The Word as to its spiritual or internal sense is described by John in Revelation in these words:
I saw heaven opened; and behold a white horse; and He that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in justice [A.V. righteousness] He doth judge and make war. His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on His head were many crowns; and He had a name written, that no man knew, but He Himself. And He was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood; and His name is called THE WORD OF GOD. And the armies which were in heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean. And He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS. Rev. xix 11, 12, 13, 14, 16.
It is not possible for any one to have a clear idea of what each of these particular things implies, except from the internal sense. It is clear that each single thing is something representative and significative as heaven being opened; a horse which was white; He that sat upon him, in justice judging and making war; His eyes being as a flame of fire; many crowns being on his head; that He had a name that no man knew but He Himself; His being clothed with a vesture dipped in blood, and that the armies which were in heaven followed Him upon white horses; that they were clothed in fine linen, white and clean; and that on His vesture and on His thigh He had a name written. It is stated openly that He is the Word, and that it is the Lord Who is THE WORD; for it is said, “His name is called THE WORD OF GOD,” and later, “He hath on His vesture and on His thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.” From the meaning of each particular expression, it is evident that in this passage the Word is described as to its spiritual or internal sense. Heaven being opened represents and signifies that the internal sense of the Word can be seen in heaven and thence by those in the world to whom heaven is opened. The horse which was white represents and signifies the understanding of the Word as to interior things. It will be evident from what follows that this is the meaning of a white horse. That He that sat upon him is the Lord as to the Word, and thus the Word, is established, for it is stated, “His name is called the Word of God.” He is called Faithful, and is said to judge in justice, from Good. And He is called True, and is said to make war in justice, from Truth, for the Lord Himself is justice. His eyes being as a flame of fire denote the Divine Truth from the Divine Good of His Divine Love. The many crowns upon His head signify all goods and truths of faith. His having a Name written that no man knew but He Himself, means that no one but Himself, and he to whom He reveals it, sees that the Word is of such a quality in the internal sense. Clothed in a vesture dipped in blood signifies the Word in the letter to which violence has been offered. The armies in the heavens which followed Him upon white horses denote those who are in the understanding of the Word as to its interiors. Clothed in fine linen clean and white signifies the same persons in truth from good. A Name written on His vesture and on His thigh signifies truth and good and their quality. From these things, as from those which precede and those which follow, it is evident that therein it is foretold, that about the last time of the Church the spiritual or internal sense of the Word will be disclosed. And what will come to pass at that time is even described there, verses 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. It is unnecessary to show here that such things are signified by these words, seeing that they are shown in detail in ARCANA CAELESTIA, as for example that: The Lord is the Word because He is the Divine Truth, (n. 2533, 2803, 2894, 5272, 7835): The Word is Divine Truth, (n. 4692, 5075, 9987). He is described as sitting upon the horse, judging and making war in justice, because the Lord is Justice; the Lord is called Justice by reason of His having of His own proper power saved the human race, (n. 1813, 2025, 2026, 2027, 9715, 9809, 10019, 10152). And justice is merit which belongs to the Lord alone, (n. 9715, 9979). His eyes as a flame of fire signify Divine Truth from the Divine Good of the Divine Love; this is because eyes signify the understanding and the truth of faith, (n. 2701, 4403-4421, 4523-4534, 6923, 9051, 10569), and a flame of fire, the good of love, (n. 934, 4906, 5215, 6314, 6832). The crowns which were on His head signify all goods and truths of faith, (n. 114, 3858, 6335, 6640, 9863, 9865, 9868, 9873, 9905). His having a Name written which no man knew but He Himself, means that no one but He Himself, and he to whom He reveals it, sees that the Word is of such a quality in the internal sense; this is because a name denotes a thing’s quality, (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3237, 3421, 6674, 9310). Being clothed in a vesture dipped in blood, signifies the Word in the letter to which violence has been done this is because vesture means truth, since truth clothes what is good, (n. 1073, 2576, 5248, 5319, 5954, 9212, 9216, 9952, 10536), especially truth in its most external form, and so the Word in the letter, (n. 5248, 6918, 9158, 9212) and because blood means the violence done to truth by what is false, (n. 374, 1005, 4735, 5476, 9127). The armies in the heavens which followed Him on white horses signify those who are in the understanding of the Word as to its interiors: this is because armies signify those who are in the truths and goods of heaven and the Church, (n. 3448, 7236, 7988, 8019) and a horse signifies the understanding, (n. 3217, 5321, 6125, 6400, 6531, 6534, 7024, 8146, 8381); and white means truth which is in the light of heaven, thus interior truth, (n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319). It is because linen or fine linen signifies truth from a celestial origin, which is truth from good, that being clothed in fine linen white and clean means these same persons in truth from good, (n. 5319, 9469). That a Name written on the vesture and on the thigh, means truth and good, and their quality, is because vesture means truth, and a name means quality, as above, and thigh signifies the good of love, (n. 3021, 4277, 4280, 9961, 10488). King of kings and Lord of lords is the Lord as to Divine Truth and as to Divine Good. The Lord is called King from Divine Truth, (n. 3009, 5068, 6148), and He is called Lord from Divine Good, (n. 4973, 9167, 9194). From these things the quality of the Word in its spiritual or internal sense is manifest, and that there is not a word in it that does not mean something spiritual relating to heaven and the Church.
Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an arrowsnake [A.V. adder] in the path, that biteth the horse’s heels, so that his rider shall fall backward. Gen. xlix 17, 18.
No one can understand what this prophecy concerning one of the tribes of Israel means, unless he knows what is meant by a serpent, and also by a horse, and its rider. There is no one who does not recognise that something spiritual is thereby implied. What, therefore, each individual thing means may be seen in ARCANA CAELESTIA, (n. 6398, 6399, 6400, 6401), where this prophecy is explained. In Habakkuk:
O God Thou didst ride upon Thine horses, Thy chariots were [A.V. of] salvation. . . . Thou didst make Thy horses tread in the sea [A.V. walk through the sea with thine horses]. Hab. iii 8, 15.
It is evident that in this passage horses mean something spiritual, because these things are said concerning God. What otherwise would be meant by God riding upon His horses, and making His horses tread upon the sea? In Zechariah:
In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD. Zech. xiv 20.
where in like manner a spiritual meaning is implied. Again in the same prophet:
In that day, saith Jehovah, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness and I will open mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the people with blindness. Zech. xii 4.
That passage treats of the vastation of the Church, which comes about when there is no longer the understanding of any truth. This state is thus described by a horse and its rider. What otherwise would be the meaning of every horse being smitten with astonishment, and of every horse of the people being smitten with blindness? What could this have to do with the Church? In Job:
God hath deprived her of wisdom, and hath not imparted to her understanding. What time she lifteth up herself on high, she scorneth the horse and his rider. Job xxxix 17, 18, 19 et seq.
It is clearly evident that here the understanding is signified by horse. Similarly in David, where [God] is said
to ride upon the Word of truth, Ps. xlv 4.
in addition to many other passages. Moreover, who would be able to know why it is that Elijah and Elisha were called the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof; and why by Elisha’s servant the mountain was seen full of horses and chariots of fire; unless it were known what chariots and horsemen signify, and what Elijah and Elisha represented? For Elisha said to Elijah:
My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof. 2 Kings ii 11, 12.
And Joash the king said to Elisha:
My father, my father, the chariot of Israel, and the horsemen thereof. 2 Kings xiii 14.
And, of Elisha’s servant:
Jehovah opened the eyes of Elisha’s servant, [A.V. the young man]; and he saw: and, behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha. 2 Kings vi 17.
Elijah and Elisha were called the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof, because each of them represented the Lord as to the Word, and because by chariot is meant doctrine from the Word, and by horsemen, intelligence. That Elijah and Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word, may be seen in ARCANA CAELESTIA, (n. 5247, 7643, 8029, 9372), and that chariots signify doctrine from the Word, (n. 5321, 8215).
THE NECESSITY FOR AND EXCELLENCE OF THE WORD. Nothing can be known from the light of nature concerning the Lord, heaven and hell, man’s life after death, and the Divine truths through which man has spiritual and eternal life, (n. 8944, 10318, 10319, 10320). This can be confirmed from the fact that many persons, men of education among them, do not give credence to these things, although born where the Word is, and by means of it instructed concerning them, (n. 10319). It was therefore necessary that there should be some revelation from heaven, since man was born for heaven, (n. 1775). In every age, therefore, there has been a revelation, (n. 2895). Various forms of revelation have succeeded each other on this earth, (n. 10355, 10632). With the most ancient people, who lived before the flood, and whose time was called the golden age, there was immediate revelation; and for that reason Divine Truth was written on their hearts, (n. 2896). In the Ancient Churches, which existed after the flood, the Word was both historical and prophetical, (n. 2686, 2897); concerning which
Churches see THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, (n. 247). The historical books of this Word were called The Wars of Jehovah, and the prophetical books, The Enunciations, (n. 2897). That Word was similar to our Word as to inspiration, but adapted to those Churches, (n. 2897). It is mentioned by Moses, (n. 2686, 2897). That Word has been lost, however, (n. 2897). There were also revelations by prophecy with others, as appears from Balaam’s prophecies, (n. 2898).
The Word is Divine in all and every part, (n. 639, 680, 10321, 10637). As to every tittle and jot, the Word is Divine and holy, from experience, (n. 9349). The manner in which it is explained at this day, that the Word is inspired as to every jot, (n. 1886). The Church exists specifically where the Word is, and where the Lord is known by it and Divine truths revealed, (n. 3857, 10761). But they who are born where the Word is, and where the Lord is thereby known, are not on that account of the Church: they are of the Church who are regenerated by the Lord by means of truths from the Word, who are they who live in accordance with the truths therein, thus they who live a life of love and faith, (n. 6637, 10143, 10153, 10578, 10645, 10829).
It is the understanding that is enlightened, (n. 6608, 9300). The understanding is receptive of truth, (n. 6222, 6608, 10659). Concerning every doctrinal thing of the Church there are ideas of the understanding and of thought thence, according to which the doctrinal is perceived, (n. 3310, 3825). Man’s ideas are natural as long as he is living in the world, because he then thinks in the Natural; but, nevertheless, with those who are in the affection of truth for its own sake, spiritual ideas are concealed within them, and man comes into these ideas after death, (n. 3310, 5510, 6201, 10236, 10240, 10551), . There can be no perception concerning any subject whatsoever, without ideas of the understanding and thence of thought, (n. 3825). Ideas concerning matters of faith are laid open in the other life, and their quality is there seen by angels, and man is then conjoined with others according to them, in so far as they proceed from an affection which is of love, (n. 1869, 3320, 5510, 6201, 8885), [3310, 6200]. Therefore the Word is not understood except by a rational man, for to believe something without an idea of the thing itself and without the insight of reason, is only to retain an expression in the memory devoid of all life of perception and affection, which is not believing, (n. 2533). It is the literal sense of the Word which is enlightened, (n. 3619, 9824, 9905, 10548).
* The Latin word Proprium means “what is one’s own.” Swedenborg uses it in a special sense involving “what is of the self”.
The true doctrine of the Church is the doctrine of charity and faith, (n. 2417, 4766, 10763, 10765), . The doctrine of faith does not constitute the Church, but the life of faith, which is charity, (n. 809, 1798, 1799, 1834, 4468, 4672, 4766, 5826, 6637). Doctrinal things are nothing unless man lives in accordance with them: everyone can see that they are for the sake of life, and not for the sake of the memory and something of thought therefrom, (n. 1515, 2049, 2116). In the Churches at the present time there is a doctrine of faith, but not of charity; the doctrine of charity has been degraded into a science, which is given the name of moral theology, (n. 2417). The Church would be one if men were acknowledged to be of the Church on account of life, and so of charity, (n. 1285, 1316, 2982, 3267, 3445, 3451, 3452). How much superior is the doctrine of charity to the doctrine of faith separate from charity, (n. 4844). They who know nothing of charity are in ignorance concerning heavenly things, (n. 2435). They who hold only the doctrine of faith, and not that of charity, fall into errors, concerning which see, (n. 2383, 2417, 3146, 3325, 3412, 3413, 3416, 3773, 4672, 4730, 4783, 4925, 5351, 7623-7627, 7752-7762, 7790, 8094, 8313, 8530, 8765, 9186, 9224, 10555), . Those who are only in the doctrine of faith and not in the life of faith, which is charity, were formerly called the uncircumcised, or Philistines, (n. 3412, 3413, 3463, 8093, 8313, 9340). With the ancients there was the doctrine of love to the Lord and of charity towards the neighbour, and the doctrine of faith was made of service to this, (n. 2417, 3419, 4844, 4955).
Doctrine formed by one who is enlightened can afterwards be confirmed by rational things and by knowledges, (scientifica), and it is thus more fully understood and corroborated, (n. 2553, 2719, 2720, 3052, 3310, 6047), [2557, 3057]. More concerning this subject may be seen in THE NEW JERUSALEM AND ITS HEAVENLY DOCTRINE, (n. 51). Those who are in faith separate from charity would have the doctrinals of the Church simply believed without any rational consideration, (n. 3394).
It is not the part of a wise man to confirm dogma, but to see whether it be true before it is confirmed, and this happens with those who are in enlightenment, (n. 1017, 4741, 7012, 7680, 7950). The light of confirmation is natural light, and not spiritual, and is possible even with the evil, (n. 8780). All things, even those that are false, can be so far confirmed as to appear as if they were truths, (n. 2480, 2490, 5033, 6865, 8521).
Concerning the internal or spiritual sense of the Word in general, (n. 1767-1777, 1869-1879). In each and all things of the Word there is an internal sense, (n. 1143, 1984, 2135, 2333, 2395, 2495, 2619). These things do not appear in the sense of the letter, but nevertheless they are contained within it, (n. 4442).
The Word is understood in a different way by angels in the heavens from what it is by men on earth. With angels there is the internal or spiritual sense, but with men there is the external or natural sense, (n. 1887, 2395). Angels perceive the Word according to the internal sense, and not according to the external sense, shown by the experience of those who have spoken with me from heaven when I was reading the Word, (n. 1769-1772). Angelic ideas of thought and also angelic speech are spiritual, but human ideas and speech are natural; the internal sense, therefore, which is spiritual, is for angels, (explained from experience, n. 2333). Nevertheless, the sense of the letter of the Word serves as a medium for the spiritual ideas of angels, comparatively as the words of speech express the sense of a subject with men, (n. 2143). The things of the internal sense of the Word fall into such things as are of the light of heaven, thus into angelic perception, (n. 2618, 2619, 2629, 3086). On that account those things which angels perceive from the Word are precious to them, (n. 2540, 2541, 2545, 2551). Angels do not understand even one word of the sense of the letter of the Word, (n. 64, 65, 1434, 1929). Neither do they have any knowledge of the names of persons and places mentioned in the Word, (n. 1434, 1888, 4442, 4480). Names cannot enter into heaven, nor can they be pronounced there, (n. 1876, 1888). All the names in the Word signify things, and in heaven they are changed into ideas of the things, (n. 768, 1888, 4310, 4442, 5225, 5287, 10329). Angels even think abstractly from persons, (n. 6613, 8343, 8985, 9007). How elegant is the internal sense of the Word, even where there are only names, (shown by examples from the Word, n. 1224, 1888, 2395). Again, many names in series express one thing in the internal sense, (n. 5095); all numbers, also, in the Word signify things, (n. 482, 487, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 6175, 9488, 9659, 10217, 10253). Spirits, too, perceive the Word in its internal sense, in so far as their interiors are open to heaven, (n. 1771). The sense of the letter of the Word, which is natural, is, with angels, changed in a moment into the spiritual sense, because of the correspondence that exists, (n. 5648). And this is without their hearing or knowing what is in the sense of the letter or external sense, (n. 10215). Thus the sense of the letter or external sense is with man alone and does not pass beyond him, (n. 2015).
There is an internal sense of the Word, and also an inmost or supreme sense, (concerning which, see, n. 9407, 10604, 10614, 10627). Spiritual angels, that is, those who are in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, perceive the Word in the internal sense, and celestial angels, that is, those who are in the Lord’s celestial kingdom, perceive the Word in the inmost sense, (n. 2157, 2275).
The Word is for men, and also for angels, being adapted to both, (n. 7381, 8862, 10322). The Word is what unites heaven and earth, (n. 2310, 2493, 9212, 9216, 9357). The conjunction of heaven with man is by means of the Word, (n. 9396, 9400, 9401, 10452). On that account the Word is called a covenant, (n. 9396), inasmuch as covenant signifies conjunction, (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778, 9396, 10632). There is an internal sense in the Word, because the Word has come down from the Lord through the three heavens even to man, (n. 2310, 6597). And in this manner it has become adapted to angels of the three heavens, and also to men, (n. 7381, 8862). Hence it is that the Word is Divine, (n. 2899, 4989), ; that it is holy, (n. 10276); that it is spiritual, (n. 4480); and that it is inspired by the Divine, (n. 9094). This is inspiration, (n. 9094).
Indeed, the man who is regenerated is actually in the internal sense of the Word, although he is unaware of it, since his internal man, which has spiritual perception, is open, (n. 10400). But with him the spiritual of the Word flows into natural ideas and is thus presented naturally, since while he lives in the world, he thinks in the natural man, so far as it comes to his perception, (n. 5614). Hence the light of truth, with those who are enlightened, is derived from their internal, thus, through the internal, from the Lord, (n. 10691, 10694). In that way, also, there is an influx of holiness with those who regard the Word as holy, (n. 6789). Since the regenerated man is actually in the internal sense of the Word, and in its holiness, although unaware of it, therefore after death he comes into it of himself, and is no longer in the sense of the letter, (n. 3226, 3342, 3343). The ideas of the internal man are spiritual, but man, while he is living in the world, does not notice them since they are within his natural thought, to which they impart its rational faculty, (n. 10236, 10240, 10551). But after death man comes into them as into his own, because they are peculiar to his spirit, and he then not only thinks but also speaks from them, (n. 2470, 2478, 2479, 10568, 10604). Hence it is, as has been stated, that the regenerated man is not aware that he is in the spiritual sense of the Word, and that he has enlightenment therefrom.
Not one jot or one tittle shall pass away from the law. Matt. v 18.
In the Word, especially in the prophetical parts, there are two expressions as it were of the same thing, but one has relation to good, and the other to truth, (n. 683, 707, 2516, 8339). Goods and truths are wonderfully conjoined in the Word, but that conjunction is manifest only to him who knows the internal sense, (n. 10554). So it is that in the Word and in its every particular there is the Divine Marriage and a heavenly marriage, (n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 5138, 7022). The Divine Marriage, which is the marriage of Divine Good and Divine Truth, is thus the Lord in heaven, in Whom alone that marriage exists there, (n. 3004, 3005, 3009, 5138, 5194, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339, 9263, 9314). Again, by Jesus is meant the Divine Good, and by Christ the Divine Truth, and thus by both is signified the Divine Marriage in heaven, (n. 3004, 3005, 3009). This marriage, and thus the Lord as to Divine Good and Divine Truth, is in every particular of the Word in its internal sense, (n. 5502). The marriage of good and truth from the Lord in heaven and in the Church is what is called the heavenly marriage, (n. 2508, 2618, 2803, 3004, 3211, 3952, 6179). Thus, in this respect, the Word is as it were heaven, (n. 2173, 10126). Heaven is likened in the Word to a marriage by reason of the marriage of good and truth therein, (n. 2758, 3132, 4434, 4835).
The internal sense is the genuine doctrine itself of the Church, (n. 9025, 9430, 10400). They who understand the Word according to the internal sense, know the true doctrine itself of the Church, because the internal sense comprises it, (n. 9025, 9430, 10400). Again, the internal of the Word is the internal of the Church, as it is’ also the internal of worship, (n. 10460). The Word is the doctrine of love to the Lord and of charity towards the neighbour, (n. 3419, 3420).
In the letter the Word is as it were a cloud and the glory is in the internal sense, (Preface to Genesis xviii, and n. 5922, 6343, where the words are explained, that the Lord would come in the clouds of heaven with glory. In the Word a cloud also means the Word in the sense of the letter, and glory the Word in the internal sense. (Preface to Genesis xviii and n. 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8106, 8781, 9430, 10551, 10574). Those things which are in the sense of the letter, compared with those in the internal sense, are like the rough projections placed around a polished optical cylinder from which nevertheless there is brought forth to view in the cylinder a beautiful representation of a man, (n. 1871). In the spiritual world they who wish for and acknowledge only the sense of the letter, are represented by an ugly old woman. But they, who, at the same time wish for and acknowledge the internal sense, are represented by a virgin beautifully clothed, (n. 1774). The Word in its whole complex is an image of heaven, for the Word is Divine Truth, and Divine Truth constitutes heaven; and heaven resembles one man, and in this respect the Word is as it were the image of a man, (n. 187). (That heaven as a whole resembles one man may be seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, n. 59-67; and that the Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord makes heaven, n. 126-140, 200-212.) The Word is presented to the angels themselves in a beautiful and charming way, (n. 1767, 1768). The sense of the letter is as it were the body, and the internal sense as it were the soul of that body, (n. 8943). Hence, the life of the Word is from the internal sense, (n. 1405, 4857). The Word is pure in the internal sense but it does not appear such in the sense of the letter, (n. 2362, 2395). The things which are in the sense of the letter are holy from the internal things, (n. 10126, 10728).
There is also an internal sense to the historical parts of the Word, but it is within them, (n. 4989). Thus, equally with the prophetical, the historical parts of the Word contain arcana of heaven, (n. 755, 1659, 1709, 2310, 2333). Angels do not perceive those parts as relating to history, but as to doctrine [dogmatice] because they perceive them spiritually, (n. 6884). The interior arcana contained in the historical parts are less clear to man than those in the prophetical parts, the reason being that the mind is intent upon and paying attention to the things relating to history, (n. 2176, 6597). The quality of the internal sense of the Word is again shown, (n. 1756, 1984, 2004, 2663, 3035, 7089, 10604, 10614), and illustrated by comparisons, (n. 1873).
So that it may be known what correspondences are, their quality, and the quality of representatives in the Word, something shall also be said about them.
All things which correspond also represent, and hence signify, so that correspondences and representatives are one, (n. 2896, 2897, 2973, 2987, 2989, 2990, 3002, 3225). What correspondences and representatives are, shown from experience and by examples, (n. 2763, 2987-3002, 3213-3226, 3337-3352, 3472-3485, 4218-4228, 9280). Among the ancients the science of correspondences and representations was the pre-eminent science, (n. 3021-3419, 4280, 4748, 4844, 4964, 4966, 6004, 7729, 10252), and principally among the people of the east, (n. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10252, 10407); and in Egypt more than in other places, (n. 5702, 6692, 7097, 7779, 9391, 10407); and also among the Gentiles, as in Greece and elsewhere, (n. 2762, 7729). But at the present time, especially in Europe, it is among the lost sciences, (n. 2894, 2895, 2995, 3630, 3632, 3747, 3748, 3749, 4581, 4966, 10252). Yet this science is the most excellent of all sciences, since without it the Word is not understood, nor the significance of the rites of the Jewish Church of which we read in the Word; neither is heaven’s quality known, nor what is spiritual, nor how there is an influx of the spiritual into the natural, nor the manner of the influx of the soul into the body, besides many other things, (n. 4180, and in passages cited above). All things which appear among angels and spirits are representatives according to correspondences, (n. 1971, 3213-3226, 3475, 3485, 9457, 9481, 9576, 9577). The heavens are full of representatives, (n. 1521, 1532, 1619). Representatives are so far more beautiful and more perfect as they are more interiorly in the heavens, (n. 3475). Representatives therein are real appearances since they are from the light of heaven, which is Divine Truth, and this itself is the essential of all things that come into existence, (n. 3485).
The reason why each and all of those things which are in the spiritual world are represented in the natural world, is that the internal clothes itself with concordant forms in the external, by means of which it renders itself visible and is seen, (n. 6275, 6284, 6299). Thus the end adopts a suitable guise, that it may present itself as the cause in a lower sphere, and then that it may present itself as the effect in a sphere still lower. And when the end, by means of the cause, becomes the effect, it then becomes visible or appears before the eyes, (n. 5711). This may be illustrated by the influx of the soul into the body, namely, that the soul is clothed with such things in the body by means of which all that it thinks and wills can be expressed and manifest in a visible form. Wherefore, when thought flows down into the body, it is represented by such gestures and actions as correspond to it, (n. 2988). The affections of the mind are plainly represented in the face by means of its various expressions to such an extent that they may be observed there, (n. 4791-4805, 5695). Hence it is plain that in each and all things of nature there is interiorly concealed a cause and an end from the spiritual world, (n. 3562, 5711), since the things which are in nature are ultimate effects, within which are things prior, (n. 4240, 4939, 5051, 6275, 6284, 6299, 9216). Internal things are what are represented, and external things are what represent, (n. 4292). What correspondences and representations are may be further seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, wherein it treats of the correspondence of all things of heaven, with all things of man, (n. 87-102); the correspondence of heaven with all things of earth, (n. 103-115); and representatives and appearances in heaven, (n. 170-176).
Since all things in nature are representative of spiritual and celestial things, therefore in ancient times there were Churches in which all the externals, which were rituals, were representative. Those Churches were therefore called representative Churches, (n. 519, 521, 2896). The Church established among the sons of Israel was a representative Church, (n. 1003, 2179, 10149). Therein all the rituals were externals, which represented the internal things which are of heaven and the Church, (n. 4288, 4874). The representatives of the Church and of worship came to an end when the Lord came into the world and manifested Himself, because the Lord revealed the internals of the Church, and because all things of that Church, in a supreme sense, looked to Him, (n. 4835).
What the quality of the Word is in the sense of the letter, if it is not understood at the same time as to the internal sense, or, what is the same thing, according to true doctrine from the Word, (n. 10402). Without the internal sense, that is, without genuine doctrine from the Word, an immense profusion of heresies springs up from the sense of the letter, (n. 10400). Those who are in externals without internals cannot endure the interior things of the Word, (n. 10694). Such were the Jews and such also are they today, (n. 301, 302, 303, 3479, 4429, 4433, 4680, 4844, 4847, 10396, 10401, 10407, 10694, 10701, 10707).
The Word means the Divine Truth, (n. 4692, 5075, 9987). The Lord is the Word because He is the Divine Truth, (n. 2533). The Lord is also the Word because the Word is from Him, and concerning Him, (n. 2859), and in its inmost sense concerning the Lord alone; thus the Lord Himself is therein, (n. 1873, 9357); and because in each and all things of the Word there is the marriage of Divine Good and Divine Truth, which marriage is in the Lord alone, (n. 3004, 3005, 3009, 4137, 5194, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339, 9263, 9314), . Divine Truth is the sole Reality, and that in which it is, which is from the Divine, is the sole Substantiality, (n. 5272, 6880, 7004, 8200). Since the Divine Truth, proceeding from the Lord as the Sun in heaven, is light there, and the Divine Good is heat there; and because all things therein come into being from these, just as all things in the world come into being from light and heat, which are also in their own substances, and act by means of them; and because the natural world exists by means of heaven or the spiritual world; it is clear that all things which were created, were created from the Divine Truth and thus from the Word, according to these words in John,
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, and by it were all things made that were made; and THE WORD WAS MADE FLESH. John i 1, 2, 3, 14.
(n. 2803, 2894, 5272, 6880). Further particulars concerning the creation of all things from Divine Truth, thus by the Lord, may be seen in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, n. 137; and more fully in the passage concerning the Sun in heaven, where it is shown that it is the Lord, and that it is His Divine Love, (n. 116-125); and that Divine Truth is the light, and Divine Good is the heat from that Sun in heaven, (n. 126-140).
The Lord’s conjunction with man is through the Word, by means of the internal sense, (n. 10375). Each and all things of the Word effect this conjunction, and hence the Word is wonderful beyond comparison with every other writing, (n. 10632, 10633, 10634). Since the writing of the Word it is by this means that the Lord speaks with men, (n. 10290). See, in addition, the facts adduced in the work on HEAVEN AND HELL, concerning the conjunction of heaven with man by means of the Word, (n. 303-310).
The book of Job is an ancient book in which, indeed, there is an internal sense, but not in a connected order, (n. 3540, 9942).
In the Word, and especially in the prophetical parts, there are two expressions for one and the same thing. One relates to good and the other to truth, which are thus conjoined, (n. 683, 707, 2516, 8339). It cannot be known, except from the internal sense of the Word, which expression has relation to good and which to truth. For there are special words used to express what relates to good, and others to express what relates to truth, (n. 793, 801). This is so consistently the case, that merely from the words used, it may be known whether they treat of good or of truth, (n. 2722). Again, at another time, one expression involves something general, and the other some particular derived from that general principle, (n. 2212). There is a kind of reciprocation in the Word, (concerning which, see n. 2240). Most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, (n. 4816). The internal sense is in keeping with its own subject after the manner of a predicate, [n. 4502].
They who have taken delight in the Word, in the other life receive the warmth of heaven, in which is heavenly love, according to the quality and degree of their delight from love, (n. 1773).