regenerated, for no one can be regenerated unless he also undergoes temptations; and the evil spirits around him are the means through which those temptations are brought about. In temptation the person is brought into a state in which the evil that possesses him, that is, possesses his own essential self, is dominant. Once he enters this state evil and hellish spirits surround him, and when they realize that inwardly he is protected by angels those evil spirits reactivate the false ideas he has previously contemplated and the evil deeds he has committed. But the angels defend him from within. This conflict is what the person experiences as temptation, yet the experience is so vague that he is aware of it as scarcely anything more than a feeling of anxiety. For a person, especially one who has no belief at all in influx, dwells in a state of complete obscurity and discerns scarcely the smallest fraction of the things over which evil spirits and angels are engaged in conflict. Yet a battle is taking place at such a time over that person and his eternal salvation, with both sides using what is within him; for both draw on what resides with the person and engage in conflict over it. The truth of this I have been led most certainly to know. I have heard such conflict going on, I have perceived the influx taking place, and I have seen the spirits and the angels, to whom I spoke at the time and subsequently about what was happening.
 As stated, temptations arise primarily when a person is becoming spiritual, for at that time he is gaining a spiritual understanding of the truths of doctrine. The person himself is often unaware that this is happening; even so, the angels present with him see spiritual concerns within his natural ones since his interiors at this time are open towards heaven. (This also explains why, after living in the world, a person who has been regenerated is among angels, where he both sees and perceives the spiritual concerns which had previously appeared to him as natural ones.) When therefore a person is such as this, it is possible for the angels to defend him in temptation when he is assailed by evil spirits; for the angels then have a place that has been established in him into which they can operate; that is, they can flow into the spiritual level established in him, and through this into that which is natural.
 Once therefore outermost truth has been removed, with the result that the person does not possess anything to protect himself from those who are natural, dealt with in 5006, 5008, 5009, 5022, 5028, he enters into temptations in which evil spirits, all of whom are wholly natural, make accusations against him, especially that of false-speaking against good. They say, for example, that he has thought and said that good should be done to the neighbour and has also given proof of this in his actions, yet by the neighbour he now means only those with whom good and truth are present, not those with whom evil and falsity are present and who are incapable of receiving correction. Consequently, because he is no longer willing to do good to the evil, apart from punishing them so as to correct them and to protect his neighbour from what is evil, they accuse him of having thought and spoken what was false and of not thinking as he speaks.
 Take another example. Because a person, once he has become spiritual, no longer believes it to be a holy and godly act to give to monasteries or even churches where great wealth exists, and because prior to his becoming spiritual he had thought it a holy and godly thing to do, those spirits accuse him of falsity. They reactivate all the thoughts he had cherished previously about such holy and godly giving, as well as all his actual deeds resulting from that way of thinking. Those spirits make similar accusations in countless other instances which these examples serve merely to illustrate somewhat. In particular those spirits enter the affections which the person possessed previously and reactivate these, reactivating also the falsities and evils which he had thought and committed, and in this way they fill him with anxiety and quite often with doubt extending to the point of despair.
 Such then is the origin of spiritual kinds of anxiety and of those feelings called the pangs of conscience. What makes these appear to exist essentially within himself is influx and communication. Anyone who knows and believes this may be compared to a person who sees himself in a mirror but knows that it is not he himself who appears in the mirror or on the other side of it, only his image, whereas anyone who does not know and believe this may be compared to a person who sees himself in the mirror and supposes that he himself, not his image, appears there.
sRef Isa@42 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S2′  Such is the condition of those meant in the Word by ‘the bound’ and by ‘those who are in prison’, as is evident from other places in the Word:
I will give You to be a covenant of the people, a light of the nations, to open the blind eyes, to bring the bound out of prison, out of the dungeon-house those who sit in darkness. Isa. 42:6, 7.
This refers to the Lord and His Coming. Here ‘opening the blind eyes and bringing the bound out of prison, and out of the dungeon-house those who sit in darkness’ stands for those who have no knowledge of goodness and truth but who nevertheless have the desire to know and be taught about these. But in this instance a different word is used in the original language to describe a prison.
sRef Isa@42 @22 S3′ sRef Isa@24 @21 S3′ sRef Isa@24 @22 S3′  In the same prophet,
All the young men are hidden in prison houses; they have become a prey, and none delivers and none says, Bring out. Isa. 42:22.
‘The young men’ in the internal sense are the truths of faith, which are said ‘to be hidden in prison-houses and to become a prey’ when they are not acknowledged any longer. In the same prophet,
It will be on that day, that Jehovah will visit the host of the height on high, and the kings of the ground on the ground, and the bound will be gathered together over the pit, and they will be shut in* the dungeon; after a multitude of days they will be visited. Isa. 24:21, 22.
‘The bound over the pit’ stands for those undergoing experiences of vastation, that is, temptation.
sRef Isa@10 @3 S4′ sRef Isa@10 @4 S4′  In the same prophet,
What will you do on the day of visitation and vastation? It will come from afar. To whom will you flee for help? [Anyone] who has not bowed himself down will fall beneath the bound and beneath the slain. Isa. 10:3, 4.
‘Beneath the bound’ stands for the hell which lies below the places of vastation.’ The slain’ stands for those who through the false assumptions adopted by them have destroyed the truths of faith to a smaller extent than those pierced [by the sword] have done, dealt with in 4503.
sRef Ps@69 @33 S5′ sRef Zech@9 @10 S5′ sRef Zech@9 @11 S5′ sRef Ps@79 @11 S5′ sRef Isa@49 @8 S5′ sRef Isa@49 @9 S5′ sRef Ps@102 @19 S5′ sRef Zech@9 @12 S5′ sRef Ps@102 @20 S5′ sRef Isa@49 @10 S5′  In Zechariah,
He will speak peace to the nations, and His dominion will be from sea to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth. Also as for You, through the blood of Your covenant I will let out the bound ones from the pit in which there is no water. Return to the stronghold, O bound ones of hope. Zech. 9:10-12.
‘Letting out the bound ones from the pit’ stands for those who are undergoing vastation and temptation; for the places where such undergo vastation are called ‘pits’, see 4728, 4744. In David,
Jehovah hears the needy and does not despise His bound ones. Ps. 69:33.
In the same author,
Let the groaning of him who is bound come before You. Ps. 79:11.
In the same author,
Jehovah looked from the heavens towards the earth to hear the groaning of him who was bound, to open to the sons of death. Ps. 102:19, 20.
‘Those who are bound’ stands for those who are undergoing vastation and temptations. In Isaiah,
In a time of good pleasure I have answered You, and in a day of salvation I have helped** You; I have also guarded You, and I have given You for a covenant of the people to restore the land, to apportion the inheritances that have been laid waste, to say to those that are bound, Go out; and to those who are in darkness, Reveal yourselves. They will feed*** along the roads, and on all slopes will their pasture**** be. And they will neither hunger nor thirst. Isa. 49:8-10.
sRef Matt@25 @35 S6′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S6′ sRef Ps@146 @7 S6′ sRef Ps@146 @8 S6′ sRef Isa@61 @2 S6′ sRef Isa@61 @1 S6′ sRef Matt@25 @34 S6′ sRef Ps@146 @9 S6′  In the same prophet,
The Spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon Me, Jehovah has anointed Me; to bring good tidings to the poor He has sent Me, and to bind up the broken in heart; to preach liberty to captives, and to those who are bound, to him who is blind; to proclaim the year of Jehovah’s good pleasure.
Jehovah who executes judgement for the oppressed, who gives bread to the hungry; Jehovah who sets the bound free; Jehovah who opens the blind [eyes]; Jehovah who lifts up the bowed down; Jehovah who loves the righteous; Jehovah who guards strangers, upholds the orphan and the widow. Ps. 146:7-9.
‘The bound’ stands for those who are undergoing vastation and temptations because of falsities.
From all these places it is also evident who are meant in Matthew by those who are bound or ‘in prison’ and likewise who are meant by ‘the hungry, the thirsty, and strangers’,
Then the King will say to those at His right hand, I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, naked and you clothed Me around, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to Me. Matt. 25:34-36
Regarding these verses, see the preliminary section of the present chapter, 4954-4958.
* lit. over
** The Latin means heard, but the Hebrew means helped.
*** lit. pasture
**** The Latin means good pasture, but the Hebrew means their pasture, which Sw. has in other places where he quotes this verse.
By theft I have been taken out of the land of the Hebrews, and here also I have not done anything for which they should have put me in the pit.
As regards ‘a pit’ meaning a place of vastation, see 4728, 4744.
‘And Jehovah was with Joseph’ means that the Divine was inwardly present. ‘And showed mercy to him’ means Divine love within every individual thing. ‘And gave him favour in the eyes of the governor of the prison-house’ means consequent support in temptations. ‘And the governor of the prison-house gave’ means the truth governing in a state of temptations. ‘Into Joseph’s hand all the bound who were in the prison-house’ means from Him over all falsities. ‘And everything they did there, he was the doer of it’ means absolute power and control. ‘The governor of the prison-house oversaw nothing whatever that was in his hand’ means that He Himself governed truth. ‘In that Jehovah was with him’ means from the Divine that was within Him. ‘And whatever he did, Jehovah made it prosper’ means that the Divine Providence began in Himself.
* lit. prince or chief
** i.e. it was done under his instructions
 Not the actual truth but an affection for it is what the Lord uses to govern those undergoing temptations; for the Divine does not flow into anything except that which is regarded with affection. Truth that has been implanted and become rooted in a person interiorly has been implanted and become rooted there through affection. Absolutely nothing grows there without affection. Truth that has been implanted and become rooted through affection sticks in the mind, and it is recollected through an affection for it. Furthermore when that truth is recollected it also manifests the affection attached to it, an affection which in that person is a reciprocal one. This being what goes on in a person who undergoes temptations, no one is therefore allowed to experience any spiritual temptation until he reaches adult years and so has acquired some truth by means of which he may be governed. Without that truth he goes under, in which case his latter state is worse than his former one. From all this one may see what is implied by the truth governing in a state of temptations, meant by ‘the governor of the prison-house’.
sRef Isa@9 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S3′  The reason ‘a prince (or a governor)’ means a primary truth is that ‘a king’ in the internal sense means the truth itself, 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4789, 4966, and consequently because ‘princes’ are the king’s chief subjects the primary features of that truth are meant by them. For this meaning of ‘princes’, see 1482, 2089; yet because those two paragraphs have not shown that meaning from other places in the Word, let some be introduced here: In Isaiah,
To us a boy is born, to us a son is given, on whose shoulder will be the government* – the prince of peace, increasing government** and peace [to which] there will be no end. Isa. 9:6, 7.
This refers to the Lord. ‘The government upon his shoulder’ means all Divine Truth in the heavens originating in Him, for the heavens are distinguished into separate principalities in keeping with the varieties of truth derived from good, which also explains why angels are called principalities. ‘Peace’ means the state of bliss in the heavens which inmostly affects what is good and true, 3780. This is why the Lord is called ‘the prince of peace’ and why it speaks of Him ‘increasing government and peace to which there will be no end’.
sRef Isa@19 @13 S4′ sRef Isa@19 @11 S4′  In the same prophet,
The princes of Zoan are foolish, the wise counsellors of Pharaoh. How do you say to Pharaoh, I am a son of the wise, a son of the kings of old? The princes of Zoan have become fools, the princes of Noph deluded, and they have led Egypt astray, the corner-stone of the tribes. Isa. 19:11, 13.
This refers to Egypt, by which the Church’s factual knowledge is meant, 4749, and so natural truth, which is the last and lowest degree of order. For the same reason Egypt is here called ‘the corner-stone of the tribes’, for by ‘the tribes’ are meant all aspects of truth in their entirety, 3858, 3862, 3926, 3939, 4060. Here however ‘Egypt’ is factual knowledge that perverts the truths known to the Church, and so is truths in the lowest degree of order that have been falsified, meant by ‘the princes of Zoan and the princes of Noph’. The reason Egypt calls itself ‘a son of the kings of old’ is that the factual knowledge which existed in that land had its origin in the truths known to the Ancient Church. Actual truths are meant by ‘kings’, as shown above, and the truths known to the Ancient Church by ‘the kings of old’.
sRef Isa@10 @8 S5′ sRef Isa@10 @7 S5′  In the same prophet,
Asshur does not think what is right and his heart does not consider what is right, for his heart is to destroy, and to cut off nations not a few, for he says, Are not my princes kings? Isa. 10:7, 8.
‘Asshur’ stands for reasoning about Divine truths which gives rise to falsities, and so stands for perverted reason, 1186. Truths falsified in this way, that is, falsities, which are the product of reasoning and look altogether like truths, are meant when Asshur says ‘Are not my princes kings?’ As long as a person’s mind is fixed on the historical sense of the letter he cannot see or consequently believe that ‘Asshur’ means reasoning, and that ‘princes who are kings’ means major falsities which are regarded as supreme truths. Still less can he believe this if he refuses to entertain the idea that there is something holier and more universal within the Divine Word than that which is seen in the literal sense. Yet in the internal sense ‘Asshur’ is used to mean in the Word nothing else than reason and reasoning, and ‘kings’ to mean actual truths, ‘princes’ the primary features of truth. Also, those in heaven have no knowledge as to what or who ‘Asshur’ may be, besides which angels put away from themselves the idea of a king or a prince; and when they detect this idea residing with man they transfer it to the Lord and then perceive that which goes forth from the Lord and which is the Lord’s in heaven, namely His Divine Truth going forth from His Divine Good.
sRef Isa@30 @3 S6′ sRef Isa@31 @9 S6′ sRef Isa@30 @4 S6′ sRef Isa@31 @8 S6′  In the same prophet,
Asshur will fall by the sword, not of man (vir), and a sword, not of man (homo), will devour him. Also his rock will pass away by reason of terror, and his princes will be dismayed by the ensign. Isa. 31:8, 9.
This too refers to Egypt, by which the Church’s factual knowledge once it has been perverted is meant. Reasoning based on known facts regarding Divine truths which leads to perversion and falsification is meant by ‘Asshur’, those perverted and falsified truths being ‘his princes’. ‘The sword by which Asshur will fall’ is falsity engaged in conflict with truth and bringing about the devastation of it, 2799, 4499.
In the same prophet,
The strength of Pharaoh will become shame for you, and trust in the shadow of Egypt ignominy, when his princes will be in Zoan. Isa. 30:3, 4.
‘Princes in Zoan’ stands for truths that have been falsified, and so stands for falsities, as above.
sRef Isa@43 @28 S7′ sRef Isa@34 @12 S7′ sRef Isa@34 @11 S7′  In the same prophet,
The spoon-bill and the duck will possess it, and the owl and the raven will dwell in it; and he will stretch over it the line of emptiness, and the plumb-line of a waste place. Let them call its nobles who are not there a kingdom, and all its princes will be nothing. Isa. 34:11, 12.
‘The spoon-bill’, ‘the duck’, ‘the owl’, ‘the raven’ stand for varieties of falsity which arise when Divine truths in the Word are rendered valueless. The desolation and laying waste of truth is meant by ‘the line of emptiness and the plumb-line of a waste’, while the falsities, which are primary truths so far as the people described here are concerned, are meant by ‘its princes’. In the same prophet,
I will render the princes of holiness profane, and I will give Jacob to utter destruction and Israel to reproaches. Isa. 43:28.
‘Rendering the princes of holiness profane’ refers to holy truths. The annihilation of the truth known to the Church – the internal Church and the external – is meant by ‘giving Jacob to utter destruction and Israel to reproaches’, ‘Jacob’ being the external Church and ‘Israel’ the internal, see 4286.
sRef Jer@17 @25 S8′  In Jeremiah,
There will enter through the gates of this city kings and princes seated on the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, they and their princes. Jer. 17:25.
Anyone who understands the Word at this point according to its historical sense cannot know that anything deeper and holier lies hidden within these words than the idea that kings and princes will enter through the gates of the city in chariots and on horses, from which he gathers that the duration of the kingdom is meant. But one who is aware of what is meant by ‘city’ in the internal sense, and what is meant by ‘kings’, ‘princes’, ‘the throne of David’, and ‘riding in chariots and on horses’ sees deeper and holier matters in this description. For ‘the city’, which is Jerusalem, means the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, 2117, 3654; ‘kings’ Divine Truths, as shown above; ‘princes’ the primary features of truth; ‘the throne of David’ the Lord’s heaven, 1888; and ‘riding in chariots and on horses’ the existence in the Church of a spiritual understanding, 2760, 2761, 3217.
sRef Jer@50 @36 S9′ sRef Jer@50 @35 S9′ sRef Jer@50 @37 S9′  In the same prophet,
O sword against the Chaldeans and against the inhabitants of Babel, and against its princes and against its wise men! O sword against the liars! O sword against its horses and against its chariots! Jer. 50:35-37.
‘Sword’ stands for truth engaged in conflict with falsity, and for falsity in conflict with truth and laying it waste, 2799, 4799. ‘The Chaldeans’ stands for those who profane truths, and ‘the inhabitants of Babel’ for those who profane good, 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1307, 1308, 1321, 1322, 1326, 1327 (end). ‘Princes’ stands for falsities, which to such people are primary truths. ‘Horses’ stands for the Church’s possession of understanding, and ‘chariots’ for its doctrinal teaching, the laying waste of these being meant by ‘a sword against its horses and against its
sRef Lam@2 @9 S10′ sRef Lam@2 @1 S10′ sRef Lam@2 @2 S10′  In the same prophet,
How in His anger the Lord covers the daughter of Zion with a cloud! The Lord has swallowed up – He has not spared – all the dwelling-places of Jacob. He has destroyed in His wrath the strongholds of the daughter of Judah; He has cast them down to the ground; He has profaned the kingdom and her princes. The gates have sunk into the ground; He has broken in pieces her bars; her king and princes are among the nations. Lam. 1:1, 2, 9.
‘The daughter of Zion and Judah’ stands for the celestial Church, in this case for that Church when it has been destroyed. ‘The kingdom’ stands for the truths of doctrine there, 2547, 4691, ‘king’ for truth itself, and ‘princes’ for the primary features of this truth.
sRef Lam@5 @12 S11′ sRef Ezek@7 @27 S11′ sRef Num@25 @4 S11′ sRef Num@25 @1 S11′ sRef Lam@5 @10 S11′ sRef Lam@5 @11 S11′ sRef Num@25 @2 S11′ sRef Num@25 @3 S11′  In the same prophet,
Our skins have been blackened like an oven because of the storms of famine; they have ravished women in Zion, virgins in the cities of Judah. Princes have been hung up by their hands. Lam. 5:10-12.
‘Princes hung up by their hands’ stands for the fact that truths have been made profane, for being hung up represented the damnation brought about by profanation. And because being hung up represented that profanation the command was also given that when the people went whoring after Baalpeor and worshipped their gods, the princes were to be hung up before the sun, Num. 25:1-4, since ‘to go whoring after Baalpeor and to worship their gods’ was to make worship profane.
The king will mourn, and the prince will be wrapped in stupidity, and the hands of the people of the land will be all atremble; I will deal with them in their way. Ezek. 7:27.
Here likewise ‘the king’ stands for truth in general, and ‘the prince’ for the primary features of it.
sRef Ezek@12 @12 S12′ sRef Hos@3 @4 S12′  In the same prophet,
The prince who is in the midst of them will be carried on the shoulder under darkness and will go forth; they will dig through the wall to lead out through it; he will cover his face, so that with the eye he does not see the earth. Ezek. 12:12.
Here it is quite evident that ‘the prince’ does not mean a prince but truth known to the Church. When the words ‘will be carried on the shoulder under darkness’ are used in reference to it, the meaning is that total power is used to bear away among falsities, ‘darkness’ meaning falsities. ‘Covering the face’ means that truth is completely out of sight; ‘so that with the eye he does not see the earth’ means that nothing of the Church is visible, ‘earth’ or ‘land’ meaning the Church, see 661, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 4535. In Hosea,
The children of Israel will sit many days with no king and no prince, and no sacrifice, and no pillar, and no ephod, and no teraphim. Hosea 3:4.
sRef Ps@45 @14 S13′ sRef Ps@45 @13 S13′ sRef Ps@45 @16 S13′  And in David,
All glorious is the king’s daughter within, in her clothing with gold interweavings; in embroidered robes she will be led to the king. Instead of your fathers will be your sons; you will set them as princes in the whole earth. Ps. 45:13, 14, 16.
‘The king’s daughter’ means the Lord’s spiritual kingdom. It is called His spiritual kingdom by virtue of the Lord’s Divine truth, which in this instance is described by means of ‘clothing consisting of gold interweavings and of embroidered robes’. ‘Sons’ are the truths of that kingdom which are derived from the Lord’s Divine, which are going to be ‘the princes’, that is, the primary features of it.
‘The prince’ who is described – he and his possession in the New Jerusalem and in the new land – in Ezekiel 44:3; 45:7, 8, 17; 46;8, 10, 12, 16, 18; 48:21, means, in general, truth that is derived from the Lord’s Divine. For ‘the New Jerusalem’ in these places, ‘the New Temple’, and ‘the new land’ are used to mean the Lord’s kingdom in heaven and on earth, which kingdom is described here in Ezekiel by means of representatives such as figure elsewhere in the Word.
* lit. principality or princely rule
** lit. multiplying the principality or princely rule
I lay down My life,* so that I may receive it again. No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself; I have power to lay it down and I have power to receive it again. John 10:17, 18.
The passion of the Cross was the last temptation, by which He fully glorified the Human within Him, that is, made it Divine, as is also evident from many places in the Word, such as John 13:31, 32; 17:1, 5; Luke 24:26.
* lit. soul
IN THIS SECTION THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE LOINS AND THE ORGANS OF GENERATION WITH IT
Who exactly in the Grand Man or heaven belong to the province of the hands, the arms, and the feet has been shown from experience at the end of the previous chapter, in 4931-4953. Now this present section must state which particular communities in heaven or the Grand Man are the ones to which the loins, also the parts associated with the loins called the generative organs, correspond. In general it should be recognized that the loins and associated organs correspond to genuine conjugial love and consequently to those communities where angels live who possess that love. The inhabitants of those communities are the most heavenly ones and in their lives they enjoy greater peace and delight than any others do.
 After this I saw a large dog, like the one which very ancient authors call Cerberus. It had horrible, gaping jaws. I was told that a dog such as this means the guard which is set to prevent a person crossing over from heavenly conjugial love to a love of adultery, which is a hellish love. For heavenly conjugial love consists in one living, content in the Lord, together with one’s partner whom one loves very tenderly, and with one’s children. In the world this brings a person a deeper pleasure, and in the next life heavenly joy. But if people cross over from that love to its opposite, and this opposite love seems to them to hold heavenly delight within it, though in fact it is a hellish delight, a dog resembling Cerberus presents itself as if on guard to prevent any communication of opposite delights.
 I was told that this is what people of this sort are like initially, before they are received among those who constitute the province of the seminal vesicles, for in these vesicles sperm (semen)* is gathered together along with the suitable fluid with which the sperm is combined. That combination places the sperm in the right condition, so that once it has been sent forth it is released from the fluid at the cervix and thus serves to bring about conception. This kind of substance also holds within it the endeavour and so to speak desire to fulfill the same purpose and so to cast aside the fluid that clothes it. Something similar to this was seen to happen to that spirit. He returned to me, but now he was dressed in humble clothing. He said he had a burning desire to enter heaven and recognized that now he was in a fit state to remain there. I was led to say to him that this was perhaps a sign that he would be received there shortly. At this point angels told him to cast aside his clothing, which in his desire to do so he cast aside so quickly that hardly anything could have been done more quickly. This represented the nature of the desires of those in the province to which the seminal vesicles correspond.
* In Latin semen is the sperm or seed within the seminal fluid, not – as in English – both the sperm and the fluid.
 In view of this it is astonishing that anyone should ever believe that that nation was chosen or elected in preference to any other one. Believing that they were so elected many people go on to convince themselves of the idea that one’s life is of no consequence at all but that election and consequent acceptance into heaven is attributable to mercy alone, irrespective of the life one has led. Yet anyone of sound reason can see that to think in that way is to think contrary to the Divine. The Divine is mercy itself, and therefore if the attainment of heaven were attributable to mercy alone irrespective of the life one leads, all would be accepted, no matter how many these might be. To thrust anyone down into hell to suffer torment there, when it was possible for him to be received into heaven, would not be mercy but the opposite of mercy, and to elect one in preference to another would not be righteousness but the opposite of righteousness.
 Consequently those who have believed and convinced themselves of the idea that some have been elected and the rest have not been elected, also of the idea that admittance into heaven is attributable solely to mercy regardless of the life they have led, have been for the most part the kind of people who have led evil lives. These are told, as I have also heard and seen on several occasions, that the Lord never refuses anyone entrance into heaven, and that if they like they can find this out from experience. They are therefore raised up into some community of heaven whose inhabitants have led their lives under the influence of an affection for good, that is, they have led charitable lives. But when those raised up arrive there they begin, being evil, to suffer pain and inner torment because their life is contrary to that of heaven. And when heavenly light shines on them they look in that light like devils that are almost wholly devoid of human appearance. Some have sunken faces; some are all teeth, looking like crates; and some, who are different again, look like monsters. Thus they are horrified at themselves and hurl themselves headfirst into hell; and the deeper they can go, the better it is for them.
 From the region round Gehenna there once rose up something so to speak air-like and barely visible. It was a band of spirits who were like those just described. But after that, although there were quite a number of them, they looked to me like a single spirit, who was impeded by bandages which however he seemed to himself to remove. This was a sign meaning their desire to remove obstructions, for in the world of spirits representative images like this one serve to reveal people’s thoughts and intentions, and as soon as those images are seen their meaning is recognized instantly. After this, one who looked like a small snowy-white spirit seemed to come out of that band of spirits and to make his way towards me. This was a representation of their thought and intention, which was a wish to assume a state of innocence so that no one could suspect them of being what they were in fact like. When he reached me he stooped down towards my loins, where he seemed to wind himself all round them. This represented their wish to present themselves as spirits filled with chaste conjugial love. After this he seemed to twist like a coil around my feet, which represented their wish to worm their way in by means of such things as are naturally delightful. At length the small spirit became practically invisible, which represented their wish to lie completely out of sight.
 Angels told me that worming their way in like this is characteristic of those who deal treacherously in respect of conjugial love. That is to say, being intent on committing adultery with other men’s wives they would worm their way in, when they were in the world, by talking about conjugial love in a chaste and wholesome manner, by fondling the children and praising the husband in every possible way. They did all this so as to be considered friendly, chaste, and above suspicion, when in fact they were deceitful adulterers. Such being their true nature therefore, this was revealed, for once the incidents described above had taken place, the small snowy-white spirit became visible again. But now he had a dusky and very black appearance, and also a misshapen one. He was cast out into his own hell, which too was deep down below the middle of the loins, where the inhabitants live among utterly disgusting excrement, and also among the robbers, described in 4327, who correlate with general and involuntary sensory activity. I have spoken subsequently to spirits of this kind, who have been amazed that anyone should have any conscientious objection to committing adultery, that is to say, that his conscience should forbid him to lie with another man’s wife even if allowed to do so. Indeed when I have talked to them about conscience they have refused to believe that anyone possesses a conscience. I have been told that spirits like these come mainly from the Christian world, and only rarely do any come from other parts.
The opening section of the previous chapter contained an explanation of what the Lord said about the judgement on the good and on the evil, in Matthew 25:34-36. There now follows what He said after that,
Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink? When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You? When did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You? But the King answering will say to them, Truly I say to you, Insofar as you did it to one of the least of these My brothers you did it to Me. Then He will also say to those on the left, Depart from Me, O cursed ones, into eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry and you gave Me no food, I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink, I was a stranger and you did not take Me in, naked and you did not clothe Me, sick and in prison and you did not visit Me. Then they also will answer Him, saying, Lord, when did we see You hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison and did not minister to You? Then He will answer them, saying, Truly I say to you, Insofar as you did not do it to one of the least of these you did not do it to Me. And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life. Matt. 25:37-46.
This reply means that if they had seen the Lord Himself, all of them would have performed these acts of kindness to Him. Yet it would not have been love towards Him that would have led them to do so, only fear because He was about to come and judge the whole world. Nor would they have acted for His sake but their own, and so not because of anything present more internally in them, in their hearts, but for quite external reasons, and in outward conduct alone. They may be likened to a person who, when he sees his king whose favour he wishes to secure so that he may become great or rich, therefore conducts himself in a submissive manner before the king. Or they may be likened to those who engage in external holy worship in which so to speak they see the Lord and are submissive before Him. They do this because they believe that by engaging in such worship they will receive eternal life, even though they have no charity and do not do good to anyone except for selfish reasons, thus solely for their own benefit. Those on the right are like people who outwardly show great respect to their king yet scoff at what he commands because in their hearts they despise him. These and other examples like them are what are meant by the reply given by those on the right. And because the outward actions of the evil as well are similar, the reply given by those on the left was practically the same.
Truly I say to you, Insofar as you did it to one of the least of these My brothers you did it to Me.
The word ‘brothers’ is used to describe those in whom the good of charity and life is present; for since good itself is present in them, the Lord resides with them. These are the ones who are meant, strictly speaking, by the neighbour. Yet the Lord does not present Himself even within these, for compared with Him they are worthless. But a person presents himself before the Lord by worshipping Him with his inner being.
 Eternal fire is clearly not material fire; and the reason it is not a tormented conscience is that none who are governed by evil have any conscience; and those who have had no conscience during their lifetime cannot have any in the next life. But the reason eternal fire is a craving is that the entire fire of life in a person is fuelled by his loves, a heavenly fire by the love of what is good and true, a hellish fire by the love of what is evil and false. Or what amounts to the same, a heavenly fire is fuelled by love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour, and a hellish fire by self-love and love of the world. Anyone can see, if he stops to think, that all the fire or heat burning within a person is fuelled by his loves. This also explains why love is called spiritual heat and why in the Word fire and heat have no other meaning, 934 (end), 1297, 1527, 1528, 1861, 2446, 4906. The fire of life in the evil is also such that when they feel very strong cravings, a kind of fire is also burning in them, which inflames them with an intense and furious desire to torment others. But the fire of life in the good is such that when a higher level of affection exists with them, a kind of fire is alight in them too. But this fire inflames them with a loving and zealous desire to do good to others.
1 And so it was after these words,* that they sinned – the cupbearer of the king of Egypt, and the baker – against their lord the king of Egypt.
2 And Pharaoh was incensed with his two courtier-ministers, with the chief of the cupbearers and with the chief of the bakers.
3 And he put them in the custody of the house of the chief of the attendants, at the prison-house, the place where Joseph was bound.
4 And the chief of the attendants set Joseph over them and he ministered to them; and they were in custody for days.**
5 And they both dreamed a dream, each his dream in one night, each according to the interpretation of his dream, the cupbearer and the baker to the king of Egypt, who were bound in the prison-house.
6 And Joseph came to them in the morning, and he saw them, and behold, they were troubled.
7 And he asked Pharaoh’s courtier-ministers who were with him in the custody of his lord’s house, saying, Why are your faces sad*** today?
8 And they said to him, We have dreamed a dream and there is no interpreter for it. And Joseph said to them, Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell it to me, I beg you.
9 And the chief of the cupbearers told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, In my dream, and behold, a vine before me.
10 And on the vine three shoots, and it was as though budding; its blossom came up, and its clusters ripened into grapes.
11 And Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and put the cup onto Pharaoh’s palm.
12 And Joseph said to him, This is the interpretation of it: The three shoots are three days.
13 In yet three days Pharaoh will lift up your head and will restore you to your position, and you will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand, according to the former manner when you were his cupbearer.
14 But remember me when it is well with you, and show, I beg you, mercy to me, and make mention of me to Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house.
15 For I have indeed been taken by theft out of the land of the Hebrews, and here also I have not done anything for which they should put me in the pit.
16 And the chief of the bakers saw that he had interpreted what was good, and he said to Joseph, I also was in my dream, and behold, three baskets with holes in them were on my head.
17 And in the highest basket there was some of every kind of food for Pharaoh, the work of the baker, and the birds were eating them out of the basket, from upon my head.
18 And Joseph answered and said, This is the interpretation of it: The three baskets are three days.
19 In yet three days Pharaoh will lift up your head from upon you, and will hang you on wood; and the birds will eat your flesh from upon you.
20 And it happened on the third day, Pharaoh’s birthday, that he made a feast for all his servants, and he lifted up the head of the chief of the cupbearers, and the head of the chief of the bakers, in the midst of his servants.
21 And he restored the chief of the cupbearers to his supervision over [Pharaoh’s] drink, and he put the cup onto Pharaoh’s palm.
22 And the chief of the bakers he hanged, as Joseph had interpreted to them.
23 And the chief of the cupbearers did not remember Joseph, and forgot him.
* i.e. things, see 5075
** i.e. for a considerable length of time
*** lit. evil
The internal sense of this chapter continues to deal with the state of temptations, by means of which bodily things could be brought into a state of agreement. Rightly called bodily ones, those things are the powers of the senses, of which there are two kinds, some sensory powers being subordinate to the understanding part of the mind, others to the will part. Those subordinate to the understanding part are represented by the cupbearer of the king of Egypt, and those subordinate to the will part by the baker. The eventual retention of the former but casting away of the latter is represented by the fact that the cupbearer returned to the position he had held previously, whereas the baker was hanged. Everything else will become evident from the train of thought.
Verses 1-4 And so it was after these words,* that they sinned – the cupbearer of the king of Egypt, and the baker – against their lord the king of Egypt. And Pharaoh was incensed with his two courtier-ministers, with the chief of the cupbearers and with the chief of the bakers. And he put them into the custody of the house of the chief of the attendants, at the prison-house, the place where Joseph was bound. And the chief of the attendants set Joseph over them and he ministered to them; and they were in custody for days.**
‘And so it was’ means a new state and the things that followed. ‘After these words’ means after the things prior to this. ‘That they sinned’ means that order had become turned around. ‘The cupbearer of the king of Egypt’ means among the things of the body which are subject to the understanding part of the mind. ‘And the baker’ means among the things in the body which are subject to the will part. ‘Against their lord the king of Egypt’ means that these were contrary to the new state in the natural man. ‘And Pharaoh was incensed’ means that the new natural man turned away. ‘With his two courtier-ministers’ means from both kinds of sensory powers in the body. ‘With the chief of the cupbearers and with the chief of the bakers’ means in general from the sensory powers subordinate to the understanding part and to the will part. ‘And he put them into the custody’ means a casting aside. ‘Of the house of the chief of the attendants’ means the things that are first and foremost in explanations. ‘At the prison-house’ means among falsities. ‘The place where Joseph was bound’ means the state of the celestial of the natural now in relation to these things. ‘And the chief of the attendants set Joseph over them’ means that under the influence of the things first and foremost in explanations the celestial of the natural taught those bodily senses. ‘And he ministered to them’ means that it instructed them. ‘And they were in custody for days’ means that they lay in a state when they were cast aside for a long time.
* i.e. things, see 5075
** i.e. for a considerable length of time
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. John 1:1, 3.
 The interior meanings that words possess have their origin for the most part in the interior man, which dwells with spirits and angels. For as to his spirit, that is, as to his true self which lives after the death of his body, everyone lives in communion with angels and spirits, though the external man is not conscious of this. Living in communion with them he is also among those who use a universal language and so use that which is the origin of verbal expressions. It is for this reason that words have many spiritual meanings attached to them which to outward appearance seem to be out of keeping with them; but inwardly they are in keeping, as with the meaning of ‘words’ here as things. The same is true of very many other expressions, as when for instance a person’s understanding is called his inner sight and is said to possess light, or as when his apprehension of and obedience to something is called hearing and listening, or as when his detection of something is called smelling, and so on.
 A person’s external senses are directly related to his internal ones, for they have been given to a person and placed within his body to serve his internal man while he is in the world and to exist subject to the sensory powers of that internal man. Consequently when a person’s external senses begin to rule his internal ones he is done for. When this happens his internal sensory powers are regarded as no more than servants whose function is to reinforce whatever the external senses imperiously demand. When this is the state in which the external senses operate, order in their case has become turned around, a situation dealt with immediately above in 5076.
 A person’s external senses are, as stated, directly related to his internal ones, in general to the understanding and to the will. Consequently some external senses are subject or subordinate to the understanding part of the human mind, others are subject to the will part. One sensory power specifically subject to the understanding is sight; another subject to the understanding, and after that to the will also, is hearing. Smell, and more especially taste, are subject to both simultaneously, while the power subject to the will is touch. Much evidence could be introduced to show that the external senses are subject to the understanding and the will, and also to show how they are subject; but it would take up too much space to carry the explanation so far. Something of what is involved may be recognized from what has been shown at the ends of preceding chapters about the correspondence of those senses.
 In addition it should be recognized that all truths that are called the truths of faith belong to the understanding part, and that all forms of good which are those of love and charity go with the will part. Consequently it is the function of the understanding to believe, acknowledge, know, and see truth – and good also. But the function of the will is to feel an affection for that truth and to love it; and whatever a person feels an affection for and loves is good. But how the understanding influences the will when truth passes into good, and how the will influences the understanding when it puts that good into effect, are matters for still deeper examination- In :he Lord’s Divine mercy those matters will be discussed at various points further on.
 The reason ‘the cupbearer’ means the senses subject or subordinate to the understanding Part of the internal man is that everything which serves as drink, or which is consumed as such, for example, wine, milk, or water, is related to truth, which feeds the understanding and so belongs to the understanding. Also, because the external or bodily senses play a ministering role, ‘a cupbearer’ therefore means those senses or what is perceived by them. For in general ‘drinking’ has reference to truths which feed the understanding, see 3069, 3071, 3168, 3772, 4017, 4018; the specific meaning of ‘wine’ is truth deriving from good, or faith from charity, 1071, 1798, while ‘water’ means truth, 680, 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976. From all this one may now see what ‘the cupbearer’ means.
sRef Luke@24 @39 S2′  The reason why here and in the rest of this chapter external sensory powers of both kinds are dealt with in the internal sense is that the previous chapter dealt with how the Lord glorified or made Divine the interior aspects of His Natural, and therefore the present chapter deals with how the Lord glorified or made Divine the exterior aspects of that Natural. The exterior aspects of the natural are rightly called bodily ones, being both kinds of sensory powers of perception together with their recipient members and organs; for these recipients together with those powers make up that which is referred to as the body, see above in 5077. The Lord made Divine all that constituted His body, both its sensory Powers and their recipient members and organs, which also explains. Why He rose from the grave with His body, and after the Resurrection told His disciples,
See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; handle Me, and see; for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see Me have. Luke 24:39.
 Most people at the present day who belong to the Church believe that everyone is going to rise again on the last day and to do so at that time with his body. This supposition is so universal that scarcely anyone, because of what he is taught, believes anything different. But that supposition has gained strength because the natural man imagines that the body alone is the possessor of life. Consequently if he were not allowed to believe that this body is going to receive life once again he would refuse to believe in any resurrection at all. But the truth of the matter is that a person rises again immediately after death, at which point he seems to himself to be in his body just the same as when he was in the world, having a face and members, arms, hands, feet, breast, belly, and loins like the ones he had before. Indeed when he sees himself and touches himself he says he is exactly as he was in the world. However, that which he sees and touches is not his external which he carried round in the world but the internal which constituted the real person. That internal is what had life within it, but it had the external surrounding it, or outside every individual part of it, enabling it to exist in the world where it could act in the right way and carry out its functions.
 The actual earthly body is of no further use to him. He is in another world where he possesses other functions and other strengths and powers for which the kind of body he has there is suited. He sees that body with his own eyes – not the eyes he had in the world but those he now has in that other world. They are the eyes of his internal man, the ones he had used previously to see with through the eyes of his body and behold worldly and earthly objects. He also touches and feels that body – not with the hands or sense of touch he had been given in the world but with the hands and sense of touch which he is given in that other world and which had lain behind his sense of touch in the world. Furthermore each of the senses in that other world is keener and more perfect because it belongs to the internal man released from the external. The internal dwells in a greater state of perfection, because it is this that supplies sensory awareness to the external, though when it acts into the external, as it does in the world, that power is blunted and reduced. What is more, the sensory perception of the internal is a perception of what is internal, that of the external a perception of what is external. This being so, people can see one another after death, and they exist grouped together in communities on the basis of what they are inwardly like. In order to become quite sure of this I have been allowed to touch actual spirits and to talk to them many times on this subject, see 322, 1630, 4622.
sRef Luke@16 @22 S5′ sRef Luke@23 @43 S5′ sRef Luke@16 @23 S5′ sRef Luke@20 @38 S5′  People after death – who are then called spirits or, if they have led good lives, angels – are utterly amazed at what the member of the Church believes about himself. For he believes that he will not see eternal life until the last day when the world is destroyed, and that at that time he will be reclothed with the dust that has been cast away; when yet one who belongs to the Church knows that he rises again after death. For who does not say, when someone dies, that his soul or spirit is in heaven, or in hell? Who does not say about his young children who have died that they are in heaven? Who does not comfort a person who is [incurably] sick or one who is condemned to death by saying that shortly he will enter the next life? And one who is in the throes of death and has been prepared for it does not believe anything different. Indeed such a conviction about a person’s rising again after he has died is what leads many to claim that they have the power to release others from places of condemnation and to admit them into heaven, and to say masses for their souls. Is anyone unacquainted with what the Lord said to the robber, ‘Today you will be with Me in paradise’, Luke 23:43, or with what the Lord said about the rich man and Lazarus, that the former was carried off into hell, whereas the latter was taken by the angels into heaven, Luke 16:22, 23? Or is anyone unacquainted with what the Lord taught about the resurrection when He said that God is not the God of the dead but of the living, Luke 20:38?
 A person acquainted with all this thinks in these ways and speaks in these ways when his spirit guides his thought and speech. But when his thought and speech are guided by what doctrine teaches that person says something entirely different, namely that he will not rise again Until the last day. But in fact each person’s last day is at hand when he dies, and this is his time of judgement too, as many also declare. As to what is meant by ‘being encompassed by my skin’ and ‘out of my flesh seeing God’ in Job 19:25, 26, see 3540 (end). These things were said so that people may know that no one rises again in the body that encompassed him in the world except the Lord alone. He did so because, while in the world, He glorified His body, that is, He made it Divine.
 There are interior aspects of the natural and there are exterior ones. The interior aspects of the natural are known facts and the affections for them, but the exterior aspects are both kinds of sensory perception spoken of above in 5077. When a person dies he leaves behind those exterior aspects of the natural; but the interior aspects of the natural he takes with him into the next life where they serve as the foundation on which spiritual and celestial things can be based; for when a person dies he loses nothing apart from his flesh and bones. He keeps his memory in which everything he has done, spoken, or thought is recorded, and he keeps every natural affection and desire, and so every interior aspect of the natural. He does not need its exterior aspects, for he does not see anything that is in the world, or hear anything that is in the world, or smell, taste, or touch anything that is in the world, only what is in the next life. Things in the next life, it is true, seem for the most part to be like those in the world, but they are not, for they hold what is living within them, such as things proper to the natural world do not hold within them. For every single thing in the next life owes the beginning and the continuance of its existence to the Sun there, which is the Lord, as a consequence of which it has that which is living within it. But every single thing in the natural world owes the beginning and the continuance of its existence to the sun there, which is material fire, as a consequence of which it does not have that which is living within it. What gives it the appearance of having life within it is that its origin lies solely in the spiritual world, that is, in the Lord through the spiritual world.
sRef Isa@56 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@56 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@56 @4 S2′  The word used in the original language means minister, courtier, bed-chamber servant, and eunuch. In the internal sense the good and truth of the natural man are meant, as is the case here. But specifically the good of the natural man is meant, as in Isaiah,
Do not let the son of the foreigner who clings to Jehovah say, Jehovah surely separates me from being with His people. Do not let the eunuch say, Behold, I am dry wood. For thus said Jehovah to the eunuchs who keep My sabbaths and choose that in which I delight, and are holding fast to My covenant, I will give those in My house and within My walls a place and a name better than sons and daughters; I will give them an eternal name which will not be cut off. Isa. 56:3-5.
In this case ‘the eunuch’ stands for the good of the natural man, and ‘the son of the foreigner for the truth of the natural man; for the Lord’s Church is both external and internal. Those who belong to the external Church are natural; those who belong to the internal Church are spiritual. Those who are natural and yet are governed by good are ‘the eunuchs’, while those governed by truth are ‘the sons of the foreigner’. Also, since the truly spiritual or internal ones are to be found solely within the Church, ‘the sons of the foreigner’ in addition means therefore those who are outside the Church – the gentiles – who are nevertheless governed by the truth as taught by their religion, 2049, 2593, 2599, 2600, 2602, 2603, 2861, 2863, 7263, while ‘the eunuchs’ means those governed by good.
 Few know what the illusions of the senses are and few believe that these cast a shadow over rational insights and most of all over spiritual matters of faith – a shadow so dark that it blots them out. This happens especially when at the same time what a person delights in is the result of desires bred by a selfish and worldly love. But let examples be used to shed some light on this matter, first some examples of illusions of the senses which are purely natural ones, that is, illusions about things within the natural creation, then some examples of such illusions in spiritual things.
i It is an illusion of the senses – a purely natural one, or an illusion about the natural creation – to believe that the sun is borne round this globe once a day, and that the sky too and all the stars are borne round at the same time. People may be told that it is impossible and therefore inconceivable that so vast an ocean of fire as the sun, and not only the sun but also the countless stars, should revolve once a day without undergoing any changes of position in relation to one another. They may be told in addition that one can see from the planetary system that our own globe performs a daily movement and an annual one, by rotations on its axis and by revolutions. This can be recognized from the fact that the planets are globes like ours, some of which have moons around them and all of which, as observation shows, perform daily and annual movements like ours. But for all that they are told, the illusion the senses prevails with very many people – that things really are as the eye sees them.
 ii It is an illusion of the senses – a purely natural one, or an illusion about the natural creation – that the atmosphere is a single entity, except that it becomes gradually and increasingly rarified until a vacuum exists where the atmosphere comes to an end. A person’s external senses tell him nothing else than this when their evidence alone is relied on.
iii It is an illusion of the senses, a purely natural one, that the power which seeds have to grow into trees and flowers and to reproduce themselves was conferred on them when creation first began, and that that initial conferment is what causes everything to come into being and remain in being. People may be told that nothing can remain in being unless it is constantly being brought into being, in keeping with the law that continuance in being involves a constant coming into being, and with another law that anything that has no connection with something prior to itself ceases to have any existence. But though they are told all this, their bodily senses and their thought that is reliant on their senses, cannot take it in. Nor can they see that every single thing is kept in being, even as it was brought into being, through an influx from the spiritual world, that is, from the Divine coming through the spiritual world.
 iv This gives rise to another illusion of the senses, a purely natural one, that single entities exist called monads and atoms. For the natural man believes that anything comprehended by his external senses is a single entity or else nothing at all.
v It is an illusion of the senses, a purely natural one, that everything is part of and begins in the natural creation, though there are indeed purer and more inward aspects of the natural creation that are beyond the range of human understanding. But if anyone says that a spiritual or celestial dimension exists within or above the natural creation, this idea is rejected; for the belief is that unless a thing is natural it has no existence.
vi It is an illusion of the senses that only the body possesses life and that when it dies that life perishes. The senses have no conception at all of an internal man present within each part of the external man, nor any conception that this internal man resides in the inward dimension of the natural creation, in the spiritual world. Nor consequently, since they have no conception of it, do the senses believe that a person will live after death, apart from being clothed with the body once again, 5078, 5079.
 vii This gives rise to the further illusion of the senses that no human being can have a life after death any more than animals do, for the reason that the life of an animal is much the same as that of a human being, the only difference being that man is a more perfect kind of living creature. The senses – that is, the person who relies on his senses to think with and form conclusions – have no conception of the human being as one who is superior to animals or who possesses a life superior to theirs because of his ability to think not only about the causes of things but also about what is Divine. The human being also has the ability to be joined through faith and love to the Divine, as well as to receive an influx from Him and to make what flows in his own. Thus because of his response to such influx from the Divine it is possible for the human being to receive it, which is not at all the case with animals.
 viii This gives rise to yet another illusion, which is that what is actually living in the human being – what is called the soul – is merely something air-like or flame-like which is dispersed when the person dies. Added to this is the illusion that the soul is situated either in the heart, or in the brain, or in some other part of him, from where it controls the body as if this were a machine. One who relies on his senses has no conception of an internal man present in every part of his external man, no conception that the eye sees not of its own accord, and that the ear hears not of its own accord, but under the direction of the internal man.
ix It is an illusion of the senses that no other source of light is possible than the sun or else material fire, and that no other source of heat than these is possible. The senses have no conception of the existence of a light that holds intelligence within it, or of a heat that holds heavenly love within it, or that all angels are bathed in that light and heat.
x It is an illusion of the senses when a person believes that he lives independently, that is, that an underived life is present within him; for this is what the situation seems to be to the senses. The senses have no conception at all that the Divine alone is one whose life is underived, thus that there is but one actual life, and that anything in the world that has life is merely a form receiving it, see 1954, 2706, 2886-2889, 2893, 3001, 3318, 3337, 3338, 3484, 3742, 3743, 4151, 4249, 4318-4310, 4417, 4523, 4524, 4882.
 xi The person who relies on his senses can be misled into a belief that adulterous relationships are allowable; for his senses lead him to think that marriages exist merely for the sake of order which the upbringing of children necessitates, and that provided this order is not destroyed it makes no difference who fathers the children. He can also be misled into thinking that the married state is no different from having sex with someone, except that it is allowable. That being so, he also believes that it would not be contrary to order for him to many several wives if the Christian world, basing its ideas on the Sacred Scriptures, did not forbid it. If told that a correspondence exists between the heavenly marriage and marriages on earth, and that no one can have anything of marriage within him unless spiritual good and truth are present there, also that a genuinely conjugial relationship cannot possibly exist between one man and several wives, and consequently that marriages are intrinsically holy, the person who relies on his senses rejects all this as worthless.
 xii It is an illusion of the senses that the Lord’s kingdom, or heaven, is like an earthly kingdom, that joy and happiness there consist in one person holding a higher position than another and as a consequence possessing more glory than another. For the senses have no conception at all of what is implied by the idea that the least is the greatest and the last is the first. If such people are told that joy in heaven or among angels consists in serving the welfare of others without any thought of merit or reward, it strikes them as a sorrowful existence.
xiii It is an illusion of the senses that good works earn merit and that to do good to someone even for a selfish reason is a good work.
xiv It is also an illusion of the senses that a person is saved by faith alone, and that faith may exist with someone who has no charity, as well as that faith, not life, is what remains after death. One could go on with very many other illusions of the senses; for when a person is governed by his senses the rational degree within him, which is enlightened by the Divine, does not see anything. It dwells in thickest darkness, in which case every conclusion based on sensory evidence is thought to be a rational one.
 Unless a person’s thought can be raised above sensory impressions so that these are beheld as existing so to speak beneath him, he cannot possibly discern any interior aspect of the Word, let alone things of heaven such as are totally removed from those of the world, since the senses take hold of them and stifle them. This explains why people who rely on their senses and have focused their attention on known facts rarely understand anything about the things of heaven; for they have immersed their thoughts in the kinds of things that belong to the world, that is, in terms and in definitions formed from these, and so in what the senses perceive, from which they can no longer be raised up and so preserved in a way of looking at things that is higher than the senses. Nor can their thought range freely any longer over the whole field of matters recorded in the memory, selecting those which agree and casting aside those which are contrary, and using those which are in any way appropriate. For their thought is locked up and immersed in terms, as has been stated, and consequently in sensory impressions, so that it cannot look round about. This is the reason why the learned possess less belief than the simple, and also indeed why they possess less discernment in heavenly matters. For the simple can view something from a position that is above mere terms and above known facts, and so above sensory evidence. This the learned cannot do; their viewpoint is based on terms and known facts because their mind is immersed in these. Thus they are bound so to speak in a dungeon or prison.
‘And they both dreamed a dream’ means foresight regarding them. ‘Each his dream in one night’ means regarding what the outcome would be, which to them lay in obscurity. ‘Each according to the interpretation of his dream’ means which they held within them. ‘The cupbearer and the baker’ means regarding both kinds of sensory powers. ‘To the king of Egypt’ means which were subordinate to the interior natural. ‘Who were bound in the prison-house’ means which were among falsities. ‘And Joseph came to them in the morning’ means that which was revealed and made clear to the celestial of the natural.** ‘And he saw them’ means perception. ‘And behold, they were troubled’ means that they were passing through a sad state. ‘And he asked Pharaoh’s courtier-ministers’ means those sensory powers. ‘Who were with him in the custody of his lord’s house’ means which had been cast aside. ‘Saying, Why are your faces sad today?’ means, What affection gives rise to this sadness? ‘And they said to him’ means perception regarding these matters. ‘We have dreamed a dream’ means a foretelling. ‘And there is no interpreter for it’ means that no one knows what they hold within them. ‘And Joseph said to them’ means the celestial of the natural. ‘Do not interpretations belong to God?’ means that the Divine is within them. ‘Tell it to me, I beg you’ means that it might be known.
* lit. evil
** the celestial of the spiritual is possibly intended here; see 5097.
 An idea simply of night and of the obscurity that comes with it is sufficient to enable one to see how the spiritual sense and the natural sense of something are related to each other. Furthermore there are three kinds of spiritual obscurity – the first being that which is due to falsity that is a product of evil; the second being that which is due to ignorance of the truth; and the third being the obscurity in which exterior things dwell, compared with interior ones, and so the obscurity in which ideas formed by the senses and present in the external man dwell, compared with the rational concepts present in the internal man. All three kinds of obscurity arise however because the light of heaven, or intelligence and wisdom flowing from the Lord, is not received. This light shines unceasingly, but falsity that is a product of evil either rejects, smothers, or else perverts it; ignorance of truth receives only a little; while ideas formed by the senses that are present in the external man reduce it to a dim light by making it a general or ordinary one.
 The interior natural is what ‘Pharaoh king of Egypt’ represents, while the exterior natural is what ‘the cupbearer and the baker’ represents. The nature of the difference between the two becomes clear from the different ways they look at things, that is, from their thoughts and their conclusions based on those thoughts. The person who uses the interior natural to think with and to form conclusions is rational, and is so insofar as he has absorbed what comes to him through rational thought; but the person who uses the exterior natural to think with and form conclusions is governed by his senses, and is so insofar as he has absorbed what comes to him from sensory evidence. Such a person is called one governed by his senses, whereas the other is called one who is rational-natural. When a person dies he has the entire natural with him; and its form remains the same as that which it took in the world. He is also rational-minded to the extent he has absorbed ideas from rational thought, but sensory-minded to the extent he has absorbed ideas from his senses. The difference between the two is that, to the extent it has absorbed ideas from rational thought and made them its own, the natural looks down on the senses belonging to the exterior natural and controls them by disparaging and casting aside illusions formed by the senses. But to the extent that it has absorbed ideas formed by the bodily senses and made them its own the natural looks down on rational thought by disparaging this and casting it aside.
 An example of the difference between the two may be seen in the ability of the rational-natural man to comprehend that no one’s life is self-existent but that it comes to him through an influx of life from the Lord by way of heaven, and the inability of one governed by the senses to comprehend the same. For the latter says his senses tell him and he can plainly see that his life is self-existent and that it is pointless to contradict the evidence of the senses. Let another example be given. The rational-natural man comprehends the existence of a heaven and a hell; but one governed by his senses denies the existence of these because he has no conception of another world purer than the one he sees with his eyes. The rational-natural man comprehends the existence of spirits and angels who are not visible to him; but one governed by the senses cannot comprehend the same, for he imagines that what he cannot see or touch has no existence.
 Here is another example. The rational-natural man comprehends that it is the mark of an intelligent being to have ends in view, and with foresight to be directing means towards some final end. When he looks at the natural creation from the point of view of the order of everything, he sees the natural creation as a complex system of means and realizes that an intelligent Supreme Being has given them direction, though to what final end he cannot see unless he becomes spiritual. But a person governed by his senses does not comprehend how anything distinct and separate from the natural creation can exist or how some Being superior to the natural order can do so. He has no notion of what exercising intelligence, exercising wisdom, having ends in view, or giving direction to means may be unless all these activities are being spoken of as natural ones; and when they are spoken of as such, his idea of them is like that of one who is designing a machine. These few examples show what is meant by the interior natural and the exterior natural, and by the powers of the senses being cast aside – not sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch in the body, but the conclusions reached by these about interior matters.
* previously the expression Divine Rational has been used to describe Isaac’s representation; cp 5998.
Other seeds fell on the hard path, and the birds came and devoured them. Matt. 13:4.
‘Seeds’ means Divine truths, ‘hard rock’ conviction, and ‘birds’ false assumptions.
sRef Matt@13 @4 S2′  People like these are not even aware that they are in bonds or in prison, for they are full of affection for their falsity, loving it because of the evil which produces it. This leads them to think that they are in freedom, since everything they have an affection for or love seems to make them feel free. But those who have not really subscribed to falsity, that is, who have not become convinced of it, entertain truths easily. They see them, choose them, and are full of affection for them, after which they look down on falsities so to speak, and then see how those convinced of falsity have come to be in bonds. Having such freedom they are able in their contemplation and thought to roam so to speak through the whole of heaven in search of countless truths. But nobody can have this freedom except one who is governed by good; for it is by virtue of good that he is in heaven and by virtue of good that truths are seen there.
 In addition to this, ‘morning” in the highest sense means the Lord Himself, for the reason that the Lord is the sun from which all light in heaven flows; He is always a rising sun and so is always a morning one. He is rising always on everyone who receives truth that is the truth of faith and good that is the good of love; but He is setting on everyone who does not receive these. Not that the sun there ever sets, for as has been stated, it is always a rising one, but that anyone who does not receive that truth or good causes it so to speak to set on himself. This may be compared in some measure to the changes which the sun of the world undergoes so far as the inhabitants on earth are concerned. Here too the sun does not really set since it remains all the time in its own fixed position, from where it is constantly shedding light. Yet it does seem to set because the earth spins daily on its axis, and as it goes round it takes its inhabitants out of sight of the sun, see the first example given in 5084. Thus the sun does not actually go down but anyone inhabiting the earth is removed from its light. This comparison is used to illustrate a particular point; but the phenomenon referred to is in itself instructive because every detail of the natural creation is representative of the Lord’s kingdom. The instruction held within that phenomenon is that a loss of the light of heaven, that is, of intelligence and wisdom, does not come about because the Lord, the Sun of intelligence and wisdom, sets on anyone. It comes about because the inhabitant of His kingdom takes himself away, that is, he allows hell to be his leader and so take him away.
 No face is looked at by the angels in any other way, for angels do not see the material but the spiritual form that a person’s face takes; that is, they see the form presented by his affections and the thoughts springing from those affections. These are the essential components of the human face, as anyone may recognize from the fact that when bereft of thought and affections the face is completely dead, and that the face is enlivened by them and owes its pleasing looks to them. The sadness expressing some affection, or an affection which gives rise to sadness, is meant by Joseph’s words, Why are your faces sad today?
‘And the chief of the cupbearers told his dream to Joseph’ means that the celestial of the spiritual discerned what the outcome would be for the sensory impressions subject to the understanding part of the mind, which until then had been cast aside. ‘And said to him’ means revelation resulting from perception. ‘In my dream’ means a foretelling. ‘And behold, a vine before me’ means the understanding part. ‘And on the vine three shoots’ means derivatives from this even to the final one. ‘And it was as though budding’ means an influx that allows rebirth to be effected. ‘Its blossom came up’ means the state next to regeneration. ‘And its clusters ripened into grapes’ means spiritual truth when joined to celestial good. ‘And Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand’ means an influx of the interior natural into the exterior natural, and the beginning of reception. ‘And I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup’ means a reciprocal influx into good deeds that have a spiritual origin. ‘And put the cup onto Pharaoh’s palm’ means that the interior natural made these its own. ‘And Joseph said to him, This is the interpretation of it’ means revelation resulting from perception received from the celestial within the natural as to what it held within it. ‘The three shoots are three days’ means continuous derivatives even to the final one. ‘In yet three days’ means that at that point a new state is arrived at. ‘Pharaoh will lift up your head’ means that which has been provided and therefore decided. ‘And will restore you to your position’ means that the impressions received through the senses subject to the understanding part were restored to order, to occupy the lowest position. ‘And you will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand’ means in order that they might consequently serve the interior natural. ‘According to the former manner’ means in keeping with the law of order. ‘When you were his cupbearer’ means as is the normal position for sensory impressions of this kind.
 When the expression ‘the celestial of the spiritual’ is used, the Lord is meant by it. But it may also be used to refer to an abstract quality in Him, for He is the Celestial itself and the Spiritual itself, that is, He is Good itself and Truth itself. No one, it is true, can have any conception of an abstract quality separate from an actual person because what is natural enters into every individual idea present in his thought. But even so, if one holds in mind the idea that everything within the Lord is Divine and that the Divine transcends one’s entire thought, altogether transcending even what angels can comprehend; and if as a consequence one removes from one’s mind everything comprehensible, one is left with the idea of pure Being (Esse) and the Manifestation (Existere) of that Being. That is to say, one then has an idea of the Celestial itself and the Spiritual itself, which are Good itself and Truth itself.
 However, the human being is such that he cannot form in his mind any idea at all of abstract realities unless he associates with them some natural imagery that has come to him from the world through his senses; for without any such imagery his thought becomes lost so to speak in an abyss and is dissipated. Therefore to prevent the idea of the Divine becoming lost in the case of a person immersed in bodily and worldly interests, and to prevent the defilement of this idea, and at the same time of everything celestial or spiritual from the Divine, by foul thoughts in the case of anyone with whom it remained, Jehovah has been pleased to make Himself known as He exists essentially and as He manifests Himself in heaven, namely as a Divine Man. For the whole of heaven combines together and presents itself in the human form, as may be seen from what has been shown at the ends of chapters dealing with the correspondence of all parts of the human being with the Grand Man, which is heaven. This Divine, that is, Jehovah’s manifestation of Himself in heaven, is the Lord from eternity. It is also the appearance assumed by the Lord when He glorified, that is, made Divine, the Human within Him, as is also quite evident from the form in which He appeared before Peter, James, and John at His transfiguration, Matt. 17:1, 2, and in which He appeared on a number of occasions to prophets. All this being so, anyone can think of the Divine itself as Man, and at the same time of the Lord in whom the entire Divine and perfect Trinity dwell; for within the Lord the Divine itself is the Father, the Divine that manifests itself in heaven is the Son, and the Divine proceeding from these is the Holy Spirit – from which it is clear that these three are one, as He Himself teaches.
 There are in general two Churches – the celestial and the spiritual. The celestial Church exists with the person in whom the will part of the mind can be regenerated or made the Church, whereas the spiritual Church exists with one in whom, as stated, solely the understanding part can be regenerated. The Most Ancient Church before the Flood was a celestial one because there existed with those who belonged to it some degree of wholeness in the will part, whereas the Ancient Church after the Flood was a spiritual one because among those who belonged to it no degree of wholeness existed in the will part, only in the understanding part. This explains why, when the spiritual Church is dealt with in the Word, its understanding is dealt with in many instances too. Regarding these Churches, see 640, 641, 765, 863, 875, 895, 927, 928, 1023, 1043, 1044, 1555, 2124, 2256, 2669, 4328, 4493. As regards its being the understanding part that is regenerated in the case of those who belong to the spiritual Church, this may also be recognized from the fact that the member of that Church does not have any good from which he may perceive truth, as those who belonged to the celestial Church had. Rather, he must first learn the truth of faith and absorb it into his understanding, and so come to recognize with the aid of truth what good is. Once truth enables him to recognize what good is, he can think about it, then desire it, and at length put it into practice, in which case he now has a new will formed by the Lord in the understanding part of his mind. The Lord then uses this to raise the spiritual man up to heaven, though evil still remains in the will that is properly his own, which at this point is miraculously set aside. This is accomplished by a higher power which withholds him from evil and maintains him in good.
 In the case of the member of the celestial Church however the will part was regenerated. From earliest childhood he was absorbing the good of charity, and once he could see with perception what that good was, he was led on to perceive what love to the Lord was. Consequently all the truths of faith were seen by him in his understanding as if in a mirror. His understanding and will formed one complete mind; for those truths enabled him to perceive in his understanding that which existed as a desire in his will. This is what the wholeness of that first human being consisted in, by whom the celestial Church is meant.
sRef Jer@2 @21 S4′ sRef Jer@2 @18 S4′  As regards ‘the vine’ meaning the understanding part in the case of the spiritual Church, this is clear from many other places in the Word, as in Jeremiah,
What have you to do with the way to Egypt, to drink the waters of Shihor? Or what have you to do with the way to Assyria, to drink the waters of the River? Yet I have planted you as a wholly choice vine, a seed of truth. How therefore have you turned from Me into the degenerate branches of a strange vine? Jer. 2:18, 21.
This refers to Israel, which means the spiritual Church, 3654, 4286. ‘Egypt’ and ‘the waters of Shihor’ stand for factual knowledge which leads to perversion, 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462; ‘Assyria’ and ‘the waters of the River’ stand for reasoning based on this, that is, on factual knowledge, against the good of life and the truth of faith, 119, 1186. ‘A choice vine’ stands for the member of the spiritual Church, who is called ‘a vine’ because of his understanding, while ‘the degenerate branches of a strange vine’ stands for someone belonging to the perverted Church.
sRef Ezek@17 @8 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @3 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @2 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @6 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @5 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @7 S5′  In Ezekiel,
A riddle and a parable about the house of Israel. A great eagle took some of the seed of the land and planted it in a seed field. It sprouted and became a spreading vine, low in height, so that its branches turned towards him and its roots were under him. So it became a vine which brought forth branches and sent out shoots towards the eagle. This vine directed its roots and sent its branches towards him in a good field by many waters. It was planted to produce a branch, that it might be a magnificent vine. Ezek. 17:1, 3, 5-8.
An eagle’ stands for rational thought, 3901,’the seed of the land’ for truth known to the Church, 1025, 1447, 1610, 1940, 2848, 3038, 3310, 3373. Its becoming ‘a spreading vine’ and ‘a magnificent vine’ stands for becoming a spiritual Church, which is called ‘a vine’ because wine is obtained from it – ‘wine’ meaning spiritual good or the good of charity, the source of the truth of faith implanted in the understanding part.
sRef Ezek@19 @11 S6′ sRef Ezek@19 @10 S6′  In the same prophet,
Your mother was like a vine in your likeness, planted beside the waters, fruitful, and made full of branches by reason of many waters. Consequently it had strong rods as sceptres for those who had dominion, and its stature rose up among entangled boughs, so that it was seen in its height amid the multitude of its branches. Ezek. 19:10, 11.
This too refers to Israel, by whom the spiritual Church is meant, which Church is compared to ‘a vine’ for a similar reason to that mentioned immediately above. It is a description of its derivatives even to the final ones in the natural man, that is to say, even to factual knowledge based on sensory impressions, meant by ‘entangled boughs’, 2831.
sRef Hos@14 @7 S7′ sRef Hos@14 @8 S7′ sRef Hos@14 @5 S7′ sRef Hos@14 @6 S7′  In Hosea,
I will be as the dew of Israel. His branches will go out, and his beauty will be like the olive’s, and his odour like that of Lebanon. Those dwelling in its shadow will turn back, they will quicken the grain and will blossom as the vine; the memory of it will be as the wine of Lebanon. O Ephraim, what have I to do any more with idols? Hosea 14:5-8.
‘Israel’ stands for the spiritual Church, the blossoming of which is compared to ‘the vine’, and the memory of it to ‘the wine of Lebanon’, because of the good of faith when that good has been implanted in the understanding part. ‘Ephraim’ means the understanding part as it exists in the spiritual Church, 3969.
sRef Zech@8 @12 S8′ sRef Zech@8 @11 S8′  In Zechariah,
The remnant of the people will be the seed of peace; the vine will give its fruit, and the land will give its increase, and the heavens will give their dew. Zech. 8:11, 12.
‘The remnant of the people’ stands for truths stored away by the Lord within the interior man, 468, 530, 560, 561, 660, 798, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284. ‘The seed of peace’ stands for good there, ‘the vine’ for the understanding part.
sRef Mal@3 @11 S9′ sRef Hos@10 @1 S9′  In Malachi,
I will rebuke the devourer for you, so that he does not ruin for you the fruit of the land, nor will the vine in the field fail you. Mal. 3:11, 12.
‘The vine’ stands for the understanding part. The expression ‘a vine that does not fail’ is used when the understanding part is not left bereft of the truths and goods of faith; on the other hand ‘an empty vine’ is used when falsities exist there together with derivative evils, as in Hosea,
Israel is an empty vine, it bears fruit like itself. Hosea 10:1.
sRef Gen@49 @11 S10′  In Moses,
He will bind his ass’s colt to the vine, and the foal of his she-ass to a choice vine, after he has washed his clothing in wine, and his garment in the blood of grapes. Gen. 49:11.
This is the prophecy of Jacob, who by then was Israel, regarding his twelve sons, in this case regarding ‘Judah’, who represents the Lord, 7881. ‘The vine’ here stands for the understanding part as it exists in the spiritual Church, and ‘a choice vine’ for the understanding part as it exists in the celestial Church.
sRef Ps@80 @8 S11′ sRef Ps@80 @11 S11′ sRef Ps@80 @13 S11′  In David,
O Jehovah, You caused a vine to journey out of Egypt. You cast out the nations, and You planted it. You cleared the way in front of it and caused its roots to be rooted, so that it might fill the land. The mountains were covered with the shadow of it, and the cedars of God with its branches. You sent out its shoots even to the sea, and its little branches to the Euphrates. The boar out of the forest tramples on it, and the wild animal of the fields feeds on it. Ps. 80:8-11, 13.
‘A vine out of Egypt’ stands in the highest sense for the Lord, the glorification of His Human being described by it and its shoots. In the internal sense ‘a vine’ here means the spiritual Church and the member of that Church – what he is like when the understanding and will parts of him have been made new or regenerated by the Lord. ‘The boar in the forest’ means falsity, and ‘the wild animal of the fields’ evil, which destroy the Church and faith in the Lord.
sRef Isa@32 @13 S12′ sRef Isa@24 @7 S12′ sRef Isa@24 @6 S12′ sRef Isa@7 @23 S12′ sRef Rev@14 @19 S12′ sRef Rev@14 @20 S12′ sRef Isa@32 @12 S12′  In John,
The angel sent his sickle into the earth and harvested the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. The winepress was trodden outside the city, and the blood went out of the winepress up to the horses’ bridles. Rev. 14:19, 20.
‘Harvesting the vine of the earth’ stands for destroying the understanding part in the Church. And since ‘the vine’ means that understanding part it is also said that ‘the blood went out of the winepress up to the horses’ bridles’; for the powers of understanding are meant by ‘horses’, 2761, 2762, 3217. In Isaiah,
It will happen on that day, that every place in which there have been a thousand vines, worth a thousand [shekels] of silver, will be briers and brambles. Isa. 7:23.
In the same prophet,
The inhabitants of the land will be scorched and hardly any men (homo) left. The new wine will mourn, and the vine will languish. Isa. 14:6, 7.
In the same prophet,
They beat themselves on their breasts for the fields of unmixed wine, for the fruitful vine; for over the land of My people the them, the prickle is coming up. Isa. 32:12-14.
In these places the subject is the spiritual Church when laid waste as regards the good and truth of faith, and so as regards the understanding part, since, as stated above, the truth and the good of faith exist in the understanding part of the mind of the member of that Church. Anyone may see that in these places ‘the vine’ is not used to mean the vine, nor ‘the land’ to mean the land, but some feature of the Church.
sRef Joel@1 @12 S13′ sRef Hab@3 @17 S13′ sRef Joel@1 @7 S13′ sRef Hos@2 @12 S13′ sRef Joel@1 @6 S13′ sRef Ps@105 @33 S13′ sRef Jer@8 @13 S13′ sRef Joel@2 @23 S13′ sRef Jer@5 @17 S13′ sRef 1Ki@4 @25 S13′ sRef Joel@2 @22 S13′ sRef Micah@4 @4 S13′ sRef Micah@4 @2 S13′ sRef Jer@5 @15 S13′ sRef Zech@3 @10 S13′ sRef 1Ki@4 @24 S13′  In the genuine sense ‘the vine’ means good present in the understanding part, and ‘the fig’ good present in the natural part; or what amounts to the same, ‘the vine’ means good present in the interior man, and ‘the fig’ good present in the exterior man. This being so, when the vine is mentioned in the Word, so also on many occasions is the fig, as
in the following places: In Jeremiah,
I will completely devour them. There will be no grapes on the vine or figs on the fig tree; and its leaf has come down. Jer. 8:13.
In the same prophet,
I will bring upon you a nation from afar, O house of Israel, which will devour your vine and your fig tree. Jer. 5:17.
I will lay waste her vine and her fig tree. Hosea 2:12.
A nation has come up over the land. It has turned My vine into a waste, and My fig tree into froth. It has stripped it completely bare and cast it aside; its branches have been made white. The vine has withered and the fig tree languishes. Joel 1:6, 7, 12.
In the same prophet,
Fear not, you beasts of My fields, for the dwelling places of the wilderness have been made green; for the tree will bear its fruit, and the fig tree and the vine will give their full yield. Joel 2:12, 23.
He smote their vines and their fig trees, and broke to pieces the trees of their borders. Ps. 105:33.
The fig tree will not blossom; neither will there be any yield on the vines. Hab. 3:17.
Out of Zion will go forth teaching, and the Word of Jehovah from Jerusalem. They will sit every one under his vine and under his fig tree, unafraid. Micah 4:1, 4.
On that day you will shout, each to his companion, under his vine and under his fig tree. Zech. 3:10.
In the first Book of Kings,
In Solomon’s time there was peace from all the border-crossings round about, and Judah and Israel dwelt with confidence, every one under his vine and under his fig tree. 1 Kings 4:24, 25.
The fig tree’ means the good of the natural or exterior man, see 217.
sRef Matt@26 @29 S14′  ‘The vine’ may also mean an understanding part that has been made new or regenerated by means of good obtained from truth and of truth obtained from good. This is clear from the Lord’s words addressed to the disciples after He instituted the Holy Supper, in Matthew,
I tell you that I shall not drink from now on of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom. Matt. 16:29.
The good obtained from truth and the truth obtained from good, by means of which the understanding is made new, that is, by which a person is made spiritual, is meant by ‘the fruit of the vine’, while making such one’s own is meant by ‘drinking’. For ‘drinking’ means making one’s own, and is used in reference to truth, see 3168. The fact that this is fully accomplished only in the next life is meant by ‘until that day when I drink it new with you. In My Father’s kingdom’; for ‘the fruit of the vine’, it is quite plain, is not used to mean new wine or matured wine but something of a heavenly nature belonging to the Lord’s kingdom.
sRef John@15 @3 S15′ sRef John@15 @2 S15′ sRef John@15 @1 S15′ sRef John@15 @4 S15′ sRef John@15 @12 S15′ sRef John@15 @5 S15′  Because the understanding part of the spiritual man’s mind is made new and regenerated by means of truth which comes solely from the Lord, the Lord therefore compares Himself to ‘the vine’. He then compares those who are secure in the truth which comes from Him and consequently is His to ‘the branches’, and the good produced by them to ‘the fruit’, in John,
I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinedresser. Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit He takes away, but every one that does bear fruit He prunes, that it may bear more fruit. Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself unless it abides in the vine, neither can you unless you abide in Me. I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I him, he it is that bears much fruit; for apart from Me you cannot do anything. This is My commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you. John 15:1-5, 12.
sRef Num@6 @3 S16′ sRef Num@6 @4 S16′  Because in the highest sense ‘the vine’ means the Lord as regards Divine Truth, and from this it means, in the internal sense, a member of the spiritual Church, ‘a vineyard’ therefore means the spiritual Church itself, 1069, 3220.
 Since ‘the Nazirite’ represented the celestial man – who is regenerated by means of the good of love and not, like the spiritual man, by means of the truth of faith, so that, as may be seen stated above, it is not in the understanding part but in the will part of the celestial man’s mind that the regeneration takes place – the Nazirite was therefore forbidden to eat anything that came from the vine and so was forbidden to drink wine, Num. 6:3, 4; Judg. 13:14. From this also it is evident that ‘the vine’, as has been shown, means the understanding part, which belongs to the spiritual man. For details about ‘the Nazirite’ representing the celestial man, see 3301. From this one may also see that nobody can possibly know why the Nazirite was forbidden anything that came from the vine, and many other things besides, unless he knows what ‘the vine’ means in the proper sense, and also unless he knows of the existence of a celestial Church and of a spiritual Church, and that the member of the celestial Church is regenerated in a different way from a member of the spiritual Church. The former is regenerated by means of seed implanted in the will part, the latter by seed implanted in the understanding part. These are the kinds of arcana stored away in the internal sense of the Word.
 In the human being there exist derivatives from the understanding part that dwells in the light of heaven; and they extend to the senses which dwell in the light of the world. Unless these derivatives existed the senses could not possess any life of a human quality. A person does not owe the life which his senses possess to what he sees by the light of the world, for the light of the world holds no life within it; he owes it to what he sees by the light of heaven, for this light does hold life within it. When the light of heaven falls on the perceptions a person has gained by the light of the world, it brings life to them and enables him to see objects in an intelligent manner, and thus as a human being. In this way a person possessing factual knowledge born from things which he has seen and heard in the world, and therefore from those which have entered in through the senses, comes to possess intelligence and wisdom, on which in turn he bases his public, private, and spiritual life.
 As regards derivatives specifically, the nature of their existence in a person is such that no brief explanation of them is possible. They exist as degrees, like steps, from the understanding part down to the senses. But no one can have any conception of those degrees unless he knows how they are related to one another, that is to say, that they are quite distinct and separate from one another, so distinct that interior degrees can come into being and remain in being without exterior ones, but not exterior degrees without interior ones. For example, a person’s spirit can remain in being without a material body, as it also actually does when death separates it from the body. For a person’s spirit exists in an interior degree, his body in an exterior one. Similarly with a person’s spirit after death. If he is one of the blessed his spirit exists in a final and outermost degree when in the first heaven; in a more interior degree when in the second; and in the inmost one when in the third. When it exists in the inmost it exists at the same time in the other degrees, though these are inactive with him, almost as the human body is inactive during sleep, but with this difference that interiorly angels are at such times fully awake. Therefore as many distinct and separate degrees exist in the human being as there are heavens, apart from the final one, which is the body and the bodily senses.
 From all this regarding a person’s spirit one may gain some idea of the way derivatives are related to one another from the first to the final one, that is, from the understanding part to the senses. A person’s life, which he receives from the Lord’s Divine, passes through these degrees from the inmost to the final one. At every degree there exists a derivative of that life which becomes increasingly general, until in the final degree it is the most general. Derivatives in the lower degrees are merely combinations – or to put it more appropriately, structured forms – of the individual and particular constituents of the higher degrees ranged consecutively, with the addition of the kinds of things drawn from purer nature, and after that from grosser nature, that can serve as containing vessels. Once these vessels are done away with, the individual and particular constituents of the higher degrees, which had received form in those vessels, move back to the degree immediately above. And because in the case of the human being there is a link with the Divine, and his inmost being is such that it can accept the Divine – and not only accept but also make Him its own, by acknowledging and having an affection for the Divine, thus by a reciprocal response to Him – and because he thereby has the Divine implanted within him, he can never die. Indeed what is eternal and infinite exists with him, not only through their flowing into him but also through his reception of them.
 From this one may see how uninformed and senseless in their thinking regarding the human being those people are who compare him to animals and imagine that he will not be alive after death any more than they are. Such people do not take into consideration the fact that with animals there is no acceptance of the Divine or any acknowledgement or affection leading to a reciprocal response to the Divine by making Him their own, or any consequent joining to Him. Nor do those people take into consideration the fact that, as the animal state is like this, the recipient forms of life which these possess are inevitably dissipated; for with animals that which flows into them passes through their organic forms into the world, where it comes to an end and melts away, never to make any return there.
 But in particular it is a person who is being born anew, that is, being regenerated by the Lord, who is called heaven; for during that time Divine good and truth from the Lord, and consequently heaven, are implanted in him. Indeed, like a tree, a person who is being born again begins from a seed, which is why in the Word ‘seed’ means truth obtained from good. Also, like a tree, he brings forth leaves, then blossom, and finally fruit; for he brings forth the kind of things that belong to intelligence, which again in the Word are meant by ‘leaves’, then the kind of things that belong to wisdom, which are meant by ‘blossoms’, and finally the kind of things that are matters of life, namely forms of the good of love and charity expressed in action, which in the Word are meant by ‘fruits’. Such is the representative likeness that exists between a fruitful tree and a person who is being regenerated, a likeness so great that one may learn from a tree about regeneration, provided that something is known first of all about spiritual good and truth. From this one may see that ‘the vine’ in the cupbearer’s dream serves to describe fully in a representative fashion the process by which a person is born again so far as the sensory power subject to the understanding part is concerned. That process is described first by the three shoots, then by the buds that were formed, after that by the blossom, followed by the ripening of the clusters into grapes, and finally by his pressing them into Pharaoh’s cup and his giving this to him.
 Furthermore the dreams which come from the Lord by way of heaven are never anything else than scenes based on representatives. Anyone therefore who does not know what this or that in the natural world represents, more so one who is totally unaware of anything at all being representative there, inevitably supposes that those representatives are merely comparisons such as anybody may use in ordinary conversation. They are indeed comparisons; but they are the kind which are also correspondences and which therefore present themselves as visible objects in the world of spirits while the angels positioned more internally in heaven are talking about spiritual or celestial things belonging to the Lord’s kingdom. Regarding dreams, see 1122, 1975, 1977, 1979-1981.
 These features of the vegetable kingdom owe their existence to the influx of the spiritual world into it; but people who attribute everything to natural forces and nothing to the Divine are in no way able to believe this. Those however who attribute everything to the Divine and nothing to natural forces have the ability to see that every single thing owes its existence to that influx. Not only that, each individual thing also has a correspondence, and because it has a correspondence it is a representative. In the end such people have the ability to see that the whole natural system is a theatre representative of the Lord’s kingdom, thus that the Divine exists within each individual thing, so much so that the whole natural system is a representation of that which is eternal and infinite – eternal because the reproduction of species continues without end, infinite because the multiplication of seeds is unlimited. Such endeavours to reproduce and multiply could not possibly come to exist in each individual thing in the vegetable kingdom if the Divine were not flowing into it unceasingly. This influx is what provides the impulse to reproduce and to multiply; the impulse brings the power to make this a reality, and that power leads to the actual realization of it.
 People who attribute everything to natural forces say that such impulses to reproduce and to multiply were introduced into fruits and seeds when things were first created, and because of the power which they have received from those impulses fruits and seeds ever since then are carried spontaneously into such activities. But those people do not take into consideration the fact that continuance in being is constant coming into being, or what is much the same, that reproduction is creation taking place constantly. Nor do they take into consideration the fact that an effect is the continuation of its cause, and that when a cause ceases to exist so does the effect, and consequently that without constant influx from its cause every effect perishes in an instant. Neither do they take into consideration the fact that anything that is not linked to the first being of all, consequently to the Divine, instantly ceases to have any existence; for to have any being, what is posterior must have what is prior existing unceasingly within it.
 If those attributing everything to natural forces and little, scarcely anything, to the Divine were to take these facts into consideration they would also be able to acknowledge that every single thing in the natural system represents something akin to it in the spiritual world, and therefore something akin to it in the Lord’s kingdom, where the closest representation of the Lord’s Divine exists. This is why reference has been made to an influx coming from the spiritual world; but by this is meant an influx from the Lord’s Divine coming by way of the spiritual world. The reason adherents to naturalism do not take such facts into consideration is that they are not willing to acknowledge them, since they are immersed in earthly and bodily interests and as a consequence in the life belonging to self-love and love of the world. As a result, so far as things belonging to the spiritual world, that is, to heaven are concerned, the complete reverse of true order exists with them; and to view such matters from within a state in which order is turned around is not possible, since higher things are then seen as lower ones, and lower things as higher ones. This also accounts for the fact that, when persons like these are seen in the next life in the light of heaven, they are seen with their heads pointing downwards and their feet upwards.
 Who among these, when he sees blossom on a tree or on anything else that grows, thinks of it as an expression of gladness so to speak that fruit and seeds are now being brought forth? All that such persons see is that blossom comes first and remains until rudimentary forms of the fruit and seeds are formed within it, whereby sap is conveyed into them. If they knew anything about human rebirth or regeneration, or rather if they wanted to know, they would also see in that blossom, because of the similarity there, a representative of a person’s state before regeneration. They would see that because of the good which his intelligence and wisdom desires he is in a similar way blooming, that is, he possesses an inner gladness and beauty, because now he is endeavouring to implant these – that is to say, forms of good desired by intelligence and wisdom – in his life; that is, he is endeavouring to bear fruit. Such persons cannot know about the nature of this state because knowledge of what that inner gladness and inner beauty so represented are does not exist at all with people who feel no gladness other than that which accompanies love of the world and no delight other than that connected with self-love. Worldly or selfish feelings of gladness or delight cause inner ones to be seen as the opposite of gladness and delight, so much so that those persons loathe them. In loathing them they also brush them aside as something worthless or as something that has no actual existence. As a consequence they refuse to accept them, and at the same time they refuse to accept that what is spiritual or celestial is really anything at all. This is how the absurd thinking of the present day which is believed to be wisdom comes about.
sRef Isa@5 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @1 S2′  ‘Grapes’ means the good of the spiritual man, and so means charity. This may be seen from many places in the Word, as in Isaiah,
My beloved had a vineyard on a very fertile hill.* He looked for it to yield grapes, but it yielded wild grapes. Isa. 5:1, 2, 4.
‘A vineyard’ stands for the spiritual Church; ‘he looked for it to yield grapes’ for the good deeds of charity; ‘but it yielded wild grapes’ for the bad deeds of hatred and revenge.
sRef Isa@65 @8 S3′  In the same prophet,
Thus said Jehovah, As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one says, Do not destroy it, for there is a blessing in it. Isa. 65:8.
‘The new wine in the cluster’ stands for truth obtained from good within the natural.
sRef Jer@8 @13 S4′  In Jeremiah,
I will surely gather them, says Jehovah; there will be no grapes on the vine, and no figs on the fig tree. Jer. 8:13.
‘No grapes on the vine’ stands for the non-existence of any interior or rational good, ‘no figs on the fig tree’ for the non-existence of any exterior or natural good; for ‘the vine’ means the understanding part, as shown just above in 5113. When truth and good exist joined together there, ‘the vine’ means the rational, for the rational exists as a result of that joining together. As regards ‘the fig’ meaning the good of the natural or exterior man, see 217.
sRef Hos@9 @10 S5′  In Hosea,
Like grapes in the wilderness I found Israel, like the first fruit on the fig tree, in its beginning, I saw your fathers. Hosea 9:10.
‘Grapes in the wilderness’ stands for rational good not yet made spiritual; ‘the first fruit on the fig tree’ in a similar way for natural good. ‘Israel’ stands for the ancient spiritual Church when it first began, ‘fathers’ here and elsewhere being not the sons of Jacob but those people among whom the Ancient Church was first established.
sRef Micah@7 @1 S6′ sRef Micah@7 @2 S6′  In Micah,
There was no cluster to eat; my soul desired the first fruit. The holy man has perished from the earth, and there is none upright among men. Micah 7:1, 2.
‘Cluster to eat’ stands for the good of charity in its first beginnings, ‘the first fruit’ for the truth of faith at the same stage also.
sRef Amos@9 @13 S7′ sRef Amos@9 @14 S7′  In Amos,
Behold, the days are coming, so that the ploughman catches up with the reaper, and the treader of grapes with him who sows seed. The mountains will drip new wine, and all the hills will flow down with it. And I will bring again the captivity of My people, in order that they may build the devastated cities, and may settle down and plant vineyards, and may drink their wine, and make gardens and eat their fruit. Amos 9:13, 14.
This refers to the establishment of the spiritual Church, which is described in this manner. The joining of spiritual good to its truth is foretold by the statement that the ploughman will catch up with the reaper, and the joining of spiritual truth to its good by the statement that the treader of grapes will catch up with the one who sows seed. The good deeds of love and charity resulting from that joining together are meant by the statement that the mountains will drip new wine and the hills will flow down with it. ‘Bringing again the captivity of the people stands for deliverance from falsities, ‘building the devastated cities’ for the correction of falsified teachings regarding the truth, ‘settling down and planting vineyards’ for a development of what constitutes the spiritual Church, ‘drinking their wine’ for making the truths of that Church one’s own, which truths teach about charity, and ‘making gardens and eating their fruit’ for making one’s own the forms of good derived from these. Anyone can see that building cities, planting vineyards, drinking wine, making gardens and eating their fruit are descriptions of merely natural activities, which but for the spiritual sense would hold nothing Divine within them.
sRef Gen@49 @11 S8′  In Moses,
He washes his clothing in wine, and his garment in the blood of grapes. Gen. 49:11.
This refers to the Lord. ‘Wine’ stands for spiritual good originating in Divine love, ‘the blood of grapes’ for celestial good originating in the same.
sRef Deut@32 @14 S9′  In the same author,
Butter from the herd, and milk from the flock, with the fat of lambs and of rams, the breed** of Bashan, and of goats, with kidney-fat of wheat; and of the blood of the grape you drink unmixed wine. Deut. 32:14.
This refers to the Ancient Church whose good deeds of love and charity are described in this manner. Each particular product referred to means some specific kind of good. ‘The blood of the grape’ means spiritual-celestial good, the expression used for the Divine in heaven, coming forth from the Lord. Wine is also called ‘the blood’ of grapes because wine and blood mean holy truth coming forth from the Lord, though ‘wine’ is used in reference to the spiritual Church and ‘blood’ to the celestial Church. For the same reason wine has also been prescribed in the Holy Supper.
sRef Deut@32 @32 S10′  In the same author,
From the vine of Sodom comes their vine, and from the fields of Gomorrah; its grapes are grapes of poison, they have clusters of bitterness. Deut. 32:32.
This refers to the Jewish Church. ‘From the vine of Sodom comes their vine, and from the fields of Gomorrah’ stands for the fact that the understanding part is occupied by falsities that are the product of hellish love. ‘Its grapes are grapes of poison, they have clusters of bitterness’ stands for the fact that the will part is in the same predicament; for as ‘the grape’ in the good sense means charity, it is therefore used in reference to the will part, though to the will present within the understanding part. The same is true in the contrary sense, for all truth belongs essentially to the understanding, and all good essentially to the will.
sRef Rev@14 @18 S11′  In John,
The angel said, Put in your sharp sickle and gather the clusters of the earth, for its grapes have ripened. Rev. 14:18.
‘Gathering the clusters of the earth’ stands for destroying all existence of charity.
sRef Matt@7 @16 S12′ sRef Luke@6 @44 S12′  In Matthew,
By their fruits you will know them. Do people gather grapes from thorns, and figs from thistles? Matt. 7:16.
And in Luke,
Every tree is known by its own fruit; for people do not collect figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble-bush. Luke 6:44.
The subject here being charity towards the neighbour, it is said that they will be recognized ‘by their fruits’, which are the good deeds of charity. Internal good deeds of charity are meant by ‘grapes’, external ones by ‘figs’.
sRef Deut@23 @24 S13′  The law was laid down in the Jewish Church,
When you enter your companion’s vineyard you shall eat grapes at your pleasure until you have had enough;*** but you shall not put them into your vessel. Deut. 13:24.
This law implies that when anyone is among others whose teachings and religion are different from his own, he is free to learn about and welcome their charitable deeds, but he is not free to adopt the same charitable practices and link them into his own truths. ‘A vineyard’, meaning the Church, describes a place where teaching or religion exists; ‘grapes’ means the good deeds of charity, ‘vessel’ the truth that the Church possesses.
* lit. on a horn of a son of oil
** lit. the sons
*** lit. eat grapes in accordance with your soul, to your satisfaction
 As regards influx, this begins with the Lord and extends continuously through the rational into the interior natural and then through this into the exterior natural; but what flows through undergoes change and is converted according to the way it is received. With those who are not regenerate all good is converted there into evil, and all truth into falsity; but with those who are regenerate all good and truth presents itself there as in a mirror. For the natural is nothing else than a face so to speak that is representative of spiritual characteristics of the internal man; and the face becomes representative when exteriors correspond to interiors. From this one may gain some idea of what is meant by an influx of the interior natural into the exterior natural, and the beginning of reception there.
 It does seem as though things in the world pass by way of the senses into what is present within; but that is an illusion of the senses. The reality is that what exists within flows into what is outward, and that this influx is what enables discernment to take place. I have discussed these matters with spirits on several occasions and have been shown through actual experiences that the interior man sees and discerns within the exterior man what is taking place outside the exterior man, and that the life of the senses has no other origin; that is, neither the ability to perceive with the senses nor actual sensory perception has any other origin. But the nature and power of this illusion are such that it cannot by any means be banished from the natural man, nor even from the rational, unless the rational man can be made to stand aside from sensory impressions. All this has been mentioned to show what reciprocal influx is.
 But there is more to be said about ‘a cup’ mentioned very many times in the Word – about how in the genuine sense it has the same meaning as wine, namely spiritual truth or the truth of faith which is derived from the good of charity, and about how in the contrary sense it means falsity which produces evil, and also falsity which is a product of evil. The reason ‘a cup’ has the same meaning as ‘wine’ is that the cup is the container and the wine the content and therefore the two constitute a single entity, with the result that one is used to mean the other. This meaning of ‘a cup’ in the Word is evident from the following places:
sRef Ps@116 @12 S3′ sRef Ps@23 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@116 @13 S3′  In David,
O Jehovah, You will spread a table before me in the presence of enemies and will make my head fat with oil; my cup will overflow. Ps. 23:5.
‘Spreading a table’ and ‘making the head fat with oil’ stand for being endowed with the good of charity and love. ‘My cup will overflow’ stands for the fact that the natural will thereby be filled with spiritual truth and good. In the same author,
What shall I render to Jehovah? I will take the cup of salvation and call on the name of Jehovah. Ps. 116:11, 17.
‘Taking the cup of salvation’ stands for making the goods of faith one’s own.
sRef Mark@9 @41 S4′  In Mark,
Whoever gives you drink from a cup of water in My name, because you are Christ’s, truly I say to you, he will not lose his reward. Mark 9:41.
‘Giving drink from a cup of water in My name’ stands for imparting the truths of faith from a small measure of charity.
sRef Matt@26 @27 S5′ sRef Matt@26 @28 S5′  In Matthew,
Then taking a cup, and giving thanks, He gave it to them, saying, Drink from this, all of you; for this is My blood – that of the New Testament. Matt. 26:17, 28; Mark 14:27, 24; Luke 22:20.
The word ‘cup’ is used, not wine, because ‘wine’ has reference to the spiritual Church but ‘blood’ to the celestial Church. Both wine and blood however mean holy truth going forth from the Lord, though in the spiritual Church the holiness of faith springing from charity towards the neighbour is meant, whereas in the celestial Church the holiness of charity springing from love to the Lord is meant. The spiritual Church differs from the celestial in that the spiritual is moved by charity towards the neighbour, whereas the celestial is moved by love to the Lord. Furthermore the Holy Supper was established to represent and be a sign of the Lord’s love towards the whole human race and man’s reciprocal love towards Him.
sRef Matt@23 @25 S6′ sRef Matt@23 @26 S6′  Because ‘a cup’ meant that which served to contain and ‘wine’ that which was contained, ‘the cup’ consequently meaning the external aspect of man and ‘wine’ the internal aspect of him, the Lord therefore said,
Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you cleanse the exterior of the cup and of the plate but the interiors are full of pillage and lack of restraint. Blind Pharisee! cleanse first the interior of the cup and of the plate and the exterior will be made clean also. Matt. 23:25, 16; Luke 11:39.
Here also ‘cup’ is used to mean in the internal sense the truth of faith. Cultivating the truth of faith without the good of faith is ‘cleansing the exterior of the cup’, the more so when the interiors are full of hypocrisy, deceit, hatred, revenge, and cruelty; for in this case the truth of faith exists solely in the external man and not at all in the internal, whereas cultivating and embracing the good of faith causes truths to be joined to good in the interior man. Furthermore when the truth of faith is cultivated without the good of faith, false ideas are accepted as truths; this is meant by ‘cleansing first the interior of the cup, and the exterior will be made clean also’.
sRef Mark@7 @8 S7′ sRef Mark@7 @9 S7′ sRef Mark@7 @4 S7′  It is similar with matters recorded in Mark,
There are many other things which the Pharisees and Jews have received carefully, the washing* of cups and of pots, and of bronze vessels, and of beds. Forsaking the commandment of God you keep to human tradition, the washing’ of pots and of cups; and many other similar things you do. You reject the commandment of God, so that you may keep to your tradition. Mark 7:4, 8, 9.
sRef Jer@25 @17 S8′ sRef Jer@25 @16 S8′ sRef Jer@25 @15 S8′  As regards ‘a cup’ meaning in the contrary sense falsity which produces evil and also falsity produced by evil, this is clear from the following places: In Jeremiah,
Thus said Jehovah, the God of Israel, to me, Take this cup of the wine of anger from My hand, and make all the nations to which I send you drink it, in order that they may drink and stagger, and go mad because of the sword which I am going to send among them. So I took the cup from Jehovah’s hand, and made all the nations drink to whom Jehovah sent me. Jer. 25:15-17, 28.
‘The cup of the wine of anger’ stands for falsity that produces evil. The reason falsity producing evil is meant is that as wine can make people drunk and make them of unsound mind, so too can falsity. Spiritual drunkenness is nothing other than unsoundness of mind caused by reasonings regarding matters of belief when a person does not believe anything which he does not apprehend – which unsoundness of mind leads to falsities and to evils that are the product of falsities, 1072. Hence the statement ‘in order that they may drink and stagger, and go mad because of the sword which I am going to send’. ‘Sword’ means falsity at war against truth, 2799, 4499.
sRef Lam@4 @21 S9′  In the Book of Lamentations,
Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom. dweller in the land of Uz; to you also the cup will pass, you will be made drunk and uncovered. Lam. 4:21.
‘Being made drunk by the cup’ stands for being made unsound in mind by falsities. ‘Being uncovered’, or shamelessly laid bare, stands for resulting evil, 213, 214.
sRef Ezek@23 @31 S10′ sRef Ezek@23 @32 S10′ sRef Ezek@23 @34 S10′ sRef Ezek@23 @33 S10′ sRef Ps@75 @8 S10′ sRef Hab@2 @16 S10′  In Ezekiel,
You have walked in the way of your sister, therefore I will give her cup into your hand. Thus said the Lord Jehovih, You will drink your sister’s cup, which is deep and wide; you will be laughed at and mocked, as an ample recipient. You will be filled with drunkenness and sorrow, with the cup of devastation and desolation. You will drink the cup of your sister Samaria, and crush it and crumple the pieces. Ezek. 27:31-34.
This refers to Jerusalem, by which the spiritual aspect of the celestial Church is meant. ‘The cup’ in this case stands for falsity that is a product of evil; and because such falsity lays waste or destroys the Church, the expression ‘the cup of devastation and desolation’ is used.
Stir, stir, surge up, O Jerusalem, you who have drunk from the hand of Jehovah the cup of His anger; you have drunk the dregs of the cup of consternation. Isa. 51:17.
Drink, you also – that your foreskin may be revealed. The cup of Jehovah’s right hand will come round to you, so that disgusting vomit may be upon your glory. Hab. 2:16.
A cup is in the hand of Jehovah; and He has mixed the wine, filled it with the mixed, and poured out from it. But they will suck out the dregs of it; all the wicked of the earth will drink from it. Ps. 75:8.
aRef Matt@26 @44 S11′ aRef Matt@26 @42 S11′  In these places ‘a cup’ also stands for the insanity caused by falsities and resulting evils. It is called ‘the cup of Jehovah’s anger’ and also ‘of His right hand’ for the reason that the Jewish nation believed, as the common people believe, that evils, and the punishments of evils and falsities, had no other origin than Jehovah, though in fact they originate in man and in the hellish crew who are present with him. From the appearance, and from a belief based on it, such statements occur many times; but the internal sense teaches how one ought to understand them and what to believe. On these matters, see 245, 592, 696, 1093, 1683, 1874, 1875, 2335, 2447, 3605, 3607, 3614.
sRef Mark@10 @39 S12′ sRef John@18 @11 S12′ sRef Luke@22 @42 S12′ sRef Mark@10 @38 S12′  Since ‘a cup’, like ‘wine’, in the contrary sense means falsities that produce evils, and also falsities produced by evils, cup, as a consequence also means temptation, for temptation arises when falsity conflicts with truth and therefore evil with good. The word cup is used instead of and in reference to such temptation in Luke,
Jesus prayed, saying, If You are willing, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done. Luke 22:42; Matt. 26:39; Mark 14:36.
‘Cup’ here stands for temptation. Similarly in John,
Jesus said to Peter, Put your sword into its sheath; the cup which the Father has given Me, shall I not drink it? John 18:11.
And also in Mark,
Jesus said to James and John, You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, and to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized? They said, We are able. But Jesus said to them, The cup indeed that I drink you will drink; and with the baptism with which I am baptized you will be baptized. Mark 10:38, 39; Matt. 20:21, 13.
From this it is evident that ‘cup’ means temptation, for temptation comes about when evils use falsities to enter into conflict with goods and truths. ‘Baptism’ means regeneration which, being effected by means of spiritual conflicts, consequently means temptation also.
sRef Jer@51 @7 S13′  In the completely contrary sense ‘cup’ means falsity that is a product of evil among those who are profaners, that is, with whom inwardly the exact opposites of charity are present but who put on an outward show of holiness. The word is used in this sense in Jeremiah,
Babel was a golden cup in Jehovah’s hand, making the whole earth drunken. All nations have drunk of her wine, therefore the nations are mad. Jer. 51:7.
‘Babel’ stands for people with whom there is holiness outwardly but unholiness inwardly, 1182, 1326. The falsity which they veil with holiness is meant by ‘a golden cup’. ‘Making the whole earth drunken’ stands for the fact that they lead those who belong to the Church, meant by ‘the earth’, into erroneous and insane ways. The profanities which they conceal beneath outward holiness involve nothing else than this – their intention to become the greatest and the wealthiest of all, to be worshipped as gods, the possessors of heaven and earth, and so to have dominion over people’s souls as well as their bodies. And the means Used by them is their outward display of respect for Divine and holy things. Consequently they look, so far as their external man is concerned, like angels; but so far as their internal man is concerned they are devils.
sRef Rev@18 @2 S14′ sRef Rev@18 @4 S14′ sRef Rev@14 @9 S14′ sRef Rev@14 @10 S14′ sRef Rev@16 @19 S14′ sRef Rev@18 @6 S14′ sRef Rev@18 @3 S14′ sRef Rev@17 @4 S14′  A similar description of Babel exists in John,
The woman was clothed in purple and scarlet, and covered** with gold and precious stones and pearls, holding in her hand a golden cup, full of abominations and the uncleanness of her whoredom. Rev. 17:4.
In the same book,
It has fallen, Babylon the great has fallen and become a dwelling-place of demons; for she has given all nations drink from the wine of the fury of her whoredom; and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her. I heard a voice from heaven, saying, Render to her as she has rendered to you; in the cup which she mixed, mix double for her. Rev. 18:2-4, 6.
In the same book,
The great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. The remembrance of Babylon the great was established before God, to give her the cup of the fury of the anger of God. Rev. 16:19.
In the same book,
The third angel said with a loud voice, If anyone worships the beast and his Image, he will drink from the wine of God’s anger, poured unmixed as it is in the cup of His anger; and he will be tormented with fire and brimstone. Rev. 14:9, 10.
* lit. baptisms or dippings
** lit. gilded
 With regard to revelations resulting either from perception or from talking to angels through whom the Lord speaks, it should be recognized that people who are governed by good and from this by truth, especially those who are governed by good flowing from love to the Lord, receive revelation as a result of perception. But those who are not governed by good or from this by truth can indeed receive revelations, but not those that are the result of perception, only those which come to them through a voice which they hear speaking within themselves and so through angels from the Lord. This kind of revelation is external, whereas the other kind is internal. Revelation resulting from perception is the kind that angels, especially celestial ones, receive. It was also the kind received by members of the Most Ancient Church, and by some members of the Ancient Church too; but scarcely anyone receives such at the present day. Very many people however, including those who have not been governed by good, have received revelations from conversations [with angels] which did not involve any perception, the same as with those receiving revelations through visions or through dreams.
 Most of the revelations received by the prophets in the Jewish Church were of this kind – they heard a voice, saw a vision, or dreamed a dream. But because they had no perception these were merely verbal or visual revelations which did not involve any perception about what was really meant by them. For genuine perception comes from the Lord through heaven; it fills the understanding with spiritual ideas and leads it, as may be perceived, to think along the lines of, and inwardly to recognize, the true nature of a thing. The source of that power of recognition is not known, but the understanding imagines that it begins within itself and springs from the interconnected ideas it has present within itself. But in fact that power is a dictate coming from the Lord by way of heaven into the interior parts of ones thought regarding the things that are above and beyond the natural and the senses, that is, the kinds of things that belong to the spiritual world or heaven. From all this one may see what revelation resulting from perception is. But the revelation resulting from perception which the Lord, who is represented here by ‘Joseph’, had – which revelation is the subject here in the internal sense – sprang from the Divine within Himself, and so originated in Himself.
 The states of rebirth which each sensory power and every aspect of the natural, as well as every aspect of the rational, pass through have from beginning to end their own progressive stages. When they attain any end they also begin at that point something else that is new; that is to say, they pass on from the end they had been striving to attain in a prior state to the realization of some further end, and so on after that. Eventually order is turned around, so that what has been last becomes first. This is what happens when a person is being regenerated, both in the case of his rational and in that of his natural. While his regeneration is taking place the phases that make up the first state are the stages of a movement from the truths of faith towards forms of the good of charity, when the truths of faith seemingly play the leading role while forms of the good of charity play a secondary one; for the truths of faith have the good of charity as their end in view. Phases like these continue until the person’s regeneration is completed. Once this is completed charity then moves from the final place to the first in the line, and so becomes the point from which new states begin. These states develop in two directions – in an increasingly inward direction and also in a more outward one. Inwardly they move closer to love to the Lord, while outwardly they move closer first to the truths of faith, then to natural truths, and after that to truths as these are perceived by the senses. Then these three degrees of truths are brought into agreement one after another with forms of the good of charity and love present within the rational and so are brought into heavenly order.
 These are the matters that are meant by progressive stages of development and by continuous derivatives even to the final one. Such stages and derivatives are unending in the case of a person who is being regenerated. They begin when he is a young child and continue through to the final phase of his life in the world; indeed they continue for ever after that, though his regeneration can never reach the point when he can by any means be called perfect. For there are countless, indeed a limitless number of things to be regenerated, both within his rational and within his natural. Everything there has limitless shoots, that is, stages of development and derivatives that progress in both inward and outward directions. A person has no immediate awareness at all of this, but the Lord is aware of every particular detail and is making provision for it moment by moment. If He were to stop doing this for a single instant every stage of development would be thrown into confusion. For one stage looks to the next in an unending sequence and produces chains of sequences which never cease. From this it is evident that Divine Foresight and Providence exist in every particular detail, and that if they did not, or did so in a merely overall way, the human race would perish.
Evil-merodach king of Babel, in the year he became king, lifted up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah from the prison-house; and he spoke to him that which was good, and set his throne above the throne of the kings who were with him in Babel. 2 Kings 25:17, 28.
Similarly in Jeremiah,
Evil-merodach king of Babel, in the [first] year of his reign, lifted up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah and brought him from the prison-house. Jer. 52:31.
But when someone was condemned to death the expression ‘lifting up the head from upon him’ was used, as in verse 19 further on which refers to the baker,
In yet three days Pharaoh will lift up your head from upon you.
 This phrase expressing the decision that someone should live or be put to death originated with the Ancients, among whom representatives existed; it originated in their representation of those who were bound in prison or the pit. Because those in prison represented people undergoing vastation beneath the lower earth, 4728, 4744, 5038, ‘lifting up the head’ therefore meant their release from this condition. For when they are released they are raised or brought up from that vastation to heavenly communities, see 2699, 2701, 2704. Being brought or raised up implies advances made towards interior things, for the expression raised up or high is used to refer to things that are interior, 2148, 4210. And because advances made towards interior things are meant, an advance towards heaven is meant, since heaven exists within interior things. Such is the meaning of ‘lifting up the head’. But ‘lifting up the head from upon someone’ meant his condemnation to death, for in this case those who were above the ones in the pit or undergoing vastation were raised up to heaven, while those in the pit were sent down into the nether regions. These things meant by this phrase expressing the decision whether one should live or be put to death are the reason for its usage in the Word. From this it is evident that ‘lifting up the head’ means that which has been decided; and as this is meant, that which has been provided is meant in the highest sense, since the Divine makes provision for that on which He has made a decision.
 A person can easily tell, if he pays the matter any attention, whether sensory impressions occupy the first or else the last and lowest position in him. If he says yes to everything his senses urge or desire and plays down all that his understanding tells him, then sensory impressions occupy the first position. When this is the case that person is carried along by natural desires and is ruled completely by his senses. The condition of a person like this is little different from that of animals, which are not endowed with reason; for animals are carried along by nothing else than their senses. Indeed that person’s condition is worse than theirs if he misuses his power of understanding or reason to lend support to evils and falsities which the senses urge and tend towards. But if he does not say yes to these, but from within himself recognizes that they can mislead him into false beliefs and incite desires for evil in him, and he strives to discipline them – thereby bringing them into a position of subservience, that is, making them subject to the understanding part and the will part which belong to the interior man – sensory impressions are in that case restored to order, to occupy the last and lowest position. When sensory impressions occupy that position, happiness and bliss radiate from the interior man into the delights of the senses and make these delights a thousand times better than they were before. Having no understanding of this, one who is ruled by his senses has no belief in it either; and feeling no other delight than that of the senses, and so imagining that no higher kind of delight exists, he regards the happiness and bliss that can be inwardly present in the delights of the senses as worthless. For what a person has no knowledge of is not thought by him to have any real existence.
 So that people can know what the exterior natural and what the interior natural are like, which make up the exterior man, and from this can know what the rational is which makes up the interior man, a brief reference to them must be made here. From infancy to childhood a person relies solely on his senses, for during those years he is receiving, through his bodily senses, nothing but earthly, bodily, and worldly impressions, which during those years are also the raw material from which he forms his ideas and thoughts. Communication with the interior man has not yet been opened up, except insofar as he is able to take in and hold on to those impressions. The innocence which exists in him at this time is solely external, not internal, because true innocence resides within wisdom. But the Lord uses this – his external innocence – to bring order into what enters through the senses. If innocence did not come to him from the Lord in that first period no foundation would ever be laid down on which the intellectual or rational degree of the mind proper to a human being could be established.
 From childhood to early youth communication is opened up with the interior natural, by the person’s learning about what is decent, public-spirited, and honourable, both through what parents and teachers tell him and through his own efforts to find out about such matters. During early youth to later youth however communication is opened up between the natural and the rational, by his learning about what is true and what is good so far as his public life and private life are concerned, and above all about what is good and what is true so far as his spiritual life is concerned, all of which he learns about through listening to and reading the Word. Indeed insofar as he uses truths to immerse himself in good deeds, that is, insofar as he puts the truths he learns into practice, the rational is opened up; but insofar as he does not use truths to immerse himself in good deeds, or does not put truths into practice, the rational is not opened up. Nevertheless the things he has come to know remain within the natural; that is to say, they remain in his memory, left on the doorstep so to speak outside the house.
 But insofar – during these years and the next period of life – as he impairs the things he knows, refuses to accept them, and acts contrary to them, that is, insofar as he believes falsities and practises evils instead, the rational is closed, as is the interior natural also. But in spite of that, the Lord’s Divine Providence enables communication to remain open enough to give him the ability to understand the good or truth he knows about. But he does not make these his own unless he truly repents and for a long while after that wrestles with falsities and evils. With people however who allow themselves to be regenerated the opposite takes place; for gradually, that is, in consecutive stages, their rational is opened up, the interior natural then becoming ranged in order beneath it, and the exterior natural beneath that. This occurs especially in the period from late youth to adulthood; it also continues in progressive stages to the final period of those regenerating people’s lives, and after that in heaven for ever. From all this one may know what constitutes a person’s interior natural and what his exterior natural.
 The fact that the law of order requires lower or exterior things to serve higher or interior ones is totally unknown to a person governed by his senses. For anyone who relies solely on his senses has no knowledge of what is interior, nor thus of what is exterior in relation to this. He knows about his thought and speech, and about his will and action, and from this presumes that thought and will are interior, speech and action exterior. But he is not aware of the fact that thought based solely on sensory experience, and action based solely on natural impulses, belong to the external man, so that his thought and will are activities of his exterior man alone. He is particularly unaware of this when his thoughts are false thoughts and his desires evil desires. And since in the case of anyone like him communication with his interiors is closed he therefore has no idea of what interior thought is or what interior will is. If he is told that interior thought is based on truth and that interior will is based on doing what is good, he does not begin to understand it. He understands still less if he is told that the interior man is distinct and separate from the exterior – so distinct that the interior man can, from a higher position so to speak, see what is going on in the exterior man – and that the interior man has the ability and power to discipline the exterior, and the ability not to will or think what the exterior man sees as a result of his having false notions and longs for as a result of his having evil desires.
 As long as his external man is in control and reigning he sees none of this. But when not in this state, when for example he suffers any pain or grief owing to misfortune or sickness, he can see and grasp it because the external man ceases at that time to be in control. For a person’s ability or power to understand is always preserved by the Lord, but it is largely obscured in the case of those steeped in falsities and evils, and is always more apparent as falsities and evils become dormant. The Lord’s Divine is constantly coming to a person and bringing him light, but when falsities and evils are present, that is, things contrary to truths and forms of good, the light of the Divine is then either cast aside, smothered, or perverted. Just enough is received, through chinks so to speak, to allow him to think and to speak by the use of ideas received through the senses, and also to think and to speak about spiritual matters with the help of expressions registered in the natural or bodily memory.
 The person with whom the senses have been made subject is called a rational person, but a person with whom they have not is called one ruled by his senses. But whether a person is rational or whether he is one ruled by his senses is scarcely discernible by others; only the individual himself can know, if he examines himself inwardly, that is, if he examines what he wills and what he thinks. Others cannot know from a person’s speech whether he is one ruled by his senses or whether he is a rational person, nor can they know it from his actions, because the life of his thought held within his speech and the life of his will held within his actions cannot be perceived by any of the physical senses. These hear merely the sound he utters, or they see the movement made by his body together with the affection that impels him to make it. One cannot tell whether this affection is artificial or genuine. In the next life however those who are governed by good perceive clearly both what is held within a person’s speech and what is held within his actions, and so perceive the nature of the life within them and where that life has its origin. Yet even in the world several indications exist which enable one to deduce to some extent whether the senses are subject to the rational, or the rational to the senses; or what amounts to the same, whether a person is rational or ruled solely by his senses. Those indications are as follows: If one notices that a person who makes false assumptions is not ready to become more enlightened but casts truths altogether aside, dispenses with reason, and obstinately defends falsities, this is an indication that he is ruled by his senses and is not a rational person. His rational is closed, so that it does not let in the light of heaven.
 Ruled even more by their senses are those who are quite convinced by what is false, for such a conviction closes the rational altogether. It is one thing to make false assumptions, another to be convinced by what is false. Those convinced by what is false do have some light shining within their natural, but this is like the light in winter. When it shines among them in the next life that light is as bright as snow; but as soon as the light of heaven falls on it, it becomes a dull light, the degree and nature of their conviction making it dark as night. The same is also evident in these people while they are living in the world, for during that time they are unable to see the faintest glimmer of truth. Indeed because of the dullness and benightedness due to the falsity of which they are convinced, they see no value at all in truths and laugh at them. To the simple those people sometimes give the impression that they are rational, for by means of that snowy-white wintry light they are able to employ clever reasonings to substantiate falsities and make them look like truths. This kind of conviction exists in many of the learned, more than in every other kind of person, for they have used syllogistic and philosophical reasonings, and finally much factual knowledge to become firmly convinced by falsities. Among the ancients such people were called serpents belonging to the tree of knowledge, 195-197, but today they may be called those who are ruled inwardly by their senses and are devoid of true rationality.
 The main indication that shows whether someone is ruled wholly by his senses or whether he is a rational person exists in the life he leads. By this one does not mean the kind of life that is evident in his words and deeds but the kind that is held inwardly in these. For the source of the life within his words is his thought, and the source of the life within his deeds is his will, both having their origin in his intentions or end in view. The nature therefore of the intentions or end in view present within his words and deeds determines the nature of the life they hold within them, for without the life within them words are mere sounds, while deeds are mere motions. This kind of life is also what is meant when one speaks of life continuing after death. If a person is rational his words flow from right thinking and his deeds from right willing; that is, his words are a product of faith and his deeds a product of charity. But if a person is not rational he can, it is true, make a pretence of acting as one who is rational, and likewise of speaking as one who is such; but no life at all is coming from his rational. For a life of evil closes entirely the path to or communication with the rational, which causes him to be a merely natural person or one ruled by his senses.
 There are two things which not only close that path of communication but also rob a person of the ability ever to become rational – deceit and profanation. Deceit is like a subtle poison which affects the inward parts, while profanation is that which mixes up falsities with truths and evils with forms of good. The two completely destroy the rational. Present with everyone there are forms of good and truth which have been stored away by the Lord since earliest childhood. In the Word these forms of good and truth are called remnants, regarding which see 468, 530, 560, 561, 661, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284; and it is these remnants that deceit poisons and that profanation mixes up with falsities and evils. For what profanation is, see 593, 1008, 1010, 1059, 1327, 1328, 2051, 2426, 3398, 3402, 3489, 3898, 4289, 4601. All these indications show to some extent who a rational person is and who one ruled by his senses is.
 When the senses have become subject to the rational, the sensory powers that serve to form a person’s first mental images receive light which comes through heaven from the Lord; they are at the same time brought into a state of order that enables them to receive that light and agree with the rational. Once they exist in this condition sensory impressions are no longer a barrier that prevents truths from being either acknowledged or seen, for those that are not in keeping with truths are instantly set aside, while those which are in keeping are accepted. Those that are in keeping are now so to speak at the centre and those that are not are on the fringes. Those at the centre are so to speak raised up towards heaven, while those on the fringes are hanging downwards. Those at the centre receive light from the rational, and when they are manifested visually in the next life they look like small glittering stars which radiate light, gradually decreasing, out to the fringes. This is the kind of form that natural or sensory images are being brought into when the rational has dominion and the senses exist subject to it. This is what happens to a person while he is being regenerated, bringing him as a consequence into a state in which truths can be seen and acknowledged by him in abundance. But when the rational is subject to the senses the opposite happens, for in this case falsities are in the middle or at the centre and truths are on the fringes. The falsities at the centre dwell in a certain kind of light, which however is an inferior and deceptive one, like that emitted by a coal fire. Into this there is flowing light on every side from hell. This inferior light is that which is called darkness, for as soon as any light from heaven flows into it, it is converted into darkness.
‘But remember me’ means the reception of faith. ‘When it is well with you’ means when a correspondence exists. ‘And show, I beg you, mercy to me’ means the reception of charity. ‘And make mention of me to Pharaoh’ means communication with the interior natural. ‘And bring me out of this house’ means a release from evils. ‘For I have indeed been taken away by theft’ means that evil caused celestial things to become alienated. ‘Out of the land of the Hebrews’ means from the Church. ‘And here also I have not done anything’ means innocence. ‘For which they should put me in the pit’ means a casting away among falsities.
 This may be illustrated by many aspects of human character. One who is governed by some love, whatever this may be, is thinking constantly about things connected with that love. This is so even when other matters occupy his mind, conversation, or action. This is quite evident in the next life from the spiritual spheres which surround everyone individually. From those spheres alone one can detect what the faith is and what the love is that are present in all who are there, even though they may be thinking or talking about something completely different, 1048, 1053, 1316, 1504-1520, 2489, 4464. For that which governs a person’s whole being produces the sphere surrounding him and reveals to others what his life is. From this one may see what is meant by the statement that one ought to be thinking constantly about the Lord, salvation, and life after death. All who possess faith that is grounded in charity do so, as a consequence of which they do not entertain evil thoughts regarding their neighbour, and that which is just and fair is present in every aspect of their thought, speech, and action; for that which governs the person’s whole being enters every particular aspect of it, both leading it and controlling it. Indeed the Lord holds the mind to those concerns that are charitable and are therefore matters of faith, and in so doing He fits every single thing in the mind into its proper place. The sphere of faith grounded in charity is the sphere which reigns in heaven, for the Lord flows in with love, and by means of love with charity, and as a consequence with truths which are the truths of faith. This explains why those in heaven are said to be in the Lord. The subject in what follows next is the rebirth of the sensory power subject to the understanding part represented by ‘the cupbearer’; and as the rebirth of this is the subject, so also is the reception of faith. Indeed sensory awareness, like the rational, is born again by means of faith, but by faith into which charity is flowing. Unless charity flows into faith and imparts life to it, faith cannot possibly exist throughout a person’s whole being, for it is what a person loves that reigns in him, not what he merely knows and retains in his memory.
 Since it is difficult for anyone to have any conception of the nature of correspondences if he has not previously given any thought to them, a brief statement must therefore be made about them. It is well known from philosophy that the end is prior to the cause, and the cause prior to the effect. To enable end, cause, and effect to follow one another and act as one, the effect must correspond to the cause, and the cause must correspond to the end. Nevertheless the end does not manifest itself as the cause, nor does the cause manifest itself as the effect. Rather, to enable the cause to exist the end must act on the level where the cause belongs, calling on assistant means to help it – the end – to bring the cause into existence; and to enable the effect to exist the cause likewise must act on the level where the effect belongs, by calling on assistant means to help it – the cause – to bring the effect into existence. These assistant means are ones that correspond; and because they correspond, the end can exist within the cause and bring the cause into operation, and the cause can exist within the effect and bring the effect into operation. Consequently the end uses the cause to bring the effect into operation. But it is different when no correspondence exists. In this case the end does not have a cause in which it may exist, let alone any effect in which it may do so. Instead the end undergoes change and variation within the cause, and finally within the effect, according to the form which the assistant means create.
 All things without exception within the human being, indeed all things without exception in the natural creation, follow one another as end, cause, and effect. When these correspond to one another in this way they act as one, for in this case the end is the all in all of the cause, and through the cause is the all in all of the effect. Take for example heavenly love, when this is the end, the will is the cause, and action is the effect. If the three exist in correspondence with one another – that love flowing into the will, and the will into action – they then act as one, so much so through their correspondence with one another that the action is seen as the love. Or take for another example faith grounded in charity. When this is the end, thought is the cause, and conversation is the effect. If the three exist in correspondence with one another – if faith grounded in charity is flowing into a person’s thought, and this into his conversation – they then act as one, so much so that through their correspondence with one another his conversation is seen as if it were the end. But to enable the cause to exist, which is will or thought, the end, which is love or faith, must call on assistant means within the rational mind which must correspond. For without the corresponding assistant means the end, which is love and faith, has nothing to receive it, even though it flows in from the Lord through heaven. From this it is evident that both the interior and the exterior aspects of the human being, that is, his rational concepts, natural ideas, and sensory impressions, must be brought into a state of correspondence so that the Divine can flow in and be received by a person, consequently so that he may be born again, prior to which all is not well with him. From all this one may see that ‘when it is well with you’ here means [when] a correspondence exists.
I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, naked and you clothed Me, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to me. Matt. 25:35, 36.
And in other places the practice of charity is described as acts of mercy done to the poor, the afflicted, widows, and orphans.
 Charity consists essentially in desiring the welfare of one’s neighbour, in having an affection for what is good, and in acknowledging that since what is good is one’s neighbour, those who are governed by good are consequently one’s neighbour, but varyingly so, depending on the amount of good that governs the individual person. Therefore since charity consists in having an affection for what is good, it also consists in feelings of mercy for those in distress. The good of charity holds such feelings within it because it comes down from the Lord’s love towards the whole human race, a love which is ‘mercy’ because the whole human race is in distress. Mercy sometimes seems to exist among the evil who have no charity. But this is a case of pain because of their own suffering; for it consists in a concern for friends whom they identify with themselves, and when those friends suffer, they suffer too. This kind of mercy is not the mercy that belongs to charity but that which goes with friendship based on self-interest, which regarded in itself is the opposite of mercy. That kind of person despises and hates everyone else apart from himself, and so everyone else apart from the friends whom he identifies with himself.
 Unless these latter ideas receive light from ideas present in the interior natural they give rise to illusions, which are called the illusions of the senses. When subject to such illusions a person believes nothing apart from that which is in agreement with them or to which they lend support, as is the situation if no correspondence exists. Nor does any correspondence exist if that person is not endowed with charity, for charity is the means which brings about union because the good of charity contains life from the Lord. That life arranges truths into order, thereby giving charity an outward form, that is, an image in which it can present itself. This form is manifested visually in the next life and is the angelic form itself. All the angels consequently are forms of charity, the beauty of this charity being received from the truths of faith, and the life within the beauty being received from the good of charity.
 From infancy to childhood, and sometimes on into early youth, a person is absorbing forms of goodness and truth received from parents and teachers, for during those years he learns about those forms of goodness and truth and believes them with simplicity – his state of innocence enabling this to happen. It inserts those forms of goodness and truth into his memory; yet it lodges them only on the edge of it since the innocence of infancy and childhood is not an internal innocence which has an influence on the rational, only an external one which has an influence solely on the exterior natural, 2306, 3183, 3494, 4563, 4797. When however the person grows older, when he starts to think for himself and not, as previously, simply in the way his parents or teachers do, he brings back to mind and so to speak chews over what he has learned and believed before, and then he either endorses it, has doubts about it, or refuses to accept it. If he endorses it, this is an indication that he is governed by good, but if he refuses to accept it, that is an indication that he is governed by evil. If however he has doubts about what he has learned and believed before, it is an indication that he will move subsequently either into an affirmative attitude of mind or else into a negative one.
 The truths that a person learns and believes in his earliest years when he is a young child but which later on he either endorses, has doubts about, or refuses to accept, are in particular these: There is God, and He is one; He created everything; He rewards those who do what is good and punishes those who do things that are bad; there is life after death, when the bad go to hell and the good go to heaven, and so there is a hell and a heaven; the life after death lasts for ever; also, people ought to pray every day and to do so in a humble way; they ought to keep the sabbath day holy, honour their parents, and not commit adultery, kill, or steal; and many other truths like these. Such truths are learned and absorbed by a person from earliest childhood; but if, when he starts to think for himself and to lead his own life, he endorses them, adding to them further truths of a more interior kind, and leads a life in conformity with them, all is well with him. But if he starts to disobey them, refusing at length to accept them, then even though outwardly he leads a life in conformity with them, because the law and society expect him to do so, he is governed by evil.
 This evil is what is meant by ‘theft’, to the extent that thief-like it usurps the position held previously by good. With many people it is thief-like to the extent that it takes away the forms of goodness and truth previously there and uses them to lend support to evils and falsities. So far as is possible with these people the Lord removes the forms of goodness and truth absorbed in early childhood from where these are to a more internal position, where – within the interior natural – He stores them away for future use. These forms of goodness and truth that are stored away within the interior natural are meant in the Word by ‘the remnant’, dealt with in 468, 530, 560, 561, 660, 661, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284. But if evil steals the forms of goodness and truth there and uses them to lend support to evils and falsities, especially if it does so by the use of deceit, it destroys those remnants; for in this case it mingles evil with good, and falsity with truth, to such an extent that one cannot be separated from the other; and then a person is done for.
sRef Zech@5 @4 S5′ sRef Zech@5 @1 S5′ sRef Zech@5 @2 S5′ sRef Zech@5 @3 S5′  The fact that ‘theft’ means the kinds of things mentioned above may be seen from the mere use of that word to refer to what constitutes a person’s spiritual life. For the only riches in that life are cognitions of good and truth, and the only possessions and inheritances are the different forms of happiness in life which are gained from forms of good and from truths deriving from these. The stealing of such things, as stated above, is what ‘theft’ relates to in the spiritual sense, and therefore by the thefts mentioned in the Word nothing else is meant in the internal sense, as in Zechariah,
I lifted up my eyes and saw, and behold, a flying scroll. Then he said to me, This curse is going out over the face of the whole land, for everyone committing theft from now on, according to it, will be innocent, and everyone swearing falsely, according to it, will be innocent. I have cast it forth, that it may enter the house of the thief, and the house of him swearing falsely by My name, and may pass the night in his house and consume it, both its timbers and its stones. Zech. 5:1-4.
Evil which takes away remnants of good is meant by ‘one committing theft’ and by ‘the house of the thief’, and falsity which takes away remnants of truth by ‘one swearing falsely’ and by ‘the house of him swearing falsely’. ‘The face of the whole land’ stands for the whole Church, which is why the statement is made that the curse will consume the house, both its timbers and its stones – ‘house’ meaning the natural mind or a person so far as that mind is concerned, 3128, 3538, 4973, 5023, ‘timbers’ the forms of good present there, 2784, 2812, 3720, 4943, and ‘stones’ the truths, 643, 1298, 3720.
sRef Josh@7 @11 S6′ sRef Josh@7 @25 S6′ sRef Josh@7 @21 S6′ sRef Josh@7 @10 S6′  Profanation and a consequent removal of goodness and truth are meant in the spiritual sense by the action of Achan, who took some of ‘the devoted things’ – a mantle of Shinar, two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of gold – and hid them in the earth in the middle of his tent, on account of which he was stoned and everything was burned, as described in Joshua,
Jehovah said to Joshua, Israel has sinned; they have transgressed My covenant which I commanded them, and have taken some of that which was devoted; they have committed theft, have lied, and have put it among their own vessels. Josh. 7:11, 12, 25.
‘The devoted things’ meant falsities and evils, which were not on any account to be mixed with anything holy. ‘A mantle of Shinar, two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of gold’ in the spiritual sense are specific types of falsity. ‘Hiding them in the earth in the middle of the tent’ meant a mingling with things that are holy – for ‘a tent’ means that which is holy, see 414, 1102, 1566, 2145, 2152, 3312, 4128, 4391, 4599. Such was the meaning of the declaration that they had committed theft, lied, and put [what was devoted] among their own vessels; for ‘vessels’ means holy truths, 3068, 3079, 3316, 3318.
sRef Jer@49 @9 S7′ sRef Jer@49 @10 S7′ sRef Jer@49 @8 S7′  In Jeremiah,
I will bring the disaster* of Esau upon him, the time I will visit him. If grape-gatherers come to you, will they not leave grape-gleanings? if thieves in the night, will they not destroy a sufficiency? I will strip Esau bare, I will uncover his secret places, and he will not be able to be concealed. His seed has been laid waste, and his brothers, and his neighbours; and he is no more. Jer. 49:8-10.
‘Esau’ stands for the evil of self-love to which falsities have been allied, 3322. The destruction by this evil of the remnants of good and truth is meant by the statements that ‘thieves in the night will destroy a sufficiency’ and that ‘his seed has been laid waste, also his brothers and his neighbours, and he is no more’. ‘Seed’ stands for truths which are those of faith grounded in charity, 1025, 1447, 1610, 1940, 2848, 3038, 3310, 3373; ‘brothers’ for forms of good which are those of charity, 367, 2360, 2508, 2524, 3160, 3303, 3459, 3815, 4121, 4191; ‘neighbours’ for the adjoining and related forms of truth and good which belong to it.
sRef Obad@1 @5 S8′  A similar reference to Esau occurs in Obadiah,
If thieves come to you, if those who overturn in the night – how you will have been cut off! – will they not steal that which is enough for themselves? If grape-gatherers come to you, will they not leave some clusters? Obad. verse 5.
‘Grape-gatherers’ stands for falsities which are not a product of evil. These falsities do not destroy the forms of goodness and truth – that is, the remnants – stored away by the Lord in a person’s interior natural. But falsities that are the product of evils do destroy them, for they steal forms of truth and good and also use them, through misapplication of them, to lend support to evils and falsities.
sRef Joel@2 @5 S9′ sRef Joel@2 @9 S9′ sRef Joel@2 @7 S9′  In Joel,
A great and mighty people, like heroes they will run, like men of war they will scale the wall; and they will pass on, every one on his way. They will run about the city, they will run on the wall, they will climb into the houses, they will go in through the windows like a thief. Joel 2:7, 9.
‘A great and mighty people’ stands for falsities fighting against truths, 1259, 1260; and because they fight in a mighty way, by destroying truths, they are spoken of as ‘heroes’ and ‘like men of war’. ‘The city’ through which they are said to run about stands for matters of doctrine regarding truth, 402, 2268, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216; ‘the houses which they will climb into’ stands for the forms of good which they destroy, 710, 1708, 2048, 2233, 3128, 3652, 3720, 4982; ‘the windows which they will go through’ stands for intellectual concepts and for reasonings derived from these, 655, 658, 3391. This being so, those falsities are compared to a thief because they usurp the position held previously by truths and forms of good.
sRef Ps@50 @17 S10′ sRef Ps@50 @19 S10′ sRef Ps@50 @18 S10′  In David,
Since you hate discipline and cast away My words behind you, if you see a thief you run with him, and your part is with adulterers. You open your mouth towards evil, and with your tongue you frame deceit. Ps. 50:17-19.
This refers to someone wicked, ‘running with a thief’ standing for his use of falsity to alienate truth from himself.
 In Revelation,
They did not repent of their murders, or of their enchantments, or of their whoredoms, or of their thefts. Rev. 9:21.
‘Murders’ stands for evils which destroy forms of good, ‘enchantments’ for falsities from these which destroy truths, ‘whoredoms’ for falsified truths, ‘thefts’ for forms of good that have consequently been alienated.