4771 – 6021

AC (Elliott) n. 4771 sRef Gen@37 @32 S0′ 4771. ‘And they sent the tunic of various colours’ means the appearances that have been defiled [in this way]. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the tunic of various colours’ as appearances, dealt with in 4677, 4741, 4742, 4768. The defilement of them is meant by the fact that the tunic had been dipped in blood, 4770.

AC (Elliott) n. 4772 sRef Gen@37 @32 S0′ 4772. ‘And brought it to their father’ means comparison with the goods and truths of the Ancient Church and of the Primitive [Christian] one. This is clear from the representation of Jacob, to whom ‘father’ refers here, as the Ancient Church, dealt with in 4680, 4700, and also the Primitive Church, that is, the Christian Church when it first began, dealt with below. ‘Bringing the tunic’ in the condition in which it now was to the Church means in the internal sense bringing about a comparison of falsified goods and truths with the genuine goods and truths of the Church.* The reason Jacob here represents not only the Ancient Church but also the Primitive one – that is, the Christian Church when it first began – is that the two are exactly alike so far as internal features are concerned and differ from each other only so far as external ones are concerned. The external features of the Ancient Church consisted of all the representatives of the Lord and of the celestial and spiritual realities of His kingdom, which are love and charity, and faith derived from these, and so the kinds of things that constitute the Christian Church. When therefore the external features of the Ancient Church, and also of the Jewish, are opened out and are so to speak stripped away from what is present within them, the Christian Church is laid bare. This was also meant by the veil in the Temple being torn apart, Matt. 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45. This explains why Jacob ‘their father’ represents not only the Ancient Church but also the Primitive Christian one.
* The translation here represents what Sw. had in his rough draft and appears in the third Latin edition. The words used in the first and second Latin editions mean the goods and truths of the genuine Church.

AC (Elliott) n. 4773 sRef Gen@37 @32 S0′ 4773. ‘And said, We have found this’ means that this is what they see it to be. This is clear from the train of thought in the internal sense, for the brothers did not say that it was Joseph’s tunic, only that they had ‘found this’ – leaving it to their father to recognize whether it was his son’s tunic. Consequently these words mean that this is what they see it to be.

AC (Elliott) n. 4774 sRef Gen@37 @32 S0′ 4774. ‘Recognize now whether this is your son’s tunic or not’ means whether there was any likeness. This is clear from the meaning of ‘recognize whether this is’ as whether it is like. These words are closely connected with the ones that come both before them and after them. That is to say, they relate to the comparison that was brought about of falsified goods and truths with the genuine goods and truths of the Church, meant by the statement that they brought the tunic which had been dipped in blood to their father, 4772. This explains why ‘recognize now whether this is your son’s tunic’ means that a comparison should be made to see whether it was like, that is, whether there was any likeness.

AC (Elliott) n. 4775 sRef Gen@37 @33 S0′ 4775. ‘And he recognized it’ means, yes, there was; ‘and said, My son’s tunic!’ means that it was the truth possessed by the Church. This is clear from the meaning of ‘tunic’ as the truth possessed by the Church, dealt with in 4677. But because this truth was defiled, it was indeed recognized to be that truth, though not like that of the Ancient Church and the Primitive Christian one. This is why the words of explanation here are ‘yes, there was’.

AC (Elliott) n. 4776 sRef Gen@37 @33 S0′ 4776. ‘An evil wild animal has devoured him’ means that desires for evil annihilated it. This is clear from the meaning of ‘an evil wild animal’ as a lie invented out of a life of evil desires, dealt with in 4729, and therefore as such desires; and from the meaning of ‘devouring’ as annihilating, because it has reference to the truth of the Church. The one great Truth the Church possesses is that love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour are first and foremost, Mark 12:29-31, a truth that evil desires annihilate. For those who lead a life of evil desires cannot lead a life of love and charity since these two kinds of life are complete opposites. A life of evil desires is one in which a person loves only himself and not his neighbour except out of self-interest or for his own sake. People like this therefore annihilate charity among themselves, and those who annihilate charity also annihilate love to the Lord; for charity is the only means through which anyone loves the Lord, and the Lord dwells within charity. An affection that belongs to charity is a genuine heavenly affection, which comes from the Lord alone. From this it may be seen that desires for evil annihilate the one great truth the Church possesses; and once it has been annihilated some other means is invented which is called the way to salvation; and this is faith. When faith moreover is separated from charity actual truths are defiled, for in that case no knowledge exists any longer of what charity is, or even of what the neighbour is. Nor as a consequence does any knowledge exist about the inner essence of a human being, nor indeed of what heaven is. For the essence of a human being, or heaven within him, is charity, which consists in goodwill to others, to his community, to his country, to the Church, to the Lord’s kingdom, and so to the Lord Himself. From this one may deduce what truth possessed by the Church must be like when there is no knowledge of the essential truths and when evil desires reign, standing opposed to these essential truths. When a life of evil desires speaks about them, are not truths defiled to such an extent that they cease to be recognizable?

[2] The truth that no one can be saved unless he has led a good charitable life, and so has acquired affections for that life, which exist in him as goodwill shown to others and as good deeds done to them which are motivated by that goodwill; also, the truth that no one can possibly accept the truths of faith – that is to say, take them in and make them his own – except him who leads a charitable life, have been made perfectly plain to me from those in heaven to whom I have been allowed to speak. Everyone there is a form of charity, the beauty and goodness of that form depending on the nature of the charity. The pleasure, bliss, and happiness of those there flow from their being able – because they are motivated by goodwill – to do good to others. Anyone who has not been leading a charitable life cannot possibly know that heaven and heavenly joy consist in goodwill and in good deeds motivated by that goodwill. To one of his kind heaven consists in goodwill shown to himself, with any good deeds done to others being motivated by this selfish goodwill. But this is in fact hell; for as has been stated, heaven is distinguished from hell in that heaven consists in doing good because one is motivated by goodwill, and hell in doing ill because one is motivated by ill will. Those governed by love towards the neighbour are motivated by goodwill to do good deeds, but those governed by self-love are motivated to do ill ones by ill will. The reason the latter are like this is that they love no one but themselves, and others only insofar as they see themselves in others, and others in themselves. They also hate these others, that hatred revealing itself the moment these go away from them and are no longer part of them. They are like robbers who love one another while they are in league with one another; but at heart they long to kill one another if any spoils can be gained by doing so.

[3] From all this one may see what heaven is, namely love towards the neighbour, and what hell is, namely self-love. Those governed by love towards the neighbour are able to accept all truths of faith, to take them in and make them their own; for love towards the neighbour holds every truth of faith within it since it has heaven within it and the Lord within it. But those governed by self-love cannot possibly accept the truths of faith since hell lies within that love. In no way can they accept the truths of faith apart from doing so for the sake of improving their own positions and for the sake of material gain; thus they cannot possibly take them in and make them their own. What they do take in and make their own are denials of the truth. For in their hearts they do not believe in the existence of hell and heaven, or in the life after death. Nor therefore do they believe anything that is said about hell and heaven, or about the life after death, and so nothing whatever from the Word and from doctrine regarding faith and charity. They seem to themselves to be believers when they take part in worship, but they do so because that state has been instilled into them since early childhood. But as soon as they leave that worship behind them they also leave that state of belief behind them. At this point, now left to think for themselves, they do not have any belief at all; and what is more, the life that their love fires them to lead causes them to think up ideas to justify it. These ideas they call truths, and also back them up from the literal sense of the Word; but they are in fact falsities. This is what all are like who in life and doctrine are adherents to faith separated from charity.

[4] In addition it should be recognized that a person’s love includes everything, for his love determines the life he leads, and therefore only into a person’s love does the Lord enter with His life. As is people’s love therefore, so is their life because so is their reception of it. Love towards the neighbour receives the life of heaven, while self-love receives the life of hell. Thus everything of heaven lies within love towards the neighbour, and everything of hell within self-love. The fact that love includes everything may be illustrated by many observations of nature. All living creatures, not only those that walk on dry land but also those which fly in the air or swim in water, move in response to their own love. Into their love comes whatever is of use to them in the life they lead, that is, to their feeding, housing, and reproducing themselves. Therefore every genus knows its own food, dwelling-places, and mating habits such as pairing off, building nests, laying eggs, and rearing chicks.

[5] Bees likewise know how to build cells, extract honey from flowers, fill honeycombs with it, and make provision for the winter. Indeed they know how to establish a system of government under a single ruler, besides many other remarkable activities. All this is a product of what is entering their love, it being merely the different forms their affections take that lead to the different results their life produces. Their love includes all this. So what would heavenly love include if the human being was governed by heavenly love? Would not the whole of wisdom and intelligence as these exist in heaven be included? From this too it is evident that those who have led charitable lives, these and no others, are accepted into heaven, and that because they have charity they have the ability to accept and take in all truths, that is, every truth of faith. The reverse however takes place with adherents to faith separated from charity, that is, to those who know some truths but have no charity. Their love accepts ideas such as are suited to itself; that is to say, self-love and love of the world accept ideas that are the reverse of truths, the kind that exist in hell.

AC (Elliott) n. 4777 sRef Gen@37 @33 S0′ 4777. ‘Joseph has been torn to pieces’ means that falsities render that truth entirely non-existent. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being torn to pieces’ as being scattered by falsities, or what amounts to the same, falsities rendering it entirely non-existent. They are falsities arising from evils, that is, from evil desires, that are meant here, 4770. Regarding these desires, see what has been stated immediately above in 4776.

AC (Elliott) n. 4778 sRef Gen@37 @34 S0′ 4778. ‘And [Jacob] rent his clothes’ means mourning for lost truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘rending clothes’ as an act representative of mourning for lost truth, dealt with above in 4763.

AC (Elliott) n. 4779 sRef Gen@37 @34 S0′ 4779. ‘And put sackcloth on his loins’ means mourning for lost good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘putting sackcloth over the loins’ as an act representative of mourning for lost good. For ‘the loins’ means conjugial love and from this all celestial and spiritual love, 3021, 3294, 4277, 4280, 4575. This meaning of ‘the loins’ is derived from correspondence, for as all the organs, members, and viscera of the human body correspond to the Grand Man, as shown at the ends of chapters, so the loins correspond to those who are within the Grand Man, which is heaven, and in whom genuine conjugial love has existed. And because conjugial love is the fundamental of all kinds of love ‘the loins’ therefore means in general all celestial and spiritual love. From this arose the custom of putting sackcloth over their loins when they mourned over lost good; for all good belongs to love.

sRef Jonah@3 @5 S2′ sRef Jonah@3 @8 S2′ sRef Jonah@3 @6 S2′ sRef Amos@8 @10 S2′ [2] The fact that people put sackcloth over their loins to testify to this mourning becomes clear from the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word, as in Amos,

I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; so will I cause sackcloth to come up over all loins, and baldness over every head, and I will make it as the mourning for an only-begotten sore, and its end as a bitter day. Amos 8:10.

‘Causing sackcloth to come up over all loins’ stands for mourning over lost forms of good, ‘all loins’ standing for all forms of the good of love. In Jonah,

The men of Nineveh believed in God, and therefore they proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloths, from the greatest even to the least of them. And when word reached the king of Nineveh he rose up from his throne, and laid aside his royal robe from upon him, and covered himself with sackcloth and sat in ashes. And he proclaimed that man and beast were to be covered with sackcloths. Jonah 3:5-8.

Clearly this was a sign representative of mourning over evil on account of which Nineveh was to perish, and so mourning over lost good.

sRef Ezek@27 @31 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @30 S3′ sRef Jer@6 @26 S3′ sRef Lam@2 @10 S3′ [3] In Ezekiel,

They will let forth a cry over you with their voice and will cry out bitterly; and they will cause dust to come up over their heads, and will roll themselves in ashes, and will make themselves bald over you, and will gird themselves with sackcloths. Ezek. 27:30, 31.

This refers to Tyre, each action mentioned here being representative of mourning for falsities and evils and so for lost truths and goods. ‘Letting forth a cry and crying out bitterly’ stands for lamentation over falsity or lost truth, 2240; ‘causing dust to come up over the head’ stands for having been condemned on account of evil, 278; ‘rolling themselves in ashes’ for having been condemned on account of falsities; ‘making themselves bald’ for mourning because the natural man has no truth, 3301 (end); ‘girding themselves with sackcloths’ for mourning because the natural man has no good. Similarly in Jeremiah,

O daughter of My people, gird yourself with sackcloth. and roll yourself in ashes; make mourning as for an only-begotten son, very bitter wailing; for suddenly he who lays waste will come upon you. Jer 6:26.

And elsewhere in the same prophet,

The elders of the daughter of Zion will sit on the ground, they will become silent; they will cause dust to come up over their head, they will gird themselves with sackcloths; the virgins of Jerusalem will cause their heads to come down to the ground. Lam. 2:10.

Here similar representative actions are described which, as above, were appropriate for the types of good and truth which had become lost.

sRef Isa@15 @1 S4′ sRef Jer@48 @37 S4′ sRef Isa@15 @3 S4′ sRef Jer@48 @38 S4′ sRef Isa@15 @2 S4′ [4] In Isaiah,

A prophecy concerning Moab. He will go up to Bayith, and to Dibon into the high places to weep; over Nebo and over Medeba Moab will howl. On all heads there is baldness; every beard is shaved off; in its streets they have girded themselves untie sackcloth; on its roots and in its streets everyone will wail, descending into weeping. Isa. 15:2, 3.

‘Moab’ stands for those who adulterate all good, 2468. The mourning over that adulteration meant by ‘Moab’ is described by the kinds of things that correspond to that type of evil. Virtually the same description therefore occurs in Jeremiah,

Every head is bald, and every beard shaved off; upon all hands are cuts, and over the loins is sackcloth; on all the roofs of Moab and in its streets there is mourning everywhere. Jer. 48:37, 38.

sRef Ps@30 @11 S5′ sRef Isa@37 @1 S5′ [5] When king Hezekiah heard the blasphemous utterances of the Rabshakeh against Jerusalem ‘he rent his clothes, and covered himself with sackcloth’, Isa. 37:1; 2 Kings 19:1. The reason for mourning was that his utterances were directed against Jehovah, the king, and Jerusalem. Their being utterances made in opposition to truth is meant by the king rending his clothes, 4763, and utterances made in opposition to good by his covering himself with sackcloth; for when in the Word truth is dealt with, so also is good. This is so because of the heavenly marriage, which is a marriage of good to truth and of truth to good in every single part; as also in David,

You have turned for me my mourning into dancing; You have loosed* my sackcloth and girded me with gladness. Ps. 30:11.

Here ‘dancing’ has reference to truths, and ‘gladness’ to goods, as they also do in other parts of the Word. ‘Loosing sackcloth’ accordingly means releasing from mourning over lost good.

sRef 1Ki@21 @27 S6′ sRef 2Sam@3 @31 S6′ [6] In 2 Samuel,

David said to Joab and to all the people who were with him, Rend your clothes, and gird sackcloth round you, and wail before Abner. 2 Sam. 3:31.

Because an outrageous act had been committed against that which was true and good David therefore commanded them to rend their clothes and gird sackcloths round them. Something similar occurred in the case of Ahab, for when he heard Elijah’s words that he was to be cut off because he had acted contrary to what was fair and right – meaning in the spiritual sense contrary to what is true and good – ‘he tore his clothes apart, and put sackcloth over his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went about slowly, 1 Kings 21:27.

sRef Rev@6 @12 S7′ [7] The use of ‘sackcloth’ to refer to lost good is also clear in John,

When he opened the sixth seal, behold, a great earthquake took place, and the sun became black as sackcloth, and the full moon became like blood. Rev 6:12.

‘An earthquake’ stands for an alteration in the state of the Church as regards good and truth, 3355. ‘The sun’ stands for the good of love, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 4060, 4300, 4696, and therefore ‘sackcloth’ here has reference to lost good. ‘The moon’ stands for the truth of faith, 1529, 1530, 2120, 2495, 4060, and ‘blood’ has reference to this because ‘blood’ means truth that has been falsified and rendered profane, 4735.

sRef Isa@58 @5 S8′ sRef Isa@58 @6 S8′ sRef Isa@58 @7 S8′ [8] Because ‘being clothed in sackcloth and rolling oneself in ashes’ represented mourning over evils and falsities, it also represented both humility and repentance. For humility begins first with the acknowledgement that in oneself one is nothing but a source of evil and falsity. Repentance begins with the same acknowledgement and does not become a reality except through humility, and humility does not become a reality except through heartfelt confession that in oneself one is such a source of evil and falsity. For ‘putting on sackcloth’ was an expression of humility, see 1 Kings 21:27-29, also of repentance, Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13. But the fact that this was no more than some representative, and so merely an external activity of the body and not an internal activity of the heart, is evident in Isaiah,

Is he to bow his head like a rush and to lie in sackcloth and ashes? Will you call this a fast, and a day of that which is pleasing to Jehovah? Is not this the fast that I choose, to loose** the bonds of wickedness, to break bread for the hungry? Isa. 58:5-7.
* lit. opened
** lit. to open

AC (Elliott) n. 4780 sRef Gen@37 @34 S0′ 4780. ‘And mourned over his son many days’ means a state, namely one of mourning for lost good and truth. This is clear from the representation of Joseph, to whom ‘son’ refers here, as Divine Truth, specifically the truths spoken of above in 4776; and from the meaning of ‘days’ as states, dealt with in 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3785, in this case a state of great mourning since the expression ‘many days’ is used.

AC (Elliott) n. 4781 sRef Gen@37 @35 S0′ 4781. ‘And all his sons rose up’ means those who are governed by falsities. This is clear from the meaning of ‘sons’ as truths and in the contrary sense as falsities, that is, those who are governed by truths or by falsities, dealt with in 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704. Here those governed by falsities are meant because Jacob’s sons or Joseph’s brothers represent those who are adherents to faith separated from charity’ and so who have annihilated Divine Truth and are as a consequence governed by falsities, as shown above.

AC (Elliott) n. 4782 sRef Gen@37 @35 S0′ 4782. ‘And all his daughters’ means those who are governed by evils. This is clear from the meaning of ‘daughters’ as goods and in the contrary sense as evils, that is, those who are governed by goods or by evils, dealt with in 489- 491, 568, 2362, 3024, 3963.

AC (Elliott) n. 4783 sRef Ezek@34 @18 S0′ sRef Gen@37 @35 S0′ 4783. ‘To comfort him’ means to provide explanations based on the sense of the letter of the Word. This is clear from the meaning of ‘comforting’ as calming a turbulence of mind with a hope concerning some thing, dealt with in 3610, in this case a turbulence or mourning over lost good and truth. And because this mourning cannot be subdued except by means of explanations based on the Word, and because reference is being made at this point to Jacob’s sons and daughters, who mean those governed by falsities and evils, 4781, 4782, ‘comforting’ means explanations based on the sense of the letter. For the sense of the letter of the Word contains general ideas which, being like vessels, can be filled with truths or else with falsities and so can be given whatever explanation suits one’s own point of view. And because they are general ones they are also obscure compared with other ideas, receiving light from nowhere else than the internal sense. For the internal sense exists in the light of heaven because it is the Word as angels know it, whereas the sense of the letter exists in the light of the world because it is the Word as men know it before they come to the light of heaven received from the Lord, by which light they are then enlightened. From this it is evident that the sense of the letter serves to introduce the simple to the internal sense.

sRef John@3 @16 S2′ sRef John@1 @13 S2′ sRef John@1 @12 S2′ [2] This use of explanations when one is expounding the Word – explanations which are based on the sense of the letter and which fit in with one’s own point of view – is quite evident from the fact that all religious ideas, including heretical ones, are substantiated by such explanations. For example, the accepted teaching about faith separated from charity is substantiated by the following words spoken by the Lord,

God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that everyone who believes in Him may not perish but have eternal life. John 3:16.

From these words and other places people deduce that eternal life is acquired through faith alone without works. And once these people have become convinced of this they no longer pay any attention to what the Lord said so many times about love to Him, and about charity and works, 1017, 2373, 3934. Thus they pay no attention to the following in John,

As many as received Him, to them He gave power to be sons of God, to those believing in His name, who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. John 1:12, 13.

If they are told that no one can believe in the Lord except him who has charity, they instantly take refuge in explanations like these: The law has been abolished; people are born in sins and so cannot do good of themselves, and those who do do it cannot do other than claim merit for it. These explanations too they substantiate from the sense of the letter of the Word, for example from what is stated in the parable about the Pharisee and the tax collector, Luke 18:10-14, and from other things that are stated. But these statements have an altogether different meaning from the explanations they resort to.

[3] Also, the adherents to faith separated from charity can have no other belief than that everyone is able by grace to be admitted into heaven, no matter what kind of life he has been leading, so that it is not a person’s life but his faith that awaits him after death. This too they substantiate from the sense of the letter of the Word. But from the spiritual sense of the Word it is clear that the Lord has mercy on everyone, so that if a person reached heaven by mercy or grace irrespective of whatever life he has led everyone would be saved. The reason the adherents to faith separated from charity believe the way they do is that they have no knowledge at all of what heaven is because they do not know what charity is. If they knew how much peace, joy, and happiness is present within charity they would know what heaven is; but this is entirely hidden from them.

sRef Luke@23 @43 S4′ [4] Nor can the adherents to faith separated from charity have any other belief than that they will rise again with the physical body, though not until judgement day. This too they substantiate from many places in the Word, explained according to the sense of the letter. They give no thought at all to what the Lord said – many times in addition to the following – about the rich man and Lazarus, Luke 16:22-31, or to what He told the robber,

Truly I say to you, Today you will be with Me in paradise. Luke 23:43.

The reason the adherents to faith separated from charity believe the way they do is that if they were told that the body is not going to rise again they would refuse to believe in any resurrection at all, for what the internal man is they neither know nor have any conception of. Indeed no one can know what the internal man is and the internal man’s life after death is except him who has charity; for charity is an attribute of the internal man.

[5] The adherents to faith separated from charity can have no other belief than that the works of charity consist solely in giving to the poor and helping the distressed. This belief too they substantiate from the sense of the letter of the Word. But in fact the works of charity consist in each person doing what is right and fair in his employment, from a love of what is right and fair, and of what is good and true.

sRef Ezek@34 @21 S6′ [6] The adherents to faith separated from charity do not see anything in the Word apart from what substantiates their own accepted teachings, for they have no real insight. Indeed people who are not moved by the affection belonging to charity have merely external sight, or an inferior insight. With this no one can possibly behold higher things, for higher things are seen by him as darkness. Consequently such people see falsities as truths, and truths as falsities, and so by explanations based on the sense of the letter they ruin the good pasture and pollute the pure waters of that sacred spring which is the Word, as accords with the following in Ezekiel,

Is it a small thing to you? You feed off the good pasture and tread down with your feet the rest of your pastures; you drink the water that has settled down* and stir up the rest with your feet. You butt with your horns all the weak [sheep] till you have scattered them abroad. Ezek. 34:17, 18, 21.
* lit. the sediment of the waters

AC (Elliott) n. 4784 sRef Gen@37 @35 S0′ 4784. ‘And he refused to comfort himself’ means that this was not possible. This is clear from what has now been stated.

AC (Elliott) n. 4785 sRef Gen@37 @35 S0′ 4785. ‘For I will go down to my son, to the grave mourning’ means that the Ancient Church was perishing. This is clear from the representation of Jacob – who says this about himself – as the Ancient Church, dealt with above in 4680, 4700, 4772; from the representation of Joseph, to whom ‘my son’ refers here, as the Divine Spiritual or Divine Truth, dealt with above; and from the meaning of ‘going down to the grave mourning’ as dying, and in reference to the Church, and also to Divine Truth, as perishing.

AC (Elliott) n. 4786 sRef Gen@37 @35 S0′ sRef Gen@50 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@50 @11 S0′ sRef 2Sam@3 @32 S0′ 4786. ‘And his father wept for him’ means interior mourning. This is clear from the meaning of ‘weeping’ as the extremity of grief and sadness, and so as interior mourning. In the ancient Churches the external practices by which, internal things were represented included those of wailing and weeping over the dead. Their wailing and weeping meant interior mourning, although their actual mourning was not interior. One reads the following, for example, about the Egyptians who had set out with Joseph to bury Jacob,

When they came to the threshing-floor of Atad which is at the crossing of the Jordan they wailed there with an exceedingly great and grievous wailing, and he mourned for his father seven days. And the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning at the threshing-floor of Atad, and they said, This is a grievous mourning by the Egyptians. Gen. 50:10, 11.

And one reads about David weeping over Abner,

They buried Abner in Hebron, and the king lifted up his voice and wept at the grave of Abner; and all the people wept. 2 Sam. 3:32.

AC (Elliott) n. 4787 sRef Gen@37 @36 S0′ 4787. Verse 36 And the Midianites sold him into Egypt to Potiphar, Pharaoh’s bedchamber-servant, the chief of the attendants.

‘The Midianites sold him into Egypt’ means that those in whom some truth partnering simple good was present consulted facts. ‘To Potiphar, Pharaoh’s bedchamber-servant’ means facts of a more internal kind. ‘The chief of the attendants’ means those facts which are first and foremost in explanations.

AC (Elliott) n. 4788 sRef Gen@37 @36 S0′ 4788. ‘The Midianites sold him into Egypt’ means that those in whom some truth partnering simple good was present consulted facts. This is clear from the representation of ‘the Midianites’ as those in whom the truth that partners simple good is present, dealt with in 3242, 4756; from the meaning of ‘Egypt’ as facts, dealt with in 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 2588, 4749; from the meaning of ‘selling’ as alienating, dealt with in 4752, 4758; and from the representation of ‘Joseph’ as Divine Truth. When the latter is said to have been alienated – or ‘sold’ to facts, meant by ‘Egypt’ – by those in whom the truth partnering simple good is present, the meaning is that they consulted those facts. For people in whom the truth partnering simple good is present allow themselves to be led away, very much so, by the illusions of the senses, and so by means of facts based on these.

[2] In verse 28 above it was stated that Joseph was drawn out of the pit by the Midianites, who then sold him to the Ishmaelites. From this it would seem that only the Ishmaelites could have sold him in Egypt. Yet he was not sold by the Ishmaelites but by the Midianites, and the reason for this is that the Ishmaelites represent those in whom simple good is present, 4747, whereas the Midianites represent those in whom the truth partnering that good is present. ‘Joseph’ or Divine Truth could not be sold by those who are governed by good, only by those governed by truth; for those governed by good know from good what Divine truth is, whereas those governed by truth have no such knowledge.

[3] Members of the Church fall into two distinct categories – those governed by good and those governed by truth, the former being called celestial, the latter spiritual. Between the two there is a wide difference. Those governed by good are moved by an affection to do good for its own sake and without thought of reward. To them being allowed to do good is itself the reward, for doing good gives them feelings of joy. Those governed by truth however are not moved by an affection to do good for its own sake; rather, they are moved to do it because they have been commanded to do it. For the most part these people do think about reward; and this, as well as boasting about what they do, is what gives them their feeling of joy.

[4] From this it is evident that people motivated by good to do good act from an internal affection, whereas those motivated by truth to do good act from some external affection. From this the difference between the two groups may be seen, namely that the former are internal people, the latter external ones. Those therefore who are internal people are unable ‘to sell’ – that is, to alienate – Divine Truth represented by ‘Joseph’, because good enables them to discern what is true. Neither the illusions of the senses therefore, nor consequently facts, lead them away. But those who are external people are able ‘to sell’ or alienate it because no good is present enabling them to discern what is true. They do know what is true, but only because doctrine and teachers have given them that knowledge. If they consult facts they easily let themselves be led away by illusions, for they have no inner gift to speak to them. This now explains why Joseph was not sold by the Ishmaelites but by the Midianites.

AC (Elliott) n. 4789 sRef Gen@37 @36 S0′ 4789. ‘To Potiphar, Pharaoh’s bedchamber-servant’ means facts of a more internal kind. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a bedchamber-servant’ as things that are more internal, dealt with below, and from the representation of ‘Pharaoh’ as facts – for ‘Egypt’ means knowledge in general, as shown in 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, and so likewise does ‘Pharaoh’ because in the Word what is meant by a land or nation is also meant by its king since he is head of the nation. The reason facts of a more internal kind are meant by ‘Pharaoh’s bedchamber-servant’ is that bedchamber-servants belonged among a king’s more intimate assistants; for they were his more intimate courtiers and higher-ranking officials, as is also evident from the meaning of the word used in the original language.

AC (Elliott) n. 4790 sRef Gen@37 @36 S0′ 4790. ‘The chief of the attendants’ means those facts which are first and foremost in explanations. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the chief (or prince) as that which is first and foremost, dealt with in 14822, 2089. The reason ‘the chief of the attendants’ here means facts which come first and foremost in explanations is that the subject is Divine Truth which was ‘sold’ by those in whom the truth partnering simple good was present, through their consultation of facts. This led to a straying and alienation from Divine Truth, and so to explanations based on the sense of the letter of the Word, 4783. Also, ‘the attendants’ means things that minister.

AC (Elliott) n. 4791 4791. CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE GRAND MAN – continued

IN THIS SECTION THE CORRESPONDENCE OF TASTE AND OF THE TONGUE, AND ALSO OF THE FACE, WITH THAT GRAND MAN

The tongue provides an entrance leading into both the lungs and the stomach, and so represents a kind of forecourt leading to spiritual things and to celestial ones, to spiritual because it serves the lungs and thereby speech, to celestial because it serves the stomach which supplies nourishment to the blood and the heart. For the lungs correspond to spiritual realities, the heart to celestial ones, see 3635, 3883-3896. All this being so, the tongue corresponds in general to the affection for truth, that is, to those in the Grand Man whose affection is for truth, and after that whose affection is for good which is a product of that truth. People therefore who love the Word of the Lord and wish to gain from it a knowledge of what is good and true belong to that province. Yet they differ from one another, in that some belong to the actual tongue, some to the larynx and trachea, some to the throat, some also to the gums, while others belong to the lips. For not even the smallest part of the human being fails to have a correspondence.

[2] I have been allowed on many occasions to learn by experience that those governed by an affection for truth belong to that province understood in the broad sense. On one occasion they plainly entered my tongue, on another my lips; and I have been allowed to talk to them. I have also noticed that some correspond to the more internal parts of the tongue and lips, others to their more external parts. There are some who have an affection for and receive only exterior truths, not interior ones, though they do not reject them. The operation of these I have felt in the exterior but not the interior parts of my tongue.

AC (Elliott) n. 4792 4792. Because food and nourishment correspond to spiritual food and nourishment, taste consequently corresponds to a perception of and an affection for this food. Spiritual food consists in knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom. These are what quicken and also sustain spirits and angels, who desire them and have an appetite for them as men desire and have an appetite for food when they are very hungry. Therefore appetite corresponds to that desire for them. And what is amazing, spirits and angels also grow to maturity on that spiritual food, for those who die as young children do not in the next life look like any but young children, and they are young children too as far as their understanding goes. But as they grow in intelligence and wisdom they cease to look like young children. They now look like those who are coming of age, and at length like adults. I have talked to some who died when they were young children and who looked to me like youths, for by then they had grown in understanding. From this one may see what spiritual food and nourishment are.

AC (Elliott) n. 4793 4793. Because taste corresponds to a perception of and affection for knowing, understanding, and becoming wise, and because a person’s life is contained within that affection, no spirit or angel is therefore permitted to enter a person’s taste, for if the spirit or angel did so he would be entering the life present inherently in that person. Yet wandering about there are spirits belonging to the hellish crew who are more lethal than any others. Because during their lifetime these spirits became addicted to entering a person’s affections so as to cause harm, they also retain that desire in the next life. They endeavour in every way to enter a person’s taste, and once they have done so they take control of him interiorly, that is to say, of the life belonging to his thoughts and affections; for as has been stated, these correspond, and things which correspond act as one. Very many people are under their control at the present day, for at the present day interior obsession takes place, but not exterior obsession as in former times.

[2] Interior obsession is the work of this kind of spirit. The nature of it may be seen if people pay attention to their thoughts and affections, above all to their inward intentions which they fear to reveal and which with some are so insane that if they were not kept in check by external restraints – which are position, material gain, reputation, fear for their life and of the law – they would plunge more than the obsessed themselves into murder and pillage. Who these spirits are, and what they are like, who obsess such persons interiorly, see 1983.

[3] To enable me to know all about it, those spirits were allowed to try and enter my own taste, which they strove to do with utmost endeavour. At that time I was told that if they did indeed penetrate my taste they would also take control of me interiorly, because taste is dependent through correspondence on what exists interiorly. But they were allowed to do it solely to enable me to know all about the correspondence of taste; for they were driven away from there in an instant.

[4] Those lethal spirits attempt above all to dissolve all internal restraints, which are the affections for what is good and true, right and fair; fear of God’s law; and a sense of shame at doing harm to society and one’s country. Once those internal restraints have been dissolved a person is obsessed by spirits of this kind. But if they cannot thus gain entrance to a person interiorly by their persistent effort to do so, they then attempt to enter by the use of magical devices which are many in the next life, totally unknown in the world. By these devices they debase the facts known by the one they possess and use only those which give support to their foul desires. Obsession like this is inevitable unless a person has an affection for good and consequently has faith in the Lord.

[5] I was also shown how those spirits were driven away, namely as follows: When they thought they would penetrate the interior parts of the head and brain, they were removed through the channels there along which waste matter is drained away to the external parts of the skin. Then they seemed to be ejected into a trench full of liquid filth. I was told that such spirits correspond to tiny holes full of filth on the surface of the skin where scabies occurs, so that they correspond to scabies.

AC (Elliott) n. 4794 4794. A spirit, or human being after death, has all the sensory powers he had while living in the world, namely sight, hearing, smell, and touch, but not taste. Instead of taste he has something analogous to it, linked to the sense of smell. The reason he does not have taste is so that he can be prevented from entering man’s taste, thereby taking control of him interiorly. Another reason is to prevent him from being diverted by this sense from the desire to acquire knowledge and wisdom, and so from spiritual appetite.

AC (Elliott) n. 4795 4795. From these considerations one may also see why the tongue is assigned a dual function – that of serving in the production of speech and of serving in the provision of nourishment. For insofar as it serves in the provision of nourishment it corresponds to the affection for knowing, understanding, and becoming wise in truths, which also is why the root meaning of the expression wisdom (sapientia) or being wise (sapere) is taste (sapor); and insofar as it serves in the production of speech it corresponds to the affection of thinking about and bringing forth truths.

AC (Elliott) n. 4796 4796. When angels manifest themselves visually, all their interior affections are seen clearly in their faces and shine out of them, so that the face is the external form and a representative image of those affections. To have any other face than that expressing their affections is not allowed in heaven. Those who deceitfully wear any other face are expelled from that community. From this it is evident that the face corresponds to everything in general present interiorly – both to a person’s affections and to his thoughts, that is, to the affections in his will and to the thoughts in his understanding. This also explains why in the Word ‘face’, whether a singular or a plural noun, means affections; and when it is said that the Lord lifts up His face on someone, the meaning is that out of Divine Affection belonging to His Love He has compassion on him.

AC (Elliott) n. 4797 4797. The changes that take place in the state of their affections are also clearly visible in angels’ faces. When they are in their own community the face they present is their own particular one; but when they enter another community the affections for goodness and truth belonging to this other community bring a change to their faces. Yet their own true face is so to speak the basic surface, which is identifiable within all the changes that take place. I have witnessed the consecutive variations taking place in keeping with the affections of the communities with which they were communicating. For every angel is in some province of the Grand Man and so communicates generally and widely with all throughout the same province, even though he is in one part of that province to which he specifically corresponds. I have seen them bringing variations to their faces by changing from one border-line of affection to another; yet I observed that they preserved the same faces in general, so that the ruling affection shone out in every variation of them. Thus their faces displayed the full range of that entire affection.

sRef Matt@18 @3 S2′ [2] And what was quite astonishing, the changes which affections undergo from young childhood to adult life were also shown by variations in the face. I was allowed to see how much of young childhood was preserved in adult life, and that it was this that gave adult life its essentially human quality. For innocence – the external form of it – is present in a young child, and innocence constitutes that essentially human quality; indeed innocence is so to speak the basic attribute into which love and charity from the Lord can enter. When a person is being regenerated and becoming wise the innocence of infancy which has been external becomes internal. Consequently true wisdom resides in no other abode than innocence, 2305, 2306, 3183, 3994; also, no one can enter heaven except one who has some degree of innocence, according to the Lord’s words,

Unless you become as young children you will not enter the kingdom of heaven. Matt. 18:3; Mark 10:15.

AC (Elliott) n. 4798 4798. From their faces one can also identify evil spirits, for all their desires or evil affections are written on their faces. One can also identify from their faces which hells they are communicating with. For the hells are very many, their genera and species of desires for evil making each one distinct and separate. In general when their faces are seen in the light of heaven they are practically devoid of life, pallid like those of dead bodies – some black, others grotesque. For those faces are forms of hatred, cruelty, deceit, and hypocrisy. But the inferior light in which those evil spirits dwell together deludes them into seeing one another differently.

AC (Elliott) n. 4799 4799. Spirits from another planet which will be described elsewhere were once present with me, whose faces were different from those of people belonging to our own planet. Their faces protruded, especially around the lips; and in addition to this, they were flexible. When I spoke to them about their normal lifestyle and about the nature of their associations with one another, they said that they spoke to one another in particular by means of the production of variations of their faces, chiefly by variations around the lips, and that they expressed their affections by means of those parts of the face which are around the eyes, so that their companions could thereby have a full understanding not only of what they were thinking but also of what their wishes were. They also tried to demonstrate this to me by entering my own lips, round about which they tried to produce various folds and twists. But I could not receive these variations because my lips had not been trained since I was a small child to make such movements there. Nevertheless I was able to ascertain what they said through their communication of their thought to me. Yet the possibility of speech in general being expressed by means of the lips becomes clear to me from the manifold series of muscle fibres which exist in the lips and have become twisted together. If these were unravelled, so that they acted without any entanglements and freely, they would be able to produce many variations there that are unknown to those with whom those muscle fibres lie squashed together.

[2] The reason the speech of the spirits there was as described is that they are incapable of presence, that is, of thinking one thing and expressing another with their face; for they live with one another with such openness that they do not conceal anything whatever from fellow spirits. Indeed these know instantly what they are thinking and what their wishes are, also what kind of people they are, as well as what deeds they have done; for the acts done by those who live in that openness are lodged in their conscience, and therefore others can, when they first see them, discern what their inner countenances or dispositions of mind are.

[3] The spirits showed me that they do not strain their faces but let them move freely, unlike those people who since their youth have become accustomed to put on a presence, that is to say, to speak and act in a different way from how they think and desire. The faces of the latter are kept taut, ready to produce the kind of variation which their artfulness tells them to produce. Anything a person wishes to conceal causes his face to be made taut; and this ceases to be taut and expands when something seemingly open and sincere can be fraudulently displayed there.

[4] While I was reading about the Lord in the New Testament Word, the spirits from another planet were with me as well as certain Christians. I perceived that inwardly these Christians cherished offensive ideas opposed to the Lord, and also that they wished in some quiet way to communicate these. Those from another planet were astonished that they were like this, but I was allowed to tell them that in the world they had not been such in their utterances, but had been in their hearts. There even exist, I added, people like them who nevertheless preach about the Lord. When these do so it is with a pseudo-religious zeal by which they move the common people to emit groans and sometimes to shed tears; yet they communicate nothing at all of what is in their hearts. On hearing all this the spirits from another planet were astounded that such a dichotomy between interior things and exterior ones could exist, that is, between thought and speech. They said they were totally unacquainted with that kind of dichotomy, and that it was impossible for them to utter anything with the lips or to express anything in the face other than that which matched the affections of the heart; and that if it were other than this, they would be torn asunder and would perish.

AC (Elliott) n. 4800 4800. Very few people are able to believe that communities of spirits and angels exist with which every individual part of the human being has a correspondence, and also that the more communities there are, and the more members within any community, the better and stronger is the correspondence. For a multitude having one mind possesses real strength. To enable me to know that this is so, I was shown how they act on and enter into the face, how they do so into the muscles of the forehead, into those of the cheeks, and also into those of the chin and the throat. Those belonging to the province of the face were allowed to enter my face, where in response to their entry variations were produced in every individual part. Some of them also spoke to me. But they did not know that they were assigned to the province of the face, for this province to which they have been assigned is hidden from spirits, but not from angels.

AC (Elliott) n. 4801 4801. Some spirit once spoke to me, whose knowledge of the exterior truths of faith, when he lived in the world, had been greater than others’ knowledge of them. Yet for all that he had not led a life in keeping with the precepts of faith. He had loved only himself, despised others in comparison with himself, and believed that in heaven he would be one of those at the top. But being like this he had been unable to have any other conception of heaven than as a worldly kingdom. In the next life however he learned that heaven was altogether different. Indeed when he learned that those at the top were not people who had set themselves above others, but were in particular people who had considered that they were unworthy of any mercy and so on merit ranked last, he was highly indignant and cast aside the ideas which during his lifetime had been part of his faith. He endeavoured constantly to do violence to those belonging to the province of the tongue, and I was allowed for several weeks to receive a sensation of his endeavour, from which I was also allowed to know the identity and nature of those who correspond to the tongue, and the identity of those opposed to them.

AC (Elliott) n. 4802 4802. There are also spirits who, even though they are evil ones, do to some extent allow the light of heaven to come in and who accept the truths of faith, so that they have some perception of truth. They accept the truths enthusiastically, yet not so that they may live according to them, but so that they may boast about being seen to have more understanding and keen-sightedness than others. For the human understanding is such that it can accept truths, even though none make truths their own except those people who live according to them. Unless the human understanding was like this no one could be reformed.

[2] Those who have been like this in the world, that is to say, have understood truths and yet have led a life of evil, remain the same in the next life. But there they put their ability to understand truths to the misuse of gaining dominion over others; for there they know that in truths they have a means of communication with some communities of heaven, and consequently that they can exist among the evil and be strong; for truths in the next life have power within them. But because their life is one of evil they are in hell.

[3] I have talked to two who during their lifetime were like this. They were amazed they should be in hell even though they had believed very strongly in the truths of faith. But I told them that the light in them by which they understood truths was like that of winter in the world. I said that objects in all their beauty and colours were no less visible than in the light of summer; yet in that winter light everything died off and nothing at all pleasant and delightful showed itself. Then I told those two spirits that because the end they had in view to understanding truths had been their own exaltation and consequently had been a selfish end, the sphere emanating from their ends in view when these rose towards the interior heavens, to the angels there, who perceived solely people’s ends, could not be tolerated and were cast aside. This is why they were in hell.

[4] I went on to say that in former times people of this kind, more than any others, were called serpents of the tree of knowledge; for when life is the subject of their reasoning they speak against truths. They are, what is more, like a woman who has a lovely face but a foul stench, and who is therefore an outcast from society wherever she goes. Like her, when such people in the next life move towards angelic communities they are in actual fact emitting a stench, which even they themselves are aware of when they approach those communities. From this also one may see what faith is when devoid of the life of faith.

AC (Elliott) n. 4803 4803. A matter wholly unknown in the world and worthy of mention is this: The states in which good spirits and angels live undergo constant change and perfection. In this way they are conveyed to the more internal parts of the province in which they dwell, and so into more excellent functions. For in heaven purification takes place constantly, which is so to speak a new creation. Yet the situation is that no angel to all eternity can possibly attain complete perfection. The Lord alone is the perfect One, He being the root and the source of all perfection. Those who correspond to the mouth constantly wish to be speaking, for speaking gives them utmost pleasure. While undergoing perfection they are restricted to speaking nothing but that which is beneficial to companions, the community, heaven, and the Lord. The delight they take in speaking in that way grows in the measure that the desire to regard themselves in what they speak and to strive after wisdom from what is properly their own passes away from them.

AC (Elliott) n. 4804 4804. There are very many communities in the next life which are called friendship-communities. They consist of those who during their lifetime preferred the delight of association with others to any other delight and who loved those with whom they associated, without any interest at all in whether these were good or evil people, provided they gave them delight. Thus they were not ones who befriended what was good and true. Those who have been like this during their lifetime remain the same in the next life; they attach themselves to one another solely because of their delight of association with others. Many such communities have been present with me, though kept at a distance, visible for the most part overhead, slightly to the right. I was made aware of their presence by a dull and sluggish feeling, and by a loss of my own feeling of delight; for the presence of communities such as these leads to this. Indeed when they arrive on the scene they remove others’ feeling of delight, and what is remarkable they make it their own. For they turn away the spirits present with others and direct them towards themselves, thereby transferring another’s delight to themselves. And because such communities are for this reason dangerous and harmful to those governed by good, the Lord therefore holds them back to prevent them going near heavenly communities. From this I was enabled to know how much harm friendship does to someone’s spiritual life if he pays attention to the person but not to what is good. Anyone can indeed befriend another; but most of all he ought to befriend what is good.

AC (Elliott) n. 4805 4805. There are also communities of interior friendship which remove from another and channel to themselves not his external delight but his internal delight, that is, the bliss which his affection for spiritual things gives him. The position of those spirits is out in front, on the right immediately above the lower earth, though some of them are positioned somewhat higher up than the rest. I have spoken on several occasions to those in the lower position, and whenever I did so a general influx from those above took place. During their lifetime they were the kind of people who had a heartfelt love for others in their common fellowship and with brotherly feelings embraced one another. They had believed that they alone were living and in the light, and that compared with themselves those outside their community were neither living nor in the light. Being of this frame of mind they also imagined that the Lord’s heaven was made up of their own few.

[2] But I was allowed to tell them that the Lord’s heaven is boundless and that it consisted of those from every people and language, and that all are in heaven in whom the good of love and faith has existed. I also showed them that those in heaven correlate with all the provinces of the body, both its exterior and its interior parts. But if their minds were set on anything beyond and out of keeping with their life, in particular if they were to condemn others outside their community, they could not receive heaven. For in this case their community is a community of interior friendship which, as has been stated, is such that when they get near others they dispossess them of the bliss which their spiritual affection gives them. They see these people as the ones who are not the elect and as those who are not living; and this thought, when it is communicated, leads to sadness. But in keeping with the law of order in the next life this sadness comes bade to themselves.

AC (Elliott) n. 4806 4806. Correspondence with the Grand Man is continued at the end of the next chapter.

AC (Elliott) n. 4807 sRef Matt@25 @32 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @31 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @33 S0′ 4807. 38

In the preliminary section of the previous chapter, in 4661-4664, an explanation was begun of what, in Matthew 25:31-end, the Lord said about judgement on the good and the evil, who are there called the sheep and the goats. What the internal sense of those words is has not yet been explained, but comes up for explanation now in the preliminary sections of this and a couple of chapters* following it. From these explanations it will be clear that by a last judgement in this parable He did not mean a last phase of the world, when – for the first time – the dead will rise again and will be gathered before the Lord and will be judged, but that He meant the last phase of a person passing over from the world to the next life, this point being his time of judgement. This is the judgement He meant. But none of this is seen from the sense of the letter, only from the internal sense. The reason the Lord spoke in the way He did is that He spoke using representatives and meaningful signs, as He has done everywhere else in the Old Testament Word and in the New. For to speak using representatives and meaningful signs is to speak simultaneously to the world and to heaven, that is, both to men and to angels. This kind of speech, being universal, is Divine and therefore proper to the Word. Consequently, those who are in the world and are interested only in worldly matters grasp nothing else from the words spoken by the Lord regarding a last judgement than the idea that everyone’s resurrection will take place at one and the same point in time, when the Lord will sit on a throne of glory and address those gathered together there in the words used in the parable. But those who are interested in heavenly matters know that each person rises again at the point in time when he dies, and that the Lord’s words in the parable carry the teaching that everyone will be judged according to what his life is, thus that everyone brings his judgement with him because he brings his life with him.
* The Latin means ‘several chapters’, but they are in fact only two.

AC (Elliott) n. 4808 sRef Matt@25 @33 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @32 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @31 S0′ 4808. It will be clear that this is the substance of the internal sense of this passage when each word is explained in line with that sense. But here only those contained in verses 31-33 are to be explained, namely these,

When the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory. And before Him all nations will be gathered, and He will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats; and He will place the sheep at His right hand and the goats at the left.

AC (Elliott) n. 4809 sRef Matt@25 @32 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @33 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @31 S0′ 4809. When the Son of Man comes in His glory means when Divine Truth will be visible in its own light, as happens to everyone when he dies; for at that time he comes into the light of heaven, in which light he is able to perceive what is true and good, and from this the nature of it. ‘The Son of Man’ in the internal sense of the Word is the Lord as regards Divine Truth, and so it is Divine Truth which comes from the Lord; ‘glory’ is intelligence and wisdom that flow from this, which is seen as light, and by angels as brilliant light. This brilliant light that holds within it wisdom and intelligence flowing from Divine Truth that comes from the Lord is that which in the Word is called ‘the glory’. As regards ‘the Son of Man’ in the internal sense meaning Divine Truth, see 2159, 2803, 2813, 3704.

[2] And an the holy angels with Him means the angelic heaven. ‘The holy angels’ in the internal sense are truths which come from the Lord’s Divine Good, for in the Word the expression ‘angels’ is not used to mean angels but things that are from the Lord, see 1925, 4085. Angels are recipients of the life of truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Good; and in the measure they receive it they are angels. From this it is evident that ‘angels’ means those truths. Because the subject here is the state of each person after death, and the judgement of each one according to what his life is, it is said that all the holy angels will be with Him, meaning that the judgement will be effected through heaven; for every influx of Divine Truth takes places through heaven. No one can receive a direct influx.

[3] Then He will sit on the throne of His glory means the judgement, for ‘throne’ is used to refer to the Lord’s kingship, and the Lord’s kingship is Divine Truth, 1728, 2015, 3009, 3670, Divine Truth being the starting-point and the standard of that judgement.

[4] And before Him all nations will be gathered means that every good and every evil of everyone will be disclosed – for ‘nations’ in the internal sense of the Word means forms of good, and in the contrary sense forms of evil, 1259, 1260, 1416, 2588 (end), 4574. Thus it is the showing up in Divine light – that is, in light flowing from Divine Truth – of every good and every evil that is meant by ‘before Him all nations will be gathered’.

[5] And He will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats means the separation of good from evil, for ‘the sheep’ are those in whom good is present, and ‘the goats’ those in whom evil is present. Strictly speaking the expression ‘the sheep’ is used to describe those in whom charity, and faith derived from charity, are present, ‘the goats’ to describe those in whom faith but no charity is present. Both these types of people are referred to here. As regards ‘the sheep’ meaning those in whom charity and faith derived from it are present, see 2088, 4169, and ‘the goats’ those in whom faith but no charity is present, 4769.

[6] And He will place the sheep at His right hand and the goats at the left means a separation into truths derived from good, and falsities derived from evil. Those governed by truths derived from good are also visibly present in the next life on the right, while those governed by falsities are on the left. Consequently being stationed on the right hand and on the left implies an ordering in which life is the determining factor.

AC (Elliott) n. 4810 sRef Matt@25 @32 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @33 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @31 S0′ 4810. From this one may see what these words spoken by the Lord imply and that they must not be understood literally. That is to say, they must not be taken to mean that the Lord is going at some last phase to come in glory and all the holy angels with Him, that He is going to sit on a throne of glory, and that He is going to judge all nations gathered together before Him. Rather, the meaning is that each person will be judged according to what his life is, when he passes over from life in the world to eternal life.

GENESIS 38

1 And it happened at that time, that Judah went down from his brothers, and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite; and his name was Hirah.

2 And there Judah saw the daughter of a man, a Canaanite, and his name was Shua; and he took her and came [in] to her.

3 And she conceived and bore a son, and he called his name Er.

4 And she conceived again and bore a son, and she called his name Onan.

5 And yet again she bore a son, and she called his name Shelah; and he was in Kezib as she was giving birth to him.

6 And Judah took a wife (mulier) for Er his firstborn, and her name was Tamar.

7 And Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and Jehovah caused him to die.

8 And Judah said to Onan, Come [in] to your brother’s wife (uxor) and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her, and raise up seed for your brother.

9 And Onan knew that the seed would not be his; and so it was, when he came [in] to his brother’s wife (uxor), that he spilled it on the ground,* so that he should not provide seed for his brother.

10 And what he had done was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and He caused him to die also.

11 And Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in your father’s house, until Shelah my son is grown up; for he said, In case he also dies, like his brothers. And Tamar went and remained in her father’s house.

12 And the days were multiplied, and Shua’s daughter died, the wife of Judah; and Judah was comforted, and he went up to the shearers of his flock, he and his companion Hirah the Adullamite, to Timnah.

13 And it was pointed out to Tamar, saying, Behold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his flock.

14 And she took off the clothes of her widowhood from upon her, and covered herself with a veil, and concealed herself, and sat in the gate of the fountains, which is on the road to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah had grown up, and she had not been given to him as a wife.

15 And Judah saw her and supposed that she was a prostitute, because she had covered her face.

16 And he turned aside to her at the wayside, and said, Allow me now to come [in] to you; for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, What do you give me for coming [in] to me?

17 And he said, I will send a kid of the she-goats from the flock. And she said, If you give a pledge until you send it.

18 And he said, What is the pledge which I am to give you? And she said, Your seal, your cord, and your rod which is in your hand. And he gave them to her, and came [in] to her; and she conceived from him.

19 And she rose up and went, and took off her veil from upon her and put on the clothes of her widowhood.

20 And Judah sent the kid of the she-goats by the hand of his companion the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand; and he did not find her.

21 And he asked the men of her place, saying, Where is the harlot in the fountains on the wayside? And they said, There has been no harlot there.

22 And he returned to Judah and said, I did not find her; and also the men of the place said, There has been no harlot there.

23 And Judah said, Let her keep [them]; maybe we shall be put to shame. Behold, I sent this kid, and you did not find her.

24 And so it was about three months later, that it was pointed out to Judah, saying, Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed whoredom, and also, behold, she is pregnant owing to acts of whoredom. And Judah said, Bring her out, and let her be burnt.

25 She was brought out; and she sent to her father-in-law, saying, By the man to whom these belong I am pregnant. And she said, Acknowledge now to whom these belong, the seal and the cord and the rod.

26 And Judah acknowledged them and said, She is more righteous than I am, seeing that I have not given her to Shelah my son. And he did not know her ever again.

27 And it happened at the time she was giving birth, that behold, there were twins in her womb.

28 And it happened as she was giving birth, that one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound on his hand a twice-dyed thread, saying, This one came out first.

29 And it happened as he drew back his hand, that behold, his brother came out; and she said, Why have you made a breach upon yourself? And he called his name Perez.

30 And afterwards his brother came out, on whose hand was the twice-dyed thread; and he called his name Zerah.
* lit. wasted [it] onto the earth

AC (Elliott) n. 4811 4811. CONTENTS

The internal sense deals in this chapter with the Jewish Church and the genuine Church. The Jewish Church is described by means of Judah, and the genuine Church by Tamar.

AC (Elliott) n. 4812 4812. His sons by Tamar mean the two essentials of the Church, which are faith and love – Perez meaning faith and Zerah love. Their birth represents the truth that love is in actual fact the firstborn of the Church, and that faith only appears to be this.

AC (Elliott) n. 4813 sRef Gen@38 @1 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @5 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @3 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @4 S0′ 4813. THE INTERNAL SENSE

Verses 1-5 And it happened at that time, that Judah went down from his brothers, and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite; and his name was Hirah. And there Judah saw the daughter of a man, a Canaanite, and his name was Shua; and he took her and came [in] to her. And she conceived and bore a son, and he called his name Er. And she conceived again and bore a son, and she called his name Onan. And yet again she bore a son, and she called his name Shelah and he was in Kezib as she was giving birth to him.

‘It happened at that time’ means the state belonging to the things that follow. ‘That Judah went down from his brothers’ means the descendants of Jacob, in particular the tribe of Judah which was separated from the rest. ‘And turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite’ means a turning to falsity. ‘And his name was Hirah’ means the nature of that falsity. ‘And there Judah saw the daughter of a man, a Canaanite’ means the affection for evil begotten by falsity springing from evil. ‘And his name was Shua’ means the essential nature of this. ‘And he took her and came [in] to her’ means that the tribe of Judah joined itself to these.

‘And she conceived and bore a son’ means that from this came the falsity of the Church. ‘And he called his name Er’ means the essential nature of that falsity. ‘And she conceived again and bore a son’ means evil. ‘And she called his name Onan’ means the essential nature of this. ‘And yet again she bore a son’ means idolatry. ‘And she called his name Shelah’ means the essential nature of this. ‘And he was in Kezib as she was giving birth to him’ means the state.

AC (Elliott) n. 4814 sRef Gen@38 @1 S0′ sRef Gen@37 @26 S1′ sRef Gen@37 @27 S1′ 4814. ‘It happened at that time’ means the state belonging to the things that follow. This is clear from the meaning of ‘time’ as state, dealt with in 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3404, 3938. The state belonging to the things that follow is indeed the meaning of ‘it happened at that time’, because what happened next is recorded in the descriptions that follow. What is more, these descriptions carry on from the train of thought contained in the descriptions that go immediately before them. For the subject in the previous chapter is the sons of Jacob and their selling of Joseph. They were persuaded to sell him by Judah, of whom the previous chapter speaks as follows,

Judah said to his brothers, What profit’ is there in our killing our brother and our concealing his blood? Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites. Gen. 37:26, 27.

The meaning there is that Divine Truth was alienated by the brothers, especially by Judah, who at that point means in the proximate sense the tribe of Judah, and in general the corrupt within the Church who are opposed to all good whatever, see 4750, 4751. A reference back to this is contained in the words ‘at that time’. For now the subject is Judah, his sons by the Canaanite woman, and after these his sons by Tamar his daughter-in-law, all of which in the internal sense describes the tribe of Judah so far as things of the Church established among that tribe were concerned.

[2] As for ‘time’ meaning state, and ‘it happened at that time’ consequently
meaning the state belonging to the things that follow, this is bound to appear quite strange, for the reason that no one can comprehend how the idea of a time can be turned into that of a state; that is, how when reading ‘time’ in the Word one has to understand something to do with some state. But it should be realized that angels’ thoughts are not formed from anything having a temporal or a spatial origin, because they are in heaven. When they left the world they also left behind all idea of time and space and adopted ideas of state, that is, of the state in which good and truth exist. Therefore when a person reads the Word and from this thinks of a certain time and of the things taking place at that time, the angels present with him do not perceive anything to do with a certain time but instead the aspects of a state, to which those things also correspond.
Nor indeed with his interior thought does the reader conceive of a time, only with his exterior thought, as may be recognized from the state when a person’s exterior thought lies dormant, that is, while he is asleep, as well as from many other kinds of experience.

[3] But it should be realized that in general there are two kinds of state – a state involving good and one involving truth. The former is called a state of being (esse), but the latter a state of manifestation (existere), for being is the essential characteristic of good, and the manifestation of this the essential characteristic of truth. Space corresponds to a state of being, time to a state of manifestation. From this it may be seen that when a person reads this statement ‘and it happened at that time’, the angels present with him cannot perceive these words at all in the way that the reader does. Similarly with every other statement, for whatever has been written in the Word is such that among angels it is converted into a corresponding meaning which cannot at all be seen in the sense of the letter; for that which is worldly belonging to the sense of the letter is converted into that which is spiritual belonging to the internal sense.

AC (Elliott) n. 4815 sRef Deut@32 @35 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @34 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @33 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @32 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @29 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @28 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @27 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @31 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @30 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @42 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @41 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @43 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @1 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @44 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @37 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @36 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @38 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @40 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @39 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @16 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @15 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @17 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @24 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @25 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @23 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @22 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @21 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @19 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @18 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @20 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @26 S0′ 4815. ‘That Judah went down from his brothers’ means the descendants of Jacob, in particular the tribe of Judah which was separated from the rest. This is clear from the representation of ‘Judah’ in the universal sense as the descendants of Jacob, and in a particular sense as the tribe called the tribe of Judah; and from the meaning of ‘going down from his brothers’ as being separated from the rest of the tribes, here as a departure into evil worse than theirs. ‘Going down’ implies a decline into evil, since ‘going up’ implies a lifting up to what is good, 3084, 4539. The reason for this is, as also stated already, that the land of Canaan represented the Lord’s kingdom, and Jerusalem and Zion in that land the inmost part of this kingdom. But the regions outside the boundaries of that land represented things outside the Lord’s kingdom, namely falsity and evil. Consequently the expression ‘to go down’ was used when going from Zion and Jerusalem towards the boundaries of the land, but ‘to go up’ when going from the boundaries towards Jerusalem and Zion. This is why ‘going up’ implies a lifting up to truth and goodness, and ‘going down’ a decline into falsity and evil. As the reference here is to the falsity and evil into which the tribe of Judah declined, the expression ‘Judah went down’ is used, and after that ‘he turned aside to a man, an Adullamite’, ‘turning aside’ meaning that it declined into falsity and then into evil.

[2] It is well known that the tribe of Judah was separated from the rest of the tribes. The reason for the separation was so that the tribe might represent the Lord’s celestial kingdom, and the rest of the tribes His spiritual kingdom. This being so, Judah also describes, in the representative sense, the celestial man, and in the universal sense the Lord’s celestial kingdom, 3654, 3881. The rest of the tribes however were referred to by the single term ‘the Israelites’, for in the representative sense Israel describes the spiritual man, and in the universal sense the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, 3654, 4286.

sRef Ezek@23 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @37 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @30 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @31 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @46 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @32 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @47 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @48 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @43 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @49 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @34 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @33 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @11 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @8 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @7 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @35 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @10 S3′ sRef Jer@3 @9 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @12 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @23 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @24 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @25 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @20 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @21 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @22 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @41 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @40 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @26 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @28 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @27 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @42 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @38 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @39 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @15 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @13 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @14 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @29 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @45 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @44 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @36 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @16 S3′ sRef Ezek@23 @17 S3′ [3] The decline of the tribe of Judah into evil worse than that of the rest is the particular meaning of these words – ‘and Judah went down from his brothers, and turned aside’. The departure of the tribe of Judah into evil worse than that of the rest is clear from many places in the Word, in particular in the Prophets, as in Jeremiah,

Her treacherous sister Judah saw when, because of all the ways in which estranged Israel committed adultery, I sent her away and gave her a decree of divorce; yet her treacherous sister Judah did not fear, but she also went and committed whoredom, so much so that with the voice of her whoredom she profaned the land; she committed adultery with stone and wood. Yet for all this treacherous Judah has not returned to Me. Estranged Israel has justified her soul more than treacherous Judah. Jer 3:7-11.

And in Ezekiel,

Her sister did indeed see, yet she corrupted her own love more than she, and her own acts of whoredom beyond her sister’s acts of whoredom. Ezek. 23:11-end.

These, in addition to many others elsewhere, are references to Jerusalem and Samaria, that is, to the tribe of Judah and the tribes of Israel.

[4] Described in the internal sense of this chapter is the way in which that tribe sank into falsity, and from this into evil, and at length into that which was wholly idolatrous. This, it is true, is described in the internal sense even before that tribe was separated from the rest and before it came to be as mentioned above. But that which is contained in the internal sense is Divine, and to the Divine future things are also present ones. See what was foretold about that nation in Deut. 31:16-21; 32:15-43.

AC (Elliott) n. 4816 sRef Gen@38 @1 S0′ sRef Micah@1 @15 S0′ 4816. ‘And turned aside [even] to a man, an Adullamite’ means a turning to falsity. This is clear from the meaning of ‘turning aside’ as a departure into perversity, for turning aside, like going down, is used to refer to a retreat from good to evil, and from truth to falsity; from the meaning of ‘a man’ as one who has intelligence, and in the abstract sense as truth since a genuine understanding is formed from truths, dealt with in 265, 749, 1007, 3134, 3309, but in the contrary sense as one who has no intelligence, and therefore as falsity. This falsity is represented by ‘an Adullamite’, for Adullam was on the border of the inheritance of Judah, Josh 15:35, and consequently meant truth coming from good, as also in Micah,

I will again bring an heir to you, O inhabitant of Mareshah; even to Adullam the glory of Israel will come. Micah 1:15.

But because most things in the Word also have a contrary sense, so also does Adullam, in which case it means falsity coming from evil. The reason most things also have a contrary sense is that before the land of Canaan became an inheritance for the sons of Jacob it was occupied by nations who meant falsities and evils, as it also was subsequently when the sons of Jacob entered into what was contrary. For territories take on the same representations as those of the nations or peoples inhabiting them, in accordance with the essential nature of these.

AC (Elliott) n. 4817 sRef Gen@38 @1 S0′ 4817. ‘And his name was Hirah’ means the nature of that falsity. This is clear from the meaning of ‘name’ and ‘calling the name’ as the essential nature, dealt with in 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421. The nature of the falsity referred to immediately above is what is meant, for names used in the Word, both of places and of persons, mean states and spiritual entities, see 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888, 1946, 2643, 3422, 4298, 4442.

AC (Elliott) n. 4818 sRef Gen@38 @2 S0′ 4818. ‘And there Judah saw the daughter of a man, a Canaanite’ means the affection for evil begotten by falsity springing from evil. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the daughter’ as the affection for good, dealt with in 2362, and in the contrary sense as the affection for evil, 3024; from the meaning of ‘a man’ as one who has intelligence and, in the abstract sense, as truth, but in the contrary sense as one who has no intelligence and as falsity, dealt with just above in 4816; and from the meaning of ‘a Canaanite’ as evil, dealt with in 1573, 1574. From these meanings it is evident that ‘the daughter of a man, a Canaanite’ means evil begotten by falsity springing from evil. What evil begotten by falsity springing from evil is will be stated below.

sRef Num@26 @20 S2′ sRef Lev@20 @12 S2′ sRef John@8 @41 S2′ [2] Here the origins of the tribe of Judah must be stated first, since these are the subject in this chapter. That tribe, or the Jewish nation, has three origins, the first being Shelah, Judah’s son by his Canaanite wife, the second and third being Perez and Zerah, Judah’s sons by his daughter-in-law. The descent of the whole Jewish nation from these three sons of Judah is evident from the list of Jacob’s sons and grandsons who accompanied him into Egypt, Gen. 46:12, and also from the grouping of them into families, referred to in Moses,

The sons of Judah according to their families were: of Shelah, the family of the Shelanites; of Perez, the family of the Parzites; of Zerah, the family of the Zarhites. Num. 26:20; 1 Chron. 4:21.

From this the nature of that nation’s origin is evident; that is to say, a third of them were descended from a Canaanite mother and two thirds from a daughter-in-law. They were all therefore the product of an illicit union, because marriages to daughters of the Canaanites were strictly forbidden – as may be seen in Gen 24:3; Exod. 34:16; Deut. 7:3; 1 Kings 11:2; and Chapters 9 and 10 of Ezra – while lying with a daughter-in-law was a capital offence, as is evident in Moses,

As regards a man who has lain with his daughter-in-law, both of them shall be killed; they have committed perversion;* their blood shall be upon them. Lev. 20:12.

What Judah and his daughter-in-law had done together was linked by him to the law regarding leviratical marriages, which lays down the duty of a brother but never of a father, as is evident from verse 26 of the present chapter. Judah’s linking of their deed together to this law implies that the sons of Tamar were to be recognized as the sons of Er the firstborn, who was born from the Canaanite mother, and who was evil in Jehovah’s eyes and was therefore made to die, verse 7. For initially those born in a leviratical marriage did not belong to the one from whom they had been conceived but to him whose seed was being raised up, as is clear from Deut. 25:5, 6, and also from verses 8 and 9 of the present chapter. Furthermore, the sons whom Tamar bore were the result of whoredom, for when Judah went in to her he thought she was a prostitute, verses 15, 16, 21. From all this one can see the origin of the Jewish nation and what kind of origin this was; and one can see that their words in John were founded on a lie,

The Jews said to Him, We were not born of whoredom. John 8:41.

[3] As regards what that origin implies and what it represents, this is evident from what follows. That is to say, those people’s interiors were the same or had the same origin. Judah’s marriage to a Canaanite implies and represents an origin that consisted in evil begotten by falsity springing from evil, for this is what is meant in the internal sense by ‘the daughter of a man, a Canaanite’. And his lying through whoredom with his daughter-in-law implies and represents condemnation due to truth falsified by evil, for throughout the Word ‘whoredom’ means the falsification of truth, see 3703.** Evil begotten by falsity springing from evil is an evil life resulting from a false teaching hatched by the evil of self-love – that is, by those governed by this evil – and backed up by a use of the sense of the letter of the Word. This is what the origin of the evil in the Jewish nation is like, and what the origin of the evil is like in the Christian world, especially among those meant in the Word by Babel. The nature of that evil is such that it closes every path leading into the internal man, closing every path so completely that no conscience at all can be formed there. For if any evil done by a person is due to a false teaching, he believes that this is good because he believes that it is true. He accordingly does it, because he has warrant to do so, with a sense of freedom and delight. All this being so, heaven is closed so completely against him that it cannot be opened.

[4] As an example to explain what this evil is like, take those who from the evil of self-love believe the following: One nation alone is Jehovah’s chosen people, in comparison with whom all the rest of mankind are slaves. The rest, they believe, are so base that they may be killed at will and may be treated in a cruel fashion. Such ideas, likewise backed up by a use of the sense of the letter of the Word, were the beliefs of the Jewish nation, as they are also of the Babylonish*** nation at the present day. Whatever kind of evil done by the latter that is the result of that false teaching, and of any other false teachings built on that one as their foundation, is evil begotten by falsity springing from evil. It destroys the internal man and shuts out even the possibility of any conscience being formed there. These people are referred to in the Word as those immersed in bloodshed; for they treat in savage ways the entire human race because it does not venerate what they believe and so themselves too, and because it does not present its gifts on their altars.

[5] Take another example – those who from the evil of self-love and love of the world believe in the necessity for someone to act as the Lord’s vicar on earth. They believe that this person has power to open and close heaven, and so to control everyone’s mind and conscience, and they back up this falsity by a use of the sense of the letter of the Word. In their case whatever kind of evil they perform as a result of these ideas is evil begotten by falsity springing from evil, which similarly destroys the internal man in those who are led by that evil to lay claim to that power and so control others. That evil destroys the internal man so completely that people cease to know any longer what the internal man is, or to know of the existence of conscience in anyone, with the result that they cease to believe any longer in a life after death, or in the existence of hell and of heaven, however much they talk about these.

[6] The nature of this evil is such that people in the world cannot tell it apart from other evils; but in the next life angels recognize it quite clearly. For in the next life the countless differences in the essential nature and the origin of evils and falsities are in full view; and it is also the genera and species to which these evils and falsities belong that mark off the hells from one another. Of these countless differences man knows scarcely anything. He believes in the existence of evil but has no knowledge of its essential nature, for the simple reason that he does not know what good is, and does not know what good is because he does not know what charity is. If he knew what the good of charity was he would also know its opposites, which are evils, and also their differences.
* lit. confusion
** Reading 3703 for 3708
*** i. e. Papal

AC (Elliott) n. 4819 sRef Gen@38 @2 S0′ 4819. ‘And his name was Shua’ means the essential nature of this. This is clear from the meaning of ‘name’ as the essential nature, dealt with above in 4817, in this case the essential nature of evil begotten by falsity springing from evil, also dealt with above, in 4818.

AC (Elliott) n. 4820 sRef Gen@38 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @12 S0′ 4820. ‘And he took her and came [in] to her’ means that the tribe of Judah joined itself to these, that is to say, to evils begotten by falsities springing from evil. This is clear from the meaning of ‘taking her’, that is to say, making her his wife, and of ‘coming (or going in) to her’ as being joined together, dealt with frequently already; for in the internal sense marriages represent the joining together of good and truth, because good and truth are the source of them, 2727-2759. But in the contrary sense marriages represent the joining together of evil and falsity, in this case the joining of the tribe of Judah to these; for what is said here refers to Judah who, as seen above in 4815, means the tribe named after him. It is not said that he took her as his wife, only ‘he took her and came [in] to her’. This wording is used because the coupling was an illicit one, 4818, and also because, without actually saying so, it points out that the union was not a marriage but whoredom, and thus that the sons born from her were also the result of whoredom. The fact that after this she is called his wife – in the words ‘And the days were multiplied, and Shua’s daughter died, the wife of Judah’, verse 12 – will be discussed below.

AC (Elliott) n. 4821 sRef Gen@38 @7 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @3 S0′ 4821. ‘And she conceived and bore a son’ means that from this came the falsity of the Church. This is clear from the meaning of ‘conceiving and bearing’ as acknowledging in faith and action, dealt with in 3905, 3915, 3919, and from the meaning of ‘a son’ as the truth of the Church, but in the contrary sense falsity, dealt with in 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373, 4257. Consequently ‘she conceived and bore a son’ here means that the Church among the tribe of Judah acknowledged falsity in faith and action. The reason this son means the falsity of the Church is that he was the firstborn, and in the Ancient Churches ‘the firstborn’ meant the truth of faith, 352, 3325, and so in the contrary sense falsity, which was also the meaning of the firstborn among men and the firstborn among beasts in Egypt, 3325. The fact that truth is not meant but falsity is evident from what follows shortly, for in verse 7 it says, ‘Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and Jehovah caused him to die’. Er, this son’s name, also implies the particular nature of this falsity, even as Onan, his second son’s name, implies the particular nature of that meant by him, namely what is wrong or evil.

AC (Elliott) n. 4822 sRef Gen@38 @3 S0′ 4822. ‘And he called his name Er’ means the essential nature of that falsity. This is clear from the meaning of ‘calling the name’ as the essential nature, dealt with in 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421, namely the nature of the falsity of the Church, dealt with immediately above in 4821. The expression ‘the nature of the falsity’ is used because falsities differ from one another, even as truths do, so much so that the different types of falsity can hardly be counted; and each type of falsity has its own specific nature by which it is distinguished from any other. Common falsities reign among the wicked in every Church, but each person’s falsity varies in keeping with the life he leads. The falsity which existed in the Jewish Church and is referred to here was falsity springing from the evil of self-love and of love of the world based on this, see 4818.

AC (Elliott) n. 4823 sRef Gen@38 @4 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @9 S1′ sRef Gen@38 @10 S1′ 4823. ‘And she conceived again and bore a son’ means evil. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a son’ as truth and also good, dealt with in 264, and so in the contrary sense as falsity and also evil, though evil that arises out of falsity. Essentially this kind of evil is falsity, because it has its origin in this. For anyone who does what is evil arising out of false teaching does what is false; but because this falsity is realized in action it is called evil. The meaning which the firstborn carries of falsity and consequent evil is evident from the statement made here regarding this [second] son, to the effect that in action he did what was evil. The actual words are ‘he spilled his seed on the ground, so that he should not provide seed for his brother; and what he had done was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and He caused him to die also’, verses 9, 10. The fact that this evil arose out of falsity is also evident at that point. What is more, in the ancient Churches the secondborn meant the truth of faith realized in action; therefore the second son here means falsity realized in action, which is evil. It may also be recognized that evil is meant by this son from the fact that the firstborn was named Er by his father or Judah, but this son, Onan, by his mother, the daughter of Shua, as may be seen in the original language. For ‘man’ in the Word means falsity and his wife (mulier) evil, see 915, 2517, 4510; and so also does ‘the daughter of Shua’ mean evil, 4818, 4819. Therefore because he was given his name by his father, ‘Er’ means falsity; and because Onan was given his name by his mother, evil is meant by him. Thus the first was so to speak the father’s son, the second so to speak the mother’s son.

[2] In the Word the expression ‘man and wife’ (vir et uxor) is used many times, as also is ‘husband and wife’ (maritus et uxor). When ‘man and wife’ is used, ‘man’ means truth and ‘wife’ good; or in the contrary sense ‘men’ means falsity and ‘wife’ evil. But when ‘husband and wife’ is used, ‘husband’ means good and ‘wife’ truth; or in the contrary sense ‘husband’ means evil and ‘wife’ falsity. The reason underlying this arcanum is this In the celestial Church good resided with the husband and the truth of that good with the wife; but in the spiritual Church truth resided with the man and the good of that truth with the wife: Such is and was the actual relationship between the two, for in human beings interior things have undergone this reversal. This is the reason why in the Word, when celestial good and celestial truth from this are the subject, they are called ‘husband and wife’, but when spiritual good and spiritual truth from this are dealt with, these are called ‘man and wife’, or rather ‘man and woman’ (vir et mulier). From this, as well as from the actual expressions used, one can come to know which kind of good and which kind of truth are being dealt with in the internal sense of the Word.

[3] Here also is the reason why it has been stated already in various places that marriages represent the joining of good to truth, and of truth to good. Furthermore conjugial love has its origin in these two joined together. Among celestial people conjugial love has its origin in good joined to truth, but among spiritual people in truth joined to good. Marriages also correspond in actual fact to these joinings together. From all this one may see what is implied by the father giving the first son his name, but the mother giving the second and also the third sons theirs, as is clear from the original language. The father named the first son because the first son meant falsity, while the mother named the second son because the second son meant evil.

AC (Elliott) n. 4824 sRef Gen@38 @4 S0′ 4824. ‘And she called his name Onan’ means the essential nature of this, that is to say, of the evil referred to immediately above in 4823. This is clear from the meaning of ‘calling the name’ as the essential nature, dealt with in 4822. ‘Onan’ means and implies the nature of that evil.

AC (Elliott) n. 4825 sRef Gen@38 @5 S0′ 4825. ‘And yet again she bore a son’ means idolatry. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a son’ in this case as idolatry; for those born before him meant falsity and evil, 4821, 4823. From this it follows that the third son means idolatry, for these two – falsity and evil – lead to idolatry and are contained within it. Of the three born to Judah by the Canaanite this son was the only one to survive, a third of the Jewish nation being descended from him. The meaning in the internal sense at this point is that this nation sprang from idolatry. Its very strong inclination to idolatrous practice is clear from the historical and the prophetical parts – from the sense of the letter – of the Word; and from its internal sense it is evident that this nation was constantly an idolatrous one. For idolatry consists not only in the worship of idols and graven images, and also the worship of other gods, but even in the worship of external things devoid of internal ones. This kind of idolatrous practice existed constantly among that nation, for they revered external things alone and cast internal ones completely aside, and did not even wish to know about them. They indeed had holy things – such as the Tent of Meeting containing the Ark and the Mercy seat on this, the tables with the loaves on them, the lampstand, and incenses; and outside the Tent there was the altar on which they presented burnt offerings and sacrifices. All these things were called holy, while the inmost part there was called the Holy of Holies, as well as the Sanctuary. Also, there were the vestments they had which were worn by Aaron and their high priests, which were referred to as holy vestments, for these included the ephod and the breastplate where the Urim and Thummin were, besides much else. But these things were not inherently holy; they were holy because they were representative of holy things, that is to say, they were representative of the Divine celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom, and representative of the Lord Himself. Still less was the holiness of those things due to the people among whom they existed, for those people had no affection at all for the internal things that were represented, only for external ones; and having an affection for external things alone is idolatry. This involves the worship of wood and stone, and also of gold and silver covering these, from a delusion that those objects are inherently holy. This is what the nation was like then and is also like at the present day.

[2] Yet a representative of the Church was nevertheless able to exist among such people because in that which is representative no attention is paid to the person who represents, only to whatever is represented, see 665, 1097 (end), 3670, 4208, 4281, 4288. Consequently their worship did not lead them to blessing and happiness in the next life, but merely to worldly prosperity, provided they adhered to those representatives and did not turn aside to the idols of the gentiles, and in so doing did not become openly idolatrous. For if they did it was no longer possible for that nation to represent anything at all of the Church. This then is what the idolatry, meant by Judah’s third son by his Canaanite wife, is describing. This idolatry among that nation had its origin in internal idolatry, for more than all others this nation was governed by self-love and love of the world, 4459 (end), 4570. Among those governed by self-love and love of the world internal idolatry exists, for they worship themselves and they worship the world. They pay attention to holy things for the sake of personal adoration and gain; that is, they have a selfish end in view, and do not have the Lord’s Church and kingdom, and so the Lord Himself, in view.

AC (Elliott) n. 4826 sRef Gen@38 @5 S0′ 4826. ‘And she called his name Shelah’ means the essential nature of this. This is clear from the meaning of ‘calling the name’ as the essential nature, dealt with above where Judah’s first two sons, Er and Onan, are dealt with, 4822, 4824. The essential nature of that idolatry is meant by Shelah, for there are many kinds of idolatry. There is external idolatry and there is internal; and in general both involve the worship of falsity and evil.

AC (Elliott) n. 4827 sRef Gen@38 @5 S0′ 4827. ‘And he was in Kezib as she was giving birth to him’ means the state. This is clear from the meaning of ‘Kezib’ as the state, namely that of idolatry meant by ‘Shelah’ which existed among the Jewish nation, and from the meaning of ‘giving birth’ as being joined in action, dealt with in 3905, 3915, 3919. And because it was joined to the evil present in that idolatry, it is said that ‘she’ called his name Shelah, as is evident from the original language; for ‘she’ – the daughter of Shua – means evil begotten by falsity springing from evil, 4818, 4819.

AC (Elliott) n. 4828 sRef Gen@38 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @7 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @9 S0′ 4828. Verses 6-10 And Judah took a wife (mulier) for Er his firstborn, and her name was Tamar. And Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and Jehovah caused him to die. And Judah said to Onan, Come [in] to your brother’s wife (uxor) and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her, and raise up seed for your brother. And Onan knew that the seed would not be his; and so it was, when he came [in] to his brother’s wife (uxor), that he spilled it on the ground,* so that he should not provide seed for his brother. And what he had done was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and He caused him to die also.

‘Judah took a wife’ means the Church which was for his descendants. ‘For Er his firstborn’ means falsity of faith. ‘And her name was Tamar’ means the essential nature of the Church – a Church representative of spiritual and celestial things. ‘And Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah’ means that it was immersed in falsity springing from evil. ‘And Jehovah caused him to die’ means that there was no representative of the Church. ‘And Judah said to Onan’ means so as to preserve a representative of the Church. ‘Come [in] to your brother’s wife and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her’ means that that representative might be continued. ‘And raise up seed for your brother’ means so that the Church does not perish. ‘And Onan knew that the seed would not be his’ means a loathing and hatred. ‘And so it was, when he came [in] to his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground’ means the reverse of conjugial love. ‘So that he should not provide seed for his brother’ means that this being so there was no continuation. ‘And what he had done was evil in the eyes of Jehovah’ means that it was contrary to Divine order. ‘And He caused him to die also’ means that again there was no representative of the Church.
* lit. wasted [it] onto the earth

AC (Elliott) n. 4829 sRef Gen@38 @6 S0′ 4829. ‘Judah took a wife’ means the Church which was for his descendants. This is clear from the representation of Tamar, to whom ‘a wife’ refers here, as the Church, dealt with below. Its being for his descendants is meant by the fact that he took her for Er his firstborn, so as to have descendants from them.

AC (Elliott) n. 4830 sRef Gen@38 @6 S0′ 4830. ‘For Er his firstborn’ means falsity of faith. This is clear from the representation of ‘Er’ as falsity, dealt with in 4821, 4822, and from the meaning of ‘firstborn’ as faith, dealt with in 352, 3325, 4821.

AC (Elliott) n. 4831 sRef Gen@38 @6 S0′ 4831. ‘And her name was Tamar’ means the essential nature of the Church – a Church representative of spiritual and celestial things. This is clear from the meaning of ‘name’ as the essential nature, dealt with in 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421, in this case the essential nature of the Church because Tamar in this chapter represents the Church, in particular the Church representative of spiritual and celestial things which was to be established among the descendants of Judah. Tamar’s representation of that Church is evident from what follows. This whole chapter deals in the internal sense with the Jewish Church, with how it was intended to become a Church representative of the spiritual and celestial things of the Lord’s kingdom, as the Ancient Church had been, and to become such not only in external form but also in internal. For a Church is not a Church by virtue of its externals, that is, of its religious observances, but by virtue of its internals; for these are the essential realities, the externals merely forms expressing those realities. But the descendants of Jacob were the kind of people who had no wish to receive internal things. Among them therefore the Ancient Church could not be raised up, only that which was a representative of that Church, 4307, 4444, 4500. The internal dimension of the Church is meant here by ‘Tamar’, and the external by ‘Judah’ together with his three sons by his Canaanite wife.

AC (Elliott) n. 4832 sRef Deut@32 @34 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @35 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @33 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @19 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @20 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @7 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @5 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @23 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @28 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @32 S0′ sRef Deut@32 @24 S0′ 4832. ‘And Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah’ means that it was immersed in falsity springing from evil. This is clear from the representation of ‘Er’ and from the meaning of ‘firstborn’ as falsity of faith, dealt with just above in 4830. Evidence that this falsity was falsity springing from evil is given in what has been stated above in 4818. But with this son the falsity springing from evil was of such a nature that not even that which was representative of the Church could be established among any who would have been descended from him, and therefore it is said that ‘he was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and Jehovah caused him to die’. Among that whole nation – right from the start, and especially from Judah onwards – falsity springing from evil was present, that is, a false teaching that resulted from evil living, though that falsity was different with one son of Judah from what it was with another. Which of these could serve a purpose was foreseen, and this was not that existing with Er the firstborn; nor was it that with Onan the secondborn, but that existing with Shelah. Therefore those first two sons were destroyed, whereas this third was preserved. The existence among that whole nation, from when it first began, of falsity springing from evil is described plainly in Moses in the following words,

Self-corrupted; not his sons; the blemish is theirs; a perverse and crooked generation. When Jehovah saw, and rejected – with more than indignation – His sons and His daughters. And He said, I will hide My face from them; I will see what their posterity will be, for they are a perverse generation, sons in whom there is no faithfulness. I will add evils upon them, I will expend My arrows on them; they will be exhausted with famine, and consumed with burning coal, and with bitter destruction. They are a nation from whom counsel has perished, in whom there is no intelligence; from the vine of Sodom comes their vine, and from the ploughed fields of Gomorrah, their grapes are grapes of gall, their dusters are bitterness. The poison of dragons is their wine, and the cruel gall of asps. Is not this stored up with Me, sealed up in My treasures? The day of their destruction is near, and the things to come upon them are hastening on. Deut. 32:5, 10, 20, 23, 24, 28, 32-35.

In the internal sense these words describe falsity springing from evil which existed among that nation, and the fact that this falsity was rooted deeply within them.

AC (Elliott) n. 4833 sRef Gen@38 @7 S0′ 4833. ‘And Jehovah caused him to die’ means that there was no representative of the Church. This is clear from the meaning of ‘dying’ as ceasing to be such, dealt with in 494, and also as the end of representation, 3253, 3259, 3276. The meaning here therefore is that no representative of the Church could exist with any who would have been descended from him, as accords with what has been stated immediately above in 4832.

AC (Elliott) n. 4834 sRef Gen@38 @8 S0′ 4834. ‘And Judah said to Onan’ means so as to preserve a representative of the Church. This is clear from the words which follow, since these here have regard to them. That is, he said that Onan was to perform for his brother the duty of a husband’s brother, by which the preservation and continuation of the Church, to be discussed next, is represented.

AC (Elliott) n. 4835 sRef Gen@38 @8 S0′ 4835. ‘Come [in] to your brother’s wife and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her’ means that this – that representative of the Church – might be continued. This is clear from the meaning of ‘coming (or going in) to a brother’s wife and performing the duty of a husband’s brother to her’ as preserving and continuing that which constitutes the Church. The requirement laid down in the Mosaic Law, that if a man died without issue his brother was to marry his widow and raise up seed for his brother, and that the firstborn was to receive his dead brother’s name, whereas all other sons were to be his own, was called the duty of a brother-in-law. The fact that this directive was nothing new in the Jewish Church but a practice already in existence is clear from the words used here; and the same goes for many other directives given to the Israelites through Moses, such as the law forbidding them to take wives from the daughters of the Canaanites and requiring them to marry within their own families, Gen. 24:3, 4; 28:1, 2. From these and many other examples it is evident that a Church had existed previously in which the same kind of practices were followed as those at a later time which were declared to and demanded of the sons of Jacob. Altars and sacrifices likewise had been in use since ancient times, as is evident from Gen. 8:20, 21; 22:3, 7, 8. From this it is plain that the Jewish Church was not a new Church but a revival of the Ancient Church which had perished.

sRef Deut@25 @6 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @7 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @9 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @8 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @10 S2′ sRef Deut@25 @5 S2′ [2] What the law regarding the duty of a brother-in-law had been is clear in Moses,

If brothers dwell together but one of them dies, and has no son, the wife of the dead one shall not marry a stranger outside [the family]; her brother-in-law shall go in to her, and take her to himself as his wife, and so perform the duty of a brother-in-law to her. Then it will happen, that the firstborn whom she bears shall succeed to the name of his dead brother, so that his name is not wiped out from Israel. But if the man is unwilling to take his sister-in-law, his sister-in-law shall go up to the gate to the elders, and she shall say, My brother-in-law refuses to raise up for his brother a name in Israel; he is unwilling to perform the duty of a brother-in-law for me. Then the elders of his city shall call him and speak to him; and if he stands and says, I do not desire to take her, his sister-in-law shall go up to him in the sight of the elders, and she shall remove his shoe from upon his foot and spit in his face; and she shall answer and say, So will it be done to the man who does not build up his brother’s house. Therefore his name will be called in Israel, The house of him who has his shoe taken off. Deut. 25:5-10.

[3] Anyone who does not know what the duty of a brother-in-law represents inevitably believes that the practice existed solely for the sake of preserving a name and consequently an inheritance. But the preservation of a name and an inheritance was not in itself a great enough reason why a brother should have been required to enter into a marriage with his sister-in-law. Rather, the practice was ordained so that the preservation and continuation of the Church might be represented through it. For a marriage represented the marriage of good and truth, which is the heavenly marriage. It therefore represented the Church too, for the Church is a Church by virtue of the marriage of good and truth, and when this marriage exists within it the Church makes one with heaven, which is the true heavenly marriage. And because a marriage represented these things, ‘sons and daughters’ were therefore representations and also meaningful signs of truths and goods. This being so, ‘being without issue’ meant a lack of good and truth, and so meant that no representative of the Church existed in that house any longer, and that as a consequence it was not in communion with the Church. In addition ‘brother’ represented a kindred good to which the truth represented by a widow might be joined. For to be the kind of truth that has life, produces fruit, and thereby continues that which constitutes the Church, truth cannot be joined to any other good but that which is its own and a kindred one. This was how those in heaven perceived the duty of a brother-in-law.

[4] The meaning of this practice – of a sister-in-law removing the shoe from upon the foot of the man who refused to do the duty of a brother-in-law, and of her spitting in his face – was this: Anyone devoid of good and truth, external and internal, would destroy those things that constitute the Church; for ‘the shoe’ means that which is external, 1748, and ‘the face’ that which is internal, 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796. From this it is evident that ‘the duty of a brother-in-law’ represented the preservation and continuation of the Church. But when through the Lord’s Coming representatives of internal things came to an end, that particular law was done away with. It is like a person’s soul or spirit in relation to his body. A person’s soul or spirit is the internal part of him and his body the external; or what amounts to the same, the soul or spirit is the true likeness of the person, whereas the body is merely a representative image of him. When a person rises again his representative image or that which is external, namely his body, is cast aside, for he is now conscious in that which is internal, namely the true likeness of him. It is also like a person who is in darkness and from there looks at things belonging to light; or what amounts to the same, like one who is in the light of the world and from there looks at things belonging to the light of heaven. For the light of the world in comparison with the light of heaven is as darkness. Within that darkness, that is, within the light of the world, things belonging to the light of heaven as they exist essentially cannot be seen, but are seen so to speak within a representative image, even as the human mind is seen in a person’s face. Therefore when the light of heaven is seen in its own essential brightness, the darkness of representative images is dispelled. This was effected through the Lord’s Coming.

[4835a] ‘And raise up seed for your brother’ means so that the Church does not perish. This is clear from the meaning of ‘seed’ as truth derived from good, or faith grounded in charity, dealt with in 1025, 1447, 16110, 1940, 2848, 3310, 3373, 3671. The same is also meant by the firstborn who was to succeed to the name of the dead brother, 352, 367, 2435, 3325, 3494. ‘Raising up seed for a brother’ means continuing that which constitutes the Church, in line with what has been stated just above in 4834, and thus means so that the Church does not perish.

AC (Elliott) n. 4836 sRef Gen@38 @9 S0′ 4836. ‘And Onan knew that the seed would not be his’ means a loathing and hatred. This is clear from the representation of ‘Onan’ as evil, dealt with in 4823, 4824; and because ‘not providing seed for a brother’, or not performing the duty of a brother-in-law, means having no desire for the good and truth of the Church or the continuation of it, 4834, the words used here mean a loathing and hatred, for evil is nothing else than loathing and hatred directed against the good and truth of the Church.

AC (Elliott) n. 4837 sRef Gen@38 @9 S0′ 4837. ‘And so it was, when he came [in] to his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground’ means the reverse of conjugial love. [This is clear from the following considerations:] ‘Er, Judah’s firstborn’ is used to describe falsity springing from evil which reigned in the Jewish nation at first, and ‘Onan the secondborn’ to describe evil begotten by falsity springing from evil which reigned in that nation later on. And ‘Shelah the third son’ is used to describe the idolatry which followed on from this and reigned in that nation at a still later time, 4826. Evil begotten by falsity springing from evil is described by the action Onan took, which was this: Being unwilling to provide seed for his brother, he spilled it on the ground. The reason this means that which is the reverse of conjugial love is that the conjugial relationship is used to mean in the internal sense that which is the essential element of the Church. Essentially the Church is a marriage of goodness and truth; and evil begotten by falsity springing from evil is the complete reverse of that marriage, that is, those with whom that kind of evil exists are the reverse of it.

[2] Nothing of true marriage meant both in a spiritual sense and in a natural one existed with that nation. This is quite evident from the fact that men were permitted to marry more than one wife; for where a marriage meant in a spiritual sense exists – that is, where the good and truth of the Church exist, consequently where the Church exists – that practice is not at all permitted. Genuine marriage cannot possibly exist except among those with whom the Lord’s Church or kingdom exists, yet not with these except between pairs, 1907, 2740, 3246. The marriage of a pair in whom genuine conjugial love is present corresponds to the heavenly marriage, that is, to good and truth joined together. That is to say, the husband corresponds to good and the wife to the truth of that good. Also, when genuine conjugial love is present in them, that heavenly marriage is present too. Therefore where the Church exists men are never permitted to marry more than one wife. But because no Church existed among those descended from Jacob, only that which was a representative of the Church – that is, the external shell of the Church without its internal substance, 4307, 4500 – they were therefore permitted to have more than one. Furthermore the marriage of one husband to a number of wives would present in heaven an idea or image in which so to speak one good was joined to a number of truths which do not agree with one another, and so an image in which there was no good at all. For when its truths do not agree with one another good ceases to be good, since good receives its particular nature from truths and their agreement with one another.

[3] It would also present an image in which so to speak the Church was not one Church but many, set apart from one another along the lines of the truths of faith, that is, along doctrinal lines, when in fact the Church is one if good is the essential element there and this receives its particular nature from truths and is so to speak moderated by these. The Church is an image of heaven, because it is the Lord’s kingdom on earth. Heaven consists of many distinct and separate general communities, and of smaller ones subordinate to these general ones; nevertheless good makes them a united whole. Good there enables the truths of faith to stand in agreement with one another; for these look to good and are grounded in it. If the truths of faith and not good were the lines along which parts of heaven were separated from one another, heaven would cease to be heaven, because there would not be any unanimity at all. For their oneness of life or unity in soul could not come to them from the Lord and exist among them. That oneness dwells solely within good, that is, within love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour. Love binds everyone together, and when the love of what is good and true is present in each individual, everyone shares that which comes from the Lord, so that the Lord is the One who binds everyone together. The love of what is good and true is called love towards the neighbour, for the neighbour is one with whom good and accompanying truth are present, and in the abstract sense good itself and its truth. From these considerations one may see why within the Church marriage must be a relationship involving one husband and one wife, and why the descendants of Jacob were permitted to marry more than one wife. They were permitted to do so for the reason that no Church existed among them, and therefore a representative of the Church could not be established among them by means of marriages, because the reverse of conjugial love reigned among them.

AC (Elliott) n. 4838 sRef Gen@38 @9 S0′ 4838. ‘So that he should not provide seed for his brother’ means that this being so there was no continuation. This is clear from the meaning of ‘providing seed for a brother’, or performing the duty of a husband’s brother, as continuing that which constitutes the Church, dealt with above in 4835, which shows that ‘not providing seed for his brother’ means that, this being so, there was no continuation.
* The printed text has 4835, but the Latin is 4834.

AC (Elliott) n. 4839 sRef Gen@38 @10 S0′ sRef Deut@25 @8 S1′ sRef Deut@25 @9 S1′ sRef Deut@25 @10 S1′ 4839. ‘And what he had done was evil in the eyes of Jehovah’ means that it was contrary to Divine order. This is clear from the meaning of ‘evil in the eyes of Jehovah’, or evil contrary to Him, as that which is contrary to the order originating in Him. This is evident both from what Onan actually did and from what was laid down regarding a husband’s brother – the sister-in-law was required to remove the shoe from his foot and to spit in his face; and his name in Israel was to be called, The house of him that has his shoe taken off, Deut. 25:8-10. These actions meant that he was devoid of good, external and internal; and those who are devoid of that good and are governed by evil are contrary to Divine order. All evil that wells up or flows from evil present interiorly – that is, which, like Onan’s, is intentional or has an evil end in view- is contrary to Divine order. But that which does not well up or flow from evil present interiorly – that is, which is unintentional or has no evil end in view – may sometimes look like evil but is not in fact this if the end in view is not an evil one; for it is the end that determines the true nature of every action. The end holds a person’s life within it; that is to say, what a person loves and consequently thinks he has as his end in view. The life of his soul is nothing else.

[2] Everyone realizes that evil is contrary to Divine order and good is in keeping with it. Divine Order is the Lord Himself in heaven, for Divine Good and Truth received from Him constitute order. They do this so completely that they are order, Divine Good being the essential element of it and Divine Truth the form given to this. When represented in a visible shape Divine order is seen as a Human Being, for the Lord alone who is the producer of it is Man, 49, 288, 477, 565, 1871, 1894, 3638, 3639. And insofar as angels, spirits, and men are recipients of Him, that is, insofar as good and accompanying truth are present in them, thus insofar as His Divine order is present there, they are human beings. This is the reason why the whole of heaven represents one complete human being, called the Grand Man, and every single thing in the human being corresponds to it, as has been shown at the ends of chapters. It also explains why all the angels in heaven are seen in a human shape; but evil spirits on the other hand are deluded into seeing one another as human beings, whereas in the light of heaven they look like monsters, ever more dreadful and horrid, depending on the evil which governs them, 4533. The reason for this is that evil itself is contrary to order and so contrary to the human form. For as has been stated, when represented in a visible form, Divine order looks like a human being.

AC (Elliott) n. 4840 sRef Gen@38 @10 S0′ 4840. ‘And He caused him to die also’ means that again there was no representative of the Church. This is clear from what has been shown above in 4833, where similar words occur.

AC (Elliott) n. 4841 sRef Gen@38 @11 S0′ 4841. Verse 11 And Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in your father’s house, until Shelah my son is grown up; for he said, In case he also dies, like his brothers. And Tamar went and remained in her father’s house.

‘Judah said’ means in general the descendants of Jacob, specifically those descended through Judah. ‘To Tamar his daughter-in-law’ means a Church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is called ‘a daughter-in-law’ from truth. ‘Remain a widow in your father’s house’ means the alienation of this Church from the Jewish Church. ‘Until Shelah my son is grown up’ means until the time. ‘For he said’ means thought. ‘In case he also dies, like his brothers’ means fear lest it should perish. ‘And she remained in her father’s house’ means the alienation of this Church from the Jewish Church.

AC (Elliott) n. 4842 sRef Gen@38 @11 S0′ 4842. ‘Judah said’ means in general the descendants of Jacob, specifically those descended through Judah. This is clear from the meaning of ‘Judah’ in the proximate sense as the nation descended from Jacob, and specifically those descended from Jacob through Judah, as also stated above in 4815. In the Word a distinction is indeed drawn between Judah and Israel, ‘Judah’ being used in the historical sense to mean the tribe of Judah, and ‘Israel’ to mean the ten tribes that had been separated from that tribe. But in the internal or spiritual sense ‘Judah’ represents the celestial element of the Church, which is good, and ‘Israel’ the spiritual element, which is truth. In the contrary sense however ‘Judah’ represents the evil of the Church and ‘Israel’ the falsity of the Church, wherever such evil or falsity existed, whether among Jews or among Israelites. For the internal or spiritual sense of the Word is universal and does not draw the same distinctions between the tribes as are drawn in the external or historical sense. This is the reason why in the proximate sense ‘Judah’ means the whole nation descended from Jacob, but specifically those descended from Jacob through Judah.

AC (Elliott) n. 4843 sRef Gen@38 @11 S0′ 4843. ‘To Tamar his daughter-in-law’ means a Church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is called ‘a daughter-in-law’ from truth. This is clear from the representation of ‘Tamar’ as a Church representative of spiritual and celestial things, dealt with above in 4831, and from the meaning of ‘a daughter-in-law’ as the spiritual element of the Church, which is truth. The reason ‘a daughter-in-law’ has this meaning in the internal sense is that everything connected with a marriage, and all persons who were the offspring of a marriage, represented the kinds of things that belong to the heavenly marriage, see above in 4837, and consequently the kinds of things that belong to good and truth since these are the two partners in the heavenly marriage. This is why in the Word ‘husband’ means good and ‘wife’ truth, and also why ‘sons and daughters’ means the forms of truth and good which are the offspring of these. Consequently, being the wife of a son who has now become a husband, ‘a daughter-in-law’ means the truth of the Church which has been joined to good, and so on. But the meaning is different in the case of those who belong to the celestial Church from that of those who belong to the spiritual Church; for in the spiritual Church the husband is called ‘the men’ and means truth, while the wife is called ‘the woman’ and means good, see above in 4823.

sRef Hos@4 @14 S2′ sRef Hos@4 @13 S2′ [2] As regards ‘a daughter-in-law’ in the internal sense of the Word meaning the truth of the Church linked to its good, and consequently in the contrary sense meaning the falsity of the Church linked to its evil, this may also be seen from places in the Word where the expression ‘daughter-in-law’ is used, as in Hosea,

They offer sacrifice on mountain-tops and burn incense on hills, under oak. and poplar, and hard oak, because its shade is good. Therefore your daughters commit whoredom, and your daughters-in-law commit adultery. Shall I not punish* your daughters, in that they commit whoredom and your daughters-in-law in that they commit adultery? Hosea 4:13, 14.

This refers to the worship of evil and falsity, the worship of evil being meant by ‘offering sacrifices on mountain-tops’ and the worship of falsity by ‘burning incense on hills’. A life of evil is meant by ‘daughters committing whoredom’, and the teaching of what is false from which a life of evil results is meant by ‘daughters-in-law committing adultery’. As regards acts of adultery and whoredom in the Word meaning adulterations of what is good and falsifications of what is true, see 2466, 2727, 3399. ‘Daughters-in-law’ therefore stands here for affections for falsity.

sRef Luke@12 @52 S3′ sRef Micah@7 @6 S3′ sRef Micah@7 @4 S3′ sRef Micah@7 @3 S3′ sRef Luke@12 @51 S3′ sRef Luke@12 @53 S3′ [3] In Micah,

The great man utters the perversity of his soul. and he twists it out of shape. The best of them is like a brier, the upright like a thorn-bush. The son treats the father with contempt, the daughter rises up against her mother, the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; a man’s enemies are those of his own household. Micah 7:3, 4, 6.

This refers to falsity that is the offspring of evil and which exists with the Church in the last times when it has been laid waste, in the proximate sense as it existed with the Jewish Church. ‘The daughter rises up against her mother’ means that the affection for evil stands opposed to truth, and ‘the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law’ that the affection for falsity stands opposed to good.

sRef Matt@10 @35 S4′ sRef Matt@10 @36 S4′ sRef Matt@10 @34 S4′ [4] Because the experience of a person undergoing temptations is of a similar nature to this – for in temptations a conflict takes place between evil and truth and between falsity and good, spiritual temptations being nothing else than experiences when the falsity and evil present in a person are laid waste – temptations or spiritual conflicts are described by the Lord in practically the same words,

Jesus said, Do not think that I have come to bring peace on earth; I have not come to bring peace, but a sword. For I have come to set a man against his father, and a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; and a man’s enemies will be these of his own household. Matt. 10:34-36, 38.

The words from the Prophet that are similar to these, quoted a little above them, meant the laying waste of the Church. But here the temptations of those who belong to the Church are meant, for, as has been stated, temptations are nothing else than experiences in which falsity and evil are laid waste or taken away. For this reason also temptations as well as vastations are meant and described by deluges and floods of waters, 705, 739, 756, 790. Here also therefore ‘daughter against mother’ means the affection for evil standing opposed to truth, and ‘daughter-in-law against mother-in-law’ the affection for falsity standing opposed to good. Now because the evils and falsities present with a person undergoing temptation exist inwardly, or are his own, they are called members of his own household in the words ‘a man’s enemies will be those of his own household’. The fact that temptations are described in this passage is evident from the Lord’s saying that He had not come to bring peace on earth but a sword; for ‘a sword’ means truth engaged in conflict, and in the contrary sense falsity engaged in conflict, 2799, 4499. (Yet He did come to bring peace, John 14:27; 16:33.) The description of temptations in this passage is also clear from what the Lord goes on to say – ‘He who does not take up his cross and follow after Me is not worthy of Me’.

sRef Mark@10 @30 S5′ sRef Mark@10 @29 S5′ [5] Similarly in Luke,

Do you think that I have come to give peace on earth? No, I tell you, but division; for from now on there will be in one house five divided, three against two, and two against three. Father will be divided against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother, mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. Luke 12:51-53.

From these words too it is evident that ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘son’, ‘daughter’, ‘daughter-in-law’, and ‘mother-in-law’ mean the kinds of things that originate in the heavenly marriage, namely goods and truths in their own order, and also their opposites; as also in Mark,

Jesus said, There is no one who has forsaken house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or fields, for the sake of Me and of the Gospel, who will not receive a hundredfold, now in this time, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and fields, with persecutions, and in the age to come eternal life. Mark 10:29, 30.

Anyone unacquainted with the internal sense of the Word will think that ‘house’, ‘brothers’, ‘sisters’, ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘wife’, ‘children’, and ‘fields’ mean house, brothers, sisters, father, mother, wife, children, and fields. But the meaning here is this: The kinds of things present in a person which are properly his own must be forsaken by him, and instead of these, spiritual and celestial things which are the Lord’s must be received by him. This change is effected by means of temptations, which are meant here by ‘persecutions’. Anyone can see that if he forsakes his mother he is not going to receive mothers, nor likewise to receive brothers and sisters by forsaking these.
* lit. visit

AC (Elliott) n. 4844 sRef Gen@38 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @14 S1′ 4844. ‘Remain a widow in your father’s house’ means the alienation of this Church from the Jewish Church. This becomes clear from the fact that Judah’s wish was that by doing this she would go away and not return to him any more. He did, it is true, say that she should remain there until Shelah his son was grown up; nevertheless he had it in mind not to give her to Shelah his son, for he said to himself, ‘In case he also dies, like his brothers’. He gave further proof of his intentions by his actions, as is evident from verse 14 – ‘Tamar saw that Shelah had grown up, and she had not been given to him as a wife’. From all this it is evident that the words used here mean that he alienated her from himself. That is, the meaning in the internal sense is that he alienated the Church representative of spiritual and celestial things – the Church represented by ‘Tamar’, 4811, 4831 – from the Jewish Church represented by ‘Judah’. The two could not be in agreement with each other because Judaism was not a representative Church, only a representative of the Church, 4307, 4500; for it acknowledged what was external but not that which was internal.

[2] ‘A widow’ also means the truth of the Church without its good; for in the representative sense ‘a wife’ means truth and ‘a husband’ good, 4823, 4843, and therefore ‘a wife without a husband’ means the truth of the Church without its good. This being so, when it is said in reference to Tamar that she should remain in the house of her father, the meaning is that the truth of the Church would be alienated, and also that it would not find acceptance in his house, even as the Jewish nation could not accept it because not good but evil was present among that nation.

[3] A widow is referred to many times in the Word; but anyone unacquainted with the internal sense inevitably thinks that ‘a widow’ means a widow. In the internal sense ‘a widow’ means the truth of the Church without good, that is, people who have truth that is without good but who nevertheless have a desire for good, who consequently love to be led by good; for ‘e husband’ means good which ought to take the lead. In the Ancient Church people like these were meant in the good sense by ‘the widowed’, whether they were women or men. For the Ancient Church distinguished the neighbour to whom charity was to be performed into many separate classes. Some were called the poor, some the wretched and afflicted, some the bound and in prison, some the blind and the lame, and others strangers, orphans, and widows. It performed different charitable works, whichever were appropriate to the character each class possessed. The teachings of that Church showed them what those works were, for that Church had no other teachings than these. Therefore whenever those living in those times either taught or wrote, they did so in conformity with these teachings, so that when they spoke of ‘widows’ they meant none but the kind of persons among whom truth existed without good but who nevertheless had a desire to be led to good.

[4] From this it is also evident that the teachings of the Ancient Church were ones that had to do with charity and the neighbour, and that all its religious knowledge and factual knowledge existed to enable people to know what was meant spiritually by external things. For the Church was representative of spiritual and celestial things, and therefore it was these spiritual and celestial things, represented and meant by that Church, that people came to know about through the Church’s teachings and through its factual knowledge. But those teachings and factual knowledge have become at the present day completely wiped out, so completely indeed that there is no knowledge of their having existed. For their place has been taken by teachings to do with faith which, if widowed and separated from those to do with charity, have virtually nothing to teach. For teachings to do with charity show what good is, but those to do with faith show what truth is. Teaching what truth is without what good is amounts to walking like someone blind, it being good that is the teacher and leader, truth the one that is taught and led. Between the two kinds of teaching there is a vast difference, as great as that between light and darkness. If the darkness is not lightened by means of the light, that is, if truth is not lightened by good, or faith by charity, it is nothing but darkness. For this reason no one knows intuitively, nor consequently by perception, whether truth is the truth; he knows it only from what he was taught and what he absorbed in childhood and substantiated in adult years. This also explains why Churches are so much at variance with one another, one giving the name truth to that which another calls falsity, and are never in agreement.

sRef Ps@146 @8 S5′ sRef Ps@146 @7 S5′ sRef Ps@146 @9 S5′ [5] The meaning in the good sense of ‘widows’ as people who have truth existing without good but who nevertheless have a desire to be led by good may be seen from places in the Word where widows are mentioned, as in David,

Jehovah who executes judgement for the oppressed, who gives bread to the starving, Jehovah who sets the bound free; Jehovah who opens the blind [eyes]; Jehovah who lifts up the bowed down; Jehovah who loves the righteous; Jehovah who guards sojourners, upholds the orphan and the widow. Ps. 146:7-9.

This refers, in the internal sense, to those whom the Lord furnishes with truths and leads to good. But some of them are called the oppressed, some the starving, while others are called the bound, the blind, the bowed down, sojourners, orphans and widows, each name appropriate to the character of the ones to whom it is applied. No one however can know what each particular nature is except from the internal sense; but the teachings of the Ancient Church showed what any particular nature was. Here, as in many other places, sojourner, orphan, and widow are referred to jointly because ‘a sojourner’ means those who wish to be furnished with the truths of faith, 1463, 4444, ‘an orphan’ those with whom good exists without truth but who have a desire to be led to good by means of truth, and ‘a widow’ those with whom truth exists without good and who have a desire to be led to truth by means of good. These three are referred to jointly here and elsewhere in the Word because in the internal sense they form a single group, for all three together mean those who wish to be taught and to be led to good and truth.

sRef Ps@68 @5 S6′ [6] In the same author,

A father of the orphans, and a judge of the widows, is God in the habitation of His holiness. Ps. 68:5.

‘The orphans’ stands for those with whom, like young children, the good that goes with innocence is present but no truth as yet. The Lord is said to be ‘a father’ of these because He leads them like a father; He leads them by means of truth into good, that is to say, into the good constituting life or wisdom. ‘The widows’ stands for those who as adults know the truth but are not as yet doing good. The Lord is said to be ‘a judge’ of these because He leads them; He leads them by means of good into truth, that is to say, into the truth constituting intelligence. For by ‘a judge’ a leader is meant. Good without truth, meant by ‘an orphan’, is made into good filled with wisdom by means of teaching about truth; and truth without good, meant by ‘a widow’, is made into truth filled with intelligence by means of a life of good.

sRef Isa@10 @1 S7′ sRef Isa@10 @2 S7′ [7] In Isaiah,

Woe to those decreeing decrees of iniquity, to turn aside the poor from judgement and to carry off into judgement the wretched of My people, so that widows may be their spoil and so that they may make orphans their prey. Isa. 10:1, 2.

Here ‘the poor’, ‘the wretched’, ‘widows’, and ‘orphans’ do not mean those who are literally so but those who are spiritually such. Now because in the Jewish Church, as in the Ancient, everything was representative, so also was doing good to orphans and widows, for doing good to these represented in heaven charity towards those who are orphans and widows in the spiritual sense.

sRef Jer@22 @3 S8′ [8] In Jeremiah,

Do judgement and righteousness, and deliver the plundered out of the hand of the oppressor; and do not defraud the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow, and do not use force, and do not shed innocent blood in this place. Jer. 22:3.

Here also ‘the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow’ means those who are spiritually such. In the spiritual world or heaven they do not know who a sojourner, orphan, or widow is, for the condition of such persons there is not the same as what it had been in the world. When therefore these words are read by man, angels perceive the spiritual or internal meaning they possess.

sRef Ex@22 @24 S9′ sRef Mal@3 @5 S9′ sRef Ezek@22 @7 S9′ sRef Ex@22 @21 S9′ sRef Ex@22 @22 S9′ sRef Ex@22 @23 S9′ sRef Ezek@22 @6 S9′ [9] Similarly in Ezekiel,

Behold, the princes of Israel, each according to his power,* have in you been intent on shedding blood; in you they have treated father and mother with contempt; in you they have dealt with the sojourner by means of oppression; in you they have defrauded the orphan and the widow. Ezek. 22:6, 7.

Also in Malachi,

I will draw near to you to judgement, and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against those who swear falsely, and against oppressors of the hireling in his wages, of the widow and the orphan, and [against] those who turn aside the sojourner, and do not fear Me. Mal. 3:5.

Similarly in Moses,

You shall not press down a sojourner or oppress him. You shall not afflict any widow or orphan. If you do indeed afflict him, and if he indeed cries out to Me, I will surely hear his cry, and My anger will burn, and I will kill you with the sword, so that your wives become widows, and your children orphans. Exod. 22:21-24.

sRef Matt@23 @14 S10′ [10] This, like every other commandment, judgement, and statute in the Jewish Church, was representative. Also, members of that Church were tied down to things of an external nature so that they would observe that command, and by means of their observance of it they represented the inner spirit of charity, even though they themselves had no charity, that is, they did not act from any inner affection. An inner spirit flowed from an affection to furnish with truths those who were without knowledge, and to lead those people to good by means of truths. If they had done this, members of the Jewish Church would have been doing good, in a spiritual sense, to the sojourner, orphan, and widow. But so that what was external might be kept going for the sake of what it represented, the curses declared on Mount Ebal included ‘turning aside the judgement of the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow’, Deut. 27:19. ‘Turning aside the judgement of these’ stands for doing the reverse, that is, leading through teaching and life to falsity and evil. Also, because taking goods and truths away from others, and then making them one’s own so as to enhance one’s own position and gain, was included among curses, the Lord therefore said,

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees! for you devour widows’ houses, and for a presence you make long prayers; on account of this you will receive greater condemnation.** Matt. 23:14; Luke 20:47.

‘Devouring widows’ houses’ stands for taking truths away from those who have a desire for them, and teaching them falsities.

sRef Jer@49 @11 S11′ sRef Jer@49 @10 S11′ sRef Deut@26 @12 S11′ sRef Deut@10 @18 S11′ sRef Deut@26 @13 S11′ [11] To leave for the sojourner, orphan, and widow that which remained in fields, olivegroves, and vineyards, Deut. 24:19-22, was likewise representative. So too was the command that when they had finished paying the tithes of their produce in the third year, the people should give to the sojourner, orphan, and widow, so that they ate within their gates and were satisfied, Deut. 26:12, 13. It being the Lord alone who teaches a person and leads him to good and truth, it is said in Jeremiah,

Leave your orphans, I will keep them alive; and the widows will trust in Me. Jer. 49:10, 11.

And in Moses,

Jehovah executes judgement for the orphan and the widow, and loves the sojourner, giving him bread and clothing. Deut. 10:18.

‘Bread’ stands for the good of love, 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, and ‘clothing’ for the truth of faith, 4545, 4763.

[12] It is recorded in 1 Kings 17:1-17 that Elijah was sent, when there was a famine because there was no rain in the land, to a widow in Zarephath. He asked her for a little cake, which she had to make for him first and give it to him; after that she was to make one for herself and her son. When she did so her jar of meal was not used up and her cruse of oil did not run dry. All this was representative, like everything else recorded about Elijah, and in general throughout the Word. ‘A famine in the land because there was no rain’ represented truth laid waste within the Church, 1460, 3364; ‘a widow in Zarephath’ those outside the Church who have a desire for truth; ‘a cake which she had to make for him first’ the good of love to the Lord, 2177, whom, from the very little she had, she was to love above herself and her son. ‘The jar of meal’ means truth derived from good, 2177, and ‘the cruse of oil’ charity and love, 886, 3728, 4582. ‘Elijah’ represents the Word, by means of which such things are effected, 2762.

sRef Luke@4 @24 S13′ sRef Luke@4 @25 S13′ sRef Luke@4 @26 S13′ [13] The same is also meant, in the internal sense, by the Lord’s words in Luke,

No prophet is accepted in his own country. In truth, I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, while there was a great famine over the whole land; yet Elijah was sent to none of them, except to a woman – a widow – in Zarephath of Sidon. Luke 4:24-26.

That is, he was sent to those outside the Church who had a desire for truth. But ‘widows’ within the Church that had been laid waste, to whom Elijah was not sent, are those with whom no truth exists because no good does so; for where there is no good neither is there any truth. However much among those people truth seems to outward appearance like truth it is nothing more so to speak than a shell without any nut in it.

sRef Jer@15 @9 S14′ sRef Isa@9 @17 S14′ sRef Jer@15 @7 S14′ sRef Lam@5 @3 S14′ sRef Isa@9 @14 S14′ sRef Jer@15 @8 S14′ sRef Isa@9 @15 S14′ sRef Lam@5 @2 S14′ [14] Those among whom this kind of truth exists, also those among whom falsity exists, are meant by ‘widows’ in the contrary sense, as in Isaiah,

Jehovah will cut off from Israel head and tail, the branch and the bulrush in one day. The old and the honourable in face is the head, and the prophet, the teacher of a lie, the tail. Therefore the Lord will not rejoice over its young men, and He will not have compassion on its orphans and its widows. Isa 9:14, 15, 17.

In Jeremiah,

I will winnow them with a winnowing-fork in the gates of the land; I will bereave, I will destroy My people; they have not turned from their ways. Their widows are increased to Me more than the sand of the seas. I will bring to them, against the mother of the young men, one who lays waste at midday. She who bore seven languishes; she has breathed her last. Her sun is going down while it is still day. Jer. 15:7-9.

In the same prophet,

Our inheritance has been turned over to aliens, our houses to foreigners. We have become orphans with no father; our mothers are widows. Lam. 5:2, 3.

sRef Rev@18 @7 S15′ sRef Isa@47 @9 S15′ sRef Rev@18 @8 S15′ sRef Isa@47 @8 S15′ [15] Because ‘widows’ meant those with whom no truth existed because no good did so, it was therefore shameful for Churches to be called widows, even those Churches governed by falsities springing from evil, as in John,

In her heart she said, A queen I sit, and I am no widow, and shall not see mourning. On account of this in one day will her plagues come, death and mourning and famine, and she will be burned with fire. Rev. 18:7, 8.

This refers to Babel. A similar reference to Babel occurs in Isaiah,

Hear this, you lover of pleasures, sitting securely, saying in her heart, I am, and there is no one else like me; a widow I shall not sit, nor shall I know loss of children. But these two things will come to you in a moment in one day – loss of children and widowhood. Isa. 47:8, 9.

sRef Lev@22 @13 S16′ sRef Lev@21 @14 S16′ sRef Lev@22 @12 S16′ sRef Lev@21 @13 S16′ sRef Lev@21 @15 S16′ sRef Ezek@44 @22 S16′ [16] From these quotations one may now see what is meant by ‘a widow’ in the internal sense of the Word. One may see that since ‘a widow’ represented and consequently meant the truth of the Church without its good – for ‘a wife’ meant truth and ‘a husband’ good – priests in the Ancient Churches, in which every single thing was representative, were therefore forbidden to marry any widow who was not a priest’s widow, as the following in Moses declares,

The high priest shall take a wife in her virginity; a widow or a woman that has been put away or one defiled or a prostitute, these he shall not take, but a virgin of his own people shall he take as his wife. Lev. 21:13-15.

And in the references to a new temple and a new priesthood in Ezekiel,

Priests the Levites shall not take as wives for themselves a widow or a woman that has been put away, but virgins from the seed of the house of Israel; but a widow who is the widow of a priest may they take. Ezek. 44:22.

For ‘the virgins’ whom they were to marry represented and consequently meant the affection for truth, and ‘the widow of a priest’ the affection for truth from good, since ‘e priest’ in the representative sense is the good of the Church. For this reason also any widow [who was the daughter] of a priest and who had no children was allowed to eat some of the offerings or holy things, Lev. 22:12, 13.

[17] Those who belonged to the Ancient Church knew this meaning of ‘a widow’ from the teachings of the Church, for among them these teachings had to do with love and charity, which included countless matters which at the present day have become completely wiped out. From them they knew which particular kind of charitable act they were required to perform – that is, which service they ought to render towards the neighbour – for those who were called ‘widows’, for those who were called ‘orphans’, for those who were called ‘sojourners’, and so on. From their religious knowledge of truth and from factual knowledge they had a discernment and a knowledge of what the ritual observances of their Church represented and meant. The learned among them knew what it was that things on earth and in this world represented, for they recognized that the whole natural creation was a theatre representative of the heavenly kingdom, 2758, 2989, 2999, 3483. Such knowledge raised their minds up to heavenly things, and the teachings of their Church led the way to life. But after the Church turned aside from charity to faith, more so after it separated faith from charity, and made faith without charity and the works of charity the bringer of salvation, their minds could no longer be raised up by means of religious knowledge to heavenly things, nor be led by any means of the teachings of the Church to life. Indeed the decline has been so great that in the end scarcely anyone believes in a life after death, and scarcely anyone knows anything about heaven. Also, there is no belief at all in the existence of a spiritual sense of the Word which is not visible in the letter. In this way people’s minds have become closed.
* lit. arm
** lit. more abundant judgement

AC (Elliott) n. 4845 sRef Gen@38 @11 S0′ 4845. ‘Until Shelah my son is grown up’ means until the time. This is clear from the meaning of ‘growing up’ as being of that age, and so as until the time; and from the representation of ‘Shelah my son’ as idolatry, dealt with above in 4825, 4826, and so as the Jewish religion which, compared with others, was idolatrous, 4825. Consequently the words ‘until my son Shelah is grown up’ mean until the time that the Jewish religion was able to accept internal things willingly, that is, the spiritual and celestial things of the representative Church, meant by ‘Tamar’, 4829, 4831, 4843.

AC (Elliott) n. 4846 sRef Gen@38 @11 S0′ 4846. ‘For he said’ means thought. This is clear from the meaning of ‘saying’ in the historical narratives of the Word as perceiving, and also as thinking, dealt with in 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 3395. Here therefore ‘he said’ means that he said or thought to himself that Tamar should not be given as a wife to Shelah his son; and in the internal sense means that the internal things of the representative Church should be alienated, 4844.

AC (Elliott) n. 4847 sRef Gen@38 @11 S0′ 4847. ‘In case he also dies, like his brothers’ means fear lest it should perish, that is to say, that the representative of the Church among those descended from Jacob, specifically among those descended from Jacob through Judah, should perish. This is clear from the meaning of ‘in case he dies’ as fear lest it may perish. As regards the perishing of the representative of the Church among those descended from Jacob if the internal things of a genuine representative Church were linked to it, this implies that among those descended from Jacob a representative Church was to have been established like that which had existed with the ancients. But the disposition of that nation was such that its only wish was to worship and adore external things; it had no wish to know anything at all about internal ones, since it was immersed in desires belonging to self-love and love of the world, and in falsities that resulted from these. It believed, more than gentiles did, that a number of gods existed, but that Jehovah was greater than the rest because He could perform greater miracles. This was why as soon as the miracles ended, or when – because they were of frequent and common occurrence – little importance was placed on them, that nation instantly turned to other gods, as one can see quite clearly from the historical and prophetical parts of the Word.

[2] Such being the nature of that nation, a representative Church like that which had existed among the ancients could not be established among it, only that which was a representative of the Church. Also, the Lord made provision so that through that representative of the Church some degree of communication with heaven might be established; for what is representative can exist even in people who are evil because one does not look at the person who represents, only at the reality represented by him. From this it is evident that in the case of that nation worship was nothing else than idolatrous, 4825, even though the representatives held holy and Divine realities within them. To that kind of worship – to idolatrous worship – what was internal could not be joined; for if what was internal had been linked to it, that is, if they had acknowledged internal things, they would have rendered holy things unholy. For a holy internal, if joined to an idolatrous external, is rendered unholy.

This explains why internal things were not disclosed to that nation, for if these had been disclosed to it, it would have perished.

[3] The inability of that nation to receive and acknowledge internal things, however fully these might have been revealed to them, is quite evident from members of it at the present day. At the present day they do, it is true, have a knowledge of internal things since they live among Christians; yet they reject these things and also deride them. Even the majority of those who have been converted do nothing else in their hearts. From these considerations it is clear that a Church representative of spiritual and celestial things did not exist among that nation, only a representative of the Church, that is, an external without an internal, which in itself is idolatrous. From them it may also be seen how mistaken is the thinking of those Christians who believe that when the Church reaches its end the Jewish nation will be converted, and will at that time be chosen in preference to Christians. Even more mistaken is the thinking of those who believe that at that time the Messiah or Lord is going to appear to them, when by means of a great prophet and great miracles He is going to lead them back into the land of Canaan. These are the errors that people fall into who take ‘Judah’, ‘Israel’, and ‘the land of Canaan’ in the prophetical parts of the Word to mean Judah, Israel, and the land of Canaan, and who consequently believe the literal sense alone and have no interest in any internal sense

AC (Elliott) n. 4848 sRef Gen@38 @11 S0′ 4848. ‘And she remained in her father’s house’ means the alienation of this Church from the Jewish Church. This is clear from the meaning of ‘remaining a widow in her father’s house’ as alienation, dealt with above in 4844.

AC (Elliott) n. 4849 sRef Gen@38 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @14 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @12 S0′ 4849. Verses 12-14 And the days were multiplied, and Shua’s daughter died, the wife of Judah; and Judah was comforted, and he went up to the shearers of his flock, he and his companion Hirah the Adullamite, to Timnah. And it was pointed out to Tamar, saying, Behold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his flock. And she took off the clothes of her widowhood from upon her, and covered herself with a veil, and concealed herself, and sat in the gate of the fountains, which is on the road to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah had grown up, and she had not been given to him as a wife.

‘The days were multiplied’ means a change of state. ‘And Shua’s daughter died’ means so far as evil begotten by falsity was concerned. ‘The wife of Judah’ means the semblance of religion existing among the nation descended from Jacob, specifically that from Judah. ‘And Judah was comforted’ means rest. ‘And he went up to the shearers of his flock’ means some kind of raising up to consult the interests of the Church. ‘He and his companion Hirah the Adullamite’ means that falsity was present with it still. ‘To Timnah’ means the state. ‘And it was pointed out to Tamar, saying’ means some kind of communication with the Church that was representative of spiritual and celestial things. ‘Behold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his flock’ means that the Jewish Church had a wish to consult its own interests. ‘And she took off the clothes of her widowhood from upon her’ means an imitation of truth that springs from good. ‘And covered herself with a veil’ means the truth was rendered obscure. ‘And concealed herself’ means and so was not acknowledged. ‘And sat in the gate of the fountains, which is on the road to Timnah’ means that which lies between the truths of the Church and falsities. ‘For she saw that Shelah had grown up, and she had not been given to him as a wife’ means the insight that it could not otherwise be joined to the semblance of religion existing with those descended from Jacob, specifically those descended through Judah.

AC (Elliott) n. 4850 sRef Gen@38 @12 S0′ 4850. ‘The days were multiplied’ means a change of state. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the days being multiplied’ as undergoing a change of state, for ‘day’ or a time in the internal sense means state, 23, 487, 488, 893a, 2788, 3462, 3785, and ‘being multiplied’ when used in reference to days or times means undergoing a change. The fact that a change of state is the meaning is also evident from the details that follow. The expression ‘to be multiplied’ is used because it implies a change of state so far as truths are concerned; for ‘to be multiplied’ is used in reference to truths, 43, 55, 913, 983, 2846, 2847. Since the terms state and change of state are being used time and again, and yet few know what a state or a change of state is, a statement needs to be made about what these are. Neither time and the passage of time nor space and the extension of space can be associated with the interior aspects of the human being – that is to say, with his affections and his thoughts formed by these – because his affections and thoughts are not located in time and place, though to the senses in the world they do seem to be thus located. Rather, they are located in the interior things which correspond to time and place. The things which correspond to them cannot be called anything else than states, for no other term exists to describe the things that correspond to time and place. A change of state in interior things is said to take place when the affections and resulting thoughts in a person’s mind or disposition (mens seu animus) undergo change, as when sadness turns to joy, or joy back to sadness, when ungodliness turns to godliness or devotion, and so on. These changes are called changes of state and are attributable to affections and, insofar as thoughts are governed by these, to thoughts also. But the changes of state which thoughts held within affections undergo are like those of individual parts within their general wholes, compared with which they are variations.

AC (Elliott) n. 4851 sRef Gen@38 @12 S0′ 4851. ‘And Shua’s daughter died’ means so far as evil begotten by falsity was concerned. This is clear from the meaning of ‘dying’ as ceasing to be of such a nature, dealt with in 494, and from the meaning of ‘Shua’s daughter’ as evil begotten by falsity, dealt with above in 4818, 4819. Here therefore ‘Shua’s daughter died’ after ‘the days were multiplied’ – that is, after many days – means a change of state so far as evil begotten by falsity was concerned; this was not as it had previously been.

AC (Elliott) n. 4852 sRef Gen@38 @12 S0′ 4852. ‘The wife of Judah’ means the semblance of religion existing among the nation descended from Jacob, specifically that from Judah. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the wife’ as the Church, dealt with in 252, 253, 409, 749, 770, but here as a semblance of religion because the subject is the Jewish nation, among which no Church existed, only an external shell of a Church separated from anything internal, 4281, 4288, 4289, 4307, 4433, 4500, 4680, 4825, 4844, 4847 (this cannot be called anything else than the semblance of religion, for only external holiness completely devoid of any internal holiness could exist with them, 4293); and from the representation of ‘Judah’ as the nation descended from Jacob, and specifically that descended from Judah, dealt with above in 4815, 4842.

AC (Elliott) n. 4853 sRef Gen@38 @12 S0′ 4853. ‘And he went up to the shearers of his flock’ means some kind of raising up to consult the interests of the Church. This is clear from the meaning of ‘going up’ as being raised up, namely from what is exterior to what is interior, dealt with in 3084, 4539; from the meaning of ‘a shearer’ as use, dealt with in 4110, and so as the wish that a use be served or a consultation in the interests of this; and from the meaning of ‘e flock’ as the Church, dealt with in 343, 3767, 3768, 3772.

AC (Elliott) n. 4854 sRef Gen@38 @12 S0′ 4854. ‘He and his companion Hirah the Adullamite’ means that falsity was present with it still. This is clear from the representation of ‘Hirah the Adullamite’ as falsity, dealt with above in 4816, 4817. When therefore the expression ‘his companion’ is used, the attachment of falsity to that Church is meant, that is, that falsity was present with it still.

AC (Elliott) n. 4855 sRef Judg@14 @2 S0′ sRef Judg@14 @3 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @12 S0′ sRef Judg@14 @4 S0′ sRef Judg@14 @7 S0′ sRef Judg@14 @1 S0′ 4855. ‘To Timnah’ means the state, namely the state when the interests of the Church were consulted. This is also evident from the Book of Judges, where Samson is described as going down to Timnah to take a wife there from the daughters of the Philistines. Judg. 14:1-4, 7. There likewise ‘Timnah’ means a state when the interests of the Church are consulted. The wife he took from the daughters of the Philistines is in the representative sense truth received from what is not good, and so is truth rendered obscure, which is also represented here by ‘Tamar’ – the Philistines being those who have a knowledge of matters of doctrine regarding faith but who do not lead lives in accordance with these, 1197, 1198, 3412, 3413. In addition to this, the name Timnah appears among the places belonging to the inheritance of the tribe of Dan, Josh. 19:43. All place-names in the Word have spiritual realities and states as their meaning, see 1224, 1264, 1888, 3422, 4298, 4442.

AC (Elliott) n. 4856 sRef Gen@38 @13 S0′ 4856. ‘And it was pointed out to Tamar, saying’ means some kind of communication with the Church that was representative of spiritual and celestial things. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being pointed out’ as discernment, dealt with in 3608, and so as communication, here some kind of communication; and from the representation of ‘Tamar’ as the Church that was representative of spiritual and celestial things, dealt with in 4829, 4831. Communication with this Church is a phrase describing what happened when the state underwent a change and there was some kind of a raising up to consult the interests of the Church, dealt with above in 4850, 4853.

AC (Elliott) n. 4857 sRef Gen@38 @13 S0′ 4857. ‘Behold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his flock’ means that the Jewish Church had a wish to consult its own interests. This is clear from the representation of ‘Judah’ as the Church among the nation descended from Jacob, specifically among that descended from Judah, dealt with in 4815, 4842, 4852 (here the expression ‘father-in-law’ is used because there was some kind of communication with the Church that was representative of the spiritual and celestial things meant here by ‘daughter-in-law’); from the meaning of ‘going up’ as some kind of raising up, dealt with just above in 4853; and from the meaning of ‘shearing a flock’ as consulting the interests of the Church, dealt with above in 4853, the state when those interests were consulted being meant by ‘Timnah’, 4855.

[2] Such is the internal sense within these words, but this sense cannot in any way be seen from the letter, for when these descriptions are read the mind thinks of Judah, Timnah, and the shearing of a flock, not of spiritual entities separate from person, place. or worldly use. But living as they do amid spiritual things, angels do not perceive from these descriptions anything else than the spiritual realities that have been mentioned. For when the literal sense passes over into the spiritual sense the things descriptive of person, place, or the world fade and those descriptive of the Church, its state, and the uses served there take their place.

[3] It indeed seems to be unbelievable that all this can be so. But it is so because, as long as a person is living in the world, his thought is based on natural and worldly ideas, not on spiritual or celestial ones. Also, those who are immersed in bodily and earthly interests do not even know of the existence of anything spiritual or anything celestial, let alone that these are distinct and separate from what is worldly or natural, when in fact they are as distinct as a person’s spirit is from his body. Nor do they know that the spiritual sense lives within the literal sense as a person’s spirit does within his body, and that like a person’s spirit the spiritual sense continues to live when the literal sense fades away. Therefore the internal sense may be called the soul of the Word.

AC (Elliott) n. 4858 sRef Gen@38 @14 S0′ 4858. ‘And she took off the clothes of her widowhood from upon her’ means an imitation of truth that springs from good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a widow’ as those with whom truth exists without good but who nevertheless have a desire to be led by good, dealt with in 4844. The clothes worn by a widow represented that kind of truth, for the reason that truths are meant by ‘clothes’, 2576, 4545, 4763, and therefore ‘taking off those clothes’ means laying aside the representation of a widow, that is, of truth existing without good. And because ‘she covered herself with a veil’ an imitating of truth that springs from good is meant.

AC (Elliott) n. 4859 sRef Gen@38 @14 S0′ 4859. ‘And covered herself with a veil’ means the truth was rendered obscure. This is clear from the meaning of ‘covering oneself (that is, covering one’s face) with a veil’ as concealing and so rendering obscure truth which pretended to spring from good, as immediately above in 4858. Tamar did this so that she might become joined to Judah. For when brides first approached their bridegrooms they used to cover themselves with a veil, as one reads of Rebekah doing when she came to Isaac, Gen. 24:65, by which appearances of truth were meant, see 3207. ‘A wife’ means truth and ‘a husband’ good; but because truth as it really is does not show itself before it is joined to its good, therefore – to represent this reality – brides used to cover themselves with a veil when seen for the first time by their husbands. Here Tamar acted in a similar way, for she supposed that Shelah, Judah’s son, should be her husband. But because she had not been given to him she then supposed that his father should perform the duty of a husband’s brother instead. Therefore she covered herself with a veil as a bride would do. She did not cover herself as a whore would have done, though Judah supposed that this was what she was because in those times whores were likewise accustomed to cover their faces, as is evident from verse 15. The reason Judah supposed she was that kind of woman was that the Jewish nation, which is there meant by ‘Judah’, rated the internal truths of the representative Church as low as a whore. Therefore Judah was joined to her as though she were a whore; but Tamar’s joining to him was not like that. Because internal truths could not be seen by that nation in any other way than this, the words used here ‘she covered herself with a veil’ therefore mean that truth was rendered obscure. The fact that the truth of the Church has been rendered obscure to members of that nation is also represented at the present day in their synagogues when they cover themselves with shawls or veils.

[2] Something similar was also represented by the skin on Moses’ face shining when he came down from Mount Sinai, so that he covered himself with a veil every time he spoke to the people, Exod. 34:28-end. Moses represented the Word that is called the Law, see Preface to Chapter 18; and that is why sometimes the expression ‘the Law and the Prophets’ is used, as in Matt. 5:17; 11:13; 22:36, 40, and sometimes ‘Moses and the Prophets’, as in Luke 16:29, 31; 24:27, 44. The skin shining on his face represented the inner reality of the Word, for ‘the face’ means that which is internal, 358, 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796, 4797; for being spiritual, that inner reality dwells in the light of heaven. The veiling of his face every time he spoke to the people represented the fact that for members of that nation internal truth was covered and thus was rendered obscure so that they would not be exposed to any light at all from it.

AC (Elliott) n. 4860 sRef Gen@38 @14 S0′ 4860. ‘And concealed herself’ means and so was not acknowledged. This is clear from the meaning of ‘concealing’ as hiding away, and so as not being acknowledged. See what is said immediately above in 4859.

AC (Elliott) n. 4861 sRef Gen@38 @14 S0′ 4861. ‘And sat in the gate of the fountains, which is on the road to Timnah’ means that which lies between the truths of the Church and falsities. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the fountains’ as the truths of the Church which arise out of the Word, for ‘a fountain’ in the universal sense means the Word, dealt with in 2702, 3096, 3424. ‘In the gate of them’ means at the place of entry into them. And because the external truths which belong to the sense of the letter of the Word serve as the place of entry, these are meant by ‘the gate’. Unless those truths receive light from internal truths, that is, from those which belong to the internal sense, they present themselves as falsities among those governed by evil. Therefore ‘the gate of the fountains’ here means that which lies between the truths of the Church and falsities. ‘On the road to Timnah’ means for the use of the Church, for ‘Timnah’ means a state when the interests of the Church are consulted, 4855, 4857.

AC (Elliott) n. 4862 sRef Gen@38 @14 S0′ 4862. ‘For she saw that Shelah had grown up, and she had not been given to him as a wife’ means the insight that it could not otherwise be joined to the semblance of religion existing among those descended from Jacob, specifically those descended through Judah. This is clear from the meaning of ‘seeing’ as an insight, dealt with in 2150, 2325, 3764, 3863, 4403-4421. The reason this was the insight – that it could not otherwise be joined to the semblance of religion existing among the descendants of Jacob, specifically among those descended through Judah – is that ‘Judah’ means those descendants, 4815, 4842, 4852, and therefore the semblance of religion existing among them, to which it was joined because it could not be joined to Shelah. Also, ‘Shelah’ represents idolatry, 4825, 4826, 4845, to which the truth of the representative Church meant by ‘Tamar’ could not be joined.

AC (Elliott) n. 4863 sRef Gen@38 @16 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @15 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @18 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @17 S0′ 4863. Verses 15-18 And Judah saw her and supposed that she was a prostitute, because she had covered her face. And he turned aside to her at the wayside, and said, Allow me now to come [in] to you; for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, What do you give me for coming [in] to me? And he said, I will send a kid of the she-goats from the flock. And she said, If you give a pledge until you send it. And he said, What is the pledge which I am to give you? And she said, Your seal, your cord, and your rod which is in your hand. And he gave them to her, and came [in] to her; and she conceived from him.

‘Judah saw her’ means the way in which at that time the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation looked on the internal features of the representative Church. ‘And supposed that she was a prostitute’ means that it supposed them to be nothing else than something false. ‘Because she had covered her face’ means that interior things were hidden from them. ‘And he turned aside to her at the wayside’ means that it associated itself because of what it was by nature. ‘And said, Allow me now to come [in] to you’ means a lustful desire to be connected with it. ‘For he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law’ means that it did not see it as the truth of the representative Church. ‘And she said, What do you give me for coming [in] to me?’ means a conditional acceptance to become joined. ‘And he said, I will send a kid of the she-goats from the flock’ means a pledge assuring a joining together. ‘And she said, If you give me a pledge until you send it’ means an acceptance provided it was made a certainty. ‘And he said, What is the pledge that I am to give you?’ means that which made it certain. ‘And she said, Your seal’ means a token of consent. ‘Your cord’ means through truth. ‘And your rod which is in your hand’ means through the power of this. ‘And he gave them to her’ means that in this way it was made certain. ‘And came [in] to her’ means the joining together. ‘And she conceived from him’ means and so reception.

AC (Elliott) n. 4864 sRef Gen@38 @15 S0′ 4864. ‘And Judah saw her’ means the way in which at that time the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation looked on the internal features of the representative Church. This is clear from the meaning of ‘seeing’ as discerning and understanding, dealt with in 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863, and so as looking on; from the representation of Tamar, to whom ‘her’ refers here, as the Church representative of spiritual and celestial things, dealt with in 4829, 4831, at this point as the internal aspect of that Church, for the subject is the way in which it was looked on and accepted by the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation; and from the representation of ‘Judah’ as the Jewish nation specifically, dealt with in 4815, 4842, and from this as the semblance of religion among that nation. For when this nation is mentioned in the Word something to do with that Church is meant in the internal sense. The internal sense has no interest at all in the memorable and historical exploits of a nation, only in what it is like so far as things of the Church are concerned. From this it is evident that ‘Judah saw her’ means the way in which at that time the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation looked on the internal features of the representative Church.

AC (Elliott) n. 4865 sRef Gen@38 @15 S0′ 4865. ‘And supposed that she was a prostitute’ means that it supposed them to be nothing else than something false. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a prostitute’ as that which is false, dealt with in 2466, 2729, 3399, and so as the fact that with its semblance of religion the Jewish nation looked on the internal aspect of the Church as nothing else than something false. The reason ‘a prostitute’ means that which is false is that a marriage represents the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth. The husband represents good and the wife truth, and therefore sons represent truths and daughters forms of good, while a son-in-law and a daughter-in-law, a father-in-law and a mother-in- law, and many others as determined by their degrees of affinity, represent aspects of the heavenly marriage. Therefore, being opposites of these, acts of adultery and prostitution mean evil and falsity, and are in all reality the opposite of them, for people who spend their lives committing adultery or behaving as prostitutes have no concern at all for what is good and true. The reason for this is that genuine conjugial love comes down from the heavenly marriage, that is, from the marriage of good and truth, whereas adultery and prostitution spring from evil and falsity joined together – from hell; see 2727-2759.

[2] The fact that the Jewish nation looked, as also at the present day it looks, on the internal features of the Church as nothing else than falsities is meant by Judah’s supposition that Tamar his daughter-in-law was no one else than a prostitute and by his connection with her as with a prostitute. This origin of that nation represents the origin and also the essential nature of their semblance of religion. It is plain to see that this nation looks on the internal aspect of the Church as a harlot, that is, as something false. For example, if anyone tells them it is an internal truth of the Church that the Messiah, who is foretold in the prophetical parts of the Word and whom they await, is the Lord, they completely reject this as something false. If anyone tells them it is an internal truth of the Church that the Messiah’s kingdom is not a worldly and temporal but a heavenly and eternal one, they declare this too to be something false. If anyone tells them that the ritual observances of their Church represented the Messiah and His heavenly kingdom they have no idea what this is.

[3] If anyone tells them that the internal aspect of the Church is the good of charity and the truth of faith, both in doctrine and at the same time in life, they regard this as nothing else than a falsity. And so it is with every other truth told them. Indeed at the mere suggestion of an internal aspect of the Church they laugh nonsensically. The reason for this is that they are immersed solely in things of an external nature, and indeed in the lowest of these, which consist in the love of earthly things; for more than all others they are steeped in avarice, which is utterly worldly. Such people cannot possibly look on the interior features of the Church in any other way, since they are further removed than all others from the light of heaven, and so more than all others dwell in thickest darkness.

AC (Elliott) n. 4866 sRef Gen@38 @15 S0′ 4866. ‘Because she had covered her face’ means that interior things were hidden from them. This is clear from the representation of ‘Tamar’ as the representative Church, dealt with in 4829, 4831; from the meaning of ‘covering’ as being hidden; and from the meaning of ‘the face’ as internal things, dealt with in 358, 1999, 2434, 3527, 3573, 4066, 4326, 4796-4799. From this it is evident that ‘she covered her face’ means that the interior things of the Church were hidden from them. Regarding these, see above in 4859, 4865.

AC (Elliott) n. 4867 sRef Gen@38 @16 S0′ 4867. ‘And he turned aside to her at the wayside’ means that it associated itself because of what it was by nature. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the way’ as truth, dealt with in 627, 2333, 3123, 3142, 3477, and so in the contrary sense as falsity. Falsity is meant here because he supposed that she was a prostitute, by whom falsity is meant; see just above in 4865. For the same reason it is also said that ‘he turned aside’ at the wayside, for ‘turning aside’ is used in reference to falsity, 4815, 4816.

AC (Elliott) n. 4868 sRef Gen@38 @16 S0′ 4868. ‘And said, Allow me now to come [in] to you’ means a lustful desire to be connected with it. This is clear from the meaning of ‘coming (or going in) to someone’ as being joined to, dealt with in 4820. The meaning here – a lustful desire like that involved in connection with a prostitute, by whom falsity is meant in the internal sense – is self-evident. For the Jewish nation, meant here by ‘Judah’, 4815, 4842, 4864, looked on the internal truth of the representative Church, and still looks on it at the present day, as nothing else than falsity, see above in 4865. Dealt with here is the fact that it nevertheless linked itself to that truth, not however as a wife but as a prostitute; that is, it did not link itself to it as truth but as falsity. The expression ‘a lustful desire’ is used to describe a link with falsity that is like a connection with a prostitute.

[2] All who believe solely the external sense of the Word, that is, its literal sense, and completely cast aside the whole internal – that is, spiritual – sense link themselves to internal truth as to a prostitute. This is above all the case among those who employ the external or literal sense of the Word to lend support to the desires that belong to their self-love and love of the world, that is, the desires for rule and gain. Those who behave like this cannot do other than look on internal truth in that kind of way; and if they attach themselves to it they do so with a lustful desire, like that for connection with a prostitute. Members of the Jewish nation in particular do this, and so also do those meant in the Word by Babel. But those people are different who do, it is true, have a simple belief in the literal sense of the Word, yet lead lives in keeping with what is contained in the internal sense. That is to say, they are people with whom love and charity exist, and also faith derived from these (for these three are the subject in the internal sense of the Word); also they are people who base their teachings on these. For the internal sense and the external sense come together in the two commandments, to love the Lord above all things and one’s neighbour as oneself.

[3] Let some examples show that the Jewish nation regards internal truth as a prostitute, and that if it associates itself with that truth it does so from a lustful desire akin to that for a connection with that kind of woman. If, for example, they are told that the Word is holy, indeed most holy, and also that every part of a letter there is holy, they acknowledge and associate themselves with what is said; yet they do so from that kind of lustful desire. For they believe that holiness lies within the actual letter of the Word and not that holiness is something which enters by means of the Word when people with an affection for what is good and true read it.

[4] If they are told that many of those mentioned in the Word are to be revered as holy ones – such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, or David – they acknowledge and associate themselves with this. But they do so from a like lustful desire, for they believe that these historical figures were chosen in preference to others and are on that account holy ones, who ought therefore to be worshipped as gods. Any holiness attached to these figures however is due solely to the fact that they represented the Lord. No one by being a holy representative undergoes a change of personality; indeed one can go further and say that without exception everyone’s life after death is the same as before it.

[5] If they are told that the ark among them, the temple, the altar of burnt offering, the altar of incense, the bread on the table, the lampstand with its lamps, the continual fire, the sacrifices, the incense, the oil, and also Aaron’s vestments, especially the breastplate with the urim and thummim on it, were holy, they acknowledge this and associate themselves with it, but from the same kind of lustful desire. For they believe that all these objects were inherently holy, thus that wood, stone, gold, silver, bread, and fire were so; they believe that they had holiness in them because Jehovah was within them. That is to say, they believe that the holiness of Jehovah which was attached to these objects resided in actual fact within them. This is their internal truth, which however is falsity when compared with genuine truth; for holiness exists solely within good and truth which, being from the Lord, reside within love to Him and love towards the neighbour, and from these within faith. It accordingly exists only within the living, that is, within those who accept these gifts from the Lord.

[6] If they are told that the Christian Church is one with the Church that was established among them but that the Christian was internal whereas theirs was external, so that when the external features of the Church established among them are peeled away and it is laid bare, the Christian Church is seen, they do not acknowledge this truth as anything else than a harlot, that is, as something false. Nevertheless many of them who are converted from Judaism to Christianity associate themselves with this truth; but they do so from a lustful desire. Many times in the Word these kinds of things are called acts of whoredom. As regards those however who are meant in the Word by ‘Babylon’, they likewise look in a similar way on the internal truths of the Church; yet because they have a knowledge of internal things, and in addition acknowledge these during childhood but in adult life refuse to do so, they are described in the Word by means of foul acts of adultery and unmentionable sexual unions; for they are forms of profanation.

AC (Elliott) n. 4869 sRef Gen@38 @16 S0′ 4869. ‘For he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law’ means that it did not see it as the truth of the representative Church. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a daughter-in-law’ as the truth of the Church linked to its good, dealt with in 4843. The reason the truth of the representative Church is meant is that Tamar, to whom ‘his daughter-in-law’ refers here, represents the Church that was representative of spiritual and celestial things, 4829, 4831. Regarding these matters, see what has been shown above in 4865, 4866, 4868.

AC (Elliott) n. 4870 sRef Gen@38 @16 S0′ 4870. ‘And she said, What do you give me for coming [in] to me?’ means a conditional acceptance to become joined. This is clear from the meaning of ‘coming [in] to me’ as a joining together, dealt with in 4820, 4868. The fact that a conditional acceptance is meant is evident without explanation.

AC (Elliott) n. 4871 sRef Judg@15 @1 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @17 S0′ 4871. ‘And he said, I will send a kid of the she-goats from the flock’ means a pledge assuring a joining together. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a kid of the she-goats’ as innocence present in the external or natural man, dealt with in 3519; and being innocence it is a pledge of conjugial love or a pledge assuring a joining together, for genuine conjugial love consists in innocence, see 2736. From this arose the custom received from the ancients that when they went in once again to their wives men would send ahead of them ‘a kid of the she-goats’, as is also evident from what is recorded concerning Samson in the Book of Judges,

It happened after a while,* in the days of the wheat harvest, that Samson visited his wife with a kid of the she-goats; for he said, I will go in to my wife into the chamber. Judg 15:1.

Much the same situation is described here in Genesis; but as the promised kid of the she-goats was not going to be accepted by her, Tamar asked for a pledge. The expression ‘pledge assuring a joining together’ is used, not a conjugial pledge, because on Judah’s side the joining together was as it is with a prostitute.
* lit. after days

AC (Elliott) n. 4872 sRef Gen@38 @17 S0′ 4872. ‘And she said, If you give me a pledge until you send it’ means an acceptance provided it was made a certainty. This is clear from the words above spoken by Tamar, ‘What do you give me for coming [in] to me?’ which mean a conditional acceptance to become joined, 4870. But now an acceptance provided the same was made a certainty is meant, because the purpose of the pledge was to make certain that what was promised would be given.

AC (Elliott) n. 4873 sRef Gen@38 @18 S0′ 4873. ‘[And he said’] What is the pledge that I am to give you?’ means that which made it certain. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the pledge’ as that which served to make it a certainty, dealt with immediately above in 4872. This meaning – that which made it certain – is also evident from what follows next regarding the pledge that was given.

AC (Elliott) n. 4874 sRef Gen@38 @18 S0′ 4874. ‘And she said, Your seal’ means a token of consent. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a seal’ as a token of consent. The reason ‘a seal’ means a token of consent is that in ancient times decrees were authenticated by means of one, and therefore ‘a seal’ strictly speaking means authentication itself, and so a witness to the truth of the matter. Tamar’s demand for his seal, cord, and rod as a pledge that the kid of the she-goats (which subsequently she did not accept) would be sent holds an arcanum which cannot in any way be known without the internal sense. The arcanum is this: ‘A kid of the she-goats’ meant that which belonged to genuine marriage, and consequently meant everything internal, for everything genuine is at the same time something internal. But nothing like this existed on Judah’s side, and therefore, as is evident from what follows, Tamar did not accept the kid of the she-goats, but instead took something external with which the internal aspect of the Church, meant by ‘Tamar’, could be joined. The external aspect of the Church is meant by the seal, cord, and rod – actual consent by ‘the seal’, external truth by ‘the cord’, and the power of that truth by ‘the rod’. These are also pledges assuring a joining to the external or natural man.

[2] The joining of internal truth to something external, that is, to the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation, is represented by Tamar’s being joined to Judah as a daughter-in-law joined to her father-in-law under the pretext that the duty of a near kinsman was being performed. But the joining of the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation to the internal aspect of the Church is represented by Judah’s being joined to Tamar as to a prostitute. This is exactly what these joinings together are like, but it is not so easy to give an intelligible explanation of the essential nature of them. Their essential nature is laid quite bare before the eyes of angels and good spirits, for it is set before them in the light of heaven. In this light the arcana of the Word are laid bare in broad daylight so to speak, quite unlike their appearance in the light of the world which man sees by. Let just a brief word be said about this. The representatives which had been established among the descendants of Jacob were not exactly the same as those which existed in the Ancient Church. For the most part they were like those in the Church established by Eber, which was called the Hebrew Church. Within this Church many new forms of worship existed, such as burnt offerings and sacrifices, which had been unknown in the Ancient Church, and other forms besides these. To these representatives the internal aspect of the Church was not linked in the way it had been to the representatives of the Ancient Church. But in what way the internal aspect of the Church was linked to the representatives among the Jewish nation, and these representatives to that internal aspect, is described in the internal sense by Tamar’s being joined to Judah as a daughter-in-law to her father-in-law under the pretext that the duty of a near kinsman was being performed, and by Judah’s being joined to Tamar as to a prostitute. Regarding the Hebrew Church, see 1238, 1241, 1327, 1343, 3031, 4516, 4517; and for information about the sacrifices offered in this Church not being a feature of the Ancient Church, 923, 1128, 1343, 2180, 2818.

AC (Elliott) n. 4875 sRef Gen@38 @18 S0′ sRef Num@19 @15 S0′ 4875. ‘Your cord’ means through truth, that is to say, truth accompanying the token of consent. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a cord’ as truth. The reason ‘a cord’ means truth is that it is one of the items associated with ‘garments’, and ‘garments’ in general means truths, for the reason that as garments clothe the flesh, so truths clothe good, 297, 2132, 2576, 4545, 4763. Among the ancients therefore whatever clothing they wore meant some specific or individual truth. Consequently a tunic had one meaning, a chlamys another, and a toga another; also coverings for the head, such as a turban and a mitre, had one meaning, coverings for the thighs and feet, such as breeches, stockings, and so on, had another meaning. But ‘a cord’ meant outermost or lowest truth, for it was made from threads twisted together, by which the final demarcation of that kind of truth was meant. This kind of truth is again meant by ‘e cord’ in Moses,

Every open vessel on which there is no covering [or] cord [to fasten it] is unclean. Num. 19:15.

By this was meant that nothing should exist without having an outer limit, for that which does not have an outer limit is ‘open’. Furthermore outermost truths serve as the outer limit and terminus of interior truths.

AC (Elliott) n. 4876 sRef Gen@38 @18 S0′ 4876. ‘And your rod which is in your hand’ means through the power of this, that is, of this truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a rod’ as power, dealt with below; and from the meaning of ‘the hand’ too as power, dealt with in 876, 3091, 3387, 3563. The phrase ‘which is in your hand’ is used because the power of that truth, namely lowest truth, is meant, like that present with the semblance of religion among the Jewish nation, meant here by ‘Judah’. Regarding the attribution of power to truth, see 3091, 3563. Frequent mention is made in the Word of ‘a rod’, yet surprisingly few at the present day know that something in the spiritual world was represented by it, as for instance when Moses was commanded, every time a miracle was performed, to lift up his rod and so it was accomplished. The existence of such knowledge even among gentiles may be recognized from their myths in which rods are assigned to magicians. The reason ‘a rod’ means power is that it is a support, for it gives support to the hand and arm, and through these to the whole body. This being so, a rod takes on the meaning of the part to which it immediately gives support, namely that of the hand and the arm, both of which mean in the Word the power of truth. Also, the hand and arm correspond to that power in the Grand Man, as will be seen at the ends of chapters.

sRef Ex@10 @11 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @16 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@4 @17 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @14 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @13 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @15 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @15 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @17 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @16 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @13 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @8 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @7 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @10 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @11 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @21 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @18 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @17 S2′ sRef Ex@14 @21 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @6 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @5 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @14 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @4 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @19 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @5 S2′ sRef Ex@7 @19 S2′ sRef Ex@7 @15 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @3 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @10 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @20 S2′ sRef Ex@9 @23 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @6 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @7 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @8 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @13 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@14 @27 S2′ sRef Ex@4 @20 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @18 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @19 S2′ sRef Ex@8 @20 S2′ sRef Ex@7 @20 S2′ sRef Ex@14 @26 S2′ sRef Ex@10 @22 S2′ [2] That ‘a rod’ represented power is evident, as has been stated, from what is recorded about Moses,

He was commanded to take a rod and use it to perform miracles; so he took the rod of God in his hand. Exod. 4:17, 20.

When the waters in Egypt were struck with the rod, they turned to blood.
Exod. 7:15, 19.

When the rod was stretched out over the streams, frogs came forth. Exod. 8:5-15.

When the dust was struck by the use of the rod, it turned into lice. Exod. 8:16-20.

When the rod was stretched out towards heaven, hail fell. Exod. 9:23.

When the rod was stretched out over the earth, locusts came forth. Exod. 10:3-21.

Since ‘the hand’, which means power, comes first, while ‘a rod’ is merely its instrument, the following references to ‘the hand’ also occur:

The miracles happened when Moses’ hand was stretched out. Exod. 10:12, 13. When he stretched out his hand towards heaven, thick darkness came over the land of Egypt. Exod. 10:21, 22. When he stretched out his hand over the Sea Suph, an east wind made the sea dry land; and when again he stretched out his hand, the waters returned. Exod. 14:21, 26, 27.

sRef Ex@17 @9 S3′ sRef Ex@17 @11 S3′ sRef Ex@17 @5 S3′ sRef Ex@17 @6 S3′ [3] Reference is in addition made to the rod being used to strike the rock at Horeb, after which water flowed out, Exod. 17:5, 6; Num. 20:7-10. Also, when Joshua was about to fight against Amalek,

Moses said to Joshua, Choose men for us, and go out, fight with Amalek; tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill, with God’s rod in my hand. And it happened, that when Moses lifted up his hand, Israel prevailed, and when he let down his hand Amalek prevailed. Exod 17:9-11.

From these references it is quite plain that ‘a rod’, like the hand, represented power, and in the highest sense the Lord’s Divine almighty power. It is also evident that at that time representatives constituted the external features of the Church, and that its internal features – which were spiritual and celestial realities such as exist in heaven – corresponded to those external ones, which owed their efficacy to that correspondence. From this it is also evident how crazy those people are who believe that power had been infused into and therefore dwelt in Moses’ rod or hand.

sRef Isa@3 @1 S4′ [4] The meaning in the spiritual sense of ‘a rod’ as power is also evident from many places in the Prophets, as in Isaiah,

Behold, the Lord Jehovah Zebaoth is taking away from Jerusalem rod and stay, the whole rod of bread, and the whole rod of water. Isa. 3:1.

‘The rod of bread’ stands for the support and power provided by the good of love, ‘the rod of water’ for the support and power provided by the truth of faith. For ‘bread’ means the good of love, see 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735; and ‘water’ the truth of faith’ 28, 680, 739, 2702, 3058, 3424. ‘The rod of bread’ is used with a similar meaning in Ezekiel 4:16; 5:16; 14:13; Ps. 105:16.

sRef Isa@10 @26 S5′ sRef Isa@10 @24 S5′ [5] In addition to this, in Isaiah,

The Lord, Jehovih Zebaoth, said, Do not be afraid – O My people, inhabitant of Zion – of Asshur, who will smite you with a stick and will lift up the rod over you in the way of Egypt. Jehovah will lift up the scourge against him, as when Midian was smitten in the rock of Oreb, and his rod will be over the sea, which he will lift up in the way of Egypt. Isa. 10:24, 26.

Here ‘the rod’ stands for power provided by reasoning and knowledge, like that which those people possess who, with ideas based on factual knowledge, reason against the truths of faith and pervert these or else treat them as worthless. This is what is meant by ‘the stick with which Asshur will smite’ and by ‘the rod which he will lift up in the way of Egypt’. For ‘Asshur’ means reasoning, see 1186, and ‘Egypt’ knowledge, 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462.

sRef Isa@36 @6 S6′ sRef Zech@10 @11 S6′ sRef Isa@14 @5 S6′ [6] Similarly in Zechariah,

The pride of Asshur will be thrown down, and the rod of Egypt will depart. Zech. 10:11.

In Isaiah,

You relied on the rod of a bruised reed, on Egypt, which, when anyone leans on it, goes into his hand and pierces it. Isa. 36:6.

‘Egypt’ stands for factual knowledge, as above; and power in spiritual things which is received from that knowledge is meant by ‘the rod of a bruised reed’. By ‘the hand which it enters and pierces’ is meant power received from the Word. In the same prophet,

Jehovah has broken the rod of the wicked, the stick of those who have dominion. Isa. 14:5

‘The rod’ and ‘the stick’ plainly stand for power.

sRef Jer@48 @17 S7′ [7] In Jeremiah,

Grieve, all regions surrounding Moab; say, How is the rod of strength, the rod of beauty, broken! Jer 48:17.

‘The rod of strength’ stands for power received from good, and ‘the rod of beauty’ for power received from truth.

sRef Ps@125 @3 S8′ sRef Hos@4 @12 S8′ sRef Ps@23 @4 S8′ [8] In Hosea,

My people enquire of their piece of wood, and their rod gives them a reply, for the spirit of whoredom has led them astray. Hosea 4:12.

‘Inquiring of a piece of wood’ stands for consulting evils, ‘the rod gives reply’ for the fact that falsity results from these, its power being derived from the evil to which they give support. ‘The spirit of whoredom’ stands for the life of falsity resulting from evil. In David,

Even when I walk in the valley of the shadow I will fear no evil; for You are with me; Your stick and Your rod comfort me. Ps. 23:4.

‘Your stick and your rod’ stands for Divine truth and good, which have power. In the same author,

The rod of the wicked will not rest on the lot of the righteous. Ps. 125:3.

sRef Rev@2 @26 S9′ sRef Ps@2 @9 S9′ sRef Rev@2 @27 S9′ [9] In the same author,

You will break them in pieces with a stick of iron, you will dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel. Ps. 2:9.

‘A stick of iron’ stands for the power of spiritual truth within the natural, for all natural truth that has spiritual truth present within it possesses power. ‘Iron’ means natural truth, 425, 426. Similarly in John,

He who overcomes, and keeps My works until the end, to him I will give power over the nations to rule* them untie a stick of iron as when earthen pots are broken in pieces. Rev. 2:26, 27. (Also Rev. 12:5; 19:15.)

[10] Because ‘a rod’ represented the power of truth, that is, the power of good expressed by means of truth, kings therefore had sceptres; and those sceptres were shaped like short rods. For kings represent the Lord as regards truth, while kingship itself means Divine Truth, 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3670, 4581. The sceptre means the power which is theirs not by virtue of their high position but of truth which must reign. Nor must this be any other kind of truth than that which is grounded in good, and so is primarily Divine Truth, and among Christians is the Lord, the source of all Divine Truth.
* lit. pasture

AC (Elliott) n. 4877 sRef Gen@38 @18 S0′ 4877. ‘And he gave them to her’ means that in this way it was made certain. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the pledge’ which Tamar demanded and which was given to her, as that it was made certain, dealt with above in 4872, 4873.

AC (Elliott) n. 4878 sRef Gen@38 @18 S0′ 4878. ‘And came [in] to her’ means the joining together. This is clear from the meaning of ‘coming (or going in) to someone’ as a joining together, also dealt with above, in 4820, 4868, 4870.

AC (Elliott) n. 4879 sRef Gen@38 @18 S0′ 4879. ‘And she conceived from him’ means and so reception. This is clear from the meaning of ‘conceiving’ as reception, dealt with in 3860, 3868, 3919. But as to the nature of that reception, see above in 4874.

AC (Elliott) n. 4880 sRef Gen@38 @23 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @19 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @21 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @20 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @22 S0′ 4880. Verses 19-23 And she rose up and went, and took off her veil from upon her and put on the clothes of her widowhood. And Judah sent the kid of the she-goats by the hand of his companion the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand; and he did not find her. And he asked the men of her place, saying, Where is the harlot in the fountains on the wayside? And they said, There has been no harlot there. And he returned to Judah and said, I did not find her; and also the men of the place said, There has been no harlot there. And Judah said, Let her keep [them]; maybe we shall be put to shame. Behold, I sent this kid, and you did not find her.

‘She rose up’ means a raising up. ‘And went’ means life. ‘And took off her veil from upon her’ means the obscurity. ‘And put on the clothes of her widowhood’ means intelligence. ‘And Judah sent the kid of the she-goats’ means a conjugial pledge. ‘By the hand of his companion the Adullamite’ means by means of falsity. ‘To receive the pledge from the woman’s hand’ means instead of external pledges. ‘And he did not find her’ means because nothing of marriage existed on his side. ‘And he asked the men of her place, saying’ means that truths were consulted. ‘Where is the harlot?’ means as to whether it was something false. ‘In the fountains on the wayside’ means that had the appearance of being something true. ‘And they said’ means perception received from truths. ‘There has been no harlot there’ means that it was not something false. ‘And he resumed to Judah’ means reflection. ‘And said, I did not find her’ means that by falsity this cannot be discovered. ‘And also the men of the place said, There has been no harlot there’ means perception received from truths that it was not something false. ‘And Judah said, Let her keep [them]’ means that he was no longer interested. ‘Maybe we shall be put to shame’ means even though subject to reproach. ‘Behold, I sent this kid’ means it is enough that a pledge exists. ‘And you did not find her’ means even if nothing of marriage exists.

AC (Elliott) n. 4881 sRef Gen@38 @19 S0′ 4881. ‘And she rose up’ means a raising up. This is clear from the meaning of ‘rising up’ as implying some kind of raising up, dealt with in 2401, 2785, 2912, 2927, 3171, 4103. The raising up meant by ‘rising up’ describes in the spiritual sense a raising up from an obscure state into a clearer one, such as from a state of being without knowledge into a state of intelligence; for when this happens a person is raised from a state of the light of the world into a state of the light of heaven.

AC (Elliott) n. 4882 sRef Gen@38 @19 S0′ 4882. ‘And went’ means life. This is clear from the meaning of ‘going’ as living, dealt with in 3335, 3690. This meaning of ‘going’ in the internal sense as living does indeed seem quite remote from or unrelated to ideas man has which constitute his thought. The reason for this is that man dwells within space and time, and with these has formed the ideas comprising his thought, such as the idea of going, advancing, setting out, sojourning, or moving on. Now because these actions occur within both space and time, and as a consequence space and time have become embedded in ideas of those actions, man therefore finds it difficult to grasp that states of life are meant. But when his idea of those actions is relieved or divested of spatial and temporal elements the spiritual reality that is meant leaps out. For in the spiritual world or heaven nothing at all spatial or temporal enters the ideas they have, but instead aspects of a state of life, 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837, 3356, 3404, 3827, 4814. It does indeed appear to spirits and angels that they too move about, going from one place to another, and indeed exactly in the same way as it appears so to men. All the same, it is the changes taking place in their state of life that are responsible for this appearance. To them also, no less than to men, the appearance is that they live self-dependently, when in fact they do not live self-dependently but are dependent on the Lord’s Divine, the source of every spark of life. Among angels these appearances are called real ones, because they seem in all reality to exist.

[2] I have on occasions spoken to spirits about these appearances, but those who are not governed by good, nor consequently by truth, do not wish to listen when told it is but an appearance that they live self-dependently; for their wish is to live self-dependently. But in addition to showing them from actual experience that they do not lead self-dependent lives and that every advance made from one place to another is a change to, and an advance made in, their state of life, I have also told them that for them it may be sufficient for them to know no other than that they live self-dependently, and that their life would be life no more if they did not live self-dependency. It would nevertheless be better for them to know what the situation really is, for in that case they would have the truth; and if they have the truth they also dwell in the light of heaven, since the light of heaven is the truth itself which flows from the Lord’s Divine. Furthermore, if the truth existed with them in this way they would not claim that good was their own, nor would evil cling to them. Angels possessing that truth do not merely know it; they also have a perception of it.

[3] Intervals of time and space in the spiritual world are states of life, and every spark of life has its origin in the Lord, as the following experience may show. Each spirit and angel sees on his right those who are good and on his left those who are evil; this is so in whatever direction he turns himself. If he turns and looks eastwards he sees the good to the right and the evil to the left. The same happens if he turns and looks to the west, and likewise to the south or the north. This is the case with every spirit or angel, so that if there were two, and one of these turned and looked to the east and the other did so to the west, each would still see the good on his right and the evil on his left. Those far removed from, even behind the backs of, those who behold them are seen in those unchanging positions. From these considerations one may deduce clearly that every spark of life has its origin in the Lord, that is, that the Lord is within the life of everyone; for in the spiritual world the Lord is seen as the Sun, the good or sheep being on His right, and the evil or goats on His left. The same is therefore the case with each spirit or angel, for the reason, as stated, that the Lord exists in every spark of life. This is bound to look like a paradox to man, for as long as he is in the world man has ideas that are formed from worldly things, and therefore from what is spatial and temporal. But as stated above, in the spiritual world no ideas are formed from what is spatial and temporal but from the state belonging to affections and the thoughts flowing from these. It is for this reason also that the intervals of space and time in the Word mean states.

AC (Elliott) n. 4883 sRef Gen@38 @19 S0′ 4883. ‘And took off her veil from upon her’ means the obscurity; that is to say this was dispelled. This is clear from the meaning of ‘covering oneself with a veil’ as rendering truth obscure, dealt with above in 4859, and therefore ‘faking off the veil’ as dispelling that obscurity.

AC (Elliott) n. 4884 sRef Gen@38 @19 S0′ 4884. ‘And put on the clothes of her widowhood’ means intelligence. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a widow’ as one with whom truth exists without good but who nevertheless desires to be led by good, dealt with above in 4844; and from the meaning of ‘clothes’ as truths, dealt with in 297, 2576, 4545, 4763. The reason why these taken together mean intelligence is that nothing else than truths constitute intelligence, for those in possession of truths rooted in good possess intelligence. Indeed truths rooted in good enable the human understanding to dwell in the light of heaven, and the light of heaven is intelligence because Divine Truth rooted in Divine Good constitutes it. Also, a further reason why ‘putting on the clothes of widowhood’ here means intelligence is that ‘a widow’ in the genuine sense means one with whom truth exists and who desires to be led by good to truth that constitutes intelligence, as also shown above in 4844, and so to intelligence itself.

[2] To enable the implications of all this to be seen a brief explanation is necessary. When a person knows the truth it is not truth constituting intelligence until he is led by good; but when he is led by good it starts to become the truth of intelligence. For truth does not receive its life from itself but from good; and truth receives its life from good when the person lives in conformity with that truth. When he does this, truth injects itself into the intentions of his will, and from these into his actions, and so into the entire person. Truth that is merely known or grasped intellectually by a person remains excluded from his will, and so from his life since the intentions of a person’s will constitute his life. But once he is intent on truth it stands at the gateway into his life; and when he is intent on it and therefore practices it, that truth is present within the entire person. Then, when his practice of that truth is frequent its reappearance is attributable not merely to habit but also to an affection for it and so to a free desire to practise it. Let anyone at all consider whether anything can be taken in by a person apart from that which he is intent on putting into practice. That which he merely thinks about but does not actually do, more so that which he thinks about but does not wish to do, is nothing else than something which remains excluded from that person, and is also driven away like a straw by the smallest puff of wind, and is actually blown away in that manner in the next life. From this one can know what faith without works is. These considerations now show what truth constituting intelligence is, namely truth which is rooted in good. Truth is the characteristic feature of the understanding and good that of the will; or what amounts to the same, truth is the substance of doctrine and good that of life.

AC (Elliott) n. 4885 4885. ‘And Judah sent the kid of the she-goats’ means a conjugial pledge. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the kid of the she-goats’ as a pledge of conjugial love or a pledge assuring a joining together, dealt with above in 4871.

AC (Elliott) n. 4886 4886. ‘By the hand of his companion the Adullamite’ means by means of falsity. This is clear from the representation of ‘Hirah the Adullamite’ – who was Judah’s companion – as falsity, dealt with in 4817, 4854.

AC (Elliott) n. 4887 4887. ‘To receive the pledge from the woman’s hand’ means instead of external pledges. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the seal, cord, and rod’, which were ‘the pledge’, as pledges of a joining to the external or natural man, and so as external pledges, dealt with in 4874.

AC (Elliott) n. 4888 4888. ‘And he did not find her’ means because nothing of marriage existed on his – Judah’s – side. For he did not go in to her as to a wife but as to a prostitute, on account of which Tamar did not want the kid of the she-goats, by which a conjugial pledge was meant, 4885. There was nothing of genuine marriage even on Tamar’s side, for she joined herself as a daughter-in-law to her father-in-law under the pretext that the duty of a near kinsman was being performed. This is the meaning of the words ‘he did not find her’.

AC (Elliott) n. 4889 sRef Gen@38 @21 S0′ 4889. ‘And he asked the men of her place’ means that truths were consulted. This is clear from the meaning of ‘asking’ as consulting, and from the meaning of ‘the men’ as truths, dealt with in 265, 749, 1007, 3134, 3309. ‘The men of the place’ means truths connected with the state belonging to the matter, for ‘place’ means state, 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387.

AC (Elliott) n. 4890 sRef Gen@38 @21 S0′ 4890. ‘Where is the harlot?’ means as to whether it was something false. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the harlot’ or the prostitute as something false, dealt with in 4865.

AC (Elliott) n. 4891 sRef Gen@38 @21 S0′ 4891. ‘In the fountains on the wayside’ means that had the appearance of being something true. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the fountains’ as the truths of the Church, dealt with in 2702, 3096, 3424, 4861. The expression ‘on the wayside’ is used because ‘way’ has reference to truth, and in the contrary sense to falsity, 627, 2333, 3123, 3142. And because he asked, ‘Where is the harlot in the fountains on the wayside?’ the meaning is, Was it something false having the appearance of being something true?

AC (Elliott) n. 4892 sRef Gen@38 @21 S0′ 4892. ‘And they said’ means perception received from truths. This is clear from the meaning of ‘saying’ in the historical descriptions of the Word as perceiving, dealt with in 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2619, 2862, 3509. Perception received from truths is meant because it was ‘the men of the place’ who spoke – ‘the men of the place’ meaning truths, see just above in 4889.

AC (Elliott) n. 4893 sRef Gen@38 @21 S0′ 4893. ‘There has been no harlot there’ means that it was not something false. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a harlot’ or a prostitute as something false, as above in 4890. What train of thought runs through the expressions, of which until now only explanations of their individual meanings has been given, may be to a certain extent evident from what has been stated above in 4865, 4868, 4874. They are, what is more, the kind of matters that are unintelligible unless one knows what the joining together of internal truth and the external of the Jewish Church is like – both on the side of the internal truth represented by ‘Tamar’ and that of the external represented by ‘Judah’. Because these are matters about which nothing at all is known, any further explanation of them would enter the unlit parts of the mind, and so where no ideas exist to understand them; for the understanding, which is the power of sight the internal man possesses, has its own lit and unlit parts. The unlit are the parts where things enter that do not conform in any way at all with anything of which the mind already has some conception. Nevertheless each specific meaning in the train of thought so far, together with countless matters which man cannot even begin to comprehend, enter with clarity the lit parts of angels’ understandings. From this one may see what angelic intelligence is like and how much greater it is compared with that of men.

AC (Elliott) n. 4894 sRef Gen@38 @22 S0′ 4894. ‘And he returned to Judah’ means reflection. This becomes clear from the fact that ‘the Adullamite, Judah’s companion’ means falsity, 4817, 4854, 4886, and when falsity is said ‘to return’ and, as Judah’s companion does here, to report what had happened, nothing else is meant than a recalling to mind and reflection on what the situation is.

AC (Elliott) n. 4895 sRef Gen@38 @22 S0′ 4895. ‘And said, I did not find her’ means that by falsity this cannot be discovered. This is clear from the meaning of ‘I did not find’ as not discovering; and because these words are spoken by the Adullamite who means falsity, as above in 4894, it follows that ‘he said, I did not find her’ means that falsity was unable to discover it, or that by falsity this cannot be discovered.

AC (Elliott) n. 4896 sRef Gen@38 @22 S0′ 4896. ‘And also the men of the place said, There has been no harlot there’ means perception received from truths that it was not something false. This is clear from what is said just above in 4892, 4893, where similar words occur.

AC (Elliott) n. 4897 sRef Gen@38 @23 S0′ 4897. ‘And Judah said, Let her keep [them]’ means that he was no longer interested. This becomes clear from the emotional content of the words as annoyance and lack of further interest.

AC (Elliott) n. 4898 sRef Gen@38 @23 S0′ 4898. ‘Maybe we shall be put to shame’ means even though subject to reproach. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being put to shame’ as being subject to reproach.

AC (Elliott) n. 4899 sRef Gen@38 @23 S0′ 4899. ‘Behold, I sent this kid’ means it is enough that a pledge exists. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a kid of the she-goats’ as a pledge of conjugial love or of one assuring a joining together, dealt with in 4871, in this case simply a pledge since the kid was not accepted for the reason given already, that nothing of marriage existed. And because it was not for that reason accepted, ‘you did not find her’ therefore means even if nothing of marriage exists. This also ensues from the lack of interest referred to in 4897. Any further explanation of these matters is abandoned here for the reason given above in 4893, namely that it would enter the unlit parts of the understanding, and any ideas entering those unlit parts enter where no belief is present. For example the idea that something of marriage must be present if the Church is to exist; that is to say, the idea that some marriage must exist between truth and good. Also, the idea that what is internal must be present within what is external, and that without this and the previous requirement no Church at all exists. It is the exact nature of these realities within the Jewish Church that forms the subject here in the internal sense. That is to say, this sense deals with how, so far as that nation itself was concerned, nothing internal within what was external existed, but so far as their actual statutes and laws were concerned, something internal existed within these.

[2] Does anyone at the present day believe anything other than this, that the Church existed among the Jewish nation, indeed that this nation was chosen and loved in preference to all others, the chief reasons for such belief being that so many and such great miracles were performed among that nation, so many prophets were sent to it, and also the Word existed among it? Yet that nation possessed nothing at all of the Church within it, for no charity existed there; of what genuine charity was they were completely unaware. Nor did any faith in the Lord exist there. It knew that He was to make His coming, but believed that this was to set it above all people throughout the world. As this did not happen it rejected Him altogether. Of His heavenly kingdom it had no wish to know anything at all. The things which constitute the internal features of the Church were not even acknowledged in what that nation taught, let alone in its life. From all this one can only conclude that no Church at all existed within that nation.

[3] It is one thing for the Church to exist among a nation, and another for the Church to exist within a nation. For example, the Christian Church exists among those who have the Word and use doctrine to preach about the Lord. Yet no Church at all exists within them if no marriage of good and truth is present in them, that is, if charity towards the neighbour and faith rooted in this is not present in them, thus if the internal features of the Church are not present within the external ones. Those with whom solely external features separated from internal are present do not have the Church within them. Nor do those with whom faith separated from charity is present have the Church within them. Neither do those who acknowledge the Lord in their teachings but not in life have the Church within them. From this example it is evident that it is one thing for the Church to exist among a nation, and another for it to do so within a nation.

[4] The subject in the internal sense of this chapter is the Church among the Jewish nation and within that nation. The essential nature of the Church existing among that nation is described by Tamar’s being joined to Judah under the pretext that the duty of a near kinsman was being performed, while the essential nature of the Church existing within that nation is described by Judah’s being joined to Tamar as a prostitute. But a more detailed explanation of these matters is abandoned here for the reason given above, that it would enter, as stated, the unlit parts of the understanding. The accommodation of these matters in the unlit parts of the understanding is evident from the fact that at the present day scarcely anyone knows what the internal aspect of the Church is. This internal aspect is essentially charity towards the neighbour present within the intentions of a person’s will, and from these in his actions, and from these again in faith within his perception; yet who knows this? When this is unknown, more so when it is denied, as is done by people who make faith without the works of charity the bringer of salvation, how unlit must those parts of the mind be, into which the ideas pass that are stated here in the internal sense about the joining of the internal aspect to the external aspect of the Church among the Jewish nation and within that nation? Those who have no knowledge of the existence of that internal and so essential aspect of the Church stand far removed from the first step towards understanding such ideas, and as a consequence from the countless, indescribable things existing in heaven, where realities connected with love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour constitute every trace of life, and consequently every trace of wisdom and intelligence.

AC (Elliott) n. 4900 sRef Gen@38 @26 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @25 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @24 S0′ 4900. Verses 24-26 And so it was about three months later, that it was pointed out to Judah, saying, Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed whoredom, and also, behold, she is pregnant owing to acts of whoredom. And Judah said, Bring her out, and let her be burnt. She was brought out; and she sent to her father-in-law, saying, By the man to whom these belong I am pregnant. And she said, Acknowledge now to whom these belong, the seal and the cord and the rod. And Judah acknowledged them and said, She is more righteous than I am, seeing that I have not given her to Shelah my son. And he did not know her ever again.

‘So it was about three months later’ means a new state. ‘That it was pointed out to Judah’ means communication. ‘Saying, Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed whoredom’ means a perception at this point that to say anything of marriage exists between them is a falsity. ‘And also, behold, she is pregnant owing to acts of whoredom’ means, or to say anything can be brought forth from this. ‘And Judah said’ means the verdict of the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation. ‘Bring her out, and let her be burnt’ means that it should be exterminated. ‘She was brought out’ means near to being carried out. ‘And she sent to her father-in-law’ means an intimation. ‘Saying, By the man to whom these belong I am pregnant’ means that this characteristic was contained in their semblance of religion. ‘And she said, Acknowledge now to whom these belong, the seal and the cord and the rod’ means that one could recognize it from the pledges. ‘And Judah acknowledged them’ means that because these were theirs they affirmed that they were. ‘And said, She is more righteous than I am’ means that no joining of what was external to what was internal existed, only what was internal to what was external. ‘Seeing that I have not given her to Shelah my son’ means because what was external was of such a nature. ‘And he did not know her ever again’ means that there was no further joining together.

AC (Elliott) n. 4901 sRef Gen@38 @24 S0′ 4901. ‘So it was about three months later’ means a new state. This is clear from the meaning of ‘three’ as that which is complete, and therefore the last and at the same time the first, or the end and at the same time the beginning, dealt with in 1825, 2788, 4495; and from the meaning of ‘a month’ as a state, dealt with in 3814. All periods of time in the internal sense mean states, such as an hour, day, week, month, year, or age. And states are likewise meant by the periods making up these, such as the times of day, which are midday, evening, night, and morning; the seasons of the year, which are summer, autumn, winter, and spring; and also the phases of life, which are infancy and childhood, adolescence, adult years, and old age. All these periods and many more have states as their meaning. What a state actually is, see 4850.

[2] The reason periods of time mean states is that in the next life such periods do not really exist. Spirits’ and angels’ lives do, it is true, seem to move forward within a time-sequence; but periods of time play no part in the formation of their thought, as those periods do in the formation of men’s in the world. Rather, states of life contribute to the formation of their thought, without the help of any temporal notion. Also, a further reason why such periods of time mean states is that consecutive stages in the lives of spirits and angels are not distinguished as separate times of life. For those in the next life do not age; nor are there any days or years there because the Sun there – the Lord – is always rising and never sets. Consequently no temporal notion can enter their thinking, only the notion of a state and of the stages by which this moves forward It is the things present and taking place before people’s senses that are the source of the notions gained by them.

[3] These matters are bound to look like a paradox, but the reason they do so is that every single idea present in a person’s thought has something of time and space attached to it. These are the source of what is in his memory and of what he recollects, and they are the source of his lower level of thought, consisting of ideas called material ones. But the memory from which such ideas are recollected is quiescent in the next life. Those who are in the next life use their interior memory and the ideas present in the thought there. Thought flowing from this interior memory does not have any temporal or spatial content, but instead of this states and the stages by which those states move forward. Consequently periods of time correspond to these, and because they correspond periods of time are used in the Word to mean states. For details about man’s possession of an exterior memory which belongs properly to him while in the body, and also of an interior memory which belongs properly to his spirit, see 2469-2494.

[4] The reason ‘about three months later’ means a new state is that ‘months’, into which periods of time in the world are also divided, means state, and that, as mentioned above, ‘three’ means the last and at the same time the first, or the end and at the same time the beginning. Because in the spiritual world states are constantly moving forward from one into another, and as a consequence the last phase or end of each state includes the first phase or beginning of the next, resulting in a continuous sequence, ‘about three months later’ therefore means a new state. The same applies within the Church too, which is the spiritual world or the Lord’s kingdom on earth. The last phase of the Church among one nation is always the first phase of the Church among another. Because a last phase is in this way continued into a first, the Lord is spoken of several times as the Last and the First, as in Isa. 41:4; 44:6; Rev. 21:6; 22:13; and by this is meant in the relative sense that which is perpetual, and in the highest sense that which is eternal.

AC (Elliott) n. 4902 sRef Gen@38 @24 S0′ 4902. ‘That it was pointed out to Judah’ means communication. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being pointed out’ as communication, dealt with above in 4856.

AC (Elliott) n. 4903 sRef Gen@38 @24 S0′ 4903. ‘Saying, Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed whoredom’ means a perception at this point that to say anything of marriage exists between them is a falsity. This is clear from the meaning of ‘saying’ in the historical descriptions of the Word as perception, dealt with above in 4892; from the meaning of ‘committing whoredom’ as falsity, dealt with in 2466, 2729, 3399, 4865; from the representation of ‘Tamar’ as the internal aspect of the representative Church, also dealt with above, in 4864; and from the meaning of ‘a daughter-in-law’ as the truth of the Church, dealt with in 4843, 4869. Consequently the words ‘saying, Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed whoredom’ means a perception at this point that to say anything of marriage exists between them is a falsity. The implications of all this may be seen above in 4864-4866; with its semblance of religion the Jewish nation perceived the internal aspect of the Church to be nothing else than a harlot, and its preaching and life based on this to be nothing else than whoredom. For those people who are confined to what is external devoid of anything internal do not look on the internal aspect of the Church in any other way. They give the name falsity to that which is true, and the name truth to that which is false. They do so for the reason that being confined to what is external does not enable anyone to see whether a thing is false or true; only what is internal makes this possible internal sight is a necessary ability which can make judgements about things seen by external sight; and to make such judgements internal sight must be fully in the light of heaven. But it is not in the light of heaven unless the person has faith in the Lord and this faith leads him to read the Word.

[2] The fact that the Jewish nation were confined to what was external devoid of anything internal, so that it believed what was true to be falsity, and conversely what was false to be the truth, is quite evident from their teaching that one was allowed to hate an enemy and also from their life of hating all who did not belong to their semblance of religion. Indeed it is quite evident from their belief that they pleased and served Jehovah when they treated gentile nations in a savage and cruel fashion, that is to say, when they exposed the bodies of those whom they had slaughtered to be devoured by wild animals or birds, cut up those who were still alive, hacked them to pieces with iron picks and axes, or made them pass through the brickkiln, 2 Sam. 12:31. Indeed their teachings asserted that even an ally who for some reason had been declared an enemy was to be treated in much the same way. From these considerations it becomes quite clear that nothing internal at all lay within their semblance of religion. If anyone at that time had told them that such actions were contrary to the inner spirit of the Church they would have replied that this was a falsity. The fact that they were confined to what was external, having no knowledge at all of anything internal and leading lives contrary to what was internal, is also evident from what the Lord teaches in Matthew 5:21-48.

AC (Elliott) n. 4904 sRef Gen@38 @24 S0′ 4904. ‘And also, behold, she is pregnant owing to acts of whoredom’ means, or to say anything can be brought forth from this. This is clear from the meaning of carrying in the womb or ‘being pregnant’ as bringing something forth (for ‘seed’ means the truth of faith and ‘conception’ the reception of it, and therefore carrying in the womb or ‘being pregnant’ means bringing forth); and from the meaning of ‘whoredom’ as falsity, that is to say, from their semblance of religion, as above in 4903. From this it is evident that ‘saying, Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed whoredom, and also, behold, she is pregnant owing to acts of whoredom’ means the perception that it is a falsity to say that anything of marriage exists between them, or that anything can be brought forth from it. In reference to the Church, ‘being brought forth’ is used to describe the good which is brought forth by means of truth, that good being actually brought forth when truth passes by way of the understanding into the will, and from the will into action. For as stated above, ‘seed’ means the truth of faith, and ‘conception’ the reception of it; and reception takes place when truth present in the understanding passes into good present in the will – that is, when truth that is the truth of faith passes into good that is the good of charity. When present in the will good is in its own womb and is first brought forth; but when it is present in a person’s action – that is, when the will, and so delight and freedom, lead him to bring forth good – that good leaves the womb and is born. The expressions ‘being born again’ and ‘being regenerated’ are also used with the same meaning. All this shows what is meant in the internal sense by ‘being pregnant’, though here the contrary is meant – that no good at all could be brought forth since no truth at all, only falsity, existed among that nation which is the subject here, because no internal aspect of the Church existed among them.

sRef John@3 @4 S2′ [2] That nation had no knowledge at all of rebirth or regeneration, that is, of becoming an internal man, and as a consequence saw this as ‘a harlot’. Such ignorance may be seen from Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews, in John 3:1-13, for he said,

How can a person be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born? John 3:4.

It is well known that the Lord revealed the internal truths of His kingdom and of His Church. Even so, those truths had been known to the ancients, such as the truth that a person needed to be born again, so that he could enter into life; the truth that in this case he needed to cast aside the old man, that is, self-love and love of the world together with their lusts, and to put on the new man, that is, love towards the neighbour and towards God; and the truth that heaven needed to exist within the regenerate person; and many more truths that were internal ones. Those who belonged to the Ancient Church knew these truths, but they were led to know them through external representatives. However, because among the Jewish nation such truths had become completely lost the Lord presented those same truths in His teaching. Actual representatives were done away with by Him since the majority of them had regard to Himself; for the image must pass away when the actual likeness presents itself.

[3] The Lord therefore established a new Church which was not to be led to know internal truths, as that former Church had been led, by means of representatives but was to know them without the help of representatives. In place of these representatives He ordained certain external forms, baptism and the Holy Supper. Baptism was ordained so that it might enable people to call regeneration to mind, and the Holy Supper so that it might enable them to bring to mind the Lord and His love towards the entire human race, and man’s reciprocation of His love. These matters have been mentioned so that it may be recognized that the internal truths of the Church which the Lord taught had been known to the ancients but that among the Jewish nation they had become completely lost, so completely that they were regarded to be nothing else than falsities.

AC (Elliott) n. 4905 sRef Gen@38 @24 S0′ 4905. ‘And Judah said’ means the verdict of the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation. This is clear from the representation of ‘Judah’ as the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation, dealt with in 4864. That the verdict of that semblance of religion is meant is evident from what follows below.

AC (Elliott) n. 4906 sRef Gen@38 @24 S0′ 4906. ‘Bring her out, and let her be burnt’ means that it – that is to say, the internal aspect of the Church which Tamar represented – should be exterminated. This is clear from the meaning of ‘bringing her out, and burning her’ as exterminating, ‘bringing out’ having reference to the truth and ‘burning’ to the good which were to be exterminated. The use of ‘burning’ in reference to the extermination of good is clear from many places in the Word. The reason for the usage is that in the spiritual sense ‘fire’ and ‘flame’ mean good, 934, and the heat radiated from them the affection for good, while ‘fire’ and ‘flame’ in the contrary sense mean evil, and the heat radiated from these the affection for evil, 1297, 1861, 2446. Also, in actual fact good is spiritual fire from which spiritual heat which is life-giving is radiated; and evil too is a fire, but from this a heat which is a consuming one is radiated. Anyone who turns his attention to this matter and reflects on it can plainly see that the good of love is spiritual fire, and that the affection for that good is spiritual heat if he reflects on the question where do man’s vital fire and heat come from, he will discover that love is the source of it; for as soon as love departs a person begins to grow cold, but as love increases in him he becomes warmer. Unless man’s vital fire and heat came from that source he could not possibly have life at all. But this life-bringing fire or spiritual heat becomes among the evil a destroying and consuming fire, for in their case it is converted into this kind of fire. Among living creatures which do not possess reason spiritual heat likewise flows in and brings life, but life which is varied, depending on the ways in which their organic forms, and therefore their knowledge and innate affections receive that life, as with bees and all other creatures.

AC (Elliott) n. 4907 sRef Gen@38 @25 S0′ 4907. ‘She was brought out’ means near to being carried out, namely to being exterminated. This becomes clear from the meaning of ‘being brought out and burnt’ as being exterminated, dealt with immediately above in 4906, and here therefore her being brought out to be burnt means near to its extermination being carried out.

AC (Elliott) n. 4908 sRef Gen@38 @25 S0′ 4908. ‘And she sent to her father-in-law’ means an intimation – that she was pregnant by him. This is clear from the train of thought from which this meaning results.

AC (Elliott) n. 4909 sRef Gen@38 @25 S0′ 4909. ‘Saying, By the man to whom these belong I am pregnant’ means that this characteristic was contained in their semblance of religion. This is clear from the representation of Judah, to whom ‘the man’ refers here, as the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation, dealt with in 4864, 4905, and from the meaning of ‘carrying in the womb’ or ‘being pregnant’ as being brought forth, dealt with in 4904, but here as being contained within; for what has been brought forth is that contained within, that is to say, that which has been conceived. That which has been brought forth is a first effect; and because this in turn produces an effect it is called the cause from which this further effect is produced, dealt with above in 4904. What exactly was contained within their semblance of religion may be seen from what has been stated above in 4899 and also from what follows below.

AC (Elliott) n. 4910 sRef Gen@38 @25 S0′ 4910. ‘And she said, Acknowledge now to whom these belong, the seal and the cord and the rod’ means that one could recognize it from the pledges. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the seal, the cord, and the rod’ as the pledges of a joining to the external or natural man, dealt with in 4874, 4887.

AC (Elliott) n. 4911 sRef Gen@38 @26 S0′ 4911. ‘And Judah acknowledged them’ means that because these were theirs they affirmed that they were. This is clear from the meaning of ‘acknowledging’ as affirming, in this case because he acknowledged from the pledges that the child she was carrying was his own. Described here is that nation’s predisposition, which is such that although it rejects any internal truth of the Church as a falsity, that nation nevertheless accepts and affirms such truth on receiving an intimation that this does belong to it. People who are governed, as this nation is, by loves that are filthy – that is, by avarice and by self-love accompanying this – are unable to raise their minds to a level where truth is seen from a viewpoint other than themselves. Therefore when a truth is attributed to them they affirm it. For example, if they are told that the Word is inwardly Divine and contains the arcana of heaven and also the kind of arcana that only angels comprehend, they affirm this truth because they regard the Word to be their own since it came to them, exists with them, and in the letter has to do with them. But if the actual arcana – spiritual truths – are disclosed to them they reject them.

[2] If they are told that every one of the ritual observances of their Church are inwardly holy, they affirm this truth because they regard those observances to be their own. But if they are told that such holiness dwells within, yet is separate from those observances, they refuse to accept this. If they are told that the Jewish Church was celestial and the Israelitish Church spiritual, and if they are given an explanation of what the celestial is, and what the spiritual is, they affirm that also. But if they were told that these two Churches are called celestial and spiritual from the fact that all the particular aspects of them were representative of celestial and spiritual things, and that representatives have regard to the reality represented, not to the one who represents it, they refuse to accept it. If they are told that Moses’ rod had power from Jehovah, and so had Divine power within it, they affirm this and call it the truth. But if they are told that this power did not lie in the rod, only in the Divine command, they refuse to accept it and call it a falsity.

[3] If they are told that the bronze serpent lifted up by Moses healed those who were bitten by the serpents and that this object was for that reason miraculous, they affirm it. But if they are told that no healing or miraculous power lay within it but these came from the Lord whom that object represented, they refuse to accept this and call it a falsity. (Compare what has been narrated and stated about that serpent in Num. 21:7-9; 2 Kings 18:4; John 3:14, 15.) They react in the same way to everything else they are told. These are the kinds of things that are meant by ‘Judah acknowledged them’ and which on the part of the nation meant by him were joined to that internal aspect of the Church represented by ‘Tamar’. Also, such being the nature of those things, Judah did not go in to her as a near kinsman going in to a dead husband’s wife but as a fornicator going in to a prostitute.

AC (Elliott) n. 4912 sRef Gen@38 @26 S0′ 4912. ‘And said, She is more righteous than I am’ means that no joining of what was external to what was internal existed, only what was internal to what was external. This is clear from what has been stated above regarding the Church among the Jewish nation and within that nation, in 4899, namely that the Church existed among that nation, that is, what was internal was joined to what was external, but that no Church existed within that nation, that is, what was external was not joined to what was internal. For if a Church is to exist within a nation, a reciprocal relationship must exist.

AC (Elliott) n. 4913 sRef Gen@38 @26 S0′ 4913. ‘Seeing that I have not given her to Shelah my son’ means because what was external was of such a nature. This becomes clear from what has been explained already – that Tamar could not be given to Shelah, Judah’s son, because if she had been the joining together would have been as that of a wife and husband married to each other through the law of leviratical marriage. But the semblance of religion existing among the Jewish nation which he was to represent was not like that husband but like a father-in-law joined to a daughter-in-law as to a prostitute.

AC (Elliott) n. 4914 sRef Gen@38 @26 S0′ 4914. ‘And he did not know her ever again’ means that there was no further joining together. This is clear from the meaning of ‘knowing’ as being joined to and from the meaning of ‘not ever again’ as no further. The meaning is therefore that there was no further joining to the internal aspect of the Church – for ‘Tamar’ represents that internal aspect. For this reason also Judah did not have any more sons.

AC (Elliott) n. 4915 sRef Gen@38 @30 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @27 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @29 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @28 S0′ 4915. Verses 27-30 And it happened at the time she was giving birth, that behold, there were twins in her womb. And it happened as she was giving birth, that one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound on his hand a twice-dyed thread, saying, This one came out first. And it happened as he drew back his hand, that behold, his brother came out; and she said, Why have you made a breach upon yourself? And he called his name Perez. And afterwards his brother came out, on whose hand was the twice-dyed thread; and he called his name Zerah.

‘It happened at the time’ means the subsequent state. ‘As she was giving birth’ means acknowledgement on the part of internal truth. ‘That behold, there were twins in her womb’ means the two essentials of the Church. ‘And it happened as she was giving birth’ means a bringing forth. ‘That one put out a hand’ means power. ‘And the midwife took’ means the natural. ‘And bound on his hand a twice-dyed thread’ means that a sign was placed on it – ‘twice-dyed’ meaning good. ‘Saying, This one came out first’ means that it had priority of place. ‘And it happened as he drew back his hand’ means that it concealed its own power. ‘That behold, his brother came out’ means the truth of good. ‘And she said, Why have you made a breach upon yourself?’ means this truth’s apparent separation from good. ‘And he called his name Perez’ means the essential nature of it. ‘And afterwards his brother came out’ means good which in actual fact is prior. ‘On whose hand was the twice-dyed thread’ means the acknowledgement that good is such. ‘And he called his name Zerah’ means the essential nature of it.

AC (Elliott) n. 4916 sRef Gen@38 @27 S0′ 4916. ‘It happened at the time’ means the subsequent state. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the time’ as the state, dealt with in 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3827, 4882, 4901. ‘It happened at the time’ plainly means the subsequent state because a description of what happened then follows next. See also 4814.

AC (Elliott) n. 4917 sRef Gen@38 @27 S0′ 4917. ‘As she was giving birth’ means acknowledgement on the part of internal truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘giving birth’ as acknowledging in faith and action, dealt with in 3905, 3915, 3919; and from the representation of Tamar, to whom ‘she’ refers here, as the internal aspect of the representative Church, and from this as internal truth.

AC (Elliott) n. 4918 sRef Gen@38 @27 S0′ 4918. ‘That behold, there were twins in her womb’ means the two essentials of the Church. This is clear from the meaning of ‘twine’ as the two – good and truth – dealt with in 3299; and from the meaning of ‘the womb’ as the place where good and truth have been conceived and are lying, and consequently the place where the essentials of the Church are lying. In the genuine sense ‘the womb’ means the inmost centre of conjugial love where innocence is present, for the womb corresponds to that love in the Grand Man. Now because conjugial love has its origin in the love of good and truth, which love is at the heart of the heavenly marriage, and because this marriage is heaven itself or the Lord’s kingdom, and the Lord’s kingdom on earth is the Church, therefore ‘the womb’ also means the Church. For the Church exists where the marriage of good and truth exists. This explains why ‘opening the womb’ means the resulting doctrines taught by the Churches, 3856, as well as the ability to receive the truths and goods of the Church, 3967; while ‘going out of the womb’ means being born again or being regenerated, 4904, that is, becoming the Church since one who is born again or regenerated becomes the Church.

sRef Isa@49 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@22 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S2′ sRef Ps@58 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@22 @10 S2′ sRef Hos@13 @13 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@46 @3 S2′ [2] Since ‘going out of the womb’ means rebirth, and therefore the Church, the Lord is called in the Word ‘He who formed from the womb’ and ‘He who brought out of the womb’, and those who have been regenerated and become the Church are said ‘to have been carried from the womb’, as in Isaiah,

Thus said Jehovah. your Maker. He who formed you from the womb, and who helps you. Isa. 44:2.

In the same prophet,

Thus said Jehovah, your Redeemer, He who formed you from the womb. Isa. 44:24.

In the same prophet,

Thus said Jehovah. who formed me from the womb to be His servant, to bring back Jacob to Him, and that Israel might be gathered to Him. Isa. 49:5.

In David,

Jehovah who brought me out of the womb. Ps. 22:9.

In Isaiah,

Hearken to Me, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel who have been carried from the womb, and borne from the belly. Isa. 46:3.

In David,

The wicked are alienated from the womb, and go astray from the belly, with lying words. Ps. 58:3.

Here ‘being alienated from the womb’ means alienation from the good fostered by the Church, and ‘going astray from the belly’ straying from the truth. In Hosea,

The pains of childbirth will come upon him, he is an unwise son, for now he does not present himself at the womb of sons. Hosea 13:13.

‘Not presenting himself at the womb of sons’ stands for not coming to the good of truth fostered by the Church.

sRef Rev@12 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@48 @8 S3′ sRef Hos@9 @11 S3′ sRef Rev@12 @2 S3′ [3] In the same prophet,

Their glory will fly away like a bird, away from birth, from the belly, and from conception. Hosea 9:11.

This means that the truth of the Church will perish fully – ‘from birth’ being that to which birth is given, ‘from the belly’ that which is undergoing gestation, ‘from conception’ that which is taking rise. In Isaiah,

I knew that you would certainly act treacherously, and that you were called [a man] of transgression from the womb. Isa 48:8.

This means that from the time when the Church first began he was like this. In John,

A great sign was seen in heaven – a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet. and on her head a crown of twelve stars. Carrying in the belly however, she cried out in labour, and was in anguish to give birth. Rev. 12:1, 2.

‘The woman’ is the Church, 252, 253, 255. ‘The sun’ with which she was clothed is the good of love, 30-38, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 4060, 4696; ‘the moon’ which was under her feet is the truth of faith, 30-38, 1529, 1530, 2120, 2495, 4696; ‘the stars’ are cognitions of good and truth, 2495, 2849, 4697 – there being ‘twelve stars’ because ‘twelve’ means all things, thus all aspects of faith, 577, 2089, 2129 (end), 2130 (end), 3272, 3858, 3913; ‘carrying in the belly’ is the truth of the Church that had been conceived; ‘being in labour and in anguish to give birth’ is the fact that it was received with difficulty.

AC (Elliott) n. 4919 sRef Gen@38 @28 S0′ 4919. ‘And it happened as she was giving birth’ means a bringing forth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘giving birth’ as acknowledging in faith and action, dealt with in 3905, 3915, 3919. And because that which is acknowledged in faith and action is something that is brought forth, ‘giving birth’ also means a bringing forth – a bringing forth of good and truth, the essentials of the Church.

AC (Elliott) n. 4920 sRef Gen@38 @28 S0′ 4920. ‘That one put out a hand’ means power. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a hand’ as power, dealt with in 878, 3387.

AC (Elliott) n. 4921 sRef Gen@38 @28 S0′ 4921. ‘And the midwife took’ means the natural. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the midwife’ as the natural, dealt with in 4588. The implications of this will be evident from the following considerations. In the spiritual world ‘midwife’ means something different from what the word means in the natural world, as may be recognized from the consideration that in the spiritual world there is no such thing as childbirth or consequently midwifery. From this it is evident that when a person reads the words used here, the angels present with him do not perceive a midwife but instead something completely different; indeed they perceive something spiritual. Consequently because angels concentrate their ideas on things to do with a spiritual childbirth, their perception of ‘the midwife’ is therefore that which assists and receives this offspring – that which assists and receives it being the natural, see what has been shown in 4588.

AC (Elliott) n. 4922 sRef Gen@38 @28 S0′ 4922. ‘And bound on his hand a twice-dyed thread’ means that a sign was placed on it, namely on that power – ‘twice-dyed’ meaning good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘binding on the hand’ as placing a sign on power, for ‘the hand’ means power, 4920; and from the meaning of ‘twice-dyed’ as good, in particular spiritual good. The reason ‘twice-dyed’ means spiritual good is that this expression describes a shade of scarlet, and in the next life whenever one sees scarlet spiritual good is meant, which is the good of charity towards the neighbour. For all colours clearly visible in the next life mean something connected with good and truth since they are products of the light of heaven, which essentially is wisdom and intelligence flowing from the Lord’s Divine. The variegations or modifications of that light are consequently variegations and so to speak modifications of wisdom and intelligence, and therefore of good and truth. For details about the light in heaven flowing from the Lord’s Divine wisdom and intelligence, where the Lord is seen as the Sun, see 1053, 1521- 1533, 1619-1632, 2776, 3138, 3167, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3225, 3337, 3339, 3340, 3485, 3636, 3643, 3862, 3993, 4180, 4214, 4302, 4405, 4408, 4413, 4415, 4523-4533; and for details about colours having their origin in that light and about their being variegations and modifications of that light, and therefore of intelligence and wisdom, 1042, 1043, 1053, 1624, 3993, 4530, 4677, 4742.

sRef Jer@4 @30 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @24 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @17 S2′ sRef 2Sam@1 @18 S2′ [2] As regards ‘twice-dyed’ meaning spiritual good, this is evident from places in the Word where this expression is used, as in Jeremiah,

If therefore you have been laid waste, what will you do? If you clothe yourself in twice-dyed and deck yourself with ornaments of gold, in vain will you make yourself beautiful; your lovers will abhor you. Jer. 4:30.

This refers to Judah. ‘Clothing yourself in twice-dyed’ stands for spiritual good, ‘decking yourself with ornaments of gold’ for celestial good. In 2 Samuel,

David lamented over Saul and over Jonathan, and wrote it down that they teach the children of Judah the bow. Daughters of Israel, weep over Saul who clothed you in twice-dyed delicately,* and placed an ornament of gold on your apparel. 2 Sam. 1:17, 18, 24.

Here ‘teaching the bow’ stands for teaching the doctrine of love and charity, for ‘the bow’ means that doctrine. ‘Clothing in twice-dyed’ stands for spiritual good, as previously, and ‘placing an ornament of gold on one’s apparel’ for celestial good.

sRef Ex@26 @31 S3′ sRef Ex@26 @1 S3′ sRef Ex@26 @36 S3′ [3] Such being the meaning of ‘twice-dyed’, instructions were also given to use twice-dyed scarlet on the curtains of the Dwelling-place, the veil, the covering for the door of the tent, the covering to the gate of the court, the table of the Presence when they were about to set out, Aaron’s sacred vestments such as the ephod, the breastplate of judgement, and the fringes of the robe of the ephod:

The curtains of the Dwelling-place

You shall make for the Dwelling-place ten curtains – fine-twined linen, and violet and purple and twice-dyed scarlet. Exod 26:1.

The veil

You shall make a veil of violet and purple, and of twice-dyed scarlet, and of fine-twined linen. Exod 26:31.

The covering for the door of the tent

You shall make a covering for the door of the tent, of violet and purple and twice-dyed scarlet, and of fine-twined linen. Exod 26:36.

sRef Ex@28 @33 S4′ aRef Ex@39 @2 S4′ sRef Ex@28 @8 S4′ sRef Ex@28 @5 S4′ sRef Ex@28 @6 S4′ aRef Ex@39 @3 S4′ sRef Num@4 @8 S4′ sRef Ex@27 @16 S4′ [4] The covering to the gate of the court

For the gate of the court you shall make a covering of violet and purple and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine-twined linen, the work of an embroiderer. Exod 27:16.

The table of the Presence when they were about to set out

When the camp sets out they shall spread over the table of the Presence a cloth of twice-dyed scarlet, and shall cover this with a covering of badger skin. Num. 4:8.

The ephod

You shall make an ephod out of gold, violet and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, fine-twined linen, the work of a craftsman; and the girdle similarly. Exod. 28:5, 6, 8; 39:2, 3.

The breastplate of judgement

You shall make the breastplate of judgement, the work of a craftsman, like the work of the ephod, out of gold, violet, and purple. and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine-twined linen. Exod. 28:15.

The fringes of the robe of the ephod

Pomegranates of violet, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet. Exod. 28:33.

sRef Lev@14 @4 S5′ sRef Lev@14 @6 S5′ sRef Num@19 @6 S5′ sRef Lev@14 @52 S5′ [5] It was because the Tent of Meeting with the Ark in it represented heaven that the colours mentioned in these places were required. They meant in their order celestial and spiritual things, as follows: ‘Violet and purple’ meant celestial kinds of good and truth, ‘twice-dyed scarlet and fine-twined linen’ spiritual kinds of good and truth. Anyone believing that the Word is holy can recognize that each has a specific meaning, and anyone believing that the Word is holy for the reason that it has been sent down from the Lord by way of heaven can recognize that the celestial and spiritual things belonging to His kingdom are meant. Similar instructions were given, in cleansings from leprosy, to use ‘cedarwood, scarlet, and hyssop’, Lev. 14:4, 6, 52; and to cast ‘cedarwood and hyssop and twice-dyed of purple’ on to the fire in which the red heifer was being burned, from which the water of separation was prepared, Num. 19:6.

sRef Rev@18 @16 S6′ sRef Rev@17 @4 S6′ sRef Rev@17 @3 S6′ [6] The profanation of good and truth is described by similar words in John,

I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast, full of blasphemous names. It had seven heads and ten horns. The woman was clothed in purple and scarlet. and covered** with gold and precious stones and pearls. holding in her hand a golden cup, full of abominations and the uncleanness of whoredom. Rev. 17:3, 4.

And after this,

Woe, woe, the great city, you that were clothed in fine linen and purple and scarlet, and covered’ with gold and precious stones and pearls. Rev. 18:16.

This refers to ‘Babel’ by which the profanation of good is meant, 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326, in this case the profanation both of good and of truth, which is ‘Babylonian’. Among the Prophets in the Old Testament ‘Babel’ describes the profanation of good and ‘Chaldea’ the profanation of truth.

sRef Isa@1 @18 S7′ [7] In the contrary sense ‘scarlet’ means the evil that is the contrary of spiritual good, as in Isaiah,

Though your sins are like scarlet, they will be white as snow. Though they are red as crimson,*** they will be as wool. Isa. 1:18.

The reason ‘scarlet’ means this evil is that ‘blood’, likewise, because of its red colour, in the genuine sense means spiritual good or charity towards the neighbour, and in the contrary sense violence done to charity, 374, 1005.
* lit. with delights
** lit. gilded
*** lit. purple

AC (Elliott) n. 4923 sRef Gen@25 @24 S0′ sRef Gen@25 @22 S0′ sRef Gen@25 @23 S0′ sRef Gen@38 @28 S0′ sRef Gen@25 @26 S1′ 4923. ‘Saying, This one came out first’ means that it had priority of place. This is clear from the meaning of ‘coming out first’, or being the firstborn, as priority of place and a higher position, dealt with in 3325. Dealt with here and in the remainder of this chapter is the birthright. Anyone unacquainted with the internal sense of the Word may suppose that merely the birthright, and consequently the privileges which the firstborn might lawfully acquire, are dealt with. But one who does have some knowledge of the internal sense may see plainly enough that something of higher significance also lies concealed in this description. He may see this not only from the actual fact that one of the infants put out a hand and then drew it back, at which point the other infant came out, but also from the fact that they received their names from this, and from the fact that the midwife bound a twice-dyed thread on the hand of him who was first. Other descriptions may also lead him to see the same, such as the incident very like the present one when, after Esau and Jacob had struggled together in the womb, Esau came out first with Jacob grasping his – Esau’s – heel, Gen. 25:23, 24, 26. In addition to this there is the incident involving the two sons of Joseph; when blessing them Jacob placed his right hand on the younger and his left on the older, Gen. 48:17- 19.

[2] The Jews and also some Christians do, it is true, believe that these, along with all other descriptions in the Word, contain some hidden meaning which they call mystical, the reason for that belief being the holiness, so far as the Word is concerned, which has been impressed on them since early childhood. But when asked what that mystical meaning may be, they do not know. One may tell them that because the Word is Divine the mystical meaning within it must of necessity be the kind of meaning the angels in heaven understand, and that the Word cannot have any other mystical content, or if it does, that content would be either mythical, magical, or idolatrous. One may in addition tell them that this mystical meaning understood by the angels in heaven is nothing else than what is called spiritual and celestial, the sole subject of which is the Lord, His kingdom and the Church, and consequently good and truth, and that if they knew what good and truth were, or what love and faith were, they would also be acquainted with that mystical sense. Yet scarcely any Jew or Christian believes any of this when told it. Indeed members of the Church are so lacking in knowledge at the present day that any mention of that which is celestial and spiritual is barely intelligible to them. But even so, because in the Lord’s Divine mercy I have been allowed to be simultaneously in heaven as a spirit and on earth as a man, and consequently to talk to angels, doing so now without a break for many years, what else can I do but disclose those things which are called the mystical contents of the Word, that is, its interiors, which are the spiritual and celestial things of the Lord’s kingdom? What the details recorded here hold within them in the internal sense – the details regarding Tamar’s two sons – will be stated in what follows below.

AC (Elliott) n. 4924 sRef Gen@38 @29 S0′ 4924. ‘And it happened as he drew back his hand’ means that it concealed its own power. This is clear from the meaning of ‘hand’ as power, dealt with in 878, 3387, 4920, the concealment of which is meant by ‘drawing back’.

AC (Elliott) n. 4925 sRef Gen@38 @29 S0′ 4925. ‘That behold, his brother came out’ means the truth of good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘brother’ as that which is kindred, by virtue of good, dealt with in 3815, 4267, and so the truth of good. The truth of good is that truth which is rooted in good, or that faith which is rooted in charity. Dealt with here in the internal sense is the birthright in the case of those who are being born again or regenerated by the Lord, and therefore the birthright within the Church. It has been a matter of argument since most ancient times as to which is the firstborn, whether this is the good of charity or whether it is the truth of faith. Unseen while a person is being born again and becoming a Church, good conceals itself within the interior man and reveals itself solely within some affection which does not pass into the conscious feelings of the external or natural man until he has been born again. But truth reveals itself, for this does enter his conscious feelings and lodges in the memory belonging to the external or natural man. This explains why many have fallen into the error that truth is the firstborn, and at length even thinking that truth is the vital element of the Church, so vital that truth which is called faith can save a person without the good of charity.

[2] From this one error very many others have been derived which have infected not only what is taught but also life, such as the error that no matter what kind of life a person leads he can be saved provided he has faith. A further derivative error is that very wicked people are accepted into heaven provided that in the final hour before they die they declare their belief in those things which are matters of faith; and another such error is that, irrespective of the kind of life one has led, one is accepted into heaven solely by grace. Because people hold to this teaching they fail at length to know what charity is or to have any concern about what it is, till in the end they do not believe in the existence of it, or consequently in the existence of heaven and hell. The reason for this is that faith without charity, or truth without good, teaches a person nothing; and the more it departs from good, the more foolish it makes him. For good is what the Lord flows into and through which He flows, imparting intelligence and wisdom and consequently a superior ability to see, and also perception whether something is really true or not.

[3] From these considerations one may now see the position with regard to the birthright, namely that in actual fact it belongs to good but appears to belong to truth. This is what the birth of Tamar’s two sons is used to describe in the internal sense. ‘The twice-dyed thread’ which the midwife bound on the hand that came out means good, as shown in 4922; ‘coming out first’ means priority of place, 4923; ‘withdrawing the hand’ means that good concealed its own power, as stated immediately above [in 4924]; ‘his brother came out’ means truth; ‘you have made a breach upon yourself means this truth’s apparent separation from good; ‘afterwards his brother came out’ means that good is in actual fact first; and ‘on whose hand was the twice-dyed thread’ means the acknowledgement that good is first. For it is not until after a person has been born again that good is acknowledged to be first, at which point that person’s actions spring from good, and his view of truth and what this is like springs from the same.

[4] These are the matters contained within the internal sense, in which teaching is given regarding the good and truth with a person who is being born anew, namely that good in actual fact occupies first place but truth appears to do so, and that good is not seen to occupy the first place while a person is being regenerated but is plainly seen to do so once he has been regenerated. But there is no need to explain these matters any further since they have been explained already – see 3324, 3325, 3494, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 4243, 4244, 4247, 4337; and the fact that controversy has taken place since ancient times over whether the birthright belonged to good or to truth, that is, to charity or to faith, 2435.

sRef Num@18 @15 S5′ sRef Num@3 @12 S5′ sRef Ex@13 @12 S5′ sRef Ex@34 @19 S5′ sRef Ex@13 @2 S5′ [5] Because in the highest sense the Lord is the firstborn, and therefore love to Him and charity towards the neighbour are the firstborn, the law was for that reason laid down in the representative Church that firstborn things were Jehovah’s: in Moses,

Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, that which opens the womb among the children of Israel; with man and with beast let them be Mine. Exod. 13:2.

You shall make over to Jehovah all that opens the worm’, and every firstling of a beast; however many males you have they shall be Jehovah’s. Exod. 13:12.

All that opens the womb is Mine; therefore among all your cattle, you shall give the male. that among oxen and small cattle which opens [the womb]. Exod. 34:19.

All that opens the womb among all flesh which they bring to Jehovah, from men and from beasts, shall be yours. Nevertheless you shall surely redeem all the firstborn of men. Num. 18:15.

Behold, I Myself have taken the Levites from the midst of the children of Israel, instead of every firstborn, that which opens the womb, from the children of Israel, so that the Levites may be Mine. Num. 3:12.

[6] Because the firstborn is the one that opens the womb, the expression ‘that which opens the womb’ is therefore added, when the firstborn is mentioned in these places, so as to mean good. It is evident that this expression means good from the specific details contained in the internal sense, especially from those which are recorded regarding the sons of Tamar: Zerah is said to have opened the womb with his hand, and ‘Zerah’ represents good, as is also clear from the twice-dyed thread placed on his hand, dealt with in 4922. In addition to this ‘the womb’, to which the expression ‘opened’ is applied, means the place where good and truth, consequently the Church, lie, see 4918, while ‘opening the womb’ means supplying the power which enables truth to be born.

[7] Because the Lord is the only firstborn – He being Good itself, and His Good being the source of all truth – Jacob, who was not the firstborn, was therefore allowed to purchase the birthright from Esau his brother so that he might represent Him. Also, because this was not sufficient, he was called Israel, so that by this name he might represent the good of truth; for ‘Israel’ in the representative sense means good which comes through truth, 3654, 4286, 4598.

AC (Elliott) n. 4926 sRef Gen@38 @29 S0′ 4926. ‘And she said, Why have you made a breach upon yourself?’ means this truth’s apparent separation from good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a breach’ as an infringement upon and perversion of truth through its separation from good, dealt with below. Here ‘making a breach’ plainly means pulling away the twice-dyed thread from the hand and so separating good; for good is meant by ‘twice-dyed’, 4922. As regards this separation being an apparent one, this follows from the fact that it appeared to the midwife that a separation had taken place; but in reality it was not the twin with the twice-dyed thread who came out but his brother, who represents truth. On these matters, see what has been shown immediately above in 4925, where it is shown that good is in actual fact the firstborn but that truth appears to be such. This can be illustrated further still from the functions and members within the human body. The appearance is that the members and organs are first and that the functions these perform are subsequent; for the organs and members present themselves to the eye and are also known before their functions are seen or known. But in spite of this appearance the functions are prior to the members and organs since these derive their existence from the functions they serve and so receive their own forms to accord with these functions. Indeed the function itself gives them these forms and accommodates them to itself. If this were not so, all the individual parts of the human body could not possibly act together in so harmonious a way that they make a single whole. The same may be said about good and truth. The appearance is that truth is first, but in reality good is, in that good gives truths the forms they take and accommodates them to itself. Therefore regarded essentially truths are nothing else than goods which have been given form, that is, they are the forms good takes. In relation to good, truths are also like the internal organs and the fibres of the body in relation to the functions these perform. Also, regarded essentially good is nothing else than the function.

sRef Ps@144 @14 S2′ sRef Ps@144 @13 S2′ [2] The meaning of ‘a breach’ as an infringement upon truth and a perversion of it through its separation from good is also clear from other places in the Word, as in David,

Our storehouses are full, yielding food and still more food; our flocks are thousands, and ten thousands in our streets, our oxen are laden; there is no breach. Ps. 144:13, 14.

This refers to the Ancient Church as it was in its youth. ‘The food’ with which ‘the storehouses are full’ stands for spiritual food, that is, for truth and good. ‘Flocks’ and ‘oxen’ stand for forms of good, internal and external. ‘There is no breach’ stands for the fact that truth has not suffered any infringement upon it or perversion of it through separation from good.

sRef Amos@9 @11 S3′ [3] In Amos,

I will raise up the tent of David that is fallen down, and I will close up their breaches, and I will restore its destroyed places; and I will build it as in the days of old. Amos 9:11.

This refers to a Church where good is present. ‘The tent of David that is fallen down’ means the good of love and charity received from the Lord. For ‘a tent’ meaning that good, see 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3312, 4128, 4391, 4599, and ‘David’ the Lord, 1888. ‘Closing up the breeches’ stands for correcting falsities which have entered in through the separation of truth from good. ‘Building it as in the days of old’ stands for as the state of the Church was in ancient times. In the Word that state at that time is called ‘the days of eternity’, ‘the days of old’, and also ‘of generation upon generation’.

sRef Isa@58 @12 S4′ [4] In Isaiah,

He that is of you is building the waste places of old; raise up the foundations of generation upon generation, and may you be called the one repairing the breach, the one restoring paths to dwell in. Isa. 58:12.

This refers to a Church where charity and life are the essential thing. ‘Repairing the breach’ again stands for correcting falsities which have crept in through the separation of good from truth, the origin of all falsity. ‘Restoring paths to dwell in’ stands for truths which are linked to good, for ‘paths’ or ways are truths, 627, 2333, and ‘dwelling in’ is used in reference to good, 2268, 2451, 2712, 3613.

sRef Ezek@13 @5 S5′ sRef Isa@22 @9 S5′ sRef Ps@106 @23 S5′ sRef Ezek@22 @30 S5′ [5] In the same prophet,

You saw that the breaches of the city of David were very many, and you collected the waters of the lower pool. Isa. 22:9.

‘The breaches of the city of David’ stands for falsities of doctrine. ‘The waters of the lower pool’ stands for traditions by which they introduced blemishes into the truths contained in the Word, Matt. 15:1-6; Mark 7:1-13. In Ezekiel,

You have not gone up into the breaches and made a hedge for the house of Israel, so that you might stand in war on the day of Jehovah. Ezek. 13:5.

In the same prophet,

I sought from among them a man making a hedge and standing in the breach before Me for the land, that I should not destroy it; but I found none. Ezek. 22:30.

‘Standing in the breach’ stands for defending and guarding against the intrusion of falsities. In David,

Jehovah said He would destroy the people, unless Moses His chosen had stood in the breach before Him. Ps 106:23.

‘Standing in the breach’ again means guarding against the intrusion of falsities; ‘Moses’ here meaning the Word – see Preface to Chapter 18 of Genesis, and 4859 (end).

sRef Amos@4 @3 S6′ sRef 2Sam@6 @8 S6′ sRef Amos@4 @2 S6′ [6] In Amos,

They will drag out the last of you with fish-hooks; you will go out through the breaches, every one from her own region; and you will cast down the palace. Amos 4:2, 3.

‘Going out through the breaches’ stands for doing so through falsities resulting from reasonings. ‘The palace’ means the Word and consequently the truth of doctrine that is grounded in good. And because ‘breaches’ means falsity which arises through the separation of good from truth, the same is also meant in the representative sense by ‘strengthening and repairing the breaches of the house of Jehovah’, 2 Kings 12:5, 7, 8, 12; 22:5. In the second Book of Samuel,

It grieved David that Jehovah had made a breach into Uzzah; therefore he called that place Perez Uzzah. 2 Sam. 6:8.

This refers to Uzzah, who died because he touched the ark. ‘The ark’ represented heaven, or in the highest sense the Lord, and therefore Divine Good. But ‘Uzzah’ represented that which ministers, and so represents truth since truth ministers to good. This separation is meant by ‘a breach into Uzzah’.

AC (Elliott) n. 4927 sRef Gen@38 @29 S0′ 4927. ‘And he called his name Perez’ means the essential nature of it, that is to say, of the apparent separation of that truth from good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘calling the name’ as the essential nature, dealt with in 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421, the actual nature being meant by ‘Perez’, for in the original language ‘Perez’ describes a breach.

AC (Elliott) n. 4928 sRef Gen@38 @30 S0′ 4928. ‘And afterwards his brother came out’ means good which in actual fact is prior. This is clear from the representation of Zerah, to whom ‘brother’ refers here, as good. For he was the one who opened the womb, and so who was the firstborn, and on whose hand was the twice-dyed thread – such good being meant by him, see 4925. The reason ‘afterwards his brother came out’ means that good in actual fact is prior is that while a person is being regenerated good is not seen because it conceals itself within the interior man and flows into truth solely through affection in whatever degrees that truth is joined to it. When therefore truth has been joined to good, which is effected once the person has been regenerated, good reveals itself; for at this point good motivates his actions and good is so to speak the standpoint from which he sees truths since he is more concerned with life than with doctrine.

AC (Elliott) n. 4929 sRef Gen@38 @30 S0′ 4929. ‘On whose hand was the twice-dyed thread’ means the acknowledgement that good is such. This is clear from the fact that he was then acknowledged to be the firstborn because of ‘the twice-dyed thread on his hand’, thus that it was good which opened the womb or was the firstborn. The midwife binding on his hand a twice-dyed thread means that she provided a sign to indicate which one was the firstborn, and therefore acknowledgement is meant here.

AC (Elliott) n. 4930 sRef Gen@38 @30 S0′ 4930. ‘And he called his name Zerah’ means the essential nature of it. This is clear from the meaning of ‘calling the name’ as the essential nature, as above in 4927. The essential nature meant by ‘Zerah’ is the nature of the reality which has been the subject in the internal sense up to this point, this reality being that in actual fact good is the firstborn but that truth appears to be such. That nature contains countless details, countless details such as cannot be seen in the light of the world, only in the light of heaven, and so by the eyes of the angels. If man could see the essential nature of a single reality like those visible to the angels he would be dumbfounded and would confess he would never have believed it, adding that compared with the angels he knew scarcely anything. In the original language Zerah means ‘the rise’ and is used to refer to the sun and the first sign of its light. This explains why this son was named Zerah, for good behaves in a similar way in the case of one who is being regenerated. Good first rises and sheds light, and from this light things within the natural man are lightened, enabling them to be seen, acknowledged, and finally believed. If light did not flow from the good present within that person he would never be able to see truths so that he could acknowledge and believe them. Instead he would see them as no more than the kind of things that have to be called truths for the common people’s sake, or else as falsities.

AC (Elliott) n. 4931 4931. CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE GRAND MAN – continued

IN THIS SECTION THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE HANDS, THE ARMS, THE FEET, AND THE LOINS WITH IT

It has been shown already that the whole of heaven bears resemblance to a human being, together with each of his organs, members, and viscera. It has been shown too that this is so because heaven bears resemblance to the Lord; for the Lord is the All in all of heaven, so much its All that, properly speaking, heaven is essentially Divine Good and Divine Truth received from the Lord. For this reason heaven is distinguished into many so to speak separate provinces, as many as there are in a person’s viscera, organs, and members, with which also there is a correspondence. Unless such a correspondence existed of the human being with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord, he could not remain in existence for even a single moment, all things being held in connection with one another by means of influx.

[2] But all those provinces are linked to two kingdoms – the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom. The first of these – the celestial kingdom – is the kingdom of the heart within the Grand Man; the second – the spiritual kingdom – is the kingdom of the lungs there. And in the same way as in the human being, the heart reigns, and so do the lungs, in every single part of the Grand Man. These two kingdoms combine in a marvellous way. Their combination likewise is represented in the combination of the heart and lungs in the human being, and in the combined workings of the two within each member and interior organ.

[3] While a person is an embryo, that is, while still in the womb, he is in the kingdom of the heart. But once he has struggled out of the womb he enters the kingdom of the lungs. Then, if he allows the truths of faith to lead him into the good of love, he returns from the kingdom of the lungs within the Grand Man to the kingdom of the heart. For thereby he enters the womb a second time and is born again. Once again those two kingdoms become combined in him, but the order has been turned around. Previously the kingdom of the heart in him was under the control of the lungs, but now the kingdom of the lungs comes under the control of the heart. That is, first of all the truth of faith has dominion in him, but afterwards the good of charity does so. For the correspondence of the heart with the good of love and that of the lungs with the truth of faith, see 3635, 3883-3896.

AC (Elliott) n. 4932 4932. The ones who in the Grand Man correspond to the hands and arms, and also the shoulders, are those with power received through the truth of faith grounded in good. For those who have received the truth of faith grounded in good have received power from the Lord. They attribute all their power to Him and none to themselves; and the more they attribute no power to themselves, doing so not with their lips but in their hearts, the greater power they have. This is why angels are called powers and authorities.

AC (Elliott) n. 4933 sRef Isa@40 @10 S0′ sRef Ps@10 @15 S0′ sRef Ps@79 @11 S0′ sRef Jer@27 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@33 @2 S0′ sRef Jer@17 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@44 @12 S0′ sRef Deut@7 @19 S0′ sRef Ezek@30 @22 S0′ sRef Ezek@30 @25 S0′ sRef Ezek@30 @24 S0′ sRef Isa@51 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@51 @9 S0′ sRef Jer@48 @25 S0′ 4933. The reason why the hands, arms, and shoulders correspond to power in the Grand Man is that the strength and powers of the whole body and of all its internal organs are linked to them, in that the body employs the arms and hands to exercise its strength and powers. This also is the reason why in the Word powers are meant by ‘the hands’, ‘the arms’, and ‘the shoulders’. As regards ‘the hands’ having this meaning, see 878, 3387, and as regards ‘the arms’ meaning the same, this is evident from many places, such as the following,

Be their arm every morning. Isa. 33:2.

The Lord Jehovih is coming with might, and His arm will exercise dominion for Him. Isa. 40:10.

He works it by means of His arm of strength. Isa. 44:12.

My arms will judge the peoples. Isa. 51:5.

Put on strength, O arm of Jehovah. Isa. 51:9.

I looked around, and there was no helper, therefore My own arm brought salvation to Me. Isa. 63:5.

Cursed is he who trusts in man (homo) and makes flesh his arm. Jer. 17:5.

I have made the earth, man, and beast, by My great strength and by My outstretched arm. Jer. 27:5; 32:17.

The horn of Moab has been cut off and his arm broken. Jer. 48:25.

I am breaking the arms of the king of Egypt, but I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babel. Ezek. 30:22, 24, 25.

O Jehovah, break the arm of the wicked. Ps. 10:15.

According to the greatness of Your arm preserve those who are appointed to die.* Ps. 79:11.

They were brought out of Egypt by a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Deut. 7:19; 11:2, 3; 26:8; Jer. 32:21; Ps. 136:12.

From these places it may also be recognized that by the right hand in the Word superior power is meant, and by ‘sitting on the right hand of Jehovah’ almighty power, Matt. 26:63, 64; Luke 22:69; Mark 14:61, 62; 16:19.
* lit. cause the sons of death to remain

AC (Elliott) n. 4934 4934. I have seen a bare arm, bent forwards, possessing so much strength and at the same time rousing so much terror that I not only shuddered at the sight of it but also felt as though I could be entirely smashed to pieces by it. It was irresistible. I have seen this arm on two occasions, and from this I was led to realize that ‘the arms’ means strength and ‘the hands’ power. I also felt the heat radiating from this arm.

AC (Elliott) n. 4935 4935. When made visible that bare arm is bent in varying attitudes that strike terror. When seen bent in the attitude mentioned above it strikes unbelievable terror, since it seems to be able to break bones and marrow to pieces instantaneously. Those who during their lifetime have been afraid of nothing are nevertheless in the next life driven by that arm to feel utterly terrified by it.

AC (Elliott) n. 4936 sRef Ex@17 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@17 @5 S0′ 4936. On several occasions spirits have appeared holding rods, who, I was told, were magicians. They are in front, a long way off on the right, deeply within caverns. Magicians who have been more malevolent ones are hidden more deeply than the rest within them. They seem to themselves to have rods, and by means of delusions they also produce many more kinds of rods, believing that they can use these to perform miracles. For they imagine that these rods have power within them, and they imagine this because the right hand and the arm, which by correspondence are embodiments of strength and power, support themselves on those rods. This has made it evident to me why people of old assigned rods to magicians, for the gentiles of old received this idea from the representative Ancient Church, in which rods, like the hand, meant power, see 4876. And because these meant power Moses was commanded, when miracles were performed, to stretch out his rod or his hand, Exod. 4:17, 20; 8:5-20; 9:23; 10:3-21; 14:21, 26, 27; 17:5, 6, 11, 12; Num. 20:7-10.

AC (Elliott) n. 4937 sRef Isa@9 @4 S0′ sRef Zeph@3 @9 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S0′ sRef Isa@22 @22 S0′ sRef Ezek@34 @21 S0′ sRef Ezek@29 @6 S0′ sRef Ezek@29 @7 S0′ 4937. Spirits from hell sometimes use delusion to produce a shoulder with which they cause force to be repelled; it cannot even pass by them. But all this is solely for the protection of those employing that kind of delusion; for they know that in the spiritual world the shoulder corresponds to all power. In the Word too ‘the shoulder’ means all power, as is evident in the following places,

You have broken the yoke of his burden, and the rod of his shoulder. Isa. 9:4.

You push with side and with shoulder, and butt with your horns. Ezek. 34:21.

You will tear for them every shoulder. Ezek. 29:6, 7.

That they may serve Jehovah with one shoulder. Zeph. 3:9.

To us a Boy is born, and the government will be upon His shoulder. Isa. 9:6.

I will place the key of the house of David on His shoulder. Isa. 22:22.

AC (Elliott) n. 4938 4938. The ones who in the Grand Man correspond to the feet, soles, and heels are those who are natural, which is why in the Word natural things are meant by ‘the feet’, 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280. By ‘the soles’ lower natural things are meant, and by ‘the heels’ lowest natural, 259. In the Grand Man celestial things constitute the head, spiritual ones the body, and natural ones the feet; they exist in this consecutive order. In addition, celestial things, which are the highest, are ringed about by spiritual ones, which are in the middle; and spiritual things are ringed about by natural, which are lowest ones.

AC (Elliott) n. 4939 4939. Once when I had been raised up to heaven it seemed to me as though my head was there, but that my body was below it, and my feet even further below. From this I had a perception of how the higher and lower things present in the human being correspond to the same in the Grand Man, and how one flows into another; that is to say, how the celestial, which is the good of love and the first degree of order, flows into the spiritual, which is truth springing from that good and the second degree of order, and then into the natural, which is the third degree of order. From this it is evident that natural things are like the feet on which the higher things support themselves. What is more, things in the spiritual world and those in heaven are ringed about by the natural world. Consequently the whole natural system is a theatre representative of the Lord’s kingdom, every individual part of it being representative, 2758, 3483. The natural system is kept in being by an influx conforming to that order, and without this influx it could not remain in being for even a single moment.

AC (Elliott) n. 4940 4940. On another occasion, when ringed by a column of angels I was taken down to the places where lower things exist, and then my senses perceived that those living in the land of lower things corresponded to the feet and soles of the feet. Those places are also located beneath the feet and soles of the feet. I also spoke to those there. They are the kind of people in whom natural delight has existed, but no spiritual delight. Regarding this lower earth, see 4728.

AC (Elliott) n. 4941 4941. In those places too there are those who have ascribed everything to nature, and little to the Divine. I have talked to them there, and when the discussion has turned to Divine Providence, they have attributed everything to nature. All the same, those of them who have led a morally good life are kept there for a period of time, and then gradually they get rid of such assumptions and adopt ones that are true,

AC (Elliott) n. 4942 4942. While I was down there I also heard in one of the rooms a noise which sounded like people on the other side of the wall wishing to break in. Those in the room believed they were robbers and were utterly terrified by them. I was told that those present in this room are held in that kind of fear to deter them from evils, for with some people fear is the means by which they are corrected.

AC (Elliott) n. 4943 4943. On the lower earth beneath the feet and soles of the feet there are also those who have regarded good deeds and works to be meritorious. Many of these appear to themselves to be cutting pieces of wood. The place where they are is quite a cold one, but they seem to themselves to find warmth in the work they do. I talked to these people too and was allowed to ask them whether they wished to leave that place. Their replies were that they had not done enough meritorious work. But once this stage is completed they are released from there. These people likewise are natural, for the desire to earn salvation through merit is not a spiritual desire. What is more, they regard themselves to be those who are superior to others, and some of them are also contemptuous of others. If in the next life they do not receive greater joy than all others, they are angry with the Lord, which explains why sometimes when they are cutting pieces of wood, it appears as though something of the Lord is underneath their pile of wood – their anger being that which produces this appearance. But because they have led a devout life and have acted in the ways they did out of ignorance that had some degree of innocence within it, angels are therefore sent to them periodically to console them. Sometimes, in addition, something that looks like a sheep appears from above on the left, and from this too they receive consolation when they see it.

AC (Elliott) n. 4944 4944. Christians coming from the world who have led morally good lives and possessed some degree of charity towards the neighbour, but who have cared little about spiritual matters, are for the most part sent to places beneath the feet and soles of the feet where they are kept until they get rid of the natural interests in which they have been immersed and become absorbed in spiritual and celestial interests insofar as these are in keeping with the life they lead. Once they have become absorbed in these they are raised up from there to heavenly communities. On several occasions I have seen them emerging and have observed their gladness because they were going into heavenly light.

AC (Elliott) n. 4945 4945. Where exactly those places beneath the feet are situated I have not yet been allowed to know. There are very many of them, all quite distinct and separate from one another. In general they are called the land of lower things.

AC (Elliott) n. 4946 4946. Certain spirits exist who during their lifetime absorbed the idea that no one should bother himself with matters that concern the internal man, consequently with spiritual things, only with matters that concern the external man, that is, with natural things. Their reason for thinking this way is that things of a more internal nature unsettle their comfortable lifestyle and create discomfort. Those spirits were acting into my left knee, a little above the front of it, and also into the sole of my right foot. I talked to them in their dwelling-place. They said that during their lifetime they had imagined that none but external interests had held any life in them and that they had had no idea of what anything internal was. Consequently they had been acquainted with natural things but with nothing spiritual. So I was allowed to tell them that thinking the way they did they had shut out from themselves countless things which could have come in from the spiritual world, had they acknowledged and so allowed these to enter among the ideas constituting their thought.

[2] I was allowed to go on and tell them that each idea present in human thought has countless facets which to the human being, especially to one who is natural, are not seen as anything else than a simple whole, when in fact there is an unlimited number of things coming in from the spiritual world which produce in the spiritual man a superior power of sight enabling him to see and also perceive whether something is indeed the truth or not the truth. Also, because these spirits doubted what they were told, the matter was demonstrated to them through actual experience. An idea was represented to them which they saw as a simple whole, and therefore as a faint dot – a representation such as this being produced easily in the light of heaven. When that idea was opened up and at the same time their interior sight was opened, a general whole leading to the Lord was revealed. They were also told that the same was the case with every idea of good and truth; that is to say, it is an image of the whole of heaven, because it comes from the Lord, who is the All of heaven or the essential reality that is called heaven.

AC (Elliott) n. 4947 4947. Also beneath the soles of the feet there are those who during their lifetime led a worldly, self-indulgent life. They took delight in things of a worldly nature and liked to live in splendour; but they were motivated by a wholly external or bodily desire to do so, not by any internal or mental desire. For they were not haughty, setting themselves up above others even when appointed to eminent positions. This being the kind of life they led, they were motivated by the body. Consequently people such as these have not rejected the teachings of the Church, still less hardened themselves against them. In their hearts they have declared these teachings to be the truth, because those who study the Word know that they are. With some of this kind of people their interiors have been opened towards heaven, and within these, heavenly virtues are implanted – righteousness, uprightness, devotion, charity, and mercy. After that they are raised up to heaven.

AC (Elliott) n. 4948 4948. Those however who during their lifetime thought about and desired within themselves nothing but that which was selfish and worldly shut off from themselves every path or influx from heaven; for self-love and love of the world are the opposite of heavenly love. Those of them who at the same time immersed themselves in pleasures or else luxurious living coupled with inner deceitfulness are beneath the sole of the right foot, but deep down and so below the land of lower things, where the hell, of such people is situated. Within their dwellings there is nothing but filth. They also seem to themselves to be carrying such, for filth corresponds to the kind of life they lead. One smells there the stench of different kinds of filth matching the genera and species of that kind of life. In that place live many who in the world were quite famous people.

AC (Elliott) n. 4949 4949. There are quite a number with dwelling-places beneath the soles of the feet to whom I have talked occasionally. I have seen some of them trying to work their way up from there, and I have also been allowed to have a sensation in my body of their attempts to do so. They reached as far as my knees, but then they sank down. This is what the representation involving the physical senses is like when any have the desire to move up from their own dwelling-places to higher ones, like those described here who had the desire to come up to the dwelling-places of those in the province of the knees and thighs. I was told that these are the kind of people who despised others in comparison with themselves, which is also the reason why they wish to rise up from where they are, not only through the foot into the thigh but also if possible above the head. But for all that, they sink down. In a way they are stupid, for that kind of arrogance blots out and smothers the light of heaven and therefore intelligence. This explains why the sphere which surrounds them looks like a thick sediment.

AC (Elliott) n. 4950 4950. Slightly to the left beneath the left foot there are the kind of people who have attributed everything to nature, even though they proclaimed their belief in a supreme being who is the author of everything in the natural creation. But investigations were carried out to see whether they in fact believed in a supreme being or deity who had created all things. I perceived from their thought which was communicated to me that what they believed in was so to speak something inanimate possessing no life at all. From this it became clear that they did not acknowledge the creator of the universe but nature. They also said that they could not form any idea of a living deity.

AC (Elliott) n. 4951 4951. Beneath the heel and somewhat behind it a hell, at a great depth is situated, with the intervening space seemingly empty. The inhabitants of that hell are most malevolent, for secretly they discover people’s inclinations with the intention to do harm, and secretly lie in wait so as to destroy them. This has been the delight of their life. I have watched them quite a number of times. They pour out their malevolent poison on those who are in the world of spirits, and use various tricks to arouse those there. These are interiorly malevolent ones. They appear there in what look like cloaks, or occasionally in some other clothing. Often they are punished, when they are taken down to an even greater depth where something like a cloud is spread over them, this being the sphere of malevolence that emanates from them. From that very deep place an uproar, like that of murders taking place, is sometimes heard. Those spirits are able to bring others to tears, and also to strike fear into them. They acquired this ability during their lifetime, when they attended sick or simple people whom, to gain possession of their wealth, they drove to tears, thereby moving them to pity. But if they did not obtain such people’s wealth in this way, those spirits then struck fear into them. The majority of them are the kind who used these methods to plunder many houses for the benefit of monasteries. Some could also be seen only half the distance away; these seemed to themselves to be sitting in a room in consultation with one another. These too are malevolent, but not in the same degree.

AC (Elliott) n. 4952 4952. Some of those who are natural, have said that they do not know what to believe, for a destiny awaits everyone in keeping with the life he has led and also in keeping with his thoughts that result from the basic ideas of which he is firmly convinced. But I have told them in reply that it would have been sufficient if they had believed that God is the one who governs all things and that there is a life after death. In particular it would have been sufficient if they had not lived like a wild animal but as a human being should; that is to say, if they had loved God and exercised charity towards their neighbour, and had accordingly welcomed what was good and true and not been opposed to it, These people have then said that they had led that kind of life, but I have again replied that they had done so only in external actions. If laws had not stood in their way they would have made an attack on everyone’s life and wealth in a fiercer way than any animal. To this they have responded that they had not known what charity towards the neighbour was nor known about anything internal, but I answered that they could not know these things because self-love and love of the world, also external interests, had occupied their entire thought and will.

AC (Elliott) n. 4953 4953. This is continued at the end of the next chapter.


AC (Elliott) n. 4954 sRef Matt@25 @35 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @34 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ 4954. 39
The preliminary section of the previous chapter contained an explanation of what the Lord said about judgement on the good and on the evil, in Matthew 25:31-33; see 4807-4810. In the present preliminary section what the Lord said next in that connection comes up for explanation, that is to say, the following words,

Then the King will say to those at His right hand, Come, O blessed of My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, naked and you clothed Me around, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to Me. Matt. 15:34-36.

AC (Elliott) n. 4955 sRef Matt@25 @34 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ 4955. What these words hold within them in the internal sense will be evident from what is presented below. But first of all one needs to know that by these works listed one after another the essential ingredients of charity in their own ordered sequence are meant. This cannot be seen by anyone if he is unacquainted with the internal sense of the Word, that is, unless he knows what is really meant by giving food to the hungry, giving drink to the thirsty, taking in a stranger, clothing the naked, visiting the sick, and coming to those in prison. Anyone who restricts himself to the sense of the letter when thinking about these actions assumes that good works in the outward form these take are meant by them and that nothing deeper lies concealed within them, when in fact each action that is described contains some deeper reality, which is of a Divine nature because it has its origin in the Lord. But at the present day no understanding of any deeper reality exists because at the present day nothing is taught about charity. For after people separated charity from faith, teachings to do with charity perished, and in place of these, teachings to do with faith were accepted and invented, that is, teachings which provide no information at all about what is meant by charity or by the neighbour.

[2] Teachings that existed among the Ancients specified all the genera and species of charity. They also taught who the neighbour was towards whom charity should be exercised, and how one person was the neighbour in a different degree and different respect from another, and consequently how charity was to be exercised in different ways according to the individual needs of the neighbour. The Ancients also made classifications of the neighbour and gave names to each of these. Some people they called the poor, the needy, the wretched, and the afflicted; some they called the blind, the lame, the maimed, as well as orphans and widows; and others they called the hungry, the thirsty, strangers, the naked, the sick, the bound, and so on. From these classifications they knew what they ought to do for one person and what for another. But, as stated, such teachings have perished, and with them any understanding of the Word too. They have perished so completely that no one at the present day knows anything else than this, that when the poor, widows, and orphans are mentioned in the Word none but those who are literally called such are meant. The same applies whenever mention is made of the hungry, the thirsty, strangers, the naked, the sick, and those in prison. But the truth of the matter is that these names are used to describe charity – what it is like in its essence and what the exercise of charity ought to be like in a charitable life.

AC (Elliott) n. 4956 sRef Matt@25 @34 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S0′ 4956. Essentially charity towards the neighbour is an affection for goodness and truth and a recognition of oneself as being nothing but evil and falsity. Indeed the neighbour is one and the same as goodness and truth, and to have an affection for these is to have charity, while the opposite of the neighbour is evil and falsity, which a person who has charity turns away from. Anyone therefore who has charity towards the neighbour is moved by an affection for goodness and truth because they come from the Lord, and such a one turns away from evil and falsity because these come from himself. When he does this, humility is present in him as a consequence of his recognition of what he is in himself; and when such humility is present his state is one in which goodness and truth are received from the Lord. These essential ingredients of charity are the message in the internal sense of the following words used by the Lord,

I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, naked and you clothed Me around, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to Me.

Except from the internal sense no one can know that these words hold the essential ingredients of charity within them. The ancients who possessed teachings regarding charity knew these things, but at the present day matters such as these seem so far-fetched that everyone will be astonished by the assertion that those words hold the essential ingredients of charity within them. What is more, the angels present with a person do not perceive those words in any other way, for by ‘the hungry’ they perceive those led by affection to desire good, by ‘the thirsty’ those led by affection to desire truth, by ‘a stranger’ those wishing to receive instruction, by ‘the naked’ those acknowledging that no goodness or truth at all is present within them, by ‘the sick’ those acknowledging that within themselves there is nothing but evil, and by ‘the bound’ or ‘those in prison those acknowledging that within themselves there is nothing but falsity. All these if taken as a whole mean the aspects of charity described immediately above.

AC (Elliott) n. 4957 sRef Matt@25 @34 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S0′ 4957. From all this it may be seen that all the things the Lord spoke about held matters of Divine concern within them, though it seems to people whose interests are entirely worldly, and especially to those whose interests are bodily ones, that He spoke about the same kinds of things as anyone else might have spoken. Indeed those immersed in bodily interests will say of these and all other words spoken by the Lord that they are no more full of grace and therefore do not carry any more weight than the sermons and preaching of those in our own day and age who, because of their learning, are excellent speakers. But in fact their sermons and preaching are like the shell and husk when compared with the kernel inside them.

AC (Elliott) n. 4958 sRef Matt@25 @34 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S0′ 4958. The reason ‘hungering’ means being led by affection to desire good is that in the internal sense ‘bread’ means the good of love and charity, while food in general means good, 2165, 2177, 3478, 4211, 4217, 4735. The reason ‘thirsting’ means being led by affection to desire truth is that wine and also water mean the truth of faith – wine, 1071, 1798, water, 2702. ‘A stranger’ means one who wishes to receive instruction, see 1463, 4444; and one who is ‘naked’ means a person who acknowledges that no good or truth at all exists within him, one who is ‘sick’ a person who acknowledges that evil is present within him, and one who is ‘bound’ or ‘in prison’ a person who acknowledges that falsity is present, as is evident from many places in the Word where such names are used.

AC (Elliott) n. 4959 sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @35 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @34 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ 4959. The reason the Lord speaks of all these things being done to Himself is that He is present in those kinds of people, which is why He also says,

Truly I say to you, insofar as you did it to one of the least of these My brothers you did it to Me. Matt. 25:40-45.

GENESIS 39

1 And Joseph was made to go down to Egypt, and Potiphar bought him – Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant, the chief of the attendants, an Egyptian man – from the hand of the Ishmaelites who made him go down there.

2 And Jehovah was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his lord the Egyptian.

3 And his lord saw that Jehovah was with him, and everything that he did Jehovah made to prosper in his hand.

4 And Joseph found favour in his eyes, and ministered to him; and he put him in charge over his house, and whatever he had he gave into his hand.

5 And it happened from the time he put him in charge in his house and over all that he had, that Jehovah blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; and the blessing of Jehovah was on all that he had in the house and in the field.

6 And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand, and did not concern himself with anything* except the bread that he ate. And Joseph was beautiful in form and beautiful in appearance.

7 And it happened after these events, that his lord’s wife lifted up her eyes towards Joseph and said, Lie with me.

8 And he refused and said to his lord’s wife, Behold, my lord does not concern himself with anything** in the house, and all that he has he has given into my hand.

9 He himself is no greater in this house than I am, and he has not held back anything from me except yourself, in that you are his wife. How then shall I do this great evil, and sin against God?

10 And it happened as she spoke to Joseph day after day, that he did not listen to her, to lie with her, to be with her.

11 And it happened on a certain day, that he went to the house to do his work, and none of the men*** of the house was there in the house.

12 And she took hold of him by his garment, saying, Lie with me. And he left his garment in her hand and fled, and went out of doors.

13 And it happened as she saw that he had left his garment in her hand and had fled out of doors,

14 That she cried out to the men of her house, and said to them – she said, See, he has brought us a Hebrew man to make sport of us. He came to me to lie with me, and I cried out with a loud voice.

15 And it happened as he was hearing [me], that I lifted up my voice and cried out, and he left his garment with me, and fled, and went out of doors.

16 And she kept his garment with her until his lord came to his house.

17 And she spoke to him in**** these words, saying, The Hebrew slave whom you have brought to us came to me, to make sport of me.

18 And it happened as I lifted up my voice and cried out, that he left his garment with me and fled out of doors.

19 And it happened – as his lord heard his wife’s words which she spoke to him, saying, This is what***** your slave did to me – that his anger flared up.

20 And Joseph’s lord took him and committed him to the prison-house, a place where the king’s bound ones were bound; and he was there in the prison-house.

21 And Jehovah was with Joseph, and showed mercy to him, and gave him favour in the eyes of the governor****** of the prison-house.

22 And the governor****** of the prison-house gave into Joseph’s hand all the bound who were in the prison-house; and everything they did there, he was the doer of it.*******

23 The governor of the prison-house oversaw nothing whatever that was in his hand, in that Jehovah was with him; and whatever he did, Jehovah made it prosper.
* lit. did not know anything with him
** lit. does not know what is with me
*** lit. no man from the men
**** lit. according to
***** lit. According to these words
****** lit. prince or chief
******* i.e. it was done under his instructions

AC (Elliott) n. 4960 4960. CONTENTS

The internal sense deals here with the way in which the Lord made His Internal Man Divine. ‘Jacob’ was the External Man, the subject in preceding chapters, now ‘Joseph’ is the Internal Man, the subject in the present chapter and those that follow it.

AC (Elliott) n. 4961 4961. And because the making Divine of His Internal Man was carried out in conformity with Divine order, that order is described here. Temptation too is described, such temptation being the means by which a joining together is effected.

AC (Elliott) n. 4962 sRef Gen@39 @1 S0′ 4962. THE INTERNAL SENSE

Verse 1 And Joseph was made to go down to Egypt, and Potiphar bought him – Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant, the chief of the attendants, an Egyptian man – from the hand of the Ishmaelites who made him go down there.

‘And Joseph’ means the celestial of the spiritual from the rational. ‘Was made to go down to Egypt’ means to factual knowledge which the Church possessed. ‘And Potiphar bought him – Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant’ means among facts of a more internal kind. ‘The chief of the attendants’ means which facts come first and foremost in explanations. ‘An Egyptian man’ means natural truth. ‘From the hand of the Ishmaelites’ means from simple good. ‘Who made him go down there’ means a descent from this simple good to that factual knowledge.

AC (Elliott) n. 4963 sRef Gen@39 @1 S0′ 4963. ‘And Joseph’ means the celestial of the spiritual from the rational. This is clear from the representation of ‘Joseph’ as the celestial-spiritual man that comes from the rational, dealt with in 4286. Here therefore, since the Lord is the subject, the Lord’s Internal Man is represented by him. Everyone born a human being is external and internal. His external man is that which is seen with the eyes; it is that which enables him to live in association with other people and enables him to carry out what belongs properly to the natural world. But the internal man is one that is not seen with the eyes; it is what enables a person to live in association with spirits and angels and to carry through what belongs properly to the spiritual world. Everyone has an internal and an external, that is, the internal man and the external man exist, to the end that through man heaven may be joined to the world. For heaven flows by way of the internal man into the external and from that influx gains a perception of what exists in the world, while the external man in the world gains from the same influx a perception of what exists in heaven. It is to this end that the human being has been created the way he has.

[2] The Lord’s Human too had an External and an Internal because it pleased Him to be born like any other human being. The External, or His External Man, has been represented by ‘Jacob’ and after that by ‘Israel’, but His Internal Man is represented by ‘Joseph’. The latter – the Internal Man – is what is called the celestial-spiritual man from the rational; or what amounts to the same, the Lord’s Internal, which was the Human, was the celestial of the spiritual from the rational. This, and the glorification of it, are dealt with in the internal sense of the present chapter and those that follow it in which Joseph is the subject. What the celestial of the spiritual from the rational is has been explained already in 4286, 4585, 4592, 4594, namely that which comes above the celestial of the spiritual from the natural, represented by ‘Israel’.

[3] The Lord was indeed born like any other human being. But it is well known that everyone who is born depends for his make-up on both his father and his mother; also that he derives his inmost self from his father, but his more external aspects, or those which clothe his inmost self, from his mother. That is to say, both what he derives from his father and what he derives from his mother are defiled with hereditary evil. But in the Lord’s case it was different. That which He derived from His mother possessed a hereditary nature essentially the same as that existing in any other human being; but what He derived from His Father, who was Jehovah, was Divine. Consequently the Lord’s Internal Man was unlike the internal of any other human being, for His Inmost Self was Jehovah. Being intermediate this is therefore called the celestial of the spiritual from the rational. But in the Lord’s Divine mercy more will be said about this later on.

AC (Elliott) n. 4964 sRef Gen@39 @1 S0′ 4964. ‘Was made to go down to Egypt’ means to factual knowledge which the Church possessed. This is clear from the meaning of ‘Egypt’ as knowledge, or factual knowledge in general, dealt with in 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462. But no explanation of the essential nature of that factual knowledge properly meant by ‘Egypt’ has been provided as yet. In the Ancient Church there was doctrinal knowledge and there was factual knowledge. Doctrinal knowledge had regard to love to God and charity towards the neighbour, whereas factual knowledge had to do with the correspondences of the natural world with the spiritual world, and with the representations of spiritual and heavenly realities within natural and earthly ones. Such was the factual knowledge of those in the Ancient Church.

[2] Egypt was one of those parts of the world and one of those kingdoms where the Ancient Church also existed, 1138, 1385; but since in that land mainly factual knowledge was handed down from one generation to another, ‘Egypt’ means factual knowledge in general. This also explains why frequent reference is made to Egypt in the prophetical part of the Word, where that knowledge is meant specifically by ‘Egypt’. What is more, the actual magic practised by the Egyptians had its origin in the same knowledge; for they were acquainted with the correspondences of the natural world with the spiritual, and at a later time, after the Church among them had come to an end, they misused these in magical practices. Now because such factual knowledge existed among them – that is to say, knowledge which taught correspondences, and also representatives and meaningful signs – and because this factual knowledge was the servant of the doctrinal teachings of the Church, especially in their understanding of things stated in their Word (for the Word of the Ancient Church was both prophetical and historical, like the Word that exists today, though this is a different Word, see 2686) ‘he was made to go down to Egypt’ consequently means made to go down to the factual knowledge which the Church possessed.

sRef Hos@11 @1 S3′ [3] Because the Lord is represented by ‘Joseph’ and the words ‘Joseph was made to go down to Egypt’ are used here, the meaning is that when the Lord was to glorify His Internal Man, that is, make it Divine, He first of all assimilated the factual knowledge possessed by the Church. Then, starting from and using that knowledge He advanced towards things increasingly interior and at length even to those that were Divine. For it pleased Him to glorify or make Himself Divine in conformity with the same kind of order as that by which He regenerates the human being or makes him spiritual, 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490, 4402. That is to say, there is a gradual advance from external ideas, which are known facts and the truths of faith, towards internal ones, which are ideas of charity towards the neighbour and of love to Him. From this one may see what is meant by the following words in Hosea,

When Israel was a boy I loved him, and out of Egypt I called My son. Hosea 11:1.

These words refer to the Lord, see Matt. 2:15.

AC (Elliott) n. 4965 sRef Gen@39 @1 S0′ 4965. ‘And Potiphar bought him – Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant’ means among facts of a more internal kind. This is clear from the meaning of ‘Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant’ as facts of a more internal kind, dealt with in 4789. ‘Buying’ means that He availed Himself of them, 4397, 4487. Facts of a more internal kind are those that come closer to spiritual ideas, being facts that are applied to heavenly matters. For heavenly matters are what the internal man sees when the external man sees no more than the facts in the outward form these take.

AC (Elliott) n. 4966 sRef Gen@39 @1 S0′ 4966. ‘The chief of the attendants’ means which facts come first and foremost in explanations. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the chief of the attendants’ as the facts which come first and foremost in explanations, dealt with in 4790. Ones which come first and foremost in explanations are those which are pre-eminently suitable for explaining the Word, and so for coming to understand teachings drawn from the Word about love to God and charity towards the neighbour. It should be recognized that the factual knowledge of the people of old was entirely different from that existing at the present day. As stated above, the factual knowledge of the people of old had to do with the correspondences of things in the natural world with realities in the spiritual world. Knowledge which at the present day is called philosophical knowledge, such as Aristotelian systems and their like, did not exist among them. This is also evident from the books written by ancient authors, most of which consisted of descriptions of such things as were signs of, represented, and corresponded to more internal realities, as may be seen from the following evidence, and ignoring all else.

[2] They envisaged Helicon on a mountain and took it to mean heaven, and Parnassus on a hill below that, and took it to mean factual knowledge. They spoke of a flying horse, called Pegasus by them, which broke open a fountain there with its hoof; they called branches of knowledge virgins; and so on. For with the help of correspondences and representatives they knew that ‘a mountain’ meant heaven, ‘a hill’ the heaven beneath this, which is heaven as it exists among men, a horse’ the power of understanding, ‘its wings with which it flew’ spiritual things, ‘its hoof’ that which was natural, ‘a fountain’ intelligence, while three virgins called ‘the Graces’ meant affections for good, and virgins who were named ‘the Heliconians and ‘the Parnassians’ meant affections for truth. To the sun they likewise allotted horses, whose food they called ambrosia and whose drink they called nectar; for they knew that ‘the sun’ meant heavenly love, ‘horses’ powers of the understanding which sprang from that love, while ‘food’ meant celestial things and ‘drink’ spiritual ones.

[3] The Ancients are also the originators of customs that are still followed when kings are crowned. The king has to sit on a silver throne, wear a purple robe, and be anointed with oil. He has to wear a crown on his head, while holding in his hands a sceptre, a sword, and keys. He has to ride in regal splendour on a white horse shed with horseshoes made of silver; and he has to be waited on at table by the chief nobles of the kingdom. And many other customs are followed besides these. The Ancients knew that ‘a king’ represented Divine Truth that is rooted in Divine Good, and from this they knew what was meant by a silver throne, a purple robe, anointing oil, crown, sceptre, sword, keys, white horse, horseshoes made of silver, and what was meant by being waited on at table by the chief nobles. Who at the present day knows the meaning of any of these customs, or where the information exists to show him their meaning? People refer to them as symbols, but they know nothing at all about correspondence or representation. All this evidence shows what the factual knowledge possessed by the Ancients was like, and that this knowledge gave them a discernment of spiritual and heavenly realities, which at the present day are scarcely known to exist.

[4] The factual knowledge that has replaced that of the Ancients, and which strictly speaking is called philosophical knowledge, tends to draw the mind away from knowing such things because such knowledge can also be employed to substantiate false ideas. Furthermore, even when used to substantiate true ones it introduces darkness into the mind, because for the most part mere terms are used to substantiate them, which few people can understand and which the few who do understand them argue about. From this it may be seen how far the human race has departed from the learning of the Ancients, which led to wisdom. Gentiles received their factual knowledge from the Ancient Church, whose external worship consisted in representatives and meaningful signs and whose internal worship consisted in the realities represented and meant by these. This was the kind of factual knowledge that is meant in the genuine sense by ‘Egypt’.

AC (Elliott) n. 4967 sRef Gen@39 @1 S0′ 4967. ‘An Egyptian man’ means natural truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a man’ as truth, dealt with in 3134, and from the meaning of ‘Egypt’ as factual knowledge in general, dealt with immediately above in 4964, 4966. And since ‘Egypt’ means factual knowledge it also means the natural, for all the factual knowledge present with a person constitutes his natural since it resides in his natural man, and includes knowledge about spiritual and heavenly realities. The reason for this is that the natural is the position within which and from which he sees those realities. Those which he does not see from that position are unintelligible to him. But a regenerate person, who is called spiritual, sees them in one way, an unregenerate person, who is called merely natural, in another. In the case of a regenerate person factual knowledge has the light of heaven shed upon it, but not so in the case of an unregenerate one. The light shed on the unregenerate person’s factual knowledge comes by way of spirits governed by falsity and evil, a light which, it is true, begins as the light of heaven but among such spirits is reduced to a dim light like that of evening or night. Indeed spirits of this kind, and consequently men like them, see in the way owls do – clearly at night but dimly during the daytime. That is, they see falsities clearly and truths dimly, and therefore worldly things clearly but heavenly ones dimly, if at all. From this one may recognize that genuine factual knowledge is natural truth; for all genuine factual knowledge that is of the kind meant in the good sense by ‘Egypt’ is natural truth.

AC (Elliott) n. 4968 sRef Gen@39 @1 S0′ 4968. ‘From the hand of the Ishmaelites’ means from simple good. This is clear from the representation of ‘the Ishmaelites’ as those in whom simple good is present, dealt with in 3263, 4747, and therefore here as natural truth which is received from simple good. Chapter 37:36 says that ‘the Midianites sold Joseph into Egypt to Potiphar, Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant, the chief of the attendants’; but now it is said that ‘Potiphar, Pharaoh’s bedchamber servant, the chief of the attendants, bought him from the hand of the Ishmaelites, who made him go down there’. The matter is stated in these different ways for the sake of the internal sense. Previously – in Chapter 37 – the subject was the alienation of Divine truth, which is done not by those in whom simple good exists but by those in whom simple truth is present, whom ‘the Midianites’ represent, see 4788. But now the subject is the acquisition or the availing oneself of factual knowledge; also natural truth, which is acquired from simple good. This is why the expression ‘from the Ishmaelites’ is used, for these people represent those in whom simple good is present. From this it is evident that the matter is stated in the way it is for the sake of the internal sense. Nor is there any discrepancy in the historical narrative, for this states that the Midianites drew Joseph out of the pit and then handed him over to the Ishmaelites by whom he was led away into Egypt. Thus since the Midianites handed him over to the Ishmaelites who were going to Egypt, it was the Midianites who sold him to Egypt.

AC (Elliott) n. 4969 sRef Gen@39 @1 S0′ 4969. ‘Who made him go down there means a descent from this simple good to that factual knowledge. This is clear from the representation of ‘the Ishmaelites who made him go down’ as those in whom simple good is present, dealt with immediately above in 4968, and from the meaning of Egypt, to which ‘there’ refers here, as factual knowledge in general, dealt with just above in 4964, 4966. The expression ‘going down’ is used because the subject is factual knowledge which is exterior. For in the Word passing from interior things to exterior ones is described as ‘going down’, and passing from exterior to interior ones as ‘going up’, see 3084, 4539.

AC (Elliott) n. 4970 sRef Gen@39 @5 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @4 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @3 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @2 S0′ 4970. Verses 2-6 And Jehovah was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his lord the Egyptian. And his lord saw that Jehovah was with him, and everything that he did Jehovah made it to prosper in his hand. And Joseph found favour in his eyes, and ministered to him; and he put him in charge over his house, and whatever he had he gave into his hand. And it happened from the time he put him in charge in his house and over all that he had, that Jehovah blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; and he blessing of Jehovah was on all that he had in the house and in the field. And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand, and did not concern himself with anything* except the bread that he ate. And Joseph was beautiful in form and beautiful in appearance.

‘And Jehovah was with Joseph’ means that the Divine existed within the celestial of the spiritual. ‘And he was a prosperous man’ means that all things had been provided. ‘And he was in the house of his lord the Egyptian’ means to enable it to be introduced into natural good. ‘And his lord saw that Jehovah was with him’ means a perception within natural good that the Divine existed within it. ‘And everything that he did Jehovah made to prosper in his hand’ means that all things were the conferments of Divine Providence. ‘And Joseph found favour in his eyes’ means that it had found acceptance. ‘And ministered to him’ means that factual knowledge was assigned to its own good. ‘And he put him in charge over his house’ means that this good applied itself to that factual knowledge. ‘And whatever he had he gave into his hand’ means that all that belonged to that good was seemingly subject to the power and control of its associated truth. ‘And it happened from the time he put him in charge in his house and over all that he had’ means a second state, after this good had applied itself to that truth and had made all that belonged to it seemingly subject to the power and control of that truth. ‘That Jehovah blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake’ means that at this point the Divine imparted the celestial-natural to that truth. ‘And the blessing of Jehovah was’ means increases. ‘On all that he had in the house and in the field’ means in life and in doctrine. ‘And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand’ means that it seemed as though all things were subject to its power and control. ‘And did not concern himself with anything except the bread that he ate’ means that the good from there was its own. ‘And Joseph was beautiful in form means the good of life springing from this. ‘And beautiful in appearance’ means the truth of faith springing from it.
* lit. did not know anything with him

AC (Elliott) n. 4971 sRef Gen@39 @2 S0′ 4971. ‘And Jehovah was with Joseph’ means that the Divine existed within the celestial of the spiritual. This is clear from the representation of ‘Joseph’ as the celestial of the spiritual from the rational, dealt with above in 4963; and because the Lord is the subject, at this point His Internal Man within His Human, ‘Jehovah was with him’ means that the Divine existed within it. The Divine existed within His Human because He had been conceived from Jehovah. The Divine does not exist within angels; it is merely present with them, because they are merely forms receiving the Divine coming forth from the Lord.

AC (Elliott) n. 4972 sRef Gen@39 @2 S0′ 4972. ‘And he was a prosperous man’ means that all things had been provided. This is clear from the meaning of the phrase ‘being made to prosper’, when used in reference to the Lord, as provision being made so that He might be enriched with all good.

AC (Elliott) n. 4973 sRef Gen@39 @2 S0′ 4973. ‘And he was in the house of his lord the Egyptian’ means to enable it to be introduced into natural good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘lord’ as good, dealt with below, and from the meaning of ‘the Egyptian’ as factual knowledge in general, and from this as that which is natural, dealt with in 4967. The reason ‘being in the house’ means being introduced is that ‘house’ is the mind in which good dwells, 3538, in this case the natural mind. Moreover ‘house’ is used in reference to good, 3652, 3720. The human being has both a natural mind and a rational mind. The natural mind exists within his external man, the rational within his internal. Known facts make up the truths that belong to the natural mind, and these are said to be there ‘in their own house’ when they are joined to good there; for good and truth together constitute a single house like husband and wife. But the forms of good and the truths which are the subject at present are of a more interior kind, for they are suited to the celestial of the spiritual from the rational, which is represented by ‘Joseph’. Those suitable interior truths within the natural are applicable to useful purposes, while interior forms of good in the same are the useful purposes themselves.

sRef Ps@136 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@136 @2 S2′ sRef Deut@10 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@136 @3 S2′ [2] The expression ‘lord’ is used many times in the Word, but unless a person is acquainted with the internal sense he assumes that ‘lord’ has no other meaning than what the word has when used in ordinary conversation. But ‘lord’ is used nowhere in the Word other than in reference to good, as is similarly the case with the name ‘Jehovah’. When however reference is being made to truth, ‘God’ and also ‘king are used. This then is the reason why ‘lord’ means good, as may also be seen from the following places: In Moses,

Jehovah your God, He is God of gods, and Lord of lords. Deut. 10:17.

In David,

Confess Jehovah, confess the God of gods, confess the Lord of lords. Ps. 136:1-3

In these places Jehovah or the Lord is called ‘God of gods’ by virtue of Divine Truth which goes forth from Him, and ‘Lord of lords’ by virtue of Divine Good which exists within Him.

sRef Rev@19 @16 S3′ sRef Rev@17 @14 S3′ [3] Similarly in John,

The Lamb will overcome them, for He is Lord of lords, and King of kings. Rev. 17:14.

And in the same book,

The One sitting on the white horse has on His robe and on His thigh the name written, King of kings and Lord of lords. Rev. 19:16.

The Lord is called ‘King of kings’ by virtue of Divine Truth, and ‘Lord of lords’ by virtue of Divine Good, as is evident from the individual expressions used here. ‘The name written’ is His true nature, 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006. ‘His robe’ on which it is written is the truth of faith, 1073, 2576, 4545, 4763. ‘His thigh’ on which likewise that nature is written is the good of love, 3021, 4277, 4280, 4575. From this too it is evident that by virtue of Divine Truth the Lord is called ‘King of kings and by virtue of Divine Good ‘Lord of lords’. For more about the Lord being called King by virtue of Divine Truth, see 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4581.

sRef Ps@110 @1 S4′ sRef Luke@20 @42 S4′ sRef Luke@2 @26 S4′ sRef Luke@20 @41 S4′ [4] From this it is also plain what ‘the Lord’s Christ’ means in Luke,

Simeon received an answer from the Holy Spirit that he would not see death until he had seen the Lord’s Christ. Luke 2:26.

‘The Lord’s Christ’ is the Divine Truth that goes with Divine Good, for ‘Christ’ is one and the same as Messiah, and Messiah is the Anointed or King, 3008, 3009, ‘the Lord’ in this case being Jehovah. The name Jehovah is not used anywhere in the New Testament Word, but instead of Jehovah, the Lord and God are used, see 2921, as again in Luke,

Jesus said, How can they say that the Christ is David’s son when David himself says in the Book of Psalms, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand? Luke 20:41, 41.

The same appears in David as follows,

Jehovah said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand. Ps. 110:1.

It is obvious that Jehovah in David is called Lord in the gospel, ‘Lord’ in this case standing for the Divine Good of the Divine Human. Omnipotence is meant by ‘sitting at the right hand’, 3387, 4592, 4933 (end).

sRef Mal@3 @1 S5′ [5] While in the world the Lord was Divine Truth, but once He was glorified, that is, had made the Human within Him Divine, He became Divine Good, from which Divine Truth subsequently goes forth. This explains why after the Resurrection the disciples did not call Him Master, as they had before, but Lord, as is evident in John 21:7, 12, 15-17, 20, and also in the other gospels. Divine Truth – which the Lord was while in the world and which subsequently goes forth from Him, that is, from Divine Good – is also called ‘the Angel of the Covenant’, in Malachi,

Suddenly there will come to His temple the Lord whom you are seeking, and the Angel of the Covenant in whom you delight. Mal. 3:1.

[6] Because ‘Lord’ is used to mean Divine Good and ‘King’ Divine Truth, therefore in places where the Lord is spoken of as having dominion and a kingdom ‘dominion’ has reference to Divine Good and ‘a kingdom’ to Divine Truth. For the same reason the Lord is called ‘Lord of the nations’ but ‘King of the peoples’, for ‘nations’ means those governed by good, ‘peoples’ those governed by truth, 1259, 1260, 1849, 3581

sRef Ps@105 @20 S7′ sRef Ps@105 @19 S7′ sRef Ps@105 @22 S7′ sRef Ps@105 @21 S7′ sRef Ps@105 @17 S7′ [7] Good is called ‘lord’ as against a servant, and ‘father’ as against a son, as in Malachi,

A son should honour his father, and a servant his lord. If I am a Father, where is My honour? And if I am a Lord, where is the fear of Me? Mal. 1:6.

And in David,

To be a slave JOSEPH was sold. The word of Jehovah tested him. The king sent and released him, he who had dominion over nations set him free and placed him as lord of his house and as one with dominion over all his possessions. Ps. 115:17, 19-22.

Here, as is evident from each individual expression, ‘Joseph’ is used to mean the Lord, ‘lord’ in this instance being the Divine Good of the Divine Human.

AC (Elliott) n. 4974 sRef Gen@39 @3 S0′ 4974. ‘And his lord saw that Jehovah was with him’ means a perception within natural good that the Divine existed within it. This is clear from the meaning of ‘seeing’ as understanding and discerning, dealt with in 2150, 3764, 4339, 4567, 4723, and from the meaning of ‘lord’ as good, dealt with immediately above in 4973, in this case natural good because it is ‘the Egyptian’ who is the lord. The existence inwardly of the Divine is meant by ‘Jehovah was with him’, as above in 4971.

AC (Elliott) n. 4975 sRef Gen@39 @3 S0′ 4975. ‘And everything that he did Jehovah made to prosper in his hand’ means that all things were the conferments of Divine Providence. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being made to prosper’ as being provided for, dealt with above in 4972. Consequently ‘Jehovah made it prosper in his hand’ is Divine Providence.

[4975a] ‘And Joseph found favour in his eyes means that it had found acceptance, that is to say, by natural good meant by ‘his lord’. This is clear from the meaning of ‘finding favour in someone’s eyes’ as finding acceptance. The expression ‘in his eyes’ is used because ‘favour’ has reference to the understanding, and this is meant by ‘the eyes’, 2701, 3820, 4526.

AC (Elliott) n. 4976 sRef Gen@39 @4 S0′ 4976. ‘And ministered to him’ means that factual knowledge was assigned to its own good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘ministering’ as serving by supplying what another has need of, in this case as being assigned to since the subject is natural good to which factual knowledge is to be assigned. ‘Ministering’ is also used to describe known facts, for in the Word a minister and a servant mean factual knowledge or natural truth because this is subservient to good as its lord. Factual knowledge stands in relation to delight present in the natural man – or what amounts to the same, natural truth stands in relation to its good – in exactly the same way as water does to bread, or drink to food. Water or drink enables bread or food to be dissolved, and once dissolved to be conveyed into the blood, from which it passes into all parts around the body and nourishes them. Without the water or drink the bread or food is not broken down into extremely small particles and carried around the body to fulfill its purpose.

[2] The same applies to factual knowledge in relation to delight, or truth in relation to good. That being so, good longs for and desires truth, and does so because of the purpose such truth can fulfill by ministering to it and serving it. Food and drink also correspond to these. No one in the next life is nourished by any natural food or natural drink, only by spiritual food and spiritual drink, spiritual food being good, and spiritual drink truth. This is why, when bread or food is mentioned in the Word, angels understand spiritual bread or food, which is the good of love and charity; and when water or drink is mentioned they understand spiritual water or drink, which is the truth of faith. From this one may see what the truth of faith without the good of charity is, and also what kind of nourishment the former without the latter is able to supply to the internal man; that is to say, it is like the nourishment supplied by water or drink alone without bread or food. It is well known that a person fed on water or drink alone wastes away and dies.

AC (Elliott) n. 4977 sRef Gen@39 @4 S0′ 4977. ‘And he put him in charge over his house’ means that this good applied itself to that factual knowledge. This is clear from the meaning of his ‘lord’, who put him in charge, as good, dealt with above in 4977, and from the meaning of ‘putting him in charge over his house’ as applying itself to it – to factual knowledge or natural truth. This meaning is evident from what follows, where it says that ‘whatever he had he gave into his hand’, meaning that all belonging to that good was seemingly subject to the other’s power and control. For good is the lord and truth its minister, and when it says that the lord put the minister in charge, that is, that good put truth in charge, the meaning in the internal sense is not that the lordship ceased to rest with that good but that it applied itself to the truth. For in the internal sense one perceives what a thing really is, whereas the sense of the letter presents it in the form of an appearance. The lordship always rests with good, but good applies itself so that truth may be joined to it.

[2] While a person is governed by truth, as happens before he has been regenerated, he knows scarcely anything at all about good. For truth flows in by an external route, or that of the senses, whereas good flows in by an internal route. Before he has been regenerated a person is aware of that which flows in by the external route, but not of that which comes by the internal one. Consequently unless in that state which comes first the lordship seemed to be given to truth, that is, unless good applied itself to it, that truth could never become attached to this good as its own. This is the same factor as has been presented many times before – that truth seemingly occupies the first place, that is, it is so to speak the lord, while a person is being regenerated, but that good plainly occupies the first place and is the lord once he has been regenerated, for which see 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3607, 3701, 4925, 4926, 4928, 4930.

AC (Elliott) n. 4978 sRef Gen@39 @4 S0′ 4978. ‘And whatever he had he gave into his hand’ means that all that belonged to that good was seemingly subject to the power and control of its associated truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘whatever he had’ as all that belonged to it, and from the meaning of ‘hand’ as power, dealt with in 878, 3091, 3787, 3563, 4931-4937. ‘Giving into his hand’ accordingly means placing under its power and control. Yet because this is only the appearance of what happens, the phrase ‘seemingly subject to its power and control’ is used. As regards its being what is apparently or seemingly the situation, see immediately above in 4977.

AC (Elliott) n. 4979 sRef Gen@39 @5 S0′ 4979. ‘And it happened from the time he put him in charge in his house and over all that he had’ means a second state, after this good had applied itself to that truth and had made all that belonged to it seemingly subject to the power and control of that truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘it happened’ or ‘so it was’ – an expression used many times in the Word – as that which implies something new and therefore a second state (similarly in verses 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, 18, 19 below); from the meaning of ‘from the time he put him in charge in his house’ as after good had applied itself to that truth, dealt with above in 4977; and from the meaning of ‘over all that he had’ as all that belonged to such good was made seemingly subject to the power and control of that truth, also dealt with above, in 4978.

AC (Elliott) n. 4980 sRef Gen@39 @5 S0′ 4980. ‘That Jehovah blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake’ means that at this point the Divine imparted the celestial-natural to that truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being blessed’ as being enriched with celestial and spiritual good, so that an imparting by the Divine is meant by ‘Jehovah blessed’; and from the meaning of ‘the Egyptian’s house’ as the good dwelling in the natural mind, as above in 4973. From this it follows that the words ‘Jehovah blessed the Egyptian’s house’ mean that at this point the Divine imparted the celestial-natural to it. The celestial-natural is good present in the natural which corresponds to the good belonging to the rational, that is, which corresponds to the celestial of the spiritual from the rational, meant by ‘Joseph’, 4963.

[2] The term celestial, like spiritual, is used in reference both to the rational and to the natural, that is, both to the internal man, which is the rational man, and to the external, which is the natural man. For essentially, the spiritual is Divine Truth which goes forth from the Lord, while the celestial is Divine Good present within that Divine Truth. When Divine Truth containing Divine Good is received by the rational, or by the internal man, it is called the spiritual within the rational, but when it is received by the natural, or by the external man, it is called the spiritual within the natural. The same is so with Divine Good present within Divine Truth. When this good is received by the rational, or by the internal man, it is referred to as the celestial within the rational, but when it is received by the natural, or by the external man, it is referred to as the celestial within the natural. In man’s case these two flow in both directly from the Lord and indirectly from Him through angels and spirits; but in the Lord’s case while He was in the world they flowed in from Himself because the Divine existed within Him.

AC (Elliott) n. 4981 sRef Gen@39 @5 S0′ 4981. ‘And the blessing of Jehovah was’ means increases. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the blessing of Jehovah’. In the genuine sense ‘the blessing of Jehovah’ means love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbour, for those who are endowed with these are called ‘the blessed of Jehovah’ since they are in that case endowed with heaven and eternal salvation. Consequently ‘the blessing of Jehovah’ in the external sense, that is, in the sense which has to do with a person’s state in the world, means resting content in God and on that account being content with one’s position in society and with the amount of wealth one possesses, whether one is among the highly honoured and is wealthy or among the not so honoured and the poor. For the person who rests content in God regards positions and wealth as means to fulfill useful purposes; and when he thinks about these and at the same time about eternal life, he rates them as nothing and eternal life as that which is essential.

[2] Because ‘the blessing of Jehovah (or the Lord)’ implies such increases in the genuine sense, blessing also implies countless other benefits and consequently means the various gifts which flow from it, such as enrichment with spiritual and celestial good, 981, 1731; fruitfulness resulting from the affection for truth, 2846; undergoing rearrangement into heavenly order, 3017; being endowed with the good of love and thereby being joined to the Lord, 3406, 3504, 3514, 3530, 3584; and joy, 4216. What is meant by ‘blessing’ therefore in any specific instance becomes clear from the context in which it appears. Here the meaning of ‘the blessing of Jehovah’ as increases in good and truth, that is, in life and doctrine, is evident from what follows it, for there it says that this blessing of Jehovah was ‘in the house and in the field’, and ‘house’ means good which is the good of life, while ‘field’ means truth which is the truth of doctrine. From this it is evident that increases in these are meant in this case by ‘the blessing of Jehovah’.

AC (Elliott) n. 4982 sRef Gen@39 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @18 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @17 S0′ 4982. ‘On all that he had in the house and in the field’ means in life and in doctrine. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the house’ as good, dealt with in 2048, 2233, 2234, 2559, 3128, 3652, 3720, and as ‘the house’ means good it also means life, since all good is the good of life; and from the meaning of ‘the field’ as the Church’s truth, dealt with in 368, 3508, 3766, 4440, 4443, and as this means the Church’s truth it also means doctrine, for all truth is the truth of doctrine. House and field are also referred to several times in other parts of the Word, and when in such places the celestial man is the subject, ‘house’ means celestial good and ‘field’ spiritual good. In this case celestial good is the good of love to the Lord, and spiritual good is the good of charity towards the neighbour. But when the spiritual man is the subject ‘house’ means the celestial as it exists with him, which is the good of charity towards the neighbour, while ‘field’ means the spiritual as it exists with him, which is the truth of faith. ‘The house’ and ‘the field’ have the same meanings in Matthew,

Let him who is on the roof of the house not go down to take anything out of his house; and let him who is in the field not turn back to get his clothing. Matt. 24:17, 18.

See 3652.

AC (Elliott) n. 4983 sRef Gen@39 @6 S0′ 4983. ‘And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand’ means that it seemed as though all things were subject to its power and control. This is clear from what has been explained above in 4978 where practically the same words occur, and also from what has been stated in 4977.

AC (Elliott) n. 4984 sRef Gen@39 @6 S0′ 4984. ‘And he did not concern himself with anything except the bread that he ate’ means that the good from there was made its own. This is clear from the meaning of ‘bread’ as good, dealt with in 276, 680, 3478, 3735, 4211, 4217, 4735; and from the meaning of ‘eating’ as being made one’s own, dealt with in 3168, 3513 (end), 3596, 3832, 4745. ‘He did not concern himself with anything except the bread’ means that it took to itself nothing else than good. One might think that when good makes truth its own, it makes its own that kind of truth which is the truth of faith; but in fact it makes the good of truth its own. Truths that have no useful purpose do indeed come near it but they do not enter into it. All useful purposes led to by truths are instances of the good of truth. Truths which have no useful purpose are separated, some of which are then retained, others laid aside. The ones that are retained lead in some direct or else more remote way to good and actually have a useful purpose. Ones that are laid aside do not lead to good, nor do they become linked to it. Initially all useful purposes exist as the truths of doctrine, but they move on to become forms of good. They become such when a person acts in conformity with them, for it is what the person actually practises that imparts such a nature to those truths. Every action springs from the will, and the will is what causes that which existed initially as truth to become good. From this it is evident that, when in the will, truth is no longer the truth of faith but the good of faith, and that it is not the truth of faith but the good of faith that brings happiness. For the latter exerts an influence on the essential constituent of a person’s life, that is to say, on the intentions in his will, bringing him interior delight or bliss, and in the next life happiness that is called heavenly joy.

AC (Elliott) n. 4985 sRef Gen@39 @6 S0′ 4985. ‘And Joseph was beautiful in form’ means the good of life springing from this, ‘and beautiful in appearance’ means the truth of faith springing from it. This is clear from the meaning of ‘beautiful in form and beautiful in appearance’, for ‘the form’ is the essence of a thing, whereas ‘the appearance’ is the outward manifestation derived from it. And since good is the actual essence and truth is the outward manifestation springing from it, ‘beautiful in form’ means the good of life and ‘beautiful in appearance’ the truth of faith. For the good of life is a person’s essential being (esse) since it resides in his will, while the truth of faith is the manifestation of it since it inhabits his understanding. Indeed whatever inhabits the understanding is a manifestation of something that originates in the will. The essential being (esse) constituting a person’s life resides in the intentions of his will, and the manifestation (existere) of his life resides in the thoughts of his understanding. A person’s understanding is nothing else than an unfolding of his will, also the imparting of a form to it that enables its true nature to be seen in an outward appearance.

[2] From this one may see where the beauty – the beauty of the interior man – comes from. That is, it comes from the good present in the will by way of the truth of faith. The truth of faith presents that beauty in an outward form, but the good in the will is the supplier of that beauty and the producer of the outward form. Here is the reason for the indescribable beauty of the angels of heaven, for each is so to speak love and charity embodied in a form. When therefore anyone sees them in their beauty his deepest feelings are stirred. For the good of love received from the Lord shines forth from them through the truth of faith, enters into him, and stirs those feelings within him. From this, as also in 3821, one may see what is meant in the internal sense by ‘beautiful in form and beautiful in appearance.

AC (Elliott) n. 4986 sRef Gen@39 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @7 S0′ 4986. Verses 7-9 And it happened after these events, that his lord’s wife lifted up her eyes towards Joseph and said, Lie with me. And he refused and said to his lord’s wife, Behold, my lord does not concern himself with anything* in the house, and all that he has he has given into my hand. He himself is no greater in this house than I am, and he has not held back anything from me except yourself, in that you are his wife. How then shall I do this great evil, and sin against God?

‘And it happened after these events’ means a third state. ‘That his lord’s wife lifted up her eyes towards Joseph’ means unspiritual natural truth wedded to natural good, and its perception. ‘And said, Lie with me’ means that it desired a joining together. ‘And he refused’ means an aversion. ‘And he said to his lord’s wife’ means a perception regarding that truth. ‘Behold, my lord does not concern himself with anything in the house’ means that natural good did not have even the desire to make anything its own. ‘And all that he has he has given into my hand’ means that everything was subject to its power and control. ‘He himself is no greater in this house than I am’ means that that good is prior in respect of time but not of state. ‘And he has not held back anything from me except yourself’ means that becoming joined to the truth wedded to that good was forbidden. ‘In that you are his wife’ means because this truth must not be joined to any other good. ‘How then shall I do this great evil, and sin against God?’ means that, this being so, they exist set apart and not joined together.
* lit. does not know what is with me

AC (Elliott) n. 4987 sRef Gen@39 @7 S0′ 4987. ‘And it happened after these events’ means a third state. This is clear from the meaning of ‘it happened’ or ‘so it was’ as that which implies something new, as above in 4979, and therefore at this point a third state; and from the meaning of ‘after these events’ as after those things were completed. In the original language one line of thought is not separated from another by punctuation marks,* as in other languages, but the text seems to run so to speak from start to finish without any breaks in it. Ideas in the internal sense follow one another in a similar way without breaks, moving on from one state of a thing into another state of it. But when one state comes to an end and another major one takes its place, this is indicated by the expression ‘so it was’ or ‘it happened’, while a minor change of state is indicated by the word ‘and’. This is the reason why these expressions occur so frequently. This third state described now is more internal than the previous one.
* i.e. before the introduction of Masoretic pointing and punctuation

AC (Elliott) n. 4988 sRef Gen@39 @7 S0′ 4988. ‘That his lord’s wife lifted up her eyes towards Joseph’ means unspiritual natural truth wedded to natural good, and its perception. This is clear from the meaning of ‘wife’ as truth wedded to good, dealt with in 1468, 2517, 3236, 4510, 4823, and in this case as unspiritual natural truth wedded to natural good since that kind of truth and this kind of good are described – the good to which that truth is joined being meant here by ‘lord’, 4973; and from the meaning of ‘lifting up the eyes’ as thought, attention, and also perception, dealt with in 2789, 2829, 3198, 3202, 4339.

[2] ‘Wife’ in this instance means natural truth, but not natural truth that is spiritual, while her husband, to whom ‘lord’ refers here, means natural good, but not natural good that is spiritual. But some explanation is needed to show what is meant by natural good and truth that are not spiritual and what is meant by natural good and truth that are spiritual. With the human being, good has two different origins – one being heredity and consequently that which is adventitious, the other being the doctrine of faith and charity or, in the case of gentiles, their religious belief. Good arising from the first origin is unspiritual natural good, whereas good arising from the second is spiritual natural good. Truth too comes from a like origin, for all good has its own truth wedded to it.

[3] Natural good arising from the first origin, which is hereditary and consequently adventitious, bears many similarities to natural good arising from the second origin, which is the doctrine of faith and charity or some other set of religious beliefs. But those similarities are confined to outward appearances; inwardly the two are completely different. Natural good arising from the first origin may be compared to the good that is also present among living creatures of a gentle nature, whereas natural good arising from the second is peculiar to the human being who uses his reason when he acts, and who consequently knows how to administer what is good in different ways, in keeping with useful purposes that need to be served. These different ways in which good has to be administered are what the doctrine regarding what is right and fair teaches, and in a higher degree what the doctrine regarding faith and charity teaches; and in the case of people who are truly rational, reason also serves in many instances to corroborate what doctrine teaches.

[4] Those whose performance of good arises from the first origin are moved as if by blind instinct in their exercise of charity, whereas those whose performance of good arises from the second origin are moved by an inner sense of duty and so with their eyes so to speak fully open to what they are doing. In short, those whose performance of good arises from the first origin are not led by any conscientious regard for what is right and fair, still less by any such regard for spiritual truth and good; but those whose performance of good arises from the second origin are led by conscience. See what has been stated already on these matters in 3040, 3470, 3471, 3518, and what is said below in 4992. But what is involved in all this cannot possibly be explained intelligibly; for anyone who is not spiritual, that is, not regenerate, sees good from the point of view of the outward form it takes. He does this because he does not know what is meant by charity or by the neighbour; and the reason why he does not know this is that no doctrinal teachings regarding charity exist. Such matters can be seen very clearly in the light of heaven, and they can consequently be seen clearly by spiritual or regenerate persons because they dwell in the light of heaven.

AC (Elliott) n. 4989 sRef Gen@39 @7 S0′ 4989. ‘And said, Lie with me’ means that it desired a joining together. This is clear from the meaning of ‘lying with me’ as a joining together, that is to say, of spiritual natural good, meant here by ‘Joseph’, and unspiritual natural truth, meant by ‘his lord’s wife’; but this would be an unlawful joining together. Joinings together of good and truth, and of truth and good, are described in the Word by means of marriages, see 2727-2759, 3132, 3665, 4434, 4837, and therefore unlawful joinings together are described by means of liaisons with prostitutes. Here therefore the joining of unspiritual natural truth to spiritual natural good is described by his lord’s wife’s wanting to lie with him. No joining together of these exists internally, only externally, where they appear to be joined together but in fact have no more than a mere association with each other. This also is the reason why it says that she took hold of him by his garment and that he left his garment in her hand; for in the internal sense ‘a garment’ means what is external, by means of which the two only appear to be joined, that is, they have no more than a mere association with each other, as will be seen below at verses 12, 13.

[2] These meanings cannot be seen as long as the mind or thought concentrates solely on the historical details, for in that case there is no thought of anything else than Joseph, Potiphar’s wife, and Joseph’s flight after leaving behind his garment. But if the mind or thought were to concentrate on what is meant spiritually by ‘Joseph’, ‘Potiphar’s wife’, and the ‘garment’, it would be seen that some spiritual but unlawful joining together was also meant here. When this is so, the mind or thought is able to concentrate on what is meant spiritually, provided the belief is present that the historical Word is Divine not by virtue of the mere historical narrative but by virtue of what is spiritual and Divine contained within it. If a person possessed such a belief he would know that its spiritual and Divine content was concerned with the goodness and truth present in the Church and in the Lord’s kingdom, and in the highest sense with the Lord Himself. When a person enters the next life, which happens immediately after death, if he is one of those who are being raised up to heaven he will come to realize that he retains none of the historical details recorded in the Word. He knows nothing whatever about Joseph, nor anything about Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but only about the spiritual and Divine realities which he has learned from the Word and made part of his own life. These therefore are the kinds of matters inwardly present in the Word, which are called its internal sense.

AC (Elliott) n. 4990 sRef Gen@39 @8 S0′ 4990. ‘And he refused’ means an aversion. This is clear from the meaning of ‘refusing’ as being filled with aversion – with aversion for that joining together – for anyone whose refusal is so great that he even flees out of doors is filled with aversion.

AC (Elliott) n. 4991 sRef Gen@39 @8 S0′ 4991. ‘And he said to his lord’s wife’ means a perception regarding that truth. This is clear from the meaning in the historical narratives of the Word of ‘saying’ as perceiving, often dealt with already, and from the meaning of ‘his lord’s wife’ as unspiritual natural truth, wedded to natural good, dealt with above in 4988.

AC (Elliott) n. 4992 sRef Gen@39 @8 S0′ 4992. ‘Behold, my lord does not concern himself with anything in the house’ means that natural good did not have even the desire to make anything its own. This is clear from the meaning of ‘his lord’ as natural good, dealt with in 4973, and from the meaning of ‘not concerning himself with anything in the house’ as having no desire to make anything its own. This meaning of these words cannot be seen except from the train of thought in the internal sense, for now the subject is a third state, in which the celestial of the spiritual was present in the natural. In this state natural good and truth which are spiritual are separated from natural good and truth which are not spiritual. Consequently ‘not concerning himself with anything in the house’ means that no desire existed to make anything its own. But being arcana, these matters cannot be seen clearly without the help of examples.

[2] Let the following serve to shed light on the matter. If mere lust leads a man to be joined to his wife, this is something natural which is unspiritual; but if conjugial love leads him to be joined to her this is something natural which is spiritual. And if after that – when he is her husband – it is mere lust that joins him to her, he considers himself to be a sinner who is no different from someone behaving in a sexually immoral way; which being so he has no further wish to make such lust his own. Or let another example be given. To do good to a friend, regardless of his character and simply because he is one’s friend, is a natural action that is unspiritual; but to do good to a friend on account of the good residing with him, all the more so when one regards good itself as the friend to whom one is to do good, is a natural action that is spiritual. When this attitude exists with a person, he realizes that he himself is a sinner if he does good to a friend who is evil; for in that case he does evil to others through that friend. When this is his state he turns away from making his own that unspiritual natural good which had existed with him previously. The same is so with everything else.

AC (Elliott) n. 4993 sRef Gen@39 @8 S0′ 4993. ‘And all that he has he has given into my hand’ means that everything was subject to its power and control. This is clear from what has been stated above in 4978, where similar words occur. But the difference is that there the subject is the second state which the celestial of the spiritual within the natural passed through, for at that point natural good applied itself to truth and made this its own, 4976, 4977. In that state good in actual fact had dominion, though truth appeared to do so, which was why the words used there meant that everything belonging to that good was seemingly subject to its power and control. Now however the subject is the third state which the celestial of the spiritual passed through when that good present within the natural was made spiritual. And because in this state spiritual natural good makes nothing its own, the words now used therefore mean that all was subject to the power and control of the celestial of the spiritual.

AC (Elliott) n. 4994 sRef Gen@39 @9 S0′ 4994. ‘He himself is no greater in this house than I am’ means that that good is prior in respect of time but not of state. This is clear from the meaning of ‘his being no greater in this house than I am’ as the fact that the lordship of the one has equal status with that of the other, and therefore both are prior. But from the train of thought in the internal sense it is evident that unspiritual natural good is prior in respect of time, and that spiritual natural good is prior in respect of state, as is also plain from what has been shown above in 4992. To be prior in respect of state means to be superior as regards essential nature.

AC (Elliott) n. 4995 sRef Gen@39 @9 S0′ 4995. ‘And he has not held back anything from me except yourself’ means that becoming joined to truth wedded to that good was forbidden. This is clear from the meaning of ‘having held back from him’ as that which has been forbidden, and from the meaning of the wife whom he held back, to whom ‘yourself’ refers here, as unspiritual natural truth, dealt with in 4988.

AC (Elliott) n. 4996 sRef Gen@39 @9 S0′ 4996. ‘In that you are his wife’ means because this truth must not be joined to any other good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘wife’ as truth wedded to its own good, dealt with in 1468, 2517, 3236, 4510, 4823, in this case unspiritual natural truth wedded to unspiritual natural good, as above in 4988.

AC (Elliott) n. 4997 sRef Gen@39 @9 S0′ 4997. ‘How then shall I do this great evil, and sin against God?’ means that, this being so, they exist set apart and not joined together. This is clear from the meaning of ‘evil’ and likewise of ‘sin’ as a state when things are set apart and not joined together. That is to say, it describes what happens if spiritual natural good is joined to unspiritual natural truth; being unlike and incompatible the two pull away from each other. The expressions ‘doing evil’ and ‘sinning against God’ are used because regarded in itself evil, and sin too, is nothing else than being parted from good. Also, evil exists essentially in disunion, as is evident from what good is. Essentially good is a joining together because all good stems from love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour. The good of love to the Lord joins a person to the Lord and consequently to all good that goes forth from the Lord; and the good of love towards the neighbour joins him to heaven and the communities there, so that by means of this love as well he is joined to the Lord. For properly speaking, heaven is the Lord since He is the All in all there.

[2] But with evil the opposite applies. Evil stems from self-love and love of the world. Evil stemming from self-love sets a person apart not only from the Lord but also from heaven, for he loves no one but himself and others only insofar as he sees them as part of his self-interest, or as they identify themselves with him. Consequently he turns everyone’s attention towards himself and entirely away from others, most of all away from the Lord. When a large number act like this within a single community it follows that all are set apart from one another; inwardly each sees another as his enemy. If anyone acts contrary to his self-interest he hates that person and takes delight in his destruction. The evil of the love of the world is not dissimilar, for this consists in a longing for other people’s wealth and goods, and in a longing to gain possession of everything owned by others; and these longings too lead to all kinds of enmity and hatred, though in a lesser degree. For anyone to come to know what evil is, and so what sin is, let him merely try to see what self-love and love of the world are; and to come to know what good is, let him merely try to see what love to God and love towards the neighbour are. By trying to do this he will come to see what evil is, and as a consequence what falsity is; and from this he will come to see what good is, and as a consequence what truth is.

AC (Elliott) n. 4998 sRef Gen@39 @15 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @14 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @10 S0′ 4998. Verses 10-15 And it happened as she spoke to Joseph day after day, that he did not listen to her, to lie with her, to be with her. And it happened on a certain day, that he went to the house to do his work, and none of the men* of the house was there in the house. And she took hold of him by his garment, saying, Lie with me. And he left his garment in her hand and fled, and went out of doors. And it happened as she saw that he had left his garment in her hand and had fled out of doors, that she cried out to the men of her house, and said to them – she said, See, he has brought us a Hebrew man to make sport of us. He came to me to lie with me, and I cried out with a loud voice. And it happened as he was hearing [me], that I lifted up my voice and cried out, and he left his garment with me, and fled, and went out of doors.

‘And it happened’ means a fourth state. ‘As she spoke to Joseph day after day’ means thought regarding that matter. ‘That he did not listen to her, to lie with her’ means that it was filled with aversion to such a joining together. ‘To be with her’ means lest it should thereby be made one with it. ‘And it happened on a certain day’ means a fifth state. ‘That he went to the house to do his work’ means when engaged in the work of being joined to spiritual good within the natural. ‘And none of the men of the house was there in the house’ means without the help of any other. ‘And she laid hold of him by his garment’ means that unspiritual truth attached itself to the outermost existence of spiritual truth. ‘Saying, Lie with me’ means to the end that a joining together might be effected. ‘And he left his garment in her hand’ means that this outermost truth was removed. ‘And fled, and went out of doors’ means that this being so it did not have that truth with which to protect itself. ‘And it happened as she saw’ means a perception regarding this matter. ‘That he had left his garment in her hand and had fled out of doors’ means regarding the separation of that outermost truth. ‘That she cried out to the men of the house’ means falsities. ‘And said to them – she said’ means an urgent demand. ‘See, he has brought us a Hebrew man means something servile. ‘To make sport of us’ means that this rose up. ‘He came to me to lie with me’ means that that truth wanted to be joined to it. ‘And I cried out with a loud voice’ means that it was filled with aversion. ‘And it happened as he was hearing [me]’ means when it was discerned. ‘That I lifted up my voice and cried out’ means that there was a great aversion. ‘And he left his garment with me’ means evidence that an approach had been made. ‘And fled, and went out of doors’ means that it nevertheless separated itself.
* lit. no man from the men

AC (Elliott) n. 4999 sRef Gen@39 @10 S0′ 4999. ‘And it happened’ means a fourth state. This becomes clear from what has been stated above in 4979, 4987.

AC (Elliott) n. 5000 sRef Gen@39 @10 S0′ 5000. ‘As she spoke to Joseph day after day’ means thought regarding that matter. This is clear from the meaning of ‘speaking’ as thinking, dealt with in 2271, 2287, 2619, that is to say, thought regarding Joseph, and so regarding the matter which ‘Joseph’ represents here. ‘Day after day’ or every day means intently. The reason why in the internal sense ‘speaking’ means thinking is that thought is an inward conversing, and when a person is thinking he is conversing with himself. Things of an inward kind are expressed in the sense of the letter by means of the outward ones that correspond to them.

AC (Elliott) n. 5001 sRef Gen@39 @10 S0′ 5001. ‘That he did not listen to her, to lie with her’ means that it was filled with aversion to such a joining together. This is clear from the meaning of ‘not listening to’ as not hearkening to or not obeying, dealt with in 2542, 3869, in this case as being filled with aversion since he refused to hearken to her, so much so that he left his garment in her hand and fled; and from the meaning of ‘lying with her’ as being unlawfully joined together, dealt with in 4989.

AC (Elliott) n. 5002 sRef Gen@39 @10 S0′ 5002. ‘To be with her’ means lest it should thereby be made one with it. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being with someone’ as existing joined more closely or united together. The reason ‘being’ means existing united is that the actual being (esse) of a thing is good, and all good flows from love, love being essentially a spiritual togetherness or oneness. This explains why in the highest sense the Lord is called ‘Being’ (Esse), or Jehovah; for all good flowing from love or spiritual togetherness is derived from Him. Because the love that is derived from Him and returned to Him through the acceptance of it, and also mutual love, make heaven one, heaven is therefore called a marriage, which gives it its ‘being’. One would be able to say the same of the Church if love and charity existed there as its essential being. Therefore where no togetherness or unity exists, the Church has no ‘being’, for unless something were present there to unite its members or make them one, the Church would disintegrate and cease to exist.

[2] The same happens to civil society if everyone there is out only for himself and nobody, except for his own purposes, takes any interest in anyone else. Without laws to unite its members, and without any fears for loss of gain, position, reputation, or life, society would fall completely to pieces. Therefore the ‘being’ of such a society in which everyone is out for himself consists in its members being joined or united together, but at a purely external level. Internally that society does not have any ‘being’. Consequently in the next life people like this are confined to hell, where in a similar way they are kept in check by external restraints, especially by fears. But as often as those restraints are eased, one individual hastens to destroy another, there being nothing he wants to do more than to destroy another completely. It is different in heaven, where love to the Lord and mutual love deriving from that love join its members together at an internal level. When external restraints are removed there, angels become even more closely joined to one another. And being thereby drawn nearer to the Divine Being (Esse) coming to them from the Lord, they are filled deeper still with affection, and from this with a sense of freedom, and as a consequence with feelings of blessedness, happiness, and joy.

AC (Elliott) n. 5003 sRef Gen@39 @11 S0′ 5003. ‘And it happened on a certain day’ means a fifth state. This is clear from the meaning of ‘it happened’ or ‘so it was’ as that which implies something new, as above in 4979, 4987, 4999, and so a new state, in this case a fifth one.

AC (Elliott) n. 5004 sRef Gen@39 @11 S0′ 5004. ‘That he went to the house to do his work’ means when engaged in the work of being joined to spiritual good within the natural. This becomes clear from the fact that it is this joining together that ‘Joseph’ serves to describe in this chapter, and therefore when it says ‘he went to the house to do his work’ the work involved in that joining together is meant.

AC (Elliott) n. 5005 sRef Isa@59 @16 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@59 @17 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @5 S0′ 5005. ‘And none of the men of the house was there in the house’ means without the help of any other. This becomes clear from the fact that this statement means that Joseph was alone; and because in the internal sense ‘Joseph’ is descriptive of the Lord, of how He glorified His Internal Human or made this Divine, these words are used to mean that He made it so without the help of any other. This truth that the Lord made His Human Divine by His own power, and so without the help of any other, may be recognized from the consideration that because He was conceived from Jehovah, the Divine was within Him, and thus that the Divine was His own. Therefore when He was in the world and made the Human within Him Divine, He did so with the aid of the Divine, which was His own, that is, He did it by Himself. This is described in Isaiah as follows,

Who is this who is coming from Edom, with spattered clothes from Bozra, He that is glorious in His apparel, marching in the vast numbers of His strength? I have trodden the winepress alone, and from the peoples no man was with Me. I looked about but there was none helping, and I wondered, but there was not one to uphold; therefore My own arm brought salvation to Me. Isa. 63:1, 3, 5.

And elsewhere in the same prophet,

He saw that there was no man, and as it were wondered that there was no intercessor; therefore His own arm brought salvation to Him, and His righteousness lifted Him up. Consequently He put on righteousness as a breastplate, and a helmet of salvation upon His head. Isa. 59:16, 17.

For more about the Lord making the Human within Him Divine by His own power, see 1616, 1749, 1755, 1812, 1813, 1921, 1928, 1999, 2025, 2026, 2083, 2500, 2523, 2776, 3043, 3141, 3382, 3637, 4286.

AC (Elliott) n. 5006 sRef Gen@39 @11 S0′ 5006. ‘And she took hold of him by his garment’ means that unspiritual truth attached itself to the outermost existence of spiritual truth. This is clear from the representation of Potiphar’s wife, to whom these words refer, as unspiritual natural truth, dealt with in 4988; from the meaning of taking hold of’ in this case as attaching itself; and from the meaning of ‘garment’ as truth, dealt with in 1073, 2576, 4545, 4763, in this case the outermost existence of spiritual truth, which in this state is Joseph’s – ‘Joseph’ here representing spiritual natural good, 4988, 4992. For it was to the truth belonging to this good that unspiritual natural truth wished to become joined, as is evident from the train of thought in the internal sense.

[2] But as to what a wish on the part of unspiritual natural truth to become joined to spiritual natural truth may be and what is implied by it, this is a mystery at the present day, chiefly because few people have any concern or wish to know what spiritual truth is and what unspiritual truth is. Indeed that lack of concern is so great that people are hardly willing to listen when the word spiritual is used, for at the mere mention of this a kind of darkness instantly descends upon them, and along with this a melancholy feeling, which gives rise to a distaste for the word and so a rejection of it. The truth of this has also been demonstrated to me. While I was once pondering on these matters, some spirits from the Christian world were present, who were then taken back into the state that had been theirs in the world. The mere thought of spiritual good and truth not only gave them a melancholy feeling; it also seized them with such loathing on account of their aversion to it that they said they felt as they had done in the world when they wanted to vomit. But I was allowed to tell them that this happened because their affections were centred solely on earthly, bodily, and worldly interests; and when a person is concerned solely with these, the things of heaven nauseate him. I also told those spirits that when they had gone to church where the Word was preached they had not gone out of any wish to know the things of heaven, but out of some other desire present in them since early childhood. This experience showed me what the Christian world is like at the present day.

[3] The overall reason why this is the situation is that the Christian Church at the present day preaches faith alone, not charity, and so doctrine, not life. And when the Church fails to preach life, no one acquires any affection for good; and when there is no affection for good, neither is there any for truth. Consequently most people find it contrary to their life’s delight to listen to anything about the things of heaven beyond what they have known since they were young children.

[4] But the fact of the matter is that a person exists in the world to the end that he may be introduced through the services he renders there into the things of heaven. But his life in the world lasts barely a moment so to speak, compared with his life after death; for the latter goes on for ever. Yet there are few who believe that they will be alive after death, which explains why heavenly things are of little importance to them. And this I can positively declare, that a person is in the next life as soon as he has died, carrying on to the full the life he was leading in the world; the nature of his life remains the same as it was in the world. I can positively declare this to be so because I know it to be so. I have talked to almost all those I knew during their earthly lives after these were over. I have therefore been allowed to know through actual experience the nature of the lot that awaits everyone – that each person’s lot is determined by the life he has led. But the kind of people mentioned above do not believe any of this. As to what a wish on the part of unspiritual natural truth to become joined to spiritual natural truth may be, and what is implied by it, meant by ‘she took hold of Joseph by his garment’, this will be discussed in what follows immediately below.

AC (Elliott) n. 5007 sRef Gen@39 @12 S0′ 5007. ‘Saying, Lie with me’ means to the end that a joining together might be effected. This is clear from the meaning of ‘lying’ as a ‘lying’ together, dealt with above in 4989, 5001, in this case to the end that a joining together might be effected, that is, with the consequent object that one might be joined to the other.

AC (Elliott) n. 5008 sRef Gen@39 @12 S0′ 5008. ‘And he left his garment in her hand’ means that this outermost truth was removed. This is clear from the meaning of ‘leaving in her hand’ as leaving to its power and control, for ‘the hand’ means power or power and control, 878, 3091, 3387, 3563, 4931-4937, a removal being meant here since it is said that ‘she took hold of his garment’; and from the meaning of ‘a garment’ as outermost truth, dealt with above in 5006. No one can begin to understand what is meant by a wish on the part of unspiritual natural truth to join itself to spiritual natural truth, or by the latter being filled with aversion to such a joining together and therefore leaving the outermost truth behind, that is, allowing this to be removed, except with the help of examples to shed light on the matter. But first, see what unspiritual natural truth is, and what spiritual natural truth is, in 4988, 4992; also the fact that the two are associated with each other so far as outermost things are concerned but that they are in no way joined to each other [4989].

[2] But, as has been said, examples will help to shed light on this matter. Take this one first. Within the Church there exists the unspiritual natural truth which says that good should be done to the poor, widows and orphans, and that doing good to these is the charity which is commanded in the Word. But unspiritual truth, or rather, people guided by unspiritual truth, understand the poor, widows and orphans to be those who are literally called such, whereas spiritual natural truth, or rather, people guided by this kind of truth – while giving their firm assent to this unspiritual natural truth – place such an understanding of the expression ‘poor, widows and orphans’ in the last or outermost position. For in their hearts they say that not all people calling themselves the poor are in fact such, and also that some of those who are poor lead very wicked lives, fearing neither God nor men, and ready to plunge into every unmentionable deed but for the fear that holds them back. They also say in their hearts that in the Word the expression ‘the poor’ is used to mean those who are such spiritually, that is to say, those who know and in their hearts confess that nothing good or true at all that originates in themselves resides with them and that everything that is there has been freely given them. The expressions ‘widows’ and ‘orphans’ are considered by them in a similar way, the difference being that each involves some different state. From this example it may be seen that to people guided by spiritual natural truth doing good to the poor, widows and orphans who are literally called such is an outermost truth, and that this outermost truth is like a garment covering the things within. One may also see that this outermost truth fits in with the truth as understood by those guided by unspiritual natural truth; and that even so the two are not joined together but have merely an association with each other.

[3] Take the example of doing good to the neighbour. Those guided by spiritual natural truth consider every individual person to be their neighbour, yet each one to be such in a different manner and degree. In their hearts they say that those governed by good are pre-eminently the neighbour to whom good should be done. They also say that those governed by evil are likewise the neighbour, but that good is done to these if they suffer the punishments prescribed by laws, because those punishments serve to correct them, as well as to prevent evil being done to the good by them and the bad examples they set. Those within the Church who are guided by unspiritual natural truth likewise call every individual person the neighbour; but they do not take into consideration the degree or manner in which each one is a neighbour. Therefore if motivated by natural goodness they do good indiscriminately, to everyone who moves them to pity, most of all to the evil rather than the good because the evil in their malice know how to arouse feelings of pity. From this example too one may see that this outermost truth brings together those guided by unspiritual natural truth and those guided by spiritual natural truth, and yet the two are still not joined together but have merely an association with each other, since one has a different idea and different perception from the other of the neighbour and of charity towards him.

[4] Take a further example. Those guided by spiritual natural truth say in general that the poor and the wretched are to inherit the kingdom of heaven. But for them this is an outermost truth since they gather up within this the belief that ‘the poor’ and ‘the wretched’ are those who are spiritually such, and that these are the ones meant in the Word, to whom the heavenly kingdom will belong. But those within the Church who are guided by unspiritual natural truth say that no others can inherit the kingdom of heaven but those who in the world have been reduced to poverty, live in wretched circumstances, and suffer greater affliction than everyone else. They also call riches, important positions, and worldly joys just so many distractions or means that divert a person from heaven. This example also shows what an outermost truth is and the nature of the harmony between the two kinds of natural truth; it shows that they are not joined together, but have merely an association with each other.

[5] Take this example too. Those guided by spiritual natural truth consider it an outermost truth that those objects which in the Word are called holy really were holy, such as the ark and mercy seat, the lampstand, the incense, the leaves, and so on, as well as the altar; also the temple; and Aaron’s vestments too, which are called vestments of holiness – in particular the ephod together with the breastplate where the urim and thummim were. Yet the idea they have so far as this outermost truth is concerned is that those objects were not in themselves holy, nor had they had any holiness instilled into them, but that they were holy in a representative sense, that is to say, they represented the spiritual and celestial realities of the Lord’s kingdom, and in the highest sense the Lord Himself. People guided by unspiritual natural truth however also call those objects holy, but holy in themselves because holiness has been instilled into them. From this one may see that the two kinds of truth meet but do not become joined to each other; for as the spiritual man’s conception of that outermost truth is different from that of the merely natural man, a different form is taken by each.

[6] Take yet another example. To the spiritual man it is an outermost truth that all Divine truths can be substantiated from the literal sense of the Word, and also by means of the rational or intellectual concepts known to the enlightened. That same outermost or general truth is also accepted by the natural man, but he has the simple belief that everything is true which can be substantiated from the Word, above all that which he himself has substantiated from it. The spiritual man and the natural man meet each other therefore in their common acceptance of the idea that every Divine truth can be substantiated; yet one sees this general truth in a different way from the other. The merely natural man believes that whatever he himself has substantiated for himself, or else has heard others substantiate, is a Divine truth. He does not realize that falsity can be substantiated just as easily as truth, and that, once substantiated, falsity has all the appearance of truth; indeed it appears to be more true than the truth itself, because the illusions of the senses enter in and present it in the light of the world separated from the light of heaven.

[7] This too shows what outermost spiritual truth seems like to the natural man – like a garment. It also shows that when this garment is removed nothing at all is left to draw the two together, as a consequence of which the spiritual man no longer has anything with which to protect himself from the natural man, which considerations are meant by Joseph’s leaving his garment behind, fleeing, and going out of doors. For the merely natural man does not acknowledge interior truths, and therefore when exterior ones are taken away or removed a severance instantly takes place. What is more, all the ideas introduced by the spiritual man to substantiate outermost truth are called falsities by the natural man since he has no ability to see whether the idea substantiated by the spiritual man is really true. It is not possible to see by natural light what belongs to spiritual light, for to do so is contrary to order. But seeing by spiritual light what belongs to natural light is in keeping with order.

AC (Elliott) n. 5009 sRef Gen@39 @12 S0′ 5009. ‘And fled, and went out of doors’ means that this being so it did not have that truth with which to protect itself. This is clear from the meaning of ‘fleeing and going out of doors’ after he had left his garment behind, as a separation that had taken place, or the fact that the two no longer had anything in common. Consequently, since ‘a garment’ means outermost truth, the meaning is that it had no truth with which to protect itself, regarding which see what has been shown immediately above, towards the end of 5008.

AC (Elliott) n. 5010 sRef Gen@39 @13 S0′ 5010. ‘And it happened as she saw means a perception regarding this matter. This is clear from the meaning of ‘seeing’ as perception, dealt with in 2150, 3764, 4567, 4723. The matter that was perceived is the separation which came about through the non-acknowledgement of outermost truth any longer, meant by ‘he left his garment in her hand and fled out of doors’, as is evident from what has been stated above in 5008, 5009.

AC (Elliott) n. 5011 sRef Gen@39 @13 S0′ 5011. ‘That she cried out to the men of the house’ means falsities. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a cry’ as falsity, dealt with in 2240, and consequently ‘crying out’ is used in reference to falsity. In the genuine sense ‘the men of the house’ are truths in the service of good, but in the contrary sense they are falsities in the service of evil. The fact that they are falsities which Potiphar’s wife tells the men of the house now, and her husband later on, is evident from what she actually tells them. For the natural truth that is meant here by ‘Potiphar’s wife’ is incapable of telling anything but falsities, which are the opposite of the truth, once outermost spiritual truth, the most external aspect of which can seemingly effect a joining together, has been torn away, see above towards the end of 5008.

AC (Elliott) n. 5012 sRef Gen@39 @14 S0′ 5012. ‘And said to them – she said’ means an urgent demand. This is clear from the meaning of ‘saying’ here as an urgent demand, for in the internal sense ‘saying’ means perception, 2862, 3395, 3509, and also communication, 3060, 4131. Here therefore, because the expression ‘she cried’ is used, followed by ‘said – she said’, a communication delivered with intense feeling, that is, an urgent demand to listen, is meant.

AC (Elliott) n. 5013 sRef Gen@39 @14 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @19 S1′ sRef Gen@39 @17 S1′ 5013. ‘See, he has brought us a Hebrew man’ means something servile. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a Hebrew man’, an expression that is used to refer to servitude, dealt with in 1703. The meaning is also plain from what follows below, for there Joseph is called ‘a Hebrew slave’ and also simply ‘a slave’ – ‘The Hebrew slave whom you have brought to us came to me’ verse 17, and ‘this is what your slave did to me’ verse 19. The principal reason why ‘a Hebrew man’ here means something servile is that those governed by unspiritual natural truth and good, represented here by ‘Potiphar and his wife’, do not regard spiritual truth and good, represented here by ‘Joseph’, as anything other than their slave. So far as both the life and the doctrine of these people are concerned, order is upside down, for with them the natural is lord and the spiritual is slave, whereas, when true order exists, the spiritual is lord and the natural is slave. For the spiritual is prior, more internal and higher, also closer to the Divine, while the natural is posterior, more external and lower, and further removed from the Divine. For this reason both with the individual person and within the Church the spiritual is compared to heaven and also actually called heaven, and the natural is compared to the earth and also actually called the earth. This also explains why, when spiritual people – that is, those with whom the spiritual is lord – are seen in the next life in the light of heaven, they have their heads pointing upwards towards the Lord and their feet downwards towards hell. But when natural people – that is, those with whom the natural is lord – are seen in the light of heaven, they have their feet pointing upwards and their heads downwards; and this is so, even though they are seen differently in their own light, which is a feeble light produced by the evil desires and consequent false notions they are steeped in, 1528, 3340, 4214, 4418, 4531, 4532.

[2] The way natural people look upon spiritual things as so to speak a body of slaves was also represented by the way the Egyptians regarded the Hebrews as nothing else than their slaves; for the Egyptians represented those who are preoccupied with natural knowledge, and so are natural people, whereas the Hebrews represented those who belong to the Church and so are spiritual when considered in relation to the Egyptians. Furthermore the Egyptians thought the Hebrews were of so low or slave-like a degree that it was an abomination to them to eat with Hebrews, Gen. 43:32; also the sacrifices which Hebrews offered were an abomination to them, Exod. 8:26.

AC (Elliott) n. 5014 sRef Gen@39 @14 S0′ 5014. To make sport of us’ means that this rose up. This is clear from the train of thought in the internal sense, and also from the meaning of ‘making sport of’, when this is stated with intense feeling, as rising up.

AC (Elliott) n. 5015 sRef Gen@39 @14 S0′ 5015. ‘He came to me to lie with me’ means that that truth – spiritual natural truth – wanted to be joined to it. This is clear from the meaning of ‘coming’ in this case as wanting, for anyone who comes intent on something is wanting it; and from the meaning of ‘lying with’ as joining together, dealt with above in 4989, 5001, 5007.

AC (Elliott) n. 5016 sRef Gen@39 @14 S0′ 5016. ‘And I cried out with a loud voice’ means that it was filled with aversion. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a cry’ as speaking falsely, dealt with in 5011, and therefore ‘crying out’ here implies the same. That is to say, false speaking is implied in her crying out to the men of the house for help, meaning that the unspiritual natural truth felt repelled by the spiritual; it is also implied by her assertion that she cried out with a loud voice, meaning that it was filled with aversion to the spiritual.

AC (Elliott) n. 5017 sRef Gen@39 @15 S0′ 5017. ‘And it happened as he was hearing [me]’ means when it was discerned. This is clear from the meaning of ‘hearing’ as obeying and also discerning. As regards obeying being meant, see 2542, 3869; but the fact that discerning is meant as well is evident from the actual function performed by the ear and consequently from the nature of hearing. The function of the ear is to receive what is spoken by another and to convey this to the general seat of sensation, so that this may discern from what has been conveyed to it the other person’s thought. This is the reason why ‘hearing’ means discerning. The nature of hearing therefore is to carry one person’s utterances expressing his thought to another’s thought, and from there into his will, and from there into actions. This is the reason why ‘hearing’ means obeying. Such are the two functions proper to hearing, and in spoken languages they are distinguished from each other by the expressions ‘to hear someone’, meaning to discern what he says, and ‘to listen to someone or hearken to him, meaning to obey him. The reason hearing has these two functions is that the human being is unable to communicate the contents of his thought and also of his will in any other way; nor can he do other than use reasons to persuade and lead others to do and obey what he wills. From this one may see the circle through which desires and ideas are communicated – from will into thought and thus into speech, then from speech by way of his ear into another’s thought and will. From this one may also see why spirits and angels who correspond to the ear or sense of hearing in the Grand Man are not only ‘discernments’ but also ‘obediences’. As regards their being ‘obediences’, see 4652-4660; and being these they are also ‘discernments’, for the one entails the other.

AC (Elliott) n. 5018 sRef Gen@39 @15 S0′ 5018. ‘That I lifted up my voice and cried out’ means that there was a great aversion. This is clear from the meaning of ‘crying out with a loud voice’ as aversion, dealt with above in 5016; here therefore ‘lifting up the voice and crying out’ means a great aversion.

AC (Elliott) n. 5019 sRef Gen@39 @15 S0′ 5019. ‘And he left his garment with me’ means evidence that an approach had been made. This is clear from the meaning of ‘leaving one’s garment’ as removing outermost truth, dealt with in 5008, but in this case as evidence, for the garment in her hand which she showed – that is, outermost truth by which it gave proof that it wished to be joined – would be evidence that an approach had been made. This meaning, it is true, seems rather far-fetched; nevertheless it is what her words hold within them, see below in 5028.

AC (Elliott) n. 5020 sRef Gen@39 @15 S0′ 5020. ‘And fled, and went out of doors’ means that it nevertheless separated itself. This is clear from the meaning of ‘fleeing, and going out of doors’ as separating itself, as above in 5009. These then are the falsities told by Potiphar’s wife to the men of the house regarding Joseph, meaning in the internal sense the falsities which unspiritual natural truth tells regarding spiritual natural truth or which the unspiritual natural man tells regarding the spiritual natural man, see 4988, 4992, 5008.

AC (Elliott) n. 5021 sRef Gen@39 @16 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @17 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @18 S0′ 5021. Verses 16-18 And she kept his garment with her until his lord came to his house. And she spoke to him in* these words, saying, The Hebrew slave whom you have brought to us came to me, to make sport of me. And it happened as I lifted up my voice and cried out, that he left his garment with me and fled out of doors.

And she kept his garment with her’ means that it retained outermost truth. ‘Until his lord came to his house’ means so that it might communicate with natural good. ‘And she spoke to him in these words’ means speaking falsely. ‘Saying, The Hebrew slave whom you have brought to us came to me’ means that servile thing. ‘To make sport of me’ means that it rose up. ‘And it happened as I lifted up my voice and cried out’ means when it discerned the great aversion. ‘That he left his garment with me’ means proof. ‘And fled out of doors’ means that at that point it separated itself.
* lit. according to

AC (Elliott) n. 5022 sRef Gen@39 @16 S0′ 5022. ‘And she kept his garment with her’ means that it retained outermost truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘keeping with oneself’ as retaining, and from the meaning of ‘a garment’ as outermost truth, dealt with above, in 5006, 5008; for once that truth is removed the spiritual man no longer has anything with which he may protect himself against people who are merely natural, 5008 (end), 5009, and so he suffers harm. For any utterance made in this case by the spiritual man is declared by those who are merely natural to be something they do not perceive and also something that is not true. At the mere mention of anything internal or spiritual they either ridicule it or else call it something arcane, as a result of which any link they may have with the spiritual man is severed. And once that link has been severed the spiritual man undergoes trying experiences at the hands of those who are merely natural. This is also represented by the fact that after the wife used the garment to prove to her husband the accusation she was making, Joseph was thrown into the prison-house.

AC (Elliott) n. 5023 sRef Gen@39 @16 S0′ 5023. ‘Until his lord came to his house’ means so that it might communicate with natural good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘lord’ as unspiritual natural good, dealt with in 4973, 4988. ‘House’ in the internal sense is the natural mind, for the natural mind, like the rational mind also, resembles a house. ‘The husband’ in it is good, ‘the wife’ truth; ‘the daughters and sons’ are affections for good and truth, as well as being forms of good and truth which are begotten from that aforesaid good and truth as their parents, while ‘the women servants and the men servants’ are the desires and the known facts that minister to and support them. Here therefore ‘until his lord came to his house’ means when natural good comes to its own dwelling-place, where also there is the truth that is joined to it, though in this case it is falsity which convinces the good that it is truth. For unspiritual natural good is easily convinced that falsity is truth and that truth is falsity. The expression ‘his lord’ is used because the unspiritual natural looks on the spiritual as something servile, 5013.

sRef Luke@11 @24 S2′ sRef Luke@11 @25 S2′ sRef Luke@11 @26 S2′ [2] The fact that a person’s natural mind, like his rational mind, is called ‘a house’ is evident from the following places: In Luke,

When the unclean spirit has gone out of a person he passes through dry places seeking rest; and if he does not find any he says, I will return to my house out of which I came. And if when he comes he finds it swept and decorated, he goes away and brings seven other spirits more evil than himself, and they enter in and dwell there. Luke 11:24-26.

‘House’ here stands for the natural mind, which is called a house that is ’empty and swept’* when there are no forms of good and truth in it meant by ‘husband and wife’, no affections for good and truth meant by ‘daughters and sons’, nor anything such as supports these meant by ‘women servants and men servants’. The person himself is ‘the house’ because the rational mind together with the natural mind constitutes a human being. Without the inhabitants just mentioned – that is, without the forms of good and truth, and without the affections for these, and the service rendered by those affections – a person is not a human being but a beast.

sRef Luke@11 @17 S3′ sRef Mark@3 @27 S3′ sRef Mark@3 @25 S3′ sRef Mark@3 @24 S3′ [3] The human mind is again meant by ‘a house’ in the same gospel,

Every kingdom divided against itself is laid waste, and house falls upon house. Luke 11:17.

And in Mark,

If a kingdom is divided against itself, this kingdom cannot stand. Also, if a house is divided against itself, this house cannot stand. No one can go into the house and plunder the vessels of a strong man unless he first binds the strong man, and then he may plunder his house. Mark 3:14, 25, 27.

‘Kingdom’ means truth, 1672, 2547, 4691, and ‘house’ good, 2233, 2234, 3720, 4982, ‘house’ meaning good on account of its greater importance.

sRef Luke@12 @53 S4′ sRef Luke@12 @39 S4′ sRef Luke@12 @52 S4′ [4] In Luke,

If the householder had known at what hour the thief was coming he would certainly have been awake and would not have permitted his house to be broken into. Luke 12:39.

In the same gospel,

From now on there will be in one house five divided, three against two, and two against three. Father will be divided against son and son against father, mother against daughter and daughter against mother. Luke 12:52, 53.

This refers to the spiritual conflicts which members of the Church enter into once the internal or spiritual contents of the Word have been opened up to them. ‘House’ stands for the actual person or his mind, while the ‘father’, ‘mother’, ‘son’, and ‘daughter’ in it are forms of good and truth together with affections for these, or in the contrary sense evils and falsities together with affections for these, which are the source of conflict and the things to be grappled with in such conflict.

sRef Luke@10 @5 S5′ sRef Luke@10 @7 S5′ sRef Luke@10 @6 S5′ [5] The Lord commanded His disciples, in Luke,

Whatever house you enter, first say, Peace be to this house! And if indeed a son of peace is there, your peace shall rest on it; but if not, it shall return to you. But remain in the same house; eat and drink what they have there. Do not pass on from house to house. Luke 10:5-7.

This represented the requirement for them to remain with genuine good, that is, with the good of love to the Lord and of charity towards the neighbour, and not to pass on to any other kind. For more about the actual person or his mind being meant by ‘a house’, see also 3538, 4973.
* empty and swept belongs to Matthew 12:44.

AC (Elliott) n. 5024 sRef Gen@39 @17 S0′ 5024. ‘And she spoke to him in these words’ means speaking falsely. This is clear from what follows, for the things she told her husband were false.

AC (Elliott) n. 5025 sRef Gen@39 @17 S0′ 5025. ‘Saying, The Hebrew slave whom you have brought to us came to me’ means that servile thing. This is clear from what has been stated above in 5013. Here ‘that servile thing’ is used to mean spiritual truth and good, which at this particular point is represented by ‘Joseph’. This truth and good is seen by the unspiritual natural man as something servile. For example, the desire on the part of spiritual truth and good is that a person’s delight should lie not at all in eminent positions or any kind of superiority over others but in the services rendered by him to his country and to communities corporately and individually, thus that a person’s delight should lie in the purpose that positions of importance are meant to serve. The merely natural man is entirely ignorant of what this delight is and denies the existence of it. Although he too can in a hypocritical manner say much the same thing, he nevertheless makes ‘a lord’ out of the delight received from important positions existing for his own benefit and ‘a slave’ out of such positions existing for the benefit of communities corporately and individually. For in every single thing he does he regards himself first and communities only after himself, promoting their welfare only insofar as they promote his.

[2] Take another example. If one says that the purpose and end in view determine whether something is spiritual or unspiritual – spiritual when the purpose and end have the common good, the Church, and God’s kingdom in view, but unspiritual when the purpose and end have, preponderating over these, oneself and one’s own family and friends in view – the natural man is indeed able to affirm this with his lips but not in his heart. He can do so with his lips because of the instruction received by his understanding, but he cannot do so in his heart because his understanding has been ruined by evil desires. Consequently he makes ‘a lord’ out of the purpose and end that has himself in view, and ‘a slave’ out of the purpose and end that has the common good, the Church, and God’s kingdom in view. Indeed he says in his heart, How can anyone possibly be any different from this?

[3] In short, everything that the natural man regards as being separated from himself is considered utterly worthless by him and is cast aside; and everything that he regards as being linked to himself is considered by him to be valuable and acceptable. The natural man neither knows nor wishes to know about any spiritual way of thinking in which a person sees himself linked to everyone who is governed by good, whether or not he is actually acquainted with him, and separated from everyone who is governed by evil, whether or not he is actually acquainted with him. For when this is a person s way of thinking he is linked to those in heaven and cut off from those in hell. But since the natural man does not experience any delight in that spiritual attitude, for the reason that he does not entertain any spiritual influence, he therefore looks upon it as something utterly base and servile, thus something worthless compared with the delight he experiences, coming to him through his physical senses and through the desires of his selfish and worldly love. But this delight is a dead one because it originates in hell, whereas the delight brought by a spiritual influence is living, since this delight, which comes by way of heaven, begins in the Lord.

AC (Elliott) n. 5026 sRef Gen@39 @17 S0′ 5026. ‘To make sport of me’ means that it rose up. This is clear from the meaning of ‘making sport of’ as rising up, as above in 5014.

AC (Elliott) n. 5027 sRef Gen@39 @18 S0′ 5027. ‘And it happened as I lifted up my voice and cried out’ means when it discerned the great aversion. This is clear from the meaning of ‘lifting up the voice and crying out’ as a great aversion, also as above, in 5018.

AC (Elliott) n. 5028 sRef Gen@39 @18 S0′ 5028. That he left his garment with me’ means proof. This is clear from the meaning of ‘leaving his garment with her’ as evidence that an approach had been made, dealt with in 5019. ‘A garment’ in the internal sense means truth, and ‘leaving a garment’ means removing outermost truth, 5008. The reason why evidence or proof that an approach had been made is meant here is that when outermost truth is left behind or removed it supplies to the natural man evidence against the spiritual man. For it seems as though the spiritual man is joined to the natural man by means of outermost truth, but it is not in fact so joined, see 5008 – the reason being that when the spiritual man explains that truth the lack of any similarity between the two becomes apparent. But let the examples introduced previously in 5008 serve to illustrate this.

[2] The spiritual man says, just as the natural man does, that good should be done to the poor, widows, and orphans; but the spiritual man thinks that good should not be done to the poor, widows, or orphans who are evil, or who call themselves poor when in fact they are rich; for then they would mislead simply by the words they use. From this the spiritual man is led to deduce that the poor, widows, and orphans mentioned in the Word mean those who are spiritually so. But the natural man thinks that good should be done to the poor, widows, and orphans who are literally called such, and that none other than these are meant in the Word; nor is he interested in whether they are evil or good people. What the poor, widows, and orphans may be on a spiritual level he neither knows nor wishes to know. From this one may see that this outermost truth – that good should be done to the poor, widows, and orphans – appears to be the same with both the spiritual man and the natural man; but when it is explained no such similarity exists. But when the lack of any similarity comes out, the two are consequently parted from each other, and then outermost truth serves the natural man as evidence or proof that an approach has been made. Therefore it speaks falsely against the spiritual man who no longer has anything with which to protect himself. Accordingly this example too serves to show why and in what way ‘a garment’ means evidence or proof.

[3] Take another example. The spiritual man says, just as the natural man does, that good should be done to the neighbour. He also says that everyone is his neighbour, yet he thinks that one person is his neighbour in a different respect and degree from another, and that to do good to an evil person because he calls himself his neighbour is to do evil to the neighbour. The natural man joins the spiritual man in subscribing to that outermost truth – the truth that good should be done to the neighbour, and also the truth that everyone is the neighbour. But he supposes that the neighbour is anyone who is favourably disposed towards him; and he has no interest in whether that person is good or evil. This example too shows that the two appear to be joined together so far as outermost truth is concerned, but that there is no real joining together, also that as soon as that truth is explained they become parted from each other. Once they are parted outermost truth serves the natural man as evidence against the spiritual man that the latter has been making sport of it so to speak. The same can be seen in all the other examples [in 5008].

AC (Elliott) n. 5029 sRef Gen@39 @18 S0′ 5029. ‘And fled out of doors’ means that at that point it separated itself. This is clear from the meaning of ‘fleeing out of doors’ as separating itself, as above in 5020, as a consequence of which it has no truth with which to protect itself, as in 5009.

AC (Elliott) n. 5030 sRef Gen@39 @18 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @19 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @20 S0′ 5030. Verses 19, 20 And it happened – as his lord heard his wife’s words which she spoke to him, saying, This is what* your slave did to me – that his anger flared up. And Joseph’s lord took him and committed him to the prison-house, a place where the king’s bound ones were bound; and he was there in the prison-house.

‘And it happened’ means a new state. ‘As his lord heard his wife’s words which she spoke to him’ means the communication of falsity which looked like the truth. ‘Saying, This is what your slave did to me means corroboration. ‘That his anger flared up’ means an aversion to spiritual truth. ‘And Joseph’s lord took him’ means temptation coming from the natural. ‘And committed him to the prison-house’ means involving false-speaking against good. ‘A place where the king’s bound ones were bound’ means the state of those governed by falsities. ‘And he was there in the prison-house’ means the duration of that temptation.
* lit. According to these words

AC (Elliott) n. 5031 sRef Gen@39 @19 S0′ 5031. ‘And it happened’ means a new state. This is clear from the meaning of ‘it happened’ or ‘so it was’ as that which implies something new or a new state, dealt with in 4979, 4987, 4999, in this case the state of spiritual natural good, represented by ‘Joseph’ after the outermost covering of truth has been removed from it, and so after it has ceased to be joined any longer to unspiritual natural truth and good.

AC (Elliott) n. 5032 sRef Gen@39 @19 S0′ 5032. ‘As his lord heard his wife’s words which she spoke to him’ means the communication of falsity which looked like the truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘hearing the words’ as communication, for ‘hearing’ means discerning, 5017, and so being communicated; from the meaning of ‘wife’ as unspiritual natural truth, dealt with already, though in this case falsity is meant. Actual false-speaking is meant by the things she told him, as above in 5024, and the one to which the falsity is communicated is unspiritual natural good, meant here by ‘his lord’, as above in 5023. The idea that to that good this falsity looked like the truth is clear from what follows below.

[2] Dealt with here is the fact that unspiritual natural good is easily convinced, so easily that to it falsity looks altogether like truth. For what unspiritual natural good is and what it is like – that is, who those people are with whom that good resides, and what they are like – see above in 4988, 4992, 5008, 5013, 5028. In these places it is shown that they are those who by heredity and consequently adventitiously are disposed to be meek and upright, and so who do what is good from some natural inclination and not from any religious motive. Doing good from some natural inclination is entirely different from doing it from a religious motive. In the world a person cannot distinguish one from the other because he is not immediately aware of inward things; but in the next life he can clearly tell the difference because in that world inward things are laid bare. There thoughts, intentions, and ends in view reveal themselves, being laid bare as if in broad daylight.

[3] This being so I have been allowed to know what those people are like with whom unspiritual good resides and what those are like with whom spiritual good resides. Those with whom unspiritual natural good resides allow themselves to be persuaded by no matter whom, easily so by the evil, for evil spirits and genii are in their element or their life’s delight when they can get into another’s desires; and once they have entered them they allure that person into every kind of evil. For at such times they convince him that what is false is true. This they can easily do to those with whom unspiritual natural good resides. They cannot do the same to those with whom spiritual good resides because these know from within themselves what evil and falsity are. The reason for this is that when those with whom spiritual good resides lived in the world they welcomed whatever doctrine prescribed, and disciplined their internal man in the same, thereby enabling heaven to act upon their internal man. But when those with whom unspiritual natural good resides lived in the world they did not welcome anything prescribed by doctrine or discipline their internal man in the same. Consequently they have nothing laid down in them into which heaven can operate, but whatever enters them from heaven passes straight through; and when this enters the natural man it is not welcomed there because evil ones, that is, the devil’s crew, instantly remove it by smothering it, or repelling it, or perverting it.

[4] Therefore those whose good is wholly natural suffer severely in the next life. Sometimes they complain profusely about being among those in hell even though, they believe, they have done good, just as has everyone else. But they have been told that in their doing of good they were no different from harmless living creatures that are not endowed with reason. They had shown no concern, they are told, for anything good and true that is known to the Church; and since, as a consequence of this, nothing existed in their internal man to receive what was good and true, they now have nothing enabling angels to protect them. Furthermore, under a cloak of goodness, they had performed very many evil deeds.

AC (Elliott) n. 5033 sRef Gen@39 @19 S0′ 5033. ‘Saying, This is what your slave did to me’ means corroboration. This becomes clear from his firm belief that his wife had spoken the truth, and that as a result her accusation, so far as he was concerned, was corroborated. The wife who convinced him means unspiritual natural truth, though at this point falsity is meant; for unspiritual natural good easily allows itself to be convinced by falsity, see immediately above in 5032. It is Well known that falsities can be corroborated to look exactly like truths. This is evident from all heresies and from every aspect of any heresy. Though they are falsities, corroborations of them nevertheless cause people who adhere to a heresy to see them as truths. The same point is evident in people who are not religious. These people in their thinking set themselves firmly against things of the Church, so firmly that they see as the truth the idea that the Church exists merely to keep the common people down. They also see as the truth the idea that natural forces are the be-all and end-all and that the Divine is so remote as to be virtually nothing at all, as well as the idea that in death the human being is no different from any animal. People with whom unspiritual natural good resides allow themselves, more easily than others, to be persuaded and convinced of these and similar ideas, for they have no mirror so to speak within themselves, only one outside themselves which makes illusions look like realities.

AC (Elliott) n. 5034 sRef Gen@39 @19 S0′ 5034. That his anger flared up’ means an aversion to spiritual truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘anger’ as a departure from the good of charity, dealt with in 357, and so an aversion, in this case an aversion to spiritual truth since that truth is the subject here. The reason ‘anger’ means an aversion is that as long as a person is angry with another he feels averse to him; for anger arises or is aroused in someone when the love linking him to some other person, or to some particular object, is offended by that person or object. When the link is broken, that person flares up or becomes angry, as though something in his life that gives him delight, and thus something of his own life, has been lost. This sorrow turns into grief, and the grief into anger.

AC (Elliott) n. 5035 sRef Gen@39 @20 S0′ 5035. ‘And Joseph’s lord took him’ means temptation coming from the natural. This is clear from what follows immediately after this, for the narrative goes on to refer to the committal of Joseph to the prison-house, describing in the internal sense the temptation of spiritual good within the natural. This being the implication of the words ‘Joseph’s lord took him’, it is also their spiritual meaning. There are two kinds of temptations – those which involve truths and those which involve forms of good. Temptations involving truths are the work of spirits, but those involving forms of good are the work of genii. Spirits in the next life are distinguished from genii by the fact that spirits act upon the understanding part of the mind, and so upon matters of faith, whereas genii act upon the will part and so upon matters of love. That is to say, such spirits allow themselves to be seen, and also reveal themselves by making utterances, but genii make themselves inconspicuous and do not reveal themselves except by their entry into a person’s passions and desires. They also exist separated in the next life, for the evil or hellish spirits appear in front and to either side beneath the lower earth, whereas the evil or hellish genii are beneath and to the rear, deep down at the back underneath the lower earth. Temptations involving truths are the work, as stated, of evil spirits, but temptations involving forms of good are the work of evil genii. From here onwards the subject is temptations – those which are the work of evil spirits, and so ones that involve false-speaking against good. These temptations are milder than those which are the work of evil genii; they also arise before the latter kind do.

AC (Elliott) n. 5036 sRef Gen@39 @20 S0′ 5036. ‘And committed him to the prison-house’ means involving false-speaking against good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being committed to the prison-house’ and ‘being kept bound there’ as being subjected to temptations involving false-speaking against good, dealt with below. But first of all something must be said about temptations. At the present day scarcely anyone in the Christian world knows where temptations originate. Those who undergo them do not believe them to be anything more than the feelings of anguish which creep in because of the evils residing inwardly with a person, which first make him uneasy, then fill him with anxiety, and finally torment him. But he is totally unaware of the fact that they are the work of the evil spirits present with him. The reason he is unaware that this is so is that he does not believe he is in the company of spirits while he is living in the world; indeed he has scarcely any belief that any spirit at all is present with him, when in fact a person, so far as his interiors are concerned, exists in constant association with spirits and angels.

[2] As for temptations themselves, they are going on while a person is in the actual process of being regenerated, for no one can be regenerated unless he also undergoes temptations; and the evil spirits around him are the means through which those temptations are brought about. In temptation the person is brought into a state in which the evil that possesses him, that is, possesses his own essential self, is dominant. Once he enters this state evil and hellish spirits surround him, and when they realize that inwardly he is protected by angels those evil spirits reactivate the false ideas he has previously contemplated and the evil deeds he has committed. But the angels defend him from within. This conflict is what the person experiences as temptation, yet the experience is so vague that he is aware of it as scarcely anything more than a feeling of anxiety. For a person, especially one who has no belief at all in influx, dwells in a state of complete obscurity and discerns scarcely the smallest fraction of the things over which evil spirits and angels are engaged in conflict. Yet a battle is taking place at such a time over that person and his eternal salvation, with both sides using what is within him; for both draw on what resides with the person and engage in conflict over it. The truth of this I have been led most certainly to know. I have heard such conflict going on, I have perceived the influx taking place, and I have seen the spirits and the angels, to whom I spoke at the time and subsequently about what was happening.

[3] As stated, temptations arise primarily when a person is becoming spiritual, for at that time he is gaining a spiritual understanding of the truths of doctrine. The person himself is often unaware that this is happening; even so, the angels present with him see spiritual concerns within his natural ones since his interiors at this time are open towards heaven. (This also explains why, after living in the world, a person who has been regenerated is among angels, where he both sees and perceives the spiritual concerns which had previously appeared to him as natural ones.) When therefore a person is such as this, it is possible for the angels to defend him in temptation when he is assailed by evil spirits; for the angels then have a place that has been established in him into which they can operate; that is, they can flow into the spiritual level established in him, and through this into that which is natural.

[4] Once therefore outermost truth has been removed, with the result that the person does not possess anything to protect himself from those who are natural, dealt with in 5006, 5008, 5009, 5022, 5028, he enters into temptations in which evil spirits, all of whom are wholly natural, make accusations against him, especially that of false-speaking against good. They say, for example, that he has thought and said that good should be done to the neighbour and has also given proof of this in his actions, yet by the neighbour he now means only those with whom good and truth are present, not those with whom evil and falsity are present and who are incapable of receiving correction. Consequently, because he is no longer willing to do good to the evil, apart from punishing them so as to correct them and to protect his neighbour from what is evil, they accuse him of having thought and spoken what was false and of not thinking as he speaks.

[5] Take another example. Because a person, once he has become spiritual, no longer believes it to be a holy and godly act to give to monasteries or even churches where great wealth exists, and because prior to his becoming spiritual he had thought it a holy and godly thing to do, those spirits accuse him of falsity. They reactivate all the thoughts he had cherished previously about such holy and godly giving, as well as all his actual deeds resulting from that way of thinking. Those spirits make similar accusations in countless other instances which these examples serve merely to illustrate somewhat. In particular those spirits enter the affections which the person possessed previously and reactivate these, reactivating also the falsities and evils which he had thought and committed, and in this way they fill him with anxiety and quite often with doubt extending to the point of despair.

[6] Such then is the origin of spiritual kinds of anxiety and of those feelings called the pangs of conscience. What makes these appear to exist essentially within himself is influx and communication. Anyone who knows and believes this may be compared to a person who sees himself in a mirror but knows that it is not he himself who appears in the mirror or on the other side of it, only his image, whereas anyone who does not know and believe this may be compared to a person who sees himself in the mirror and supposes that he himself, not his image, appears there.

AC (Elliott) n. 5037 sRef Gen@39 @20 S0′ 5037. The reason why ‘being committed to the prison-house’ and ‘being kept bound there’ mean being subjected to temptations involving false-speaking against good is that the expression ‘the prison house’ is used for the entire place just beneath and round about the soles of the feet where those undergoing vastation are kept. Those undergoing vastation there are people who, in spite of their false assumptions and of their evil life arising from falsity, have nevertheless had good intentions. Such people cannot be received into heaven until they have divested themselves of their false assumptions and also of a living delight in them which sprang from these assumptions. People in that place are subjected to temptations, for the false assumptions and the living delights springing from these cannot be ousted except by means of temptations. The place where those people are, or rather the state which they are passing through, is meant in general by ‘the prison-house’ and those actual places by ‘pits’. Regarding vastations in the next life, see 698, 699, 1106-1113, 2699, 2701, 2704. Those undergoing vastations are called ‘the bound’; not that they are literally bound in any way but that they lack freedom so far as their previous thoughts and resulting affections are concerned.

sRef Isa@42 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S2′ [2] Such is the condition of those meant in the Word by ‘the bound’ and by ‘those who are in prison’, as is evident from other places in the Word:

In Isaiah,

I will give You to be a covenant of the people, a light of the nations, to open the blind eyes, to bring the bound out of prison, out of the dungeon-house those who sit in darkness. Isa. 42:6, 7.

This refers to the Lord and His Coming. Here ‘opening the blind eyes and bringing the bound out of prison, and out of the dungeon-house those who sit in darkness’ stands for those who have no knowledge of goodness and truth but who nevertheless have the desire to know and be taught about these. But in this instance a different word is used in the original language to describe a prison.

sRef Isa@42 @22 S3′ sRef Isa@24 @21 S3′ sRef Isa@24 @22 S3′ [3] In the same prophet,

All the young men are hidden in prison houses; they have become a prey, and none delivers and none says, Bring out. Isa. 42:22.

‘The young men’ in the internal sense are the truths of faith, which are said ‘to be hidden in prison-houses and to become a prey’ when they are not acknowledged any longer. In the same prophet,

It will be on that day, that Jehovah will visit the host of the height on high, and the kings of the ground on the ground, and the bound will be gathered together over the pit, and they will be shut in* the dungeon; after a multitude of days they will be visited. Isa. 24:21, 22.

‘The bound over the pit’ stands for those undergoing experiences of vastation, that is, temptation.

sRef Isa@10 @3 S4′ sRef Isa@10 @4 S4′ [4] In the same prophet,

What will you do on the day of visitation and vastation? It will come from afar. To whom will you flee for help? [Anyone] who has not bowed himself down will fall beneath the bound and beneath the slain. Isa. 10:3, 4.

‘Beneath the bound’ stands for the hell which lies below the places of vastation.’ The slain’ stands for those who through the false assumptions adopted by them have destroyed the truths of faith to a smaller extent than those pierced [by the sword] have done, dealt with in 4503.

sRef Ps@69 @33 S5′ sRef Zech@9 @10 S5′ sRef Zech@9 @11 S5′ sRef Ps@79 @11 S5′ sRef Isa@49 @8 S5′ sRef Isa@49 @9 S5′ sRef Ps@102 @19 S5′ sRef Zech@9 @12 S5′ sRef Ps@102 @20 S5′ sRef Isa@49 @10 S5′ [5] In Zechariah,

He will speak peace to the nations, and His dominion will be from sea to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth. Also as for You, through the blood of Your covenant I will let out the bound ones from the pit in which there is no water. Return to the stronghold, O bound ones of hope. Zech. 9:10-12.

‘Letting out the bound ones from the pit’ stands for those who are undergoing vastation and temptation; for the places where such undergo vastation are called ‘pits’, see 4728, 4744. In David,

Jehovah hears the needy and does not despise His bound ones. Ps. 69:33.

In the same author,

Let the groaning of him who is bound come before You. Ps. 79:11.

In the same author,

Jehovah looked from the heavens towards the earth to hear the groaning of him who was bound, to open to the sons of death. Ps. 102:19, 20.

‘Those who are bound’ stands for those who are undergoing vastation and temptations. In Isaiah,

In a time of good pleasure I have answered You, and in a day of salvation I have helped** You; I have also guarded You, and I have given You for a covenant of the people to restore the land, to apportion the inheritances that have been laid waste, to say to those that are bound, Go out; and to those who are in darkness, Reveal yourselves. They will feed*** along the roads, and on all slopes will their pasture**** be. And they will neither hunger nor thirst. Isa. 49:8-10.

sRef Matt@25 @35 S6′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S6′ sRef Ps@146 @7 S6′ sRef Ps@146 @8 S6′ sRef Isa@61 @2 S6′ sRef Isa@61 @1 S6′ sRef Matt@25 @34 S6′ sRef Ps@146 @9 S6′ [6] In the same prophet,

The Spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon Me, Jehovah has anointed Me; to bring good tidings to the poor He has sent Me, and to bind up the broken in heart; to preach liberty to captives, and to those who are bound, to him who is blind; to proclaim the year of Jehovah’s good pleasure.

In David,

Jehovah who executes judgement for the oppressed, who gives bread to the hungry; Jehovah who sets the bound free; Jehovah who opens the blind [eyes]; Jehovah who lifts up the bowed down; Jehovah who loves the righteous; Jehovah who guards strangers, upholds the orphan and the widow. Ps. 146:7-9.

‘The bound’ stands for those who are undergoing vastation and temptations because of falsities.

From all these places it is also evident who are meant in Matthew by those who are bound or ‘in prison’ and likewise who are meant by ‘the hungry, the thirsty, and strangers’,

Then the King will say to those at His right hand, I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, naked and you clothed Me around, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to Me. Matt. 25:34-36

Regarding these verses, see the preliminary section of the present chapter, 4954-4958.
* lit. over
** The Latin means heard, but the Hebrew means helped.
*** lit. pasture
**** The Latin means good pasture, but the Hebrew means their pasture, which Sw. has in other places where he quotes this verse.

AC (Elliott) n. 5038 sRef Gen@40 @15 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @20 S0′ 5038. ‘A place where the king’s bound ones were bound’ means the state of those governed by falsities. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a place’ as a state, dealt with in 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882; and from the meaning of ‘the king’s bound ones’ as those who are governed by falsities and who, being governed by falsities, undergo vastation, and those who, while being regenerated in the world, undergo temptation. For temptation involves the laying waste of falsity and at the same time the consolidation of truth. The expression ‘the king’s bound ones’ is used because ‘a king’ in the internal sense means truth, 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4789, 4966, and therefore ‘his bound ones’ means those governed by falsity. The places where the king’s bound ones were kept were also called ‘pits’, which was why Joseph said, in verse 15 of the next chapter,

By theft I have been taken out of the land of the Hebrews, and here also I have not done anything for which they should have put me in the pit.

As regards ‘a pit’ meaning a place of vastation, see 4728, 4744.

AC (Elliott) n. 5039 sRef Gen@39 @20 S0′ 5039. ‘And he was there in the prison-house’ means the duration of that temptation. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the prison-house’ as vastation and also temptation, dealt with just above in 5036, 5037, and from the meaning of ‘being in that house’ as staying there, and so the duration.

AC (Elliott) n. 5040 sRef Gen@39 @23 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @21 S0′ sRef Gen@39 @22 S0′ 5040. Verses 21-23 And Jehovah was with Joseph, and showed mercy to him, and gave him favour in the eyes of the governor* of the prison-house. And the governor* of the prison-house gave into Joseph’s hand all the bound who were in the prison-house; and everything they did there, he was the doer of it.** The governor of the prison-house oversaw nothing whatever that was in his hand, in that Jehovah was with him; and whatever he did, Jehovah made it prosper.

‘And Jehovah was with Joseph’ means that the Divine was inwardly present. ‘And showed mercy to him’ means Divine love within every individual thing. ‘And gave him favour in the eyes of the governor of the prison-house’ means consequent support in temptations. ‘And the governor of the prison-house gave’ means the truth governing in a state of temptations. ‘Into Joseph’s hand all the bound who were in the prison-house’ means from Him over all falsities. ‘And everything they did there, he was the doer of it’ means absolute power and control. ‘The governor of the prison-house oversaw nothing whatever that was in his hand’ means that He Himself governed truth. ‘In that Jehovah was with him’ means from the Divine that was within Him. ‘And whatever he did, Jehovah made it prosper’ means that the Divine Providence began in Himself.
* lit. prince or chief
** i.e. it was done under his instructions

AC (Elliott) n. 5041 sRef Gen@39 @21 S0′ 5041. ‘And Jehovah was with Joseph’ means that the Divine was inwardly present, that is, present within the Lord, who is represented in the highest sense by ‘Joseph’. At this point the Divine presence in temptations is meant, temptations being the subject here. For the Divine itself is Jehovah, whose existence or presence within the Lord is meant by ‘Jehovah was with Joseph’. Because the sense of the letter is dealing with Joseph the expression ‘with Joseph’ is used, but in the internal sense, where the Lord is the subject, ‘within the Lord’ is meant. Anybody within the Church can recognize this from the consideration that the Lord was conceived from Jehovah and for that reason calls Him His Father on so many occasions. A person’s essential being (esse) and consequently the inmost centre of life in him is received from his father, its coverings or outward clothing from his mother. Therefore the Lord’s Essential Being (Esse) and consequently the inmost centre of life in Him was the Divine because it was Jehovah Himself, while its coverings or outward clothing constituted the human which He took upon Himself from His mother by being born from her. The nature of this human was such that it could undergo temptation, for it was defiled by hereditary evil received from His mother. But because the inmost centre of Him was the Divine, He was able by means of the power that was His own to cast out that hereditary evil received from His mother. This casting out took place in succeeding stages by means of temptations, until He underwent the final temptation, that on the Cross, at which point He fully glorified His Human, that is, made it Divine. From this one may see what is meant when it is said that the Divine was inwardly present.

AC (Elliott) n. 5042 sRef Gen@39 @21 S0′ 5042. ‘And showed mercy to him’ means Divine love within every individual thing. This is clear from the meaning of ‘mercy’ in the highest sense as Divine Love, dealt with in 1735, 3063, 3073, 3120, 3875. The Divine Being (Esse) itself is that Love which is meant in the highest sense and is completely beyond human comprehension. Acting by means of truth, that love brings all things into being and keeps them in being, both those which are animate and those which are inanimate. This Divine Love that emanated from that Essential Being (Esse) was flowing through the inmost centre of life within the Lord into every individual thing He did from the human which He had taken to Himself from His mother; it directed His attention towards particular ends, leading on to the final one, which was that the human race might be saved. And because the Lord could see, from the Divine itself present within Him, the essential nature of His human – that owing to its heredity it was steeped in evil – the words ‘Jehovah showed mercy to him’ are used, meaning in the highest sense the presence of Divine Love within every single thing. Divine mercy (misericordia) is nothing else than Divine Love directed towards those trapped in misery (miseriae), 1099, 3063, 3875, that is, towards those undergoing temptations. For people who undergo temptations dwell in misery, and these primarily are meant in the Word by ‘the wretched’ (miseri).

AC (Elliott) n. 5043 sRef Gen@39 @21 S0′ 5043. ‘And gave him favour in the eyes of the governor of the prison-house’ means consequent support in temptations. This is clear from the meaning of ‘giving favour’ as support, for ‘giving favour’ in temptations is bringing comfort and supporting with hope; from the meaning of ‘the governor (or the prince)’ as primary truth, dealt with in the next paragraph; and from the meaning of ‘the prison-house’ as the laying waste of falsity, and therefore temptation, dealt with above in 5038, 5039.

AC (Elliott) n. 5044 sRef Gen@39 @22 S0′ 5044. ‘And the governor of the prison-house gave’ means the truth governing in a state of temptations. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the governor (or the prince)’ as the primary and so governing truth, dealt with below; and from the meaning of ‘the prison-house’ as the laying waste of falsity, and therefore temptation, dealt with above in 5038, 5039, 5043. What the truth governing in a state of temptations is must first be discussed. With all who are undergoing temptations truth from the Lord is flowing in, and this truth rules and governs their thoughts, uplifting them every time they are given to doubt and also to feelings of despair. This truth is what that governing truth is, and it is the kind of truth which they have learned from the Word and from doctrine and which they themselves have confirmed. Other kinds of truth may also be called on at such times, but these do not govern those persons interiorly. Sometimes the truth governing them does not make itself clearly visible in their understanding but lies obscured, yet continues to govern. For the Lord’s Divine flows into that governing truth and in so doing keeps the interior parts of the mind within its domain, so that when it comes out into the light the person undergoing temptation receives comfort from it and is uplifted by it.

[2] Not the actual truth but an affection for it is what the Lord uses to govern those undergoing temptations; for the Divine does not flow into anything except that which is regarded with affection. Truth that has been implanted and become rooted in a person interiorly has been implanted and become rooted there through affection. Absolutely nothing grows there without affection. Truth that has been implanted and become rooted through affection sticks in the mind, and it is recollected through an affection for it. Furthermore when that truth is recollected it also manifests the affection attached to it, an affection which in that person is a reciprocal one. This being what goes on in a person who undergoes temptations, no one is therefore allowed to experience any spiritual temptation until he reaches adult years and so has acquired some truth by means of which he may be governed. Without that truth he goes under, in which case his latter state is worse than his former one. From all this one may see what is implied by the truth governing in a state of temptations, meant by ‘the governor of the prison-house’.

sRef Isa@9 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S3′ [3] The reason ‘a prince (or a governor)’ means a primary truth is that ‘a king’ in the internal sense means the truth itself, 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4789, 4966, and consequently because ‘princes’ are the king’s chief subjects the primary features of that truth are meant by them. For this meaning of ‘princes’, see 1482, 2089; yet because those two paragraphs have not shown that meaning from other places in the Word, let some be introduced here: In Isaiah,

To us a boy is born, to us a son is given, on whose shoulder will be the government* – the prince of peace, increasing government** and peace [to which] there will be no end. Isa. 9:6, 7.

This refers to the Lord. ‘The government upon his shoulder’ means all Divine Truth in the heavens originating in Him, for the heavens are distinguished into separate principalities in keeping with the varieties of truth derived from good, which also explains why angels are called principalities. ‘Peace’ means the state of bliss in the heavens which inmostly affects what is good and true, 3780. This is why the Lord is called ‘the prince of peace’ and why it speaks of Him ‘increasing government and peace to which there will be no end’.

sRef Isa@19 @13 S4′ sRef Isa@19 @11 S4′ [4] In the same prophet,

The princes of Zoan are foolish, the wise counsellors of Pharaoh. How do you say to Pharaoh, I am a son of the wise, a son of the kings of old? The princes of Zoan have become fools, the princes of Noph deluded, and they have led Egypt astray, the corner-stone of the tribes. Isa. 19:11, 13.

This refers to Egypt, by which the Church’s factual knowledge is meant, 4749, and so natural truth, which is the last and lowest degree of order. For the same reason Egypt is here called ‘the corner-stone of the tribes’, for by ‘the tribes’ are meant all aspects of truth in their entirety, 3858, 3862, 3926, 3939, 4060. Here however ‘Egypt’ is factual knowledge that perverts the truths known to the Church, and so is truths in the lowest degree of order that have been falsified, meant by ‘the princes of Zoan and the princes of Noph’. The reason Egypt calls itself ‘a son of the kings of old’ is that the factual knowledge which existed in that land had its origin in the truths known to the Ancient Church. Actual truths are meant by ‘kings’, as shown above, and the truths known to the Ancient Church by ‘the kings of old’.

sRef Isa@10 @8 S5′ sRef Isa@10 @7 S5′ [5] In the same prophet,

Asshur does not think what is right and his heart does not consider what is right, for his heart is to destroy, and to cut off nations not a few, for he says, Are not my princes kings? Isa. 10:7, 8.

‘Asshur’ stands for reasoning about Divine truths which gives rise to falsities, and so stands for perverted reason, 1186. Truths falsified in this way, that is, falsities, which are the product of reasoning and look altogether like truths, are meant when Asshur says ‘Are not my princes kings?’ As long as a person’s mind is fixed on the historical sense of the letter he cannot see or consequently believe that ‘Asshur’ means reasoning, and that ‘princes who are kings’ means major falsities which are regarded as supreme truths. Still less can he believe this if he refuses to entertain the idea that there is something holier and more universal within the Divine Word than that which is seen in the literal sense. Yet in the internal sense ‘Asshur’ is used to mean in the Word nothing else than reason and reasoning, and ‘kings’ to mean actual truths, ‘princes’ the primary features of truth. Also, those in heaven have no knowledge as to what or who ‘Asshur’ may be, besides which angels put away from themselves the idea of a king or a prince; and when they detect this idea residing with man they transfer it to the Lord and then perceive that which goes forth from the Lord and which is the Lord’s in heaven, namely His Divine Truth going forth from His Divine Good.

sRef Isa@30 @3 S6′ sRef Isa@31 @9 S6′ sRef Isa@30 @4 S6′ sRef Isa@31 @8 S6′ [6] In the same prophet,

Asshur will fall by the sword, not of man (vir), and a sword, not of man (homo), will devour him. Also his rock will pass away by reason of terror, and his princes will be dismayed by the ensign. Isa. 31:8, 9.

This too refers to Egypt, by which the Church’s factual knowledge once it has been perverted is meant. Reasoning based on known facts regarding Divine truths which leads to perversion and falsification is meant by ‘Asshur’, those perverted and falsified truths being ‘his princes’. ‘The sword by which Asshur will fall’ is falsity engaged in conflict with truth and bringing about the devastation of it, 2799, 4499.

In the same prophet,

The strength of Pharaoh will become shame for you, and trust in the shadow of Egypt ignominy, when his princes will be in Zoan. Isa. 30:3, 4.

‘Princes in Zoan’ stands for truths that have been falsified, and so stands for falsities, as above.

sRef Isa@43 @28 S7′ sRef Isa@34 @12 S7′ sRef Isa@34 @11 S7′ [7] In the same prophet,

The spoon-bill and the duck will possess it, and the owl and the raven will dwell in it; and he will stretch over it the line of emptiness, and the plumb-line of a waste place. Let them call its nobles who are not there a kingdom, and all its princes will be nothing. Isa. 34:11, 12.

‘The spoon-bill’, ‘the duck’, ‘the owl’, ‘the raven’ stand for varieties of falsity which arise when Divine truths in the Word are rendered valueless. The desolation and laying waste of truth is meant by ‘the line of emptiness and the plumb-line of a waste’, while the falsities, which are primary truths so far as the people described here are concerned, are meant by ‘its princes’. In the same prophet,

I will render the princes of holiness profane, and I will give Jacob to utter destruction and Israel to reproaches. Isa. 43:28.

‘Rendering the princes of holiness profane’ refers to holy truths. The annihilation of the truth known to the Church – the internal Church and the external – is meant by ‘giving Jacob to utter destruction and Israel to reproaches’, ‘Jacob’ being the external Church and ‘Israel’ the internal, see 4286.

sRef Jer@17 @25 S8′ [8] In Jeremiah,

There will enter through the gates of this city kings and princes seated on the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses, they and their princes. Jer. 17:25.

Anyone who understands the Word at this point according to its historical sense cannot know that anything deeper and holier lies hidden within these words than the idea that kings and princes will enter through the gates of the city in chariots and on horses, from which he gathers that the duration of the kingdom is meant. But one who is aware of what is meant by ‘city’ in the internal sense, and what is meant by ‘kings’, ‘princes’, ‘the throne of David’, and ‘riding in chariots and on horses’ sees deeper and holier matters in this description. For ‘the city’, which is Jerusalem, means the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, 2117, 3654; ‘kings’ Divine Truths, as shown above; ‘princes’ the primary features of truth; ‘the throne of David’ the Lord’s heaven, 1888; and ‘riding in chariots and on horses’ the existence in the Church of a spiritual understanding, 2760, 2761, 3217.

sRef Jer@50 @36 S9′ sRef Jer@50 @35 S9′ sRef Jer@50 @37 S9′ [9] In the same prophet,

O sword against the Chaldeans and against the inhabitants of Babel, and against its princes and against its wise men! O sword against the liars! O sword against its horses and against its chariots! Jer. 50:35-37.

‘Sword’ stands for truth engaged in conflict with falsity, and for falsity in conflict with truth and laying it waste, 2799, 4799. ‘The Chaldeans’ stands for those who profane truths, and ‘the inhabitants of Babel’ for those who profane good, 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1307, 1308, 1321, 1322, 1326, 1327 (end). ‘Princes’ stands for falsities, which to such people are primary truths. ‘Horses’ stands for the Church’s possession of understanding, and ‘chariots’ for its doctrinal teaching, the laying waste of these being meant by ‘a sword against its horses and against its
chariots’.

sRef Lam@2 @9 S10′ sRef Lam@2 @1 S10′ sRef Lam@2 @2 S10′ [10] In the same prophet,

How in His anger the Lord covers the daughter of Zion with a cloud! The Lord has swallowed up – He has not spared – all the dwelling-places of Jacob. He has destroyed in His wrath the strongholds of the daughter of Judah; He has cast them down to the ground; He has profaned the kingdom and her princes. The gates have sunk into the ground; He has broken in pieces her bars; her king and princes are among the nations. Lam. 1:1, 2, 9.

‘The daughter of Zion and Judah’ stands for the celestial Church, in this case for that Church when it has been destroyed. ‘The kingdom’ stands for the truths of doctrine there, 2547, 4691, ‘king’ for truth itself, and ‘princes’ for the primary features of this truth.

sRef Lam@5 @12 S11′ sRef Ezek@7 @27 S11′ sRef Num@25 @4 S11′ sRef Num@25 @1 S11′ sRef Lam@5 @10 S11′ sRef Lam@5 @11 S11′ sRef Num@25 @2 S11′ sRef Num@25 @3 S11′ [11] In the same prophet,

Our skins have been blackened like an oven because of the storms of famine; they have ravished women in Zion, virgins in the cities of Judah. Princes have been hung up by their hands. Lam. 5:10-12.

‘Princes hung up by their hands’ stands for the fact that truths have been made profane, for being hung up represented the damnation brought about by profanation. And because being hung up represented that profanation the command was also given that when the people went whoring after Baalpeor and worshipped their gods, the princes were to be hung up before the sun, Num. 25:1-4, since ‘to go whoring after Baalpeor and to worship their gods’ was to make worship profane.

In Ezekiel,

The king will mourn, and the prince will be wrapped in stupidity, and the hands of the people of the land will be all atremble; I will deal with them in their way. Ezek. 7:27.

Here likewise ‘the king’ stands for truth in general, and ‘the prince’ for the primary features of it.

sRef Ezek@12 @12 S12′ sRef Hos@3 @4 S12′ [12] In the same prophet,

The prince who is in the midst of them will be carried on the shoulder under darkness and will go forth; they will dig through the wall to lead out through it; he will cover his face, so that with the eye he does not see the earth. Ezek. 12:12.

Here it is quite evident that ‘the prince’ does not mean a prince but truth known to the Church. When the words ‘will be carried on the shoulder under darkness’ are used in reference to it, the meaning is that total power is used to bear away among falsities, ‘darkness’ meaning falsities. ‘Covering the face’ means that truth is completely out of sight; ‘so that with the eye he does not see the earth’ means that nothing of the Church is visible, ‘earth’ or ‘land’ meaning the Church, see 661, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 4535. In Hosea,

The children of Israel will sit many days with no king and no prince, and no sacrifice, and no pillar, and no ephod, and no teraphim. Hosea 3:4.

sRef Ps@45 @14 S13′ sRef Ps@45 @13 S13′ sRef Ps@45 @16 S13′ [13] And in David,

All glorious is the king’s daughter within, in her clothing with gold interweavings; in embroidered robes she will be led to the king. Instead of your fathers will be your sons; you will set them as princes in the whole earth. Ps. 45:13, 14, 16.

‘The king’s daughter’ means the Lord’s spiritual kingdom. It is called His spiritual kingdom by virtue of the Lord’s Divine truth, which in this instance is described by means of ‘clothing consisting of gold interweavings and of embroidered robes’. ‘Sons’ are the truths of that kingdom which are derived from the Lord’s Divine, which are going to be ‘the princes’, that is, the primary features of it.

‘The prince’ who is described – he and his possession in the New Jerusalem and in the new land – in Ezekiel 44:3; 45:7, 8, 17; 46;8, 10, 12, 16, 18; 48:21, means, in general, truth that is derived from the Lord’s Divine. For ‘the New Jerusalem’ in these places, ‘the New Temple’, and ‘the new land’ are used to mean the Lord’s kingdom in heaven and on earth, which kingdom is described here in Ezekiel by means of representatives such as figure elsewhere in the Word.
* lit. principality or princely rule
** lit. multiplying the principality or princely rule

AC (Elliott) n. 5045 sRef Gen@39 @22 S0′ sRef John@10 @18 S0′ sRef John@10 @17 S0′ 5045. ‘Into Joseph’s hand all the bound who were in the prison-house’ means received from Him over all falsities, that is to say, the truth governing in a state of temptations was received from Him. This is clear from the meaning of ‘giving into Joseph’s hand’ as placing under its power and control (‘the hand’ means power and control, 5008, thus that which is received from Him – for anything done by the use of His power is something done by Him – while ‘Joseph’ means the Lord in the internal sense, as has often been shown above); and from the meaning of ‘the bound in the prison-house’ as falsities, dealt with above in 5037, 5038. Thus ‘the governor of the prison-house gave into Joseph’s hand all the bound who were in the prison-house’ means the truth governing in the state of temptations that was received from Him and had power over all falsities, that is, He Himself was the source of the truth by means of which He governed falsities in the state of temptations. Here and in what follows at the end of this present chapter the subject in the internal sense is the Lord and the government executed by Him in a state of temptations. That is, it describes how He overcame, by His own power, the hells which were steeped in evils and falsities, and which were constantly pouring out evils and falsities onto the human race. For details about the Lord overcoming them and bringing them into subjection to Himself by His own power, thereby also glorifying the Human within Him or making it Divine, see 1616, 1749, 1755, 1813, 1904, 1914, 1921, 1935, 2025, 2026, 2083, 2159, 2574, 2786, 2795, 3036, 3381, 4075, 4286, 5005. This is clear from many places in the Word, including the following in John,

I lay down My life,* so that I may receive it again. No one takes it from Me, but I lay it down of Myself; I have power to lay it down and I have power to receive it again. John 10:17, 18.

The passion of the Cross was the last temptation, by which He fully glorified the Human within Him, that is, made it Divine, as is also evident from many places in the Word, such as John 13:31, 32; 17:1, 5; Luke 24:26.
* lit. soul

AC (Elliott) n. 5046 sRef Gen@39 @22 S0′ 5046. ‘And everything they did there, he was the doer of it’ means absolute power and control. This may be seen without explanation, for these words imply that all things were of His doing, thus that He had absolute power and control to carry them out or leave them undone.

AC (Elliott) n. 5047 sRef Gen@39 @23 S0′ 5047. ‘The governor of the prison-house oversaw nothing whatever that was in his hand’ means that He Himself governed truth. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the governor of the prison-house’ as truth governing in a state of temptations, dealt with above in 5044, and from the meaning of ‘overseeing nothing whatever that was in his hand’ as His acting of Himself, and so with absolute power and control, as above in 5045, 5046.

AC (Elliott) n. 5048 sRef Gen@39 @23 S0′ 5048. in that Jehovah was with him’ means from the Divine that was within Him. This is clear from what appears above in 5041.

AC (Elliott) n. 5049 sRef Gen@39 @23 S0′ 5049. ‘And whatever he did, Jehovah made it prosper’ means that the Divine Providence began in Himself. This is clear from the meaning of ‘causing to prosper’ as providence, dealt with in 4972, 4975. The Divine nature of this providence is meant by ‘Jehovah’, and its beginning in Himself by ‘whatever he did’. The reason why in the highest sense ‘causing to prosper’ means providence is that all prosperity witnessed in the outermost things forming the natural dimension owes its origin to the Lord’s Divine Providence. The truth of this, and also that everything which people call fortune owes its origin to the same, will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be demonstrated elsewhere from experiences in the spiritual world.

AC (Elliott) n. 5050 5050. CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE GRAND MAN – continued
IN THIS SECTION THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE LOINS AND THE ORGANS OF GENERATION WITH IT

Who exactly in the Grand Man or heaven belong to the province of the hands, the arms, and the feet has been shown from experience at the end of the previous chapter, in 4931-4953. Now this present section must state which particular communities in heaven or the Grand Man are the ones to which the loins, also the parts associated with the loins called the generative organs, correspond. In general it should be recognized that the loins and associated organs correspond to genuine conjugial love and consequently to those communities where angels live who possess that love. The inhabitants of those communities are the most heavenly ones and in their lives they enjoy greater peace and delight than any others do.

AC (Elliott) n. 5051 sRef Gen@32 @32 S1′ sRef Gen@32 @31 S1′ sRef Gen@32 @25 S1′ 5051. In a peaceful dream I once saw some trees planted in a wooden receptacle, one of which was tall, another shorter, and two were small. The shorter tree gave me very great delight, and all the while a very lovely feeling of peacefulness, beyond my ability to describe, was filling my mind. When I woke up from my sleep I talked to those among whom my dream had originated. They were angelic spirits, see 1977, 1979. Who told me what was meant by that sight – conjugial love. The tall tree meant a husband, the shorter his wife, and the two small ones their children. Those angelic spirits went on to say that the very lovely feeling of peacefulness which filled my mind served to indicate the loveliness of the peace enjoyed by those in the next life who have led lives of genuine conjugial love. They added that people like these are the ones who belong to the province of the thighs immediately above the knees, and that those whose state is yet more lovely belong to the province of the loins. I was also shown that this province communicates through the feet with the soles and heels. The existence of this communication is also evident from the large nerve in the thigh which sends out its branches not only through the loins to the generative parts, which are the organs of conjugial love, but also through the feet to the soles and heels. Those angelic spirits also disclosed to me at this time the meaning in the Word of the acetabulum and the nerve in the thigh which was put out of joint when Jacob wrestled with the angel, Gen. 32:25, 31, 32, dealt with in 4280, 4281, 4314-4317.

[2] After this I saw a large dog, like the one which very ancient authors call Cerberus. It had horrible, gaping jaws. I was told that a dog such as this means the guard which is set to prevent a person crossing over from heavenly conjugial love to a love of adultery, which is a hellish love. For heavenly conjugial love consists in one living, content in the Lord, together with one’s partner whom one loves very tenderly, and with one’s children. In the world this brings a person a deeper pleasure, and in the next life heavenly joy. But if people cross over from that love to its opposite, and this opposite love seems to them to hold heavenly delight within it, though in fact it is a hellish delight, a dog resembling Cerberus presents itself as if on guard to prevent any communication of opposite delights.

AC (Elliott) n. 5052 5052. The heaven through which the Lord imparts conjugial love is the inmost one, whose inhabitants enjoy greater peace than all others. Peace in the heavens may be compared to spring in the world which makes everything delightful; for in origin peace is something utterly heavenly. The angels inhabiting that inmost heaven are the wisest of all, and because of their innocence they are seen by others as young children. They themselves also love young children far more than even their forebears and mothers do. They are present with infants in the womb, and through them the Lord takes care of the nourishment and proper development of infants in the womb. Thus angels from that heaven are placed in charge of those who are pregnant.

AC (Elliott) n. 5053 5053. There are heavenly and celestial communities to which the organs and parts dedicated to generation correspond – every single one in both sexes. Those communities are distinct and separate from others, even as that province in a man or woman is rightly distinct and separate from all the rest. The reason those communities are heavenly and celestial ones is that conjugial love is the fundamental love of all loves, 686, 2733, 2737, 2738. It also serves an incomparable purpose and as a consequence affords a delight that surpasses all other delights, for marriages are the seed-beds of the entire human race, also the seed-beds of the Lord’s heavenly kingdom since heaven consists of members of the human race.

AC (Elliott) n. 5054 5054. People who have had a very tender love of young children, such as mothers with that love, are in the province of the womb and organs round about it; that is, they are in the province of the cervix and ovaries. The life of those in that province is absolutely sweet and delightful, and their heavenly joy is greater than that of all others.

AC (Elliott) n. 5055 5055. But I have not been allowed to know the identity and essential nature of the communities that belong to specific organs of generation because those communities are far too internal for anyone in a lower sphere to discern. Those communities also correlate with hidden functions served by these organs, hidden and also unknown to science for the providential reason that things such as these, which in essence are utterly heavenly, must not suffer any damage from filthy thoughts. They must not be damaged by thoughts that accompany wantonness, whoredom, or adultery and that are aroused in most people by the mere mention of those organs. This being so, let me describe some things witnessed by me which took place further away.

AC (Elliott) n. 5056 5056. A certain spirit from another planet was once present with me. (Spirits from other planets will in the Lord’s Divine mercy be spoken about elsewhere.) He asked me earnestly to intercede on his behalf to enable him to enter heaven. He said he was not aware of having done what was evil, only of having reprimanded inhabitants of that planet; for on his planet there are people who reprimand and chastise others when they do not lead correct lives. (Reference will be made to these people too when the inhabitants of other planets are dealt with.) That spirit added that after he reprimanded people he instructed them; and as he said this his voice seemed to crack. He also had the ability to arouse feelings of pity. The only answer I could give him however was that I was unable to help him in any way. Entrance into heaven, I told him, rested with the Lord alone; but if he was worthy he could entertain the hope of gaining it. At that point however he was sent back to be among upright spirits who belonged to his own planet; but those spirits said that he could not remain in their company because he was not like them. Nevertheless because his intense desire made him demand that he should be let into heaven, he was sent to a community of upright spirits belonging to our own planet. But these too told him that he could not remain with them. In addition to this his colour seen in the light of heaven was black, though he himself said it was not black but a ruddy brown.

[2] I was told that this is what people of this sort are like initially, before they are received among those who constitute the province of the seminal vesicles, for in these vesicles sperm (semen)* is gathered together along with the suitable fluid with which the sperm is combined. That combination places the sperm in the right condition, so that once it has been sent forth it is released from the fluid at the cervix and thus serves to bring about conception. This kind of substance also holds within it the endeavour and so to speak desire to fulfill the same purpose and so to cast aside the fluid that clothes it. Something similar to this was seen to happen to that spirit. He returned to me, but now he was dressed in humble clothing. He said he had a burning desire to enter heaven and recognized that now he was in a fit state to remain there. I was led to say to him that this was perhaps a sign that he would be received there shortly. At this point angels told him to cast aside his clothing, which in his desire to do so he cast aside so quickly that hardly anything could have been done more quickly. This represented the nature of the desires of those in the province to which the seminal vesicles correspond.
* In Latin semen is the sperm or seed within the seminal fluid, not – as in English – both the sperm and the fluid.

AC (Elliott) n. 5057 5057. I once saw a mortar, standing by which there was a man who had an instrument made of iron. In his delusion the man thought he was pounding human beings in the mortar, tormenting them dreadfully. He took great delight in what he was doing, and that delight was communicated to me to enable me to know the nature of it and how strong it was in people of his kind. It was a hellish delight, and angels told me that it was the kind that reigned among the descendants of Jacob. These never felt more delighted than when they could treat gentile nations in a cruel fashion, exposing those they had slain to be devoured by wild animals and by birds, cutting up with saws and axes those who were still alive, and making them pass through the brickkiln, 2 Sam. 12:31, also striking little children and hurling them to the ground. No one has ever been commanded to behave in these ways, nor has anyone ever been permitted to do so other than the kind of people in whom the nerve in the thigh has been put out of joint, 5051. Such spirits live beneath the right heel, where the adulterers who are also cruel dwell.

[2] In view of this it is astonishing that anyone should ever believe that that nation was chosen or elected in preference to any other one. Believing that they were so elected many people go on to convince themselves of the idea that one’s life is of no consequence at all but that election and consequent acceptance into heaven is attributable to mercy alone, irrespective of the life one has led. Yet anyone of sound reason can see that to think in that way is to think contrary to the Divine. The Divine is mercy itself, and therefore if the attainment of heaven were attributable to mercy alone irrespective of the life one leads, all would be accepted, no matter how many these might be. To thrust anyone down into hell to suffer torment there, when it was possible for him to be received into heaven, would not be mercy but the opposite of mercy, and to elect one in preference to another would not be righteousness but the opposite of righteousness.

[3] Consequently those who have believed and convinced themselves of the idea that some have been elected and the rest have not been elected, also of the idea that admittance into heaven is attributable solely to mercy regardless of the life they have led, have been for the most part the kind of people who have led evil lives. These are told, as I have also heard and seen on several occasions, that the Lord never refuses anyone entrance into heaven, and that if they like they can find this out from experience. They are therefore raised up into some community of heaven whose inhabitants have led their lives under the influence of an affection for good, that is, they have led charitable lives. But when those raised up arrive there they begin, being evil, to suffer pain and inner torment because their life is contrary to that of heaven. And when heavenly light shines on them they look in that light like devils that are almost wholly devoid of human appearance. Some have sunken faces; some are all teeth, looking like crates; and some, who are different again, look like monsters. Thus they are horrified at themselves and hurl themselves headfirst into hell; and the deeper they can go, the better it is for them.

AC (Elliott) n. 5058 5058. There was another spirit who in the world had been one of the quite distinguished. I had been acquainted with him then, though not with what he was like inwardly. In the next life however, after his state of life underwent a number of changes, he was shown to be deceitful. Having been some while among deceitful ones in the next life and having suffered severely there, he wished to be parted from them. I heard him saying at this time that he wished to enter heaven, for he too had believed that acceptance there was attributable to mercy alone. But he was told that if he entered heaven he would not be able to remain there and that he would suffer torment like those in the world experiencing death-throes. But in spite of being told this he persisted with his desire. He was allowed into a community where some of the simple good dwelt, in front overhead. But once he entered that community he began, in keeping with the life he had led, to act cunningly and deceitfully. Soon after this the simple good there started to complain that he was taking away their perception of what was good and true and consequently their delight, and that he was destroying their state as he did so. At that point some light from a more internal heaven was let in. In that light he looked like a devil, with the upper part of his nose horribly disfigured from some dreadful wound; and he also began to suffer torment within himself. Having experienced that torment he thrust himself away from there into hell. From this it is evident that what leads to heaven is not election and acceptance attributable to mercy, but a person’s life. Yet every aspect of a life consisting of goodness and every aspect of a faith composed of truth is, so far as those in the world who are recipients of mercy are concerned, attributable to mercy. To them being accepted into heaven is an act of mercy, and these are the ones who are called the elect, 3755 (end), 3900.

AC (Elliott) n. 5059 5059. When those who have lived in ways that are the opposite of conjugial love – that is, in adulterous ways – have drawn near me, they have introduced pain into my loins, the severity of which has depended on the nature of the adulterous life led by them. That influx also demonstrated that the loins corresponded to conjugial love. Furthermore their hell is situated beneath the area behind the loins, under the buttocks, where they live in filth and excrement. These are also the things that give them delight, for such filth and excrement correspond to the pleasure they gain in the spiritual world from such things. But in the Lord’s Divine mercy more will be said about these spirits when the hells are described as a whole and individually.

AC (Elliott) n. 5060 5060. Who exactly correspond to the testicles has in a similar way been made clear to me from those whose love is the opposite of conjugial love and who strike pain into the testicles. For when communities are at work they act into those parts and members of the body to which they correspond – heavenly communities acting into them by an influx that is gentle, sweet, and delightful, hellish communities who love the opposite of what is heavenly by an influx that is vicious and causes pain. Yet their influx is not perceptible to any except those whose interiors have been opened and who as a consequence are able to perceive their communication with the spiritual world. Those whose love is the opposite of conjugial love and who strike pain into the testicles are spirits who use love, friendship, and kind deeds to behave treacherously. When such spirits came near me they wished to talk to me in secret, being very much afraid that someone else might be present with us. For this is what those spirits were like during their lifetime, and being such then, they are no different in the next life. For everyone’s life follows on with him.

[2] From the region round Gehenna there once rose up something so to speak air-like and barely visible. It was a band of spirits who were like those just described. But after that, although there were quite a number of them, they looked to me like a single spirit, who was impeded by bandages which however he seemed to himself to remove. This was a sign meaning their desire to remove obstructions, for in the world of spirits representative images like this one serve to reveal people’s thoughts and intentions, and as soon as those images are seen their meaning is recognized instantly. After this, one who looked like a small snowy-white spirit seemed to come out of that band of spirits and to make his way towards me. This was a representation of their thought and intention, which was a wish to assume a state of innocence so that no one could suspect them of being what they were in fact like. When he reached me he stooped down towards my loins, where he seemed to wind himself all round them. This represented their wish to present themselves as spirits filled with chaste conjugial love. After this he seemed to twist like a coil around my feet, which represented their wish to worm their way in by means of such things as are naturally delightful. At length the small spirit became practically invisible, which represented their wish to lie completely out of sight.

[3] Angels told me that worming their way in like this is characteristic of those who deal treacherously in respect of conjugial love. That is to say, being intent on committing adultery with other men’s wives they would worm their way in, when they were in the world, by talking about conjugial love in a chaste and wholesome manner, by fondling the children and praising the husband in every possible way. They did all this so as to be considered friendly, chaste, and above suspicion, when in fact they were deceitful adulterers. Such being their true nature therefore, this was revealed, for once the incidents described above had taken place, the small snowy-white spirit became visible again. But now he had a dusky and very black appearance, and also a misshapen one. He was cast out into his own hell, which too was deep down below the middle of the loins, where the inhabitants live among utterly disgusting excrement, and also among the robbers, described in 4327, who correlate with general and involuntary sensory activity. I have spoken subsequently to spirits of this kind, who have been amazed that anyone should have any conscientious objection to committing adultery, that is to say, that his conscience should forbid him to lie with another man’s wife even if allowed to do so. Indeed when I have talked to them about conscience they have refused to believe that anyone possesses a conscience. I have been told that spirits like these come mainly from the Christian world, and only rarely do any come from other parts.

AC (Elliott) n. 5061 5061. To end with let the following noteworthy incident be added. There were some spirits who lay shut up for a long time in a hell unlike any other, from which they could not break out. I wondered several times who exactly they might be. One evening they were let out, at which point a quite tumultuous grumbling sound was heard to be coming from them, which lasted for a long time. Having been given the opportunity to do so, I could hear them making jeering remarks about me, and I perceived that their desire and endeavour was to come up and destroy me. I asked the angels the reason for this. They replied that those spirits had hated me during their lifetime even though I had not done them any harm at all. I also learned that when spirits of this kind merely perceive the sphere of one whom they have hated they long for his destruction. But they were taken back to their own particular hell. From this it became clear that those who have hated one another in the world meet in the next life and set out to inflict many injuries on one another, as other examples of such hatred witnessed by me on a number of other occasions have also led me to know. For hatred is the opposite of love and charity, and is a turning away and so to speak spiritual antipathy. Consequently the moment such spirits in the next life perceive the sphere of one they have hated they go into a seeming frenzy. From this one may see what is implied by what the Lord has said in Matthew 5:22-26.

AC (Elliott) n. 5062 5062. Correspondence with the Grand Man is continued at the end of the next chapter.

AC (Elliott) n. 5063 sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @46 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S0′ 5063. 40
The opening section of the previous chapter contained an explanation of what the Lord said about the judgement on the good and on the evil, in Matthew 25:34-36. There now follows what He said after that,

Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink? When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You? When did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You? But the King answering will say to them, Truly I say to you, Insofar as you did it to one of the least of these My brothers you did it to Me. Then He will also say to those on the left, Depart from Me, O cursed ones, into eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry and you gave Me no food, I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink, I was a stranger and you did not take Me in, naked and you did not clothe Me, sick and in prison and you did not visit Me. Then they also will answer Him, saying, Lord, when did we see You hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or in prison and did not minister to You? Then He will answer them, saying, Truly I say to you, Insofar as you did not do it to one of the least of these you did not do it to Me. And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life. Matt. 25:37-46.

AC (Elliott) n. 5064 sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @46 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S0′ 5064. The preliminary section of the previous chapter, 4954-4959, contained an explanation of what is meant in the internal sense by giving food to the hungry, giving drink to the thirsty, taking in a stranger, clothing the naked, visiting one sick or in prison. That section shows that what charity is essentially is implied and described by all these actions. By one who is hungry, thirsty, or a stranger is meant an affection for what is good and true; and by one who is naked, sick, or in prison is meant a recognition of what one’s own selfhood is like, see 4956, 4958.

AC (Elliott) n. 5065 sRef Matt@25 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @46 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ 5065. The same particular actions occur three times in the verses quoted above, but since, as has been stated, an explanation of such actions has appeared already, there is no need to deal with them individually, that is, to explain what each word means in the internal sense. All that needs to be stated here is the meaning of the reply given both by those on the right and by those on the left – that they had not seen Him hungry, thirsty, a stranger, naked, sick, or in prison. Then the meaning of ‘the King’ needs to be given, also the meanings of ‘the righteous’ and ‘eternal life’, and the meanings of ‘him who is cursed’ and ‘eternal fire’.

AC (Elliott) n. 5066 sRef Matt@25 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @46 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S0′ 5066. The reply of those on the right was, Lord, when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You drink? When did we see You a stranger and take You in, or naked and clothe You? When did we see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?

This reply means that if they had seen the Lord Himself, all of them would have performed these acts of kindness to Him. Yet it would not have been love towards Him that would have led them to do so, only fear because He was about to come and judge the whole world. Nor would they have acted for His sake but their own, and so not because of anything present more internally in them, in their hearts, but for quite external reasons, and in outward conduct alone. They may be likened to a person who, when he sees his king whose favour he wishes to secure so that he may become great or rich, therefore conducts himself in a submissive manner before the king. Or they may be likened to those who engage in external holy worship in which so to speak they see the Lord and are submissive before Him. They do this because they believe that by engaging in such worship they will receive eternal life, even though they have no charity and do not do good to anyone except for selfish reasons, thus solely for their own benefit. Those on the right are like people who outwardly show great respect to their king yet scoff at what he commands because in their hearts they despise him. These and other examples like them are what are meant by the reply given by those on the right. And because the outward actions of the evil as well are similar, the reply given by those on the left was practically the same.

AC (Elliott) n. 5067 sRef Matt@25 @46 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S0′ 5067. Since therefore the Lord is not concerned about external things, only about those that are internal, and a person bears witness to internal ones not through worship alone but through charity and acts that express it, the Lord replied,

Truly I say to you, Insofar as you did it to one of the least of these My brothers you did it to Me.

The word ‘brothers’ is used to describe those in whom the good of charity and life is present; for since good itself is present in them, the Lord resides with them. These are the ones who are meant, strictly speaking, by the neighbour. Yet the Lord does not present Himself even within these, for compared with Him they are worthless. But a person presents himself before the Lord by worshipping Him with his inner being.

AC (Elliott) n. 5068 sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @46 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S0′ 5068. The reason the Lord calls Himself ‘the King’ in the following words – ‘When the Son of Man comes in His glory, He will sit on the throne of [His] glory…..Then the King will say to them’ – is that the Lord’s kingly rule is Divine Truth, on which judgement is based and in accordance with which it is executed. But the basis and execution of judgement in the case of the good is different from what it is with the evil. Because the good have accepted Divine Truth, the basis on which they are judged is good, and so mercy; but because the evil have not accepted Divine Truth, the basis of their judgement is truth, but not mercy, for the reason that they have cast mercy aside and as a consequence are constantly casting it aside in the next life. The acceptance of Divine Truth implies not only possessing faith but also expressing that faith in action, that is, making what doctrine teaches a matter of life. These are the reasons why the Lord calls Himself ‘the King’. The Lord’s kingly rule consists in Divine Truth, see 1728, 2015(end), 3009, 3670, 4581, 4966.

AC (Elliott) n. 5069 sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @46 S0′ 5069. The expression ‘the righteous’, used of those on the right in the following statements – ‘The righteous will answer Him, saying, etc.’ and ‘the righteous will go into eternal life’ – means that the Lord’s righteousness dwells with them. All in whom the good of charity is present are called ‘the righteous’; not that of themselves they are righteous but that they are made such by the Lord, whose righteousness they take to themselves. Those who believe that of themselves they are righteous, or that they have been made righteous to such an extent that no evil at all is present in them any longer, are not among the righteous but among the unrighteous. For they attribute good to themselves and also make that good meritorious; and people like them cannot possibly possess true humility with which to worship the Lord. Therefore in the Word those people are called ‘righteous and holy’ who know and acknowledge that all good comes from the Lord and all evil from themselves, that is, they possess it from hell.

AC (Elliott) n. 5070 sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @46 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @38 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S0′ 5070. The eternal life which is imparted to the righteous is life flowing from good. Good has life within it because it comes from the Lord, who is life itself. Included within the life which comes from the Lord there is wisdom and intelligence; for wisdom consists in receiving good from the Lord and then making it the object of one’s will, while intelligence consists in receiving truth from the Lord and then believing it. And those who receive such wisdom and intelligence have life. Also, because happiness is linked to that kind of life, eternal happiness too is meant by that life. The opposite is the case with those governed by evil. They do, it is true, seem – especially to themselves – to possess life; but it is the kind of life which in the Word is called death, and is in actual fact spiritual death; for they do not have any wise apprehension of what is good or any intelligent understanding of what is true. This may be seen by anyone who considers the matter carefully, for since it is good and the truth rooted in such good that hold life within them, no life can exist in evil or in the falsity springing from it, because these are by nature the reverse of good and truth and destructive of life. Consequently the people under consideration here have no other life than the kind which the insane have.

AC (Elliott) n. 5071 sRef Matt@25 @38 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @45 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @42 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @43 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @44 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @46 S0′ 5071. The reason why the expression ‘cursed’ is used of those on the left and why their punishment is called ‘eternal fire’ in the following statements -‘Then He will also say to those on the left, Depart from Me, O cursed ones, into eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels’ and ‘these will go away into eternal punishment’ – is that they have turned away from good and truth and have turned towards evil and falsity. ‘Cursing’ in the internal sense of the Word means a turning away, 245, 379, 1427, 3570, 3584. The eternal fire into which they were to depart is not material fire, nor is it a tormented conscience, but a craving for evil. For cravings like this in a person are spiritual fires which consume him during the life of the body and torment him in the next life. Because of these fires burning within them, the inhabitants of hell use dreadful methods to torture one another.

[2] Eternal fire is clearly not material fire; and the reason it is not a tormented conscience is that none who are governed by evil have any conscience; and those who have had no conscience during their lifetime cannot have any in the next life. But the reason eternal fire is a craving is that the entire fire of life in a person is fuelled by his loves, a heavenly fire by the love of what is good and true, a hellish fire by the love of what is evil and false. Or what amounts to the same, a heavenly fire is fuelled by love to the Lord and love towards the neighbour, and a hellish fire by self-love and love of the world. Anyone can see, if he stops to think, that all the fire or heat burning within a person is fuelled by his loves. This also explains why love is called spiritual heat and why in the Word fire and heat have no other meaning, 934 (end), 1297, 1527, 1528, 1861, 2446, 4906. The fire of life in the evil is also such that when they feel very strong cravings, a kind of fire is also burning in them, which inflames them with an intense and furious desire to torment others. But the fire of life in the good is such that when a higher level of affection exists with them, a kind of fire is alight in them too. But this fire inflames them with a loving and zealous desire to do good to others.

GENESIS 40

1 And so it was after these words,* that they sinned – the cupbearer of the king of Egypt, and the baker – against their lord the king of Egypt.

2 And Pharaoh was incensed with his two courtier-ministers, with the chief of the cupbearers and with the chief of the bakers.

3 And he put them in the custody of the house of the chief of the attendants, at the prison-house, the place where Joseph was bound.

4 And the chief of the attendants set Joseph over them and he ministered to them; and they were in custody for days.**

5 And they both dreamed a dream, each his dream in one night, each according to the interpretation of his dream, the cupbearer and the baker to the king of Egypt, who were bound in the prison-house.

6 And Joseph came to them in the morning, and he saw them, and behold, they were troubled.

7 And he asked Pharaoh’s courtier-ministers who were with him in the custody of his lord’s house, saying, Why are your faces sad*** today?

8 And they said to him, We have dreamed a dream and there is no interpreter for it. And Joseph said to them, Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell it to me, I beg you.

9 And the chief of the cupbearers told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, In my dream, and behold, a vine before me.

10 And on the vine three shoots, and it was as though budding; its blossom came up, and its clusters ripened into grapes.

11 And Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and put the cup onto Pharaoh’s palm.

12 And Joseph said to him, This is the interpretation of it: The three shoots are three days.

13 In yet three days Pharaoh will lift up your head and will restore you to your position, and you will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand, according to the former manner when you were his cupbearer.

14 But remember me when it is well with you, and show, I beg you, mercy to me, and make mention of me to Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house.

15 For I have indeed been taken by theft out of the land of the Hebrews, and here also I have not done anything for which they should put me in the pit.

16 And the chief of the bakers saw that he had interpreted what was good, and he said to Joseph, I also was in my dream, and behold, three baskets with holes in them were on my head.

17 And in the highest basket there was some of every kind of food for Pharaoh, the work of the baker, and the birds were eating them out of the basket, from upon my head.

18 And Joseph answered and said, This is the interpretation of it: The three baskets are three days.

19 In yet three days Pharaoh will lift up your head from upon you, and will hang you on wood; and the birds will eat your flesh from upon you.

20 And it happened on the third day, Pharaoh’s birthday, that he made a feast for all his servants, and he lifted up the head of the chief of the cupbearers, and the head of the chief of the bakers, in the midst of his servants.

21 And he restored the chief of the cupbearers to his supervision over [Pharaoh’s] drink, and he put the cup onto Pharaoh’s palm.

22 And the chief of the bakers he hanged, as Joseph had interpreted to them.

23 And the chief of the cupbearers did not remember Joseph, and forgot him.
* i.e. things, see 5075
** i.e. for a considerable length of time
*** lit. evil

AC (Elliott) n. 5072 5072. CONTENTS

The internal sense of this chapter continues to deal with the state of temptations, by means of which bodily things could be brought into a state of agreement. Rightly called bodily ones, those things are the powers of the senses, of which there are two kinds, some sensory powers being subordinate to the understanding part of the mind, others to the will part. Those subordinate to the understanding part are represented by the cupbearer of the king of Egypt, and those subordinate to the will part by the baker. The eventual retention of the former but casting away of the latter is represented by the fact that the cupbearer returned to the position he had held previously, whereas the baker was hanged. Everything else will become evident from the train of thought.

AC (Elliott) n. 5073 sRef Gen@40 @2 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @1 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @3 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @4 S0′ 5073. THE INTERNAL SENSE

Verses 1-4 And so it was after these words,* that they sinned – the cupbearer of the king of Egypt, and the baker – against their lord the king of Egypt. And Pharaoh was incensed with his two courtier-ministers, with the chief of the cupbearers and with the chief of the bakers. And he put them into the custody of the house of the chief of the attendants, at the prison-house, the place where Joseph was bound. And the chief of the attendants set Joseph over them and he ministered to them; and they were in custody for days.**

‘And so it was’ means a new state and the things that followed. ‘After these words’ means after the things prior to this. ‘That they sinned’ means that order had become turned around. ‘The cupbearer of the king of Egypt’ means among the things of the body which are subject to the understanding part of the mind. ‘And the baker’ means among the things in the body which are subject to the will part. ‘Against their lord the king of Egypt’ means that these were contrary to the new state in the natural man. ‘And Pharaoh was incensed’ means that the new natural man turned away. ‘With his two courtier-ministers’ means from both kinds of sensory powers in the body. ‘With the chief of the cupbearers and with the chief of the bakers’ means in general from the sensory powers subordinate to the understanding part and to the will part. ‘And he put them into the custody’ means a casting aside. ‘Of the house of the chief of the attendants’ means the things that are first and foremost in explanations. ‘At the prison-house’ means among falsities. ‘The place where Joseph was bound’ means the state of the celestial of the natural now in relation to these things. ‘And the chief of the attendants set Joseph over them’ means that under the influence of the things first and foremost in explanations the celestial of the natural taught those bodily senses. ‘And he ministered to them’ means that it instructed them. ‘And they were in custody for days’ means that they lay in a state when they were cast aside for a long time.
* i.e. things, see 5075
** i.e. for a considerable length of time

AC (Elliott) n. 5074 sRef Gen@40 @1 S0′ 5074. ‘And so it was’ means a new state and the things that follow. This is clear from the fact that in the Word ‘so it was’ or ‘it happened’ implies a new state, see 4979, 4999. Furthermore in the original language this expression serves to mark off series of prior events from subsequent ones, 4987. This is why ‘and so it was’ means the things that follow.

AC (Elliott) n. 5075 sRef Gen@40 @1 S0′ sRef John@1 @3 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S1′ 5075. ‘After these words’ means after the things prior to this. This is clear from the meaning of ‘words’ in the original language, in which the same expression also means things. This therefore is why ‘after these words’ here means after these things, and so after those that happened prior to this. The reason words* in the original language also means things is that in the internal sense ‘words’ means the truths of doctrine, on account of which all Divine Truth in general is called the Word; and in the highest sense the Lord Himself, the source of all Divine Truth, is the Word, 1288. A further reason is that no thing which comes into being anywhere in the world has any existence, that is, any reality, unless it has been created by Divine Good acting through Divine Truth. It explains why in Hebrew the same expression is used for things as for words. The truth that no thing anywhere in the world has any existence, that is, any reality, unless it has been created by Divine Good acting through Divine Truth, that is, through the Word, is evident in John,

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. John 1:1, 3.

[2] The interior meanings that words possess have their origin for the most part in the interior man, which dwells with spirits and angels. For as to his spirit, that is, as to his true self which lives after the death of his body, everyone lives in communion with angels and spirits, though the external man is not conscious of this. Living in communion with them he is also among those who use a universal language and so use that which is the origin of verbal expressions. It is for this reason that words have many spiritual meanings attached to them which to outward appearance seem to be out of keeping with them; but inwardly they are in keeping, as with the meaning of ‘words’ here as things. The same is true of very many other expressions, as when for instance a person’s understanding is called his inner sight and is said to possess light, or as when his apprehension of and obedience to something is called hearing and listening, or as when his detection of something is called smelling, and so on.

AC (Elliott) n. 5076 sRef Gen@40 @1 S0′ 5076. That they sinned’ means that order had become turned around. This is clear from the meaning of ‘sinning’ as acting contrary to Divine order, anything whatever contrary to that order being sin. Essentially, Divine order is Divine Truth grounded in Divine Good; and this order exists with everyone whose truth is grounded in good, that is, whose faith is grounded in charity, truth being the essence of faith and good the essence of charity. But everyone acts contrary to that order whose truth is not grounded in good, consequently whose truth or else falsity is grounded in evil. Nothing else than this is meant by sin. Here ‘they sinned’ – the cupbearer and the baker – means that the order in which the external senses existed in relation to interior things had become turned around, so that the former were not in accord or did not agree with the latter.

AC (Elliott) n. 5077 sRef Gen@40 @1 S0′ 5077. ‘The cupbearer of the king of Egypt’ means among the things of the body which are subject to the understanding Part of the mind. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the cupbearer’ as the external or bodily senses that are subordinate or subject to the understanding part of the internal man, dealt with in what follows below; and from the meaning of ‘the king of Egypt’ as the natural man, dealt with below in 5079. Since the cupbearer and the baker are the subject of the narrative that follows and these mean the external senses belonging to the body, something must first be said about these. It is well known that the external or bodily senses are five in number – sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch – and also that these constitute the entire life of the body. For without those senses the body has no life at all, for which reason also when deprived of them it dies and becomes a corpse. The actual bodily part of the human being therefore is nothing else than a receiver of sensory impressions and consequently of the life resulting from these. The part played by the senses is the principal one and that by the body the instrumental. The instrumental without its principal which it is fitted to serve cannot even be called the body that a person carries around while living in the world; but the instrumental together with its principal, when they act as one, can be called such. The two together therefore constitute the body.

[2] A person’s external senses are directly related to his internal ones, for they have been given to a person and placed within his body to serve his internal man while he is in the world and to exist subject to the sensory powers of that internal man. Consequently when a person’s external senses begin to rule his internal ones he is done for. When this happens his internal sensory powers are regarded as no more than servants whose function is to reinforce whatever the external senses imperiously demand. When this is the state in which the external senses operate, order in their case has become turned around, a situation dealt with immediately above in 5076.

[3] A person’s external senses are, as stated, directly related to his internal ones, in general to the understanding and to the will. Consequently some external senses are subject or subordinate to the understanding part of the human mind, others are subject to the will part. One sensory power specifically subject to the understanding is sight; another subject to the understanding, and after that to the will also, is hearing. Smell, and more especially taste, are subject to both simultaneously, while the power subject to the will is touch. Much evidence could be introduced to show that the external senses are subject to the understanding and the will, and also to show how they are subject; but it would take up too much space to carry the explanation so far. Something of what is involved may be recognized from what has been shown at the ends of preceding chapters about the correspondence of those senses.

[4] In addition it should be recognized that all truths that are called the truths of faith belong to the understanding part, and that all forms of good which are those of love and charity go with the will part. Consequently it is the function of the understanding to believe, acknowledge, know, and see truth – and good also. But the function of the will is to feel an affection for that truth and to love it; and whatever a person feels an affection for and loves is good. But how the understanding influences the will when truth passes into good, and how the will influences the understanding when it puts that good into effect, are matters for still deeper examination- In :he Lord’s Divine mercy those matters will be discussed at various points further on.

[5] The reason ‘the cupbearer’ means the senses subject or subordinate to the understanding Part of the internal man is that everything which serves as drink, or which is consumed as such, for example, wine, milk, or water, is related to truth, which feeds the understanding and so belongs to the understanding. Also, because the external or bodily senses play a ministering role, ‘a cupbearer’ therefore means those senses or what is perceived by them. For in general ‘drinking’ has reference to truths which feed the understanding, see 3069, 3071, 3168, 3772, 4017, 4018; the specific meaning of ‘wine’ is truth deriving from good, or faith from charity, 1071, 1798, while ‘water’ means truth, 680, 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976. From all this one may now see what ‘the cupbearer’ means.

AC (Elliott) n. 5078 sRef Gen@40 @1 S0′ 5078. ‘And the baker’ means among the things in the body which are subject to the will part. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the baker’ as the external or bodily senses which are subordinate or subject to the will part of the internal man. The reason ‘the baker’ has this meaning is that everything which serves as food or is consumed as such, for example, bread, solid foods in general, and anything made by a baker, has reference to good and so to the will; for all good feeds the will, just as every truth feeds the understanding, as stated immediately above in 5077. By ‘bread’ is meant what is celestial, or goodness, see 1798, 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, 4976.

sRef Luke@24 @39 S2′ [2] The reason why here and in the rest of this chapter external sensory powers of both kinds are dealt with in the internal sense is that the previous chapter dealt with how the Lord glorified or made Divine the interior aspects of His Natural, and therefore the present chapter deals with how the Lord glorified or made Divine the exterior aspects of that Natural. The exterior aspects of the natural are rightly called bodily ones, being both kinds of sensory powers of perception together with their recipient members and organs; for these recipients together with those powers make up that which is referred to as the body, see above in 5077. The Lord made Divine all that constituted His body, both its sensory Powers and their recipient members and organs, which also explains. Why He rose from the grave with His body, and after the Resurrection told His disciples,

See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; handle Me, and see; for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see Me have. Luke 24:39.

[3] Most people at the present day who belong to the Church believe that everyone is going to rise again on the last day and to do so at that time with his body. This supposition is so universal that scarcely anyone, because of what he is taught, believes anything different. But that supposition has gained strength because the natural man imagines that the body alone is the possessor of life. Consequently if he were not allowed to believe that this body is going to receive life once again he would refuse to believe in any resurrection at all. But the truth of the matter is that a person rises again immediately after death, at which point he seems to himself to be in his body just the same as when he was in the world, having a face and members, arms, hands, feet, breast, belly, and loins like the ones he had before. Indeed when he sees himself and touches himself he says he is exactly as he was in the world. However, that which he sees and touches is not his external which he carried round in the world but the internal which constituted the real person. That internal is what had life within it, but it had the external surrounding it, or outside every individual part of it, enabling it to exist in the world where it could act in the right way and carry out its functions.

[4] The actual earthly body is of no further use to him. He is in another world where he possesses other functions and other strengths and powers for which the kind of body he has there is suited. He sees that body with his own eyes – not the eyes he had in the world but those he now has in that other world. They are the eyes of his internal man, the ones he had used previously to see with through the eyes of his body and behold worldly and earthly objects. He also touches and feels that body – not with the hands or sense of touch he had been given in the world but with the hands and sense of touch which he is given in that other world and which had lain behind his sense of touch in the world. Furthermore each of the senses in that other world is keener and more perfect because it belongs to the internal man released from the external. The internal dwells in a greater state of perfection, because it is this that supplies sensory awareness to the external, though when it acts into the external, as it does in the world, that power is blunted and reduced. What is more, the sensory perception of the internal is a perception of what is internal, that of the external a perception of what is external. This being so, people can see one another after death, and they exist grouped together in communities on the basis of what they are inwardly like. In order to become quite sure of this I have been allowed to touch actual spirits and to talk to them many times on this subject, see 322, 1630, 4622.

sRef Luke@16 @22 S5′ sRef Luke@23 @43 S5′ sRef Luke@16 @23 S5′ sRef Luke@20 @38 S5′ [5] People after death – who are then called spirits or, if they have led good lives, angels – are utterly amazed at what the member of the Church believes about himself. For he believes that he will not see eternal life until the last day when the world is destroyed, and that at that time he will be reclothed with the dust that has been cast away; when yet one who belongs to the Church knows that he rises again after death. For who does not say, when someone dies, that his soul or spirit is in heaven, or in hell? Who does not say about his young children who have died that they are in heaven? Who does not comfort a person who is [incurably] sick or one who is condemned to death by saying that shortly he will enter the next life? And one who is in the throes of death and has been prepared for it does not believe anything different. Indeed such a conviction about a person’s rising again after he has died is what leads many to claim that they have the power to release others from places of condemnation and to admit them into heaven, and to say masses for their souls. Is anyone unacquainted with what the Lord said to the robber, ‘Today you will be with Me in paradise’, Luke 23:43, or with what the Lord said about the rich man and Lazarus, that the former was carried off into hell, whereas the latter was taken by the angels into heaven, Luke 16:22, 23? Or is anyone unacquainted with what the Lord taught about the resurrection when He said that God is not the God of the dead but of the living, Luke 20:38?

[6] A person acquainted with all this thinks in these ways and speaks in these ways when his spirit guides his thought and speech. But when his thought and speech are guided by what doctrine teaches that person says something entirely different, namely that he will not rise again Until the last day. But in fact each person’s last day is at hand when he dies, and this is his time of judgement too, as many also declare. As to what is meant by ‘being encompassed by my skin’ and ‘out of my flesh seeing God’ in Job 19:25, 26, see 3540 (end). These things were said so that people may know that no one rises again in the body that encompassed him in the world except the Lord alone. He did so because, while in the world, He glorified His body, that is, He made it Divine.

AC (Elliott) n. 5079 sRef Gen@40 @1 S0′ 5079. ‘Against their lord the king of Egypt’ means that these – the external or bodily senses, meant by ‘the cupbearer and the baker’ – were contrary to the new state in the natural man. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the king of Egypt’ as factual knowledge in general, dealt with in 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 4749, 4964, 4966; for, the king being the head of the nation, ‘the king of Egypt’ is similar in meaning to ‘Egypt’, the same as in other places where the king of any nation is referred to or named, 4789. Since factual knowledge in general is meant by ‘the king of Egypt’, so also is the natural man meant by him; for all factual knowledge is truth as it exists in the natural man, 4967. While the actual good there is meant by ‘the lord’, 4973. The reason a new state in the natural man is meant is that the previous chapter dealt with the interior aspects of the natural, which were made new, or – in the highest sense, in which the Lord is the subject – were glorified, whereas the present chapter deals with the exterior aspects of the natural which are to be brought into accord or agreement with those interior ones. These interior aspects of the natural which have been made new – or, what amounts to the same, a new state in the natural man – are what are meant by ‘the lord the king of Egypt’, while the exterior aspects which have not been brought into a state of order and are consequently contrary to it are meant by ‘the cupbearer and the baker’.

[2] There are interior aspects of the natural and there are exterior ones. The interior aspects of the natural are known facts and the affections for them, but the exterior aspects are both kinds of sensory perception spoken of above in 5077. When a person dies he leaves behind those exterior aspects of the natural; but the interior aspects of the natural he takes with him into the next life where they serve as the foundation on which spiritual and celestial things can be based; for when a person dies he loses nothing apart from his flesh and bones. He keeps his memory in which everything he has done, spoken, or thought is recorded, and he keeps every natural affection and desire, and so every interior aspect of the natural. He does not need its exterior aspects, for he does not see anything that is in the world, or hear anything that is in the world, or smell, taste, or touch anything that is in the world, only what is in the next life. Things in the next life, it is true, seem for the most part to be like those in the world, but they are not, for they hold what is living within them, such as things proper to the natural world do not hold within them. For every single thing in the next life owes the beginning and the continuance of its existence to the Sun there, which is the Lord, as a consequence of which it has that which is living within it. But every single thing in the natural world owes the beginning and the continuance of its existence to the sun there, which is material fire, as a consequence of which it does not have that which is living within it. What gives it the appearance of having life within it is that its origin lies solely in the spiritual world, that is, in the Lord through the spiritual world.

AC (Elliott) n. 5080 sRef Gen@40 @2 S0′ 5080. ‘And Pharaoh was incensed’ means that the new natural man turned away. This is clear from the representation of ‘Pharaoh’ or the king of Egypt as the new natural man or a new state in the natural man, dealt with immediately above in 5079, and from the meaning of ‘being incensed’ or being angry as turning away, dealt with in 5034; so that the meaning here is that the interior natural which had been made new turned away from the exterior natural, or the bodily senses, because the latter were not in agreement with it.

AC (Elliott) n. 5081 sRef Gen@40 @2 S0′ 5081. ‘With his two courtier-ministers’ means from both kinds of sensory powers in the body; that is to say, from these [the new natural man] turned away. This is clear from the meaning of ‘courtier-ministers’, who in this case are the cupbearer and the baker, as both kinds of sensory powers, dealt with above in 5077, 5078. In relation to the interior man, meant by ‘lord the king’, the bodily senses – sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch – are also ministers, courtiers so to speak. For they serve to provide the interior man with evidence gathered from experience in the visible world and in human society, thereby enabling it to become intelligent and wise. For the human being is born with not even any knowledge, let alone with any intelligence or wisdom. He is born with no more than the capacity to receive and be endowed with these. Such reception and endowment is effected through two different channels, an internal channel and an external one. By the internal channel that which is from the Divine flows in, by the external that which is from the world. The two meet within a person, in which case, so far as the person allows himself to receive light from the Divine, he enters into wisdom. The things that flow in by the external channel come through the bodily senses; yet they do not flow in of their own accord but are called forth by the internal man to serve as a base laid down for celestial and spiritual things flowing in from the Lord by the internal channel. From this it may be seen that the bodily senses are like courtier-ministers. In general everything exterior, in relation to what is interior, is a minister; the entire natural man in relation to the spiritual man is nothing else.

sRef Isa@56 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@56 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@56 @4 S2′ [2] The word used in the original language means minister, courtier, bed-chamber servant, and eunuch. In the internal sense the good and truth of the natural man are meant, as is the case here. But specifically the good of the natural man is meant, as in Isaiah,

Do not let the son of the foreigner who clings to Jehovah say, Jehovah surely separates me from being with His people. Do not let the eunuch say, Behold, I am dry wood. For thus said Jehovah to the eunuchs who keep My sabbaths and choose that in which I delight, and are holding fast to My covenant, I will give those in My house and within My walls a place and a name better than sons and daughters; I will give them an eternal name which will not be cut off. Isa. 56:3-5.

In this case ‘the eunuch’ stands for the good of the natural man, and ‘the son of the foreigner for the truth of the natural man; for the Lord’s Church is both external and internal. Those who belong to the external Church are natural; those who belong to the internal Church are spiritual. Those who are natural and yet are governed by good are ‘the eunuchs’, while those governed by truth are ‘the sons of the foreigner’. Also, since the truly spiritual or internal ones are to be found solely within the Church, ‘the sons of the foreigner’ in addition means therefore those who are outside the Church – the gentiles – who are nevertheless governed by the truth as taught by their religion, 2049, 2593, 2599, 2600, 2602, 2603, 2861, 2863, 7263, while ‘the eunuchs’ means those governed by good.

AC (Elliott) n. 5082 sRef Gen@40 @2 S0′ 5082. ‘With the chief of the cupbearers and with the chief of the bakers’ means in general from the sensory powers subordinate to the understanding part and to the will part. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the cupbearer’ as the senses subordinate and subject to the understanding, dealt with above in 5077; from the meaning of ‘the baker’ as the senses subordinate and subject to the will, also dealt with above, in 5078; and from the meaning of ‘the chief (or prince)’ as that which is first and foremost, dealt with in 1482, 2089, 5044, in this case in general or commonly so throughout; for that which is first and foremost is also common throughout since it reigns throughout the rest of the whole. In relation to particular details, things that are first and foremost exist as what is general and overall, making everything one and removing any signs of incongruity.

AC (Elliott) n. 5083 sRef Gen@40 @3 S0′ 5083. ‘And he put them into the custody’ means a casting aside. This is clear from the meaning of ‘putting into custody’ as a casting aside, for anyone put into custody is cast aside.

AC (Elliott) n. 5084 sRef Gen@40 @3 S0′ 5084. ‘Of the house of the chief of the attendants’ means the things that are first and foremost in explanations. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the chief of the attendants’ as the things which are first and foremost in explanations, dealt with in 4790, 4966. The meaning here therefore is that both kinds of sensory impressions were cast aside by the things which are first and foremost in explanations, that is to say, by those which belong to the Word in the internal sense. Sensory impressions are said to be cast aside when the things that are first and foremost in explanations place no reliance on them; for they are indeed sensory impressions, and impressions received by the mind directly through the senses are illusions. The senses are the source of all the illusions that reign in a person, and they are the reason why few have any belief in the truths of faith and why the natural man is opposed to the spiritual man, that is, the external man to the internal. Consequently if the natural or external man starts to have dominion over the spiritual or internal man, no belief at all in matters of faith exists any longer, for illusions cast a shadow over them and evil desires smother them.

[2] Few know what the illusions of the senses are and few believe that these cast a shadow over rational insights and most of all over spiritual matters of faith – a shadow so dark that it blots them out. This happens especially when at the same time what a person delights in is the result of desires bred by a selfish and worldly love. But let examples be used to shed some light on this matter, first some examples of illusions of the senses which are purely natural ones, that is, illusions about things within the natural creation, then some examples of such illusions in spiritual things.

i It is an illusion of the senses – a purely natural one, or an illusion about the natural creation – to believe that the sun is borne round this globe once a day, and that the sky too and all the stars are borne round at the same time. People may be told that it is impossible and therefore inconceivable that so vast an ocean of fire as the sun, and not only the sun but also the countless stars, should revolve once a day without undergoing any changes of position in relation to one another. They may be told in addition that one can see from the planetary system that our own globe performs a daily movement and an annual one, by rotations on its axis and by revolutions. This can be recognized from the fact that the planets are globes like ours, some of which have moons around them and all of which, as observation shows, perform daily and annual movements like ours. But for all that they are told, the illusion the senses prevails with very many people – that things really are as the eye sees them.

[3] ii It is an illusion of the senses – a purely natural one, or an illusion about the natural creation – that the atmosphere is a single entity, except that it becomes gradually and increasingly rarified until a vacuum exists where the atmosphere comes to an end. A person’s external senses tell him nothing else than this when their evidence alone is relied on.

iii It is an illusion of the senses, a purely natural one, that the power which seeds have to grow into trees and flowers and to reproduce themselves was conferred on them when creation first began, and that that initial conferment is what causes everything to come into being and remain in being. People may be told that nothing can remain in being unless it is constantly being brought into being, in keeping with the law that continuance in being involves a constant coming into being, and with another law that anything that has no connection with something prior to itself ceases to have any existence. But though they are told all this, their bodily senses and their thought that is reliant on their senses, cannot take it in. Nor can they see that every single thing is kept in being, even as it was brought into being, through an influx from the spiritual world, that is, from the Divine coming through the spiritual world.

[4] iv This gives rise to another illusion of the senses, a purely natural one, that single entities exist called monads and atoms. For the natural man believes that anything comprehended by his external senses is a single entity or else nothing at all.

v It is an illusion of the senses, a purely natural one, that everything is part of and begins in the natural creation, though there are indeed purer and more inward aspects of the natural creation that are beyond the range of human understanding. But if anyone says that a spiritual or celestial dimension exists within or above the natural creation, this idea is rejected; for the belief is that unless a thing is natural it has no existence.

vi It is an illusion of the senses that only the body possesses life and that when it dies that life perishes. The senses have no conception at all of an internal man present within each part of the external man, nor any conception that this internal man resides in the inward dimension of the natural creation, in the spiritual world. Nor consequently, since they have no conception of it, do the senses believe that a person will live after death, apart from being clothed with the body once again, 5078, 5079.

[5] vii This gives rise to the further illusion of the senses that no human being can have a life after death any more than animals do, for the reason that the life of an animal is much the same as that of a human being, the only difference being that man is a more perfect kind of living creature. The senses – that is, the person who relies on his senses to think with and form conclusions – have no conception of the human being as one who is superior to animals or who possesses a life superior to theirs because of his ability to think not only about the causes of things but also about what is Divine. The human being also has the ability to be joined through faith and love to the Divine, as well as to receive an influx from Him and to make what flows in his own. Thus because of his response to such influx from the Divine it is possible for the human being to receive it, which is not at all the case with animals.

[6] viii This gives rise to yet another illusion, which is that what is actually living in the human being – what is called the soul – is merely something air-like or flame-like which is dispersed when the person dies. Added to this is the illusion that the soul is situated either in the heart, or in the brain, or in some other part of him, from where it controls the body as if this were a machine. One who relies on his senses has no conception of an internal man present in every part of his external man, no conception that the eye sees not of its own accord, and that the ear hears not of its own accord, but under the direction of the internal man.

ix It is an illusion of the senses that no other source of light is possible than the sun or else material fire, and that no other source of heat than these is possible. The senses have no conception of the existence of a light that holds intelligence within it, or of a heat that holds heavenly love within it, or that all angels are bathed in that light and heat.

x It is an illusion of the senses when a person believes that he lives independently, that is, that an underived life is present within him; for this is what the situation seems to be to the senses. The senses have no conception at all that the Divine alone is one whose life is underived, thus that there is but one actual life, and that anything in the world that has life is merely a form receiving it, see 1954, 2706, 2886-2889, 2893, 3001, 3318, 3337, 3338, 3484, 3742, 3743, 4151, 4249, 4318-4310, 4417, 4523, 4524, 4882.

[7] xi The person who relies on his senses can be misled into a belief that adulterous relationships are allowable; for his senses lead him to think that marriages exist merely for the sake of order which the upbringing of children necessitates, and that provided this order is not destroyed it makes no difference who fathers the children. He can also be misled into thinking that the married state is no different from having sex with someone, except that it is allowable. That being so, he also believes that it would not be contrary to order for him to many several wives if the Christian world, basing its ideas on the Sacred Scriptures, did not forbid it. If told that a correspondence exists between the heavenly marriage and marriages on earth, and that no one can have anything of marriage within him unless spiritual good and truth are present there, also that a genuinely conjugial relationship cannot possibly exist between one man and several wives, and consequently that marriages are intrinsically holy, the person who relies on his senses rejects all this as worthless.

[8] xii It is an illusion of the senses that the Lord’s kingdom, or heaven, is like an earthly kingdom, that joy and happiness there consist in one person holding a higher position than another and as a consequence possessing more glory than another. For the senses have no conception at all of what is implied by the idea that the least is the greatest and the last is the first. If such people are told that joy in heaven or among angels consists in serving the welfare of others without any thought of merit or reward, it strikes them as a sorrowful existence.

xiii It is an illusion of the senses that good works earn merit and that to do good to someone even for a selfish reason is a good work.

xiv It is also an illusion of the senses that a person is saved by faith alone, and that faith may exist with someone who has no charity, as well as that faith, not life, is what remains after death. One could go on with very many other illusions of the senses; for when a person is governed by his senses the rational degree within him, which is enlightened by the Divine, does not see anything. It dwells in thickest darkness, in which case every conclusion based on sensory evidence is thought to be a rational one.

AC (Elliott) n. 5085 sRef Gen@40 @3 S0′ 5085. ‘At the prison-house’ means among falsities. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the prison-house’ as the vastation of falsity, and consequently as falsity itself, dealt with in 4958, 5037, 5038.

AC (Elliott) n. 5086 sRef Gen@40 @3 S0′ 5086. The place where Joseph was bound’ means the state of the celestial of the natural now in relation to these things. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the place’ as a state, dealt with in 2625, 2877, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882; from the representation of ‘Joseph’ as the celestial of the spiritual from the rational, dealt with in 4286, 4585, 4592, 4594, 4963, at this point the celestial of the natural because it was now in the natural, from which temptations arise, 5035, 5039; and from the meaning of ‘bound’ as a state of temptations, dealt with in 5037. The subject in the previous chapter was the state of temptations undergone by the celestial of the spiritual within the natural, involving those things which belonged to the interior natural, whereas in this chapter it is the state of temptations involving things that belong to the exterior natural.

AC (Elliott) n. 5087 sRef Gen@40 @4 S0′ 5087. ‘And the chief of the attendants set Joseph over them’ means that under the influence of the things first and foremost in explanations the celestial of the natural taught those bodily senses. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the chief of the attendants’ as the things that are first and foremost in explanations, dealt with in 4790, 4966, 5084; from the representation of ‘Joseph’ as the celestial of the natural, dealt with immediately above in 5086; and from the meaning of ‘being set over here as teaching, for one who is ‘set over’ things that are cast aside so that they may be examined and corrected performs the function of a teacher.

AC (Elliott) n. 5088 sRef Gen@40 @4 S0′ 5088. ‘And he ministered to them’ means that it instructed them. This is clear from the meaning of ‘ministering to’ as instructing. Here ‘ministering to’ clearly does not mean ministering as a servant, for the very reason that Joseph was set over those men. ‘Ministering to’ here means supplying what was suitable to them. And because the subject here is a new sensory or external part in the natural, ‘being set over’ means teaching and ‘ministering to’ means instructing. ‘To be set over’ is used in reference to good which is the essence of life, ‘to minister to’ in reference to truth which is the essence of doctrine, 4976.

AC (Elliott) n. 5089 sRef Gen@40 @4 S0′ 5089. ‘And they were in custody for days’ means that they lay in a state when they were cast aside for a long time. This is clear from the meaning of ‘days’ as states, dealt with in 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850; so that ‘for days’ here means lying in a particular state for a long time – in a state when they were cast aside, meant by ‘custody’, 5083. A more lengthy explanation of the details contained in the internal sense here is not possible because they are not the kind of matters about which any idea can be gained with the help of things in the world, such as details about the celestial-of-the-spiritual man, about this man’s state within the natural when the interior natural is being made new, and after that when it has been made new and the exterior natural has been cast aside. But some idea of these matters and others like them can be gained from things in heaven, which is the kind of idea that does not pass into any notion gained from things in the world, except in the case of people who, in their thinking, can be led away from sensory impressions.

[2] Unless a person’s thought can be raised above sensory impressions so that these are beheld as existing so to speak beneath him, he cannot possibly discern any interior aspect of the Word, let alone things of heaven such as are totally removed from those of the world, since the senses take hold of them and stifle them. This explains why people who rely on their senses and have focused their attention on known facts rarely understand anything about the things of heaven; for they have immersed their thoughts in the kinds of things that belong to the world, that is, in terms and in definitions formed from these, and so in what the senses perceive, from which they can no longer be raised up and so preserved in a way of looking at things that is higher than the senses. Nor can their thought range freely any longer over the whole field of matters recorded in the memory, selecting those which agree and casting aside those which are contrary, and using those which are in any way appropriate. For their thought is locked up and immersed in terms, as has been stated, and consequently in sensory impressions, so that it cannot look round about. This is the reason why the learned possess less belief than the simple, and also indeed why they possess less discernment in heavenly matters. For the simple can view something from a position that is above mere terms and above known facts, and so above sensory evidence. This the learned cannot do; their viewpoint is based on terms and known facts because their mind is immersed in these. Thus they are bound so to speak in a dungeon or prison.

AC (Elliott) n. 5090 sRef Gen@40 @8 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @7 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @5 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @6 S0′ 5090. Verses 5-8 And they both dreamed a dream, each his dream in one night, each according to the interpretation of his dream, the cupbearer and the baker to the king of Egypt, who were bound in the prison-house. And Joseph came to them in the morning, and he saw them, and behold, they were troubled. And he asked Pharaoh’s courtier-ministers who were with him in the custody of his lord’s house, saying, Why are your faces sad* today? And they said to him, We have dreamed a dream and there is no interpreter for it. And Joseph said to them, Do not interpretations belong to God? Tell it to me, I beg you.

‘And they both dreamed a dream’ means foresight regarding them. ‘Each his dream in one night’ means regarding what the outcome would be, which to them lay in obscurity. ‘Each according to the interpretation of his dream’ means which they held within them. ‘The cupbearer and the baker’ means regarding both kinds of sensory powers. ‘To the king of Egypt’ means which were subordinate to the interior natural. ‘Who were bound in the prison-house’ means which were among falsities. ‘And Joseph came to them in the morning’ means that which was revealed and made clear to the celestial of the natural.** ‘And he saw them’ means perception. ‘And behold, they were troubled’ means that they were passing through a sad state. ‘And he asked Pharaoh’s courtier-ministers’ means those sensory powers. ‘Who were with him in the custody of his lord’s house’ means which had been cast aside. ‘Saying, Why are your faces sad today?’ means, What affection gives rise to this sadness? ‘And they said to him’ means perception regarding these matters. ‘We have dreamed a dream’ means a foretelling. ‘And there is no interpreter for it’ means that no one knows what they hold within them. ‘And Joseph said to them’ means the celestial of the natural. ‘Do not interpretations belong to God?’ means that the Divine is within them. ‘Tell it to me, I beg you’ means that it might be known.
* lit. evil
** the celestial of the spiritual is possibly intended here; see 5097.

AC (Elliott) n. 5091 sRef Gen@40 @5 S0′ 5091. ‘And they both dreamed a dream’ means foresight regarding them. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a dream’ as foresight, dealt with in 3698,’they both’ being both kinds of sensory powers meant by ‘the cupbearer and the baker’, whose dreams have reference to themselves, as is evident from what follows. The reason ‘a dream’, in the highest sense, means foresight is that dreams which come directly from the Lord by way of heaven foretell things to come. Such was the nature of Joseph’s dreams, the cupbearer’s dream and the baker’s dream, Pharaoh’s dream, Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, and prophetical dreams in general. The things to come that are foretold in dreams have no other origin than the Lord’s Divine foresight. From this one may also realize that every single thing is foreseen by Him.

AC (Elliott) n. 5092 sRef Gen@40 @5 S0′ 5092. ‘Each his dream in one night’ means regarding what the outcome would be, which to them lay in obscurity. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a dream’ as foresight and consequent foretelling – and because a foretelling is meant, so also is the outcome, it being the outcome that is foretold; and from the meaning of ‘night’ as obscurity. In the spiritual sense ‘night’ means a state of shade brought about through falsity that is the product of evil, 1712, 2353, and so also obscurity, that is to say, mental obscurity. The obscurity belonging to night in the world is natural obscurity, but the obscurity belonging to night in the next life is spiritual obscurity. Natural obscurity comes about because the sun of the world is absent and the light received from it is lost, whereas spiritual obscurity comes about because heaven’s sun, which is the Lord, is absent and the light, that is, intelligence received from it, is lost. This latter loss does not arise because the sun of heaven sets as the sun of the world does, but because a person or a spirit is living amid falsity that is the product of evil. He himself moves away from that sun and brings obscurity to himself.

[2] An idea simply of night and of the obscurity that comes with it is sufficient to enable one to see how the spiritual sense and the natural sense of something are related to each other. Furthermore there are three kinds of spiritual obscurity – the first being that which is due to falsity that is a product of evil; the second being that which is due to ignorance of the truth; and the third being the obscurity in which exterior things dwell, compared with interior ones, and so the obscurity in which ideas formed by the senses and present in the external man dwell, compared with the rational concepts present in the internal man. All three kinds of obscurity arise however because the light of heaven, or intelligence and wisdom flowing from the Lord, is not received. This light shines unceasingly, but falsity that is a product of evil either rejects, smothers, or else perverts it; ignorance of truth receives only a little; while ideas formed by the senses that are present in the external man reduce it to a dim light by making it a general or ordinary one.

AC (Elliott) n. 5093 sRef Gen@40 @5 S0′ 5093. ‘Each according to the interpretation of his dream’ means which – that is, the outcome – they held within them. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the interpretation of a dream’ as an explanation and therefore a knowledge of the outcome, thus the outcome which they held within them. For ‘a dream’ means the outcome, see immediately above in 5092.

AC (Elliott) n. 5094 sRef Gen@40 @5 S0′ 5094. ‘The cupbearer and the baker’ means regarding both kinds of sensory powers. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the cupbearer’ as the sensory powers subordinate to the understanding part of the mind, dealt with in 5077, and from the meaning of ‘the baker’ as the sensory powers subordinate to the will part, dealt with in 5078, which, as stated above in 5083, 5089, were cast aside by the interior natural. But it should be realized that the actual powers of the senses were not cast aside – that is to say, sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch, for the life of the body is dependent on these – but the insights or thoughts, as well as the affections and desires, that are dependent on them. Objects belonging to the world enter a person’s external or natural memory by way of his senses on the one hand and by way of his rational thought on the other. These objects then divide themselves off from one another in that memory; those entering through rational thought place themselves in a more internal position, whereas those entering through the senses do so in a more external one, as a consequence of which the natural comes to have two parts – the interior part and the exterior – as has also been stated above.

[2] The interior natural is what ‘Pharaoh king of Egypt’ represents, while the exterior natural is what ‘the cupbearer and the baker’ represents. The nature of the difference between the two becomes clear from the different ways they look at things, that is, from their thoughts and their conclusions based on those thoughts. The person who uses the interior natural to think with and to form conclusions is rational, and is so insofar as he has absorbed what comes to him through rational thought; but the person who uses the exterior natural to think with and form conclusions is governed by his senses, and is so insofar as he has absorbed what comes to him from sensory evidence. Such a person is called one governed by his senses, whereas the other is called one who is rational-natural. When a person dies he has the entire natural with him; and its form remains the same as that which it took in the world. He is also rational-minded to the extent he has absorbed ideas from rational thought, but sensory-minded to the extent he has absorbed ideas from his senses. The difference between the two is that, to the extent it has absorbed ideas from rational thought and made them its own, the natural looks down on the senses belonging to the exterior natural and controls them by disparaging and casting aside illusions formed by the senses. But to the extent that it has absorbed ideas formed by the bodily senses and made them its own the natural looks down on rational thought by disparaging this and casting it aside.

[3] An example of the difference between the two may be seen in the ability of the rational-natural man to comprehend that no one’s life is self-existent but that it comes to him through an influx of life from the Lord by way of heaven, and the inability of one governed by the senses to comprehend the same. For the latter says his senses tell him and he can plainly see that his life is self-existent and that it is pointless to contradict the evidence of the senses. Let another example be given. The rational-natural man comprehends the existence of a heaven and a hell; but one governed by his senses denies the existence of these because he has no conception of another world purer than the one he sees with his eyes. The rational-natural man comprehends the existence of spirits and angels who are not visible to him; but one governed by the senses cannot comprehend the same, for he imagines that what he cannot see or touch has no existence.

[4] Here is another example. The rational-natural man comprehends that it is the mark of an intelligent being to have ends in view, and with foresight to be directing means towards some final end. When he looks at the natural creation from the point of view of the order of everything, he sees the natural creation as a complex system of means and realizes that an intelligent Supreme Being has given them direction, though to what final end he cannot see unless he becomes spiritual. But a person governed by his senses does not comprehend how anything distinct and separate from the natural creation can exist or how some Being superior to the natural order can do so. He has no notion of what exercising intelligence, exercising wisdom, having ends in view, or giving direction to means may be unless all these activities are being spoken of as natural ones; and when they are spoken of as such, his idea of them is like that of one who is designing a machine. These few examples show what is meant by the interior natural and the exterior natural, and by the powers of the senses being cast aside – not sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch in the body, but the conclusions reached by these about interior matters.

AC (Elliott) n. 5095 sRef Gen@40 @5 S0′ 5095. ‘To the king of Egypt’ means which were subordinate to the interior natural. This is clear from the representation of Pharaoh or ‘the king of Egypt’ in this chapter as a new state of the natural man, dealt with in 5079, 5080, consequently as the interior natural since this had been made new. As to what the interior natural is, and the exterior natural, see immediately above in 5094. The nature of the internal sense of the Word in the historical sections and in the prophetical parts must be stated briefly. When the historical sense mentions a number of persons – as when Joseph, Pharaoh, the chief of the attendants, the cupbearer, and the baker are mentioned here – various things are indeed meant by them in the internal sense, yet only as all these exist in one person. The reason for this is that names mean different spiritual things, as they do here: ‘Joseph’ represents the Lord as regards the celestial-spiritual from the rational and also within the natural, ‘Pharaoh’ represents Him as regards the new state of the natural man, that is, as regards the interior natural, ‘the cupbearer and the baker’ as regards the things that belong to the external natural. Such is the nature of the internal sense. The same is so in other places, for example when Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are mentioned; in the sense of the letter they are three different persons, but in the highest sense all three represent the Lord – ‘Abraham’ the Divine itself, ‘Isaac’ His Divine Intellectual,* and ‘Jacob’ His Divine Natural. The same may be seen in the Prophets where sometimes the text consists of mere names, either of persons or of kingdoms or of cities; yet all of them together present and describe a single entity in the internal sense. Anyone unaware of this may be easily misled by the sense of the letter into visualizing a variety of things, with the result that the idea of a single entity disappears.
* previously the expression Divine Rational has been used to describe Isaac’s representation; cp 5998.

AC (Elliott) n. 5096 sRef Gen@40 @5 S0′ 5096. ‘Who were bound in the prison house’ means which were among falsities. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being bound in the prison-house’ as being among falsities, dealt with in 4958, 5037, 5038, 5085. Those who are engrossed in falsities, more so those steeped in evils, are called ‘the bound” and ‘in prison’, not because they are held in any physical bonds but because they are not in freedom; for people who are not in freedom are inwardly in bonds. Indeed once they subscribe to falsity they no longer have any freedom to choose or receive what is true; and those who subscribe heavily to it do not have any freedom even to see it, let alone acknowledge it and believe it, because they are quite convinced that what is false is true and what is true is false. That conviction is so powerful in them that it removes all freedom to think anything different, and is so strong that it holds their actual thought in bonds, in prison so to speak. This has been made clear to me from considerable experience among those in the next life who have become quite convinced of falsity by harbouring ideas that serve to prove to it. They are the kind of people who do not entertain any truths at all but turn or drive these away, doing so with a degree of ruthlessness which matches the intensity of their conviction. This is primarily so when such falsity is the product of evil, that is, when evil causes them to be convinced of it. These are the ones who are meant in the Lord’s parable in Matthew,

Other seeds fell on the hard path, and the birds came and devoured them. Matt. 13:4.

‘Seeds’ means Divine truths, ‘hard rock’ conviction, and ‘birds’ false assumptions.

sRef Matt@13 @4 S2′ [2] People like these are not even aware that they are in bonds or in prison, for they are full of affection for their falsity, loving it because of the evil which produces it. This leads them to think that they are in freedom, since everything they have an affection for or love seems to make them feel free. But those who have not really subscribed to falsity, that is, who have not become convinced of it, entertain truths easily. They see them, choose them, and are full of affection for them, after which they look down on falsities so to speak, and then see how those convinced of falsity have come to be in bonds. Having such freedom they are able in their contemplation and thought to roam so to speak through the whole of heaven in search of countless truths. But nobody can have this freedom except one who is governed by good; for it is by virtue of good that he is in heaven and by virtue of good that truths are seen there.

AC (Elliott) n. 5097 sRef Gen@40 @6 S0′ 5097. ‘And Joseph came to them in the morning” means that which was revealed and made clear to the celestial of the spiritual. This is clear from the representation of ‘Joseph’ as the celestial of the spiritual, dealt with in 4286, 4592, 4963, and from the meaning of ‘the morning’ as a state of enlightenment, dealt with in 3458, so that what was revealed and made clear is meant. The reason ‘the morning’ has these meanings is that all the periods of a day, like all the seasons of a year, mean the various states that arise owing to variations of the light of heaven. Variations of the light of heaven are not like the daily and annual variations of light in the world; they are variations of intelligence and love. For the light of heaven is nothing else than Divine Intelligence flowing from the Lord, which also shines before the eyes as light, while the warmth accompanying that light is the Lord’s Divine Love, which is also felt as a radiated warmth. It is that light which provides a person with understanding, and that warmth which provides him with both vital heat and a will desiring what is good. In heaven morning is a state of enlightenment, of enlightenment in matters involving goodness and truth; and this state arises when there is an acknowledgement, more so when there is a perception that good is indeed good and truth is indeed truth. Perception is a revelation that takes place internally, and therefore ‘the morning’ means something that has been revealed. And because that which has previously been obscure is now made clear, ‘the morning’ as a consequence also means that which has been made clear.

[2] In addition to this, ‘morning” in the highest sense means the Lord Himself, for the reason that the Lord is the sun from which all light in heaven flows; He is always a rising sun and so is always a morning one. He is rising always on everyone who receives truth that is the truth of faith and good that is the good of love; but He is setting on everyone who does not receive these. Not that the sun there ever sets, for as has been stated, it is always a rising one, but that anyone who does not receive that truth or good causes it so to speak to set on himself. This may be compared in some measure to the changes which the sun of the world undergoes so far as the inhabitants on earth are concerned. Here too the sun does not really set since it remains all the time in its own fixed position, from where it is constantly shedding light. Yet it does seem to set because the earth spins daily on its axis, and as it goes round it takes its inhabitants out of sight of the sun, see the first example given in 5084. Thus the sun does not actually go down but anyone inhabiting the earth is removed from its light. This comparison is used to illustrate a particular point; but the phenomenon referred to is in itself instructive because every detail of the natural creation is representative of the Lord’s kingdom. The instruction held within that phenomenon is that a loss of the light of heaven, that is, of intelligence and wisdom, does not come about because the Lord, the Sun of intelligence and wisdom, sets on anyone. It comes about because the inhabitant of His kingdom takes himself away, that is, he allows hell to be his leader and so take him away.

AC (Elliott) n. 5098 sRef Gen@40 @6 S0′ 5098. ‘And he saw them’ means perception. This is clear from the meaning of ‘seeing’ as understanding and perceiving, dealt with in 2150, 3764, 4567, 4723.

AC (Elliott) n. 5099 sRef Gen@40 @6 S0′ 5099. ‘And behold, they were troubled’ means that they were passing through a sad state. This is clear without explanation.

AC (Elliott) n. 5100 sRef Gen@40 @7 S0′ 5100. ‘And he asked Pharaoh’s courtier-ministers’ means those sensory powers. This is clear from the meaning of ‘Pharaoh’s courtier-ministers’ as both kinds of sensory powers, namely those subordinate to the understanding part and those subordinate to the will part, dealt with above in 5081.

AC (Elliott) n. 5101 sRef Gen@40 @7 S0′ 5101. ‘Who were with him in the custody of his lord’s [house]’ means which had been cast aside. This is clear from the meaning of ‘being put into custody’, and so being in custody, as a state when one has been cast aside, also dealt with above, in 5083.

AC (Elliott) n. 5102 sRef Gen@40 @7 S0′ 5102. ‘Saying, Why are your faces sad today?’ means, What affection gives rise to this sadness? This is clear from the meaning of ‘faces’ as the things that are within, dealt with in 358, 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796, 4797, and so as the affections, for a person’s interiors from which his thoughts spring – which are also things that are within – are his affections; and being aspects of his love, these affections are essentially his life. It is well known that the affections reveal themselves in the faces of those who are in a state of innocence; and when those affections reveal themselves, so too does a general impression of their thoughts, for people’s thoughts are the forms their affections take. Regarded in itself therefore the face is nothing else than an image representing the things that are within.

[2] No face is looked at by the angels in any other way, for angels do not see the material but the spiritual form that a person’s face takes; that is, they see the form presented by his affections and the thoughts springing from those affections. These are the essential components of the human face, as anyone may recognize from the fact that when bereft of thought and affections the face is completely dead, and that the face is enlivened by them and owes its pleasing looks to them. The sadness expressing some affection, or an affection which gives rise to sadness, is meant by Joseph’s words, Why are your faces sad today?

AC (Elliott) n. 5103 sRef Gen@40 @8 S0′ 5103. ‘And they said to him’ means perception regarding these matters. This is clear from the meaning of ‘saying’ in the historical narratives of the Word as perception, often dealt with already.

AC (Elliott) n. 5104 sRef Gen@40 @8 S0′ 5104. ‘We have dreamed a dream’ means a foretelling. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a dream’ as foresight and a consequent foretelling, dealt with above in 5091.

AC (Elliott) n. 5105 sRef Gen@40 @8 S0′ 5105. ‘And there is no interpreter for it’ means that no one knows what they hold within them. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the interpretation’ as the explanation of what something holds within it, dealt with above in 5093, and so of what those dreams held within them.

AC (Elliott) n. 5106 sRef Gen@40 @8 S0′ 5106. ‘And Joseph said to them’ means the celestial of the natural. This is clear from the representation of ‘Joseph’ as the celestial of the natural, dealt with above in 5086.

AC (Elliott) n. 5107 sRef Gen@40 @8 S0′ 5107. ‘Do not interpretations belong to God?’ means that the Divine is within them. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the interpretation’, when used in reference to dreams, as that which these hold within them, as just above in 5105 – that which is Divine being meant by ‘God’.

AC (Elliott) n. 5108 sRef Gen@40 @8 S0′ 5108. ‘Tell it to me, I beg you’ means that it might be known. This is clear from the meaning of ‘tell me, I beg you’ as an expression implying a plea that it might be made known – as is also evident from what follows.

AC (Elliott) n. 5109 sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ 5109. Verses 9-13 And the chief of the cupbearers told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, In my dream, and behold, a vine before me. And on the vine three shoots, and it was as though budding; its blossom came up, and its clusters ripened into grapes. And Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and put the cup onto Pharaoh’s palm. And Joseph said to him, This is the interpretation of it: The three shoots are three days. In yet three days Pharaoh will lift up your head and will restore you to your position, and you will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand, according to the former manner when you were his cupbearer.

‘And the chief of the cupbearers told his dream to Joseph’ means that the celestial of the spiritual discerned what the outcome would be for the sensory impressions subject to the understanding part of the mind, which until then had been cast aside. ‘And said to him’ means revelation resulting from perception. ‘In my dream’ means a foretelling. ‘And behold, a vine before me’ means the understanding part. ‘And on the vine three shoots’ means derivatives from this even to the final one. ‘And it was as though budding’ means an influx that allows rebirth to be effected. ‘Its blossom came up’ means the state next to regeneration. ‘And its clusters ripened into grapes’ means spiritual truth when joined to celestial good. ‘And Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand’ means an influx of the interior natural into the exterior natural, and the beginning of reception. ‘And I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup’ means a reciprocal influx into good deeds that have a spiritual origin. ‘And put the cup onto Pharaoh’s palm’ means that the interior natural made these its own. ‘And Joseph said to him, This is the interpretation of it’ means revelation resulting from perception received from the celestial within the natural as to what it held within it. ‘The three shoots are three days’ means continuous derivatives even to the final one. ‘In yet three days’ means that at that point a new state is arrived at. ‘Pharaoh will lift up your head’ means that which has been provided and therefore decided. ‘And will restore you to your position’ means that the impressions received through the senses subject to the understanding part were restored to order, to occupy the lowest position. ‘And you will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand’ means in order that they might consequently serve the interior natural. ‘According to the former manner’ means in keeping with the law of order. ‘When you were his cupbearer’ means as is the normal position for sensory impressions of this kind.

AC (Elliott) n. 5110 sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ 5110. ‘And the chief of the cupbearers told his dream to Joseph’ means that the celestial of the spiritual discerned what the outcome would be for the sensory impressions subject to the understanding part of the mind, which until then were cast aside. This is clear from the representation of ‘Joseph’ as the celestial of the spiritual, dealt with in 4286, 4585, 4592, 4594, 4963; from the meaning of ‘a dream’ as foresight and consequently the outcome, dealt with above in 5091, 5092, 5104, and so as foresight or discernment of the outcome; and from the meaning of ‘the chief of the cupbearers’ as the powers of the senses in general that are subject to the understanding part, dealt with in 5077, 5082, a casting aside being meant by being in custody, 5083, 5101. All this shows that the internal sense of the words used here is as has been stated, in addition to which it is clear from what follows below that ‘Joseph’, representing the celestial of the spiritual, discerned what the outcome would be.

[2] When the expression ‘the celestial of the spiritual’ is used, the Lord is meant by it. But it may also be used to refer to an abstract quality in Him, for He is the Celestial itself and the Spiritual itself, that is, He is Good itself and Truth itself. No one, it is true, can have any conception of an abstract quality separate from an actual person because what is natural enters into every individual idea present in his thought. But even so, if one holds in mind the idea that everything within the Lord is Divine and that the Divine transcends one’s entire thought, altogether transcending even what angels can comprehend; and if as a consequence one removes from one’s mind everything comprehensible, one is left with the idea of pure Being (Esse) and the Manifestation (Existere) of that Being. That is to say, one then has an idea of the Celestial itself and the Spiritual itself, which are Good itself and Truth itself.

[3] However, the human being is such that he cannot form in his mind any idea at all of abstract realities unless he associates with them some natural imagery that has come to him from the world through his senses; for without any such imagery his thought becomes lost so to speak in an abyss and is dissipated. Therefore to prevent the idea of the Divine becoming lost in the case of a person immersed in bodily and worldly interests, and to prevent the defilement of this idea, and at the same time of everything celestial or spiritual from the Divine, by foul thoughts in the case of anyone with whom it remained, Jehovah has been pleased to make Himself known as He exists essentially and as He manifests Himself in heaven, namely as a Divine Man. For the whole of heaven combines together and presents itself in the human form, as may be seen from what has been shown at the ends of chapters dealing with the correspondence of all parts of the human being with the Grand Man, which is heaven. This Divine, that is, Jehovah’s manifestation of Himself in heaven, is the Lord from eternity. It is also the appearance assumed by the Lord when He glorified, that is, made Divine, the Human within Him, as is also quite evident from the form in which He appeared before Peter, James, and John at His transfiguration, Matt. 17:1, 2, and in which He appeared on a number of occasions to prophets. All this being so, anyone can think of the Divine itself as Man, and at the same time of the Lord in whom the entire Divine and perfect Trinity dwell; for within the Lord the Divine itself is the Father, the Divine that manifests itself in heaven is the Son, and the Divine proceeding from these is the Holy Spirit – from which it is clear that these three are one, as He Himself teaches.

AC (Elliott) n. 5111 sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ 5111. ‘And said to him’ means revelation resulting from perception. This is clear from the meaning of ‘saying’ in the historical narratives of the Word as perception, dealt with in 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2619, 2862, 3395, 3509, and so as revelation too, since revelation is internal perception and is the result of that perception.

AC (Elliott) n. 5112 sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ 5112. ‘in my dream’ means a foretelling. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a dream’ as foresight, and from this a foretelling, dealt with above in 5091, 5092, 5104.

AC (Elliott) n. 5113 sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ 5113. ‘And behold, a vine before me’ means the understanding part. This is clear from the meaning of ‘a vine’ as the understanding part of the mind as it exists in the spiritual Church, dealt with below. Because ‘the cupbearer’ means the sensory powers that are subject to the understanding part, and because the subject here is the flow of the understanding into the sensory powers subordinate to it, there appeared in the dream therefore a vine with shoots, blossom, clusters, and grapes, which are used to describe its flow into those powers and the rebirth of them. With regard to the understanding part as it exists in the spiritual Church, it should be recognized that when that Church is the subject in the Word, its understanding is in many instances dealt with too, for the reason that it is the understanding part which is regenerated and made the Church in the case of one belonging to that Church.

[2] There are in general two Churches – the celestial and the spiritual. The celestial Church exists with the person in whom the will part of the mind can be regenerated or made the Church, whereas the spiritual Church exists with one in whom, as stated, solely the understanding part can be regenerated. The Most Ancient Church before the Flood was a celestial one because there existed with those who belonged to it some degree of wholeness in the will part, whereas the Ancient Church after the Flood was a spiritual one because among those who belonged to it no degree of wholeness existed in the will part, only in the understanding part. This explains why, when the spiritual Church is dealt with in the Word, its understanding is dealt with in many instances too. Regarding these Churches, see 640, 641, 765, 863, 875, 895, 927, 928, 1023, 1043, 1044, 1555, 2124, 2256, 2669, 4328, 4493. As regards its being the understanding part that is regenerated in the case of those who belong to the spiritual Church, this may also be recognized from the fact that the member of that Church does not have any good from which he may perceive truth, as those who belonged to the celestial Church had. Rather, he must first learn the truth of faith and absorb it into his understanding, and so come to recognize with the aid of truth what good is. Once truth enables him to recognize what good is, he can think about it, then desire it, and at length put it into practice, in which case he now has a new will formed by the Lord in the understanding part of his mind. The Lord then uses this to raise the spiritual man up to heaven, though evil still remains in the will that is properly his own, which at this point is miraculously set aside. This is accomplished by a higher power which withholds him from evil and maintains him in good.

[3] In the case of the member of the celestial Church however the will part was regenerated. From earliest childhood he was absorbing the good of charity, and once he could see with perception what that good was, he was led on to perceive what love to the Lord was. Consequently all the truths of faith were seen by him in his understanding as if in a mirror. His understanding and will formed one complete mind; for those truths enabled him to perceive in his understanding that which existed as a desire in his will. This is what the wholeness of that first human being consisted in, by whom the celestial Church is meant.

sRef Jer@2 @21 S4′ sRef Jer@2 @18 S4′ [4] As regards ‘the vine’ meaning the understanding part in the case of the spiritual Church, this is clear from many other places in the Word, as in Jeremiah,

What have you to do with the way to Egypt, to drink the waters of Shihor? Or what have you to do with the way to Assyria, to drink the waters of the River? Yet I have planted you as a wholly choice vine, a seed of truth. How therefore have you turned from Me into the degenerate branches of a strange vine? Jer. 2:18, 21.

This refers to Israel, which means the spiritual Church, 3654, 4286. ‘Egypt’ and ‘the waters of Shihor’ stand for factual knowledge which leads to perversion, 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462; ‘Assyria’ and ‘the waters of the River’ stand for reasoning based on this, that is, on factual knowledge, against the good of life and the truth of faith, 119, 1186. ‘A choice vine’ stands for the member of the spiritual Church, who is called ‘a vine’ because of his understanding, while ‘the degenerate branches of a strange vine’ stands for someone belonging to the perverted Church.

sRef Ezek@17 @8 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @3 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @2 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @6 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @5 S5′ sRef Ezek@17 @7 S5′ [5] In Ezekiel,

A riddle and a parable about the house of Israel. A great eagle took some of the seed of the land and planted it in a seed field. It sprouted and became a spreading vine, low in height, so that its branches turned towards him and its roots were under him. So it became a vine which brought forth branches and sent out shoots towards the eagle. This vine directed its roots and sent its branches towards him in a good field by many waters. It was planted to produce a branch, that it might be a magnificent vine. Ezek. 17:1, 3, 5-8.

An eagle’ stands for rational thought, 3901,’the seed of the land’ for truth known to the Church, 1025, 1447, 1610, 1940, 2848, 3038, 3310, 3373. Its becoming ‘a spreading vine’ and ‘a magnificent vine’ stands for becoming a spiritual Church, which is called ‘a vine’ because wine is obtained from it – ‘wine’ meaning spiritual good or the good of charity, the source of the truth of faith implanted in the understanding part.

sRef Ezek@19 @11 S6′ sRef Ezek@19 @10 S6′ [6] In the same prophet,

Your mother was like a vine in your likeness, planted beside the waters, fruitful, and made full of branches by reason of many waters. Consequently it had strong rods as sceptres for those who had dominion, and its stature rose up among entangled boughs, so that it was seen in its height amid the multitude of its branches. Ezek. 19:10, 11.

This too refers to Israel, by whom the spiritual Church is meant, which Church is compared to ‘a vine’ for a similar reason to that mentioned immediately above. It is a description of its derivatives even to the final ones in the natural man, that is to say, even to factual knowledge based on sensory impressions, meant by ‘entangled boughs’, 2831.

sRef Hos@14 @7 S7′ sRef Hos@14 @8 S7′ sRef Hos@14 @5 S7′ sRef Hos@14 @6 S7′ [7] In Hosea,

I will be as the dew of Israel. His branches will go out, and his beauty will be like the olive’s, and his odour like that of Lebanon. Those dwelling in its shadow will turn back, they will quicken the grain and will blossom as the vine; the memory of it will be as the wine of Lebanon. O Ephraim, what have I to do any more with idols? Hosea 14:5-8.

‘Israel’ stands for the spiritual Church, the blossoming of which is compared to ‘the vine’, and the memory of it to ‘the wine of Lebanon’, because of the good of faith when that good has been implanted in the understanding part. ‘Ephraim’ means the understanding part as it exists in the spiritual Church, 3969.

sRef Zech@8 @12 S8′ sRef Zech@8 @11 S8′ [8] In Zechariah,

The remnant of the people will be the seed of peace; the vine will give its fruit, and the land will give its increase, and the heavens will give their dew. Zech. 8:11, 12.

‘The remnant of the people’ stands for truths stored away by the Lord within the interior man, 468, 530, 560, 561, 660, 798, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284. ‘The seed of peace’ stands for good there, ‘the vine’ for the understanding part.

sRef Mal@3 @11 S9′ sRef Hos@10 @1 S9′ [9] In Malachi,

I will rebuke the devourer for you, so that he does not ruin for you the fruit of the land, nor will the vine in the field fail you. Mal. 3:11, 12.

‘The vine’ stands for the understanding part. The expression ‘a vine that does not fail’ is used when the understanding part is not left bereft of the truths and goods of faith; on the other hand ‘an empty vine’ is used when falsities exist there together with derivative evils, as in Hosea,

Israel is an empty vine, it bears fruit like itself. Hosea 10:1.

sRef Gen@49 @11 S10′ [10] In Moses,

He will bind his ass’s colt to the vine, and the foal of his she-ass to a choice vine, after he has washed his clothing in wine, and his garment in the blood of grapes. Gen. 49:11.

This is the prophecy of Jacob, who by then was Israel, regarding his twelve sons, in this case regarding ‘Judah’, who represents the Lord, 7881. ‘The vine’ here stands for the understanding part as it exists in the spiritual Church, and ‘a choice vine’ for the understanding part as it exists in the celestial Church.

sRef Ps@80 @8 S11′ sRef Ps@80 @11 S11′ sRef Ps@80 @13 S11′ [11] In David,

O Jehovah, You caused a vine to journey out of Egypt. You cast out the nations, and You planted it. You cleared the way in front of it and caused its roots to be rooted, so that it might fill the land. The mountains were covered with the shadow of it, and the cedars of God with its branches. You sent out its shoots even to the sea, and its little branches to the Euphrates. The boar out of the forest tramples on it, and the wild animal of the fields feeds on it. Ps. 80:8-11, 13.

‘A vine out of Egypt’ stands in the highest sense for the Lord, the glorification of His Human being described by it and its shoots. In the internal sense ‘a vine’ here means the spiritual Church and the member of that Church – what he is like when the understanding and will parts of him have been made new or regenerated by the Lord. ‘The boar in the forest’ means falsity, and ‘the wild animal of the fields’ evil, which destroy the Church and faith in the Lord.

sRef Isa@32 @13 S12′ sRef Isa@24 @7 S12′ sRef Isa@24 @6 S12′ sRef Isa@7 @23 S12′ sRef Rev@14 @19 S12′ sRef Rev@14 @20 S12′ sRef Isa@32 @12 S12′ [12] In John,

The angel sent his sickle into the earth and harvested the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. The winepress was trodden outside the city, and the blood went out of the winepress up to the horses’ bridles. Rev. 14:19, 20.

‘Harvesting the vine of the earth’ stands for destroying the understanding part in the Church. And since ‘the vine’ means that understanding part it is also said that ‘the blood went out of the winepress up to the horses’ bridles’; for the powers of understanding are meant by ‘horses’, 2761, 2762, 3217. In Isaiah,

It will happen on that day, that every place in which there have been a thousand vines, worth a thousand [shekels] of silver, will be briers and brambles. Isa. 7:23.

In the same prophet,

The inhabitants of the land will be scorched and hardly any men (homo) left. The new wine will mourn, and the vine will languish. Isa. 14:6, 7.

In the same prophet,

They beat themselves on their breasts for the fields of unmixed wine, for the fruitful vine; for over the land of My people the them, the prickle is coming up. Isa. 32:12-14.

In these places the subject is the spiritual Church when laid waste as regards the good and truth of faith, and so as regards the understanding part, since, as stated above, the truth and the good of faith exist in the understanding part of the mind of the member of that Church. Anyone may see that in these places ‘the vine’ is not used to mean the vine, nor ‘the land’ to mean the land, but some feature of the Church.

sRef Joel@1 @12 S13′ sRef Hab@3 @17 S13′ sRef Joel@1 @7 S13′ sRef Hos@2 @12 S13′ sRef Joel@1 @6 S13′ sRef Ps@105 @33 S13′ sRef Jer@8 @13 S13′ sRef Joel@2 @23 S13′ sRef Jer@5 @17 S13′ sRef 1Ki@4 @25 S13′ sRef Joel@2 @22 S13′ sRef Micah@4 @4 S13′ sRef Micah@4 @2 S13′ sRef Jer@5 @15 S13′ sRef Zech@3 @10 S13′ sRef 1Ki@4 @24 S13′ [13] In the genuine sense ‘the vine’ means good present in the understanding part, and ‘the fig’ good present in the natural part; or what amounts to the same, ‘the vine’ means good present in the interior man, and ‘the fig’ good present in the exterior man. This being so, when the vine is mentioned in the Word, so also on many occasions is the fig, as
in the following places: In Jeremiah,

I will completely devour them. There will be no grapes on the vine or figs on the fig tree; and its leaf has come down. Jer. 8:13.

In the same prophet,

I will bring upon you a nation from afar, O house of Israel, which will devour your vine and your fig tree. Jer. 5:17.

In Hosea,

I will lay waste her vine and her fig tree. Hosea 2:12.

In Joel,

A nation has come up over the land. It has turned My vine into a waste, and My fig tree into froth. It has stripped it completely bare and cast it aside; its branches have been made white. The vine has withered and the fig tree languishes. Joel 1:6, 7, 12.

In the same prophet,

Fear not, you beasts of My fields, for the dwelling places of the wilderness have been made green; for the tree will bear its fruit, and the fig tree and the vine will give their full yield. Joel 2:12, 23.

In David,

He smote their vines and their fig trees, and broke to pieces the trees of their borders. Ps. 105:33.

In Habakkuk,

The fig tree will not blossom; neither will there be any yield on the vines. Hab. 3:17.

In Micah,

Out of Zion will go forth teaching, and the Word of Jehovah from Jerusalem. They will sit every one under his vine and under his fig tree, unafraid. Micah 4:1, 4.

In Zechariah,

On that day you will shout, each to his companion, under his vine and under his fig tree. Zech. 3:10.

In the first Book of Kings,

In Solomon’s time there was peace from all the border-crossings round about, and Judah and Israel dwelt with confidence, every one under his vine and under his fig tree. 1 Kings 4:24, 25.

The fig tree’ means the good of the natural or exterior man, see 217.

sRef Matt@26 @29 S14′ [14] ‘The vine’ may also mean an understanding part that has been made new or regenerated by means of good obtained from truth and of truth obtained from good. This is clear from the Lord’s words addressed to the disciples after He instituted the Holy Supper, in Matthew,

I tell you that I shall not drink from now on of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom. Matt. 16:29.

The good obtained from truth and the truth obtained from good, by means of which the understanding is made new, that is, by which a person is made spiritual, is meant by ‘the fruit of the vine’, while making such one’s own is meant by ‘drinking’. For ‘drinking’ means making one’s own, and is used in reference to truth, see 3168. The fact that this is fully accomplished only in the next life is meant by ‘until that day when I drink it new with you. In My Father’s kingdom’; for ‘the fruit of the vine’, it is quite plain, is not used to mean new wine or matured wine but something of a heavenly nature belonging to the Lord’s kingdom.

sRef John@15 @3 S15′ sRef John@15 @2 S15′ sRef John@15 @1 S15′ sRef John@15 @4 S15′ sRef John@15 @12 S15′ sRef John@15 @5 S15′ [15] Because the understanding part of the spiritual man’s mind is made new and regenerated by means of truth which comes solely from the Lord, the Lord therefore compares Himself to ‘the vine’. He then compares those who are secure in the truth which comes from Him and consequently is His to ‘the branches’, and the good produced by them to ‘the fruit’, in John,

I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinedresser. Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit He takes away, but every one that does bear fruit He prunes, that it may bear more fruit. Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself unless it abides in the vine, neither can you unless you abide in Me. I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I him, he it is that bears much fruit; for apart from Me you cannot do anything. This is My commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you. John 15:1-5, 12.

sRef Num@6 @3 S16′ sRef Num@6 @4 S16′ [16] Because in the highest sense ‘the vine’ means the Lord as regards Divine Truth, and from this it means, in the internal sense, a member of the spiritual Church, ‘a vineyard’ therefore means the spiritual Church itself, 1069, 3220.

[17] Since ‘the Nazirite’ represented the celestial man – who is regenerated by means of the good of love and not, like the spiritual man, by means of the truth of faith, so that, as may be seen stated above, it is not in the understanding part but in the will part of the celestial man’s mind that the regeneration takes place – the Nazirite was therefore forbidden to eat anything that came from the vine and so was forbidden to drink wine, Num. 6:3, 4; Judg. 13:14. From this also it is evident that ‘the vine’, as has been shown, means the understanding part, which belongs to the spiritual man. For details about ‘the Nazirite’ representing the celestial man, see 3301. From this one may also see that nobody can possibly know why the Nazirite was forbidden anything that came from the vine, and many other things besides, unless he knows what ‘the vine’ means in the proper sense, and also unless he knows of the existence of a celestial Church and of a spiritual Church, and that the member of the celestial Church is regenerated in a different way from a member of the spiritual Church. The former is regenerated by means of seed implanted in the will part, the latter by seed implanted in the understanding part. These are the kinds of arcana stored away in the internal sense of the Word.

AC (Elliott) n. 5114 sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ 5114. ‘And on the vine three shoots’ means derivatives from this even to the final one. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the vine’ as the understanding part, dealt with immediately above in 5113; from the meaning of ‘three’ as complete and continuous even to the end, dealt with in 2788, 4495; and from the meaning of ‘shoots’ as derivatives; for since ‘the vine’ means the understanding part, ‘shoots’ means nothing else than derivatives from this. Because ‘three’ means that which is continuous even to the end, that is, which goes from first to last, ‘three shoots’ means derivative degrees extending from the understanding part to the final level, which is that of the senses. The first in the sequence is the actual understanding part, and the last is the senses. In general the understanding part is the sight which the internal man possesses and which sees by the light of heaven radiating from the Lord; and everything it sees is spiritual or celestial. But the senses, in general, belong to the external man; and here the sensory power of sight is meant because this corresponds to and is subordinate to the understanding part. The sensory power of sight sees by the light of the world radiating from the sun; and everything it sees is worldly, bodily, or earthly.

[2] In the human being there exist derivatives from the understanding part that dwells in the light of heaven; and they extend to the senses which dwell in the light of the world. Unless these derivatives existed the senses could not possess any life of a human quality. A person does not owe the life which his senses possess to what he sees by the light of the world, for the light of the world holds no life within it; he owes it to what he sees by the light of heaven, for this light does hold life within it. When the light of heaven falls on the perceptions a person has gained by the light of the world, it brings life to them and enables him to see objects in an intelligent manner, and thus as a human being. In this way a person possessing factual knowledge born from things which he has seen and heard in the world, and therefore from those which have entered in through the senses, comes to possess intelligence and wisdom, on which in turn he bases his public, private, and spiritual life.

[3] As regards derivatives specifically, the nature of their existence in a person is such that no brief explanation of them is possible. They exist as degrees, like steps, from the understanding part down to the senses. But no one can have any conception of those degrees unless he knows how they are related to one another, that is to say, that they are quite distinct and separate from one another, so distinct that interior degrees can come into being and remain in being without exterior ones, but not exterior degrees without interior ones. For example, a person’s spirit can remain in being without a material body, as it also actually does when death separates it from the body. For a person’s spirit exists in an interior degree, his body in an exterior one. Similarly with a person’s spirit after death. If he is one of the blessed his spirit exists in a final and outermost degree when in the first heaven; in a more interior degree when in the second; and in the inmost one when in the third. When it exists in the inmost it exists at the same time in the other degrees, though these are inactive with him, almost as the human body is inactive during sleep, but with this difference that interiorly angels are at such times fully awake. Therefore as many distinct and separate degrees exist in the human being as there are heavens, apart from the final one, which is the body and the bodily senses.

[4] From all this regarding a person’s spirit one may gain some idea of the way derivatives are related to one another from the first to the final one, that is, from the understanding part to the senses. A person’s life, which he receives from the Lord’s Divine, passes through these degrees from the inmost to the final one. At every degree there exists a derivative of that life which becomes increasingly general, until in the final degree it is the most general. Derivatives in the lower degrees are merely combinations – or to put it more appropriately, structured forms – of the individual and particular constituents of the higher degrees ranged consecutively, with the addition of the kinds of things drawn from purer nature, and after that from grosser nature, that can serve as containing vessels. Once these vessels are done away with, the individual and particular constituents of the higher degrees, which had received form in those vessels, move back to the degree immediately above. And because in the case of the human being there is a link with the Divine, and his inmost being is such that it can accept the Divine – and not only accept but also make Him its own, by acknowledging and having an affection for the Divine, thus by a reciprocal response to Him – and because he thereby has the Divine implanted within him, he can never die. Indeed what is eternal and infinite exists with him, not only through their flowing into him but also through his reception of them.

[5] From this one may see how uninformed and senseless in their thinking regarding the human being those people are who compare him to animals and imagine that he will not be alive after death any more than they are. Such people do not take into consideration the fact that with animals there is no acceptance of the Divine or any acknowledgement or affection leading to a reciprocal response to the Divine by making Him their own, or any consequent joining to Him. Nor do those people take into consideration the fact that, as the animal state is like this, the recipient forms of life which these possess are inevitably dissipated; for with animals that which flows into them passes through their organic forms into the world, where it comes to an end and melts away, never to make any return there.

AC (Elliott) n. 5115 sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ 5115. ‘And it was as though budding’ means an influx that allows rebirth to be effected. This is clear from the meaning of ‘budding’ – that is, bringing forth leaves, and also blossom later on – as the first stage of rebirth. The reason an influx is meant is that when a person is being born again spiritual life flows into him, even as a tree, when it starts to bud, is receiving its life through heat from the sun. The birth of a human being is compared in various places in the Word to members of the vegetable kingdom, especially trees. The reason for this comparison is that the entire vegetable kingdom, like the animal kingdom also, represents the kind of things that exist with the human being, and consequently the kind of things that exist in the Lord’s kingdom. For the human being is heaven in its least form, as may be seen from what has been shown at the ends of chapters regarding correspondence of the human being with the Grand Man, which is heaven. This also explains why the ancients referred to man as the microcosm; and if more had been known about the heavenly state they would have called him a miniature heaven too. For the whole natural system is a theatre representative of the Lord’s kingdom, see 2758, 3483, 4939.

[2] But in particular it is a person who is being born anew, that is, being regenerated by the Lord, who is called heaven; for during that time Divine good and truth from the Lord, and consequently heaven, are implanted in him. Indeed, like a tree, a person who is being born again begins from a seed, which is why in the Word ‘seed’ means truth obtained from good. Also, like a tree, he brings forth leaves, then blossom, and finally fruit; for he brings forth the kind of things that belong to intelligence, which again in the Word are meant by ‘leaves’, then the kind of things that belong to wisdom, which are meant by ‘blossoms’, and finally the kind of things that are matters of life, namely forms of the good of love and charity expressed in action, which in the Word are meant by ‘fruits’. Such is the representative likeness that exists between a fruitful tree and a person who is being regenerated, a likeness so great that one may learn from a tree about regeneration, provided that something is known first of all about spiritual good and truth. From this one may see that ‘the vine’ in the cupbearer’s dream serves to describe fully in a representative fashion the process by which a person is born again so far as the sensory power subject to the understanding part is concerned. That process is described first by the three shoots, then by the buds that were formed, after that by the blossom, followed by the ripening of the clusters into grapes, and finally by his pressing them into Pharaoh’s cup and his giving this to him.

[3] Furthermore the dreams which come from the Lord by way of heaven are never anything else than scenes based on representatives. Anyone therefore who does not know what this or that in the natural world represents, more so one who is totally unaware of anything at all being representative there, inevitably supposes that those representatives are merely comparisons such as anybody may use in ordinary conversation. They are indeed comparisons; but they are the kind which are also correspondences and which therefore present themselves as visible objects in the world of spirits while the angels positioned more internally in heaven are talking about spiritual or celestial things belonging to the Lord’s kingdom. Regarding dreams, see 1122, 1975, 1977, 1979-1981.

AC (Elliott) n. 5116 sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ 5116. ‘Its blossom came up’ means the state next to regeneration. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the blossom’ which appears on the tree before the fruit as the state before regeneration. The budding and fruiting of a tree represents, as stated immediately above in 5115, the person’s rebirth. Becoming covered with leaves represents the first state, with blossom the second, that is, the one immediately before regeneration, and fruiting the third, which is the actual state of one who has been regenerated. Consequently ‘leaves’ means the things that belong to intelligence, which are the truths of faith, 885, for these come first in a person’s rebirth or regeneration. By ‘blossoms’ however are meant the things that belong to wisdom, which are the goods of faith, since these come immediately before rebirth or regeneration, while ‘fruits’ means the things that are matters of life, which are the works of charity, in that these come after rebirth and constitute the actual state of one who is regenerate.

[2] These features of the vegetable kingdom owe their existence to the influx of the spiritual world into it; but people who attribute everything to natural forces and nothing to the Divine are in no way able to believe this. Those however who attribute everything to the Divine and nothing to natural forces have the ability to see that every single thing owes its existence to that influx. Not only that, each individual thing also has a correspondence, and because it has a correspondence it is a representative. In the end such people have the ability to see that the whole natural system is a theatre representative of the Lord’s kingdom, thus that the Divine exists within each individual thing, so much so that the whole natural system is a representation of that which is eternal and infinite – eternal because the reproduction of species continues without end, infinite because the multiplication of seeds is unlimited. Such endeavours to reproduce and multiply could not possibly come to exist in each individual thing in the vegetable kingdom if the Divine were not flowing into it unceasingly. This influx is what provides the impulse to reproduce and to multiply; the impulse brings the power to make this a reality, and that power leads to the actual realization of it.

[3] People who attribute everything to natural forces say that such impulses to reproduce and to multiply were introduced into fruits and seeds when things were first created, and because of the power which they have received from those impulses fruits and seeds ever since then are carried spontaneously into such activities. But those people do not take into consideration the fact that continuance in being is constant coming into being, or what is much the same, that reproduction is creation taking place constantly. Nor do they take into consideration the fact that an effect is the continuation of its cause, and that when a cause ceases to exist so does the effect, and consequently that without constant influx from its cause every effect perishes in an instant. Neither do they take into consideration the fact that anything that is not linked to the first being of all, consequently to the Divine, instantly ceases to have any existence; for to have any being, what is posterior must have what is prior existing unceasingly within it.

[4] If those attributing everything to natural forces and little, scarcely anything, to the Divine were to take these facts into consideration they would also be able to acknowledge that every single thing in the natural system represents something akin to it in the spiritual world, and therefore something akin to it in the Lord’s kingdom, where the closest representation of the Lord’s Divine exists. This is why reference has been made to an influx coming from the spiritual world; but by this is meant an influx from the Lord’s Divine coming by way of the spiritual world. The reason adherents to naturalism do not take such facts into consideration is that they are not willing to acknowledge them, since they are immersed in earthly and bodily interests and as a consequence in the life belonging to self-love and love of the world. As a result, so far as things belonging to the spiritual world, that is, to heaven are concerned, the complete reverse of true order exists with them; and to view such matters from within a state in which order is turned around is not possible, since higher things are then seen as lower ones, and lower things as higher ones. This also accounts for the fact that, when persons like these are seen in the next life in the light of heaven, they are seen with their heads pointing downwards and their feet upwards.

[5] Who among these, when he sees blossom on a tree or on anything else that grows, thinks of it as an expression of gladness so to speak that fruit and seeds are now being brought forth? All that such persons see is that blossom comes first and remains until rudimentary forms of the fruit and seeds are formed within it, whereby sap is conveyed into them. If they knew anything about human rebirth or regeneration, or rather if they wanted to know, they would also see in that blossom, because of the similarity there, a representative of a person’s state before regeneration. They would see that because of the good which his intelligence and wisdom desires he is in a similar way blooming, that is, he possesses an inner gladness and beauty, because now he is endeavouring to implant these – that is to say, forms of good desired by intelligence and wisdom – in his life; that is, he is endeavouring to bear fruit. Such persons cannot know about the nature of this state because knowledge of what that inner gladness and inner beauty so represented are does not exist at all with people who feel no gladness other than that which accompanies love of the world and no delight other than that connected with self-love. Worldly or selfish feelings of gladness or delight cause inner ones to be seen as the opposite of gladness and delight, so much so that those persons loathe them. In loathing them they also brush them aside as something worthless or as something that has no actual existence. As a consequence they refuse to accept them, and at the same time they refuse to accept that what is spiritual or celestial is really anything at all. This is how the absurd thinking of the present day which is believed to be wisdom comes about.

AC (Elliott) n. 5117 sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ 5117. ‘And its clusters ripened into grapes’ means spiritual truth when joined to celestial good. This is clear from the meaning of ‘ripening’ as the advancement of rebirth or regeneration even to the point where truth is joined to good, and so the two are joined together; and from the meaning of ‘clusters’ as the truth of spiritual good, and ‘grapes’ as the good of celestial truth; in this instance both of these as they exist within the sensory awareness represented by ‘the cupbearer’ is meant. The joining together of them within that sensory awareness may be likened to the ripening of clusters into grapes, for in rebirth or regeneration every truth aims to become joined to good. At first truth is unreceptive of life and is not therefore fruitful. This stage is represented in the fruits of trees while they are ripening. In unripe fruit, called ‘clusters’ here, that state when truth is still predominant is represented, whereas in ripe fruit, called ‘grapes’ here, the state when good has predominance is represented. This predominance of good is also represented in the flavour and the sweetness that one finds in ripe grapes. But regarding the joining together of truth and good within the sensory awareness subject to the understanding part, nothing more can be said as these are arcana too deep for anyone to understand. First of all one needs to have a thorough knowledge of the state of the celestial-spiritual and of sensory awareness, and also of the state of the natural in which that joining together of truth and good takes place.

sRef Isa@5 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@5 @1 S2′ [2] ‘Grapes’ means the good of the spiritual man, and so means charity. This may be seen from many places in the Word, as in Isaiah,

My beloved had a vineyard on a very fertile hill.* He looked for it to yield grapes, but it yielded wild grapes. Isa. 5:1, 2, 4.

‘A vineyard’ stands for the spiritual Church; ‘he looked for it to yield grapes’ for the good deeds of charity; ‘but it yielded wild grapes’ for the bad deeds of hatred and revenge.

sRef Isa@65 @8 S3′ [3] In the same prophet,

Thus said Jehovah, As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one says, Do not destroy it, for there is a blessing in it. Isa. 65:8.

‘The new wine in the cluster’ stands for truth obtained from good within the natural.

sRef Jer@8 @13 S4′ [4] In Jeremiah,

I will surely gather them, says Jehovah; there will be no grapes on the vine, and no figs on the fig tree. Jer. 8:13.

‘No grapes on the vine’ stands for the non-existence of any interior or rational good, ‘no figs on the fig tree’ for the non-existence of any exterior or natural good; for ‘the vine’ means the understanding part, as shown just above in 5113. When truth and good exist joined together there, ‘the vine’ means the rational, for the rational exists as a result of that joining together. As regards ‘the fig’ meaning the good of the natural or exterior man, see 217.

sRef Hos@9 @10 S5′ [5] In Hosea,

Like grapes in the wilderness I found Israel, like the first fruit on the fig tree, in its beginning, I saw your fathers. Hosea 9:10.

‘Grapes in the wilderness’ stands for rational good not yet made spiritual; ‘the first fruit on the fig tree’ in a similar way for natural good. ‘Israel’ stands for the ancient spiritual Church when it first began, ‘fathers’ here and elsewhere being not the sons of Jacob but those people among whom the Ancient Church was first established.

sRef Micah@7 @1 S6′ sRef Micah@7 @2 S6′ [6] In Micah,

There was no cluster to eat; my soul desired the first fruit. The holy man has perished from the earth, and there is none upright among men. Micah 7:1, 2.

‘Cluster to eat’ stands for the good of charity in its first beginnings, ‘the first fruit’ for the truth of faith at the same stage also.

sRef Amos@9 @13 S7′ sRef Amos@9 @14 S7′ [7] In Amos,

Behold, the days are coming, so that the ploughman catches up with the reaper, and the treader of grapes with him who sows seed. The mountains will drip new wine, and all the hills will flow down with it. And I will bring again the captivity of My people, in order that they may build the devastated cities, and may settle down and plant vineyards, and may drink their wine, and make gardens and eat their fruit. Amos 9:13, 14.

This refers to the establishment of the spiritual Church, which is described in this manner. The joining of spiritual good to its truth is foretold by the statement that the ploughman will catch up with the reaper, and the joining of spiritual truth to its good by the statement that the treader of grapes will catch up with the one who sows seed. The good deeds of love and charity resulting from that joining together are meant by the statement that the mountains will drip new wine and the hills will flow down with it. ‘Bringing again the captivity of the people stands for deliverance from falsities, ‘building the devastated cities’ for the correction of falsified teachings regarding the truth, ‘settling down and planting vineyards’ for a development of what constitutes the spiritual Church, ‘drinking their wine’ for making the truths of that Church one’s own, which truths teach about charity, and ‘making gardens and eating their fruit’ for making one’s own the forms of good derived from these. Anyone can see that building cities, planting vineyards, drinking wine, making gardens and eating their fruit are descriptions of merely natural activities, which but for the spiritual sense would hold nothing Divine within them.

sRef Gen@49 @11 S8′ [8] In Moses,

He washes his clothing in wine, and his garment in the blood of grapes. Gen. 49:11.

This refers to the Lord. ‘Wine’ stands for spiritual good originating in Divine love, ‘the blood of grapes’ for celestial good originating in the same.

sRef Deut@32 @14 S9′ [9] In the same author,

Butter from the herd, and milk from the flock, with the fat of lambs and of rams, the breed** of Bashan, and of goats, with kidney-fat of wheat; and of the blood of the grape you drink unmixed wine. Deut. 32:14.

This refers to the Ancient Church whose good deeds of love and charity are described in this manner. Each particular product referred to means some specific kind of good. ‘The blood of the grape’ means spiritual-celestial good, the expression used for the Divine in heaven, coming forth from the Lord. Wine is also called ‘the blood’ of grapes because wine and blood mean holy truth coming forth from the Lord, though ‘wine’ is used in reference to the spiritual Church and ‘blood’ to the celestial Church. For the same reason wine has also been prescribed in the Holy Supper.

sRef Deut@32 @32 S10′ [10] In the same author,

From the vine of Sodom comes their vine, and from the fields of Gomorrah; its grapes are grapes of poison, they have clusters of bitterness. Deut. 32:32.

This refers to the Jewish Church. ‘From the vine of Sodom comes their vine, and from the fields of Gomorrah’ stands for the fact that the understanding part is occupied by falsities that are the product of hellish love. ‘Its grapes are grapes of poison, they have clusters of bitterness’ stands for the fact that the will part is in the same predicament; for as ‘the grape’ in the good sense means charity, it is therefore used in reference to the will part, though to the will present within the understanding part. The same is true in the contrary sense, for all truth belongs essentially to the understanding, and all good essentially to the will.

sRef Rev@14 @18 S11′ [11] In John,

The angel said, Put in your sharp sickle and gather the clusters of the earth, for its grapes have ripened. Rev. 14:18.

‘Gathering the clusters of the earth’ stands for destroying all existence of charity.

sRef Matt@7 @16 S12′ sRef Luke@6 @44 S12′ [12] In Matthew,

By their fruits you will know them. Do people gather grapes from thorns, and figs from thistles? Matt. 7:16.

And in Luke,

Every tree is known by its own fruit; for people do not collect figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble-bush. Luke 6:44.

The subject here being charity towards the neighbour, it is said that they will be recognized ‘by their fruits’, which are the good deeds of charity. Internal good deeds of charity are meant by ‘grapes’, external ones by ‘figs’.

sRef Deut@23 @24 S13′ [13] The law was laid down in the Jewish Church,

When you enter your companion’s vineyard you shall eat grapes at your pleasure until you have had enough;*** but you shall not put them into your vessel. Deut. 13:24.

This law implies that when anyone is among others whose teachings and religion are different from his own, he is free to learn about and welcome their charitable deeds, but he is not free to adopt the same charitable practices and link them into his own truths. ‘A vineyard’, meaning the Church, describes a place where teaching or religion exists; ‘grapes’ means the good deeds of charity, ‘vessel’ the truth that the Church possesses.
* lit. on a horn of a son of oil
** lit. the sons
*** lit. eat grapes in accordance with your soul, to your satisfaction

AC (Elliott) n. 5118 sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ 5118. ‘And Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand’ means an influx of the interior natural into the exterior natural, and the beginning of reception. This is clear from the representation of ‘Pharaoh’ as the interior natural, dealt with above in 5080, 5095; from the representation of ‘the cupbearer’ as the exterior natural, dealt with in 5077, 5082 – ‘my hand’ being the cupbearer’s; from the meaning of ‘cup’ as that which contains, and also at the same time that which is contained in it, dealt with below in 5120. From these meanings and from the train of thought in the internal sense ‘Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand’ means the influx of the interior natural into the exterior natural, and the beginning of reception there. What the interior natural and the exterior natural are has been stated already – the interior natural is that which communicates with the rational and into which the rational enters, while the exterior natural is that which communicates with the senses, that is, through the senses with the world, and so that which the world flows into.

[2] As regards influx, this begins with the Lord and extends continuously through the rational into the interior natural and then through this into the exterior natural; but what flows through undergoes change and is converted according to the way it is received. With those who are not regenerate all good is converted there into evil, and all truth into falsity; but with those who are regenerate all good and truth presents itself there as in a mirror. For the natural is nothing else than a face so to speak that is representative of spiritual characteristics of the internal man; and the face becomes representative when exteriors correspond to interiors. From this one may gain some idea of what is meant by an influx of the interior natural into the exterior natural, and the beginning of reception there.

AC (Elliott) n. 5119 sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ 5119. ‘And I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup means a reciprocal influx into good deeds that have a spiritual origin. This is clear from the meaning of ‘grapes’ as the good deeds of charity, dealt with just above in 5117, and so as good deeds that have a spiritual origin, since every good deed of genuine charity originates there; and from the meaning of ‘pressing into Pharaoh’s cup’ as a reciprocal influx. The expression ‘reciprocal influx’ does not mean that the exterior natural flows into the interior natural, for that is not possible. Exterior things cannot by any means flow into interior ones, or what amounts to the same, lower or posterior things into higher or prior ones. The reciprocal influx takes place when the rational calls forth things present in the interior natural, and also, by means of the interior natural, those present in the exterior natural. Not that it calls forth what actually exists there but what is deduced or so to speak extracted from what is there. This is what the reciprocal influx is.

[2] It does seem as though things in the world pass by way of the senses into what is present within; but that is an illusion of the senses. The reality is that what exists within flows into what is outward, and that this influx is what enables discernment to take place. I have discussed these matters with spirits on several occasions and have been shown through actual experiences that the interior man sees and discerns within the exterior man what is taking place outside the exterior man, and that the life of the senses has no other origin; that is, neither the ability to perceive with the senses nor actual sensory perception has any other origin. But the nature and power of this illusion are such that it cannot by any means be banished from the natural man, nor even from the rational, unless the rational man can be made to stand aside from sensory impressions. All this has been mentioned to show what reciprocal influx is.

AC (Elliott) n. 5120 sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ 5120. ‘And put the cup onto Pharaoh’s palm’ means that the interior natural made these its own. This is clear from the meaning of ‘putting the cup’ to drink (and so the wine in the cup) as making one’s own, for ‘drinking’ means making truth one’s own, see 3168; and from the representation of ‘Pharaoh’ as the interior natural, dealt with in 5080, 5095, 5118. As is evident from what has gone before, the subject here is the regeneration of the sensory power meant by ‘the cupbearer’ which is subject to the understanding part of the interior man; consequently the subject is also the influx of truth and good and their reception in the exterior natural. But since these matters are quite beyond the understanding of those who do not have any distinct idea about the rational and about the natural, or any about influx, all further explanation is therefore abandoned.

[2] But there is more to be said about ‘a cup’ mentioned very many times in the Word – about how in the genuine sense it has the same meaning as wine, namely spiritual truth or the truth of faith which is derived from the good of charity, and about how in the contrary sense it means falsity which produces evil, and also falsity which is a product of evil. The reason ‘a cup’ has the same meaning as ‘wine’ is that the cup is the container and the wine the content and therefore the two constitute a single entity, with the result that one is used to mean the other. This meaning of ‘a cup’ in the Word is evident from the following places:

sRef Ps@116 @12 S3′ sRef Ps@23 @5 S3′ sRef Ps@116 @13 S3′ [3] In David,

O Jehovah, You will spread a table before me in the presence of enemies and will make my head fat with oil; my cup will overflow. Ps. 23:5.

‘Spreading a table’ and ‘making the head fat with oil’ stand for being endowed with the good of charity and love. ‘My cup will overflow’ stands for the fact that the natural will thereby be filled with spiritual truth and good. In the same author,

What shall I render to Jehovah? I will take the cup of salvation and call on the name of Jehovah. Ps. 116:11, 17.

‘Taking the cup of salvation’ stands for making the goods of faith one’s own.

sRef Mark@9 @41 S4′ [4] In Mark,

Whoever gives you drink from a cup of water in My name, because you are Christ’s, truly I say to you, he will not lose his reward. Mark 9:41.

‘Giving drink from a cup of water in My name’ stands for imparting the truths of faith from a small measure of charity.

sRef Matt@26 @27 S5′ sRef Matt@26 @28 S5′ [5] In Matthew,

Then taking a cup, and giving thanks, He gave it to them, saying, Drink from this, all of you; for this is My blood – that of the New Testament. Matt. 26:17, 28; Mark 14:27, 24; Luke 22:20.

The word ‘cup’ is used, not wine, because ‘wine’ has reference to the spiritual Church but ‘blood’ to the celestial Church. Both wine and blood however mean holy truth going forth from the Lord, though in the spiritual Church the holiness of faith springing from charity towards the neighbour is meant, whereas in the celestial Church the holiness of charity springing from love to the Lord is meant. The spiritual Church differs from the celestial in that the spiritual is moved by charity towards the neighbour, whereas the celestial is moved by love to the Lord. Furthermore the Holy Supper was established to represent and be a sign of the Lord’s love towards the whole human race and man’s reciprocal love towards Him.

sRef Matt@23 @25 S6′ sRef Matt@23 @26 S6′ [6] Because ‘a cup’ meant that which served to contain and ‘wine’ that which was contained, ‘the cup’ consequently meaning the external aspect of man and ‘wine’ the internal aspect of him, the Lord therefore said,

Woe to you Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you cleanse the exterior of the cup and of the plate but the interiors are full of pillage and lack of restraint. Blind Pharisee! cleanse first the interior of the cup and of the plate and the exterior will be made clean also. Matt. 23:25, 16; Luke 11:39.

Here also ‘cup’ is used to mean in the internal sense the truth of faith. Cultivating the truth of faith without the good of faith is ‘cleansing the exterior of the cup’, the more so when the interiors are full of hypocrisy, deceit, hatred, revenge, and cruelty; for in this case the truth of faith exists solely in the external man and not at all in the internal, whereas cultivating and embracing the good of faith causes truths to be joined to good in the interior man. Furthermore when the truth of faith is cultivated without the good of faith, false ideas are accepted as truths; this is meant by ‘cleansing first the interior of the cup, and the exterior will be made clean also’.

sRef Mark@7 @8 S7′ sRef Mark@7 @9 S7′ sRef Mark@7 @4 S7′ [7] It is similar with matters recorded in Mark,

There are many other things which the Pharisees and Jews have received carefully, the washing* of cups and of pots, and of bronze vessels, and of beds. Forsaking the commandment of God you keep to human tradition, the washing’ of pots and of cups; and many other similar things you do. You reject the commandment of God, so that you may keep to your tradition. Mark 7:4, 8, 9.

sRef Jer@25 @17 S8′ sRef Jer@25 @16 S8′ sRef Jer@25 @15 S8′ [8] As regards ‘a cup’ meaning in the contrary sense falsity which produces evil and also falsity produced by evil, this is clear from the following places: In Jeremiah,

Thus said Jehovah, the God of Israel, to me, Take this cup of the wine of anger from My hand, and make all the nations to which I send you drink it, in order that they may drink and stagger, and go mad because of the sword which I am going to send among them. So I took the cup from Jehovah’s hand, and made all the nations drink to whom Jehovah sent me. Jer. 25:15-17, 28.

‘The cup of the wine of anger’ stands for falsity that produces evil. The reason falsity producing evil is meant is that as wine can make people drunk and make them of unsound mind, so too can falsity. Spiritual drunkenness is nothing other than unsoundness of mind caused by reasonings regarding matters of belief when a person does not believe anything which he does not apprehend – which unsoundness of mind leads to falsities and to evils that are the product of falsities, 1072. Hence the statement ‘in order that they may drink and stagger, and go mad because of the sword which I am going to send’. ‘Sword’ means falsity at war against truth, 2799, 4499.

sRef Lam@4 @21 S9′ [9] In the Book of Lamentations,

Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom. dweller in the land of Uz; to you also the cup will pass, you will be made drunk and uncovered. Lam. 4:21.

‘Being made drunk by the cup’ stands for being made unsound in mind by falsities. ‘Being uncovered’, or shamelessly laid bare, stands for resulting evil, 213, 214.

sRef Ezek@23 @31 S10′ sRef Ezek@23 @32 S10′ sRef Ezek@23 @34 S10′ sRef Ezek@23 @33 S10′ sRef Ps@75 @8 S10′ sRef Hab@2 @16 S10′ [10] In Ezekiel,

You have walked in the way of your sister, therefore I will give her cup into your hand. Thus said the Lord Jehovih, You will drink your sister’s cup, which is deep and wide; you will be laughed at and mocked, as an ample recipient. You will be filled with drunkenness and sorrow, with the cup of devastation and desolation. You will drink the cup of your sister Samaria, and crush it and crumple the pieces. Ezek. 27:31-34.

This refers to Jerusalem, by which the spiritual aspect of the celestial Church is meant. ‘The cup’ in this case stands for falsity that is a product of evil; and because such falsity lays waste or destroys the Church, the expression ‘the cup of devastation and desolation’ is used.

In Isaiah,

Stir, stir, surge up, O Jerusalem, you who have drunk from the hand of Jehovah the cup of His anger; you have drunk the dregs of the cup of consternation. Isa. 51:17.

In Habakkuk,

Drink, you also – that your foreskin may be revealed. The cup of Jehovah’s right hand will come round to you, so that disgusting vomit may be upon your glory. Hab. 2:16.

In David,

A cup is in the hand of Jehovah; and He has mixed the wine, filled it with the mixed, and poured out from it. But they will suck out the dregs of it; all the wicked of the earth will drink from it. Ps. 75:8.

aRef Matt@26 @44 S11′ aRef Matt@26 @42 S11′ [11] In these places ‘a cup’ also stands for the insanity caused by falsities and resulting evils. It is called ‘the cup of Jehovah’s anger’ and also ‘of His right hand’ for the reason that the Jewish nation believed, as the common people believe, that evils, and the punishments of evils and falsities, had no other origin than Jehovah, though in fact they originate in man and in the hellish crew who are present with him. From the appearance, and from a belief based on it, such statements occur many times; but the internal sense teaches how one ought to understand them and what to believe. On these matters, see 245, 592, 696, 1093, 1683, 1874, 1875, 2335, 2447, 3605, 3607, 3614.

sRef Mark@10 @39 S12′ sRef John@18 @11 S12′ sRef Luke@22 @42 S12′ sRef Mark@10 @38 S12′ [12] Since ‘a cup’, like ‘wine’, in the contrary sense means falsities that produce evils, and also falsities produced by evils, cup, as a consequence also means temptation, for temptation arises when falsity conflicts with truth and therefore evil with good. The word cup is used instead of and in reference to such temptation in Luke,

Jesus prayed, saying, If You are willing, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless not My will, but Yours, be done. Luke 22:42; Matt. 26:39; Mark 14:36.

‘Cup’ here stands for temptation. Similarly in John,

Jesus said to Peter, Put your sword into its sheath; the cup which the Father has given Me, shall I not drink it? John 18:11.

And also in Mark,

Jesus said to James and John, You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, and to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized? They said, We are able. But Jesus said to them, The cup indeed that I drink you will drink; and with the baptism with which I am baptized you will be baptized. Mark 10:38, 39; Matt. 20:21, 13.

From this it is evident that ‘cup’ means temptation, for temptation comes about when evils use falsities to enter into conflict with goods and truths. ‘Baptism’ means regeneration which, being effected by means of spiritual conflicts, consequently means temptation also.

sRef Jer@51 @7 S13′ [13] In the completely contrary sense ‘cup’ means falsity that is a product of evil among those who are profaners, that is, with whom inwardly the exact opposites of charity are present but who put on an outward show of holiness. The word is used in this sense in Jeremiah,

Babel was a golden cup in Jehovah’s hand, making the whole earth drunken. All nations have drunk of her wine, therefore the nations are mad. Jer. 51:7.

‘Babel’ stands for people with whom there is holiness outwardly but unholiness inwardly, 1182, 1326. The falsity which they veil with holiness is meant by ‘a golden cup’. ‘Making the whole earth drunken’ stands for the fact that they lead those who belong to the Church, meant by ‘the earth’, into erroneous and insane ways. The profanities which they conceal beneath outward holiness involve nothing else than this – their intention to become the greatest and the wealthiest of all, to be worshipped as gods, the possessors of heaven and earth, and so to have dominion over people’s souls as well as their bodies. And the means Used by them is their outward display of respect for Divine and holy things. Consequently they look, so far as their external man is concerned, like angels; but so far as their internal man is concerned they are devils.

sRef Rev@18 @2 S14′ sRef Rev@18 @4 S14′ sRef Rev@14 @9 S14′ sRef Rev@14 @10 S14′ sRef Rev@16 @19 S14′ sRef Rev@18 @6 S14′ sRef Rev@18 @3 S14′ sRef Rev@17 @4 S14′ [14] A similar description of Babel exists in John,

The woman was clothed in purple and scarlet, and covered** with gold and precious stones and pearls, holding in her hand a golden cup, full of abominations and the uncleanness of her whoredom. Rev. 17:4.

In the same book,

It has fallen, Babylon the great has fallen and become a dwelling-place of demons; for she has given all nations drink from the wine of the fury of her whoredom; and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her. I heard a voice from heaven, saying, Render to her as she has rendered to you; in the cup which she mixed, mix double for her. Rev. 18:2-4, 6.

In the same book,

The great city was divided into three parts, and the cities of the nations fell. The remembrance of Babylon the great was established before God, to give her the cup of the fury of the anger of God. Rev. 16:19.

In the same book,

The third angel said with a loud voice, If anyone worships the beast and his Image, he will drink from the wine of God’s anger, poured unmixed as it is in the cup of His anger; and he will be tormented with fire and brimstone. Rev. 14:9, 10.
* lit. baptisms or dippings
** lit. gilded

AC (Elliott) n. 5121 sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ 5121. ‘And Joseph said to him, This is the interpretation of it’ means revelation resulting from the perception received by the celestial within the natural as to what it held within it. This is clear from the meaning of ‘saying’ in the historical narratives of the Word as perception, dealt with in 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2619, 2862, 3509, 3395, in this case as revelation resulting from perception, since the subject is a dream and its interpretation, and all revelation is either the result of talking to angels through whom the Lord speaks or else the result of perception, dealt with below; from the representation of ‘Joseph’ as the celestial within the natural, dealt with above in 5086, 5087, 5106; and from the meaning of ‘the interpretation’ as what it held within it, also dealt with above, in 5093, 5105, 5107. From this it is evident that ‘Joseph said to him, This is the interpretation of it’ means revelation resulting from the perception received by the celestial within the natural as to what it held within it.

[2] With regard to revelations resulting either from perception or from talking to angels through whom the Lord speaks, it should be recognized that people who are governed by good and from this by truth, especially those who are governed by good flowing from love to the Lord, receive revelation as a result of perception. But those who are not governed by good or from this by truth can indeed receive revelations, but not those that are the result of perception, only those which come to them through a voice which they hear speaking within themselves and so through angels from the Lord. This kind of revelation is external, whereas the other kind is internal. Revelation resulting from perception is the kind that angels, especially celestial ones, receive. It was also the kind received by members of the Most Ancient Church, and by some members of the Ancient Church too; but scarcely anyone receives such at the present day. Very many people however, including those who have not been governed by good, have received revelations from conversations [with angels] which did not involve any perception, the same as with those receiving revelations through visions or through dreams.

[3] Most of the revelations received by the prophets in the Jewish Church were of this kind – they heard a voice, saw a vision, or dreamed a dream. But because they had no perception these were merely verbal or visual revelations which did not involve any perception about what was really meant by them. For genuine perception comes from the Lord through heaven; it fills the understanding with spiritual ideas and leads it, as may be perceived, to think along the lines of, and inwardly to recognize, the true nature of a thing. The source of that power of recognition is not known, but the understanding imagines that it begins within itself and springs from the interconnected ideas it has present within itself. But in fact that power is a dictate coming from the Lord by way of heaven into the interior parts of ones thought regarding the things that are above and beyond the natural and the senses, that is, the kinds of things that belong to the spiritual world or heaven. From all this one may see what revelation resulting from perception is. But the revelation resulting from perception which the Lord, who is represented here by ‘Joseph’, had – which revelation is the subject here in the internal sense – sprang from the Divine within Himself, and so originated in Himself.

AC (Elliott) n. 5122 sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ 5122. ‘The three shoots are three days’ means continuous derivatives even to the final one. This is clear from the meaning of ‘three’ as a single period and the continuity of it from start to finish, dealt with in 2788, 4495; from the meaning of ‘shoots’ as derivatives, dealt with in 5114; and from the meaning of ‘days’ as states, dealt with in 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850. From all this it follows that ‘the three shoots are three days’ means the state in which the sensory power represented by ‘the cupbearer’ undergoes rebirth, from the first to the final degrees of it, its consecutive derivatives being meant by ‘shoots’.

[2] The states of rebirth which each sensory power and every aspect of the natural, as well as every aspect of the rational, pass through have from beginning to end their own progressive stages. When they attain any end they also begin at that point something else that is new; that is to say, they pass on from the end they had been striving to attain in a prior state to the realization of some further end, and so on after that. Eventually order is turned around, so that what has been last becomes first. This is what happens when a person is being regenerated, both in the case of his rational and in that of his natural. While his regeneration is taking place the phases that make up the first state are the stages of a movement from the truths of faith towards forms of the good of charity, when the truths of faith seemingly play the leading role while forms of the good of charity play a secondary one; for the truths of faith have the good of charity as their end in view. Phases like these continue until the person’s regeneration is completed. Once this is completed charity then moves from the final place to the first in the line, and so becomes the point from which new states begin. These states develop in two directions – in an increasingly inward direction and also in a more outward one. Inwardly they move closer to love to the Lord, while outwardly they move closer first to the truths of faith, then to natural truths, and after that to truths as these are perceived by the senses. Then these three degrees of truths are brought into agreement one after another with forms of the good of charity and love present within the rational and so are brought into heavenly order.

[3] These are the matters that are meant by progressive stages of development and by continuous derivatives even to the final one. Such stages and derivatives are unending in the case of a person who is being regenerated. They begin when he is a young child and continue through to the final phase of his life in the world; indeed they continue for ever after that, though his regeneration can never reach the point when he can by any means be called perfect. For there are countless, indeed a limitless number of things to be regenerated, both within his rational and within his natural. Everything there has limitless shoots, that is, stages of development and derivatives that progress in both inward and outward directions. A person has no immediate awareness at all of this, but the Lord is aware of every particular detail and is making provision for it moment by moment. If He were to stop doing this for a single instant every stage of development would be thrown into confusion. For one stage looks to the next in an unending sequence and produces chains of sequences which never cease. From this it is evident that Divine Foresight and Providence exist in every particular detail, and that if they did not, or did so in a merely overall way, the human race would perish.

AC (Elliott) n. 5123 sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ 5123. ‘In yet three days’ means that at that point a new state is arrived at. This is clear from the meaning of ‘three’ as that which is continuous even to the end, and so also that which is complete, dealt with in 2788, 4495; and from the meaning of ‘days’ as states, dealt with above in 5122. From this it is evident that ‘three days’ means a complete state; consequently ‘in three days’, that is, after three days, means a new state, 4901, for once a state is completed a new one begins.

AC (Elliott) n. 5124 sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Jer@52 @31 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef 2Ki@25 @27 S1′ sRef 2Ki@25 @28 S1′ sRef Gen@40 @19 S1′ 5124. ‘Pharaoh will lift up your head’ means that which has been provided and therefore decided. This is clear from the meaning of ‘lifting up the head’ as reaching a decision, and in the highest sense as providing; for a decision taken by the Divine and the carrying of that decision into effect is Providence. ‘Lifting up the head’ was an expression commonly used by the Ancients when it was decided that those who were bound, that is, those in prison, should either be allowed to live or else be condemned to death. When they were allowed to live the expression ‘lifting up the head’ was used, as also in the second Book of Kings,

Evil-merodach king of Babel, in the year he became king, lifted up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah from the prison-house; and he spoke to him that which was good, and set his throne above the throne of the kings who were with him in Babel. 2 Kings 25:17, 28.

Similarly in Jeremiah,

Evil-merodach king of Babel, in the [first] year of his reign, lifted up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah and brought him from the prison-house. Jer. 52:31.

But when someone was condemned to death the expression ‘lifting up the head from upon him’ was used, as in verse 19 further on which refers to the baker,

In yet three days Pharaoh will lift up your head from upon you.

[2] This phrase expressing the decision that someone should live or be put to death originated with the Ancients, among whom representatives existed; it originated in their representation of those who were bound in prison or the pit. Because those in prison represented people undergoing vastation beneath the lower earth, 4728, 4744, 5038, ‘lifting up the head’ therefore meant their release from this condition. For when they are released they are raised or brought up from that vastation to heavenly communities, see 2699, 2701, 2704. Being brought or raised up implies advances made towards interior things, for the expression raised up or high is used to refer to things that are interior, 2148, 4210. And because advances made towards interior things are meant, an advance towards heaven is meant, since heaven exists within interior things. Such is the meaning of ‘lifting up the head’. But ‘lifting up the head from upon someone’ meant his condemnation to death, for in this case those who were above the ones in the pit or undergoing vastation were raised up to heaven, while those in the pit were sent down into the nether regions. These things meant by this phrase expressing the decision whether one should live or be put to death are the reason for its usage in the Word. From this it is evident that ‘lifting up the head’ means that which has been decided; and as this is meant, that which has been provided is meant in the highest sense, since the Divine makes provision for that on which He has made a decision.

AC (Elliott) n. 5125 sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ 5125. ‘And will restore you to your position’ means that the impressions received through the senses subject to the understanding part were restored to order, to occupy the lowest position. This is clear from the representation of ‘the cupbearer’, regarding whom these words are said, as the powers of the senses subject to the understanding part, dealt with in 5077, 5082, and therefore the impressions received through the senses in the external natural (for it is not the actual powers of the senses that are restored to order but the impressions which have come through the senses into the person’s false notions); and from the meaning of ‘restoring to a position’ as restoring to order. And because sensory impressions, that is, images which have come in from the world by way of the external sensory organs, occupy the lowest position, where they minister to or serve more interior things, those impressions too are meant. In the case of regenerate persons sensory impressions do occupy the lowest position, but in the case of those who are not regenerate they occupy the first, see 5077, 5081, 5084, 5089, 5094.

[2] A person can easily tell, if he pays the matter any attention, whether sensory impressions occupy the first or else the last and lowest position in him. If he says yes to everything his senses urge or desire and plays down all that his understanding tells him, then sensory impressions occupy the first position. When this is the case that person is carried along by natural desires and is ruled completely by his senses. The condition of a person like this is little different from that of animals, which are not endowed with reason; for animals are carried along by nothing else than their senses. Indeed that person’s condition is worse than theirs if he misuses his power of understanding or reason to lend support to evils and falsities which the senses urge and tend towards. But if he does not say yes to these, but from within himself recognizes that they can mislead him into false beliefs and incite desires for evil in him, and he strives to discipline them – thereby bringing them into a position of subservience, that is, making them subject to the understanding part and the will part which belong to the interior man – sensory impressions are in that case restored to order, to occupy the last and lowest position. When sensory impressions occupy that position, happiness and bliss radiate from the interior man into the delights of the senses and make these delights a thousand times better than they were before. Having no understanding of this, one who is ruled by his senses has no belief in it either; and feeling no other delight than that of the senses, and so imagining that no higher kind of delight exists, he regards the happiness and bliss that can be inwardly present in the delights of the senses as worthless. For what a person has no knowledge of is not thought by him to have any real existence.

AC (Elliott) n. 5126 sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ 5126. ‘And you will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand’ means in order that they might consequently serve the interior natural. This is clear from the meaning of ‘putting the cup to drink’ as making one’s own, dealt with above in 5120, besides the obvious meaning of serving; and from the representation of ‘Pharaoh’ as the interior natural, dealt with in 5080, 5095, 5118. For there is an interior natural and there is an exterior natural, the exterior natural being made up of impressions which enter in directly from the world by way of the senses into the natural mind, that is to say, they enter the memory belonging to that mind and therefore enter the place where mental images are formed, see 5118.

[2] So that people can know what the exterior natural and what the interior natural are like, which make up the exterior man, and from this can know what the rational is which makes up the interior man, a brief reference to them must be made here. From infancy to childhood a person relies solely on his senses, for during those years he is receiving, through his bodily senses, nothing but earthly, bodily, and worldly impressions, which during those years are also the raw material from which he forms his ideas and thoughts. Communication with the interior man has not yet been opened up, except insofar as he is able to take in and hold on to those impressions. The innocence which exists in him at this time is solely external, not internal, because true innocence resides within wisdom. But the Lord uses this – his external innocence – to bring order into what enters through the senses. If innocence did not come to him from the Lord in that first period no foundation would ever be laid down on which the intellectual or rational degree of the mind proper to a human being could be established.

[3] From childhood to early youth communication is opened up with the interior natural, by the person’s learning about what is decent, public-spirited, and honourable, both through what parents and teachers tell him and through his own efforts to find out about such matters. During early youth to later youth however communication is opened up between the natural and the rational, by his learning about what is true and what is good so far as his public life and private life are concerned, and above all about what is good and what is true so far as his spiritual life is concerned, all of which he learns about through listening to and reading the Word. Indeed insofar as he uses truths to immerse himself in good deeds, that is, insofar as he puts the truths he learns into practice, the rational is opened up; but insofar as he does not use truths to immerse himself in good deeds, or does not put truths into practice, the rational is not opened up. Nevertheless the things he has come to know remain within the natural; that is to say, they remain in his memory, left on the doorstep so to speak outside the house.

[4] But insofar – during these years and the next period of life – as he impairs the things he knows, refuses to accept them, and acts contrary to them, that is, insofar as he believes falsities and practises evils instead, the rational is closed, as is the interior natural also. But in spite of that, the Lord’s Divine Providence enables communication to remain open enough to give him the ability to understand the good or truth he knows about. But he does not make these his own unless he truly repents and for a long while after that wrestles with falsities and evils. With people however who allow themselves to be regenerated the opposite takes place; for gradually, that is, in consecutive stages, their rational is opened up, the interior natural then becoming ranged in order beneath it, and the exterior natural beneath that. This occurs especially in the period from late youth to adulthood; it also continues in progressive stages to the final period of those regenerating people’s lives, and after that in heaven for ever. From all this one may know what constitutes a person’s interior natural and what his exterior natural.

AC (Elliott) n. 5127 sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ 5127. ‘According to the former manner’ means in keeping with the law of order. This is clear from the meaning of ‘the former manner’ as the law of order. The law of order demands that exterior things should be subject to interior ones, or what amounts to the same, lower things should be subject to higher ones, serving them like domestic servants. Indeed exterior or lower things are nothing else than such servants, whereas interior or higher things in relation to them are their lords. The reason ‘after the former manner’ has this meaning is that as the cupbearer, being a servant, had previously served Pharaoh as his lord, in keeping with the law of subordination, so too was it in keeping with the law of order that the sensory power represented by ‘the cupbearer’ should serve the interior natural represented by ‘Pharaoh’.

[2] The fact that the law of order requires lower or exterior things to serve higher or interior ones is totally unknown to a person governed by his senses. For anyone who relies solely on his senses has no knowledge of what is interior, nor thus of what is exterior in relation to this. He knows about his thought and speech, and about his will and action, and from this presumes that thought and will are interior, speech and action exterior. But he is not aware of the fact that thought based solely on sensory experience, and action based solely on natural impulses, belong to the external man, so that his thought and will are activities of his exterior man alone. He is particularly unaware of this when his thoughts are false thoughts and his desires evil desires. And since in the case of anyone like him communication with his interiors is closed he therefore has no idea of what interior thought is or what interior will is. If he is told that interior thought is based on truth and that interior will is based on doing what is good, he does not begin to understand it. He understands still less if he is told that the interior man is distinct and separate from the exterior – so distinct that the interior man can, from a higher position so to speak, see what is going on in the exterior man – and that the interior man has the ability and power to discipline the exterior, and the ability not to will or think what the exterior man sees as a result of his having false notions and longs for as a result of his having evil desires.

[3] As long as his external man is in control and reigning he sees none of this. But when not in this state, when for example he suffers any pain or grief owing to misfortune or sickness, he can see and grasp it because the external man ceases at that time to be in control. For a person’s ability or power to understand is always preserved by the Lord, but it is largely obscured in the case of those steeped in falsities and evils, and is always more apparent as falsities and evils become dormant. The Lord’s Divine is constantly coming to a person and bringing him light, but when falsities and evils are present, that is, things contrary to truths and forms of good, the light of the Divine is then either cast aside, smothered, or perverted. Just enough is received, through chinks so to speak, to allow him to think and to speak by the use of ideas received through the senses, and also to think and to speak about spiritual matters with the help of expressions registered in the natural or bodily memory.

AC (Elliott) n. 5128 sRef Gen@40 @11 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @10 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @12 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @9 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @13 S0′ 5128. ‘When you were his cupbearer’ means as is the normal position for sensory impressions of this kind. This is clear from the meaning of ‘cupbearer’ as the powers of the senses, that is, those of them that are subject to the understanding part of the mind, dealt with in 5077, 5082 – the normal position being meant by the expression ‘when you were’. The need for sensory impressions to be subject and subordinate to rational ideas has been referred to already in what has gone before; but since the subjection and subordination of them is the subject here in the internal sense, something more must be said about the nature of this.

[2] The person with whom the senses have been made subject is called a rational person, but a person with whom they have not is called one ruled by his senses. But whether a person is rational or whether he is one ruled by his senses is scarcely discernible by others; only the individual himself can know, if he examines himself inwardly, that is, if he examines what he wills and what he thinks. Others cannot know from a person’s speech whether he is one ruled by his senses or whether he is a rational person, nor can they know it from his actions, because the life of his thought held within his speech and the life of his will held within his actions cannot be perceived by any of the physical senses. These hear merely the sound he utters, or they see the movement made by his body together with the affection that impels him to make it. One cannot tell whether this affection is artificial or genuine. In the next life however those who are governed by good perceive clearly both what is held within a person’s speech and what is held within his actions, and so perceive the nature of the life within them and where that life has its origin. Yet even in the world several indications exist which enable one to deduce to some extent whether the senses are subject to the rational, or the rational to the senses; or what amounts to the same, whether a person is rational or ruled solely by his senses. Those indications are as follows: If one notices that a person who makes false assumptions is not ready to become more enlightened but casts truths altogether aside, dispenses with reason, and obstinately defends falsities, this is an indication that he is ruled by his senses and is not a rational person. His rational is closed, so that it does not let in the light of heaven.

[3] Ruled even more by their senses are those who are quite convinced by what is false, for such a conviction closes the rational altogether. It is one thing to make false assumptions, another to be convinced by what is false. Those convinced by what is false do have some light shining within their natural, but this is like the light in winter. When it shines among them in the next life that light is as bright as snow; but as soon as the light of heaven falls on it, it becomes a dull light, the degree and nature of their conviction making it dark as night. The same is also evident in these people while they are living in the world, for during that time they are unable to see the faintest glimmer of truth. Indeed because of the dullness and benightedness due to the falsity of which they are convinced, they see no value at all in truths and laugh at them. To the simple those people sometimes give the impression that they are rational, for by means of that snowy-white wintry light they are able to employ clever reasonings to substantiate falsities and make them look like truths. This kind of conviction exists in many of the learned, more than in every other kind of person, for they have used syllogistic and philosophical reasonings, and finally much factual knowledge to become firmly convinced by falsities. Among the ancients such people were called serpents belonging to the tree of knowledge, 195-197, but today they may be called those who are ruled inwardly by their senses and are devoid of true rationality.

[4] The main indication that shows whether someone is ruled wholly by his senses or whether he is a rational person exists in the life he leads. By this one does not mean the kind of life that is evident in his words and deeds but the kind that is held inwardly in these. For the source of the life within his words is his thought, and the source of the life within his deeds is his will, both having their origin in his intentions or end in view. The nature therefore of the intentions or end in view present within his words and deeds determines the nature of the life they hold within them, for without the life within them words are mere sounds, while deeds are mere motions. This kind of life is also what is meant when one speaks of life continuing after death. If a person is rational his words flow from right thinking and his deeds from right willing; that is, his words are a product of faith and his deeds a product of charity. But if a person is not rational he can, it is true, make a pretence of acting as one who is rational, and likewise of speaking as one who is such; but no life at all is coming from his rational. For a life of evil closes entirely the path to or communication with the rational, which causes him to be a merely natural person or one ruled by his senses.

[5] There are two things which not only close that path of communication but also rob a person of the ability ever to become rational – deceit and profanation. Deceit is like a subtle poison which affects the inward parts, while profanation is that which mixes up falsities with truths and evils with forms of good. The two completely destroy the rational. Present with everyone there are forms of good and truth which have been stored away by the Lord since earliest childhood. In the Word these forms of good and truth are called remnants, regarding which see 468, 530, 560, 561, 661, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284; and it is these remnants that deceit poisons and that profanation mixes up with falsities and evils. For what profanation is, see 593, 1008, 1010, 1059, 1327, 1328, 2051, 2426, 3398, 3402, 3489, 3898, 4289, 4601. All these indications show to some extent who a rational person is and who one ruled by his senses is.

[6] When the senses have become subject to the rational, the sensory powers that serve to form a person’s first mental images receive light which comes through heaven from the Lord; they are at the same time brought into a state of order that enables them to receive that light and agree with the rational. Once they exist in this condition sensory impressions are no longer a barrier that prevents truths from being either acknowledged or seen, for those that are not in keeping with truths are instantly set aside, while those which are in keeping are accepted. Those that are in keeping are now so to speak at the centre and those that are not are on the fringes. Those at the centre are so to speak raised up towards heaven, while those on the fringes are hanging downwards. Those at the centre receive light from the rational, and when they are manifested visually in the next life they look like small glittering stars which radiate light, gradually decreasing, out to the fringes. This is the kind of form that natural or sensory images are being brought into when the rational has dominion and the senses exist subject to it. This is what happens to a person while he is being regenerated, bringing him as a consequence into a state in which truths can be seen and acknowledged by him in abundance. But when the rational is subject to the senses the opposite happens, for in this case falsities are in the middle or at the centre and truths are on the fringes. The falsities at the centre dwell in a certain kind of light, which however is an inferior and deceptive one, like that emitted by a coal fire. Into this there is flowing light on every side from hell. This inferior light is that which is called darkness, for as soon as any light from heaven flows into it, it is converted into darkness.

AC (Elliott) n. 5129 sRef Gen@40 @15 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @14 S0′ 5129. Verses 14, 15 But remember me when it is well with you, and show, I beg you, mercy to me, and make mention of me to Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house. For I have indeed been taken away by theft out of the land of the Hebrews, and here also I have not done anything for which they should put me in the pit.

‘But remember me’ means the reception of faith. ‘When it is well with you’ means when a correspondence exists. ‘And show, I beg you, mercy to me’ means the reception of charity. ‘And make mention of me to Pharaoh’ means communication with the interior natural. ‘And bring me out of this house’ means a release from evils. ‘For I have indeed been taken away by theft’ means that evil caused celestial things to become alienated. ‘Out of the land of the Hebrews’ means from the Church. ‘And here also I have not done anything’ means innocence. ‘For which they should put me in the pit’ means a casting away among falsities.

AC (Elliott) n. 5130 sRef Gen@40 @14 S0′ 5130. ‘But remember me’ means the reception of faith. This is clear from the representation of ‘Joseph’, who says this about himself, as the Lord as regards the celestial within the natural, dealt with in 5086, 5087, 5106; and from the meaning of ‘remember me’ as the reception of faith, for remembering and being mindful of the Lord do not flow from anything other than faith. Consequently ‘remember me’ implies a desire to receive faith. As regards faith, anyone who receives and possesses faith is constantly mindful of the Lord. This is so even when he is thinking or talking about something other than Him, or else when he is carrying out his public, private, or family duties, though he is not directly conscious of his mindfulness of the Lord while he is carrying them out. Indeed that mindfulness of the Lord present in those who possess faith governs their whole being, but that which governs their whole being is not noticed by them except when they turn their thought specifically to that matter.

[2] This may be illustrated by many aspects of human character. One who is governed by some love, whatever this may be, is thinking constantly about things connected with that love. This is so even when other matters occupy his mind, conversation, or action. This is quite evident in the next life from the spiritual spheres which surround everyone individually. From those spheres alone one can detect what the faith is and what the love is that are present in all who are there, even though they may be thinking or talking about something completely different, 1048, 1053, 1316, 1504-1520, 2489, 4464. For that which governs a person’s whole being produces the sphere surrounding him and reveals to others what his life is. From this one may see what is meant by the statement that one ought to be thinking constantly about the Lord, salvation, and life after death. All who possess faith that is grounded in charity do so, as a consequence of which they do not entertain evil thoughts regarding their neighbour, and that which is just and fair is present in every aspect of their thought, speech, and action; for that which governs the person’s whole being enters every particular aspect of it, both leading it and controlling it. Indeed the Lord holds the mind to those concerns that are charitable and are therefore matters of faith, and in so doing He fits every single thing in the mind into its proper place. The sphere of faith grounded in charity is the sphere which reigns in heaven, for the Lord flows in with love, and by means of love with charity, and as a consequence with truths which are the truths of faith. This explains why those in heaven are said to be in the Lord. The subject in what follows next is the rebirth of the sensory power subject to the understanding part represented by ‘the cupbearer’; and as the rebirth of this is the subject, so also is the reception of faith. Indeed sensory awareness, like the rational, is born again by means of faith, but by faith into which charity is flowing. Unless charity flows into faith and imparts life to it, faith cannot possibly exist throughout a person’s whole being, for it is what a person loves that reigns in him, not what he merely knows and retains in his memory.

AC (Elliott) n. 5131 sRef Gen@40 @14 S0′ 5131. ‘When it is well with you’ means when a correspondence exists. This is clear from the meaning – when the subject is the rebirth or regeneration of the exterior natural or sensory power – of ‘being well with you’ as a correspondence that exists, for until that power corresponds things are not well with it. What correspondence is may be seen at the ends of chapters. There is a correspondence of sensory impressions with natural ideas, a correspondence of natural ideas with spiritual realities, a correspondence of spiritual realities with celestial entities, and finally a correspondence of celestial entities with the Lord’s Divine. Thus a sequence of correspondences exists extending from the Divine down to the last and lowest degree of the natural.

[2] Since it is difficult for anyone to have any conception of the nature of correspondences if he has not previously given any thought to them, a brief statement must therefore be made about them. It is well known from philosophy that the end is prior to the cause, and the cause prior to the effect. To enable end, cause, and effect to follow one another and act as one, the effect must correspond to the cause, and the cause must correspond to the end. Nevertheless the end does not manifest itself as the cause, nor does the cause manifest itself as the effect. Rather, to enable the cause to exist the end must act on the level where the cause belongs, calling on assistant means to help it – the end – to bring the cause into existence; and to enable the effect to exist the cause likewise must act on the level where the effect belongs, by calling on assistant means to help it – the cause – to bring the effect into existence. These assistant means are ones that correspond; and because they correspond, the end can exist within the cause and bring the cause into operation, and the cause can exist within the effect and bring the effect into operation. Consequently the end uses the cause to bring the effect into operation. But it is different when no correspondence exists. In this case the end does not have a cause in which it may exist, let alone any effect in which it may do so. Instead the end undergoes change and variation within the cause, and finally within the effect, according to the form which the assistant means create.

[3] All things without exception within the human being, indeed all things without exception in the natural creation, follow one another as end, cause, and effect. When these correspond to one another in this way they act as one, for in this case the end is the all in all of the cause, and through the cause is the all in all of the effect. Take for example heavenly love, when this is the end, the will is the cause, and action is the effect. If the three exist in correspondence with one another – that love flowing into the will, and the will into action – they then act as one, so much so through their correspondence with one another that the action is seen as the love. Or take for another example faith grounded in charity. When this is the end, thought is the cause, and conversation is the effect. If the three exist in correspondence with one another – if faith grounded in charity is flowing into a person’s thought, and this into his conversation – they then act as one, so much so that through their correspondence with one another his conversation is seen as if it were the end. But to enable the cause to exist, which is will or thought, the end, which is love or faith, must call on assistant means within the rational mind which must correspond. For without the corresponding assistant means the end, which is love and faith, has nothing to receive it, even though it flows in from the Lord through heaven. From this it is evident that both the interior and the exterior aspects of the human being, that is, his rational concepts, natural ideas, and sensory impressions, must be brought into a state of correspondence so that the Divine can flow in and be received by a person, consequently so that he may be born again, prior to which all is not well with him. From all this one may see that ‘when it is well with you’ here means [when] a correspondence exists.

AC (Elliott) n. 5132 sRef Matt@25 @35 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @36 S0′ sRef Gen@40 @14 S0′ 5132. ‘And show, I beg you, mercy to me’ means the reception of charity. This is clear from the meaning of ‘mercy’ as love, dealt with in 3063, 3073, 3120, 5042, in this case love towards the neighbour, which is charity, since the reception of faith is spoken of above in 5130; for on the level of the senses, when these are born again, faith and charity must make one. The reason ‘mercy’ means charity is that all who have charity have mercy, that is, all who love their neighbour are merciful towards him. This also explains why the Word describes the practice of charity as acts of mercy, as in Matthew,

I was hungry and you gave Me food, I was thirsty and you gave Me drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, naked and you clothed Me, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to me. Matt. 25:35, 36.

And in other places the practice of charity is described as acts of mercy done to the poor, the afflicted, widows, and orphans.

[2] Charity consists essentially in desiring the welfare of one’s neighbour, in having an affection for what is good, and in acknowledging that since what is good is one’s neighbour, those who are governed by good are consequently one’s neighbour, but varyingly so, depending on the amount of good that governs the individual person. Therefore since charity consists in having an affection for what is good, it also consists in feelings of mercy for those in distress. The good of charity holds such feelings within it because it comes down from the Lord’s love towards the whole human race, a love which is ‘mercy’ because the whole human race is in distress. Mercy sometimes seems to exist among the evil who have no charity. But this is a case of pain because of their own suffering; for it consists in a concern for friends whom they identify with themselves, and when those friends suffer, they suffer too. This kind of mercy is not the mercy that belongs to charity but that which goes with friendship based on self-interest, which regarded in itself is the opposite of mercy. That kind of person despises and hates everyone else apart from himself, and so everyone else apart from the friends whom he identifies with himself.

AC (Elliott) n. 5133 sRef Gen@40 @14 S0′ 5133. ‘And make mention of me to Pharaoh’ means communication with the interior natural. This is clear from the meaning of ‘making mention to someone’ as communicating, and from the representation of ‘Pharaoh’ as the interior natural, dealt with 5080, 5095. By communication with the interior natural one means a joining together with it that has been effected through correspondence. The interior natural is that which receives ideas of truth and good from the rational and stores these away for the use they may serve, and is consequently that which communicates directly with the rational. The exterior natural however is that which receives images, and from these the ideas of things coming from the world by way of the senses.

[2] Unless these latter ideas receive light from ideas present in the interior natural they give rise to illusions, which are called the illusions of the senses. When subject to such illusions a person believes nothing apart from that which is in agreement with them or to which they lend support, as is the situation if no correspondence exists. Nor does any correspondence exist if that person is not endowed with charity, for charity is the means which brings about union because the good of charity contains life from the Lord. That life arranges truths into order, thereby giving charity an outward form, that is, an image in which it can present itself. This form is manifested visually in the next life and is the angelic form itself. All the angels consequently are forms of charity, the beauty of this charity being received from the truths of faith, and the life within the beauty being received from the good of charity.

AC (Elliott) n. 5134 sRef Gen@40 @14 S0′ 5134. ‘And bring me out of this house’ means a release from evils. This is clear from the meaning of ‘bringing out’ as a release, and from the meaning of ‘house’ as good, dealt with in 710, 1708, 2048, 2233, 3128, 3652, 3720, 4982, and therefore, in the contrary sense, as evil. From this it is evident that ‘bring me out of this house’ means a release from evils, a meaning that also follows the preceding train of thought, which is this: When faith is received within the exterior natural, which is the subject here, 5130, a correspondence is effected, 5131, and when charity is received, 5132, and a communication is thereby effected with the interior natural, 5133, the exterior natural is at that point released from the evils which had caused the celestial represented by ‘Joseph’, 5086, 5087, 5106, to become alienated – that alienation being meant by the words which follow next, stating that he was taken away by theft. Furthermore, when the natural is regenerated by means of charity and faith it is released from evils; for when it is regenerated the evils are set apart and cast away from the centre, where they were previously, to the fringes, which the light of truth from good does not reach. In man’s case evils are set apart in this manner; yet they still remain, for they cannot be completely destroyed. But with the Lord, who made the natural within Himself Divine, evils and falsities were cast out and completely destroyed. For the Divine cannot have anything at all in common with evils and falsities, or be encompassed by them, as is the case with man; for the Divine is the Essential Being (Esse) of good and truth, and that Being exists an infinite distance away from everything evil and false.

AC (Elliott) n. 5135 sRef Gen@40 @15 S0′ 5135. ‘For I have indeed been taken away by theft’ means that evil caused celestial things to become alienated. This is clear from the representation of ‘Joseph’, who says this about himself, as the celestial within the natural, dealt with in 5086, 5087, 5106, and consequently the celestial things there; and from the meaning of ‘being taken away by theft’ as undergoing alienation caused by evil. For ‘to commit theft’ means to alienate, while ‘theft’ itself means the evil which causes alienation, as well as meaning evil which lays claim to the things existing there in the natural. ‘Theft’ means an alienation caused by evil that happens in the place which such evil takes possession of; for it expels everything good and true and fills up that place with evils and falsities. ‘Theft’ also means its laying claim to what belongs to others; for it takes to itself everything good and true in that place and makes such its own as well as attaching it to evils and falsities. But to enable anyone to know what is meant by ‘theft’ in the spiritual sense, a statement must be made about what happens to evils and falsities when they enter in and take possession of a place, and also when they lay claim to everything good and true there.

[2] From infancy to childhood, and sometimes on into early youth, a person is absorbing forms of goodness and truth received from parents and teachers, for during those years he learns about those forms of goodness and truth and believes them with simplicity – his state of innocence enabling this to happen. It inserts those forms of goodness and truth into his memory; yet it lodges them only on the edge of it since the innocence of infancy and childhood is not an internal innocence which has an influence on the rational, only an external one which has an influence solely on the exterior natural, 2306, 3183, 3494, 4563, 4797. When however the person grows older, when he starts to think for himself and not, as previously, simply in the way his parents or teachers do, he brings back to mind and so to speak chews over what he has learned and believed before, and then he either endorses it, has doubts about it, or refuses to accept it. If he endorses it, this is an indication that he is governed by good, but if he refuses to accept it, that is an indication that he is governed by evil. If however he has doubts about what he has learned and believed before, it is an indication that he will move subsequently either into an affirmative attitude of mind or else into a negative one.

[3] The truths that a person learns and believes in his earliest years when he is a young child but which later on he either endorses, has doubts about, or refuses to accept, are in particular these: There is God, and He is one; He created everything; He rewards those who do what is good and punishes those who do things that are bad; there is life after death, when the bad go to hell and the good go to heaven, and so there is a hell and a heaven; the life after death lasts for ever; also, people ought to pray every day and to do so in a humble way; they ought to keep the sabbath day holy, honour their parents, and not commit adultery, kill, or steal; and many other truths like these. Such truths are learned and absorbed by a person from earliest childhood; but if, when he starts to think for himself and to lead his own life, he endorses them, adding to them further truths of a more interior kind, and leads a life in conformity with them, all is well with him. But if he starts to disobey them, refusing at length to accept them, then even though outwardly he leads a life in conformity with them, because the law and society expect him to do so, he is governed by evil.

[4] This evil is what is meant by ‘theft’, to the extent that thief-like it usurps the position held previously by good. With many people it is thief-like to the extent that it takes away the forms of goodness and truth previously there and uses them to lend support to evils and falsities. So far as is possible with these people the Lord removes the forms of goodness and truth absorbed in early childhood from where these are to a more internal position, where – within the interior natural – He stores them away for future use. These forms of goodness and truth that are stored away within the interior natural are meant in the Word by ‘the remnant’, dealt with in 468, 530, 560, 561, 660, 661, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284. But if evil steals the forms of goodness and truth there and uses them to lend support to evils and falsities, especially if it does so by the use of deceit, it destroys those remnants; for in this case it mingles evil with good, and falsity with truth, to such an extent that one cannot be separated from the other; and then a person is done for.

sRef Zech@5 @4 S5′ sRef Zech@5 @1 S5′ sRef Zech@5 @2 S5′ sRef Zech@5 @3 S5′ [5] The fact that ‘theft’ means the kinds of things mentioned above may be seen from the mere use of that word to refer to what constitutes a person’s spiritual life. For the only riches in that life are cognitions of good and truth, and the only possessions and inheritances are the different forms of happiness in life which are gained from forms of good and from truths deriving from these. The stealing of such things, as stated above, is what ‘theft’ relates to in the spiritual sense, and therefore by the thefts mentioned in the Word nothing else is meant in the internal sense, as in Zechariah,

I lifted up my eyes and saw, and behold, a flying scroll. Then he said to me, This curse is going out over the face of the whole land, for everyone committing theft from now on, according to it, will be innocent, and everyone swearing falsely, according to it, will be innocent. I have cast it forth, that it may enter the house of the thief, and the house of him swearing falsely by My name, and may pass the night in his house and consume it, both its timbers and its stones. Zech. 5:1-4.

Evil which takes away remnants of good is meant by ‘one committing theft’ and by ‘the house of the thief’, and falsity which takes away remnants of truth by ‘one swearing falsely’ and by ‘the house of him swearing falsely’. ‘The face of the whole land’ stands for the whole Church, which is why the statement is made that the curse will consume the house, both its timbers and its stones – ‘house’ meaning the natural mind or a person so far as that mind is concerned, 3128, 3538, 4973, 5023, ‘timbers’ the forms of good present there, 2784, 2812, 3720, 4943, and ‘stones’ the truths, 643, 1298, 3720.

sRef Josh@7 @11 S6′ sRef Josh@7 @25 S6′ sRef Josh@7 @21 S6′ sRef Josh@7 @10 S6′ [6] Profanation and a consequent removal of goodness and truth are meant in the spiritual sense by the action of Achan, who took some of ‘the devoted things’ – a mantle of Shinar, two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of gold – and hid them in the earth in the middle of his tent, on account of which he was stoned and everything was burned, as described in Joshua,

Jehovah said to Joshua, Israel has sinned; they have transgressed My covenant which I commanded them, and have taken some of that which was devoted; they have committed theft, have lied, and have put it among their own vessels. Josh. 7:11, 12, 25.

‘The devoted things’ meant falsities and evils, which were not on any account to be mixed with anything holy. ‘A mantle of Shinar, two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of gold’ in the spiritual sense are specific types of falsity. ‘Hiding them in the earth in the middle of the tent’ meant a mingling with things that are holy – for ‘a tent’ means that which is holy, see 414, 1102, 1566, 2145, 2152, 3312, 4128, 4391, 4599. Such was the meaning of the declaration that they had committed theft, lied, and put [what was devoted] among their own vessels; for ‘vessels’ means holy truths, 3068, 3079, 3316, 3318.

sRef Jer@49 @9 S7′ sRef Jer@49 @10 S7′ sRef Jer@49 @8 S7′ [7] In Jeremiah,

I will bring the disaster* of Esau upon him, the time I will visit him. If grape-gatherers come to you, will they not leave grape-gleanings? if thieves in the night, will they not destroy a sufficiency? I will strip Esau bare, I will uncover his secret places, and he will not be able to be concealed. His seed has been laid waste, and his brothers, and his neighbours; and he is no more. Jer. 49:8-10.

‘Esau’ stands for the evil of self-love to which falsities have been allied, 3322. The destruction by this evil of the remnants of good and truth is meant by the statements that ‘thieves in the night will destroy a sufficiency’ and that ‘his seed has been laid waste, also his brothers and his neighbours, and he is no more’. ‘Seed’ stands for truths which are those of faith grounded in charity, 1025, 1447, 1610, 1940, 2848, 3038, 3310, 3373; ‘brothers’ for forms of good which are those of charity, 367, 2360, 2508, 2524, 3160, 3303, 3459, 3815, 4121, 4191; ‘neighbours’ for the adjoining and related forms of truth and good which belong to it.

sRef Obad@1 @5 S8′ [8] A similar reference to Esau occurs in Obadiah,

If thieves come to you, if those who overturn in the night – how you will have been cut off! – will they not steal that which is enough for themselves? If grape-gatherers come to you, will they not leave some clusters? Obad. verse 5.

‘Grape-gatherers’ stands for falsities which are not a product of evil. These falsities do not destroy the forms of goodness and truth – that is, the remnants – stored away by the Lord in a person’s interior natural. But falsities that are the product of evils do destroy them, for they steal forms of truth and good and also use them, through misapplication of them, to lend support to evils and falsities.

sRef Joel@2 @5 S9′ sRef Joel@2 @9 S9′ sRef Joel@2 @7 S9′ [9] In Joel,

A great and mighty people, like heroes they will run, like men of war they will scale the wall; and they will pass on, every one on his way. They will run about the city, they will run on the wall, they will climb into the houses, they will go in through the windows like a thief. Joel 2:7, 9.

‘A great and mighty people’ stands for falsities fighting against truths, 1259, 1260; and because they fight in a mighty way, by destroying truths, they are spoken of as ‘heroes’ and ‘like men of war’. ‘The city’ through which they are said to run about stands for matters of doctrine regarding truth, 402, 2268, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216; ‘the houses which they will climb into’ stands for the forms of good which they destroy, 710, 1708, 2048, 2233, 3128, 3652, 3720, 4982; ‘the windows which they will go through’ stands for intellectual concepts and for reasonings derived from these, 655, 658, 3391. This being so, those falsities are compared to a thief because they usurp the position held previously by truths and forms of good.

sRef Ps@50 @17 S10′ sRef Ps@50 @19 S10′ sRef Ps@50 @18 S10′ [10] In David,

Since you hate discipline and cast away My words behind you, if you see a thief you run with him, and your part is with adulterers. You open your mouth towards evil, and with your tongue you frame deceit. Ps. 50:17-19.

This refers to someone wicked, ‘running with a thief’ standing for his use of falsity to alienate truth from himself.

[11] In Revelation,

They did not repent of their murders, or of their enchantments, or of their whoredoms, or of their thefts. Rev. 9:21.

‘Murders’ sta