True Christian Religion (Chadwick)

TCR (Chadwick) n. 0 sRef Rev@21 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @2 S0′ 0. THE TRUE CHRISTIAN RELIGION

containing the complete theology of the New Church as foretold by the Lord in Daniel 7:13, 14 and in Revelation 21:2, 3

by EMANUEL SWEDENBORG SERVANT OF THE LORD JESUS CHRIST

TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL LATIN BY JOHN CHADWICK

LONDON THE SWEDENBORG SOCIETY 1988

Daniel 7:13, 14

I was watching in the visions of the night, and I saw the Son of Man coming with the clouds of the heavens. And to him were given dominion and glory and the kingdom, and all peoples, nations and tongues will worship him. His dominion will be a dominion for ever, which will not pass away, and his kingdom one that will not perish.

Revelation 21:1, 2, 5, 9, 10

I, John, saw a new heaven and a new earth; and I saw the holy city, the New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared like a bride adorned for her husband. And the angel spoke with me, saying, Come, I will show you the bride, the wife of the Lamb. And he carried me away in the spirit onto a great and high mountain, and showed me the great, holy city of Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God. He that sat on the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said to me, Write, because these words are true and trustworthy.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

THE FAITH OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW CHURCH IN BOTH UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR TERMS 1-3

CHAPTER ONE

GOD THE CREATOR

The oneness of God
(i) The whole of the Sacred Scripture and all the doctrines extracted from it by churches throughout Christendom teach that there is a God and that He is one. 5-7

(ii) There is a general feeling emanating from God and flowing into men’s souls that there is a God and He is one. 8

(iii) That is why there is no nation throughout the world possessed of religion and sound reason which does not acknowledge God and the fact that He is one. 9, 10

(iv) There are many reasons why nations and peoples have formed varying ideas of the nature of that one God, and continue to do so. 11

(v) There are many things in the world which can lead the human reason, if it wishes, to grasp and deduce that there is a God and He is one. 12

(vi) If there had not been one God, the universe could not have been created and kept in existence. 13

(vii) Any person who does not acknowledge God is excommunicated from the church and damned. 14

(viii) The church cannot hold together at all in the case of a person who acknowledges not one God, but several. 15

The Divine Being, which is Jehovah

(i) The one God is named Jehovah from His Being, that is, from the fact that He alone is, was and will be, and because He is the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End, Alpha and Omega. 19

(ii) The one God is substance itself and form itself, and angels and men are substances and forms derived from Him; to the extent that they are in Him and He is in them, so far are they images and likenesses of Him. 20

(iii) The Divine Being is Being in itself, and at the same time Coming-into-Being in itself. 21,22

(iv) The Divine Being and Coming-into-Being in itself cannot give rise to another Divine which is Being and Coming-into-Being in itself. Consequently another God of the same essence is impossible. 23

(v) The plurality of gods in ancient times, as well as to-day, was entirely the result of a failure to understand the Divine Being. 24

The infinity or the immensity and the eternity of God

(i) God is infinite, because He is and comes into being in Himself, and everything in the universe is and comes into being from Him. 28

(ii) God is infinite, because He existed before the world did, and thus before space and time came into existence. 29

(iii) Since the making of the world God is non-spatially in space and non-temporally in time. 30

(iv) The infinity of God as predicated of space is called immensity, and as predicated of time is called eternity. Despite these predications His immensity is totally devoid of space and His eternity is totally devoid of time. 31

(v) There is much in the world which can enable enlightened reason to see the infinity of God the Creator. 32

(vi) Every created object is finite, and the infinite is contained in finite objects as in receivers, and in human beings as images of it. 33, 34

The Essence of God, which is the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom

(i) God is Love itself and Wisdom itself, these two making up His Essence. 37

(ii) God is Good itself and Truth itself, because Good refers to Love and Truth to Wisdom. 38

(iii) Since God is Love itself and Wisdom itself. He is Life itself or Life in itself. 39, 40

(iv) Love and Wisdom are one in God. 41, 42

(v) The essence of love is loving others than oneself, wishing to be one with them and devoting oneself to their happiness. 43-45

(vi) These properties of the Divine Love were the reason the universe was created, and are the reason it is preserved in existence. 46, 47

The omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence of God

(i) Omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence are properties of the Divine Wisdom resulting from the Divine Love. 50,51

(ii) The omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence of God cannot be recognised except through a knowledge of order, and these facts about order: that God is order, and that He introduced order into the universe and all its parts simultaneously with its creation. 52-55

(iii) God’s omnipotence proceeds and works in the universe and all its parts in accordance with the laws of His order. 56-58

(iv) God is omniscient, that is, He perceives, sees and knows down to the tiniest detail everything that happens according to order; and from these things also what happens contrary to order. 59-62

(v) God is present everywhere from first to last in His order. 63, 64

(vi) Man was created to be a form for Divine Order. 65-67

(vii) Man has from Divine Omnipotence power against evil and falsity, and from Divine Omniscience wisdom about good and truth, and from Divine Omni-presence is in God, to the extent that he lives in accordance with the Divine order. 68-70

The creation of the universe

No one can form a correct idea of the creation of the universe, unless some universal ideas are first suggested to bring the understanding into a perceptive state. 75

The creation of the universe is described in five accounts of experiences. 76-80

CHAPTER TWO

THE LORD THE REDEEMER

(i) Jehovah God came down and took on Himself human form, in order to redeem and save mankind. 82-84

(ii) Jehovah God came down as the Divine Truth, which is the Word, yet He did not separate the Divine Good from it. 85-88

(iii) God took upon Himself human form in accordance with His Divine order. 89-91

(iv) The Human by which He brought Himself into the world is the Son of God. 92-94

(v) The Lord by acts of redemption made Himself righteousness. 95, 96

(vi) By the same acts the Lord united Himself with the Father, and the Father with Him. 97-100

(vii) Thus God became man, and man God, in one person. 101-103

(viii) His progress towards union was His state of exinanition, and the union itself is His state of glorification. 104-106

(ix) From this time on no one from Christian countries can come into heaven, unless he believes in the Lord God the Saviour. 107-108

(x) Additional note, on the state of the church before the Lord’s coming, and its state after this event. 109

Redemption

(i) The real redemption was the conquest of the hells and the ordering of the heavens, and preparation by this means for a new spiritual church. 115-117

(ii) But for that redemption no person could have been saved, nor could the angels have remained unharmed. 118-120

(iii) The Lord thus redeemed not only men, but also angels. 121, 122

(iv) Redemption was an entirely Divine deed. 123

(v) This redemption could only be effected by an incarnate God. 124, 125

(vi) The passion on the cross was the last temptation which the Lord underwent as the greatest Prophet; this was the means by which He glorified His Human, and was not the redemption. 126-131

(vii) It is a fundamental error on the part of the church to believe that the passion on the cross was the real act of redemption. That error, together with the erroneous belief in three Divine Persons existing from eternity, has so perverted the whole church that there is no remainder of spirituality left in it. 132, 133

CHAPTER THREE

THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE WAY GOD WORKS

(i) The Holy Spirit is Divine truth, and also the Divine power and activity which proceeds from the one God, in whom is the Divine Trinity, and so from the Lord God the Saviour. 139-141

(ii) The Divine power and activity meant by the Holy Spirit are, generally speaking, reformation and regeneration, which lead to renewal, quickening, sanctification and justification; and these lead to purification from evils and the forgiveness of sins, and ultimately to salvation. 142-145

(iii) The Divine power and activity meant by the sending of the Holy Spirit, with the clergy takes the particular form of enlightenment and instruction. 146-148

(iv) The Lord confers these benefits on those who believe in Him. 149-151

(v) The Lord works of Himself from the Father, not the reverse. 153-155

(vi) A person’s spirit is his mind, and whatever comes from it. 156, 157

– Additional Note. 158

The Divine Trinity

(i) There is a Divine Trinity, consisting of Father, Son and Holy Spirit. 164,165

(ii) Those three, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, are the three essentials of a single God, which make one as soul, body and activity do with a person. 166-169
(iii) This Trinity did not exist before the creation of the world, but it was provided and made after the creation of the world, when God became incarnate, and then it was in the Lord God, the Redeemer and Saviour, Jesus Christ. 170, 171

(iv) A Trinity of Divine Persons from eternity, or existing before the creation of the world, implies thinking about a Trinity of Gods; and this thought cannot be banished by a verbal confession of belief in one God. 172, 173

(v) The Trinity of Persons was unknown to the Apostolic church, but was the invention of the Council of Nicaea, leading to its introduction into the Roman Catholic church, and thus to the churches which split from it. 174-176

(vi) The Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and by Athanasius caused a faith to arise which has perverted the whole Christian church. 177, 178

(vii) This is the source of the abomination of desolation and the affliction such as has never been nor shall be, both of which the Lord predicted in Daniel, the Gospels and Revelation. 179-181

(viii) Further, unless a new heaven and a new church are founded by the Lord, no flesh can be saved. 182

(ix) From a Trinity of Persons, each of which is individually God, as asserted by the Athanasian Creed, many absurd ideas of various kinds have arisen about God, which are mere fancies and abortions. 183, 184

CHAPTER FOUR

THE SACRED SCRIPTURE OR THE WORD OF THE LORD

I The Sacred Scripture, that is, the Word, is Divine truth itself. 189-192

II The Word contains a spiritual sense unknown up to the present. 193

(i) What the spiritual sense is. 194

– From the Lord there proceed, one after the other, the celestial Divine, the spiritual Divine and the natural Divine. 195
(ii) The spiritual sense is present in every part and detail of the Word. 196-198

– The Lord, when He was in the world, spoke by means of correspondences; so He spoke spiritually as well as naturally. 199

(iii) It is the spiritual sense which makes the Word divinely inspired and holy in every word. 200
(iv) The spiritual sense of the Word has up to the present been unknown. 201-207

(v) The spiritual sense of the Word will in future only be granted to those who are in possession of genuine truths from the Lord. 208

(vi) Remarkable effects produced by the Word from its spiritual sense. 209

III The literal sense of the Word is the basis, container and support of its spiritual and celestial senses. 210-213

IV The Divine truth in the literal sense of the Word is in its fulness, holiness and power. 214-216

(i) The truths of the literal sense of the Word are meant by the precious stones forming the foundations of the New Jerusalem described in Revelation, and this is due to correspondence. 217

(ii) The forms of good and truth in the literal sense of the Word are meant by the Urim and Thummim on Aaron’s ephod. 218

(iii) The forms of truth and good at the outermost level, such as they are in the literal sense of the Word, are meant by the precious stones in the garden of Eden, in which the king of Tyre is said to have been. 219

(iv) The same things were represented by the curtains, veils and posts of the Tabernacle. 220

(v) Likewise, the external features of the Temple at Jerusalem. 221
(vi) The Word in its glory was represented in the Lord at His transfiguration. 222
(vii) The power of the Word at its outermost level was represented by the

Nazirites. 223

(viii) The Word’s power is beyond description. 224

V The doctrine of the church is to be drawn from the literal sense of the Word and supported by it. 225-230

(i) The Word is not to be understood without doctrine. 226-228

(ii) Doctrine is to be drawn from the literal sense of the Word, and proved by means of it. 229-230

(iii) The genuine truth in the literal sense of the Word, on which doctrine is based, is not visible to any but those who are enlightened by the Lord. 231-233

VI The literal sense of the Word produces a link with the Lord and association with the angels. 234-239

VII The Word is to be found in all the heavens and is the source of the angels’ wisdom. 240-242

VIII The church depends on the Word, and what the church is like in the case of each person depends upon how he understands the Word. 243-247

IX The details of the Word all contain a marriage of the Lord and the church, and so a marriage of good and truth. 248-253

X Heresies can be extracted from the literal sense of the Word, but confirming them leads to damnation. 254-260

– Many things in the Word are appearances of truth, in which genuine truths are hidden. 257

– Fallacies arise through the confirming of appearances of truth. 258

– The literal sense of the Word is a protection for the genuine truths hidden within it. 260

– The literal sense of the Word is represented and meant in the Word by cherubim. 260

XI The Lord when in the world fulfilled everything in the Word, and thus became the Word, that is, Divine truth, even in its outermost form. 261-263

XII Before the time of the Word which we have in the world to-day, there was another Word, now lost. 264-266

XIII The Word also serves to enlighten those who are outside the church and do not possess the Word. 267-272

XIV If the Word did not exist, no one would know of the existence of God, heaven and hell, and life after death, even less of the Lord. 273-276


CHAPTER FIVE

THE CATECHISM OR THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
EXPLAINED IN BOTH THE EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL SENSES

I The Ten Commandments were the height of holiness for the Israelite church; on the holiness of the Ark containing the Law. 283-286

II The literal sense of the Ten Commandments contains general instructions on belief and life; but their spiritual and celestial senses contain universal instructions. 287-290

III The First Commandment: There is not to be any other God before my face. 291-296

IV The Second Commandment: You are not to take the name of Jehovah your God in vain, for Jehovah will not hold anyone guiltless, who takes His name in vain. 297-300

V The Third Commandment: Remember to keep the Sabbath day holy; for six days you are to labour and do all your work, but the seventh day is the Sabbath for Jehovah your God. 301-304

VI The Fourth Commandment: Honour your father and your mother, so that your days may be long and you may prosper upon earth. 305-308

VII The Fifth Commandment: You are not to commit murder. 309-312

VIII The Sixth Commandment: You are not to commit adultery. 313-316

IX The Seventh Commandment: You are not to steal. 317-320

X The Eighth Commandment: You are not to bear false witness against your neighbour. 321-324

XI The Ninth and Tenth Commandments: You are not to covet your neighbour’s house, you are not to covet your neighbour’s wife, nor his man-servant nor his maid-servant, nor his ox nor his ass, nor anything that is your neighbour’s. 325-328

XII The Ten Commandments contain everything to do with love for God and everything to do with love towards the neighbour. 329-331


CHAPTER SIX

FAITH

Preface: faith is the first thing in time, but charity is the first thing in intention. 336

I Saving faith is in the Lord God the Saviour Jesus Christ. 337-339

– Since He is a visible God, in whom is the invisible God. 339
II Faith in brief is this, that a person who lives a good life and holds a proper belief is saved by the Lord. 340-342

– The leading point of faith in Him is the acknowledgment that He is the Son of God. 342

III A person acquires faith by approaching the Lord, learning truths from the Word, and living by them. 343-348

(i) The being of faith; the essence of faith; [the coming into being of faith;] the condition of faith; the form of faith. 344ff

(ii) Purely natural faith, as being a firm conviction which pretends to be faith. 345-348

IV The mass of truths, which cohere as it were in a bundle, raises the level of faith and brings it to perfection. 349-354

(i) The truths of faith are capable of being multiplied to infinity. 350

(ii) Their arrangement is into groupings, thus, so to speak, into bundles. 351

(iii) Faith is perfected in proportion to their volume and coherence. 352, 353

(iv) The truths of faith, however numerous they are and however varied they appear, are made one by the Lord 354

(v) The Lord is the Word, the God of heaven and earth, the God of all flesh, the God of the vineyard or the church, the God of faith, and light itself, truth and everlasting life; this is demonstrated from the Word. 354

V Faith without charity is no faith, and charity without faith is no charity, and both are lifeless unless the Lord gives them life. 355-361

(i) A person can acquire faith for himself. 356

(ii) A person can acquire charity for himself. 357

(iii) A person can also acquire or himself a life of faith and charity. 358

(iv) But still faith, charity or life in either of them is not in the least created by man, but only by the Lord. 359

(v) The distinction between natural faith and spiritual faith; spiritual faith is under the Lord’s guidance contained within natural faith. 360,361

VI The Lord, charity and faith make one, just as in a person, will and under-standing do; if they are separated, each of them is destroyed, like a pearl collapsing into dust. 362-367

(i) The Lord flows into every human being with all His Divine love, all His Divine wisdom, and so with all His Divine life. 364

(ii) The Lord flows into every human being likewise with the whole essence of faith and charity. 365

(iii) How what flows in from the Lord is received by the person depends upon his condition and form. 366

(iv) The person, however, who separates the Lord, charity and faith is not a form which can receive them, but rather one which destroys them. 367

VII The Lord is charity and faith in the person, and the person is charity and faith in the Lord. 368-372

(i) It is being linked with God, which affords a person salvation and everlasting life. 369

(ii) A link is impossible with God the Father, but it is possible with the Lord, and through Him with God the Father. 370

(iii) The link with the Lord is reciprocal, so that the Lord is in the person, and he is in the Lord. 371

(iv) This reciprocal link between the Lord and man is created by means of charity and faith. 372

VIII Charity and faith are present together in good deeds. 373-377
(i) Charity is having good will, and good deeds are doing good from a good will.

(ii) Charity and faith are merely unstable mental concepts unless, when possible, they are realised in deeds and come into existence together in them. 375, 376

(iii) Charity alone does not produce good deeds, much less does faith alone, but charity and faith together do. 377

IX There is true faith, spurious faith and hypocritical faith. 378-381

– From its cradle the Christian church began to be attacked and split by schisms and heresies; what these were. 378

(i) There is only one true faith, and this is in the Lord God the Saviour Jesus Christ, and is possessed by those who believe Him to be the Son of God, the God of heaven and earth, and one with the Father. 379

(ii) Spurious faith is any faith which departs from the true and only faith, and is possessed by those who climb up another way and look upon the Lord not as God, but merely as a human being. 380

(iii) Hypocritical faith is no faith at all. 381

X The wicked have no faith. 382-384
(i) The wicked have no faith because evil belongs to hell and faith to heaven. 383

(ii) All those in the Christian world have no faith who reject the Lord and the Word, although they lead moral lives, and talk, teach and write rationally, even about faith. 384


CHAPTER SEVEN

CHARITY, OR LOVE TOWARDS THE NEIGHBOUR, AND GOOD DEEDS

I There are three universal loves, the love of heaven, the love of the world, and self-love. 394-396

(i) The will and the understanding. 397

(ii) Good and truth. 398

(iii) Love in general. 399

(iv) Self-love and the love of the world in particular. 400

(v) The internal man and the external man. 401

(vi) The purely natural and sensual man. 402
II When the three loves are duly subordinated, they increase a person’s perfection; but when they are not, they corrupt and turn him upside down. 403-405

III Every person taken singly is the neighbour who is to be loved, but he should be loved according to the quality of his good. 406-411
IV Man collectively, which is one’s community, great or small, and as a group of communities, which is one’s country, is the neighbour who is to be loved. 412-414

V The neighbour who is to be loved in a higher degree is the church, and in the highest degree the Lord’s kingdom. 415, 416

VI The essence of loving the neighbour is not loving a person, but the good in him. 417-419

VII Charity and good deeds are two different things, as are wishing well and doing good. 420,421

VIII Real charity is dealing fairly and faithfully in whatever position, business or work one is engaged in, and with those with whom one comes into contact. 422-424

IX The kindnesses of charity are giving to the poor and helping the needy, but with prudence. 425-428

X Some charitable duties are public, some domestic and some private. 429-432

XI Charitable recreations are lunches, dinners and parties. 433,434

XII The first thing in charity is to banish evils, the second is to do good deeds which may be of use to the neighbour. 435-438

XIII In the exercise of charity a person avoids attributing merit to deeds, so long as he believes that all good is from the Lord. 439-442

XIV When a moral life is at the same time spiritual, this is charity. 443-445

XV A bosom friendship contracted with a person without regard to his spiritual character is harmful after death. 446-449

XVI Spurious charity, hypocritical charity and dead charity. 450-453

XVII Bosom friendship between the wicked is implacable hatred between them. 454, 455

XVIII The linking of love to God and love towards the neighbour. 456-458


CHAPTER EIGHT

FREE WILL

The rules and dogmas of the present-day church on free will. 463-465

I The fact that two trees, one of life and the other of the knowledge of good and evil, were put in the Garden of Eden, means that man was given free will in spiritual matters. 466-469

II Man is not life, but a receiver of life from God. 470-474

III So long as a person lives in the world, he is kept midway between heaven and hell, and he is there in spiritual equilibrium. This is free will. 475-478

IV The fact that evil is permitted, a state enjoyed by everyone’s internal man, makes it obvious that man has free will in spiritual matters. 479-482

V Without free will in spiritual matters the Word would not be of any use, nor in consequence would the church be. 483, 484

VI Without free will in spiritual matters man would have no means of establishing a mutual link with the Lord. The result would be not imputation, but complete predestination, which is a detestable doctrine. 485

Some detestable facts about predestination published. 486-488

VII But for free will in spiritual matters God would be responsible for evil, and thus there could be no imputation of charity and faith. 489-492

VIII Anything spiritual to do with the church which enters freely and is freely accepted lasts; anything that does not, does not last. 493-496

IX A person’s will and understanding enjoy this free will; but wrongdoing in both the spiritual and natural worlds is curbed by laws, since otherwise society in either world would cease to exist. 497-499
X If people did not have free will in spiritual matters, everyone throughout the world could in the course of a single day have been brought to believe in the Lord. But this would be impossible, because what a person does not accept of his own free will does not last. 500-502

– Miracles do not happen at the present day, because they take away free will in spiritual matters and compel. 501


CHAPTER NINE

REPENTANCE

I Repentance is the first stage in the development of the church in a person. 510, 511

II Contrition, which is said at the present time to precede faith and to be followed by the consolation of the Gospel, is not repentance. 512-515

III A mere verbal confession that one is a sinner is not repentance. 516-519

IV Man is born with a tendency to every kind of evil, and if he does not partially remove evils by repentance, he remains subject to them, and if so cannot be saved. 520-524

– What is meant by keeping the law. 523, 524

V Recognition of sin and a person’s self-examination are the beginnings of repentance. 525-527

VI Real repentance is examining oneself, recognising and acknowledging one’s sins, appealing to the Lord and beginning a new life. 528-531

VII True repentance means not only examining what one does in one’s life, but also what one intends in one’s will to do. 532-534

VIII Those too repent who do not examine themselves, but still refrain from evil actions because they are sins. This kind of repentance is practised by those who perform charitable deeds for religious reasons. 535-537

IX Confession ought to be made before the Lord God the Saviour, and then prayer should be offered for help and the power to resist evils. 538-560

X Real repentance is easy for those who have repented a number of times, but highly distasteful to those who have not. 561-563

XI A person who has never repented, or looked into himself and examined himself, ends up not knowing what is the evil which damns him and what the good which saves him. 564-566


CHAPTER TEN

REFORMATION AND REGENERATION

I Unless a person is born again and as it were created anew, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. 572-575

II A new birth or creation can only be brought about by the Lord through charity and faith as the two means with the person’s co-operation. 576-578

III Since all have been redeemed, everyone can be regenerated, in each case depending on the person’s state. 579-582

IV The process of regeneration is on the model of a person’s conception, gestation in the womb, birth and upbringing. 583-586

– Some facts about the male and female sexes in the vegetable kingdom. 585

V The first stage of re-birth is called reformation, a process affecting the under-standing; the second stage is called regeneration, a process affecting the will and thus the understanding. 587-590

VI The internal man must be reformed first, and the external by means of the internal; that is how a person is regenerated. 591-595

VII When this happens, a struggle ensues between the internal and the external man, and the victor then controls the other. 596-600

VIII When a person is regenerated, he acquires a new will and a new under-standing. 601-606

IX A person who is regenerated is in touch with the angels of heaven, one who is not with the spirits of hell. 607-610

X In so far as a person is regenerated, so far are his sins removed; this removal is the forgiveness of sins. 611-614

XI Regeneration is impossible without free will in spiritual matters. 615-617

XII Regeneration is impossible without truths through which faith may be formed, and with which charity may link itself. 618-620


CHAPTER ELEVEN

IMPUTATION

I The faith of the present-day church, which is held to be the sole requirement for justification, is one with imputation. 626, 627

II Imputation as part of present-day faith is a double concept. There is imputation of Christ’s merit and imputation of salvation as a result. 628-631

III The idea of faith imputing the merit and righteousness of Christ the Redeemer sprang first from the decrees of the Council of Nicaea concerning three Divine Persons from eternity; and this faith has been accepted by the whole Christian world from that time to the present. 632-635
IV Faith which imputes Christ’s merit was unknown to the earlier, Apostolic

church, and is nowhere to be understood in the Word. 636-639

V It is impossible for Christ’s merit and righteousness to be imputed. 640-642

VI There is imputation but it is of good and evil. 643-646

VII The faith and concept of imputation in the new church cannot by any means be combined with the faith and concept of imputation current in the former church. If they are combined, there is such a clash and conflict that a person loses all trace of anything to do with the church. 647-649

VIII The Lord imputes good to everyone and hell imputes evil to everyone. 650-653

IX It is what faith combines with which is the deciding factor. If true faith combines with good, that is a decision for everlasting life; but if faith combines with evil, that is a decision for everlasting death. 654-657

X One’s thoughts are not imputed to anyone, only one’s will. 658-660


CHAPTER TWELVE

BAPTISM

I Without knowledge of the spiritual sense of the Word no one can know what is involved in and effected by the two sacraments, baptism and the Holy Supper. 667-669

II The washing called baptism means spiritual washing, which is purification from evils and falsities, and so regeneration. 670-673

III Baptism was instituted to take the place of circumcision, because the circumcision of the foreskin was a representation of the circumcision of the heart. The purpose of baptism was so that the internal church should take the place of the external, which in every detail prefigured the internal church. 674-676

IV The first purpose of baptism is to be introduced to the Christian church, and at the same time brought into the company of Christians in the spiritual world. 677-680

V The second purpose of baptism is so that a Christian may get to know and acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ, the Redeemer and Saviour, and follow Him. 681-683

VI The third purpose of baptism, which is its end in view, is a person’s regeneration. 684-687

VII By John’s baptism the way was prepared for Jehovah God to come down into the world and carry out redemption. 688-691


CHAPTER THIRTEEN

THE HOLY SUPPER

I No one who does not know about the way natural things correspond with spiritual ones can know the benefits conferred by the Holy Supper. 698-701

II A knowledge of correspondences allows us to know what is meant by the Lord’s flesh and blood, much the same as by bread and wine. This is that the Lord’s flesh and the bread mean the Divine good of His love and also all the good of charity; and the Lord’s blood and the wine mean the Divine truth of His wisdom and also all the truth of faith. Eating means making one’s own. 702-710

– Demonstration from the Word of the meaning of flesh. 704, 705

– Demonstration from the Word of the meaning of blood. 706

– Demonstration from the Word of the meaning of bread. 707

– Demonstration from the Word of the meaning of wine. 708

III By understanding this it is possible to grasp the fact that the Holy Supper contains everything to do with the church and heaven, both at the universal and at the particular level. 711-715

IV The Lord is wholly present in the Holy Supper, and so is the whole of redemption. 716-718

V The Lord is present and opens heaven to those who worthily approach the Holy Supper. He is also present with those who approach it unworthily, but He does not open heaven to them. Consequently just as baptism is being introduced to the church, so the Holy Supper is being introduced to heaven. 719-721

VI The people who worthily approach the Holy Supper are those who have faith in the Lord and charity towards the neighbour, so those who have been regenerated. 722-724

VII Those who worthily approach the Holy Supper are in the Lord and the Lord is in them. Thus it is through the Holy Supper that they are linked with the Lord. 725-727

VIII The Holy Supper for those who approach it worthily is a kind of guarantee and seal put on their adoption as sons of God. 728-730


CHAPTER FOURTEEN

THE ENDING OF THE AGE, THE LORD’S COMING, AND THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW CHURCH

I The ending of the age is the final period or end of the church. 753-756

II The present time is the final period of the Christian church foretold and described by the Lord in the Gospels and Revelation. 757-759

III This final period of the Christian church is absolute night, in which previous churches ended 760-763
IV This night is followed by morning, and morning is the Lord’s coming. 764-767

V The Lord’s coming does not mean His coming to destroy the sky we see and the earth where we live, and to create a new heaven and a new earth, as many people up to now have imagined through not understanding the spiritual sense of the Word. 768-771

VI This, which is the Lord’s second coming, is taking place in order that the wicked should be separated from the good, and those should be saved who believe in Him and have done so; and so that a new heaven of angels and a new church on earth should be formed from them. Without this no flesh could be saved (Matt. 2 22). 772-775

VII This, the Lord’s second coming, is not in person, but in the word, which is from Him and which He is. 776-778

VIII This, the Lord’s second coming, is taking place by means of a man, to whom He has shown Himself in person, and whom He has filled with His spirit, so that he may teach the doctrines of the new church which come from the Lord through the Word. 779, 780

IX This is the meaning of the new heaven and the New Jerusalem in Revelation, chapter 21. 781-785

X This new church is the crown of all the churches which have up to now existed upon earth. 786-791

SUPPLEMENT

I The nature of the spiritual world. 792-795

II Luther in the spiritual world. 796

III Melanchthon in the spiritual world. 797

IV Calvin in the spiritual world. 798, 799

V The Dutch in the spiritual world. 800-805

VI The British in the spiritual world. 806-812

VII The Germans in the spiritual world. 813-816

VIII The Roman Catholics in the spiritual world. 817-821

IX The saints of the Roman Catholics in the spiritual world. 822-827

X The Mohammedans in the spiritual world. 828-834

XI The Africans in the spiritual world; also something about other nations. 835-840

XII The Jews in the spiritual world. 841-845



TCR (Chadwick) n. 1 sRef Dan@7 @13 S0′ sRef Dan@7 @14 S0′ sRef Jer@33 @15 S0′ sRef Jer@33 @16 S0′ 1. THE FAITH OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW CHURCH

A statement of faith, set out in both universal and particular terms, is placed at the beginning to serve as a preface to the book which follows, to be like a doorway leading into a church, and a summary presenting in a short compass what follows at more length. It is called the faith of the new heaven and the new church, because heaven, where the angels are, and the church among men form a single unit, just as the internal and external sides of the personality make up a single individual. This is why a member of the church who possesses the good of love which arises from the truths of faith, and possesses the truths of faith which arise from the good of love, is, so far as the interiors of his mind are concerned, an angel of heaven. Therefore too after dying he comes into heaven, and there enjoys happiness depending upon how far the good and truth are linked. It should be known that in the new heaven, which is at the present time being established by the Lord, this statement of faith serves as its preface, doorway and summary.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 2 2. THE FAITH OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW CHURCH IS IN UNIVERSAL TERMS AS FOLLOWS.*

The Lord from eternity, who is Jehovah, came into the world to subdue the hells and to glorify His Human. Without this no mortal could have been saved, and those are saved who believe in Him.

[2] The expression ‘in universal terms’ is used because this is a universal point of faith, and a universal point of faith must be contained in all its particulars. It is a universal point of faith that God is one in essence and in person, in whom is the Divine Trinity, and that He is the Lord God the Saviour Jesus Christ. It is a universal point of faith that no mortal could have been saved, if the Lord had not come into the world. It is a universal point of faith that He came into the world to take hell away from men, and He did this by fighting against hell and winning victories over it. In this way He subdued it and reduced it to order, and made it subject to His command. It is a universal point of faith that He came into the world to glorify the Human which He assumed in the world, that is, to unite it with the originating Divinity. By this means He keeps hell for ever in order and subject to His command. Since this could only be achieved by means of temptations experienced in His Human, even to the most extreme, His passion on the cross, He underwent this. These are the universal matters of faith concerning the Lord.

sRef John@3 @36 S3′ sRef John@6 @40 S3′ [3] It is a universal point of faith on the part of man to believe in the Lord; for this belief links him to the Lord, and this is the way to salvation. Believing in Him means having confidence that He is the Saviour; and since only those who lead good lives can have such confidence, this too is meant by believing in Him. The Lord says this in John’s gospel:

This is the will of the Father, that everyone who believes in the Son should have everlasting life. John 6:40.

and elsewhere:

He who believes in the Son has everlasting life. He who does not believe in the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God rests upon him. John 3:36.

* This passage is repeated with minor changes from FAITH 34, AR 67, BE 116.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 3 sRef John@1 @14 S0′ sRef 1Joh@5 @20 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef John@16 @28 S1′ 3. THE FAITH OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW CHURCH IN PARTICULAR TERMS IS AS FOLLOWS.

Jehovah God is Love itself and Wisdom itself, or Good itself and Truth itself. He came down in the form of Divine Truth, which is the Word and which was God with God, and took upon Himself human form, so as to reduce to order everything in heaven, in hell and in the church. For at that time the power of hell was stronger than the power of heaven, and on earth the power of evil was stronger than the power of good, so that utter damnation stood threatening at the gates. This impending damnation was removed by Jehovah God by means of His Human, which was Divine Truth, and thus angels and men were redeemed. Afterwards He united in His Human Divine Truth with Divine Good, or Divine Wisdom with Divine Love, and so returned into the Divinity which was His from eternity, together with and in His glorified Human. This is the meaning of the passage in John:

The Word was with God and the Word was God; and the Word was made flesh. John 1:1, 14.

In the same gospel:

I came out of the Father and I came into the world; I leave the world again, and go to the Father. John 16:28.

Further in the following passage:

We know that the Son of God came and gave us understanding, so that we might know Him who is true; and we are in Him who is true, in His Son, Jesus Christ. He is the true God and everlasting life. 1 John 5:20.

These passages show that without the Lord’s coming into the world no one could have been saved. The situation to-day is similar. So unless the Lord comes into the world again in the form of Divine Truth, that is, the Word, no more can anyone now be saved.

[2] The particular details of faith on man’s part are:

1 God is one, in whom is the Divine Trinity, and He is the Lord God the Saviour Jesus Christ.

2 Faith leading to salvation is believing in Him.

3 Evil actions must not be done because they are the work of the devil and come from him.

4 Good actions must be done because they are the work of God and come from Him.

5 A person must perform these actions as if they were his own, but he must believe they come from the Lord working in him and through him.

The first two points deal with faith, the second two with charity; and the fifth deals with the joining of charity with faith and thus of the Lord with men.


TCR (Chadwick) n. 4 sRef Acts@20 @21 S1′ 4. CHAPTER ONE

GOD THE CREATOR

The Christian church has from the Lord’s time passed through all the stages of life, from infancy to extreme old age. Its infancy was during the lifetime of the Apostles, who preached all over the world repentance and belief in the Lord God the Saviour. It is clear that these were their two main points from a passage in the Acts of the Apostles:

Paul proclaimed both to Jews and Greeks repentance towards God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. Acts 20:21.

It is a notable fact that several months ago the Lord called together his twelve disciples who are now angels, and sent them out throughout the spiritual world with orders to preach the Gospel there anew, since the church the Lord established through their ministry is to-day so close to its end that hardly any remains survive. This has come about because the Divine Trinity has been divided into three persons, each of whom is God and Lord.

[2] As a result the whole of theology, and so the church which is named Christian after the Lord, has been pervaded by a kind of insanity. I say ‘insanity’ because it has driven people’s minds to such a pitch of delirium that they do not know whether there is one God or three. One is what they say, three is what they think. So there is a conflict between the mind and the lips, the thought and its expression, and this conflict ends by their thinking that there is no God. This alone is the source of the nature-worship prevalent to-day. Pray consider whether, when the lips speak of one God and the mind thinks of three, each idea does not annihilate the other when they clash midway. Thus if anyone thinks of God at all, he does so as hardly anything but a bare title, with no feeling of knowing Him.

[3] Since the idea of God and all knowledge of Him has been so fragmented, I propose to discuss in turn God the Creator, the Lord the Redeemer, the Holy Spirit the Active Force, and finally the Divine Trinity, so that what has been broken into fragments may be put together again. This happens when a person’s reason is convinced from the Word and the enlightenment it gives that there is a Divine Trinity, and that this is in the Lord God the Saviour Jesus Christ, just as the soul, the body and the activity coming from them form a trinity in man. This article in the Athanasian creed is therefore valid:

In Christ, God and Man, or the Divine and the Human, are not two, but in one person; as the rational soul and the flesh are one man, so too God and Man are one Christ.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 5 5. THE ONENESS OF GOD

Since the acknowledgment of God which comes from knowing Him is the very essence and soul of every dogma in all theology, I must begin by speaking of the oneness of God. This will be demonstrated in the following series of propositions.

(i) The whole of the Sacred Scripture and all doctrines extracted from it by churches throughout Christendom teach that there is one God.
(ii) There is a general feeling [emanating from God and]* flowing into men’s souls that there is a God, and that He is one.
(iii) That is why there is no nation throughout the World possessed of religion and sound reason which does not acknowledge God and the fact that He is one.
(iv) There are many reasons why nations and peoples have formed varying ideas of the nature of that one God, and continue to do so.
(v) There are many things in the world which can lead the human reason, if it wishes, to grasp and deduce that there is a God and that He is one.
(vi) If there had not been one God, the universe could not have been created and kept in existence.
(vii) Any person who does not acknowledge God is excommunicated from the church and damned.
(viii) The church cannot hold together at all in the case of a person who acknowledges not one God, but several.
These propositions will be expounded one by one.

*The words in brackets are supplied from the repetition of this proposition in 8.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 6 6. (i) THE WHOLE OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURE AND ALL THE DOCTRINES EXTRACTED FROM IT BY CHURCHES THROUGHOUT CHRISTENDOM TEACH THAT THERE IS A GOD AND HE IS ONE.

The reason why the whole of the Sacred Scripture teaches the existence of God is that its inmost meaning is concerned with nothing but God, that is, the Divine proceeding from God. For Scripture was dictated by God, and nothing can proceed from God except what He Himself is, and this we call the Divine. This resides in the inmost meaning of Scripture. However, in its lower forms which are derived from the Divine, the Holy Scripture is adapted to the grasp of angels and men. In these forms it is likewise Divine, but in a different guise; in this case the Divine is called Celestial, Spiritual and Natural. These are merely the veils of God, since God Himself, as He exists in the inmost meaning of the Word, cannot be looked on by any created being. For when Moses begged to see the glory of Jehovah, God told him that no one can see God and live. It is the same with the inmost meaning of the Word, in which God is in His Being and Essence.

sRef Hos@13 @4 S2′ [2] Still the Divine, which is inmostly contained in it and is protected by such veils as adapt it to the grasp of angels and men, shines out like light passing through crystalline structures, but the light appears to differ according to the state of mind which a person has acquired from God or from himself. For everyone who has acquired his state of mind from God, the Sacred Scripture is like a mirror, in which he sees God, everyone in his own fashion. This mirror is composed of the truths which he learns from the Word and absorbs by living his life in accordance with them. A first conclusion from this is that the Sacred Scripture is the fulness of God.

sRef Deut@6 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @21 S3′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S3′ sRef Zech@14 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @14 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @15 S3′ [3] This teaches not only the existence of God, but also that He is one. This is evident from the fact that the truths, which, as I have said, compose that mirror, are held together in a single bond and prevent a person from thinking about God except as one. That is why every person, whose reason has absorbed some holiness from the Word, knows, as if of himself, that God is one, and regards talking about several gods as a kind of madness. Angels cannot open their mouths to say ‘Gods’, because the aura of heaven in which they live offers resistance. The Sacred Scripture teaches that God is one not only universally, as I asserted, but in many particular passages, such as the following.

Hear, O Israel, Jehovah our God is one Jehovah. Deut. 6:4; similarly Mark 12:29.

Surely God is among you, and there is no God beside Me. Isa. 45:14, 15. Am I not Jehovah, and there is no other God beside me? Isa. 45:21.

I am Jehovah your God, and you are not to acknowledge any God beside Me. Hosea 13:4.

Thus spoke Jehovah, the King of Israel, I am the First and the Last, and there is no God beside Me. Isa. 44:6. On that day Jehovah will be King over all the earth; on that day Jehovah will be one, and His name one. Zech. 14:9.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 7 sRef Matt@13 @15 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @14 S0′ 7. It is well known that the doctrines of the Christian churches teach that God is one. This is because all their doctrines are taken from the Word, and they hold together so long as one God is acknowledged not only with the lips but also in the heart. For those who acknowledge one God only with their lips, while in their hearts they admit three, which is what happens with many people in Christendom to-day, God is nothing more than a verbal expression. Their whole theology is nothing but a golden idol locked in a case, to which only their leaders have the key. When they read the Word, they do not receive any enlightenment about it and from it, not even the perception that God is one. For them the Word is, as it were, blotted with erasures and obscured where it speaks of the oneness of God. These are the people described by the Lord in Matthew.

Hearing you will hear and not understand, and seeing you will see and not discern. They have closed their eyes, so that they should not risk seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding in their hearts, and so that they should not turn again and let me heal them. Matt. 13:14, 15.

All of these people are like those who run away from daylight, and shut themselves in windowless rooms, where they grope around the walls searching for food and money. Finally they are granted a power of sight like that of owls, so that they can see in the dark. They resemble a woman with several husbands, no true wife, but a wanton prostitute. They are like a girl who accepts rings from several suitors, and after she is married hires herself out for the night not just to one, but to the rest as well.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 8 sRef John@15 @5 S1′ sRef John@3 @27 S1′ 8. (ii) THERE IS A GENERAL FEELING EMANATING FROM GOD AND FLOWING INTO MEN’S SOULS THAT THERE IS A GOD, AND THAT HE IS ONE.

God influences man, as is evident from what everyone admits, that God is the source of every good thing which is good in itself and is present in man and done by him. The same is true of the whole of charity and the whole of faith. For we read:

A man cannot take anything unless it is given him from heaven. John 3:27.

and Jesus said:

Without me you can do nothing. John 15:5.

That is to say, nothing of charity and nothing of faith, The reason there is this inflow into the souls of men is that the soul is man’s inmost and highest part; the Divine influence enters there and from there descends to the lower parts, giving them life so far as it is accepted. Admittedly the truths destined to create faith are received through the hearing and are thus implanted in the mind, that is, at a lower level than the soul. But these truths only create the conditions which allow a man to be acted upon by God through his soul. The extent to which truths are accepted depends upon this conditioning, and his natural faith is in proportion transformed into a spiritual faith.

[2] The reason why there is a feeling that God is one emanating from God and entering men’s souls is that everything Divine, both understood universally and in particular, is God; and because everything Divine holds together as a single unit, it must inevitably inspire a person with the idea of one God. This feeling is strengthened day by day, as a person is lifted by God into the light of heaven. For angels, in the light they enjoy, cannot force themselves to say ‘Gods’. For this reason too when they are speaking the end of every sentence finishes on a single note. This is entirely due to this feeling that God is one entering their Souls.

[3] Although all human beings have this idea of God being one entering their souls, still many of them think that His Divinity is divided into several of the same essence. This is because the inflowing idea as it descends slips into forms which do not match it, and the form itself imposes a variation, just as happens in everything which belongs to the three kingdoms of the natural world. It is the same God who gives life to every animal as to man; but it is the receiving form which determines that an animal is an animal, and a man a man. The same thing can happen to a man, when he gives his mind the form of an animal. Every tree receives the same radiation from the sun, but its results vary depending upon the form of each tree. The radiation falling on a vine is the same as that on a thorn-tree; but if the thorn is grafted on to the vine, the radiation is upset and produces effects dictated by the thorn.

[4] The same happens in the mineral kingdom. The light striking a piece of limestone is the same as that striking a diamond; but in one case it shines through, and in the other it is blacked out. Human minds undergo variation depending on their forms, and these are inwardly spiritual in proportion to their faith in God, and at the same time the amount of life they receive from God. Faith in one God makes them transparent and angelic; but instead they become opaque and bestial as the result of faith in several gods, which is hardly to be distinguished from faith in no God.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 9 9. (iii) THAT IS WHY THERE IS NO NATION THROUGHOUT THE WORLD POSSESSED OF RELIGION AND SOUND REASON WHICH DOES NOT ACKNOWLEDGE GOD AND THE FACT THAT HE IS ONE.

The consequence of the Divine influence operating on the souls of men as described above is that every man has an inward voice telling him that there is a God, and that He is one. None the less there are those who deny the existence of God, those who recognise nature as a god, and those who worship several gods and also statues as gods. The reason is that these have choked the interiors of their reason or understanding with worldly and bodily thoughts, thus blotting out their original or child-like idea of God, and at the same time throwing religion away over their shoulders. The confession of the creed shows plainly that Christians acknowledge one God, but it also shows how they see Him. It runs:

The catholic faith is that we reverence one God in the Trinity and the Trinity in unity. There are three Divine persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and yet there are not three gods, but one God. There is one person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Spirit. They have one Divinity, equal glory and co-eternal majesty. So the Father is God, the Son is God and the Holy Spirit is God. But as Christian verity compels us to confess each person severally to be God and Lord, so does the catholic religion forbid us to speak of three Gods and three Lords.

Such is the Christian faith on the oneness of God; but it will be seen in the chapter on the Divine Trinity [163-188] that there is a conflict in that confession between the ideas of a Trinity and the oneness of God.

sRef Ex@20 @3 S2′ [2] The rest of the nations in the world, who are possessed of religion and sound reason, insist that God is one: all the Mohammedans in their empires, the Africans in many kingdoms of their continent, and the peoples of Asia in several of theirs, not to mention the present-day Jews. The most ancient people of the Golden Age, those who had any religion, worshipped one God whom they named Jehovah. So did the ancients of the following age, before the establishment of empires under a sole monarch. For at this time worldly, and finally bodily, loves began to close up the higher regions of the understanding, which had previously been open; then they had been like temples and shrines for the worship of one God. But the Lord God, in order to re-open them and thus restore the worship of one God, founded a church among the descendants of Jacob, and set at the head of all the commandments of their religion this:

There is to be no other God before my face. Exod. 20:3

[3] Jehovah too, the new name which He gave Himself for them, means the supreme and single Entity from which everything comes which is and comes into being anywhere in the universe. The early gentiles acknowledged as their supreme God Jupiter,* perhaps so called from Jehovah; and they endowed with divinity many of the other members of his court. But the philosophers of the following age, such as Plato and Aristotle, admitted that these were not gods, but so many properties, qualities and attributes of the one God, which were called gods on account of the divinity immanent in each of them.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 10 10. Anyone of sound mind, even if not religious, can see that anything which is divided must of itself fall apart unless it is dependent upon a single origin. For instance, a human being, who is built up of so many members, viscera, sensory and motor organs, would collapse if he did not depend on a single soul; so would the body, but for its single heart. In the same way a kingdom depends upon having a single king, a household on a single master, and every department of the administration, of which there are many kinds in every kingdom, upon a single official. How effective would an army be in fighting the enemy without a general in overall command, and officers subordinate to him, each exercising his authority over the common soldiers? It would be the same with the church, if it did not acknowledge one God; or with the heaven of angels, which is, so to speak, the head of the church on earth; there too the Lord is their very soul. This is why heaven and the church are called His body. If both did not acknowledge one God, they would resemble a lifeless body, which is cast out and buried, as being of no further use.

* or Jove

TCR (Chadwick) n. 11 11. (iv) THERE ARE MANY REASONS WHY NATIONS AND PEOPLES HAVE FORMED VARYING IDEAS OF THE NATURE OF THAT ONE GOD, AND CONTINUE TO DO SO.

The first reason is that knowledge about God, and consequently acknowledgment of God, is impossible without revelation, and that knowledge about the Lord and consequently the acknowledgment that ‘in Him all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily’ can only come from the Word, which is the crown of revelations. Because revelation has been granted, a person is able to go to meet God and be acted upon by Him, and so from being natural become spiritual. The revelation of early ages spread throughout the world, and was perverted by natural men in many ways. This is the origin of the divisions, dissensions, heresies and schisms which have affected religions.

The second reason is that a natural man cannot form and apply to himself any perception of God, but only of the world. This is why it is one of the principles of the Christian Church that the natural man is opposed to the spiritual and they fight each other. This too is why those who have learned the existence of God from the Word [or] another revelation have differed and still do concerning the nature of God and His oneness.

[2] For this reason those whose mental vision has been dependent upon the bodily senses, and have none the less wished to see God, have made for themselves images of gold, silver, stone and wood, so that in these forms as visible objects they could worship God. This is why also others whose religion led them to reject such images, made themselves images of God out of the sun, the moon and the stars and various terrestrial objects. But those who thought their intelligence above the common herd, yet remained natural men, were led by the immensity of God and His omnipresence in creating the world to acknowledge nature as God, in some cases in its inmost, in others in its outermost forms. Some, in order to maintain a distinction between God and nature, thought up some extremely universal principle, which they called ‘the Being of the Universe’; and because they know nothing more about God, this Being becomes for them a mere concept, which is meaningless.

[3] Is there anyone who cannot grasp that things known about God are mirrors held up to God? Those who know nothing of God see Him not in a mirror held up to their eyes, but in a mirror turned back to front, which is covered with quicksilver or a black composition that does not reflect an image but blots it out. Belief in God comes into man by the front door, that is, from the soul into the higher regions of the understanding. But knowledge about God comes in by the back door, because it is absorbed by the understanding from the revelation of the Word by means of the bodily senses. The two paths leading in meet in the midst of the understanding; there, natural belief, which is merely a strongly held opinion, becomes spiritual, that is to say, a real acknowledgment. So the human understanding is like an exchange where currencies are changed.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 12 12. (v) THERE ARE MANY THINGS IN THE WORLD WHICH CAN LEAD THE HUMAN REASON, IF IT WISHES, TO GRASP AND DEDUCE THAT THERE IS A GOD AND THAT HE IS ONE.

This truth can be supported by countless things in the visible world; for the universe is like a theatre, upon the stage of which demonstrations of the existence of God and His oneness are continually being presented. To illustrate this I shall relate this account from my experiences in the spiritual world.

Once when I was talking with angels, some newcomers from the natural world arrived. On seeing them I made them welcome, and told them many facts they did not know about the spiritual world. After this conversation I asked them what learning about God and nature they brought with them from the world.

‘We have been taught,’ they said, ‘that nature performs all the operations which take place in the whole of creation. After the act of creation God assigned to nature and stamped upon her this ability and power; God only supports and preserves everything from being destroyed. Consequently everything on earth which comes into existence, is born or re-born, is to-day put down to nature.’

I replied that nature of herself performs no operation; but it is God who does this by means of nature. Since they demanded a proof, I said:* ‘Those who believe in the working of God in the details of Nature can find many sights in the world in favour of their belief in God, many more than in favour of nature. [2] Those who favour the working of God in the details of nature pay attention to the amazing sights to be seen in the reproduction of both plants and animals. In the case of plants, a tiny seed cast into the ground produces a root, by means of the root a stem, and so in order branches, twigs, leaves, flowers and fruit, until the result is fresh seeds, just as if the seed knew the pattern of successive stages or processes which lead to its renewal. Can any rational person think that the sun, which is nothing but fire, has this knowledge, or that it can instruct its heat and light to produce such effects, and that it can act purposefully? A person whose reasoning faculty is uplifted, on seeing and duly considering these facts, is inevitably led to think that they come from Him who possesses infinite wisdom, that is, from God. Those who acknowledge the working of God in the details of nature are further confirmed in their view on seeing these things; those on the other hand who do not make this acknowledgment see them not with the eyes of reason set in the face, but with eyes in the back of the head; these are the people who get all the ideas in their heads from the bodily senses and support their fallacious beliefs by saying ‘Surely you see it is the sun which produces all these results by its heat and light. Something you cannot see cannot be anything.’

[3] ‘Those seeking support for a Divine origin pay attention to the amazing sights to be seen in animal reproduction. First of all I may mention eggs, which contain the chick hidden in its seed together with everything needed for its development, and its whole future growth after hatching until it becomes a bird resembling its mother. Further if we consider flying creatures in general, the mind which thinks profoundly boggles at the astonishing facts about them; that the smallest as well as the largest, the invisible as well as the visible, that is, tiny insects as well as birds and large animals, possess sensory organs of sight, smell, taste and touch; also motor organs or muscles which allow them to fly and walk; also viscera attached to a heart and lungs, all controlled by brains. Those who attribute everything to nature admittedly see these things, but they think of them merely as facts and call them the products of nature. They say this because they have turned their minds away from thinking about the Divine. This turning away from the Divine prevents them from thinking rationally, much less spiritually, about the amazing sights they see in nature. Their thoughts are limited to the senses and matter, so that they think in nature from nature, rather than above her. Their only difference from animals is that they enjoy the faculty of rationality, that is, they can understand if they wish.

[4] ‘Those who have turned away from thoughts of the Divine, which makes them dependent upon the bodily senses, do not realise that the sight of the eye is so coarse and gross that it sees a group of tiny insects as a dark mass. Yet every one of these is endowed with the powers of sensation and movement, that is to say, it is provided with fibres and vessels, a tiny heart, breathing pores, viscera and brain. These are constructed of the simplest natural substances, and their systems answer to the vital principle in its lowest degree, for even the tiniest organs are individually activated by it. Since the sight of the eye is so gross that a number of creatures, each with its countless parts, look like a small dark mass, and yet those who rely on their senses found their thought and judgment on those visual powers, it is obvious how blunted their minds are and thus how blind they are on spiritual matters.

[5] ‘Anyone can, if he wishes, find support for the Divine idea in the sights of nature, and also further if he thinks about God and His omnipotence in the creation of the universe and His omnipresence in preserving it. As when he considers the birds of the air, each species of which knows its proper food and where to find it; it recognises its kind by sight and sound; it knows which birds are its friends and which its enemies; they know how to nestle under their plumage, they form pairs, cleverly construct nests, lay eggs in them and sit on them; they know how long to sit, and in due season hatch their chicks, whom they love dearly, protecting them under their wings, providing food and nourishing them, and continuing until they can look after themselves and perform the same service. Anyone who is willing to think how the Divine influences the natural world by means of the spiritual can see this in these facts. He can even, if he wishes, say in his heart, ‘Such knowledge cannot be acquired from the sun’s heat and light, for the sun which is the origin and essence of nature is nothing but fire. Consequently the radiation of its heat and light is totally devoid of life.’ This may lead them to deduce that such things are the effect of Divine influence working on the lowest forms of nature by means of the spiritual world.

[6] ‘Anyone can find support for the Divine idea from the sights of nature, when he looks at grubs. The pleasure of a certain love makes them seek and aspire to change their earthly condition into one analogous to the heavenly condition. Therefore they creep into suitable places, surround themselves with a cocoon and so put themselves into a womb that they may be born again. There they become chrysallises, pupae, nymphs, and finally butterflies. And when they have undergone their metamorphosis and have put on the lovely wings typical of their species, they fly up into the air as into their private heaven, play happily together, mate, lay eggs and see to the continuation of their race. Then they feed on lovely, sweet food provided by flowers. Can anyone, who finds support for the Divine idea in the sights of nature, fail to see a picture of man’s earthly state in their life as grubs and his heavenly state when they become butterflies? But those who support the idea of nature admittedly see these facts, but because they have mentally rejected the idea of man’s heavenly state, they call these nothing but the workings of nature.

[7] ‘Anyone can find support for the Divine idea from the sights of nature when he pays attention to the facts known about bees. They know how to collect wax and suck up honey from roses and other flowers, how to construct cells as their tiny homes and arrange them so as to resemble a city with streets by which to come in and go out. They smell out from a distance the flowers and plants from which they collect wax for building and honey to eat. When they are loaded with these they know their bearings to fly home to their hive, and thus provide themselves with food for the coming winter, as if they could foresee it. They set a mistress or queen over them; she is the mother of their offspring. They build a sort of court above their own quarters for the queen surrounded by her courtiers. When the time comes for her to give birth, she goes around accompanied by her courtiers, called drones, from one cell to the next and lays her eggs which the attendant crowd seal in to protect them from the air. These produce their new stock. Later on when this grows up sufficiently to behave in the same way, it is expelled from the hive; the swarm first of all gathers into a cloud to keep together in formation, and then flies off to find themselves a home. Towards autumn the drones, because they have brought home no wax or honey, are taken out and stripped of their wings, so that they cannot come back and consume the food to which they have done nothing to contribute; and much more might be said. From all this it can be clearly seen that for the sake of the service they perform to human beings the Divine influence coming through the spiritual world has given them an organisation similar to that of men on earth, or indeed of angels in the heavens.

[8] ‘Is there anyone of unimpaired reason who does not see that such effects are not produced in them by the natural world? What has the sun, the origin of nature, in common with an organisation which rivals and mirrors the organisation of the heavens? These and similar facts concerning the lower animals confirm in his belief the man who makes a profession of and worships nature. But the man who professes belief in and worships God uses the same facts to reinforce his belief in God; for the spiritual man sees in them spiritual facts, while the natural man sees natural ones, in other words, each sees what he is. For my part, such facts have been evidence to me of the influence of the spiritual world coming from God on the natural. Consider too whether you could think analytically about any type of organisation, or any civil law, or any moral virtue, or any spiritual truth, if the Divine influence did not make itself felt as a result of its wisdom by means of the spiritual world. I for my part have never been able to do so, nor can I now. I have consciously perceived that influence and felt it through the senses continuously for the last twenty-six years. So I make this statement as a witness.

[9] ‘Can nature have as its aim the fulfilment of a purpose, and arrange these purposes into organised structures? Only a wise being can do this; and no one could so order and structure the universe except God, whose wisdom is infinite. Who else can foresee and provide what men need to eat and clothe themselves: the crops of the field, the fruits of the earth and animals for food, and clothing from the same sources? One of the astonishing things in this is that those insignificant insects called silk-worms dress both women and men in silk and adorn them magnificently, from queens and kings down to maids and servants; and that those insignificant insects called bees supply wax to illuminate splendidly churches and halls. These and many more are the outstanding proofs that God of Himself performs all the workings of nature by means of the spiritual world.

[10] ‘To this I must add that I have seen in the spiritual world those who found confirmation of their naturalistic view in the sights of the world, to such an extent that they became atheists. Seen in spiritual light, their understandings seemed to be open underneath, but closed on top, because their thoughts had been turned downwards to earth, and not up to heaven. Above their sensual area, which is the lowest level of the understanding, there appeared a sort of covering flashing with hellish fire, in some cases black as soot, in others livid like a corpse. Therefore let everyone take care not to confirm his belief in nature, but seek rather proofs of God; there is no lack of material.’
* The following passage is adapted from DLW 351-357, CL 416-421.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 13 sRef Isa@44 @6 S1′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S1′ 13. (vi) IF THERE HAD NOT BEEN ONE GOD, THE UNIVERSE COULD NOT HAVE BEEN CREATED AND KEPT IN EXISTENCE.

The reason the oneness of God can be deduced from the creation of the universe is that the universe is a single system coherently organised from beginning to end, and dependent upon God as the body is on the soul. The universe was so created that God could be omnipresent, and keep all its particulars under His guidance, and keep it perpetually together as a unit, and so preserve it. This too is why Jehovah God says that He is the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End, Alpha and Omega (Isa. 44:6; Rev. 1:8, 17) and elsewhere that He does everything, spreads out the heavens, and stretches out the earth, of Himself (Isa. 44:24). This mighty system which is called the universe is a single unit coherently organised from beginning to end, because God had one end in view in creating it, to create from the human race a heaven of angels. The means to this end are all the things of which the world is composed; for he who wills the end, wills also the means.

[2] The man therefore who contemplates the world as a piece of work containing the means to that end can contemplate the created universe as a single coherent unit, and he can see that the world is an assemblage of services structured for the benefit of the human race, to form a heaven of angels. The Divine Love cannot have any other end in view than from His Divine to make human beings eternally blessed; and His Divine Wisdom cannot produce anything but services designed to fulfil that end. By considering the world from this universal point of view every wise man can grasp that the Creator of the universe is one, and that His essence is Love and Wisdom. Consequently there is no detail in it which does not conceal services either nearly or distantly designed to benefit human beings. Their food is provided by the fruits of the earth and also by animals, their clothing from the same sources.

[3] One of the astonishing things is that those insignificant insects called
silk-worms dress both women and men in silk and adorn them magnificently, from queens and kings down to maids and servants; and those insignificant insects, the bees, supply wax to illuminate splendidly churches and halls. Those who consider one by one facts about the world instead of the whole assemblage of ends, causal means and effects, and those who do not attribute creation to Divine Love acting by means of Divine Wisdom, cannot see that the universe is the handiwork of one God, and that He dwells in each service because He is in the end. For everyone who is involved in an end is also involved in the means, for the end which activates and controls the means is buried deep within all the means.

[4] Those who regard the universe not as the handiwork of God, nor as the dwelling-place of His Love and Wisdom, but as the handiwork of nature and the dwelling-place of the sun’s heat and light, shut off the higher regions of their mind from God, and expose the lower regions to the devil. As a result they exchange their human nature for that of a wild beast, indeed they not only think themselves to be no better than animals, but actually become animals. They become foxes in cunning, wolves in ferocity, leopards in guile, tigers in savagery, crocodiles, snakes, screech owls and other night-birds, each with its own nature. People like this in the spiritual world actually look from a distance like those wild beasts, for this is how their love of evil shows itself.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 14 14. (vii) ANY PERSON WHO DOES NOT ACKNOWLEDGE GOD IS EXCOMMUNICATED FROM THE CHURCH AND DAMNED.

The reason why a person who does not acknowledge God is excommunicated from the church is that God is everything to the church and the Divine truths, which we call theology, are what make it a church. Consequently to deny God is to deny everything to do with the church; and it is this very denial which excommunicates a person, so that it is not God but the person who excommunicates himself. The reason why he is damned is that by being excommunicated from the church he is also excommunicated from heaven. For the church on earth and the heaven of angels act as one, like the internal and the external, or the spiritual and the natural in the case of a person. Man was created by God so as to have his internal in the spiritual world and his external in the natural world. Thus he was created a denizen of either world in order that the spiritual, which is heavenly, should be planted in the natural, which is worldly, just as a seed is planted in the ground, and he might thus become steadfast and enduring to eternity.

[2] A person who by denying God has excommunicated himself from the church, and thus from heaven, has shut off his internal man in respect of the will, and so in respect of the love which gives him pleasure. For a person’s will is the receiver of his love and becomes its dwelling-place. But he cannot shut off his internal man in respect of the understanding, for if he could do this he would cease to be a human being. But the love in his will makes the higher regions of the understanding foolish with false notions, so that the understanding becomes as it were shut off from the truths which have to do with belief and the kinds of good which have to do with charity; thus he becomes more and more opposed to God and at the same time the spiritual side of the church. Thus he is cut off from communion with the angels of heaven, and by this exclusion he brings himself into communion with the satans of hell, and thinks exactly like them. All satans deny God and have foolish ideas about the spiritual side of the church, and a person who is linked with them does likewise.

[3] When this person is under the guidance of his spirit, which is when he is left to himself at home, he allows his thoughts to be guided by the pleasures of evil and falsity which he has conceived and brought to birth in himself. He then thinks that God does not exist, or that He is a mere word resounding from pulpits, to oblige the common people to obey the laws of the land, on which the community depends. He also thinks that the Word, which makes ministers keep harping on God, is a collection of visions or a mere compilation, the holiness of which has been established by authority. He regards the Ten Commandments or the catechism as a book, which when it has been worn out through handling by children, can be thrown away. For it laid down that parents are to be honoured, one is not to kill or go whoring, not to steal or bear false witness; and does not everyone know these same rules from the code of civil law? He thinks of the church as a mere congregation of the simple, the gullible and the weak-minded, who fancy they see what they do not. He regards human beings, and he includes himself among them, as animals; and his life after death as no different from that of an animal after death.

[4] This is how his internal man thinks, however differently the external man speaks. As said before, every man has an internal and an external: the internal, which is called the spirit, is what makes him human, and this lives on after death, while the external, which allows him to play the hypocrite by a show of morality, is buried. Then he is damned, because he denied God. Everyone is in his spirit associated with people like himself in the spiritual world, and is so to speak one with them. I have often been allowed to see the spirits of people still alive, some of them in communities of angels there, and others in communities of hell. I have been allowed to talk with them for days, and I was astonished to find that the person, who was still alive in the body, knew nothing at all of it. This experience made it clear that those who deny God are already among the damned, and after death are gathered to their own kind.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 15 15. (viii) THE CHURCH CANNOT HOLD TOGETHER AT ALL IN THE CASE OF A PERSON WHO ACKNOWLEDGES NOT ONE GOD, BUT SEVERAL.

The man who acknowledges in his belief one God and worships Him in his heart is in the communion of saints on earth, and of angels in the heavens. These are called communions, and they really are, because they are in the one God, and the one God is in them. The same people are also linked with the whole of the heaven of angels, and, I dare assert, with each and every one there. For they are all like sons and descendants of a single father, whose minds, manners and faces are similar, so that they can recognise one another. The heaven of angels is organised into communities in accordance with the varieties of the love for good, but all these varieties aim at a single most general love, that is, love to God. From this love are descended all who acknowledge in their belief, and worship in their heart, one God the Creator of the universe, and at the same time the Redeemer and the Regenerator.

[2] But far different is the case of those who approach and adore not one God, but several; or if it happens that they worship one God with their lips but three in their thinking, as those do in the church to-day who divide God into three persons, and declare each person by himself to be God, and attribute to each person different, qualities or peculiarities not shared with another. This produces an actual division not only in the oneness of God, but also in their theology, and likewise human minds that are devoted to it. What can be the result but a tangle of incoherent ideas about church matters? It will be proved in an Appendix to this book that this is the state of the church to-day. The truth is that to divide God or the Divine Essence into three persons, each of which severally or by itself is God, is tantamount to denying God. It is as if someone goes into a church to worship, and sees represented in a painting over the altar one God as the Ancient of Days, another as High Priest, and a third flying like Aeolus, and a label underneath saying ‘These three are one God.’ Or perhaps it is as if he were to see the Oneness and the Trinity represented as a man with three heads on one body or with three bodies topped by a single head; that is a monstrous idea, and if anyone were to enter heaven with that in his mind, he would certainly be flung out head first, even if he said that the head or heads stand for the essence, and the body or bodies separate properties.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 16 16. At this point I shall insert an account of an experience.

I saw some newcomers to the spiritual world from the natural world talking among themselves about the three Persons of the Divinity from eternity. They were in holy orders and one of them was a bishop.

They came up to me, and after we had talked for a while about the spiritual world, about which they had previously known nothing, I said: ‘I heard you talking about the three Persons of the Divinity from eternity. Would you please reveal to me this great mystery in accordance with the views which you formed in the natural world from which you have just come?’

Then the bishop looked at me and said: ‘I see that you are a layman, so I will reveal the views I hold about this great mystery and instruct you. My views were, and still are, that God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit sit in the midst of heaven on magnificent, high seats or thrones; God the Father on a throne of pure gold, with a sceptre in His hand; God the Son on His right hand on a throne of the finest silver, with a crown on His head; and God the Holy Spirit next to them on a throne of glistening crystal, holding a dove in His hand. Around them are three glittering rows of hanging lamps made of precious stones; and at a distance from this ring stand countless angels all worshipping and glorifying God. In addition, God the Father discusses constantly with His Son the souls who are to be justified; they decide between them and decree who on earth are worthy to be received among the angels and crowned with everlasting life. As soon as God the Holy Spirit hears the names they give, He flies through the world to them, bringing with Him the gifts of righteousness, a token of salvation for each person who is to be justified. Immediately on His arrival He breathes on them and blows away their sins, like a man with a fan who clears the smoke from a furnace, and whitewashes it. He removes too the stony hardness of their hearts and imparts the softness of flesh; and at the same time He renews their spirits or minds, brings them to a new birth, and gives them babyish faces. Finally He marks their foreheads with the sign of the cross, and calls them the Chosen and the Sons of God.’ At the conclusion of this lecture the bishop said to me: ‘That is how I unravelled that great mystery in the world; and because many of my clergy there applauded my speech, I am sure that you too, being a layman, will be persuaded by it.’

[2] On the conclusion of this speech by the bishop, I looked hard at him and the clergy with him, and noted that they were all fully in favour of his views. So I embarked upon a reply, and said: ‘I have weighed up your profession of belief, and have inferred from it that you have formed and hold an entirely natural and sensual, I might say, material idea about the Triune God. This must inevitably lead to the idea of three Gods. Is it not thinking according to the senses to imagine God the Father seated upon a throne with a sceptre in His hand? Or about the Son on His throne with a crown on His head? Or the Holy Spirit on His with a dove in His hand, and flying throughout the world to carry out His orders? Since that is the sort of idea that emerges, I cannot accept the truth of your words. From my earliest years I have not been able to admit into my mind any idea of God except as One; and since this has been what I have admitted and is what I still hold, everything you have said makes no impression on me. In due course I saw that by the ‘throne’ on which the Scriptures say that Jehovah sits is meant His kingdom, by ‘sceptre’ and ‘crown’ His rule and dominion, by ‘sitting at the right hand’ the omnipotence of God exercised by means of His humanity; and by what is said of the Holy Spirit the workings of the Divine Omnipresence. Please take up, my lord, the idea of One God and give it reasonable consideration, and you will at length clearly grasp that this is so.

[3] ‘You certainly say that God is one, and this is because you make the three Persons share one, undivided essence. Yet you do not allow anyone to say that the one God is one Person, but insist that there are three Persons, a belief necessary to preserve an idea of three Gods such as you have. You also attribute to each Person a character differing from the others’; do you not by this divide that Divine essence of yours? In these circumstances how can you say and at the same time think that God is one? I would forgive you if you said that there is one Divine. How can anyone who is told that ‘the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, and that each person by Himself is God’ possibly think that God is one? Surely this is a contradiction which cannot be believed. This illustration will show that one cannot speak of one God but only a like Divinity: one cannot call a group of people, who make up a single senate, assembly or council, one man, but so long as they all individually hold the same opinion, they can be said to have one view. Nor can three diamonds of a single composition be called one diamond, only one in respect of their composition; and each diamond differs from another in value according to its weight. This would be impossible if they were one, and not three.

[4] ‘However, I perceive that you call the three Divine Persons, each of whom is by Himself or singly God, one God, and have commanded every member of the church to speak in these terms, because enlightened and sound reason throughout the world acknowledges that God is one. You would therefore blush with shame, if you too did not speak in these terms. Yet all the time that you are uttering the words ‘One God’, although you are thinking of three, still that shame does not trap the two words in your mouth, but you say it aloud.’

After these speeches the bishop and his clergy withdrew, and as he went he turned round and wanted to shout ‘There is one God’; but he could not, because his thought hampered his tongue; and then, forcing his lips apart, he gasped ‘Three Gods’. The bystanders on seeing this monstrous happening burst into laughter and went away.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 17 17. Later on I asked where I could meet the sharpest minds among the learned who stood for a Divine Trinity divided into three Persons. Three came forward, whom I addressed thus: ‘How can you divide the Divine Trinity into three Persons and assert that each Person by Himself or singly is God and Lord? If so, your verbal profession that God is one is as far removed from what you think as the south is from the north.’

To this they replied: ‘It is not removed at all, because the three Persons have one essence, and the Divine Essence is God. In the world we were guardians of the Trinity of Persons, and the ward whom we protected was our faith, according to which each Divine Person has been given His own role to play. The role of God the Father is to impute and grant, of God the Son to intercede and mediate, and of God the Holy Spirit to carry out the services of imputation and mediation.’

[2] ‘What,’ I asked, ‘do you understand by the Divine Essence?’ ‘We understand,’ they said, ‘omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence, immensity, eternity, and equality of majesty.’

To which I replied: ‘If that essence can make a number of gods into one, you could add more still, as for example a fourth, who is mentioned by Moses, Ezekiel and Job under the title of God Shaddai. The ancients in Greece and Italy did the same, assigning similar attributes and a like essence to their gods, Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Apollo, Juno, Diana, Minerva, even Mercury and Venus. Yet they were unable to say that all those were one God. The three of you, as I can tell, are equally learned and share the same essence in that respect, but you cannot combine yourselves into a single scholar.’

They laughed at this, and said: ‘You are joking. It is different with the
Divine Essence, which is one and not divided into three, so it is individual and undivided; it cannot admit partition and division.’

[3] To this I answered: ‘Let us go down into this arena and do combat.’ I asked: ‘What do you understand by ‘Person’? What does this word mean?’

‘The word Person,’ they said, ‘does not mean any part or quality in another, but what exists in its own right; that is how all the Fathers of the church define Person, and we follow them.’

‘Is this,’ I said, ‘the definition of Person?’

‘Yes,’ they answered.

To this I retorted: ‘Then there is no part of the Father in the Son, nor of either in the Holy Spirit. From this it follows that each has His own judgment, rights and powers, and there is nothing to link them except the will, which is peculiar to each individual, and so can be communicated if desired. Then are not the three Persons three separate gods? Listen to this: you have defined Person as that which exists in its own right; consequently you are saying that there are three substances, into which you split the Divine Essence. Yet this, as you too say, cannot be split, since it is one and undivided. Moreover you attribute to each substance, that is, each Person, properties distinct from another’s, and which cannot be shared with another, namely, imputation, mediation and working. What can result from this but that the three Persons are three gods?’

At this they withdrew saying: ‘We will discuss these points and reply when we have discussed them.’

[4] A wise man was standing near, who on hearing these things said: ‘I do not wish to subject a matter of such supreme importance to such subtle refinements, but these subtleties apart I can see perfectly clearly that your thought contains the idea of three gods. But since you are ashamed to say this publicly before the whole world – for if you did, you would be called crazy and fools – you find it expedient to have the profession of one God on your lips in order to avoid disgrace.’

At this, however, the three still clung to their opinion and paid no attention, and as they went away they were muttering some terms borrowed from metaphysics; this told me that that was the oracle whose responses they wished to give.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 18 18. THE DIVINE BEING, WHICH IS JEHOVAH

The Divine Being (Esse) will be discussed first, then the Divine Essence. It looks as if these two are one and the same, but in fact Being (Esse) is more universal than Essence, since Essence presupposes Being, and comes into existence from Being. The Being of God, or the Divine Being, is indescribable, since it transcends all ideas of human thought. This cannot grasp anything except what is created and finite. What is uncreated and infinite, such as the Divine Being, is incomprehensible. The Divine Being is Being Itself, the source of all things and which must be in all things for them to exist. Some further conception of the Divine Being can be gained from the following propositions: viz.

(i) The one God is named Jehovah from His Being, that is, from the fact that He alone is, was and will be, and because He is the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End, Alpha and Omega.

(ii) The one God is substance itself and form itself, and angels and men are substances and forms derived from Him; to the extent that they are in Him and He in them, so far are they images and likenesses of Him.

(iii) The Divine Being is Being in itself, and at the same time Coming-into-Being in itself.

(iv) The Divine Being and Coming-into-Being in itself cannot give rise to another Divine which is Being and Coming-into Being in itself. Consequently another God of the same essence is impossible.

(v) The plurality of gods in ancient times, as well as to-day, was entirely the result of a failure to understand the Divine Being.

These propositions must be elucidated one by one.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 19 sRef Ex@3 @14 S1′ sRef Ex@3 @13 S1′ sRef Ex@3 @15 S1′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S1′ 19. (i) THE ONE GOD IS NAMED JEHOVAH FROM HIS BEING, THAT IS, FROM THE FACT THAT HE ALONE IS, [WAS] AND WILL BE, AND BECAUSE HE IS THE FIRST AND THE LAST, THE BEGINNING AND THE END, ALPHA AND OMEGA.

It is well known that Jehovah means ‘I am’ and ‘Being’. It is clear from the Book of Creation, called Genesis, that God was so called from most ancient times; for there He is called God in the first chapter, but in the second and subsequent ones Jehovah God. Later on when the descendants of Abraham, starting with Jacob, forgot the name of God owing to their long stay in Egypt, it was recalled to their memory. About this we read:

Moses said to God, What is your name? God said, I am who I am; thus

shall you say to the Children of Israel, I am has sent me to you; and you shall say, Jehovah the God of your fathers has sent me to you. This is my name for ever, and this is my memorial from generation to generation. Exod. 3:[13,] 14, 15.

Since God alone is I am or Being, that is, Jehovah, therefore there cannot be anything in the created universe which does not owe its being to Him; how this happens will be seen below. The same is meant also by these words:

I am the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End, Alpha and Omega. Isa. 44:6; Rev. 1:8, 11; 22:13.

This means that He is the one single source from beginning to end, from which everything comes.

[2] God is called Alpha and Omega*, the Beginning and the End, because alpha is the first and omega the last letter in the Greek alphabet, and they thus mean everything taken together. The reason is that every letter of the alphabet in the spiritual world stands for some thing. Vowels, which allow words to be pronounced, stand for something to do with affection or love. This is the origin of the speech of spirits or angels, and also of their writing-systems. But this is a mystery not previously known: there is a universal language used by all angels and spirits, which has nothing in common with any human language in the world. Everyone comes into possession of this language after death, for it is inborn in everyone from his creation. Therefore everyone throughout the spiritual world can understand everyone else. I have often been permitted to hear that language, and I have compared it with languages in the world, and found that it does not agree in the slightest detail with any natural language on earth. It differs from them in its basic principle, which is that each letter of every word stands for some thing. That can now be seen to be the reason why God is called Alpha and Omega, the one single source from beginning to end, from which everything comes. On this language and its writing-system, which is derived from the spiritual thought of angels, see CONJUGIAL LOVE (326-329), and also further in this book [280, 365.3, 386].
* This passage is repeated with minor changes from AR 29.2.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 20 20. (ii) THE ONE GOD IS SUBSTANCE ITSELF AND FORM ITSELF, AND ANGELS AND MEN ARE SUBSTANCES AND FORMS DERIVED FROM HIM; TO THE EXTENT THAT THEY ARE IN HIM AND HE IN THEM, SO FAR ARE THEY IMAGES AND LIKENESSES OF HIM.

Since God is Being, He is also substance, for unless being is substance, it is an imaginary entity, for substance is a subsisting entity. One who is substance must also be form, for substance without form is an imaginary entity. Both can therefore be predicated of God, but on condition that He is the sole, very and prime substance and form. It was proved in THE WISDOM OF THE ANGELS ON THE DIVINE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM (published at Amsterdam in 1763) that this form is the very form of man, that is, God is very man, and all of his attributes are infinite; and likewise that angels and men are substances and forms created and ordered so as to receive the Divine influences reaching them through heaven. In the Book of Creation they are therefore called images and likenesses of God (Gen. 1:26, 27); elsewhere they are called His sons and begotten of Him. It will be proved at length in the course of this book that in so far as a man lives under Divine guidance, that is, allows himself to be led by God, so far does he become, more and more inwardly, an image of God.

[2] If the minds of men did not form the idea that God is prime substance and form, and that His form is the very form of man, they would easily fall into fantastic, ghost-like, ideas about God Himself, the origin of man and the creation of the world. They could not avoid thinking of God as the primeval nature of the universe, and consequently as its expanse, or as it were a void or nothingness. They would think of the origin of man as if it were a fortuitous concourse of atoms to make, such a form; of the creation of the world as owing its substances and forms to geometric points and lines, which since they lack attributes are in themselves non-existent. In the case of such people everything relating to the church is like the river Styx or the thick darkness of Tartarus.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 21 sRef Isa@45 @21 S1′ sRef Isa@45 @20 S1′ sRef Isa@45 @15 S1′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S1′ sRef Isa@45 @14 S1′ 21. (iii) THE DIVINE BEING IS BEING (ESSE) IN ITSELF, AND AT THE SAME TIME COMING-INTO-BEING (EXISTERE) IN ITSELF.

Jehovah God is Being in itself, because He is I am, the very, sole and prime source, from eternity to eternity, of everything in existence, which allows it to exist. In this and no other sense He is the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last, Alpha and Omega. One cannot say that His Being is from itself, because ‘out of itself’ presupposes what is earlier and thus time; but time is inconsistent with the Infinite, which is said to be ‘from eternity’. It also presupposes another God, who is God in Himself, and thus God originating from God; in other words, that God formed Himself, so that He could not be uncreated or infinite, because in this case He would have distinguished Himself either from Himself or from another.

It follows from the fact that God is Being in itself that He is Love in itself, Wisdom in itself and Life in itself, and that it is He who is the source of everything, who is the point of reference of everything, if it is to exist. it is clear from the Lord’s words in John (5:26) that God is Life in itself and thus God; and in Isaiah:

I, Jehovah, make all things, I alone spread out the heavens and stretch out the earth by Myself. Isa. 44:24.

and that He is the only God and there is no God beside Him (Isa. 45:14, 15, 21, 22; Hosea 13:4).

[2] The reason why God is not only Being in itself, but also Coming-into-Being in itself is that unless Being comes into being it does not exist; and likewise Coming-into-Being can only arise from Being. Therefore the one supposes the other. In the same way form cannot exist without substance; nothing can be predicated of substance unless it has form, and what is devoid of qualities is in itself nothing. The terms Being (Esse) and Coming-into-Being (Existere) are used here, not Essence and Existence, because a distinction should be made between Being and Essence, and therefore between Coming-into-Being and Existence, similar to that between prior and posterior, and what is prior is more universal than what is posterior. Infinity and eternity are applicable to the Divine Being, but the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom and through them both omnipotence and omnipresence are applicable to the Divine Essence and Existence. These subjects will be discussed in their proper place.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 22 22. It is quite impossible for the natural man to get to know from his reason that God is the very, sole and prime source, called Being and Coming-into-Being in itself, from which everything that exists or comes into being is derived. For the natural man who relies upon his own reason can only attribute these things to nature; for this squares with his own essence, which has had nothing but this idea supplied to it from infancy and childhood. But since man has been created so that he should be spiritual too, because he is destined to live after death, and that life will be among spiritual beings in their world, God has provided the Word, in which He has revealed not only Himself, but also the existence of heaven and hell, in one or the other of which every human being will live to eternity, depending in each case on the way he has lived and at the same time what he has believed. In the Word too God has revealed that He is I am or Being, and the very and sole source which is self-existent, and thus the prime or beginning from which everything comes.

[2] This revelation has made it possible for the natural man to rise above nature, and thus above himself, and see the things which are God’s. Yet he can only do this as it were from a distance, although God is present near at hand with every person, for God is in him with His essence. For this reason He is near at hand to those who love Him, and those who love Him are those who live according to His commandments and believe in Him; these people as it were see Him. What is faith but one’s spirit seeing that it is so? And what is it to live according to His commandments but to acknowledge Him in practice as the source of salvation and everlasting life? But those whose faith is not spiritual, but natural, (that is, a faith which is mere knowledge) and who therefore live in the same way, they can certainly see God, but do so from a distance, and only when they speak about Him. The difference between the two groups is like that between those who stand in broad daylight, seeing and touching people near them, and those who stand in a thick fog, which prevents them from seeing whether they are people, trees or rocks; [3] or those who live in a city on a high mountain and go about hither and thither and talk with their fellow citizens, and those who look down from that mountain and cannot tell whether what they see are human beings, animals or statues. Rather it is the difference between those who stand upon some planet and see their fellows there, and those who are on a different planet and look with telescopes in their hands towards the first, saying that they see human beings there, when in fact they can only make out land surfaces generally like the bright areas of the moon, and seas as dark patches. Such is the distinction between those who believe and at the same time live a life of charity, seeing in their minds God and what is Divine proceeding from Him, and those who merely have knowledge about these subjects; thus the distinction is as between natural and spiritual men. Those, however, who deny the Divine holiness of the Word, and still carry around the trappings of religion as it were in a sack thrown over the shoulder, fail to see God and merely repeat the word ‘God’, almost exactly like parrots.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 23 23. (iv) THE DIVINE BEING AND COMING-INTO-BEING IN ITSELF CANNOT GIVE RISE TO ANOTHER DIVINE WHICH IS BEING AND COMING-INTO-BEING IN ITSELF. CONSEQUENTLY ANOTHER GOD OF THE SAME ESSENCE IS IMPOSSIBLE.

It has so far been shown that the one God, the Creator of the universe, is Being and Coming-into-Being in itself, thus God in Himself. It follows from this that a God derived from God is impossible, because the very Essential of the Divine, which is Being and Coming-into-Being in itself, cannot exist in that other God. It makes no difference whether you say ‘begotten by God’, or ‘proceeding from God’; both imply being produced by God, and there is little difference between this and being created. Therefore the introduction into the church of the belief that there are three Divine persons, each of whom is severally God and of the same essence, and one born from eternity, and a third proceeding from eternity, has the effect of utterly destroying the idea of the oneness of God, and with this all comprehension of Divinity, thus causing the whole of the spiritual side of the reason to be banished. This makes a human being no longer human, but totally and in all respects natural, in other words no different from an animal but for the power of speech; and it makes him an opponent of all the spiritual values of the church, since the natural man calls these mere ravings. This is the only source of such gross heresies about God as have flooded the world. On account of this the division of the Divine Trinity into persons has plunged the church not merely into darkness but into death.

[2] The idea of three Divine Essences which are the same is an offence to reason, as was made clear to me by angels who said that they cannot so much as utter the words ‘three equal Divinities’; and if anyone came to them and wanted to say this he could not help turning his back on them; after saying it he would become like a human trunk and be cast down, subsequently going off to join those in hell who acknowledge no God. The truth is that to put in the mind of a small child or boy the idea of three Divine persons, which inevitably carries with it the idea of three gods, is to take away all spiritual suckling, and then all spiritual nourishment, and finally all spiritual rationality, and to bring about the spiritual death of those who become convinced of it. The distinction is this: those who in faith and in their hearts worship one God, the Creator of the universe, who is at the same time the Redeemer and Regenerator, are like the city of Zion in the time of David and the city of Jerusalem in Solomon’s time, after the building of the Temple; but the church that believes in three persons, and in each as an individual God, is like the city of Zion and Jerusalem when they had been destroyed by Vespasian, and the Temple there had been burnt down. To go further, a person who worships one God in whom is the Divine Trinity and so is a single Person, becomes more and more alive and an angelic person; but one who lets a plurality of persons convince him of a plurality of gods becomes by degrees like a puppet with movable limbs, with Satan standing inside and talking through his jointed mouth.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 24 24. (v) THE PLURALITY OF GODS IN ANCIENT TIMES, AS WELL AS TODAY, WAS ENTIRELY THE RESULT OF A FAILURE TO UNDERSTAND THE DIVINE BEING.

It was shown above (8) that the oneness of God is inwardly impressed upon the mind of every person, since this idea forms the core of all the influences from God which affect the soul of man. But the reason why it has failed to come down into men’s understanding is the lack of the pieces of knowledge which a person should have to enable him to climb up to meet God. For everyone needs to prepare the way for God, that is, to prepare himself to receive God, and pieces of knowledge are the means to this end. The following are the missing pieces of knowledge which prevent the understanding from penetrating to the point at which it can see that God is one and there can only be a single Divine Being, who is the source of all natural phenomena. (1) The fact that no one up to now has known anything about the spiritual world, the home of spirits and angels, and the place where every person comes after death. (2) Equally, that the spiritual world possesses a sun, which is pure love from Jehovah God, who is in its midst. (3) That from that sun radiate heat, which is in essence love, and light, which is in essence wisdom. (4) That as a result everything in that world is spiritual, working on the internal man and making up his will and understanding. (5) That Jehovah God has given rise by this sun of His not only to the spiritual world and all the innumerable spiritual and substantial things in it, but also to the natural world with all the innumerable natural things in it, which are composed of matter. (6) That up to now no one has known the difference between the spiritual and the natural, nor what the spiritual is in essence. (7) Nor that there are three degrees of love and wisdom, which form the basis of the arrangement of the heavens of angels. (8) That the human mind is divided into the same number of degrees, to enable it after death to be lifted into one of the three heavens, depending upon the way a person has lived and at the same time what he has believed. (9) And finally that not a jot of all this could have come into being except from the Divine Being which is God in itself, and thus the first principle and beginning from which everything comes. These pieces of knowledge have up to now been missing, yet it is through them that a person must climb up and get to know the Divine Being.

[2] We say that a person climbs up, but it must be understood that it is God who lifts him up. A person has a free choice in acquiring knowledge; and he seems to get this for himself from the Word by means of the understanding, and thus smooths the path for God to come down and lift him up. The pieces of knowledge which enable the human understanding to climb, while God holds it in His hand and guides it, can be compared to the steps of the ladder seen by Jacob, which was set up on earth so that its top reached heaven and angels climbed up by means of it, and Jehovah stood above it (Gen. 28:12, 13).

It is quite different when those pieces of knowledge are lacking, or a person treats them with contempt. Then the lifting of the understanding can be compared to a ladder erected from the ground to a first floor window of a magnificent palace, where men live, but not to the second floor windows where the spirits are, much less to the third floor windows where the angels are. The result is that such a person cannot escape from the atmospheres and material objects of the natural world, which occupy his eyes, ears and nose. From these he cannot help acquiring atmospheric and material ideas about heaven and the Being and Essence of God. Thought along these lines does not allow a person to make up his mind at all about God, whether He exists or not, or whether there is one God or several; much less, what His Being and Essence are like. It was this which led to the plurality of gods in ancient times, and still does to-day.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 25 25. At this point I shall insert the following account of an experience.*

Once on waking from sleep I fell into a profound meditation about God; and when I looked up, I saw in the sky above me a brilliant, oval-shaped light. When I fixed my gaze upon that light, it moved to either side and occupied the surrounding area. Then suddenly heaven lay open before me, and I saw wonderful sights, and angels standing in a ring on the south of the opening, talking among themselves. Because I was fired with a desire to hear what they were saying, I was first permitted to hear the sound of their voices, which was full of heavenly love, and later their speech, which was full of the wisdom which comes from that love.

They were talking among themselves about the one God, being linked with Him and salvation by this means. What they said was beyond words to express; most of it could not be put into the words of any natural language. But because on a number of occasions I had been in company with angels in heaven itself, and then, being in a like state, I could speak similarly with them, I was now able to understand them, and pick up a few points in their conversation which can be rationally expressed in the words of natural language.

[2] They were saying that the Divine Being is one, the same, the very self and indivisible. They illustrated this by spiritual ideas, saying that the Divine Being cannot be reduced to several, each of which is the Divine Being, and still remain one, the same, the very self and indivisible. For each would think from His own Being from Himself, and in each case through Himself; if He then thought from the others and through them in agreement, then there would be several gods of like mind, and not one God. For unanimity, being a consensus of several with each one agreeing of himself and through himself, is not consonant with the oneness of God, but with a plurality. They did not say ‘of gods’, because they were unable to, since the light of heaven which governed their thought, and the aura which carried their speech, offered resistance.

They said too that when they wanted to say the word ‘Gods’, and each as a Person by Himself, as soon as they attempted to say this it was instantly replaced by one, or rather the sole, God. They added that the Divine Being is the Divine Being in itself, not from itself, because from itself supposes Being in itself arising from another prior one. Thus it supposes a God arising from God, which is impossible. Anything arising from God is not called God, but Divine. For what is God arising from God, or God born of God from eternity, and what is God arising from God proceeding by means of God born from eternity but mere words totally devoid of heavenly light?

[3] They went on to say that the Divine Being, which is in itself God, is the same; not the same in a simple way, but infinitely the same, that is, the same from eternity to eternity. He is the same everywhere, the same with each person and in each person; but all the changes and differences occur in the person who receives Him, and it is his state which causes this.

To demonstrate that the Divine Being, which is God in itself, is very self they said: ‘God is very Self, because He is love itself and wisdom itself, that is, because He is good itself and truth itself, and thus life itself. If these things were not the very Self in God, they would be as nothing in heaven and the world, because none of them would be related to the very Self. Every quality gets its quality from the fact that it is the self which is its source, and must be related to it to have that quality. This very Self, which is the Divine Being, is not in any place, but with and in those people who are located in accordance with their ability to receive it, since neither place nor movement from one place to another can be attributed to love and wisdom, or good and truth, and life from them, which constitute the very Self in God, or rather are God Himself. Hence God is omnipresent. That is why the Lord says that He is in the midst of them, and that He is in them and they in Him.
sRef John@5 @26 S4′ [4] ‘Because God cannot be received by anyone such as He is in Himself, He appears as He is in essence, as the Sun above the heavens of the angels; the radiation emitted by Him as light is Himself as regards wisdom, and as heat is Himself as regards love. That Sun is not God Himself, but the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom coming forth most nearly from Him, all around Him, and these appear to the angels as the Sun. He Himself is in the Sun as a Man; He is our Lord Jesus Christ, both as regards the Divine origin and the Divine Human; since the very Self, which is Love itself and Wisdom itself, was His soul from the Father, and so Divine Life, which is Life in itself. This is different in the case of any person; in him his soul is not Life, but a receiver of life. The Lord teaches us this too, when He said:

I am the Way, Truth and Life. John 14:6.

and elsewhere:

Even as the Father has life in Himself, so too did He grant the Son to have life in Himself. John 5:26.

Life in Himself is God.’

They added that those who are at all spiritually enlightened can perceive from these statements that the Divine Being cannot exist in several, because it is one, the same, the very self and thus indivisible. If anyone were to say that this plurality was possible, there would be obvious contradictions in the qualities predicated.
*This is repeated from AR 961.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 26 26. When I had listened to this, the angels perceived that I was thinking about the generally held ideas of the Christian church concerning a Trinity of Persons in One God, and the oneness of these Persons in a Divine Trinity; as well as about the birth of the Son of God from eternity. Then they said: ‘What is this that you are thinking? Surely these ideas are derived from natural enlightenment, which is at variance with our spiritual enlightenment? So if you do not rid yourself of the ideas you are thinking, we shall close heaven to you and go away.’

But I replied: ‘Please penetrate further into my thinking, and you may find there agreement.’ They did so, and saw that by three Persons I understood the three attributes which proceed from God, Creation, Redemption and Regeneration, and that these are the attributes of the one God: that by the birth of the Son of God from eternity I understood His birth foreseen from eternity, and provided for in time; to think that there is any Son of God born from eternity is not superior, but contrary to the natural and rational faculties, but rather the Son born of God by the Virgin Mary in time is the single and only-begotten Son of God; to believe otherwise is a huge mistake. [2] I then told them that my natural thought about the Persons of the Trinity and their Oneness, as well as about the birth of the Son of God from eternity, was taken from the Church’s doctrine of faith, which bears the name of Athanasius.

‘Good,’ said the angels, and asked me to say at their dictation that if anyone does not approach the God of heaven and earth Himself, he cannot enter heaven, because it is that one God who makes heaven to be heaven, and that same God is Jesus Christ, who is Jehovah the Lord, the Creator from eternity, the Redeemer in time, and the Regenerator for eternity to come. Thus He is at once Father, Son and Holy Spirit; this is the Gospel to be preached.

After this the heavenly light which I had seen before returned to above the opening, and by stages came down from there filling the interiors of my mind and illuminating my ideas about the Trinity and the Oneness of God. Then I saw that the ideas I had originally formed on these subjects, which were purely natural, were separated, as chaff is separated from the wheat by the movement of a winnowing fan, and carried away as by a wind to the north of heaven, until they were lost to view.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 27 27. THE INFINITY OR THE IMMENSITY AND THE ETERNITY OF GOD

There are two properties peculiar to the natural world which make everything in it finite. One is space, the other time. Because that world was created by God, and spatial distances and periods of time were created along with it and serve to define it, their two starting-points, immensity and eternity, need to be discussed. For the immensity of God relates to space, and His eternity to time, while His infinity embraces both immensity and eternity. But since infinity transcends the finite, and it is beyond the finite mind to grasp it, to permit some sort of perception of it, the following series of propositions will be discussed:

(i) God is infinite, because He is and comes into being in Himself, and everything in the universe is and comes into being from Him.
(ii) God is infinite, because He existed before the world did, and thus before space and time came into existence.
(iii) Since the making of the world God is non-spatially in space and non-temporally in time.
(iv) The infinity [of God] as predicated of space is called immensity, and as predicated of time is called eternity. Despite these predications His immensity is totally devoid of space and His eternity is totally devoid of time.
(v) There is much in the world which can enable enlightened reason to see the infinity of God the Creator.
(vi) Every created object is finite, and the infinite is contained in finite objects as in receivers, and in human beings as images of it. These propositions will be explained one by one.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 28 28. (i) GOD IS INFINITE, BECAUSE HE-IS AND COMES INTO BEING IN HIMSELF, AND EVERYTHING IN THE UNIVERSE IS AND COMES INTO BEING FROM HIM.

It has so far been shown that God is one and is the very and first Being of everything, and that all things which are, come into being and subsist in the universe, are from Him. It follows from this that He is infinite. In the following pages it will be proved that human reason can see the truth of that from very many things in the created universe. But although these things can lead the human mind to acknowledge that the prime Entity (Ens) or first Being (Esse) is infinite, it still cannot know its nature; and therefore cannot define it except as the total infinite, subsisting in itself and thus the very and sole substance; and since nothing can be predicated of substance without form, that it is the very and sole form. Yet where does this get us? This still does not show what the infinite is like. For the human mind, for all its loftiness and superb analytical power, is finite, and there is no way of rendering it anything but finite. Therefore it is incapable of seeing the infinity of God as it is in itself, and so seeing God; but it can see God in shadow from behind, as Moses was told when he begged to see God: he was placed in a cleft in the rock and saw His back parts (Exod. 33:20-23). The ‘back parts of God’ mean what is visible in the world, and in particular what can be perceived in the Word.

[2] This will prove that it is futile to want to know God as He is in His Being or in His Substance; but it is enough to acknowledge Him by finite things, that is, His creation, in which He dwells infinitely. A person who seeks to go further can be likened to a fish out of water, or a bird put into a vacuum chamber, which, as the air is pumped out, chokes and eventually dies.

He may also be likened to a ship overwhelmed by a storm and no longer answering the helm, which is driven upon rocks or sandbanks. This is what happens to those who want to know the infinity of God from within, and are not content to acknowledge it by its plain indications from without. The story is told of a certain philosopher among the ancients, who threw himself into the sea because his mental enlightenment did not enable him to see or comprehend the eternity of the cosmos; what would he have done, if it had been the infinity of God he wished to see?

TCR (Chadwick) n. 29 29. (ii) GOD IS INFINITE, BECAUSE HE EXISTED BEFORE THE WORLD DID, AND THUS BEFORE SPACE AND TIME CAME INTO EXISTENCE.

The natural world contains time and space, but the spiritual world does not really, though it appears to do so. The reason why time and space were introduced into the cosmos was to distinguish one thing from another, the great from the small, much from little; thus to distinguish one quantity from another and by that means one quality from another; and so that by them the bodily senses could distinguish its objects, and the mental senses its objects, and thus feel emotion, think and exercise choice. Time came into the natural world by the rotation of the earth on its axis, and the travelling of these rotations from point to point along the zodiac. The sun appears to be responsible for these variations, since it is the source of heat and light throughout the whole surface of the globe. This causes the times of day, morning, noon, evening and night, as well as the seasons of the year, spring, summer, autumn and winter. The times of day cause variation between light and darkness, the seasons of the year between heat and cold. Space was introduced into the natural world by the earth being rolled into a ball and filled with matter, the parts of which are mutually distinct and have extension. The spiritual world does not possess material space and time corresponding to it. But there appear to be space and time there, the appearances answering to the differences of state affecting the minds of spirits and angels there. Time and space there are therefore determined by the affections of their wills and the thoughts of their understandings; but these appearances are real in the sense that they are consistently dependent upon their states.

[2] The general opinion about the condition of souls after death, and hence of angels and spirits, is that they are not in any place and therefore not in space and time. This idea leads to the saying that souls after death are in Pu or Where*, that spirits and angels are breaths of wind, not to be thought of as different from the ether, the air, breath or wind. The truth is that they are persons possessing substance, and among themselves they lead lives like those of people in the natural world on the basis of space and time, which as I have said are controlled by their mental states. If it were not so, that is to say, in the absence of space and time, that universe in which souls arrive and where angels and spirits live, could be pulled through the eye of a needle or be compressed to fit on one end of a hair. This would be possible if there were not an extent of substance there. But since there is, angels live in separate groups apart from one another, more distant in fact than people on earth who have material space between them. But periods of time there are not divided into days, weeks, months and years, because the sun there does not appear to rise and set, nor to travel across the sky, but remains motionless in the east halfway between the zenith and the horizon. They have space because everything which in the natural world is material is in that world substantial. But I shall have more to say on this topic in the part of this chapter devoted to Creation [75-80].

[3] The foregoing account should enable it to be grasped that everything in either world is bounded by space and time, and human beings are therefore not only in body but also in soul finite; and so equally are angels and spirits. From all of these facts the conclusion can be drawn that God is infinite, that is, not bounded. For He as the Creator, Former and Maker of the universe bounded all things, and this He did by means of His Sun, in the midst of which He resides, consisting of the Divine Essence, which issues from Him like a sphere. Therein and thence is the beginning of bounding; but in its progress it extends to the ultimate forms of Nature. It follows that He in Himself is infinite, because He is not created. The infinite, however, appears to man as non-existent, because man is bounded and thinks by means of bounded ideas. Therefore if the bounding which is inseparable from his thought were removed, he would perceive the residue as nonexistent. The truth, however, is that God is infinitely all, and man comparatively is of himself nothing.
*Pu is the Greek word for ‘Where?’, which is at once explained by the Latin translation.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 30 30. (iii) SINCE THE MAKING OF THE WORLD GOD IS NON-SPATIALLY IN SPACE AND NON-TEMPORALLY IN TIME.

The idea that God and the Divine which proceeds directly from Him is not in space, although He is omnipresent, present with every person in the world, every angel in heaven and every spirit beneath heaven, cannot be grasped by purely natural thinking, but can be to some extent by spiritual thinking. Purely natural thinking cannot grasp it because space is contained in it, since it is formed by the objects in the world around us; and in each and every object visible to the eyes there is space. It is space which makes anything big or small as well as long, broad and high. In short, every measurement, shape and form there depends upon space. Still one can to some extent grasp this idea by natural thinking, so long as one admits some spiritual light into it. But first I must say something about the idea of spiritual thinking. This is in no way dependent upon space, but gains its whole quality from state. State is what can be attributed to love, life, wisdom, affections, joys, and in general to good and truth. Any really spiritual concept of these has nothing in common with space, it is on a higher plane and looks down on spatial ideas as beneath itself, just as heaven looks down on earth.

[2] The fact that God is non-spatially present in space and non-temporally in time explains why God is ever the same from eternity to eternity, and so the same since the creation of the world as before it; and why before the creation of the world space and time did not exist in God or in His presence, but they did after this event. Therefore because He is the same, His presence in space is non-spatial and in time is non-temporal. Hence it follows that Nature is separate from Him, yet He is omnipresent in it. It is much the same as life being present in every substance and all the matter that make up a person, yet it is not mixed up with them. It might be compared with light in the eye, sound in the ear, taste in the tongue, or the ether in land and sea, which holds together and permits the rotation of the globe with the land and seas on its surface, and so on. If these agents were removed, the things constructed of substance and matter would at once collapse and fall apart. Indeed, the human mind, if God were not present in it at every place and every time, would burst like a bubble; and each of the two brains, which serve as the originating sources of action, would turn to foam, so that everything distinctive of humanity would become dust and a smell dispersed in the atmosphere.

sRef Ps@90 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@2 @7 S3′ sRef Jer@23 @23 S3′ sRef Jer@23 @24 S3′ [3] It is because God is non-temporally in all time that in His Word the present tense is used in speaking of the past and the future, as in Isaiah:

A child is born for us, a Son is given, whose name is Hero, the Prince of peace. Isa. 9:6.

In the Psalms of David:

I will bring news of a decree, said Jehovah to me, you are my son, today have I begotten you. Ps. 2:7.

This refers to the Lord who was to come; and therefore the same author says:

A thousand years in your eyes are as yesterday. Ps. 90:4.

Those who can see and are alive to it can grasp from numerous other passages in the Word that God is everywhere present throughout the world, yet nothing that belongs to the world, that is, nothing spatial or temporal, is present in Him; as from this passage in Jeremiah:

Am I a God near at hand, and not a God at a distance? Can a man lurk in a hiding-place so that I cannot see him? Do I not fill heaven and earth? Jer. 23:23, 24.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 31 31. (iv) THE INFINITY OF GOD AS PREDICATED OF SPACE IS CALLED IMMENSITY, AND AS PREDICATED OF TIME IS CALLED ETERNITY. DESPITE THESE PREDICATIONS HIS IMMENSITY IS TOTALLY DEVOID OF SPACE AND HIS ETERNITY IS TOTALLY DEVOID OF TIME.

The reason why the infinity of God predicated of space is called immensity, is that the term ‘immense’ is used of what is great and large, and also what is extensive and in this respect spacious. But the reason why the infinity of God predicated of time is called eternity is that ‘for eternity’ is used of progressive stages, which are measured by time, without end. For example: the globe with its land and sea surfaces is in itself what enables objects to be regarded as spatial; and its rotation and motion in orbit is what enables them to be regarded as temporal. These movements create periods of time and the surface of the globe creates distances, and they are so perceived through the senses in the minds of those that reflect on them. But as shown above, there is no space or time in God, yet space and time begin from Him. Hence it follows that immensity means His infinity predicated of space, and eternity His infinity predicated of time.

[2] The angels in heaven understand by the immensity of God the Divinity as to Its Being (Esse), and by His eternity the Divinity as to Its Coming-into-Being (Existere); also by immensity they understand the Divinity as to Love and by eternity the Divinity as to Wisdom. This is because the angels banish space and time from their ideas of the Divinity, and this is the result. But because human beings are incapable of thinking except by means of ideas formed from spatial and temporal concepts, they cannot form any idea of the immensity of God before space existed or His eternity before time existed. In fact, when the human mind wishes to form such an idea, it is as if it lapsed into unconsciousness, almost like a shipwrecked mariner who has fallen into the water, or someone swallowed up by the earth in an earthquake. Indeed, if the mind persists in the attempt to penetrate these mysteries, it can easily become deranged, and thus be led to deny the existence of God.

[3] I too was once in a state like this, when I was thinking what God did from eternity, or before the world was made: did He deliberate about creation and work out the order to be followed? was deliberative thought possible in a total vacuum? and other useless speculations. But to prevent me becoming deranged by such speculations, I was lifted up by the Lord into the sphere and light enjoyed by the interior angels; and when the idea of space and time which had previously restricted my thinking was there to a small extent removed, I was allowed to grasp that the eternity of God is not an eternity of time, and that because time did not exist before the creation of the world it was quite useless to engage in such speculations about God. But because the Divine from eternity, and so regarded as separate from all time, does not involve the existence of days, years and centuries, but these are to God a single instant, I concluded that the world was not created by God in time, but that time was introduced by God together with creation.

[4] I will add this account of an experience.

At one end of the spiritual world are to be seen two statues of a monstrous human shape with open mouths and gaping jaws. Those who have useless and mad thoughts about God from eternity imagine themselves being swallowed by these statues. But this is mere imagination into which those plunge who have absurd and improper thoughts about God before the creation of the world.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 32 32. (v) THERE IS MUCH IN THE WORLD WHICH CAN ENABLE ENLIGHTENED REASON TO SEE THE INFINITY OF GOD THE CREATOR.

I shall list some of the things which enable the human reason to see the infinity of God.

(1) The whole of creation does not contain two things which are identical. Scholars have seen and confirmed by their reason that such identity does not exist among things simultaneously present, although there is no limit to the number of substances and forms of matter regarded individually. The rotation of the earth can prove that two identical effects cannot be produced in the world at successive times, because the eccentricity of the poles ensures that the same situation never recurs. The same is obvious from a consideration of people’s faces; throughout the world there is no single face entirely similar and identical with another, nor can there be to eternity. This infinite variety could only arise from the infinity of God the Creator.

[2] (2) It is impossible for one person’s opinion to be completely like another’s, which is why there is a proverb ‘many men, many minds.’ Similarly it is impossible for one person’s mind, that is, his will and understanding, to be completely like and identical with another’s. Consequently neither can one person’s speech, both in sound and in the thought it expresses, nor one person’s actions, either in gesture or the affection that motivates them, be exactly equal to another’s. This infinite variety is a kind of mirror showing the infinity of God the Creator.

[3] (3) There is a sort of immensity and eternity inherent in the seed of every animal or vegetable: immensity in that it is capable of infinite multiplication; and eternity, in that the process of multiplication has continued without interruption from the creation of the world down to the present day, and will continue perpetually. In the animal kingdom, take the fish of the sea: if they multiplied in accordance with the quantity of their seed, they would within twenty or thirty years* fill the oceans, so that they consisted of nothing but fish, and their waters would flood and destroy all the land. But to prevent this, God has provided that some fish should be food for others. It would be the same with the seeds of plants. If as many as each plant produces annually were to grow into new plants, within twenty or thirty years they would cover the surface not just of one earth, but many. For there are shrubs, every seed of which produces a hundred or a thousand plants each. Try multiplying these figures by themselves to the power of twenty or thirty, and you will see. From both these examples one can grasp a sort of outline of the immensity and eternity of God, which must inevitably produce their like.

sRef John@10 @38 S4′ sRef John@10 @37 S4′ [4] (4) An enlightened reason can also grasp something of the infinity of God from the absence of limits to the growth of any science, and so to the growth of an individual’s intelligence and wisdom, each of which is capable of growth as a tree grows from seed, and woods and gardens from trees, for here there is no limit. The human memory is the soil in which they are planted, the understanding the medium in which they shoot, the will that in which they bear fruit. These two faculties, the understanding and the will, are such that they are capable of being cultivated and perfected throughout life in this world and afterwards to eternity.

[5] (5) The infinity of God the Creator can also be seen from the infinite number of the stars, each of which are suns, each having its own planetary system. The existence of planets among the stars of the sky, inhabited by human beings, animals, birds and plants, has been demonstrated in a small book of descriptions of things seen.**

[6] (6) An even plainer proof of the infinity of God was afforded me by the heaven of the angels and also by hell; both of these are organised and mutually arranged into countless communities or groups depending upon all the varieties of love of good and evil in them. Every person is allocated his place according to the nature of his love. For here are gathered together all the members of the human race from the creation of the world; and here they will be gathered for ever and ever. Yet although each person has his own place or residence, all there are so linked that the whole of the heaven of the angels is a representation of one Divine Man, and the whole of hell is a representation of one monstrous devil. These two together with the countless wonders they contain provide a clear illustration of the immensity as well as the omnipotence of God.

[7] (7) Again, is there anyone who cannot understand, with only a slight rise in the level of his powers of reasoning, that everlasting life, which everyone has after death, is only possible as the gift of an everlasting God?

[8] (8) In addition to these matters there is a kind of infinity in many things which fall within the reach of a person’s natural or spiritual enlightenment. On the natural level, there are various geometrical series which progress to infinity. There is progress to infinity in the three degrees of height: the first degree, called the natural, cannot be perfected and raised to the perfection of the second degree, called the spiritual; nor can this be raised to the perfection of the third, which is called the celestial. There is a similar relationship between end, cause, and effect; no effect can be so perfected as to become as it were its own cause, nor any cause so as to become as it were its own end. This can be illustrated by the atmospheres, of which there are three degrees. The highest is the aura, beneath this there is the ether, and air below this; nor can any quality of the air be raised to any quality of the ether, nor this to any quality of the aura; and yet in each one the raising of perfections is possible to infinity. On the spiritual level, natural love, which is experienced by animals, cannot be raised to the level of spiritual love, which is implanted in human beings from their creation. It is the same with the natural intelligence of animals compared with the spiritual intelligence of human beings. But since these matters are so far not generally known, they will be explained elsewhere.

[9] These examples will establish that universals in the world are permanent models of the infinity of God the Creator. If, however, we ask how the separate instances reflect the universals, that is an abyss, an ocean on which the human mind can as it were set sail; but beware of the storm which arises from the natural man, a storm which can sink the ship, mast, sails and all, stern first, where the natural man stands in all his self-confidence.

*The first edition has 50, clearly an error for 30 as below.
**THE EARTHS IN THE UNIVERSE.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 33 33. (vi) EVERY CREATED OBJECT IS FINITE, AND THE INFINITE IS CONTAINED IN FINITE OBJECTS AS IN RECEIVERS, AND IN HUMAN BEINGS AS IMAGES OF IT.

Every created object is finite, because it is from Jehovah God that all things exist by means of the sun of the spiritual world, which most nearly surrounds Him; and that sun is composed of a substance which has emanated from Him, the essence of which is love. From that sun by means of its heat and light the universe, from first to last, was created; but this is not the place to expound the order of creation. A sketch of this will be given later. Here it is only important to know that one was formed from another, and that thus the three degrees were established: three in the spiritual world, and three corresponding to these in the natural world, and three more in the inert substances of which the terrestrial globe is composed. The origin and nature of those degrees have been fully expounded in my ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING THE DIVINE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM (Amsterdam, 1763) and the booklet ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE SOUL AND THE BODY (London, 1769). It was these degrees which made all subsequent things receivers of earlier ones, and these of yet earlier ones, and so eventually a receiver of the primordial substances which compose the sun of the heaven of angels; thus they are finite receivers of the infinite. This too is in agreement with the wisdom of the ancients, who held that everything is infinitely divisible. It is generally thought that because the finite cannot contain the infinite, finite things cannot be receivers of the infinite. But it has been established by what I have written about creation in my books that God first limited His infinity by means of substances emanating from Him, and this was the origin of the circuit most nearly surrounding Him which constitutes the sun of the spiritual world, and that by means of that sun He made the remaining circuits down to the last, which is composed of inert matter; and thus by degrees He made the world more and more limited. These remarks are made so as to satisfy the human reason, which is not happy unless it sees the cause.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 34 sRef Gen@1 @26 S0′ sRef Gen@1 @27 S0′ 34. The Divine Infinite is present in human beings as in images of itself, as is evident from the Word, where we read:

At length God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; so God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him. Gen. 1:26, 27

From this it follows that a human being is an organ capable of receiving God, and that its capability as an organ depends upon its capacity to receive. The human mind, which determines that a human being is human and how far he is so, is organised into three zones in accordance with the three degrees. In the first degree is the celestial zone, in which are the angels of the highest heaven; in the second degree is the spiritual zone in which are the angels of the middle heaven; and in the third degree is the natural zone in which are the angels of the lowest heaven.

[2] The human mind, organised as it is according to those three degrees, is a means of receiving Divine influence, but the Divine influence does not penetrate further than the extent to which a person clears the way or opens the door. If he does so up to the highest or celestial degree, then a person truly becomes an image of God, and after his death an angel of the highest heaven. But if he clears the way or opens the door only to the middle or spiritual degree, then although he becomes an image of God it is not to such a pitch of perfection, and after his death he becomes an angel of the middle heaven. But if he clears the way or opens the door only to the lowest or natural degree, then if he acknowledges God and worships Him with true piety, he becomes an image of God in the lowest degree, and after his death becomes an angel of the lowest heaven.

[3] If, however, he does not acknowledge God and worship Him with true piety, he puts off the image of God and becomes like an animal, apart from possessing the faculty of understanding and therefore of speech. If he then shuts off the highest natural degree, which corresponds to the highest celestial, he becomes so far as love is concerned like an animal. If he shuts off the middle natural degree, which corresponds to the middle spiritual, he becomes so far as love is concerned like a fox, and as far as the sight of the understanding is concerned like a nocturnal bird. But if he also shuts off the spiritual part of the lowest natural degree, he becomes so far as love is concerned like a savage beast, and as far as his understanding of truth is concerned like a fish.

[4] Divine Life, which by radiation from the sun of the heaven of angels makes human beings act, can be compared with the light from the sun of this world and its radiation affecting a diaphanous object. The way life is received in the highest degree is like light striking a diamond; in the second degree like light striking a crystal, and in the lowest degree like light striking glass or a transparent membrane. But if the spiritual part of this degree is totally shut off, which happens when the existence of God is denied and Satan is worshipped, the way life from God is received is like light falling upon dark objects on earth, such as rotten wood or a lump of mud or dung, and so on. For then a person becomes a spiritual corpse.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 35 35.. I shall here add the following account of an experience.*

Once I was amazed at the huge number of people who regard nature as the source of creation, and therefore of everything beneath or above the sun. When they see anything they say, and they give it heartfelt acknowledgment, ‘Surely this is due to nature’; and when they are asked why, they say that this is due to nature rather than to God, when they still sometimes follow the usual view that God created nature, so that they could just as well say that what they see is due to God rather than to nature, they reply muttering almost inaudibly to themselves, ‘What is God but nature?’ This false belief that nature created the universe, a piece of madness they take for wisdom, makes them so puffed up that they look on all who acknowledge that God created the universe as ants, creeping along the ground, treading a worn path; and some as butterflies flying around in the air. They call their dogmas dreams, because they see things the others cannot, and they say: ‘Who has ever seen God? We can all see nature.’

[2] While I was wondering at the immense number of such people, an angel came and stood beside me, saying ‘What are you thinking about?’

I replied, ‘How many people there are who believe that nature produces itself and is therefore the creator of the universe.’

‘The whole of hell,’ the angel told me, ‘is composed of such people; there they are called satans and devils. Those who have formed a firm belief in nature and consequently denied the existence of God are satans; those who have spent their lives in crimes and thus banished from their hearts any acknowledgment of God are devils. But I will take you to the schools in the south-western quarter where such people who are not yet in hell live.’

So he took me by the hand and guided me. I saw some cottages containing schools and one building in their midst which seemed to be their headquarters. It was built of pitch-black stones coated with glassy plates giving the appearance of glittering gold and silver, rather like the stones called selenites or mica. Here and there were interspersed shining shells.

[3] We went up to this building and knocked. Someone quickly opened the door and made us welcome. He hurried to a table and brought us four books, saying: ‘These books contain the wisdom which the majority of kingdoms approve to-day. This book contains the wisdom favoured by many in France, this by many in Germany, this by some in Holland, and this by some in Britain.’ He went on: ‘If you like to watch, I will make these four books shine before your eyes.’ Then he poured forth and enveloped the books in the glory of his own reputation, so that at once the books shone as it were with light. But this light immediately vanished from our sight.

We asked him then what he was now writing. He replied that at present he was bringing out of his stores and displaying the very kernel of wisdom. This could by summarised as: (1) Whether nature is due to life, or life to nature; (2) whether a centre is due to an expanse, or an expanse to a centre; (3) about the centre and expanse of nature and life.

[4] So saying he sat down again at the table, while we strolled around his spacious school. He had a candle on the table, because there was no sunlight there, but only moonlight. What surprised me was that the candle seemed to roam about and cast its light; but because the wick was not trimmed it gave little light. While he was writing, we saw images of different shapes flying up from the table on to the walls. In that night-time moonlight they looked like beautiful birds from India. But as soon as we opened the door, in the sunlight of daytime they looked like nocturnal birds with net-like wings. They were apparent truths turned into fallacies by adducing proofs which he had ingeniously linked into coherent series.

[5] After seeing this we approached the table and asked him what he was now writing.

‘My first proposition:’ he said, ‘whether nature is due to life or life to nature.’ He remarked that on this point he could prove either proposition and make it appear true. But because of some lurking fear which was not explicit, he dare only prove that nature is due to life, that is to say, comes from life, and not the reverse, that life is due to, that is, comes from nature.

We asked politely what was the lurking fear he could not make explicit.

He replied that it was the fear of being called by the clergy a nature-worshipper and so an atheist, and by the laity a person of unsound mind, because both parties are either believers from blind faith or people who see that it is so by studying supporting arguments.

[6] Then our zealous indignation for the truth got the better of us and we addressed him thus: ‘My friend, you are quite wrong. Your wisdom, which is no more than an ingenuity of style, has led you astray, and your desire for reputation has induced you to prove what you do not believe. Do you not know that the human mind is capable of being raised above the objects of the senses, that is to say, the thoughts engendered by the bodily senses; and when it is so raised it can see the products of life at a higher level and the products of nature below? What is life but love and wisdom? And what is nature but a receiver of love and wisdom, a means to bring about their effects or purposes? Can these be one, except as principal and instrumental? Light surely cannot be one with the eye, nor sound with the ear. What is the cause of these senses if not life, and what is the cause of their shapes if not nature? What is the human body but an organ for receiving life? Are not all its parts organically constructed to produce what love wills and the understanding thinks? Surely the body’s organs spring from nature, but love and thought spring from life. Are these not quite distinct from each other? Raise the view of your mind a little higher, and you will see that emotion and thought are due to life; that emotion is due to love and thought to wisdom, and both of them are due to life, for, as has been said before, love and wisdom constitute life. If you raise your intellectual faculty a little higher still, you will see that love and wisdom could not exist unless somewhere they had a source, and that this source is Love Itself and Wisdom Itself, therefore Life Itself. These are God, who is the source of nature.’

[7] Afterwards we talked with him about his second proposition, whether the centre is due to the expanse, or the expanse to the centre. We asked his reasons for discussing this subject. He replied that it was in order to enable him to reach a conclusion about the centre and expanse of nature and life, which one was the source of the other. When we asked his opinion, he made the same reply as before, that he could prove either proposition, but for fear of losing his reputation he proved that the expanse was due to, that is to say, was the source of the centre. ‘All the same,’ he said, ‘I know that something existed before there was a sun, and this was distributed throughout the expanse, and this of itself reduced itself to order, so creating a centre.’

[8] The zeal of our indignation made us address him again, saying: ‘My friend, you are mad.’ On hearing this he drew his chair back from the table and looked fearfully at us, but then listened with a smile on his face. ‘What could be more crazy, ‘we went on, ‘than to say the centre is due to the expanse? We take your centre to mean the sun, and your expanse to be the universe; so you hold that the universe came into existence without the sun, do you? Surely the sun produces nature and all its properties, which are solely dependent upon the light and heat radiated by the sun and propagated through atmospheres? Where could these have been before there was a sun? We will explain their origin later on in the discussion. Are not the atmospheres, and everything on earth, like surfaces, the centre of which is the sun? What would become of them all without the sun? Could they last a single instant? And what of them all before there was a sun? Could they have come into existence? Is not subsistence continuous coming into existence? Since therefore the subsistence of everything in nature depends upon the sun, so must their coming into existence. Everyone can see this and acknowledge it from personal experience.

[9] Does not what is later in order subsist, just as it comes into existence, from what is earlier? If the surface were earlier and the centre later, should we not have what is earlier subsisting from what is later – something which is contrary to the laws of order? How can the later produce the earlier, or the more outward the more inward, or the grosser the purer? How then could the surfaces making up an expanse produce a centre? Anyone can see that this is contrary to the laws of nature. We have drawn these proofs from rational analysis to show that the expanse is produced by the centre, and not the reverse, although everyone who thinks correctly can see this for himself without these proofs. You said that the expanse of its own accord came together to form a centre. Did this happen by chance, that everything fell into such a wonderful and amazing order, so that one thing should be on account of the next, and every single thing on account of human beings and their everlasting life? Can nature inspired by some love and working through some wisdom have ends in view, foresee causes and so provide effects to bring such things about in due order? Can nature turn human beings into angels, build a heaven of them, and make its inhabitants live for ever? Accept these propositions and think them over; your idea of nature begetting nature will collapse.’

[10] After this we asked him what he had thought, and still did, about his third proposition, about the centre and expanse of nature and life. Did he believe that the centre and expanse of life were the same as the centre and expanse of nature?

He said that here he hesitated. He had previously believed that the inward activity of nature was life and that love and wisdom, which are the essential components of human life, come from this source. It is produced by the heat and light coming from the fire of the sun and transmitted through atmospheres. But now as the result of what he had heard about people living after death he was in doubt, a doubt which alternately lifted up and depressed his mind. When it was lifted up, he acknowledged a centre which had previously been quite unknown to him; when it was depressed he saw a centre which he thought to be the only one. Life was from the centre previously unknown to him, and nature from the centre he thought to be the only one, each centre being surrounded by an expanse.

[11] We said we approved of that, so long as he was willing to view the centre and expanse of nature from the centre and expanse of life, and not the reverse. We taught him that above the heaven of the angels there is a Sun which is pure love; it appears fiery, like the sun in the world, and the heat radiated from it is the source of will and love among angels and human beings; the light radiating from it produces their understanding and wisdom. Everything from this source is called spiritual; but the radiation from the sun of the natural world is a container or receiver of life; this is what we call natural. The expanse proper to the centre of life is called the spiritual world, and the expanse proper to the centre of nature is called the natural world, which owes its subsistence to its own sun. Now because space and time cannot be predicated of love and wisdom, but there are states instead, it follows that the expanse surrounding the sun of the heaven of angels is not a spatial extension, though it is present in the extension to which the natural sun belongs, and with the living things there, depending upon their ability to receive them, and this is determined by their forms and states.

[12] But then he asked, ‘What is the origin of fire in the sun of the world, the natural sun?’

We replied that it was from the sun of the heaven of angels, which is not fire, but the Divine Love most nearly radiating from God, who is in its midst. Since he found this surprising, we gave this explanation: ‘Love in its essence is spiritual fire; that is why “fire” in the spiritual sense of the Word stands for love. That is why priests in church pray that heavenly fire may fill their hearts, meaning love. The fire on the altar and the fire of the lampstand in the Tabernacle of the Israelites was nothing but a representation of Divine Love. The heat of the blood, or the vital heat of human beings, and of animals in general, comes from no other source than the love which makes up their life. That is why people become warm, grow hot and burst into flame, when their love is raised to zeal, or is aroused to anger and rage. Therefore the fact that spiritual heat, being love, produces natural heat in human beings, to such an extent as to fire and inflame their faces and bodies, can serve as a proof that the fire of the natural sun arose from no other source than the fire of the spiritual sun, which is Divine love.

[13] Now because the expanse arises from the centre, and not the reverse, as we said before, and the centre of life, which is the sun of the heaven of angels, is the Divine Love most nearly radiating from God, who is in the midst of that sun; and because this is the origin of the expanse deriving from that centre, which is called the spiritual world; and because that sun brought into being the sun of the world, and also the expanse which is called the natural world, it is plain that the universe was created by God.’

After this we went away, and he accompanied us out of the courtyard of his school, speaking with us about heaven and hell, and about Divine guidance, showing new powers of sagacity.
*This is repeated from CL 380.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 36 36. THE ESSENCE OF GOD, WHICH IS THE DIVINE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM

We made a distinction between the Being (Esse) and Essence of God, because there is a distinction between God’s Infinity and His Love, and the term infinity is applicable to God’s Being and the term Love to His Essence. As stated above, God’s Being is more universal than His Essence; and in the same way His Infinity is more universal than His Love. For this reason ‘infinite’ is the adjective appropriate to the essentials and attributes of God; all of these are called infinite, thus the Divine Love is infinite, the Divine Wisdom is infinite, and so is the Divine Power. It is not that God’s Being existed before His Essence, but it enters into His Essence as an adjunct which is inseparable, directing, forming and at the same time raising it to a higher plane. This section of the chapter will be discussed under separate headings as before.

(i) God is Love itself and Wisdom itself, these two making up His Essence.

(ii) God is Good itself and Truth itself, because Good refers to Love and Truth to Wisdom.

(iii) Love itself and Wisdom itself constitute Life itself, or Life in itself.

(iv) Love and Wisdom are one in God.

(v) The essence of love is loving others than oneself, wishing to be one with them and devoting oneself to their happiness.

(vi) These properties of the Divine Love were the reason the universe was created, and are the reason it is preserved in existence.

These headings must now be discussed one by one.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 37 37. (i) GOD IS LOVE ITSELF AND WISDOM ITSELF, THESE TWO MAKING UP HIS ESSENCE.

Our earliest ancestors realised that love and wisdom are the two essentials to which are to be ascribed all the infinite qualities which are in God or emanate from Him. But succeeding ages gradually lost this vision, as they allowed their minds to sink down from heaven and plunge into worldly and bodily affairs. They began to be unaware of what love is in its essence, and so what wisdom is in its essence, for they did not know that love cannot exist in the abstract without form, but works in and through a form. Now since God is the very, sole and prime substance and form, the essence of which is love and wisdom, and since it was from Him that all things came that were made, it follows that He created the universe in all its parts out of love by means of wisdom, and thus the Divine Love together with the Divine Wisdom is present in every single created object. Love too is not only the Essence which forms everything, but it also unites and joins them, so keeping together what has been formed.

[2] Countless things in the world can serve to illustrate this. For instance, the sun’s heat and light, which are the two essentials and universals which enable every single thing on earth to come into and continue in existence. They are there because they correspond to the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom; for the heat radiated by the sun of the spiritual world is in its essence love, and the light from this source is in its essence wisdom. Another illustration might be the two essentials and universals which enable human minds to come into and continue in existence, namely, will and understanding. Every mind is composed of these two faculties, and the same two are present and function in every one of its acts. The reason is that the will is a receiver and seat of love, and the understanding likewise of wisdom. Therefore these two faculties correspond to the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, from which they originally came. Yet another illustration is the two essentials and universals which enable human bodies to come into and continue in existence, namely, the heart and the lungs, or the systolic and diastolic motion of the heart and the breathing of the lungs. It is well known that these two function in every part of the body; the reason is that the heart corresponds to love and the lungs to wisdom. This correspondence was fully proved in my book ANGELIC WISDOM ABOUT THE DIVINE LOVE AND THE DIVINE WISDOM published in Amsterdam.

[3] Countless examples in both the spiritual and the natural worlds can be adduced to prove that love like a bridegroom or husband produces or begets all forms, but by means of wisdom as bride or wife. Only one can be mentioned here: the whole heaven of the angels is arranged into its form and preserved in it by the Divine Love acting by means of the Divine Wisdom. Those who infer that the world was created from any other source, and are unaware that the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom make up the Divine Essence, sink from the vision of reason to the vision of the eye. They embrace nature as the creative force of the universe, thus conceiving chimeras and giving birth to ghosts. Their thoughts are fallacies, from which they reason and draw conclusions like* eggs containing night birds. Such minds do not deserve that name; they are mere eyes and ears devoid of understanding, or thoughts devoid of soul. They talk of colours as if they could come into existence without light, about trees as if they could grow without seed, about everything on earth as if it could come into existence without sunlight. What they are doing is to confuse derived things with the principles from which they are derived, and caused things with causes. This stands everything on its head, and they lull their wakeful reason to sleep, until they are dreaming.

*The Latin of this sentence is peculiar, and ‘like’ has been supplied; but perhaps there is a more serious omission here.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 38 38. (ii) GOD IS GOOD ITSELF AND TRUTH ITSELF, BECAUSE GOOD REFERS TO LOVE AND TRUTH TO WISDOM.

Everyone knows that everything has reference to good and truth, an indication that everything owed its origin to love and wisdom. For everything which comes from love is called good, for so it is felt, and the pleasure by which love shows itself is each person’s good. Everything which comes from wisdom is called truth, for wisdom is composed of nothing but truths and bathes its objects in beautiful light; this beauty when so perceived is the truth arising from good. Love therefore is a compound of all kinds of goodness, and wisdom a compound of all kinds of truth. But both of these are from God, who is Love itself and thus Good itself, and Wisdom itself and thus Truth itself. This is why the church has two essentials, called charity and faith, which make up its whole structure and are present in every part of it. The reason is that all the kinds of good belonging to the church are part of and are called charity, and all its truths are part of and are called faith. The delights of love, which are also the delights of charity, are responsible for the delights being called goods; and the beauties of wisdom, which are also the beauties of faith, are responsible for truths being called truths. It is the delights and beauties which give them life; unless they have life from this source, the different kinds of good and truth are so to speak lifeless and barren.

[2] But the delights of love are of two kinds, and so are the beauties which look as if they belonged to wisdom. There are the delights of the love of good and those of the love of evil, and so too there are the beauties of faith in truth and those of faith in falsity. Both those kinds of delight of love are called good by the people who possess them, because this is how they are felt; and both those kinds of faith are also called good, since this is how they are perceived. But because they are in the understanding they are actually truths. All the same they are opposites, and the good of one love is good, that of the other is evil; and the truth of one faith is truth, that of the other is falsity. The love whose delight is in essence good resembles the heat of the sun, which gives life and fruitfulness as it works upon a fertile soil, useful trees and crops. Where its power is felt, a paradise is created, a garden of Jehovah, a sort of land of Canaan. The beauty of its truth resembles the sun’s light in springtime, or light striking a crystal vessel full of lovely flowers, and giving out fragrance when it is opened. But the delight of the love of evil is like the heat of the sun parching and withering as it works on barren soil, and harmful trees, such as thorns and briars. Where its power is felt, an Arabian desert is created, full of poisonous snakes and fiery serpents; and the beauty of falsity is like the sun’s light in winter, or light striking a leather bottle, full of worms swimming in vinegar, and foul-smelling creeping things.

sRef Matt@13 @30 S3′ sRef Matt@13 @41 S3′ sRef Matt@13 @40 S3′ [3] It ought to be known that every good is formed by truths, and clothes itself by their means, so as to be distinct from any other good. Moreover, the goods of one family group themselves in bundles, and give these a covering, to make them distinct from others. It is evident from all the parts of the human body that its structures are so organised. The reason the same thing happens in the human mind is that everything in the mind perpetually corresponds to the details of the body. Consequently the human mind is organised inwardly out of spiritual substances, externally out of natural substances and finally out of matter. The mind, whose delights of love are good, is inwardly built up of the kind of spiritual substances which are to be found in heaven. But the mind whose delights are evil is built up inwardly of the kind of spiritual substances which are to be found in hell. The evils of one are gathered into bundles by falsities, the kinds of good of the other by means of truths. Since kinds of good and evil are made up into such bundles, the Lord says that the tares are to be collected into bundles for burning, and so are the things which give offence (Matt. 13:30, 40, 41; John 15:6).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 39 sRef John@1 @4 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ 39. (iii) SINCE GOD IS LOVE ITSELF AND WISDOM ITSELF, HE IS LIFE ITSELF, OR LIFE IN ITSELF.*

We read in John:

The Word was with God, and the Word was God; in Him was Life, and the Life was the light of men. John 1:14.

‘God’ means there the Divine Love, and ‘the Word’ means the Divine Wisdom; and the Divine Wisdom is truly life, and life is truly the light radiated by the sun of the spiritual world, in the midst of which is Jehovah God. The Divine Love gives shape to life, just as fire shapes light. Fire possesses two properties: that of burning and that of shining. Its burning radiates heat, its shining light. In the same way love has two properties: the one to which the burning of fire corresponds is something which acts intimately upon a person’s will; the other, to which the shining corresponds, is something which acts intimately upon a person’s understanding. This is the source of human love and intelligence. For as I have said several times before, the sun of the spiritual world radiates heat which in its essence is love, and light which in its essence is wisdom. These two forms of radiation impinge on every single thing in the universe and affect them intimately. In the case of people they affect their will and their understanding, which were created to receive this radiation, the will to receive love and the understanding to receive wisdom. Hence it is clear that a person’s life resides in his understanding and is in accordance with his wisdom, and that the love of the will modifies it.

* This does not exactly repeat the heading given in 36.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 40 sRef John@5 @26 S0′ 40. We also read in John:

As the Father has life in Himself, so did He grant the Son to have life in Himself. John 5:26.

This means that just as the Divine itself, which existed from eternity, has life in itself, so has the Human which it assumed in time. Life in itself is the very, sole life which enables angels and men to live. Human reason can grasp this by considering the light radiated by the sun of the natural world. This light is not capable of being created, but the forms which receive it are created; the eyes are designed to receive light, and it is the light radiated by the sun which enables them to see. It is the same with life, which, as said before, is light radiated by the sun of the spiritual world; this is not capable of being created, but by its continuous radiation as it were lights up and gives life to men’s understanding. It follows that since light, life and wisdom are one, wisdom too cannot be created; and the same is true of faith, truth, love, charity and good. It is the forms which receive them which are created, namely, the minds of men and angels.

[2] Let everyone therefore beware of convincing himself that he owes his life to himself, or his intelligence, belief, love, perception of truth or his willing and doing good. In so far as he convinces himself of these ideas, so far does he cast down his mind earthwards from heaven, and from being spiritual becomes natural, influenced by the senses and the body. For he thus shuts off the higher regions of his mind, so that he becomes blinded to everything which relates to God, heaven and the church. Everything he may then think, reason and say is mere foolishness, because he is in darkness; yet at the same time he becomes confident that these are the products of wisdom. For when the higher regions of the mind, the abode of the true light of life, are shut off, the region of the mind below these, which is illuminated only by the faint glimmer of the world, is opened up. This glimmer, unsupported by the light of the higher regions, is a misleading illumination, in which falsities look like truths, and truths like falsities; reasoning from falsities looks like wisdom, and from truths like madness. Then a person believes himself to have the keenness of sight of an eagle, though he can see no more of wisdom than a bat in daytime.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 41 41. (iv) LOVE AND WISDOM ARE ONE IN GOD.

Every wise man who belongs to the church knows that all the good of love and charity come from God, and likewise all the truth of wisdom and faith. Human reason can see that this is so, so long as it knows that the source of love and wisdom is the sun of the spiritual world, in the midst of which is Jehovah God, or, what is the same thing, they come from Jehovah God through the sun which surrounds Him. For the heat radiated by that sun is in its essence love, and the light from it is in its essence wisdom. So it is as plain as daylight that in their source love and wisdom are one; consequently in God too, since He is the source of that sun. The sun of the natural world can serve to demonstrate this: it is pure fire, its fiery property producing heat and the brilliance of its fire producing light; so these two are one at their source.

[2] But in their radiation heat and light become separated, as is shown by the things on which they act, some of which receive more heat and some more light. This is particularly true of people, for in this case the light of life, which is intelligence, is separated from the heat of life, which is love. This is because a person needs to be reformed and regenerated, which is impossible unless the light of life, which is intelligence, shows what ought to be willed and loved. It should, however, be known that God is constantly working to link love with wisdom in a person, though he, unless he looks to God and believes in Him, is constantly working to separate them. Therefore in so far as these two, the good of love or charity and the truth of wisdom or faith, are linked in a person, so far does he become an image of God, and is raised towards and into the heaven where angels live. In the contrary case, in so far as these two are separated in a person, so far does he become an image of Lucifer and the Dragon, and is cast down from heaven to earth, and then into hell beneath the earth. The result of these two being linked is that a person’s state becomes like that of a tree in springtime, when heat is evenly combined with light, which produces budding, flowering and fruiting. In the contrary case, when these are separated, his state is like that of a tree in winter, when light loses its heat, and the tree is laid bare and stripped of all its leaves and greenery.

[3] When spiritual heat, which is love, is separated from spiritual light, which is wisdom, or, in other words, charity is separated from faith, a person becomes like rank or rotting soil, in which maggots thrive; and if it produces shrubs, their leaves are full of grubs which eat them up. For the enticements of the love of evil, which are in themselves longings, burst forth, untamed and unrestrained by intelligence, but rather fostered, pampered and nourished by it. In short, the separation of love and wisdom, or charity and faith, the two things God constantly strives to link, is, to use a comparison, like depriving a face of redness, so producing a pallor as of death; or taking the whiteness away from redness, which makes the face like a blazing torch. It is also like destroying the bond of marriage between a couple, so that the wife becomes a prostitute and the husband an adulterer. For love or charity resembles a husband, wisdom or faith a wife. Their separation brings about spiritual prostitution and fornication, which are the falsification of truth and the adulteration of good.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 42 42. It should also be known that there are three degrees of love and wisdom, and so three degrees of life; and the human mind is formed into three regions corresponding to these degrees. Life in the highest region is in its highest degree, in the second in a lesser degree, and in the last in the lowest degree. These regions are opened up successively as a person grows up. The last region, where life is in its lowest degree, is opened up from infancy to childhood, as different kinds of knowledge are acquired. The second degree, where life is in a greater degree, is opened up, from childhood to adolescence, as the result of thinking based on knowledge. The highest degree, where life is in its highest degree, is opened up from adolescence to early manhood and beyond; and this is brought about by grasping both moral and spiritual truths.

[2] It should further be known that perfection of life consists not in thought but in perceiving truth in the light of truth. From this one can deduce how different people’s lives are. There are those who at once
on hearing a truth perceive that it is true; these are represented in the spiritual world by eagles. There are those who do not perceive a truth, but deduce it as the result of arguments based upon appearances; these are represented by song-birds. There are those who believe a truth at the behest of an authoritative speaker; these are represented by magpies. There are also those who do not wish to and those who cannot perceive a truth, but only falsity. The reason is that they live in a deceptive light, and this makes a falsity look like truth, and a truth either as something overhead wrapped in thick cloud, or as a meteor, or even as falsity. Their thinking is represented by little owls and their speaking by screech-owls. Those of them who have convinced themselves of their false beliefs cannot bear to hear truths, and as soon as any truth knocks at the door of their ears, they turn away and reject it, very much as a stomach crammed with bilious matter is nauseated by food and vomits it up.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 43 43. (v) THE ESSENCE OF LOVE IS LOVING OTHERS THAN ONESELF, WISHING TO BE ONE WITH THEM AND DEVOTING ONESELF TO THEIR HAPPINESS.

There are two things which make up the essence of God – love and wisdom; but there are three which make up the essence of His love – loving others than oneself, wishing to be one with them, and devoting oneself to their happiness. The same three make up the essence of His wisdom, because, as I have shown above, love and wisdom are one in God. It is love which wills these things, wisdom that puts them into effect.

sRef Matt@5 @45 S2′ [2] The first essential, loving others than oneself, is to be recognised in God’s love towards the whole human race. On this account God loves everything He has created, because they are the means to an end, and if you love the end, you must love the means. Everyone and everything in the universe are other than God, because they are finite and God is infinite. God’s love goes out and extends not only to good people and things, but also to evil people and things; consequently, not only to people and things in heaven, but also to people and things in hell, not only to Michael and Gabriel, but also to the Devil and Satan. For God is everywhere and from eternity to eternity the same. He says too that He makes His sun rise upon the good and the evil, and sends rain upon the righteous and the unrighteous (Matt. 5:45). But it is the fault of evil people and things that they are evil, because they do not receive God’s love as it is, and as it most inwardly is, but as they are. It is the same as a thorn or a nettle receiving the heat of the sun or the rain.

sRef John@17 @21 S3′ sRef John@17 @22 S3′ sRef John@17 @26 S3′ sRef John@17 @23 S3′ [3] The second essential of God’s love, wishing to be one with others, is to be recognised also in His linking Himself to the heaven of angels, the church on earth, to everyone in it, and to every good and truth which compose and make up men and the church. Love regarded in itself is nothing but a striving to be linked. Therefore to realise this essential of love God created man in His image and likeness, so that he could be linked with this. It is clear from the Lord’s words that the Divine Love has linking as its constant aim, when He says that He wishes to be one with them, He in them and they in Him, and that the love of God might be in them (John 17:21-23, 26).

[4] The third essential of God’s love, to devote Himself to the happiness of others, is to be recognised in everlasting life, which is blessedness, bliss and happiness without end, which He gives to those who receive His love into themselves. For God, just as He is Love itself, is also blessedness itself. For every love breathes out an aura of joy from itself, and the Divine Love breathes out the very height of blessedness, bliss and happiness for ever; so God makes the angels and men after death happy from Himself, which He does by being linked with them.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 44 44. That this is the nature of the Divine Love is to be known from its sphere which pervades the universe, and affects every person according to his mental state. It particularly affects parents, since it is this which makes them dearly love their children, who are other than themselves, wish to be one with them, and devote themselves to their happiness. This sphere of the Divine Love affects not only the good but also the bad; and not only human beings, but also animals and birds of every kind. What has any mother in mind when she has given birth to a child but to unite herself with it and seek its good? What bird has anything in mind when it has hatched its chicks other than to warm them under its wings, and by kisses to put food into their gullets? It is well known that even snakes and vipers love their offspring. That universal sphere especially affects those who receive that love of God’s into themselves, and these are those who believe in God and love the neighbour. Charity in their case is an image of that love.

[2] Even friendship among those who are not good apes that love. At his table a person gives his friend the best portion, embraces him, touches him and holds his hand, and promises to put himself at his friend’s service. The feeling of liking and the striving of those who are alike and of the same type to be together come from the same origin. That same Divine sphere also works on inanimate things, as on trees and plants, but it does this through the sun of the world, and its heat and light. The heat penetrates them from without, links itself to them, and makes them bud, flower and fruit, which answers to happiness in an animal. This is the result of that heat, because it corresponds to spiritual heat, which is love. There are even representations of the working of this love in various things in the mineral kingdom; specimens of this are to be seen in the exaltation* of minerals into useful forms and the formation of gems.

*Exaltation: a term of early chemistry for the transformation of elements into different forms, e.g. the formation of diamonds from carbon.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 45 45. The description of the essence of the Divine Love allows us also to see its opposite, the essence of devilish love. Devilish love is self-love, and it goes by the name of love, but regarded in itself is hatred, for it loves no one other than itself, and has no wish to be linked with others for their happiness, but only its own. Its inmost nature is a continual attempt to rule over everyone, to possess everyone’s goods, and finally to be adored like a god. This is why the inhabitants of hell do not acknowledge God, but treat as gods those who are more powerful than others; so they have lower and higher, or minor and major deities, depending on the extent of their power. Because each person there has his heart set on that, he has a burning hatred of his own deity; and he in turn of those who are under his control. He looks upon them as worthless servants, to whom he talks politely so long as they worship him, but is fired with rage against the rest, and inwardly or in his heart against his own followers. Self-love is the same as love among thieves, who hug each other when they are engaged in robberies, but later on they ardently long to murder the others and steal their booty from them.

[2] This love is the reason why its desires in hell, where it is sovereign, look at a distance like various kinds of wild beasts; some like foxes and leopards, some like wolves and tigers, some like crocodiles and poisonous snakes. The deserts where they live consist of nothing but piles of stones or bare gravel, interspersed with marshes full of croaking frogs. Mournful birds swoop over their huts wailing. These are the ochim, tziim and iyim mentioned in the prophetic books of the Word which describe the love of domination arising from self-love (Isa. 13:21; Jer. 50:39; Ps. 74:14).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 46 46. (vi) THESE PROPERTIES OF THE DIVINE LOVE WERE THE REASON THE UNIVERSE WAS CREATED, AND ARE THE REASON IT IS PRESERVED IN EXISTENCE.

A thorough scrutiny and examination of these three essentials of the Divine Love can lead us to see that they were the reason for creation. That the first, loving others than itself, was a cause is clear from the universe being other than God, as the world is other than the sun, and something to which His love could extend and on which it could be exercised and so come to rest. We read too that, after God had created heaven and the earth, He rested, and this was the origin of the Sabbath (Gen. 2:2, 3).

[2] The second essential, wishing to be one with them, was also a cause as is clear from the creation of man in the image and likeness of God. By this is meant that man was made as a form to receive love and wisdom from God, that is, to be someone with whom God could unite Himself, and on his account with every single thing in the universe, since these are nothing but means to the end. For being linked to a final cause involves also being linked to mediate causes. It is clear from the Book of Creation or Genesis (1:28-30) that all things were created on account of man.

[3] The third essential, devoting oneself to their happiness, was also a cause, as is clear from the heaven of angels, which has been provided for every human being who receives the love of God; all there are made happy by God alone. These three essentials of God’s love are also the reason why the universe is preserved, because preservation is perpetual creation, just as remaining in existence is a perpetual coming into existence; and the Divine Love is from eternity to eternity the same. So as it was in the creation of the world, such too it remains in the created world.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 47 47. A proper perception of these matters may show that the universe is a coherent whole from first to last, since it contains ends, causes and effects bound up in an indissoluble knot. Since every love has an end in view, and all wisdom is the advancement of the end through mediate causes, and through these proceeding to effects, which are the purposes it serves, it follows too that the universe contains the Divine Love, the Divine Wisdom and services, and is thus a coherent whole from first to last. Every wise man can study as in a mirror the fact that the universe is composed of a perpetual succession of services brought about by wisdom and initiated by love, if he forms for himself any general idea about the creation of the universe, and examines its details. For the details adapt themselves to the general pattern, and this arranges them into a consonant form. Many illustrations of this will be given in the following pages.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 48 48. At this point I shall insert the following account of an experience.*

Once I had a talk with two angels, one from the eastern and one from the southern heaven. When they perceived that I was pondering the mysteries of wisdom on the subject of love, they said: ‘Don’t you know anything about the contests of wisdom in our world?’ ‘Not yet,’ I replied.

‘There are many of them,’ they said, adding that those who love truths with a spiritual affection, that is, love them because they are truths and are the way to wisdom, meet when the signal is given, to discuss matters requiring profound understanding and form conclusions about them.

They then took me by the hand saying, ‘Come with us, and you will see and hear. The signal has been given for a meeting to-day.’

I was taken across a plain to a hill, at the foot of which there was an avenue of palm trees extending all the way to the top. We went into it and climbed the hill. On the top or summit of the hill we saw a wood, among the trees of which a rise in the ground formed a sort of theatre. Inside this was a flat space paved with pebbles of different colours, and around this were ranged seats in a square; these were occupied by the lovers of wisdom. In the middle of the theatre was a table, and a document secured with a seal lay on it.

sRef Gen@1 @27 S2′ sRef Gen@5 @1 S2′ sRef Gen@1 @26 S2′ [2] Those who were sitting on the seats invited us to occupy some which were still vacant, but I replied: ‘I have been brought here by two angels to see and listen, not to take part in the session.’

Then the two angels went up to the table in the middle of the arena and broke the seal on the document; they then read out to the meeting the mysteries of wisdom written in the document, which they were to discuss and expound. It had been written by angels of the third heaven, and sent down to lie on the table. There were three mysteries: the first, ‘What is the image of God and the likeness of God in which man was created?’, the second, ‘Why is man born without knowledge of what he should love, yet animals and birds, the highest as well as the lowest, are born knowing all their loves require?’; the third, ‘What is the meaning of “the tree of life”, “the tree of the knowledge of good and evil”, and “eating of them”?’

Underneath was written: ‘Link these three subjects into a single statement of opinion, and write it on a fresh sheet of paper; then replace it on this table, and we shall look at it. If the opinion appears well-balanced and fair, each of you will be awarded a prize for wisdom.’ After reading this out the two angels went away and rose up into their own heavens.

Then those taking part in the session began to discuss and expound the mysteries set before them. They spoke in turn, beginning with those who sat on the north side, then those who sat on the west, then the south and finally the east. They took up the first subject for discussion, which was: ‘What is the image of God and what is the likeness of God in which man was created?’ First of all the following passages were read aloud from the Book of Creation:

God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and God created man in His own image, to be an image** of God He made him. Gen. 1:26, 27.

On the day when God created man, He made him in the likeness of God. Gen. 5:1.

sRef Gen@2 @7 S3′ [3] Those who sat on the north side were the first to speak. They said that the image and the likeness of God are the two lives breathed into man by God, the life of the will and the life of the understanding. ‘For we read,’ they said,

Jehovah God breathed into Adam’s nostrils the breath of lives***, and man became a living soul. Gen. 2:7.

This seems to mean that the will to do good and the perception of truth was breathed into him, which could be called the breath of lives. And because life was breathed into him by God, image and likeness mean his uprightness arising from love and wisdom, and from righteousness and the powers of judgment present in him.’

Those who sat on the west side supported this view, with, however, this addition, that the state of uprightness breathed into Adam by God, is constantly breathed into every person after Adam; but it is present in man as it were in a receiver, and a person is an image and likeness of God in accordance with his effectiveness as a receiver.

sRef Gen@3 @22 S4′ [4] Then the third group, who sat on the south side, said: ‘The image of God and the likeness of God are two separate things, but in man they are combined from his creation. Some kind of inward illumination shows us that the image of God can be destroyed by man, but not His likeness. This is visible as it were through a screen from the fact that

Adam retained the likeness of God, after he had lost the image of God. For we read after his cursing:

See, man is as one of us, knowing good and evil. Gen. 3:22.

and afterwards he is called a likeness of God, but not an image of God (Gen. 5:1). But we would leave our colleagues on the east, who are therefore in better illumination, to say what the image of God and the likeness of God properly are.’

[5] Then, when there was silence, those who sat on the east side rose from their seats and looked up to the Lord. Then they sat down again and said that an image of God was a receiver of God, and since God is Love itself and Wisdom itself, the image of God is the receiving of love and wisdom from God in the man; but the likeness of God was the perfect likeness and complete appearance of love and wisdom being present in man and of belonging to him. ‘For man does not know but that he loves and is wise of himself, or that he wills good and understands truth of himself. In fact not a whit is of himself, but from God. It is only God who loves of Himself and is wise of Himself, because God is Love itself and Wisdom itself. The likeness or appearance that love and wisdom, or good and truth, are present in man as if they belonged to him is what makes a man human, and thus able to be linked to God and so to live for ever. The consequence of this is that man’s humanity is the result of his ability to will good and understand truth exactly as if he did so of himself, while at the same time knowing and believing that he does so from God. For to the extent that he knows and believes this, God places His image in man; it would be otherwise if he believed it was of himself and not from God.’

[6] After saying this, their love of truth made zeal overcome them and this led them to say: ‘How can a person receive any love and wisdom, keep it and reproduce it, unless he feels that it is his own? And how can he be linked with God by love and wisdom, unless he is granted some reciprocal function to permit linking? No linking is possible without reciprocation, and the reciprocal function is man’s loving God and doing His will, as if he acted of himself, yet believing that these things come from God. Again, how can a man live for ever, unless he is linked to the everlasting God? So how can a person be human, without that likeness in him?’

[7] All applauded this speech and asked for a conclusion to be drawn from what had been said. The following statement was adopted: ‘Man is a receiver of God, and a receiver of God is an image of God. Because God is Love itself and Wisdom itself, man is a receiver of both of these. The receiver becomes an image of God to the extent that he receives them. Man is a likeness of God by virtue of the fact that he feels in himself that what he receives from God is his as if it belonged to him. But still that likeness makes him an image of God to the extent that he acknowledges that the love and wisdom, or good and truth, in him are not his, and do not come from him, but are present only in God and therefore come from Him.

[8] They then took up the next subject for discussion, ‘Why is man born without knowledge of what he should love, yet animals and birds, the highest as well as the lowest, are born knowing all their loves require?’

First they established the truth of the proposition by various observations. For instance that man is born without any knowledge, not even knowing about conjugial love.**** They made enquiry and heard from researchers that a baby does not even know its mother’s breast from birth, but learns about it by having it repeatedly offered by its mother or nurse; it only knows how to suck, and that is because it has learnt this by continually sucking in its mother’s womb. Later on, it does not know how to walk, or to adapt the sounds it makes to form any human word, not even how to express its emotions by sounds as animals do. Moreover, it does not know what food is suitable for it, as animals do, but grabs anything it finds, whether clean or dirty, and puts it in its mouth. The researchers reported that without instruction man knows nothing of the manner of sexual intercourse, and not even young men and women know about this without being told by others. In short, a man is born a mere bodily being like a worm, and bodily he remains unless he learns from others to know, understand and be wise.

[9] They then established that both the higher and lower animals, such as land animals, the birds of the air, reptiles, fish and insects, are born knowing all their loves require in order to live; for instance, everything they need to know about feeding, about where to live, how to copulate and produce young, and about how to bring up their young. They established these facts by remarkable observations which they recalled to mind from what they had seen, heard and read during their previous life in the natural world, where the animals that exist are not representative but real. When they had fully approved the truth of the proposition, they turned their minds to seeking and finding the reasons which would allow them to explain and elucidate this mystery. They all asserted that it must inevitably be due to the Divine Wisdom, that a man is a man and an animal an animal, and thus the imperfection in the birth of man becomes his perfection, and the perfection in the birth of an animal is its imperfection.

[10] The northerners then began to state their opinion. They said that man is born without knowledge, so that he can receive all kinds of knowledge. But if he acquired these by birth, he could never receive any others than those he acquired by birth, and then neither could he make any his own. They illustrated this by a simile. Man at birth is like soil in which no seeds have been planted, but which can receive every kind of seed, grow them and bring them to fruiting. But an animal is like soil which has already been sown, filled with grass and plants, and unable to receive any seeds other than those implanted. If others were sown, it would choke them. That is the reason why it takes man many years to grow up, a period long enough to allow him to be cultivated like the soil, and to bring forth, so to speak, all kinds of crops, flowers and trees. An animal, however, takes only a few years, because it does not need time to be cultivated to produce anything but what it possesses from birth.

[11] The westerners spoke next. They said that man has by birth, not knowledge like an animal, but ability and inclination, the ability to know and the inclination to love. He has by birth not only the ability [to know, but also to understand and to be wise. Also he is born with the most perfect inclination not only]***** to love what is his own and worldly, but also what is God’s and heavenly. As a result man is born an organ which lives with difficulty and dimly by its external senses, and he has by birth no internal senses, so that he may by stages acquire life and become first a natural man, then a rational and finally a spiritual man. This would not happen, if he were endowed by birth with knowledge and loves, like animals. For inborn knowledge and affections of love limit that progress, but mere abilities and inclinations can be inborn without limiting it. Consequently man is capable of becoming more perfect in knowledge, intelligence and wisdom for ever.

[12] The Southerners followed on with their statement. They said that it is impossible for man to acquire any knowledge from himself, but he must do so from others, since he has no inborn knowledge. ‘Since he cannot acquire any knowledge from himself, neither can he acquire any love, since where there is no knowledge, there is no love. Knowledge and love are inseparable companions, and can no more be divided than will and understanding, or affection and thought, indeed no more than essence and form. Therefore as a person acquires knowledge from others, so love attaches itself to him as his companion. The universal love which attaches itself is the love of knowing, and later on the loves of understanding and being wise. Only man has these loves, animals have none; they flow in from God.

[13] ‘We agree with our colleagues on the west that man has by birth no love and consequently no knowledge, but only the inclination to love, and consequently the ability to receive knowledge, not from himself, but from others, that is, by way of others. We say “by way of others”, because neither have they received anything from themselves, but in origin all knowledge is from God. We also agree with our colleagues on the north that man immediately at birth is like soil in which no seeds have been planted, but where fine as well as worthless seeds can be planted. That is why man (homo) is so called from soil (humus), and is called Adam from adama, which means soil.****** We would add that animals have by birth natural loves, and consequently the kinds of knowledge that correspond to them, yet this knowledge does not enable them to know, think, understand and be wise, but they are guided to this knowledge by their loves, almost like blind people being guided through the streets by dogs. As far as their understanding is concerned, they are blind, or rather, like sleepwalkers who do what they do by blind knowledge while the understanding is asleep.’

[14] The last to speak were the easterners. ‘We are in agreement,’ they said, ‘with what our brothers have said, that man knows nothing from himself, but only from others and by way of others, so that he may recognise and acknowledge that all he knows, understands and is wise about he owes to God. Man could not in any other way be born and be created by God, and become His image and likeness. For he becomes an image of God by his acknowledgment and belief that he has received and continues to receive all the good of love and charity and all the truth of wisdom and faith from God, and not a whit from himself. He is a likeness of God by his feeling these things in himself as if from himself. He has this feeling because he has no knowledge from birth, but receives different kinds of knowledge, and it seems to him as if he received them from himself. Man is permitted by God to have this feeling so that he should be a man and not an animal, since by willing, thinking, loving, knowing, understanding and being wise as if from himself he receives different kinds of knowledge and sublimates them into intelligence, and by using them into wisdom. Thus God links man to Himself, and man links himself to God.

These things could not happen if God had not provided that man was born in a state of complete ignorance.’

[15] After this statement there was a general move to draw a conclusion from the matters discussed, and the following was adopted. ‘Man is born without any knowledge so that he can acquire knowledge of all kinds and advance to intelligence and through this to wisdom. He is born without any loves so that he can acquire all kinds of loves, by putting to use his knowledge derived from his intelligence, and acquire love to God by means of love towards the neighbour. Thus he may be linked with God and so become fully man and live forever.’

[16] Then they took up the document again and read out the third subject for discussion. This was: ‘What is the meaning of “the tree of life”, “the tree of the knowledge of good and evil”, and “eating of them”?’ They all begged those on the east to expound this mystery, since it required a more profound understanding, and those who are from the east enjoy a flame-like light, that is, the wisdom of love. This wisdom is what is meant by “the Garden of Eden”, in which those two trees were placed.

‘We will tell you.’ they replied, ‘but since man gets nothing from himself, but from God, we shall draw our statement from God, but still speak as if it were we ourselves who were speaking. “A tree,’ they went on to say, “Means man, and its fruit the good of life. So “the tree of life” means a man who has life from God. And since love and wisdom, charity and faith, or good and truth make up life from God in man, “the tree of life” means the man who has these qualities from God, and thus everlasting life. “The tree of life” from which people will be given to eat (Rev. 2:7; 22:2, 14) has a similar meaning.

sRef Gen@3 @5 S17′ [17] “The tree of the knowledge of good and evil” means a man who believes that he has life from himself, and not from God; and so, that love and wisdom, charity and faith, that is, good and truth in him are his and not God’s. He believes this because in what he thinks and wills, says and does, he seems and appears to behave exactly as if he did so of himself. So since he goes so far as to persuade himself that he is God, the serpent said:

God knows that on the day you eat of the fruit of that tree your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil. Gen. 3:5.

[18] “Eating” from those trees means receiving and making one’s own. “Eating of the tree of life” means receiving everlasting life; “eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil” means receiving damnation. “The serpent” means the devil, a personification of self-love and pride in one’s own intelligence. Self-love is the owner of that tree, and people who are proud of that love are those trees. It is therefore a huge error if people believe that Adam was wise and did good of himself, and this was his uncorrupted state, when in fact Adam himself was cursed for holding that belief. For this is the meaning of “eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil”. He therefore fell from his uncorrupted state, which he had by virtue of his belief that he was wise and did good entirely from God and in no respect of himself; for this is what “eating of the tree of life” means. Only the Lord, during His life on earth, had wisdom from Himself and did good of Himself, because the Divine itself was in Him and was His from birth. Therefore by His own power He became the Redeemer and Saviour.’

[19] From both these points they reached the following conclusion: “The tree of life” and “the tree of the knowledge of good and evil” and “eating of them” mean that life for a person is having God in him, and then he enjoys heaven and everlasting life; and that it is death for a person to be persuaded and believe that life for a man is not God but himself, for thus he finds hell and everlasting death, in other words, damnation.’

[20] Then they looked at the document the angels had left on the table and read the words written at the bottom: ‘Link these subjects into a single opinion.’ Then they brought the three subjects together and saw that they hung together in a single series. This series or opinion was as follows: ‘Man has been created so that he may receive love and wisdom from God, yet it appears exactly as if he did so from himself, which is to allow him to receive them and so be linked; therefore man is born without any love or any knowledge, without even the ability to love and be wise of himself; therefore if he attributes all the good of love and all the truth of wisdom to God he becomes a living man, but if he attributes them to himself he becomes a dead man.’

They wrote these words on a fresh sheet of paper and laid it on the table. Suddenly the angels appeared in a shining cloud and carried the document off to heaven. When it had been read there, those who sat on the seats heard the words, Well done, well done, well done. At once there appeared one as it were flying; he had two wings at his feet and two more at his temples. He brought as prizes gowns, hats and laurel-wreaths. He came down and gave those who sat on the north gowns of iridescent colour; to those on the west gowns of scarlet; to those on the south hats decorated at the rim with bands of gold and pearls, and on the raised left side with diamonds cut into the shape of flowers. To those on the east he gave laurel-wreaths decorated with rubies and sapphires. All who had taken part in the contest of wisdom went cheerfully home resplendent in their prizes.
* This is repeated from CL 132-136.
** The Latin has ‘likeness’, but the author’s copy has this corrected to ‘image’ in keeping with the Hebrew, cf. CL 132.
*** The Latin follows the Hebrew in using the plural ‘lives’ here.
**** Or marriage love.
***** These words are missing in the original, but are supplied from CL 133 where this account was first printed.
****** This Latin etymology is supported by expert opinion; the Hebrew word for ‘soil’ or ‘ground’ is adama.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 49 49. THE OMNIPOTENCE, OMNISCIENCE AND OMNIPRESENCE OF GOD

I have dealt with the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom and shown that these two make up the Divine Essence. I now proceed to the omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence of God, because these three emanate from the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, much as the power and presence of the sun are felt in every single part of this world by means of its heat and light. The heat from the sun of the spiritual world, in the midst of which is Jehovah God, is in its essence Divine Love, and its light is in its essence Divine Wisdom. Hence it is plain that just as infinity, immensity and eternity are properties of the Divine Being (Esse), so omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence are properties of the Divine Essence. However, these three properties of the Divine Essence have up to now not been understood, through ignorance of the ways in which they proceed, that is, the laws of order. They need therefore to have light shed upon them by the following series of propositions.

(i) Omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence are properties of the Divine Wisdom resulting from the Divine Love.
(ii) The omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence of God cannot be recognised except through a knowledge of order, and these facts about order: that God is order, and that He introduced order into the universe and all its parts simultaneously with its creation.
(iii) God’s omnipotence proceeds and works in the universe and all its parts in accordance with the laws of His order.
(iv) God is omniscient, that is, He perceives, sees and knows down to the tiniest detail everything that happens according to order; and from these things also what happens contrary to order.
(v) God is present everywhere from first to last in His order.
(vi) Man was created to be a form for Divine Order.
(vii) Man has from Divine Omnipotence power against evil and falsity, and from Divine Omniscience wisdom about good and truth, and from Divine Omnipresence is in God, to the extent that he lives in accordance with the Divine order.

These propositions must now be discussed one by one.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 50 sRef John@1 @10 S0′ sRef John@1 @4 S0′ sRef John@1 @3 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ 50. (i) OMNIPOTENCE, OMNISCIENCE AND OMNIPRESENCE ARE PROPERTIES OF THE DIVINE WISDOM RESULTING FROM THE DIVINE LOVE.

That omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence are qualities of the Divine Wisdom as the result of the Divine Love, and not of the Divine Love by means of the Divine Wisdom, is a secret from heaven which up to now has not dawned on anyone’s understanding, because no one so far has known what love is in its essence and what the wisdom derived from it is in its, not to mention the influence of one upon the other. What happens is that love with all its particulars flows into wisdom and there lives like a king in his realm or a master in his house, leaving all the administration of justice to its judgment. Since righteousness is an attribute of love and judgment an attribute of wisdom, love leaves all control to its wisdom. The following pages will shed more light on this secret, for the moment this statement may serve as a rule. The fact that God’s omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence arise through the wisdom of His love is what is meant by the following passage from John:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things were made through Him, and without Him was nothing made which was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men; and the world was made through Him; and the Word was made flesh. John 1:1, 3, 4, 10, 14.

‘Word’ here means Divine Truth, or, what comes to the same thing, the Divine Wisdom. That is why it is also called life and light; for these are nothing but wisdom.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 51 sRef Ps@119 @164 S0′ sRef Amos@5 @24 S0′ sRef Hos@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ps@36 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@72 @2 S0′ sRef Ps@119 @7 S0′ sRef Jer@23 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@33 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@37 @6 S0′ sRef Jer@9 @24 S0′ sRef Isa@1 @27 S0′ sRef Ps@89 @14 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @8 S0′ 51. In the Word righteousness is used with reference to love and judgment to wisdom, so some passages will be quoted to show that these two are the means by which God exercises control in the world.

Jehovah, righteousness and judgment are the foundation of your throne. Ps. 89:14.

Let him who boasts boast of this, that Jehovah executes judgment and righteousness upon the earth. Jer. 9:24.

Let Jehovah be exalted, because He has filled Zion* with judgment and righteousness. Isa. 33:5.

Let judgment flow like water, and righteousness like a mighty torrent. Amos 5:24.

Jehovah, your righteousness is like the mountains of God, your judgments a mighty abyss. Ps. 36:6.

Jehovah will make his** righteousness shine as the light, and his*** judgment like noonday. Ps. 37:6.

Jehovah will judge his’ people in righteousness and his’ suffering ones in judgment. Ps. 72:2.

When I have learnt the judgments of your righteousness, seven times a day I praise you for the judgments of your righteousness. Ps. 119:7, 164.

I will betroth myself to you**** in righteousness and judgment. Hosea 2:19. Zion shall be redeemed in righteousness, and her converts in judgment. Isa. 1:27.

He shall sit upon the throne of David, and reign over his kingdom, to establish it in judgment and righteousness. Isa. 9:7.

I will raise up for David a righteous shoot, who shall reign as king and execute judgment and righteousness upon the earth. Jer. 23:5; 33:15.

Elsewhere it is said that righteousness and judgment ought to be done: as Isa. 1:21; 5:16; 58:2; Jer. 4:2; 22:3, 13, 15; Ezek. 18:5; 33:14, 16, 19; Amos 6:12; Micah 7:9; Deut. 33:21; John 16:8, 10, 11.

*The Latin text has ‘the earth’, but this is changed in the author’s copy in keeping with the Hebrew.
** The author’s own copy has this changed to ‘your’ in keeping with the Hebrew; cf. AC 1458.
*** The author’s own copy has this changed to ‘your’ in keeping with the Hebrew.
**** At AC 9182.6 this passage is translated ‘I will betroth you to myself’ in keeping with the Hebrew.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 52 52. (ii) THE OMNIPOTENCE, OMNISCIENCE AND OMNIPRESENCE OF GOD CANNOT BE RECOGNISED EXCEPT THROUGH A KNOWLEDGE OF ORDER, AND THESE FACTS ABOUT ORDER: THAT GOD IS ORDER, AND THAT HE INTRODUCED ORDER INTO THE UNIVERSE AND ALL ITS PARTS SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH ITS CREATION.

To grasp the number and nature of the absurdities which have crept into human minds and thus into the church through the heads of its founders as the result of their failure to understand the order with which God on its creation endowed the universe and everyone of its parts, it will not be necessary to do more than to list them in the following pages. But first of all I shall here set forth a general definition of what I mean by order, namely: order is the quality of arrangement, direction and activation of the parts, substances and entities composing a form; this is the origin of its state, and perfection of state is the product of wisdom from its love, and its imperfection is hammered out by insanity of reason from lust. This definition uses the terms substance, form and state; and by substance I understand at the same time form, because all substance is a form, and the quality of a form is its state; the perfection or imperfection of its state is the result of order. These, being metaphysical terms, must inevitably be very obscure; but in the following pages this obscurity will be dispelled by the application of illustrative examples.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 53 53. God is order, because He is substance itself and form itself. He is substance, because it is from Him that everything comes which is in existence, has come into and is coming into being. He is form, because every attribute of substances has arisen and still arises from Him, and attributes cannot come from any other source than form. Now since God is the very, sole and prime substance and form and at the same time is the very and sole Love and the very and sole Wisdom, and since wisdom from love produces form, and the state and quality of this is dependent on the order in it, it follows that God is order itself and therefore that He of Himself introduced order both into the universe and every one of its parts. It was a most perfect order that He introduced, because all that He created was good, as we read in the Book of Creation. I shall show in the appropriate place that evils came into existence together with hell, and therefore after creation. But first we shall deal with matters which come more nearly within the purview of the understanding, more clearly enlighten it and arouse milder emotions.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 54 54. To expound the nature, however, of the order imposed on the universe at its creation would demand many pages. The following section on Creation [75-80] will attempt an outline sketch of this topic. It must be grasped that everything in the universe has been endowed by creation with its own order, so that it may continue in existence by itself. This order was imposed from the beginning in order to link up with the order of the universe, so that each particular order should continue in existence as part of the universal structure and thus be one with them. Let us proceed to a few examples.

Man is endowed by creation with his own order, and so is each and every part of him; the head has its order, the body its, the heart, the lungs, the liver, the pancreas, the stomach each its own; likewise every organ of movement called a muscle, and every organ of sense, as the eye, the ear or the tongue. To be sure, there is not a single little blood-vessel or minor fibre in the body which has not its own proper order. Yet all these countless parts are joined to the body as a whole and are so linked into it as to make one together with them. The same is true of all other things, which it will be enough to list as an illustration. Every land animal, every bird of the air, every fish of the sea, every creeping thing, even every worm down to a grub has by creation its own order. Equally every tree, bush, shrub and vegetable has its; and so moreover has every stone, every mineral, right down to each single particle of dust.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 55 55. Anyone can see that there is no empire, kingdom, duchy, republic, city or house which lacks the support of laws, to impose order and so control the form of its government. In each case the laws of righteousness occupy the highest place, political laws the second place, and the laws governing the economy the third. If we make a comparison with a man, the laws of righteousness are the head, those of politics the body, those of the economy the clothes. That is why these last can be changed, like clothes. As for the order which God established for the church, this consists in having God in every single part of it, and having the neighbour as the object towards which order should be directed. The laws of this order are as many as the truths in the Word; the laws which relate to God make up the head, those which relate to the neighbour the body, and its ceremonies make the clothes. For if the ceremonies were not there to contain the other things in their proper order, it would be like stripping the body and exposing it to heat in summer and cold in winter; or like taking away the walls and roof of a church, so that the chancel, altar and pulpit were in the open air exposed to all the various extremes of the weather.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 56 56. (iii) GOD’S OMNIPOTENCE PROCEEDS AND WORKS IN THE UNIVERSE AND ALL ITS PARTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF HIS ORDER.

God is omnipotent, because He can do everything of Himself, and all others derive their power to act from Him. Being able and willing are for Him one, and since He does not will anything but good, He cannot therefore do anything but good. In the spiritual world no one can act contrary to his own will; this restriction is due to God, for in Him the ability to act and the will to do so are one. Moreover, God is Good itself, so that when He does good He acts within Himself, and He cannot step out of Himself. From this it is plain that His omnipotence progresses and works within the sphere of action of good, and this is infinite. For this sphere proceeding from the inmost pervades the universe and everything it contains, and from the inmost it controls what is outside itself, in so far as this is linked to it by its inherent order. Even if not so linked, it none the less sustains it, and assists every effort made to bring it back into a state consonant with universal order, in which God Himself resides with His omnipotence, and in accordance with which He acts. Failing this, it is cast outside Him, yet none the less even there He sustains it from the inmost.

[2] From these facts it can be established that the Divine omnipotence can in no wise depart from itself so as to make contact with any evil, nor promote it from itself, for evil turns itself away. This is how it comes about that evil is totally separated from God and cast into hell; and between hell and heaven, where He is, yawns a gaping chasm. These few considerations can reveal the madness of those who think, even more believe, more still teach, that God can damn anyone, curse him, cast him into hell, predestine his soul to eternal death, avenge injuries, be angry or punish anyone. He is not even able to turn His face away from a person and frown upon him. These and any actions of this kind would be contrary to His essence, and what is contrary to that is contrary to Himself.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 57 57. The prevalent opinion today is that God’s omnipotence resembles the absolute power of a king in this world, who can act at his pleasure however he wishes: acquit or condemn whom he will, make the guilty innocent, pronounce the traitor loyal, promote the unworthy and undeserving over the heads of the worthy and deserving, even on any pretext snatch away his subjects’ goods, condemn them to death, and do other similar things. As a result of this absurd opinion, belief and teaching about the Divine omnipotence, as many falsities, fallacies and chimeras have invaded the church, as there are nuances, systems and derivations of belief there. As many more can invade too, as jars can be filled with water from a large lake, or as snakes can crawl out of their holes and lie basking in the sunshine of the Arabian desert. It takes only the two words ‘omnipotence’ and ‘faith’, and then one can scatter among the common people as many guesses, fictions and rubbish as occur to the bodily senses. Both of these terms banish reason,- but if reason is banished, how is human thought superior to the reason of the birds that fly overhead? What then is the spiritual side, which distinguishes man from animals, but like the stench of zoos, which is agreeable to wild beasts, but not to human beings, unless they are like beasts?

[2] If the Divine omnipotence extended as much to doing evil as to doing good, what would be the distinction between God and the devil? It would surely be like that between two rulers, one of whom is both king and tyrant, the other a tyrant whose power is limited, so he cannot properly be called a king. Or between a shepherd who is allowed to keep leopards as well as sheep, and one who is not allowed to do this. Anyone can know that good and evil are opposites, and that if God by His omnipotence could will both at once and by willing them do them, He could in fact do nothing. This so far from being omnipotence would be a negation of His power. It would be like two wheels turning in opposite directions; the effect would be to stop both wheels and produce a stationary state. Or like a ship sailing against a strong current, which without an anchor to hold it would be
swept away and wrecked. Or like a person with two inconsistent wills, so that when one is active the other must necessarily be inactive; if both were to act at the same time, his mind would be a prey to delirium and dizziness.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 58 58. If the current belief about God’s omnipotence was correct, so that it extended to doing evil as well as good, surely it would be possible, or rather easy, for God to lift the whole of hell up into heaven, change devils and satans into angels, and in an instant cleanse any irreligious person on earth of his sins, make him new and sanctify him, regenerate him, turn him from a son of wrath into a son of grace, that is, justify him, by the simple attribution and imputation of His Son’s righteousness. But God cannot do this by His omnipotence, because it is contrary to the laws of order He has imposed on the universe, and at the same time to the laws of order imposed upon every person; for these demand that both sets should be mutually linked together. The proof of this will be demonstrated later in this book.

It would be the result of that absurd opinion and belief about God’s omnipotence, that God could change any person from a goat to a sheep, and at His pleasure transfer him from His left side to His right; at His pleasure He could transform the spirits of the dragon into the angels of Michael; He could endow a person whose understanding resembled a mole’s with the eagle’s keen vision, in short to make a person a dove instead of a horned owl. All these things God cannot do, because they would be contrary to the laws of His order; yet all the time He wills them and endeavours to effect them. If He could do such things, He would not have allowed Adam to listen to the serpent, and pluck the fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and put it in his mouth. He would not, if He could do this, have allowed Cain to kill his brother, David to number the people, Solomon to build shrines for idols, and the kings of Judah and Israel to profane the Temple, as they did so many times. Rather, if God could do this, by the redemption effected by His Son He would have saved the whole human race with no exceptions and wiped out all hell. The ancient gentiles attributed omnipotence of this sort to their gods and goddesses; this is the source of their myths, as that of Deucalion and Pyrrha, who threw stones behind their backs to make men; of Apollo turning Daphne into a laurel-bush; of Diana turning a huntsman into a stag*, of another of their deities turning the maidens of Parnassus into magpies. The current belief about the Divine omnipotence is similar, and that is the source from which so many fanatical and heretical ideas have spread to every region of the world where there is any religion.

* The Latin has ‘hind’, but this differs from ‘stag’ by only one letter.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 59 sRef Rev@22 @5 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef John@1 @9 S0′ 59. (iv) GOD IS OMNISCIENT, THAT IS, HE PERCEIVES, SEES AND KNOWS DOWN TO THE TINIEST DETAIL EVERYTHING THAT HAPPENS ACCORDING TO ORDER; AND FROM THESE THINGS ALSO WHAT HAPPENS CONTRARY TO ORDER.

The reason God is omniscient, that is, perceives, sees and knows everything is because He is Wisdom itself and Light itself, and Wisdom itself perceives everything and Light itself sees everything. It was shown above that God is Wisdom itself. He is Light itself because He is the sun of the heaven of angels, which sheds light on the understanding of every angel and every person. For as the eye sees by the light of the natural sun, so the understanding sees by the light of the spiritual sun. It not only sees by that light, but is also filled with intelligence the more it loves to receive that light, since this light is in its essence wisdom. Thus we read in the Psalms of David that God dwells in inaccessible light [Ps. 104:2; cf. 1 Tim. 6:16]; and in Revelation that in the New Jerusalem they have no need of a lamp, because the Lord God sheds light on them [21:23]; and in John that the Word, which was with God, and was God, is the light, which enlightens every man that comes into the world [John 1:1, 9]. By the Word is meant the Divine Wisdom. This is why the angels enjoy a brighter light, the greater their wisdom; and why in the Word, every time light is mentioned, wisdom is meant.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 60 60. The reason God perceives, sees and knows down to the tiniest detail everything that happens according to order is that a universal order is made up of the smallest details. The details taken together are called a universal principle, just as the particulars taken together are called a general principle. The universal principle together with its smallest details make up a single coherent unit, so that one part cannot be touched or acted upon without some sensation being transmitted to the whole. This characteristic of the order of the universe produces similar effects in all created things in the world; but this will be illustrated by comparisons taken from observable objects.

Throughout the human body there are general and particular parts, the general serving to wrap up the particular, and fitting together so snugly that each belongs to the other. This effect is the result of each member in the body having a general sheath, which is so intimately connected with each part that for the purpose of any function or use they act as one. [2] For example, the sheath of any muscle is connected to each of the motor fibres, and forms itself into a coating for them. Similarly the sheath of the liver, pancreas and spleen is connected to the separate parts within them, and the sheath of the lungs, called the pleura, is connected to its inner parts. So too the pericardium is connected to all parts of the heart, and on the general level the peritoneum by means of ligaments is linked with the sheaths of all the viscera. Likewise the membranes of the brain by means of processes drawn out from themselves are connected to all the underlying nodes, and by them to all the fibres, and by them to every part of the body’ That is why the head by the action of the two parts of the brain controls all the parts subject to it. These facts are only presented so that from observable objects some idea can be formed how God perceives, sees and knows everything which happens in accordance with order down to the tiniest detail.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 61 61. The reason why God from the things which are in accordance with order perceives, knows and sees everything down to the tiniest detail which happens contrary to order, is that God does not keep a person in evil, but holds him back from evil. So He does not lead him, but struggles with him. From that perpetual struggle, striving, resistance, repugnance and reaction of evil and falsity against His own good and truth, and so against Himself, He is able to perceive their nature and extent. This follows from the fact that God is omnipresent in all the details of His order, and also omniscient concerning every one of them. It is comparable with someone whose ear is attuned to harmony and concord, and can tell precisely how, and to what extent the sounds heard are inharmonious and discordant, or with someone experiencing pleasure, when an unpleasant sensation intervenes. Equally someone whose gaze is fixed on a beautiful object can form a precise appreciation of an ugly object set alongside, which is why painters have a habit of setting an ugly face next to a beautiful one. Likewise good and truth, when evil and falsity struggle against them, enable their opponents to be clearly perceived. For everyone under the influence of good can perceive evil, and everyone under the influence of truth can see falsity. The reason is that good is under the influence of the heat of heaven, and truth under that of its light, but evil is under the influence of the cold of hell, and falsity under that of its darkness. An illustration of this is the fact that the angels in heaven can see anything which goes on in hell, and what sort of monsters exist there; but on the contrary the spirits in hell cannot so much as glimpse what goes on in heaven, nor even see the angels, any more than a blind man can, or the eye gazing into the air and empty space.

[2] Those whose understandings are illuminated by wisdom resemble people standing on a mountain at mid-day and seeing clearly everything below them. If they enjoy even higher illumination, they can be compared to people who look through telescopes and see things around and below them as if near at hand. But those who by convincing themselves of false ideas have only the deceptive light of hell are like people standing on the same mountain at nighttime with lanterns in their hands, unable to see anything but the nearest objects, and unable to distinguish their shapes or their colours property. A person who has a little of the light of truth, but lives a wicked life, sees truth to begin with, when he is taking pleasure in his love of evil, rather as a bat sees washing hanging up in a garden, which it flies up to as if it were its roost. Later he becomes like a little owl and finally a horned owl. He then becomes like a chimney-sweep clinging to a dark corner of the chimney; when he lifts up his gaze he sees the sky obscured by smoke, and when he looks down he sees the hearth from which the smoke rises.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 62 sRef Ps@139 @8 S0′ sRef Amos@9 @2 S0′ 62. It must be understood that there is a difference between perceiving opposites and contrasts. Opposites are outside and contrary to what is inside. An opposite comes about when one thing totally ceases to exist, and another arises which acts in the contrary direction to the former, like one wheel rotating in the contrary direction to another, or two streams flowing in opposite directions. Contrasts, however, are concerned with the arrangement of numerous and complex elements into such an order that they agree and harmonise, such as precious stones of different colours in a sash worn on a queen’s breast, or flowers of various colours arranged in a garland to make a pretty sight. Contrasts therefore exist in both opposites, in both good and evil, and truth and falsity, heaven as well as hell. But the things that are contrasting in hell are all the opposites of those in heaven. Now since God perceives and sees and thus knows everything contrasting in heaven as a result of the order in which He is present, and also as a result perceives, sees and knows all the opposite contrasts in hell, as follows from what was said above, it is plain that God is omniscient in hell just as He is in heaven, and equally among men on earth. Thus God perceives, sees and knows men’s evils and falsities by the good and truth in which He Himself is, and which in their essence are God. For He says:

If I go up into the heavens, there you are; if I cast myself down in hell, behold, you are there. Ps. 139:8.

and elsewhere:

If they dig down into hell, from there my hand will rescue them. Amos 9:2, 3.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 63 63. (v) GOD IS PRESENT EVERYWHERE FROM FIRST TO LAST IN HIS ORDER.

It is the heat and light of the sun of the spiritual world, in the midst of which God is, which makes Him present everywhere from first to last in His order. By means of this sun order came into existence, and from it He sends forth heat and light, which penetrate the universe from first to last and produce the life possessed by every human being and animal, and also the vegetative soul which every plant on earth has. Its heat and light act upon every single thing and cause each to live and grow in accordance with the order imposed on them from creation. Since God has no extent, yet fills all the space in the universe, He is omnipresent. It has been shown elsewhere [30] that God is non-spatially in all space and non-temporally in all time, as a result of which the universe is in respect of its essence and its order the fulness of God. This being so, God by His omnipresence perceives everything, by His omniscience provides everything, and by His omnipotence performs everything. This makes it plain that omnipresence, omniscience and omnipotence make one, in other words, one supposes the other and thus they cannot be divided.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 64 64. A remarkable illustration of the Divine omnipresence is the way angels and spirits become present in the spiritual world. Since that world has no space, but only the appearance of space, an angel or a spirit can in an instant present himself to another, so long as he assumes a similar affection of love and so thinks alike; for it is these two factors which control the appearance of space. It was plain to me that presence there is of this nature from the fact that I could see Africans and Indians there in close proximity, despite the miles that separate them on earth. Indeed I was able to be in company with those who inhabit the planets of this solar system, and even with those from planets in other systems outside that of our sun. This presence, which depends not on position but an appearance of position, has allowed me to speak with Apostles, with dead Popes, Emperors and Kings, with the founders of the present church, Luther, Calvin and Melanchthon, as well as others from remote areas. When angels and spirits have such powers of being present, is there anything the Divine presence in the universe cannot do, seeing it is infinite?

[2] The reason angels and spirits have such powers of being present is that every affection of love and so every thought of the understanding is non-spatially in space and non-temporally in time. Anyone can think about a brother, relation or friend who is in the Indies and feel as if he were present with him. Likewise he can by calling them to mind feel the emotion of love for them. These matters which lie within the range of human experience can afford some sort of illustration of the Divine omnipresence. So too can human thoughts which allow us, by recalling to our memory what we saw in various places on a journey, to feel as if we were actually present in them. Even bodily sight imitates this kind of presence, taking no note of distance except by means of intervening objects, which provide a scale for measurement. The sun itself would appear close to the eye, if not actually within the eye, if there were nothing in between to show how distant it is, an observation made by writers on optics in their treatises. The sight of the understanding as well as that of the body allows a person to have this feeling of presence, because his spirit sees through his eyes. But no animal has this, because animals do not have any spiritual sight. All these facts serve to establish that God is present everywhere from first to last in His order. The previous section showed that He is present also everywhere in hell.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 65 65. (vi) MAN WAS CREATED TO BE A FORM FOR DIVINE ORDER.

Man was created to be a form for Divine order, because he was created as an image and likeness of God; so since God is order itself, he was created as an image and likeness of order. The two factors which brought order into existence and preserve it in existence are the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom; and man was created to be a receiver of these. Consequently he was by creation endowed with the order according to which the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom act in the universe, and principally that according to which they act in the heaven of angels, so that this whole heaven is a form of Divine order on the largest scale, and in the sight of God it appears like one man. There is too a full correspondence between that heaven and man. For there is no community in heaven which does not correspond to some member, internal part or organ in the human body. So it is said in heaven that a certain community is in the province of the liver, or the pancreas, or the spleen, or the stomach, or the eye, or the ear, or the tongue, and so on. The angels themselves know under what part of the human body they come. The truth of this I was allowed to know by direct experience. I saw a community composed of some thousands of angels as one person. This showed plainly that heaven taken together is an image of God, and the image of God is a form of the Divine order.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 66 66. It should be known that all things emanating from the sun of the spiritual world, in the midst of which is Jehovah God, answer to the human form. Consequently whatever comes into existence in that world combines to make a human form, and in its inmost parts exhibits that. Thus all the objects displayed to view there are representative of the human body. All kinds of animals are to be seen there, and these are likenesses of the angels’ affections of love and so of their thoughts. Equally to be seen there are woods, flower-gardens and greensward. I have been permitted to know which affection this or that object represents. An extraordinary thing, when their inmost sight is opened, they recognise their own image in them. This is because every person is his own love and so his own thought. So since the affections and thoughts derived from them are varied and complex in the case of each person, some of them answering to the affection indicated by one animal, some to that indicated by another, this is why their affections are made manifest in this way. More will be seen on this subject in the following section on creation [75-80]. These facts also demonstrate this truth, that the end in view in creation was a heaven of angels drawn from the human race; consequently the end was man, in whom God could dwell as in something made to receive Him. This is the cause of man being created to be a form for the Divine order.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 67 67. Before creation God was Love itself and Wisdom itself, and He was these two exerting themselves to perform services. For without service love and wisdom are volatile figments of the reason, and they actually do fly away unless they devote their energy to service. Love and wisdom separated from service are also like birds flying across a mighty ocean and at length so tired by flying they fall down and drown. This proves that the universe was created by God in order that services should come into being, so that one might call the universe a theatre of services. Since man is the principal end in view in creation, it follows that everything was created on his account; so every detail of order was made applicable to him and concentrated on him, in order that by means of him God could perform primary services. Love and wisdom without their third partner, service, can be equated with the sun’s heat and light, which would be empty principles unless they worked on men, animals and plants; but they become real by irradiating them and working on them.

[2] End, cause and effect are a trio with a fixed sequence. Educated people know that an end is nothing if it is not accompanied by an efficient cause, and the end and this cause are nothing, if there is no effect. One can form abstract speculations about ends and causes, but they must aim at some effect, which the end has in view and the cause brings about. It is the same with love, wisdom and service: service is the aim love has in view and brings about by means of a cause. When the service is effected, love and wisdom come into real existence, and make their residence and seat in that service, and come to rest there as if in their home. It is similar with a person, in whom are the love and wisdom of God, when he performs services; and it was so that he should perform services for God, that he was created to be an image and likeness [of God]*, that is, a form for the Divine order.

*These words are added in the margin in the author’s own copy.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 68 68. (vii) MAN HAS FROM DIVINE OMNIPOTENCE POWER AGAINST EVIL AND FALSITY, AND FROM DIVINE OMNISCIENCE WISDOM ABOUT GOOD AND TRUTH, AND FROM DIVINE OMNIPRESENCE IS IN GOD, TO THE EXTENT THAT HE LIVES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE DIVINE ORDER.

The reason man has from Divine Omnipotence power against evils and falsities to the extent that he lives in accordance with the Divine order is that no one, except God alone, can resist evils and the falsities they produce. For all evils and their falsities come from hell, and there they hold together as a unit, exactly as all kinds of good and so truths do in heaven. As I said before, in the sight of God the whole of heaven is like one man, and in the opposite case hell is like one monstrous giant. Thus acting against one evil and its falsity is like taking on that monstrous giant or all hell. No one can do this except God, because He is omnipotent.

[2] It is plain from this that unless a person approaches almighty God, he can do no more against evil and so falsity than a fish against the ocean, a flea against a whale, or a speck of dust against an avalanche – much less than a locust against an elephant, or a fly against a camel. Moreover, a person has so much less power against evil and so falsity because he was born into evil, and evil cannot act against itself. The consequence of this is that unless a person lives in accordance with order, that is, unless he acknowledges God, His omnipotence and the protection this gives him against hell, and unless he on his part also fights with the evil in himself, for both of these are part of order, he must inevitably be plunged into and drowned in hell, and there buffeted by evils, one after the other, like a rowing-boat by squalls at sea.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 69 69. The reason why the wisdom about good and truth a person has from Divine omniscience is in proportion to the extent to which he lives according to the Divine order, is that all love of good and all wisdom about truth, in other words, all the good of love and all the truth of wisdom, come from God. This is borne out by the confession of all the churches in Christendom. It follows from this that a person cannot have inwardly any truth of wisdom except from God, since God has omniscience, that is, infinite wisdom. The human mind is, like the heaven of the angels, divided into three degrees; so it can be raised to a higher degree and one higher still, or be depressed to a lower degree and one lower still. To the extent, however, that it is raised to higher degrees, it enters into wisdom, because it enters to that extent into the light of heaven, and this could not be brought about except by God. To the extent it is raised into that light, a person is truly human; but to the extent that it sinks to the lower degrees, it comes into the deceptive light of hell, and the person is to that extent not human, but an animal. This is why man stands erect on his feet, with his face upturned to heaven, able to raise it to the zenith; and why an animal stands on its feet parallel to the ground, and fully faces that, so that it can only with difficulty lift its gaze to heaven.

[2] A person who lifts up his mind towards God, and acknowledges that all the truth of wisdom comes from Him, and at the same time lives in accordance with order, resembles someone standing on a lofty tower watching a densely populated city below him and seeing what goes on in its streets. But a person who convinces himself that all the truth of wisdom comes from his own natural enlightenment, that is, from himself, resembles someone living in a cellar under that tower, watching the same city through narrow holes; he can see no more than the wall of one house in the city, and study how the bricks in it hold together. Again, a person who draws wisdom from God is like a bird flying high, spying out everything in the gardens, woods and villages round about, and flying towards things that can be of service. But a person who derives what belongs to wisdom from himself, without believing that this still comes from God, is like a hornet flying close to the ground, and, when it sees a dunghill, flying up to it and taking pleasure in its stench.

[3] Every person, as long as he lives in the world, treads a path mid-way between heaven and hell; and he is in equilibrium, that is, he has free will to look up to God or down to hell. If he looks up to God, he acknowledges that all wisdom comes from God, and his spirit is really present among the angels in heaven. The person who looks down, as everyone does whose evil puts him under the power of falsities, is in his spirit really among the devils in hell.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 70 sRef John@15 @4 S1′ 70. The reason why a person is by Divine omnipresence in God to the extent that he lives in accordance with order, is that God is omnipresent and where He is present in His Divine Order, He is so to speak in Himself, since, as shown before, He is order. Now since man has been created to be a form for the Divine Order, God is present in him, but fully only to the extent that he lives in accordance with the Divine order. If he does not live in accordance with the Divine order, God is still present in him, but in his highest regions, giving him the ability to understand truth and will good, that is, giving him the faculty of understanding and the inclination to love. But in so far as he lives contrary to order, so far does he close up the lower regions of his mind or spirit, and thus prevent God from coming down and filling the lower regions with His presence. So God is present in him, but he is not in God. It is the general rule in heaven that God is present in every person, evil as well as good, but a person is not in God unless he lives in accordance with order. For the Lord says that He wills that a person should be in Him and He in the person (John 15:4).

[2] The reason why a person is in God if he lives in accordance with order is that God is omnipresent in the universe, and in every part of it, in the inmost of each, since these are in order. But in parts which are contrary to order, which are only those outside the inmost, God is omnipresent by a continual struggle with them as He strives continually to bring them into order. For this reason in so far as a person allows himself to be brought into order, so far is God omnipresent in his whole being, and consequently so far is God in him and he in God. The absence of God from man is no more possible than the absence of the sun, by way of its heat and light, from the earth. But objects on earth are only affected by its influence to the extent that they receive the heat and light radiated by the sun, which happens in spring and summer.

[3] This comparison can be applied to the omnipresence of God. A person is so far in spiritual heat and at the same time spiritual light, that is, in possession of the good of love and the truths of wisdom, as he is subject to order. But spiritual heat and light differ from natural heat and light. In wintertime natural heat is lost by the earth and things on it, and natural light is lost at nighttime, because the earth by its rotation and orbit around the sun causes the seasons and times of day. This does not happen with spiritual heat and light, for God is present supplying both by means of His sun, and this does not change as the natural sun appears to do. It is the person himself who turns away as the earth turns away from the sun, and when he turns away from the truths of wisdom, he can be compared to the earth turning away from the sun during the night; when he turns away from the kinds of good of love he is like the earth turning away from the sun during the winter. Such is the correspondence between the effects and services performed by the sun of the spiritual world and those performed by the sun of the natural world.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 71 71. At this point I shall insert accounts of three experiences, of which this is the first.

Once I heard beneath me a roaring as of the sea, and asked what it was. Someone told me that it was a disturbance among the spirits gathered on the lower earth, which lies closest above hell. In a little while the ground which formed a roof over them split open, and through the gap birds of the night came pouring forth in hordes and spreading out to the left. They were immediately followed by a wave of locusts, which leapt upon the grass covering the ground, and turned it all into a desert. A little later I began to hear by turns a kind of wailing coming from those birds of the night, and to the side an inarticulate cry as if from ghosts in the woods. Later still I saw beautiful birds coming from heaven and spreading out towards the right. These birds were marked with what looked like wings of gold broken up by stripes and spots of silver; some had on their heads crown-shaped crests.

While I was gazing in wonder at all this, there suddenly emerged from the lower earth, where the disturbance was, a spirit who could take upon himself the appearance of an angel of light. ‘Where is the man,’ he shouted, ‘who talks and writes about an order, to which almighty God has restricted Himself in His dealings with man? News of this has penetrated the roof and reached us down below.’

When he came to the ground level, he hurried along a paved road; and eventually he came up to me and at once pretended to be an angel from heaven. Then, speaking in an assumed tone of voice, ‘Are you,’ he said, ‘the man who thinks and speaks about order? Give me a brief account of order and some examples of it.’

aRef 1Sam@5 @2 S2′ [2] ‘I will give you,’ I replied, ‘a summary, but not the details, because these would be beyond your grasp.’ I told him: (i) God is Order itself. (ii) He created man from order according to order and to be subject to order. (iii) He created his rational mind in accordance with the order of the whole spiritual world and his body in accordance with the order of the whole natural world, which is why the ancients called man a micro-heaven and a microcosm. (iv) It is therefore a law of order that man from his micro-heaven or little spiritual world should control his microcosm or little natural world, just as God from His macro-heaven or spiritual world controls the macrocosm or natural world in all its parts. (v) A consequential law of order is therefore that a person ought to enter into faith by means of truths from the Word, and into charity by means of good deeds, and so reform and regenerate himself. (vi) It is a law of order that a person should by his own efforts and ability cleanse himself from sins, and not stand idly confident of his inability to act, waiting for God to wipe away his sins in an instant. (vii) It is also a law of order that a person should love God with all his soul and all his heart, and his neighbour as himself, and not hang back waiting for God instantaneously to place either love in his mind and heart, like bread from the baker’s in the mouth. I told him much more besides.

[3] When he heard this, the Satan replied in a polite tone which concealed his deceit: ‘What is this you say? That a person by his own ability should enter into order by obeying its laws? Don’t you know that man is not subject to the law, but to grace; and that everything is given freely and a person can take nothing for himself unless it is given him from heaven? Don’t you know that in spiritual matters he can no more act of himself than Lot’s wife when she was turned into a pillar, or Dagon, the idol worshipped by the Philistines in Ekron? So it is impossible for a person to justify himself, since this must be accomplished by means of faith and charity.’

To this I made only this reply: ‘It is a law of order too that a person should by his efforts and ability acquire for himself faith by means of truths from the Word, while believing that not a grain of faith comes from himself, but from God; and that a person should by his efforts and ability aim to justify himself, but he is to believe that not a jot of justification comes from himself, but from God. Is it not commanded that a man should believe in God, and love God with all his strength, and his neighbour as himself? Reflect and tell me how God could have given these commandments, if man had not the ability to obey and perform them.’

[4] On hearing this the Satan’s face underwent a change; from being white it first turned a lurid colour, and then pitch black. He spoke with his black mouth and said: ‘All you have said is paradoxes to counter paradoxes.’ Then at once he sank down to his own kind and vanished. The birds on the left together with the ghosts made an unusual noise, and threw themselves into the sea, which is there called the Sea of Suph*, and the locusts came hopping after them. Both air and land were thus cleared of those animals, the disturbance down below ceased, and all became peaceful and calm.

*The Hebrew name for the Red Sea.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 72 72. The second experience.

Once I heard an unusual murmuring at a distance, and in the spirit I followed the track of the sound until I came near. When I reached its source, I found a group of spirits arguing about imputation and predestination. They were Dutch and British, with a few from other
countries among them, and at the end of each argument these shouted: ‘Wonderful, wonderful!’

The subject under discussion was: ‘Why does God not impute the merit and righteousness of His Son to every single person He has created and subsequently redeemed? Is He not omnipotent? Can He not, if He wishes, make Lucifer, the Dragon and all the goats into angels? Is He not omnipotent? Why does He allow the unrighteousness and impiety of the devil to triumph over the righteousness of His Son and the piety of those who worship God? What is easier for God than to judge all worthy of faith and so of salvation? What does it take but one little word? And if not, is He not acting contrary to His own words, that He desires salvation for all and death for none? Tell us then whence it is that those who perish are damned, and what is the reason for it.’

Then a certain believer in predestination, a supralapsarian* from Holland, said: ‘Surely this is at the pleasure of the Almighty. Shall the clay blame the potter, because he made a chamber-pot of it?’ Another said: ‘The salvation of every man is in His hand, like the scales in the hands of someone weighing.’

[2] At the sides of the group there stood a number of people of simple faith and upright heart, some with reddened eyes, some as if drugged, some as if drunk, and some as if choked, muttering to one another: ‘What have we to do with this nonsense? They have been driven crazy by their faith, which is that God the Father imputes the righteousness of His Son to whomsoever He wishes, when He wishes, and sends the Holy Spirit to effect the rewards of that righteousness; and so that a person should not claim for himself a grain of merit in attending to his own salvation, he must be as inert as a stone in the matter of justification, and like a block of wood in spiritual matters.’

Then one of these people thrust himself into the group and said in a loud voice: ‘You madmen, what you are arguing about is goat’s wool.** You obviously do not know that almighty God is order itself, and that there are myriads of laws of order, as many in fact as there are truths in the Word, and God cannot act contrary to them, because if He did so, He would be acting against Himself, and so not only contrary to righteousness but contrary to His own omnipotence.’

[3] On the right he saw at a distance what looked like a sheep and a lamb, and a dove in flight, and on the left what looked like a goat, a wolf and a vulture. ‘Do you believe,’ he said, ‘that God by His omnipotence could turn that goat into a sheep, or that wolf into a lamb, or that vulture into a dove, or the reverse? Far from it; that is contrary to the laws of His order, of which not so much as a tittle can fall to the ground, as His words tell us. How then can He impart the righteousness of His Son’s redemption to anyone who resists it, contrary to the laws of His righteousness? How can Righteousness itself do unrighteousness, and predestine anyone to hell and cast him into the fire, beside which the devil stands torch in hand making it blaze? You madmen, devoid of spirit, your faith has led you astray. Is it not in your hands like a snare for catching doves?’

On hearing this a magician made as it were a snare out of that faith and hung it in a tree, saying? ‘Watch me catch that dove.’ Very soon the hawk flew up and put its neck in the snare and hung there, while the dove on seeing the hawk flew past. The by-standers exclaimed in wonder, ‘This trick is a reward of righteousness.’

* Supralapsarian: a person who believes the Fall of Adam was predestined.
** Proverbial for what does not exist.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 73 73. The next day some of the group who believed in predestination and imputation came to me and said: ‘We feel as if we were tipsy, not with wine, but with the way that man talked yesterday. He talked about omnipotence and at the same time about order, drawing the conclusion that just as omnipotence is an attribute of God, so too is order; in fact he asserted that God Himself is order. He said that there are as many laws of order as there are truths in the Word, not merely thousands, but hundreds of millions; and that God is subject to His own laws in this respect, and man to his. What then is God’s omnipotence, if it is restricted by laws? For in this way omnipotence loses all absolute power. Does not that give God less power than any king on earth who is a sovereign? He can turn the laws of justice upside down as easily as his hands; he can act with absolute power like Octavius* Augustus, or like Nero. Thinking about omnipotence restricted by laws has made us feel as if we were tipsy, and ready to faint if we do not get immediate help. Our faith has taught us to pray that God the Father should have mercy on us for the sake of His Son; and we believed that He could have mercy on whomever He chose, forgive the sins of any He pleased, and save whom He willed. We did not dare to detract in the slightest from His omnipotence. Therefore we regard confining God in any fetters of His own laws as sacrilege, seeing that it is a contradiction of His omnipotence.’

[2] At the conclusion of this speech we looked at each other, and I saw that they were perplexed. ‘I will pray to the Lord,’ I said, ‘and bring you help from Him by shedding some light on the subject, but for now only by way of examples.’

‘Almighty God,’ I said, ‘created the world out of order in Himself, that is to say, to be subject to the order in which He is present, and in accordance with which He controls it; and He has endowed the universe and every one of its parts with its own order. So man has his order, animals theirs, birds and fishes theirs, worms theirs; every tree, the very grass has its own order. To provide illustrative examples let me briefly suggest the following. The laws of order assigned to man are that he should acquire for himself truths from the Word, and think about them in a natural way, and, so far as he is able, rationally, thus equipping himself with a natural faith. The laws of order on God’s side then are that He approaches the man, fills the truths with His Divine light, and so fills man’s natural faith, which is merely factual knowledge and strongly held opinion, with the Divine essence. Thus, and only thus, does it become a saving faith.

‘It is similar with charity; but let me briefly give some examples. God’s laws prevent Him from forgiving anyone’s sins, except to the extent that the person in accordance with his laws refrains from committing them. God cannot spiritually regenerate a person, except in so far as the person in accordance with his laws regenerates himself naturally. God is constantly striving to regenerate and so save people, but He cannot achieve this unless the person prepares himself to receive God, and so smooths the way and opens the door to Him. A bridegroom cannot enter the bedroom of a young woman who has not pledged herself to him; she locks the door and keeps the key herself inside. But when she takes the vows of marriage, she gives the bridegroom the key.

[3] ‘God could not by His omnipotence have redeemed mankind, except by becoming a man. Nor could He have made His Human Divine, if His Human had not first been like that of a baby, then that of a child, and then formed itself into a container and dwelling into which His Father could enter. He did this by fulfilling everything in the Word, that is to say, all the laws of order it contains; and the more perfectly He did this, the more closely He united Himself with the Father and the Father united Himself with Him. These are merely a few illustrations which are offered, so that you can see that Divine omnipotence is subject to order; and His rule, which is called providence, is in accordance with order. It acts continually and for ever in accordance with the laws of His order; it cannot act contrary to them, nor can it change a tittle of them, because God is order together with all its laws.’

[4] At this speech a brilliance of golden light flooded in through the roof, and turned into cherubs flying through the air. A ruddy glow from them lit up the temples of some people, coming from the back of the head, but not at this stage from the forehead, for they were murmuring: ‘We still do not know what omnipotence is.’ ‘That will be revealed,’ I said, ‘once what has been said so far has shed on your minds a little illumination.’

*The name of the first of the Roman Emperors before he took the title Augustus.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 74 74. The third experience.

I saw in the distance a number of people assembled with hats on their heads. Some had silk bands on their hats, to show they were clergymen; others, who were laymen, had the brims of their hats decorated with golden bands. All of them were educated and learned people. I also saw some people wearing caps*, and they were uneducated.

On approaching I heard them talking among themselves about unlimited Divine power, saying that if it operated according to some laws of order which had been passed, it would not be unlimited, but limited, and so power, but not omnipotence. ‘But anyone can see,’ they said, ‘that no kind of compulsion could force omnipotence to act in one way and not another. To be sure, when we think about omnipotence and at the same time about laws of order which it is compelled to observe, our preconceived** notions about omnipotence collapse, like arms leaning on a broken stick.’

[2] Seeing me standing nearby some of them hastened up and said with some vehemence: ‘Are you the man who has encumbered God with laws like fetters? What a presumptuous thing to do! By doing this you have shattered our faith, which is the basis of our salvation, in the midst of which we set the righteousness of the Redeemer, above it the omnipotence of God the Father, and we attach as an appendage the working of the Holy Spirit, which is effective while man is totally impotent in spiritual matters; all man needs to do is to proclaim the completeness of justification, which by Divine omnipotence is present in that faith. But I have been told that you see an empty void in that faith, because it contains nothing of Divine order on man’s part.’

On hearing this I broke silence and said in a loud voice: ‘Learn the laws of Divine order, and then open up your faith; you will see a vast desert and in it the long, sinuous Leviathan*** surrounded by nets so knotted that they could never be disentangled. But do what we read Alexander did on seeing the Gordian knot; he drew his sword and cut it in two, so severing its contortions, threw it on the ground and trampled its strands under his heel.’

[3] This speech made the assembly bite their tongues, for they wanted to sharpen them to make a cutting reply; but they did not dare, because they saw heaven lying open above me, and heard a voice from there: ‘Restrain yourselves and listen first to what order is, the laws of which Almighty God follows in His actions. God’, the voice said****, ‘created the universe from Himself in His capacity as Order, by order and to be subject to order. Likewise He created man, in whom He established the laws of his own order to make him an image and likeness of God. These are briefly, that he should believe in God and love the neighbour; so far as he applies his natural powers to performing those two actions, so far does he make himself a receiver of Divine omnipotence, and so far does God link Himself to him, and him to God. His faith thus becomes a living and saving faith, and his actions become charity, which also is living and saving. But it should be known that God is constantly present, continually striving and acting on the person, and touching his free will but never forcing it. For if God were to force a person’s free will, his dwelling in God would be destroyed, and he would be left only with God’s dwelling in him. This is something which all enjoy on earth as much as in heaven, and so do those in hell. For this is the source of their ability, will and understanding. The reciprocal dwelling of a person in God only occurs with those who live in accordance with the laws of order enacted in the Word; and these people become images and likenesses of Him, paradise is given them to possess, and the fruit of the tree of life to eat. The rest gather around the tree of knowledge of good and evil, talk with the serpent there, and eat of its fruit. But after this they are banished from paradise. Yet God does not abandon them; it is they who abandon God.’

[4] The people who wore hats understood and approved of this. But those who wore caps objected, saying: ‘By this surely omnipotence is limited, and limited omnipotence is a contradiction in terms.’

‘It is no contradiction,’ I replied, ‘to act omnipotently in accordance with the laws of righteousness with judgment, or according to the laws engraved upon love by wisdom. But it is a contradiction to say that God can act contrary to the laws of His own righteousness and love, for that would be to lack judgment and wisdom. It is that sort of contradiction your faith involves, if you believe that God can simply by grace justify the unrighteous, and mark him out by all the gifts of salvation and rewards of life. But I will tell you in a few words what God’s omnipotence is. God by His omnipotence created the universe, and at the same time implanted order in every part of it. God also by His omnipotence preserves the universe and maintains order there with its laws for ever, and when anything slips out of order, brings it back and restores it. Moreover, God by His omnipotence established the church and in the Word revealed the laws of its order; and when it fell away from order, He restored it, and when its fall was complete, came down Himself into the world, and by assuming human form put on omnipotence and re-established it.

[5] ‘God by His omnipotence and also omniscience examines everyone after death, and prepares the righteous or sheep for their places in heaven, to build up heaven from them; and prepares the unrighteous or goats for their places in hell, and builds up hell from them. Both heaven and hell He arranges into communities and assemblies in accordance with all the varieties in their love; there are as many of these in heaven as there are stars in the sky we see in the world. He links the communities in heaven into a unit, so that in His sight they are like one person, and likewise the assemblies in hell, so that they are like one devil. He separates one party from the other by an abyss, so that hell can offer no violence to heaven, nor can heaven torment hell. For those who are in hell suffer torment to the extent that they feel the influence of heaven. If God from His omnipotence were not doing all this at every moment, such savagery would overcome human beings that they could no longer be restrained by any laws of order, and thus the human race would be destroyed. These and similar things would happen, if God were not order, and omnipotent in order.’

On hearing this those who wore hats went away with their hats under their arms, praising God. (For in that world intelligent people wear hats.) But those who wore caps did not, because they are bald; and baldness is a sign of stupidity. These went off to the left, the others to the right.

* The Latin word tiara usually indicates some sort of oriental headdress; the distinction here intended may be the absence of brims.
** The Latin has praeceptae meaning ‘commanded’, but praeconceptae ‘preconceived’ is probably intended.
*** This is the version Swedenborg follows of Isa. 27:1 (e.g. at AC 7293.3).
**** The Latin has ‘it said’ (i.e. the voice), but in view of the rest of this section dixit is probably a misprint for dixi ‘I said’.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 75 75. THE CREATION OF THE UNIVERSE

Since the subject of this first chapter is God the Creator, it needs also to deal with His creation of the universe, just as the following chapter on the Lord the Redeemer needs also to deal with redemption. But no one can form a correct idea of the creation of the universe, unless some universal ideas are first suggested to bring the understanding into a perceptive state; these will be the following.

(i) There are two worlds, a spiritual world containing angels and spirits, and a natural world containing human beings.

[2] (ii) Each of these worlds has a sun. The sun of the spiritual world is pure love from Jehovah God, who is in its midst. From this sun emanate heat and light, the heat from it being in its essence love, and the light from it being in its essence wisdom. These two forces operate on the will and understanding of man, the heat on his will, and the light on his understanding. But the sun of the natural world is pure fire, so that the heat from it is lifeless, and so is its light. These serve as clothing and support to enable the spiritual heat and light to be transmitted to human beings.

[3] (iii) Those two forces emanating from the sun of the spiritual world, and consequently everything produced by them there, are substantial* and are termed spiritual. The two similar forces emanating from the sun of the natural world, and consequently everything produced by them here, are material and are termed natural.

[4] (iv) In each world there are three degrees, termed degrees of altitude, and consequently three regions. The three heavens of the angels are arranged in this pattern, and so are human minds, which thus correspond to those three heavens of the angels. There is a like correspondence between all other things there and here.

[5] (v) There is a correspondence between things in the spiritual world and those in the natural world.

[6] (vi) There is an order to conform with which everything in each world was created.

[7] (vii) Some idea of these matters must first be grasped, for, if not, the human mind, such is its utter ignorance of these matters, can easily fall into thinking of the creation of the universe as the work of nature, merely relying on ecclesiastical authority to declare that nature was created by God. But through ignorance of how this was done, the mind upon a thoroughgoing investigation of the subject may slip headlong into a nature-worship that denies the existence of God. However, since to expound and prove these propositions one by one would require a large volume, and this is moreover not a chief part or subject of the theological system to which this book is devoted, I should like simply to present a few accounts of experiences, which will allow some idea of God’s creation of the universe to be conceived, so that some offspring bearing its representation may be born of that conception.

* I.e. made of substance, the underlying essence of matter.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 76 76. The first experience.

One day I had been meditating on the creation of the universe. This was noticed by the angels above me to the right, where there were some who had several times meditated and reasoned about the same matter; so one of them came down and invited me to join them. I passed into the spirit and accompanied him; on my arrival I was brought to the prince, in whose hall I saw as many as a hundred assembled with the prince in their midst.

Then one of them said: ‘We noticed here that you have meditated about the creation of the universe, a subject which has several times occupied our thoughts. But we were unable to reach a conclusion because our thinking clung to the idea of chaos being like a great egg, from which everything in the universe in its due order was hatched. Yet now we perceive that such a vast universe could not have been hatched like this. Another idea which stuck in our minds was that everything was created by God from nothing; yet now we perceive that nothing comes from nothing. Our minds have not yet been able to disentangle themselves from these two ideas and shed a little light on how creation happened. For this reason we have summoned you from the place where you were, to expound your thinking on the subject.’

[2] ‘I will indeed,’ I replied on hearing this. ‘I meditated on this,’ I said, ‘for a long time but to no purpose. But later, when I was admitted by the Lord into your world, I perceived that it was futile to form any conclusions about the creation of the universe, unless it were first known that there were two worlds, one occupied by angels and the other by men; and that men after death pass from their world into the other. Then I also saw that there are two suns, one from which pour forth all spiritual things, and one from which pour forth all natural things; and that the sun from which all spiritual things pour forth is pure love from Jehovah God, who is in its midst, while the sun from which all natural things pour forth is pure fire. When I had grasped these facts, once when I was in a state of enlightenment, I was granted the perception that the universe was created by Jehovah God by means of the sun in the midst of which He is; and because love cannot exist except together with wisdom, that the universe was created by Jehovah God from His love by means of His wisdom. I have been convinced of the truth of this by everything I have seen in the world where you are, and in the world where I am at present in the body.

[3] ‘It would be too tedious to explain how creation progressed from its first beginning. But while I was in a state of enlightenment I perceived that by means of the light and heat from the sun of your world, one after another spiritual atmospheres were created, which are in themselves substantial. Because there are three of them, and they therefore have three degrees, three heavens were made, one for angels in the highest degree of love and wisdom, one for angels in the second degree, and a third for angels in the lowest degree. But because this spiritual universe could not come into being without a natural universe, in which the spiritual one might produce its effects and perform its services, at the same time the sun which is the source of all natural things was created; and through this in the same way, by means of light and heat, three atmospheres were created to surround the first three, like a shell round a kernel or bark round wood; and it was finally through these that the globe with its lands and seas was created from the earth consisting of soil, stones and minerals, to be the home of men, animals, fish, trees, shrubs and plants.

[4] ‘This is an extremely general outline of how creation took place and progressed. It would take a series of books to explain all the particular details; but all lead to this conclusion, that God did not create the universe from nothing, since, as you said, nothing comes of nothing, but through the sun of the heaven of angels, which is from His Being (Esse) and so is pure love together with wisdom. Every single detail of the universe, by which I mean both the spiritual and natural worlds, bears witness and proclaims that the universe was created from the Divine love by the Divine wisdom. This you can clearly see, if you consider these facts in due order and in their connexions, by the light which illuminates the perceptions of your understanding. But it should be kept in mind that the love and wisdom, which in God make one, are not love and wisdom in the abstract, but are in Him as substance. For God is the very, sole and consequently prime substance and essence, which is and continues in existence in itself.

sRef John@1 @3 S5′ sRef John@1 @10 S5′ sRef John@1 @1 S5′ [5] All things being created from the Divine love and the Divine wisdom is what is meant by this passage in John:

The Word was with God, and the Word was God; all things were made through Him; and the world was made through Him. John 1:1, 3, 10.

God there means the Divine love, and the Word the Divine truth, or the Divine wisdom. That is why the Word is there called the light; light, when referring to God, means the Divine wisdom.’

At the end of this speech when I was saying good-bye, gleams of light from the sun there came gliding down through the heavens of the angels and entered their eyes, and through them the dwellings of their minds. Under this enlightenment they applauded my speech, and then escorted me into the courtyard; and my earlier companion took me to the house where I was living, and from there went back up to his own community.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 77 77. The second experience.

One morning on waking from sleep, I was meditating in the light of a fine dawn before being fully awake, when I saw through the window what looked like a flash of lightning, and soon afterwards heard what sounded like a peal of thunder. I wondered where it had come from, but I was told from heaven that there were some people near me who were engaged in a furious dispute about God and nature, and the flash of light like lightning and the roaring in the air like thunder were correspondences, which presented the appearance of a battle and clash of arguments, with one side speaking in favour of God, the other of nature.

This spiritual battle had started like this. There were some satans in hell who said to one another: ‘If only we were allowed to talk to the angels in heaven, we should prove to them fully and completely that what they call God, the source of everything, is nature, and God is no more than an expression, unless by it we mean nature.’ Since those satans deeply and whole-heartedly believed that, and were so keen to talk with the angels in heaven, they were permitted to climb out of the mud and darkness of hell, and talk with two angels who came down from heaven. They met in the world of spirits, which lies midway between heaven and hell.

[2] The satans on seeing the angels rushed up to them and shouted in a furious tone: ‘Are you the angels from heaven with whom we can meet to debate God and nature? You call yourselves wise because you acknowledge God, but oh how simple you are! Who has ever seen God? Who understands what God is? Who can comprehend the idea that God rules, and can control the universe and all its parts? Does anyone but the common people and the crowd acknowledge what they cannot see and understand? What is more obvious than that nature is all in all? What else can the eye see but nature? What has the ear ever heard but nature? What else has the nose smelt? What else has the tongue tasted? What else has anyone felt by the touch of his hand or body? Are not the bodily senses our factual witnesses? On their evidence anyone can swear that a thing is so. Is not breathing, which keeps our bodies alive, evidence? What do we breathe but nature? Are not our heads, and yours, in nature? and from where do our thoughts come into our heads but from nature? Take away nature and you cannot think at all.’ Much more was said of the same sort.

[3] On hearing this the angels replied: ‘You talk like that because you are wholly under the influence of the senses. All in hell have their mental ideas so sunk in the bodily senses that they cannot lift their minds above that level. So we forgive you. A life of evil leading to a belief in falsity has so shut off the interiors of your minds that it is impossible for them to be lifted above the sensual level, except in a state where you are distant from the evils of your lives and your false beliefs. For a Satan can understand truth just as well as an angel when he hears it, but he does not retain it, because evil obliterates truth and substitutes falsity. But we observe that you are now in that distanced state, so that you can understand the truth we are telling you. So pay attention to what we are about to say.

‘You lived,’ they said, ‘in the natural world and there you died, and you are now in the spiritual world. Did you know anything before about life after death? Surely you denied its existence and put yourselves on a level with animals. Did you know anything before about heaven and hell, or about light and heat in this world? Or the fact that you are no longer within nature, but above it? For this world and everything in it is spiritual, and the spiritual is so far above the natural that nature, in which you lived, cannot exert the slightest influence on this world. But you, because you believed that nature was a god or goddess, still believe that the light and heat of this world are identical with the light and heat of the natural world; they are not in the slightest, for natural light is here darkness, and natural heat here is cold. Did you know anything about the sun of this world, the source of our light and heat? Did you know that this sun is pure love, and the sun of the natural world is pure fire? That the sun of the world, which is pure fire, is the source from which nature came into and continues in being? And that the sun of heaven, which is pure love, is the source from which life itself, which is love together with wisdom, comes into and continues in being? So nature, which you make into a god or a goddess, is completely lifeless?

[4] ‘You can, if given protection, come up with us to heaven; and we can, if given protection, go down with you into hell. In heaven you will see magnificent and splendid sights, in hell foul and filthy ones. The reason for the difference is that in heaven all worship God, in hell all worship nature. Those magnificent and splendid sights in the heavens are the correspondences of the affections of the love of good and truth; but the foul and filthy sights in hell are correspondences of the affections of the love of evil and falsity. From both these facts you can form a conclusion whether God or nature is all in all.’

To this the satans replied: ‘In our present state we can draw the conclusion from what we have heard that there is a God. But when the delight of evil takes hold of our minds, then we can see nothing but nature.’

[5] The two angels and the satans were standing not far from me, so that I saw and heard them. Around them suddenly I saw a large number of people who had been distinguished by their learning in the natural world. I was surprised to see these learned men standing at one moment next to the angels, at another next to the satans, and applauding the party they stood next to. I was told that their changes of position were changes in their mental states, as they favoured one side or the other; for in their belief they were as inconstant as weathercocks*. ‘And we will tell you a secret,’ they went on. ‘We looked down to earth to see those distinguished for their learning and we found six hundred out of a thousand on the side of nature, and the rest on the side of God. And those who were on God’s side, because they spoke not from the understanding but only repeating what they had been told, kept saying that nature came from God. Keeping on saying a thing from memory or recall, while not at the same time prompted by thought and intelligence, produces the outward look of faith.’

[6] After this the satans were given protection and went up with the two angels into heaven, and saw magnificent and splendid sights. Then being enlightened by the light of heaven they there acknowledged that there is a God, and that nature was created to minister to life, which comes from God; that nature is in itself lifeless and so does nothing of itself, but is acted upon by life. When they had seen these sights and experienced these perceptions, they went down; and as they came down, their love of evil returned and shut off their understanding above, and opened it underneath. Then there appeared above it what looked like a small cloud flashing with hellish fire. The moment their feet touched the earth, the ground yawned open beneath them, and they fell back down to their own kind.

*Latin vertumnus, the name of a god of change, but here apparently used for figures which are constantly changing.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 78 78. The third experience.

The next day an angel came to me from another community in heaven and said, ‘We have heard in our community that because of your thoughts about the creation of the universe you were sent for to a community near ours; and there you gave a lecture on creation, which they applauded and have since taken great pleasure in. Now I am going to show you how animals and plants of every kind were produced by God.’

So he took me into a broad, green plain and said, ‘Look around you.’ I did so and saw birds of the most beautiful colours, some in flight, some sitting on trees and some on the level plucking petals from roses. Among the birds there were also doves and swans. When these had vanished from my sight, I saw not far away flocks of sheep with their lambs, of goats both male and female, and around these flocks I saw herds of cattle with their calves, as well as of camels and mules. In a wood I saw stags* with lofty antlers, as well as unicorns.

When I had seen these, the angel said, ‘Turn to face east.’ There I saw a garden full of fruit trees, oranges, citrons, olives, vines, figs, pomegranates and bushes that produce edible berries.

Then he said, ‘Now look to the south.’ There I saw crops of various kinds of grain, wheat, millet, barley and beans. Around them were flowerbeds full of roses of beautifully variegated colours. To the north there were woods full of chestnuts, palms, limes, planes and other leafy trees.

[2] When I had seen these, the angel said, ‘All the things you have seen are correspondences of the affections of the love on the part of the angels in the neighbourhood;’ and he** told me to which affections each corresponded. ‘Moreover,’ he went on, ‘not only those but all the other sights that present themselves to our eyes are correspondences; for instance, houses, the furniture in them, tables and food, clothes, even gold and silver coins, the diamonds and other precious stones which wives and girls in the heavens wear for their adornment. From all these things we can tell what each person is like in respect of love and wisdom. The contents of our houses, which serve a purpose, remain there constantly; but in the case of those who wander from one community to another, such things change depending upon the company the people are in.

[3] ‘These things have been shown to you so that you can see creation on the scale of the universe reflected in these particular models. For God is love itself and wisdom itself, and His love contains infinite affections, and His wisdom infinite perceptions; all the things to be seen upon earth are correspondences of these affections and perceptions. This is the origin of birds and animals, trees and shrubs, crops and grain, plants and grasses. For God has no extension, but is everywhere in space; so He fills the universe from first to last. Because He is omnipresent, there are such correspondences of the affections of His love and wisdom throughout the natural world. But in our world, which is called the spiritual world, similar correspondences present themselves to those who receive affections and perceptions from God. The difference is that in our world such things are created by God in an instant in accordance with the affections of the angels. But in your world, although their creation is in principle similar, provision has been made for them to be constantly renewed from generation to generation, so that creation is continuous.

[4] ‘The reason why in our world creation is instantaneous, but in your world continued a generation at a time, is that the atmospheres and soils of our world are spiritual, while those of your world are natural. Natural objects have been created to serve as clothing for spiritual ones, just as layers of skin clothe the bodies of men and animals, bark and bast clothe the trunks and branches of trees, the pia mater and dura mater and other membranes clothe the brain, sheathes the nerves, the neurilemata their fibres, and so on. That is why everything in your world remains constant, and is regularly repeated year by year.’

‘Report,’ he added, ‘what you have seen and heard to the inhabitants of your world, seeing that up to now they have been in total ignorance of the spiritual world, and without knowing about it no one can know, nor even guess, that in our world creation is continuous, and was similar in your world too when God created the universe.’

After this our talk turned to various subjects, and at length to hell, where none of the sort of things that exist in heaven are to be seen, but only their opposites, since the affections of the love of its inhabitants, which are longings for evil, are the opposite of the affections of love on the part of the angels in heaven. In company with those in hell, and in general in their deserts, there are to be seen birds of the night, such as bats, tawny and horned owls, as well as wolves, leopards, tigers, rats and mice; also poisonous snakes of every kind, dragons and crocodiles. Where there is a grassy stretch, there is an undergrowth of brambles, nettles, thorns and thistles, and some poisonous plants, which come up and disappear by turns. Then there are to be seen only heaps of stones and marshes full of croaking frogs. All of these things too are correspondences, but as was said before, correspondences of the affections of their love, which are longings for evil. Yet such things are not created there by God, nor were they in the natural world, where similar things come into existence. For all things that God created and creates were and are good. But such things arose on earth together with hell, which was composed of human beings who, by turning away from God, became after death devils and satans. But because these frightful subjects began to distress our ears, we turned our thoughts away from them and recalled instead what we had seen in the heavens.

* The Latin has ‘hinds’.
** The Latin has ‘they’.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 79 79. The fourth experience.

Once when I was thinking about the creation of the universe, some people from the Christian part of the world approached me, who in their time had been among the most famous philosophers and had a reputation for surpassing wisdom. ‘We notice,’ they said, ‘that you are thinking about creation; tell us what is your opinion on that subject.’

‘Tell me first,’ I replied, ‘what is yours.’ ‘My opinion,’ said one of them, ‘is that creation is the work of nature, and that nature therefore created itself, having existed from eternity. A vacuum does not and cannot exist. Yet what is it that we see with our eyes, hear with our ears, smell with our noses and breathe with our lungs, if not nature? Because nature is outside us, it is also within us.’

[2] Another person who heard this said: ‘You speak of nature and regard it as the creator of the universe, but you do not know how nature made the universe; so I will tell you. It twisted itself into vortices which clashed together as clouds do, or like houses collapsing in an earthquake.’ He explained that this collision caused the denser material to come together to form the earth; the more fluid parts separated out and came together to form the seas; and the lighter parts also separated out to form the ether and the air, the lightest of all formed the sun. ‘Have you not seen how when oil, water and dust are mixed together, they spontaneously separate out and arrange themselves in order one above the other?’

[3] Then another listener said: ‘What you say is mere imagination. Everyone knows that the first source of all things was chaos, which in size filled a quarter of the universe. In its midst was fire, with ether around that, and matter around the ether. This chaos split open and the fire burst forth through the cracks, as it does from Etna or Vesuvius, to form the sun. Next the ether expanded and spread around, to form an atmosphere. Finally the remaining matter condensed into a ball, to form the earth. As for the stars, they are merely lights in the expanse of the universe, which arose from the sun and its fire and light. For the sun was at first like an ocean of fire, which to avoid setting fire to the earth threw off from itself shining sparks; these took up their positions in the surroundings and so completed the universe by forming the sky.’

[4] But there was one of the by-standers who said: ‘You are wrong. You think yourselves wise, and I seem to you simple. Yet in my simplicity I have believed, and still do, that the universe was created by God; and because nature is part of the universe, He created it at the same time as the whole of nature. If nature had created itself, would it not have existed from eternity? That is a fine piece of nonsense.’

Then one of the so-called wise men rushed up nearer and nearer to the speaker, and put his left ear to the other’s mouth – his right ear was blocked with what looked like cotton-wool – and asked what he had said. He repeated the same statement, whereupon the man who had come up looked around him to see if any priest was present; he caught sight of one beside the speaker, and then twisted around saying: ‘I too admit that the whole of nature comes from God, but -.’ And he went off, whispering to his companions and saying: ‘I said that because there was a priest present. You and I know that nature comes from nature, and because nature is therefore God, I said that the whole of nature comes from God, but – .’

[5] But the priest, hearing what they were whispering, said: ‘Your wisdom is nothing but philosophy, which has led you astray and shut off the interiors of your minds so completely that no light from God and His heaven can penetrate and bring you enlightenment. You have put the light out. Consider therefore,’ he went on, ‘and decide among yourselves what is the origin of your souls, which are immortal. Do they come from nature, or were they at the same time in that mighty chaos?’

On hearing this the first man went off to his colleagues, to ask their help in solving this knotty problem. They came to the conclusion that the human soul is nothing but ether, and thought is merely a modification of the ether caused by sunlight; and ether is a part of nature. ‘Surely everyone knows,’ they said, ‘that we talk by means of the air? And what is thought but speech in a purer sort of air, which is called ether? That is why thought and speech act as one. Anyone can observe this in children; a child first learns to talk, and then afterwards to talk to himself, and that is thinking. What then can thought be but a modification of the ether? Or what is the sound of speech but a modulation of it? From these considerations we deduce that the thinking soul is part of nature.’

[6] But some of them, while not disagreeing, cast light on the state of the question by saying that souls arose when the ether formed itself into a ball out of that mighty chaos, and then in the highest region divided itself into innumerable individual forms. These are infused into people, when they begin to think by that purer sort of air, and they are then called souls.

Another on hearing this said: ‘I admit that the individual forms made from the ether in its highest region may have been innumerable, but still the number of human beings born from the creation of the world has exceeded the number of forms, so how could those ethereal forms be enough? This has led me to think that the souls which issue from people’s mouths when they die return to the same people again after some thousands of years, so that they embark on and complete a life, similar to their previous one. It is well known that many wise men believe in the transmigration of souls and similar ideas.’ In addition to these there were other guesses flung around, which I pass over as being crazy.

[7] After a short while the priest returned, and the one who had previously spoken about the creation of the universe by God told him their decisions concerning the soul. On hearing these the priest told them: ‘You have spoken exactly as you thought in the world, unaware that you are not any longer in that world but another, which is called the spiritual world. All those who, by convincing themselves of the nature theory, have become immersed in the bodily senses, are not aware that they are no longer in the same world as that in which they were born and brought up. The reason is that there they had a material body, but here a substantial body; and a substantial person sees himself and his companions around him exactly as a material person sees himself and his companions around him, for the substantial is the starting-point of the material. Because you think, see, smell, taste, and speak just as you did in the natural world, you believe that nature here is the same. Yet the nature of this world is as different and remote from that of the former world as the substantial is from the material, or the spiritual from the natural, or what is prior from what is posterior. Because the nature of the world in which you previously lived is comparatively speaking lifeless, so by convincing yourselves of your belief in nature you too have become virtually dead as regards matters which relate to God, heaven and the church, as well as what concerns your souls. Still every person, bad as well as good, can have his understanding raised into the light enjoyed by the angels in heaven; and then he can see that God exists, that there is a life after death, that the human soul is not ethereal and thus of the nature of the material world, but spiritual, and so destined to live for ever. The understanding can enjoy that angelic light, so long as the natural loves are banished which came from the world, favouring it and its nature, and from the body, favouring it and the self*.

[8] At once those loves were banished by the Lord, and they were permitted to talk with angels. From their conversation in that state they perceived the existence of God and that after dying they were living in another world. This made them blush with shame and cry: ‘We were mad, we were mad!’ But since this state was not their own and after a few minutes became tiresome and unwelcome, they turned their backs on the priest and were unwilling to go on listening to him. Thus they reverted to their former loves, which were entirely natural, worldly and bodily. They went off to the left, from one community to another, and eventually reached a road where they caught a whiff of the delights of their own loves, and said: ‘Let us take this road.’ So they went along it, going down until they came to people who delighted in similar loves, and further still. Since their delight consisted in doing evil, and they harmed many on the way, they were thrown into prison and became demons. Then their delight was turned into misery, because they were restrained and prevented from enjoying what had previously delighted them, the behaviour which had formed their nature, by punishment and the fear of punishment.

They asked their companions in that prison whether they were to live like that for ever. Some of those there replied: ‘We have been here for several centuries, and we are to remain for ever and ever, because the nature we acquired in the world cannot be changed or driven out by punishment. When it is driven out by this, it still comes back after a short interval.’

* Latin proprium, the term often used for the unregenerate self.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 80 80. The fifth experience.

Once a satan was given leave to come up from hell together with a woman, and he approached the house where I was. On seeing them I shut the window, but carried on a conversation with them through it. I asked the Satan where he came from, and he said from the company of his own people.

I asked where the woman came from, and he made the same reply. She belonged to the crew of sirens. Their skill is by fantasy to put on every appearance of beauty and every adornment of dress. At one time they assume the beauty of Venus, at another the charm of countenance of a Muse, at another they deck themselves like queens in crowns and robes, and pace in regal fashion leaning on silver staves. Such women in the spiritual world are prostitutes and specialise in fantasy. They induce fantasies by thinking sensually, which blocks any ideas from a more inward mode of thinking.

I asked the Satan if she was his wife. ‘What is a wife?’ he replied. ‘This is a term unknown to me and my community; she is my woman.’ Then she roused her man’s lewdness, a thing these sirens are skilled in doing. On feeling this he kissed her, saying, ‘Oh my Adonis!’

[2] But to more serious matters. I asked the Satan what was his calling. ‘My calling,’ he said, ‘is learning; don’t you see the laurel wreath on my head? ‘This his Adonis had conjured up by her magic arts and put on his head from behind.

‘Since you come from a community,’ I said, ‘where there are schools of learning, tell me what you and your companions believe about God.’ ‘God,’ he replied, ‘is for us the universe, which we also call nature. Simple folk in our country call it the atmosphere, by which they mean the air; but the intelligent mean the atmosphere which is also the ether. God, heaven, angels and the like, the subject of many tales in this world, are idle words and fictions inspired by meteors, which many people here have seen flash before their eyes. Is not everything to be seen upon earth the creation of the sun? Every time it approaches in springtime are not insects born, with and without wings? Does not its heat make birds love each other and reproduce? And does not the earth, warmed by its heat, cause seed to sprout and produce fruits as its offspring? Does this not mean that the universe is God, and nature a goddess, and she as the wife of the universe conceives, bears, rears and nurtures these things?’

[3] I went on to ask what he and his community believed about religion. ‘We who are educated above the ordinary level,’ he replied, ‘look on religion as nothing but a toy for the common people. The sensory and imaginative areas of their minds are surrounded with a sort of aura, in which religious ideas flit about like butterflies in the air. Their faith, which links these ideas into a sort of chain, resembles a silk-worm in its cocoon, from which the king of butterflies flutters forth. For the uneducated masses love images which rise above the bodily senses and the thoughts they engender, because they have a longing to fly. So they make themselves wings, so that they can soar like eagles and show off in front of the earth-bound, saying, ‘Look at me!’ We, however, believe what we see and love what we touch.’ At this he touched his woman, saying, ‘This I believe, because I see and touch it. But we throw all that sort of rubbish out of our windows of mica, and waft it away on a gale of laughter.’

[4] Then I asked his opinion and that of his companions on heaven and hell. He laughed and said: ‘What is heaven but the ethereal firmament on high? What are angels but spots wandering round the sun? What are archangels but comets with their long tails, on which their company lives? What is hell but marshland full of frogs and crocodiles, which their imagination turns into devils? Everything but these ideas of heaven and hell is mere nonsense, thought up by some church dignitary to seek fame among an ignorant populace.’

He said all this exactly as he had thought in the world, unaware that he was living after death, and forgetful of everything he had been told when he first entered the world of spirits. Therefore even when asked about life after death, he replied that it was a figment of the imagination, but there might perhaps be some effluvium given off by the corpse in the grave in shape resembling a person, or something like the ghosts which some tell tales about, and this had led people to fantasise on the subject.

[5] On hearing this I could no longer stop myself bursting out laughing. ‘Satan,’ I said, ‘you really are mad. What are you now? Are you not in shape like a person? Don’t you talk, see, hear and walk? Remember that you lived in another world, which you have forgotten, and now you are alive after death, yet have been speaking exactly as you did before you died.’

He was given back his memory, and on remembering he was ashamed and cried: ‘I am mad. I have seen heaven up above, and heard angels there speak things beyond description. But this was when I was a recent arrival. Now I shall remember this to tell the companions I left behind, and then perhaps they will be ashamed too.’ He had it on the tip of his tongue to call them mad, but as he went down forgetfulness blotted out his memory, so that on arrival he was as mad as they were, and called what I had told him madness.

Such is the state of thought and conversation among satans after death. The name of satans is given to those who have convinced themselves of falsities until they completely believe them, and the name of devils to those who have fostered evils in their characters by living a wicked life.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 81 sRef Luke@1 @76 S0′ sRef Deut@6 @4 S1′ sRef Mark@12 @29 S1′ sRef Mark@12 @30 S1′ sRef Deut@6 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@40 @3 S1′ 81. CHAPTER TWO

THE LORD THE REDEEMER

The previous chapter dealt with God the Creator, and at the same time with creation; this chapter will deal with the Lord the Redeemer, and at the same time with redemption. The following chapter will deal with the Holy Spirit, and at the same time with the way God works. By the Lord the Redeemer we understand Jehovah in the Human; for the following pages will prove that Jehovah Himself came down and assumed human form in order to effect redemption. We say ‘the Lord’ and not ‘Jehovah’ because the Jehovah of the Old Testament is called the Lord in the New Testament, as can be established from the following passages; we read in Moses:

Hear, O Israel, Jehovah our* God is one Jehovah; you shall love Jehovah God with your whole heart and your whole soul. Deut. 6:4, 5.

but in Mark:

The Lord our God is one Lord; you shall love the Lord your God with your whole heart and your whole soul. Mark 12:29, 30.

Also in Isaiah:

Prepare the way for Jehovah, make smooth in the desert a path for our God. Isa. 40:3.

but in Luke:

You shall go before the face of the Lord to prepare the way for Him. Luke 1:76.

and in other passages. The Lord too ordered His disciples to call Him Lord, and He was therefore so called by the Apostles in their Epistles, and later by the Apostolic Church. This is plain from its creed, the so-called Apostles’ Creed. The reason was that the Jews did not dare to name Jehovah on account of His holiness, and because ‘Jehovah’ means the Divine Being (Esse), which existed from eternity, while the Human, which He took upon Himself in time, was not that Being. I showed in the previous chapter (18-26, 27-35) what the Divine Being or Jehovah is. For this reason, here and in what follows by the Lord we understand Jehovah in His Human.

[2] Now since knowledge of the Lord surpasses in excellence all other kinds of knowledge known to the church, or even in heaven, I shall adopt an ordered arrangement to bring that knowledge to light, as follows:

(i) Jehovah, the Creator of the Universe, came down and took upon Himself human form, in order to redeem and save mankind.
(ii) He came down as the Divine Truth, which is the Word, yet He did not separate the Divine Good from it.
(iii) He took upon Himself human form in accordance with His Divine order.
(iv) The Human by which He brought Himself into the world is what is called the Son of God.
(v) The Lord by acts of redemption made Himself righteousness.
(vi) By the same acts He united Himself with the Father, and the Father with Him. This too was in accordance with Divine order.
(vii) Thus God became man, and man God, in one person.
(viii) His progress towards union was His state of exinanition**, and the union itself is His state of glorification.
(ix) From this time on no one from Christian countries can come into heaven, unless he believes in the Lord God the Saviour, and approaches Him alone.

These propositions will be explained one by one.

* So changed in the author’s own copy from ‘your’.
** Or being emptied; see 104.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 82 82. (i) JEHOVAH GOD CAME DOWN AND TOOK UPON HIMSELF HUMAN FORM, IN ORDER TO REDEEM AND SAVE MANKIND.

Christian churches to-day believe that God the Creator of the universe fathered a Son from eternity, who came down and took upon Himself human form to redeem and save mankind. But this is an error and collapses of its own accord, so long as the mind concentrates on the oneness of God, and the reason looks upon as fiction or worse the idea that the one God fathered a Son from eternity, and also that God the Father together with the Son and the Holy Spirit, each of whom is severally God, is one God. This fiction is utterly exploded, like a meteorite in the atmosphere, when it is shown from the Word that it was Jehovah God Himself who came down and became man and also was the Redeemer.

sRef Isa@25 @9 S2′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S2′ sRef Zech@2 @10 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @10 S2′ sRef Matt@1 @23 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @8 S2′ sRef Zech@2 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@7 @14 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S2′ sRef Jer@23 @5 S2′ [2] The first point, that it was Jehovah God Himself who came down and became man, is established by these passages:

Behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, who shall be called God with us. Isa. 7:14; Matt. 1:23.

A boy is born for us, a son is given to us, on whose shoulder the dominion shall be; and his name shall be called Wonderful, God, Hero, the everlasting Father, the Prince of peace. Isa. 9:6, 7.

On that day it will be said, Behold, He is our God, whom we have awaited to free us. He is Jehovah, whom we have awaited. Let us exult and rejoice in His salvation. Isa. 25:9.

The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare the way for Jehovah, make smooth in the desert a path for our God; and all flesh shall see it together. Isa. 40:3, 5.

Behold, the Lord Jehovih comes in strength, and His arm shall bear dominion for Him. Behold, His recompense comes with Him; He will tend His flock like a shepherd. Isa. 40:10, 11.

Jehovah said, Shout for joy and rejoice, daughter of Zion; behold, I come to dwell in your midst; then shall many nations cleave to Jehovah on that day. Zech. 2:10, 11.

I Jehovah have called you in righteousness, and I will give you to be a covenant with the people. I am Jehovah, this is my name; my glory I shall not give to another. Isa. 42:1, 6-8.

Behold, the days will come when I will raise up for David a righteous shoot, who will reign as king and do judgment and righteousness upon earth; and this is His name, Jehovah our righteousness. Jer. 23:5, 6; 33:15, 16.

There are also the passages where the Lord’s coming is called ‘the day of Jehovah’, as Isa. 13:6, 9, 13, 22; Ezek. 31:15; Joel 1:15; 2:1, 2, 11, 29, 31; 3:1, 14, 18; Amos 5:13, 18, 20; Zeph. 1:7-18; Zech. 14:1, 4-21; and elsewhere.

sRef Matt@1 @20 S3′ sRef Luke@1 @34 S3′ sRef Luke@1 @35 S3′ sRef Matt@1 @25 S3′ [3] It is openly stated in Luke that Jehovah Himself came down and took upon Himself human form.

Mary said to the angel, How shall this happen, since I have no knowledge of a man? The angel answered her, The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you, so that the holy thing that is born of you will be called the Son of God. Luke 1:34, 35.

And in Matthew the angel said in a dream to Joseph, who was betrothed to Mary, that that which was born of her was of the Holy Spirit; and Joseph did not know her until she had borne a son, and he called His name Jesus. Matt. 1:20, 25. The Holy Spirit means the Divine which proceeds from Jehovah God, as will be seen in Chapter 3 of this book. Everyone knows that a child gets its soul and life from the father, its body from the mother.* So how could it be more openly stated that the Lord’s soul and life were from Jehovah God, and because the Divine cannot be divided, that the Father’s Divine itself was His soul and life? That is why the Lord so many times called Jehovah God His Father, and Jehovah God called Him His Son. Can anything more ridiculous be said than the idea that our Lord’s soul was from His mother Mary? Yet such is the dream of both Roman Catholics and Protestants to-day, and they have not woken up to what is said in the Word.

* Reading ex matre ‘from the mother’ for ex anima ‘from the soul’, apparently a repetition from the preceding clause, cf. 92:1; 103:1.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 83 sRef Ps@31 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@19 @14 S0′ sRef Isa@54 @8 S0′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S0′ sRef Ps@130 @8 S0′ sRef Hos@13 @4 S0′ sRef Isa@45 @22 S0′ sRef Isa@45 @21 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S0′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S0′ sRef Isa@49 @26 S0′ sRef Isa@43 @11 S0′ sRef Jer@50 @34 S0′ sRef Isa@48 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@130 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@47 @4 S0′ 83. The idea that a Son born from eternity came down and took upon Himself human form collapses as totally erroneous and is exploded on considering the passages from the Word in which Jehovah Himself says that He is the Saviour and Redeemer, as the following:

Am I not Jehovah, and there is no God beside Me? There is no righteous God and Saviour beside Me. Isa. 45:21, 22.

I am Jehovah, and there is no Saviour beside Me. Isa. 43:11.

I am Jehovah your God, and you are not to acknowledge any God beside Me, and there is no Saviour beside Me. Hosea 13:4.

That all flesh may know that I am Jehovah your Saviour and your Redeemer. Isa. 49:26; 60:16.

As for our Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth is His name. Isa. 47:4.

Their Redeemer, the mighty Jehovah Zebaoth is His name. Jer. 50:34.

Jehovah, my rock and my Redeemer. Ps. 19:14.

Thus spoke Jehovah, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am Jehovah your God. Isa. 48:17; 43:14; 49:7.

Thus spoke Jehovah, your Redeemer; I am Jehovah who makes all things, and I alone by Myself. Isa. 44:24.

Thus spoke Jehovah, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth; I am the First and the Last, and there is no God beside me. Isa. 44:6.

You are Jehovah our Father, our Redeemer from of old is your name. Isa. 63:16.

I will take pity with eternal mercy, thus spoke your Redeemer Jehovah. Isa. 54:8. You had redeemed me, Jehovah of truth. Ps. 31:5.

Let Israel hope in Jehovah, for there is mercy with Jehovah, with Him is very much redemption. He shall redeem Israel from all his sins. Ps. 130:7, 8.

Jehovah Zebaoth* is His name, and your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel; He shall be called the God of all the earth. Isa. 54:5.

From these and very many more passages anyone who has eyes, and a mind opened by using his eyes, can see that God, who is one, came down and was made man in order to effect redemption. Can anyone fail to see this as clear as in morning light, so long as he pays attention to those very sayings of God which have been quoted? Those, however, who are plunged in the shades of night as the result of convincing themselves that a second God was born from eternity, and that it was He who came down and redeemed us, close their eyes to those Divine sayings, and ponder with their eyes shut how to pervert them and make them square with their false ideas.

*Corrected in the author’s copy from ‘Jehovah God’ in keeping with the Hebrew; cf. 93.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 84 84. There are many reasons, as will be revealed in due course in the following pages, why God could not redeem mankind, that is, rescue people from hell and damnation, except by taking upon Himself human form. For redemption was the conquest of the hells and the ordering of the heavens, followed by the establishment of a church. This is something that God in His omnipotence could not do except through the Human, just as no one can work unless he has an arm; His Human is actually called in the Word ‘Jehovah’s arm’ (Isa. 40:10; 53:1). Or just as no one can attack a fortified city and destroy the shrines of idols it contains, unless he has adequate means at his disposal. It is plain too from the Word that in this Divine task God’s omnipotence was exercised through His Human. For God, who dwells in the inmost and thus purest parts, can in no other way penetrate to the outermost, in which the hells are, and so too were the people of that time; as, for comparison, the soul can do nothing without the body. Or as someone cannot defeat an enemy without coming in sight of them, or approaching and meeting them with some sort of weapons, such as pikes, shields or muskets. To effect redemption without the Human was as impossible for God as it is for a man to conquer the Indies without ferrying an army there in ships; or as making trees grow solely by supplying heat and light, without creating air to be the medium of their transmission or soil out of which they can grow. Even better, it is as impossible as casting nets in the air to catch fish there, instead of in water. For Jehovah, such as He is in Himself, cannot by His omnipotence lay a finger upon any devil in hell, or any devil on earth, and restrain him and his fury, or tame his violence, unless He is present in last things as He is in first things. He is present in last things in His Human, which is why He is called in the Word the First and the Last, Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 85 sRef John@1 @3 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ 85. (ii) JEHOVAH GOD CAME DOWN AS THE DIVINE TRUTH, WHICH IS THE WORD, YET HE DID NOT SEPARATE THE DIVINE GOOD FROM IT.

There are two factors which make up the essence of God, the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, or, what is the same thing, the Divine Good and the Divine Truth. This dual essence of God was proved above (36-48). The same pair is meant in the Word by Jehovah God; Jehovah means the Divine Love or the Divine Good, God the Divine Wisdom or the Divine Truth. Hence these terms are distinguished in various ways in the Word; at one point only Jehovah is named, at another only God. Where the subject is the Divine Good, the name Jehovah is used, where it is the Divine Truth, God; and where both are meant, He is called Jehovah God. It is evident from John that Jehovah God came down as the Divine Truth, which is the Word:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God; all things were made through Him, and without Him was nothing made that was made. And the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us. John 1:1, 3, 14.

The reason why the Word there means the Divine Truth is that the Word possessed by the church is Divine Truth itself, for it was dictated by Jehovah Himself, and what Jehovah dictates is pure Divine Truth and could not be anything else.

[2] But because the Word passed through the heavens in its descent to the world, it was made suitable for angels in heaven, and for men in the world. So the Word contains a spiritual sense, in which the Divine Truth is illuminated, and a natural sense, in which the Divine Truth is in shadow. So what is meant in John is the Divine Truth in this Word. This is also plain from the Lord’s coming into the world to fulfil everything in the Word. This is why we read so many times that this or that happened to Him ‘that the scripture might be fulfilled.’ Nothing but the Divine Truth too is meant by ‘the Messiah’ or ‘Christ’, or by ‘the Son of Man’, or by ‘the Holy Spirit the Comforter’, which the Lord sent after He left the world. In His transfiguration before the three disciples on the mountain (Matt. chapter 17, Mark chapter 9 and Luke chapter 9), and before John in Revelation (1:12-16), He represented Himself as that Word, as will be seen in the chapter on the Holy Scripture [222].

sRef John@9 @5 S3′ sRef John@12 @36 S3′ sRef John@1 @4 S3′ sRef John@12 @35 S3′ sRef Luke@2 @30 S3′ sRef Luke@2 @31 S3′ sRef John@14 @6 S3′ sRef Luke@2 @32 S3′ sRef John@3 @19 S3′ sRef John@3 @21 S3′ sRef John@1 @9 S3′ sRef 1Joh@5 @20 S3′ [3] It is plain from the Lord’s words that in the world He was the Divine Truth:

I am the way, truth and life. John 14:6.

and:

We know that the Son of God came and gave us understanding so that we might know Him who is true; and we are in Him who is true in His Son Jesus Christ. He is the true God, and everlasting life. 1 John 5:20.

This is also shown by His being called ‘light’, as in these passages, among others:

He was the true light which illuminates every man coming into the world. John 1:4, 9.

Jesus said, For a short while yet the light is with you. Walk so long as you have the light, so that the darkness may not overtake you. So long as you have the light, believe in the light, so that you may be sons of light. John 12:35, 36, 46.

I am the light of the world. John 9:5.

Simeon said, My eyes have seen your salvation, a light to be a revelation to the nations. Luke 2:30-32.

This is the judgment, that the light came into the world; he who does the truth, comes to the light. John 3:19-21.

Light means the Divine Truth.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 86 sRef Ps@45 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S0′ sRef Ps@45 @5 S0′ 86. The reason Jehovah God came down into the world as the Divine Truth was so that He could effect redemption. Redemption was the conquest of the hells, the ordering of the heavens, and afterwards the establishment of a church. To achieve these aims the Divine Good is not powerful enough, but the Divine Truth coming from the Divine Good is. Divine Good regarded in itself is like a rounded point on a sword, or like a blunt piece of wood, or a bow without arrows. But the Divine Truth coming from the Divine Good is like a sharpened sword, and like a piece of wood pointed to make a spear, and like a bow with arrows, all of which are potent against enemies. Swords, spears and bows in the spiritual sense of the Word stand for militant truths; see THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED (52, 299, 436) where this has been proved. There was no other way in which the falsities and evils, in which the whole of hell was and perpetually is plunged, could be attacked, defeated and conquered except through the Divine Truth coming from the Word. There was no other way in which a new heaven could be founded, formed and set in order, as was then done. There was no other way in which a new church could be established on earth. Moreover, all the strength, all the might and power of God belongs to the Divine Truth coming from the Divine Good. This was the reason why Jehovah God came down as the Divine Truth, which is the Word. Therefore it is said in the Psalms of David:

Gird your sword upon your thigh, o mighty one, and go up in your splendour, ride upon the word of truth; your right hand shall teach you wondrous things; sharp are your arrows, your enemies shall fall beneath you. Ps. 45:3-5.

This passage describes the Lord, His combats with the hells and His victories over them.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 87 87. The difference between good without truth and truth coming from good can be clearly seen in the case of man. All his good is located in the will, and all his truth in the understanding; and the will cannot act to the slightest extent as a result of its good, except through the understanding. It cannot act, speak or feel. All its ability and power come through the understanding, consequently through truth, for the understanding is the container and dwelling-place of truth. It is like the way the heart and lungs work in the body. The heart unless accompanied by the breathing of the lungs cannot produce any movement or any sensation, but both of these are the product of the breathing of the lungs proceeding from the heart. This is evident in the loss of consciousness in cases of suffocation or drowning, when the breathing stops, though the systolic action of the heart continues. It is well known that in these cases there is neither movement nor sensation. It is the same with an embryo in the mother’s womb. The reason is that the heart corresponds to the will and the various kinds of good it contains, the lungs to the understanding and the various kinds of truth it contains.

sRef Ps@33 @6 S2′ [2] The power of truth is very clearly to be seen in the spiritual world. An angel who possesses Divine truths from the Lord, even if physically as weak as a child, can still put to rout a crowd of spirits from hell, though they look like the Anakim and Nephilim, that is, like giants, and pursue them down to hell and force them into its caverns; and when they emerge from these they do not dare to approach the angel. Those who possess Divine truths from the Lord behave in that world like lions, though they have no more strength in their bodies than sheep. Likewise, human beings who possess Divine truths from the Lord have power against evils and falsities, and so they have against serried ranks of devils, who regarded as they are in essence are simply evils and falsities. The reason there is such strength in the Divine Truth is that God is Good itself and Truth itself, and He created the universe by means of the Divine Truth; and all the laws of order by which He preserves the universe are instances of truth. This is why it is said in John that ‘all things were made through the Word, and without Him was nothing made that was made’ (John 1:3, 10); and in the Psalms of David:

Through the Word of Jehovah the heavens were made, and through the breath of His mouth the whole company of the heavens. Ps. 33:6.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 88 88. God’s coming down as the Divine Truth but without separating the Divine Good is evident from the Lord’s conception, about which we read that ‘the power of the Most High overshadowed Mary’ (Luke 1:35). The ‘power of the Most High’ means the Divine Good. The same point can be established by the passages in which He says that the Father is in Him and He in the Father; that all things of the Father’s are His; and that He and the Father are one, and many more. ‘Father’ means the Divine Good.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 89 sRef Luke@2 @42 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @47 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @52 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @46 S0′ sRef Luke@2 @40 S0′ 89. (iii) HE TOOK UPON HIMSELF HUMAN FORM IN ACCORDANCE WITH HIS DIVINE ORDER.

It was shown in the section on the Divine omnipotence and omniscience that together with creation God introduced order both into the universe and into all its parts, and that God’s omnipotence therefore functions and works in the universe and all its parts in accordance with the laws of its order; these points were discussed in their proper sequence above (49-74). Now since God came down, and He is order, as was proved in that section, He had, so as to become really man, to be conceived, be carried in the womb, be born, be brought up and learn items of knowledge one by one, and by their means be brought into a state of intelligence and wisdom. Therefore in His Human He was a child like any other child, a boy like any other boy, and so on, the only difference being that He achieved that progress more quickly, fully and perfectly than others. It is evident from this passage in Luke that He advanced thus in accordance with order:

The boy Jesus grew and was strengthened in spirit; and He advanced in wisdom, years and favour with God and men. Luke 2:40, 52.

It is plain that He did this more quickly, fully and perfectly than others from the description the same Evangelist gives of Him, as for instance that, when He was a boy of twelve, He sat and taught in the Temple in the midst of the teachers, and all who heard Him were astonished at His intelligence and His answers (Luke 2:46, 47 and later 4:16-22, 32). This was done because Divine order prescribes that a person should prepare himself to receive God; and as he prepares himself, so God enters into him as into His dwelling and home. That preparation is accomplished by acquiring knowledge about God and the spiritual matters which concern the church, thus by means of intelligence and wisdom. For it is a law of order that in so far as a person approaches and comes near to God, which he should do entirely as if of himself, so far does God approach and come near to him, and link Himself to the person in his midst. It will be shown in the following pages that the Lord advanced in accordance with this order until He reached union with His Father.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 90 90. People who are not aware that Divine omnipotence proceeds and works in accordance with order can be led by their imagination to form many ideas contrary to sound reason, and even contradictory ones. For instance, why did God not take upon Himself human form immediately, without advancing through these stages? Why did He not gather the elements from the four quarters of the world to create and make up a body, so that He could display Himself as God-Man to the Jewish people, or rather to the whole world? Or, if He wished to be born, why did He not pour His whole divinity into the embryo or Himself as a child; or why did He not at once after being born raise Himself to adult stature, and speak from Divine Wisdom? Those who think about Divine omnipotence devoid of order, may conceive and bring forth these and similar ideas, and so fill the church with nonsense and rubbish; which is what has happened. For instance, the idea that God could have fathered a Son from eternity, and arranged for a third God to proceed even at that point in time from Himself and His Son. Or that He could become angry with the human race, consign it to destruction, and be willing to be brought back to pitying it through the Son, and to do this through His intercession and the memory of His crucifixion; [2] and then go on to put His Son’s righteousness into a person, and plant it in his heart like Wolff’s* simple substance, in which according to that author all the Son’s merits are present, but which cannot be divided, since if it were, it would collapse to nothing. Or further that He can remit anyone’s sins He wishes, as it were by a Papal bull, or cleanse the worst sinner from his black wickedness, and thus turn a swarthy devil into a shining angel of light, without a person shifting himself any more than a stone, but standing still like a statue or an idol. Not to mention many other crazy notions, which those who set up Divine power as absolute, unhindered by the knowledge or acknowledgment of any order, may toss out like a winnower tossing chaff into the air. These people may in spiritual matters, those, that is, which concern heaven, the church and so everlasting life, stray from Divine truths like a blind man in a wood, who at one time stumbles over rocks, at another hits his forehead on a tree, at another gets his hair entangled in its branches.

* Christian Wolff (1679-1754), a follower of Leibnitz.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 91 91. Divine miracles also took place in accordance with Divine order, but in accordance with the way the spiritual world acts upon the natural world. No one up to now has known anything about this order, because of the general ignorance about the spiritual world. The nature of this order will be demonstrated in due course, when we come to Divine miracles and miracles worked by magic.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 92 92. (iv) THE HUMAN BY WHICH HE BROUGHT HIMSELF INTO THE WORLD IS THE SON OF GOD.

The Lord said on many occasions that the Father sent Him and that He was sent by the Father; e.g. Matt. 10:40; 15:24; John 3:17, 34; 5:23, 24, 36-38; 6:29, 39, 40, 44, 57; 7:16, 18, 28, 29; 8:16, 18, 29, 42; 9:4; and very many other passages. He said this because by ‘being sent into the world’ is meant coming down and mixing with human beings; this He did by means of the Human, which He took upon Himself by means of the Virgin Mary. The Human too is really the Son of God, because it was conceived of Jehovah God as the Father (as is stated by Luke 1:32, 35). The Human is called the Son of God, the Son of Man and the Son of Mary; by the Son of the God is meant Jehovah God in His Human, by the Son of Man the Lord as to the Word, and by the Son of Mary the actual human which He took upon Himself. It will be proved in the following pages that these are the meanings of the Son of God and the Son of Man; that the Son of Mary means His purely human nature is evident from the reproduction of human beings, where the soul comes from the father and the body from the mother. The father’s semen contains the soul, and this is clothed with a body in the mother’s womb. To put it another way, everything spiritual a person has is from his father, everything material from his mother.

sRef Mal@3 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@63 @9 S2′ [2] In the case of the Lord, what was Divine in Him was from His Father Jehovah, and His human was from His mother; the union of these two is the Son of God. This is clearly proved from the account of the Lord’s birth, of which we read in Luke:

The angel Gabriel said to Mary, The Holy Spirit shall come upon you, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow you; therefore the holy thing that shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God. Luke 1:35.

The Lord also described Himself as ‘sent by the Father’ because ‘sent’ has a similar meaning to ‘angel’, for angel in the language of the original means one who is sent. For it is said in Isaiah:

The angel of Jehovah’s faces* has set them free, on account of His love and mercy He has redeemed them. Isa. 63:9.

And in Malachi:

Suddenly the Lord whom you seek shall come to his temple, and also the messenger of the covenant, whom you long for. Mal. 3:1.

There are other similar passages elsewhere. It will be seen in Chapter 3 of this book that the Divine Trinity, God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, is in the Lord, and that the Father in Him is the originating Divine, the Son the Divine Human and the Holy Spirit the emanating Divine.

* The Latin here follows the Hebrew in using the plural.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 93 sRef Jer@51 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@45 @11 S0′ sRef Dan@4 @13 S0′ sRef Dan@4 @23 S0′ sRef Isa@17 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@10 @20 S1′ sRef Isa@12 @6 S1′ sRef Ps@78 @41 S1′ sRef Isa@47 @4 S1′ sRef Isa@43 @1 S1′ sRef Hab@3 @3 S1′ sRef Isa@43 @3 S1′ sRef Isa@30 @12 S1′ sRef Isa@30 @11 S1′ sRef Isa@1 @4 S1′ sRef Isa@49 @7 S1′ sRef Isa@29 @19 S1′ sRef Isa@5 @19 S1′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S1′ 93. Since the angel Gabriel said to Mary, ‘The holy thing that shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God,’ passages will be quoted from the Word to prove that the Lord in His Human is called the Holy One of Israel.

I was seeing in visions; and behold, a watcher, a Holy One, coming down from heaven. Dan. 4:13, 23.

God shall come from Teman, the Holy One from Mount Paran. Hab. 3:3.

I am Jehovah the Holy One, the Creator of Israel, your Holy One. Isa. 43:14, 15.

Thus spoke Jehovah, the Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One. Isa. 49:7.

I am Jehovah your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Saviour. Isa. 43:1, 3.

As for our Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth is His name, the Holy One of Israel. Isa. 47:4.

Jehovah your Redeemer said, the Holy One of Israel. Isa. 43:14; 48:17.

Jehovah Zebaoth is His name, and your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel. Isa. 54:5.

They tested God and the Holy One of Israel. Ps. 78:41.

They have abandoned Jehovah, and provoked the Holy One of Israel. Isa. 1:4.

They said, Make the Holy One of Israel depart from our faces; therefore thus spoke the Holy One of Israel. Isa. 30:11, 12.

Who say, Let Him hasten His work that we may see it, and let the purpose of the Holy One of Israel come near and be present. Isa. 5:19.

On that day they shall lean upon Jehovah, the Holy One of Israel, in truth. Isa. 10:20.

Cry out and triumph, inhabitant of Zion, for great in your midst is the Holy One of Israel. Isa. 12:6.

The word of the God of Israel, On that day his eyes shall look towards the Holy One of Israel. Isa. 17:6, 7.

The needy among men shall exult in the Holy One of Israel. Isa. 29:19; 41:16.

The earth is full of guilt against the Holy One of Israel. Jer. 51:5.

See also Isa. 55:5; 60:9 and elsewhere.

sRef Luke@1 @35 S2′ [2] By ‘the Holy One of Israel’ is meant the Lord as to His Divine Human, for the angel said to Mary:

The holy thing that shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God. Luke 1:35.

Although Jehovah and the Holy One of Israel are mentioned separately, it is clear that they are one and the same, as is shown also by the passages quoted here, which prove that the Holy One of Israel is Jehovah. There are numerous passages to show that the Lord is called the God of Israel: for example, Isa. 17:6; 21:10, 17; 24:15; 29:23; Jer. 7:3; 9:15; 11:3; 13:12; 16:9; 19:3, 15; 23:2; 24:5; 25:15, 27; 29:4, 8, 21, 25; 30:2; 31:23; 32:14, 15, 36; 33:4; 34:2, 13; 35:13, 17, 18, 19; 37:7; 38:17; 39:16; 42:9, 15, 18; 43:10; 44:2, 7, 11, 25; 48:1; 50:18; 51:33; Ezek. 8:4; 9:3; 10:19, 20; 11:22; 43:2; 44:2; Zeph. 2:9; Ps. 41:13; 59:5; 68:8.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 94 94. It is common practice in to-day’s Christian churches to call the Lord our Saviour the Son of Mary, but only rarely the Son of God, unless that is, they mean the Son of God born from eternity. This is because the Roman Catholics have made Mary, His mother, greater than all the other saints, and set her above all their saints as if she were a goddess or a queen. The truth is that when the Lord glorified His Human, He put off everything of His mother’s, and put on everything of His Father’s, as will be fully proved in the following sections of this book. This common practice, when His title as Son of Mary is on everyone’s tongue, has been responsible for introducing many erroneous notions into the church, especially with those who have not allowed their judgment to be swayed by what the Word says about the Lord; for instance, that the Father and He are one, that He is in the Father and the Father in Him; that all things of the Father’s are His; that He called Jehovah His Father, and Jehovah the Father called Him His Son. The erroneous notions, which have invaded the church as the result of calling Him the Son of Mary instead of the Son of God, are that the idea of divinity is destroyed when thinking of the Lord, and this leads to the loss of all the statements in the Word about Him as the Son of God. Also, this leads to the introduction of Judaism, Arianism, Socinianism, and the original form of Calvinism; and finally to nature-worship, accompanied by the fantastic idea that He was the Son of Mary by Joseph, and that His soul came from His mother, so that He is called the Son of God without being so. Everyone, clergy as well as layman, ought to ask himself whether he has formed and fosters any other idea about the Lord as the Son of Mary except as an ordinary man.

[2] Since an idea of this sort had already become prevalent among Christians in the fourth century with the rise of the Arian heresy, the Council of Nicaea, in order to claim divinity for the Lord, invented the dogma of the Son of God born from eternity. This invention at the time raised the Lord’s Human to the Divine level, and this still has the same effect for many to-day. It did not, however, have this result for those who understand by hypostatic union a union between two, one of whom is above and the other below. What else can result from such a belief but the destruction of the whole Christian church, the sole foundation of which is the worship of Jehovah in the Human, that is to say, it is based on God-Man? The Lord states in many passages that no one can see the Father, nor know Him, nor come to Him, nor believe in Him, except through His Human. If this is not so, all the noble seed of the church is turned into worthless seed, the seed of the olive into the seed of the pine, the seed of the orange, citron, apple and pear into the seed of the willow, elm, lime and holm-oak, the vine into a marsh reed, wheat and barley into chaff. All spiritual food in fact becomes like the dust that snakes eat. In the case of man, spiritual light becomes first natural, and finally sensual and bodily, a light which regarded in itself is delusive. A person then in fact becomes like a bird which has its wings clipped while flying high, and falls to the ground; once on the ground it can only walk and see around it what lies before its feet. Then a person’s thoughts about the spiritual side of the church, all the things that favour everlasting life, resemble the ravings of a clown. All this is the result of a person regarding the Lord God, the Redeemer and Saviour, as only the Son of Mary, that is, nothing but a man.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 95 sRef Isa@9 @7 S0′ sRef Matt@3 @15 S0′ sRef Jer@23 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@1 @27 S0′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S0′ 95. (v) THE LORD BY ACTS OF REDEMPTION MADE HIMSELF RIGHTEOUSNESS.

The Christian churches to-day say and believe that merit and righteousness belong to the Lord alone through the obedience He showed to God the Father, while He was in the world, in particular by His passion on the cross. But they have assumed that suffering the cross was itself the act of redemption; yet that was not it, but the act of glorifying His Human, a subject which will be discussed in the following section on redemption. The acts of redemption by which the Lord made Himself righteousness were His carrying out of the last judgment, which took place in the spiritual world. He then separated the wicked from the good and the goats from the sheep, expelling from heaven those who made common cause with the beasts of the dragon. From the worthy He founded a new heaven, from the unworthy a new hell; and by stages He brought everything everywhere back into order, and in addition He established a new church. These were the acts of redemption by which the Lord made Himself righteousness; for righteousness consists in doing everything in accordance with Divine order, and restoring everything which had slipped out of order. Divine order itself is righteousness. This is the meaning of these words of the Lord:

It is appropriate for me to fulfil all the righteousness of God. Matt. 3:15.

Also these passages in the Old Testament:

Behold, the days will come when I will raise up for David a righteous shoot, who will reign as king and do righteousness upon the earth; and this is his name, Jehovah our righteousness. Jer. 23:5, 6; 33:15, 16.

I speak in righteousness, mighty to save. Isa. 63:1.

He shall sit upon the throne of David to establish it in judgment and righteousness. Isa. 9:7.

Zion shall be redeemed in righteousness. Isa. 1:27.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 96 sRef Matt@5 @20 S1′ sRef Matt@13 @49 S1′ sRef Matt@5 @10 S1′ 96. The leaders of the church in our time have a quite different description of the Lord’s righteousness, and regard its impress on a man’s faith as the key to salvation. Yet the truth is that the Lord’s righteousness, being of such a nature and origin that it is purely Divine, could not be linked with any person, so that it could not cause anyone to be saved, any more than the Divine life can, which is the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom. The Lord enters into every person with these, but unless that person lives in accordance with order, though he has that life within him, it contributes nothing to his salvation, giving him merely the ability to understand truth and to do good. Living in accordance with order is living in accordance with God’s commandments. When a person so lives and acts, he acquires righteousness for himself, not the righteousness that comes from the Lord’s redeeming, but the Lord Himself as righteousness. These are the people described by the following passages, as well as others.

Unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of the heavens. Matt. 5:20.

Blessed are those who undergo persecution for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. Matt. 5:10.

At the completion of the age angels will go forth and separate the wicked from out of the midst of the righteous. Matt. 13:49.

The righteous in the Word mean those who have lived in accordance with Divine order, since Divine order is righteousness.

[2] Righteousness itself, which by His redeeming acts the Lord became, cannot be ascribed to, impressed on, fitted on or linked with a person, otherwise than light to the eye, sound to the ear, will to the muscles of one who acts, thought to the lips of the speaker, air to the breathing lungs, heat to the blood, and so on. Anyone can see for himself that these things have an effect and are accessory without being linked to the organ. But righteousness is acquired the more a person applies it, and he applies righteousness, the more the love of what is right and true inspires his dealings with his neighbour. Righteousness dwells in the actual good, or the actual service, which he performs. For the Lord says that every tree is recognised by its fruit. We recognise another person by his actions, if we pay attention to the end and purpose of what he wills, and the intention or cause behind his actions. This is what all the angels observe, and so do all the wise people in our world. In general, every plant and shoot the earth puts forth is recognised by its flower and seed, and the service which its seed performs; likewise every metal by its worth, every stone by its quality, every piece of ground by its, every food by its, every land animal and every bird of the air by its. Why not man too? The quality and origins of a person’s actions will be disclosed in the chapter on faith [336-391].

TCR (Chadwick) n. 97 97. (vi) BY THE SAME ACTS THE LORD UNITED HIMSELF WITH THE FATHER, AND THE FATHER WITH HIM.

The reason why the union took place through redeeming acts was that the Lord performed them by His Human; and as He did so, the Divine meant by the Father came closer, helped and worked with Him, until eventually they so joined themselves that they were not two but one. This union is glorification, which will be described in the following pages.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 98 sRef John@13 @20 S1′ 98. It is in fact a tenet of belief in the church to-day, and also supported from the Word, that the Father and the Son, that is, the Divine and the Human, are united in the Lord like the soul and the body. Yet there are scarcely five in a hundred, or fifty in a thousand, who know this. The reason is the doctrine of justification by faith alone, so zealously propagated by many of the clergy, who seek a reputation for learning for the sake of honours and preferment, to such a point that that doctrine occupies and besets every point in their minds. Because it has made their thoughts drunk, just as the spirits of wine called alcohol, they have, like drunkards, failed to see this most essential tenet of the church, that Jehovah God came down and took human form. Yet that union is the sole means by which man is linked to God, and by being so linked is saved. It is evident that salvation depends upon the knowledge and acknowledgment of God, if anyone considers that God is all in all in heaven, and so all in all in the church, and therefore all in all in theology.

sRef John@16 @15 S2′ sRef John@8 @19 S2′ sRef John@10 @30 S2′ sRef John@1 @18 S2′ sRef John@14 @9 S2′ sRef Matt@28 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S2′ sRef John@17 @2 S2′ [2] Here I shall first prove that the union of the Father and the Son, that is, the Divine and the Human in the Lord, is like the union of soul and body; and, secondly, that this is a reciprocal union. The concept of a union as of the soul and the body has been established in the Athanasian Creed, which is accepted throughout the Christian world as the doctrine concerning God. In it we read as follows:

Our Lord Jesus Christ is God and Man; and although He is God and Man, they are not two, but one Christ. He is one, because the Divine took to itself a human. Indeed He is altogether one and is one Person, for as the soul and the body are one man, so God and Man are one Christ.

This is understood to mean that this is a union between the Son of God from eternity and the Son born in time; but because God is one and not three, so long as that union is understood to be with the one God from eternity, the doctrine agrees with the Word. There we read that He was conceived of Jehovah the Father (Luke 1:34, 35); and that was the source of His soul and life. This is why He says that He and the Father are one (John 10:30); that he who sees and knows Him sees and knows the Father (John 14:9); ‘if you knew Me, you would also know My Father’ (John 8:19); ‘he who receives Me, receives Him who sent Me’ (John 13:20); that He is in the Father’s bosom (John 1:18); that all things whatsoever the Father has are His (John 16:15); that He is called the everlasting Father (Isa. 9:6); that He thus has power over all flesh (John 17:2), and all power in heaven and on earth (Matt. 28:18). From these and many other passages in the Word it can be clearly seen that the union between the Father and the Son is like that between the soul and the body. For this reason too He is often called in the Old Testament Jehovah, Jehovah Zebaoth, and Jehovah the Redeemer (see 83 above).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 99 sRef John@14 @10 S1′ sRef John@17 @10 S1′ sRef John@10 @38 S1′ sRef John@17 @21 S1′ sRef John@14 @11 S1′ 99. This union is reciprocal, as is clearly established by the following passages in the Word:

Philip, do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? Believe me, I am in the Father and the Father is in me. John 14:10, 11

That you may know and believe, that the Father is in me and I in the Father. John 10:36, 38,

That all may be one, as you, Father, are in me, and I in you. John 17:21.

Father, all that is mine is yours, and all that is yours is mine. John 17:10.

The union is reciprocal, because no union or link is possible between two people unless each approaches the other. Every link throughout heaven, throughout the world and in the whole human personality, is entirely due to the reciprocal approach of each to the other, leading to a mutual identity of will. This produces similarity and sympathy, unanimity and agreement in every detail on each side.

[2] Such is the reciprocal link between soul and body in each individual; such is the link between a person’s spirit and the sensory and motor organs of his body; such is the link between the heart and the lungs; such is the link between the will and the understanding; such is the link between all the members and viscera of the human body in themselves and with each other; such is the link between the minds of all who love each other deeply, for it is engraved upon every form of love and friendship, since love wants to love and be loved. There is a reciprocal link between all the things in the world which are indissolubly joined. There is a similar link between the heat of the sun and the heat of wood or stone, between the vital heat and the heat of all the fibres of living creatures. There is a similar link between the ground* and the root, and through the root with the tree, and through the tree with the fruit; there is a similar link between the magnet and the iron, and so on. If the link were not produced by a reciprocal and mutual approach of one to the other, it would be merely an outward and not an inward linking; and this in time falls apart of itself, sometimes so that the partners no longer recognise each other.

* The Latin has, apparently in error, ‘the tree’.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 100 sRef John@15 @4 S0′ sRef Rev@3 @20 S0′ sRef John@6 @56 S0′ sRef John@15 @5 S0′ 100. Now because no linking is possible unless there is a mutual and reciprocal bond, the link between the Lord and man is no different, as is obvious from the following passages, among others:

He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me and I in him. John 6:56.

Remain in me, and I in you. He who remains in me and I in him bears much fruit. John 15:4, 5.

If anyone opens the door, I will come into him and dine with him, and he with me. Rev. 3:20.

This link is produced by a person approaching the Lord and the Lord approaching him. For it is a fixed and immutable law that the Lord approaches a person to the extent that he approaches the Lord. This subject will be discussed further in the chapters on charity and faith.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 101 101. (vii) THUS GOD BECAME MAN, AND MAN GOD, IN ONE PERSON. It follows that Jehovah God became man and man became God in one person as the consequence of all the previous propositions in this chapter, and particularly these two: Jehovah the Creator of the universe came down and took upon Himself human form, in order to redeem and save mankind (see above 82-84); and the Lord by redeeming acts united Himself with the Father, and the Father reciprocally and mutually united Himself with the Lord (see above 97-100). That reciprocal union makes it obvious that God became man and man God in one person. The same consequence follows from the union of each resembling the union of soul and body; this is in agreement with the faith of the church to-day as stated in the Athanasian Creed (see 98 above). It is also in agreement with the faith of the Evangelical churches as stated in their leading book of orthodoxy known as the Formula of Concord. In this the doctrine is strongly supported both from Holy Scripture and from patristic literature, as well as by arguments, that Christ’s human nature was raised to Divine majesty, omnipotence and omnipresence; also that in Christ man is God and God is man (see pp. 607, 765 of that book).

sRef Ps@2 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@2 @12 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S2′ sRef Colo@2 @9 S2′ sRef Ps@2 @7 S2′ sRef 1Joh@5 @20 S2′ sRef Ps@2 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@110 @1 S2′ [2] Moreover it has been proved in the present chapter that Jehovah God in respect of His Human is called in the Word Jehovah, Jehovah God, Jehovah Zebaoth*, as well as the God of Israel. Therefore Paul says that in Jesus Christ all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily (Col. 2:9); and John says that Jesus Christ the Son of God is the true God and everlasting life (1 John 5:20). The Son of God in its true sense means His Human (see 92ff above). Moreover Jehovah God calls both Himself and His Son Lord, for we read:

The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand. Ps. 110:1.

and in Isaiah:

A child is born for us, a son is given to us, whose name is God, the everlasting Father. Isa. 9:6, 7.

Son also means the Lord in respect of His Human in the Psalms of David:

I will bring news of a decree, said Jehovah. You are my son, to-day have I begotten you. Kiss the son, so that he may not be angry and so that you do not perish on the way. Ps. 2:7, 12.

This does not mean a Son from eternity, but the Son born in the world, for it is a prophecy of the Lord’s coming. This is why it is called a decree, news of which Jehovah gave to David. Earlier in that Psalm it says:

I have anointed my King over Zion. Ps. 2:6.

and later:

I will give him the nations for an inheritance. Ps. 2:8.

This proves that ‘to-day’ does not mean from eternity, but in time, for with Jehovah the future is present.

* Or ‘the Lord of Hosts’.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 102 sRef John@2 @3 S1′ sRef John@2 @4 S1′ sRef John@19 @27 S1′ sRef John@19 @26 S1′ 102. The current belief of Christians is that the Lord as far as His Human is concerned not only was, but is, the Son of Mary, but this is a delusion. It is true that He was the Son of Mary, but not that He still is, since by His redeeming actions He put off the human He had from His mother and put on the Human from His Father. That is why the Lord’s Human is Divine, and in Him God is man and man God. It can also be seen that He put off the human from His mother and put on the Human from his Father, that is, the Divine Human, by noticing that He never called Mary His mother, as is evident from the following passages:

Jesus’ mother said to Him, They have no wine. Jesus said to her, What have I to do with you, woman? My hour has not yet come. John 2:3, 4.

and elsewhere:

Jesus from the cross saw His mother and the disciple whom He loved standing next to her. He says to His mother, Woman, behold your son; then He says to the disciple, Behold your mother. John 19:26, 27.

and on one occasion He did not acknowledge her:

People reported to Jesus, saying, Your mother and your brothers are standing outside and want to see you. In answer Jesus said, My mother and my brothers are those who hear the Word of God and do it. Luke 8:20, 21; Matt. 12:46-50; Mark 3:31-35.

So the Lord did not call her mother, but woman, and He gave her to be a mother to John. In other passages she is called His mother, but never by the Lord himself.

sRef Matt@22 @41 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S2′ sRef Matt@22 @43 S2′ sRef Matt@22 @42 S2′ sRef Luke@8 @20 S2′ sRef Luke@8 @21 S2′ sRef Matt@22 @44 S2′ sRef Matt@22 @46 S2′ sRef Matt@22 @45 S2′ [2] This is also proved by the fact that He did not acknowledge Himself to be the Son of David, for we read in the Gospels:

Jesus asked the Pharisees, saying, What is your opinion of the Christ? Whose son is he? They say to Him, David’s. He said to them, How then does David call him in spirit his Lord, saying, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies the footstool for your feet? If then David calls Him Lord, how is He his son? And no one could say a word in reply to Him. Matt. 22:41-46; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 20:41-44; Ps. 110:1.

sRef Rev@1 @8 S3′ sRef Rev@22 @13 S3′ sRef Rev@22 @12 S3′ sRef Rev@1 @17 S3′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S3′ sRef Rev@1 @11 S3′ [3] Here I shall add something new.

I was once allowed to speak with Mary the mother of Jesus. She happened to be passing, and appeared in heaven above my head, dressed in white garments that looked like silk. Then she paused for a moment to say that she had been the Lord’s mother, and He was born to her, but became God putting off everything human He had from her, and she therefore worships Him as her God, and she did not want anyone to acknowledge Him as her Son, because all the Divine is in Him.

The truth now shines out from these statements, that Jehovah is thus man in first things as in last, as it is written:

I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, He who is, who was and who is to come, the Almighty. Rev. 1:8, 11.

John, on seeing the Son of Man in the midst of the seven lampstands, fell at His feet as if dead. But He laid His right hand upon him, saying, I am the first and the last. Rev. 1:13, 17; 21:6.

Behold, I come quickly, to give to each according to his deeds. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last. Rev. 22:12, 13.

Also in Isaiah:

Thus spoke Jehovah, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth, I am the first and the last. Isa. 44:6; 48:12.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 103 103. To this I shall add a revelation, that the soul which comes from the father is the person himself, and the body which comes from the mother, is not in itself the person, but a product of the person. This is merely its covering, woven of substances from the natural world, while the soul is of substances from the spiritual world. After death every person lays aside the natural which he got from his mother, and keeps the spiritual which he had from his father, together with a sort of fringe (limbus) around it composed of the purest natural substances. In the case of those who come into heaven this fringe is below with the spiritual side uppermost; with those who come into hell, the fringe is uppermost and the spiritual side is below. That is why a human angel receives what he says from heaven, so that it is good and true, but a human devil receives what he says from hell when he speaks from the heart, as he does in private, but as if from heaven when he speaks with the lips only, as he does in public.

[2] Since a person’s soul is his very self, and by its origin the soul is spiritual, it is clear why the father’s mind, attitude, character, inclination and affection of love live on in one descendant after another, and show up from one generation to the next. That is why many families, even whole nations, are recognisable likenesses of their ancestor; there is a shared type which shows up in the faces of each of his descendants, and this is only changed by the spirituality of the church. The type shared by Jacob and Judah still lives on in their descendants, allowing them to be distinguished from others, because down to the present day they have kept strictly to their religion. For in the seed from which each individual is conceived there is a shoot or cutting of the father’s soul in all its completeness, wrapped in a covering of natural elements. These control the formation of the body in the mother’s womb, where it may take on a resemblance to the father or the mother, though the father’s type remains in it and constantly strives to come out. So if it is unable to do so in the first generation, it achieves this in subsequent ones.

[3] The reason why the father’s type in all its completeness is in the seed is that, as already said, the soul is in origin spiritual, and the spiritual has nothing in common with space, so it can be reproduced in a small compass just as well as on a large scale. As for the Lord, when He was in the world, He put off by redeeming acts all the human He had from His mother, and put on the Human from the Father, that is, the Divine Human. That is why it is that in Him man is God and God is man.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 104 sRef Isa@53 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@27 @46 S0′ 104. (viii) HIS PROGRESS TOWARDS UNION WAS HIS STATE OF EXINANITION, AND THE UNION ITSELF IS HIS STATE OF GLORIFICATION.

It is well known in the church that when the Lord was in the world He underwent two states, which are known as exinanition and glorification. The earlier state, that of exinanition, is described in many passages of the Word, especially in the Psalms of David, and also in the Prophets, in detail in Isaiah chapter 53, where we read that He emptied His soul to the point of death (Isa. 53:12). This same state is that of His humility before the Father, for in that state He prayed to the Father, and says that He is doing the Father’s will, and He ascribes all that He did and said to the Father. His praying to the Father is evident from these passages: Matt. 26:39, 42*; Mark 1:35; 6:46; 14:32-39; Luke 5:16; 6:12; 22:41-44; John 17:9, 15, 20. His doing the Father’s will: John 4.34; 5:30. His ascribing to the Father all that He did and said: John 8:26-28; 12:49, 50; 14:10. Indeed, He cried out on the cross: ‘My God, my God, why are you abandoning me?’ (Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34). Moreover, if He had not been in this state, He could not have been crucified.

The state of glorification is the state of being united. He was in this state when He was transfigured before His three disciples, and when He performed the miracles, and each time He said that the Father and He were one, that the Father was in Him and He in the Father, and that all things of the Father’s were His. After their complete union He said that He had power over all flesh (John 17:2); and all power in heaven and upon earth (Matt. 28:18), and much besides.

* The reference given in the Latin text (Matt. 17:43) is wrong, but how it should be corrected is not certain.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 105 105. The Lord had to undergo these two states of exinanition and glorification because progress towards union is not possible by any other way, since it is in accordance with Divine order, and this is immutable. Divine order requires that a person should adjust himself to receive God, and prepare himself as a receiver and dwelling-place for God to enter into and live as in His temple. This a person must do of himself while still acknowledging that it is from God. He must make this acknowledgment, because he does not feel the presence and working of God, although it is God who by His intimate presence performs all the good of love and all the truth of faith in a person. Every person must and will advance in accordance with this order, if he is to become spiritual instead of natural. The Lord advanced in the same way in order to make His natural human Divine; it was for this reason that He prayed to the Father, did His will, attributed to Him all that He did and said, and on the cross uttered the words ‘My God, my God, why are you abandoning me?’ For in that state God appears to be absent. But after this state comes another, which is a state of being linked with God. In this state a man behaves in the same way, but then does so from God; nor does he then need, as he did previously, to attribute to God all the good which he wills and does, and all the truth which he thinks and speaks, because this acknowledgment is written on his heart, and consequently is inwardly in every action he does and every word he utters. In the same way the Lord united Himself with His Father, and the Father united Himself with Him; in short, the Lord glorified His Human, that is, made it Divine, in just the same way as He regenerates a person, that is, makes him spiritual. [2] Every person who becomes spiritual instead of natural passes through two states, the first of which leads to the second, and so from the world to heaven, as will be fully proved in the chapters on free will, charity and faith, reformation and regeneration. All I shall say here is that in the first state, that called reformation, a person has full freedom to act as his understanding argues; and in the second, the state of regeneration, he has the same freedom, but he then wills and acts, thinks and speaks under the influence of a new love and a new intelligence, which are given him by the Lord. For in the first state the understanding plays the leading role and the will the second, in the second state the will plays the leading role and the understanding the second. But still it is the understanding which acts from the will, not the will which acts by means of the understanding. The linking of good and truth, charity and faith, and the internal and external man, takes place in exactly the same way.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 106 106. These two states are represented by various things in the natural universe. The reason is that they are in accordance with Divine order, and this pervades every single thing in the universe, down to the smallest detail. The first state is represented in the life of every person by his infancy and childhood, until he becomes a youth, adolescent and young man. This state is marked by humility before his parents, obedience, and being instructed by masters and underlings. The second state is represented by the same person’s state when he becomes his own master, can make his own decisions, or follow his own will and his own understanding; at this stage he has control in his own house.

The first state then is represented by the state of a prince, a king’s or duke’s son, before he becomes king or duke. Likewise by the state of any citizen, before he becomes a magistrate; or of any subject before he becomes an official; or of any student who is being trained for the ministry before he becomes a priest, and then his state before he becomes a pastor, and then before he becomes a bishop; or of any young woman before she becomes a wife, or of any serving girl before she becomes mistress of a household. Generally speaking, it is the state of any apprentice before he becomes a merchant, any soldier before he becomes an officer, any servant before he becomes head of a household. The first state of these people is that of being a servant, the second that of following one’s own will, and so one’s own understanding.

sRef John@8 @36 S2′ sRef Ex@21 @6 S2′ [2] There are also various representations of these two states in the animal kingdom. The first is represented by animals and birds so long as they are tended by their parents, follow them constantly, and are fed and guided by them; the second when they leave their parents and look after themselves. Likewise with caterpillars, the first state is when they crawl and feed on leaves, the second when they slough their cases and become butterflies. There are also representations of these two states in things of the vegetable kingdom: the first when a plant springs up from seed, and decks itself out with branches, boughs and leaves; the second when it bears fruit, and produces a fresh crop of seed. This can be compared to the link between truth and good, because everything about a tree corresponds to truths, its fruits to kinds of good. A person who stops at the first state without entering upon the second is like a tree which produces only leaves and no fruit; of such a tree it is said in the Word that it is to be rooted out and cast into the fire (Matt. [17:19;] 21:19; Luke 3:9; 13:6-9; John 15:5, 6). Or he is like the slave who does not wish to be free, of whom it was commanded that he should be brought to the door or door-post, and have his ear pierced with an awl (Exod. 21:6). Those who have no link with the Lord are slaves, but those who have are free; for the Lord says:

If the Son makes you free, you are truly free. John 8:36.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 107 sRef Rev@21 @2 S1′ sRef Rev@21 @1 S1′ sRef Rev@21 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@65 @18 S1′ sRef Isa@65 @17 S1′ 107. (ix) FROM THIS TIME ON NO ONE FROM CHRISTIAN COUNTRIES CAN COME INTO HEAVEN, UNLESS HE BELIEVES IN THE LORD GOD THE SAVIOUR, AND APPROACHES HIM ALONE.

We read in Isaiah:

Behold, I create a new heaven and a new earth, and the former ones shall not be remembered, neither shall they rise above the heart, and behold, I shall make Jerusalem an exultation, and its people happiness. Isa. 65:17, 18.

and in Revelation:

I saw a new heaven and a new earth, and I saw the holy Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride for her husband; and He that sat on the throne said, Behold, I shall make all things new. Rev. 21:1, 2, 5.

We read in many places that only those who are written down in the Book of Life of the Lamb will enter heaven (Rev. 13:8; 17:8; 20:12, 15; 21:27). Heaven there does not mean the heaven we see with our eyes, but the heaven of the angels; Jerusalem is no city coming out of the sky, but a church which will come down from the Lord out of the other heaven; and the Book of Life of the Lamb does not mean some book written in heaven which is to be opened, but the Word, which is from the Lord and about Him. In the preceding sections of this chapter the doctrine that Jehovah God, who is called the Creator and Father, came down and took upon Himself human form, in order that He could be approached and be joined, has been confirmed, proved and established. Does anyone on approaching a person address himself to his soul? How could one do so? Rather he addresses himself to the person whom he sees before him, and speaks to him directly face to face. The case is similar with God the Father and God the Son, since God the Father is in the Son, as the soul is in the body.

sRef John@6 @47 S2′ sRef John@6 @40 S2′ sRef John@14 @20 S2′ sRef John@7 @38 S2′ sRef John@7 @37 S2′ sRef John@6 @33 S2′ sRef John@8 @24 S2′ sRef John@6 @46 S2′ sRef John@3 @36 S2′ sRef John@6 @28 S2′ sRef John@6 @35 S2′ sRef John@3 @15 S2′ sRef John@6 @29 S2′ sRef John@3 @16 S2′ sRef John@3 @18 S2′ sRef John@11 @25 S2′ sRef John@14 @6 S2′ sRef John@11 @26 S2′ sRef John@12 @36 S2′ sRef John@12 @45 S2′ sRef John@12 @46 S2′ [2] The following passages in the Word establish that one must believe in the Lord God the Saviour:

God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten Son, so that everyone who believes in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life. John 3:15, 16.

He who believes in the Son is not judged, but he who does not believe has already been judged, because he has not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of God. John 3:18.

He who believes in the Son has everlasting life; but he who does not believe in the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God will rest upon him. John 3:36.

The bread of God is that which comes from heaven, and gives life to the world; he who comes to me shall not be hungry, and he who believes in me shall never be thirsty. John 6:33, 35.

This is the will of Him who sent me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him should have everlasting life, and I should raise him up on the last day. John 6:40.

They said to Jesus, What shall we do to perform God’s work? Jesus answered, This is God’s work, to believe in Him whom the Father has sent. John 6:28, 29.

In truth, I say to you, he who believes in me has everlasting life. John 6:47.

Jesus cried out saying, If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me and drink. If anyone believes in me, streams of living water will flow from his belly. John 7:37, 38.

If you have not believed that I am, you will die in your sins. John 8:24.

Jesus said, I am the resurrection and life; he who believes in me, though he die, shall live; but everyone who lives and believes in me shall not ever die. John 11:25, 26.

Jesus said, I have come as a light into the world, so that everyone who believes in me should not remain in darkness. John 12:46; 8:12.

So long as you have the light, believe in the light, so that you may be sons of light. John 12:36.

We read that they will abide in the Lord and the Lord in them (John 14:20; 15:1-5; 17:23), which they can do through faith.

Paul preached both to Jews and to gentiles repentance towards God and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. Acts 20:21.

I am the way, truth and life; no one comes to the Father except through me. John 14:6.

sRef Ex@33 @20 S3′ sRef Acts@20 @21 S3′ sRef John@8 @19 S3′ sRef John@9 @41 S3′ sRef John@13 @20 S3′ sRef John@1 @18 S3′ sRef John@5 @37 S3′ [3] The following passages prove that he who believes in the Son believes in the Father, since, as said before, the Father is in Him, just as the soul is in the body:

If you knew me, you would also know my Father. John 8:19; 14:7.

He who sees me sees Him who sent me. John 12:45.

He who receives me receives Him who sent me. John 13:20.

The reason is that no one can see the Father and live (Exod. 33:20). For this reason the Lord says:

No one has ever seen God; His only-begotten Son who is in the Father’s revealed Him. John 1:18.

No one has seen the Father, except Him who is with the Father; He has seen the Father. John 6:46.

You have never heard the Father’s voice, nor have you seen His appearance. John 5:37.

But those who do not know anything about the Lord, like those in two of the three continents, Asia and Africa, not to mention the Indies, if they believe in one God, and live in accordance with the commandments of their own religion, are saved by their faith and their life. Sin is imputed to those who know, not to those who are ignorant, just as blind people who knock into things are not blamed. For the Lord says:

If you were blind, you would not have any sin; but now you say that you can see, therefore your sin remains. John 9:41.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 108 108. As a further confirmation of this I shall report a fact known to me, because I have seen and can bear witness to it. This is that at the present time a new heaven of angels is being established by the Lord, drawn from those who believe in the Lord God the Saviour, and approach Him directly; all others are rejected. So if in future anyone from the Christian part of the world comes into the spiritual world, as everyone does after death, and does not believe in the Lord and approach Him only, and if he is then unable to accept this teaching owing to the wicked life he has led or the false beliefs he has adopted, he is rebuffed on taking the first step towards heaven. His face is turned away and directed towards the Lower Earth; so he departs to that place and associates with its inhabitants, who are those meant in Revelation by ‘the Dragon and the False Prophet.’ Every person henceforth from Christian countries, who does not believe in the Lord, goes unheard. His prayers are in heaven like foul smells or belches from a diseased lung. Even though he thinks that his praying is like the odour of incense, still it reaches the heaven of the angels only like the smoke of a fire, which is blown back in his eyes by a squall coming from above, or like the odour from a censer under a monk’s robe. This is the fate from now on of all expressions of piety which are directed to a divided Trinity, not a united one. It is the leading theme of this book that the Divine Trinity is united in the Lord.

At this point I will add a piece of news. A few months ago the twelve apostles were called together by the Lord and sent out into the whole spiritual world, as they were once into the natural world, with instructions to preach this gospel. Each apostle had his own zone assigned to him. They are now following out their instructions with all eagerness and dedication. But a more detailed account of these events will be given in the last chapter of this book, which will deal with the ending of the age, the Lord’s coming and the new church.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 109 sRef 1Joh@5 @20 S0′ sRef Isa@30 @26 S0′ sRef Colo@2 @9 S0′ sRef Luke@24 @38 S0′ sRef Luke@24 @39 S0′ sRef Luke@24 @37 S0′ sRef Isa@30 @25 S0′ 109. ADDITIONAL NOTE

All churches which existed before the Lord’s coming were representative, unable to see Divine truths except in shadow. But since the Lord’s coming into the world, a church has been founded by Him which has seen, or rather has been able to see, Divine truths in broad daylight. It is the same difference as between evening and morning. In fact the state of the church before the Lord’s coming is called in the Word evening; and its state after His coming is called morning. Before He came into the world, the Lord was certainly present with the people of the church, but through the mediation of angels as His representatives; however, since His coming He is present with the people of the church without any intermediary. For in the world He put on the Divine Natural too, in which He is present with human beings. The Lord’s glorification is the glorification of His Human, which He took upon Himself in the world; and the glorified Human of the Lord is the Divine Natural. The truth of this is clear from the fact that the Lord rose from the tomb with His whole body which He had in the world, and left nothing of it behind there. It follows that He took with Him from there the Human Natural itself from first to last. That is why He said to His disciples after the resurrection, when they thought they saw a spirit:

Look at my hands and my feet to confirm that it is I; touch me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones, as you see me have. Luke 24:37, 39.

It is plain from this that His natural body was made Divine by glorification. Paul therefore says that in Christ all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily (Col. 2:9); and John says that the Son of God Jesus Christ is the true God (1 John 5:20). By this the angels know that the Lord alone in all the spiritual world is fully man.

sRef John@8 @58 S2′ sRef John@8 @56 S2′ [2] It is well known in the church that all worship among the Israelite and Jewish nation was only external, and it was only a sketch of the internal worship which the Lord revealed. Thus worship before the Lord’s coming consisted of symbols and figures, which stood as a fair model of true worship. Among the ancients the Lord Himself was actually seen, for He said to the Jews:

Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day, and see it he did and was glad. I say to you, before Abraham was, I was. John 8:56, 58.

But because at that time the Lord was only represented, which was done by means of angels, everything in the Jewish church was made representative. But after His coming into the world, those representations vanished. The inward cause of this was that the Lord in the world put on the Divine Natural too, and by means of this He enlightens not only the internal, spiritual man, but also the external, natural man. Unless these two are simultaneously enlightened, a person is, so to speak, in shadow; but when both are simultaneously enlightened, he is, so to speak, in daylight. For when only the internal man is enlightened, and not the external at the same time, or when only the external man is enlightened, and not the internal at the same time, it is like someone asleep and dreaming, and then when he wakes remembering his dream, which leads him to various quite imaginary conclusions. It is also like someone walking in his sleep, when he thinks he sees what he sees in broad daylight.

sRef 2Sam@23 @3 S3′ sRef 2Sam@23 @4 S3′ [3] The difference between the state of the church before and after the Lord’s coming can also be compared to a person who reads a book at night by the light of the moon and stars, and one who does so in sunlight. It is crystal clear that in the former light, which is only white, the eye strays; but it does not in the latter light, which is flamelike. Therefore we read of the Lord:

The God of Israel spoke, the Rock of Israel talked to me. He is like the light of morning, when the sun rises, a morning without clouds. 2 Sam. 23:3, 4.

The God of Israel and the Rock of Israel mean the Lord. Elsewhere:

The light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun will be sevenfold, like the light of seven days, on the day when Jehovah binds up His people’s broken limb. Isa. 30:26.

This is a description of the state of the church after the Lord’s coming. In short, the state of the church before the Lord’s coming can be compared to an old woman, whose face is made up and who thinks the rouge makes her look lovely. But the state of the church after the Lord’s coming can be compared to a young woman whose natural high colour makes her beautiful. Again, the state of the church before the Lord’s coming can be compared to the rind of a fruit, such as an orange, apple, pear, or grape, and its taste; but its state after His coming to the interior of those fruits and their taste; and many other similes. This is all because the Lord, after putting on the Divine Natural too, enlightens the internal, spiritual man and the external, natural man at the same time. For when only the internal man is enlightened, and not the external at the same time, there is shadow; and likewise when only the external is enlightened, and not the internal at the same time.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 110 110. At this point I shall introduce these accounts of experiences, of which this is the first.

In the spiritual world I once saw a shooting star, which fell to earth surrounded by a streak of light. It was a meteor of the sort popularly known as a dragon. I noted the place where it fell; but it disappeared in the twilight as the day began to break, as always happens with shooting stars.

After daybreak I approached the spot where I had seen it fall during the night; I found the ground there composed of a mixture of sulphur, iron filings and clay. Then there suddenly appeared two tents, one directly over the spot, the other a little to the south of it. Then when I looked up, I saw a spirit falling from heaven like a thunderbolt; he landed in the tent which stood directly over the spot where the meteor had fallen; and I was in the other tent which stood beside it to the south. I stood at the entrance to the tent and saw the spirit also standing in the entrance to his tent.

So I asked him why he had thus fallen from heaven. He replied that he had been thrown down as an angel of the dragon by the angels of Michael, ‘because,’ he said, ‘I had expressed some of my convictions about faith, which I had formed in the world. One of these was the idea that God the Father and God the Son are two and not one; for everyone in the heavens now believes that They are one as soul and body are one. Any expression contrary to that belief is like a tickling in their nostrils, or an awl piercing their ears, which causes them mental disturbance and pain. For this reason, anyone who contradicts them is ordered to leave, and if he shilly-shallies, he is thrown out.’

[2] On hearing this I said to him, ‘Why did you not believe as they did?’ He replied that after leaving the world no one can believe anything but what he had proved to himself and so imprinted on his mind. This remains rooted in it so that it cannot be torn out, and this is especially the case with convictions about God, since it is his idea of God which determines everyone’s place in the heavens.

I went on to ask what proofs he had found that the Father and the Son were two. ‘The passages in the Word,’ he said, ‘which state that the Son prayed to the Father, not only before the crucifixion, but actually during it; and that He humbled Himself before the Father. How then could they be one, as the soul and the body are one in man? Who prays as if to another, or humbles himself as if before another, if he is himself that other? No man behaves like that, far less the Son of God. Moreover, the whole Christian church in my time divided the Divinity into Persons, and each Person is one by itself, and is defined as that which remains in existence by its own right.’

[3] On hearing him say this I replied: ‘I have grasped from what you say that you are utterly ignorant how God the Father and God the Son are one; and since you do not know how this is, you have accepted the false notions about God still prevalent in the church. Do you not know that, when the Lord was in the world, He had a soul like any other person? Where could He have got it from, unless from God the Father? There are plenty of plain statements that this is so in the writings of the Evangelists. What then is it that is called the Son, but the Human which was conceived of the Father’s Divine and born of the Virgin Mary? A mother cannot conceive a soul; that would be totally repugnant to the order which controls human reproduction. Nor can God the Father implant the soul from Himself, and then retire, as every father in the world does, since God is His own Divine Essence, and this is one and indivisible; and being indivisible, it must be God Himself. This is why the Lord says that the Father and He are one, that the Father is in Him and He is in the Father, and many more similar statements. This too was seen, at a distance, by those who framed the Athanasian Creed; so after splitting God into three Persons, they still declare that in Christ God and man, that is, the Divine and the Human, are not two, but one, as the soul and the body in man are one.

[4] ‘The Lord in the world prayed to the Father as if to another, and humbled Himself before the Father as if before another, because this was to conform with the order established from creation; for this is the immutable order which controls everyone’s progress towards being linked with God. This order lays down that as a person links himself to God, which he does by living according to the rules of order or God’s commandments, so God links Himself to him, and makes him spiritual instead of natural. In the same way the Lord united Himself with His Father, and God the Father united Himself with the Lord. Was the Lord not a child like any other, a boy like any other boy? Do we not read that He advanced in wisdom and grace, and later, that He besought the Father to glorify His name, that is, His Human? To glorify is to make Divine by union with Himself. This shows plainly why the Lord in His state of exinanition, which was His state while advancing towards union, prayed to the Father.

sRef John@16 @15 S5′ [5] ‘That same order was imprinted on every person from creation,
namely the rule that as a person prepares his understanding by means of truths from the Word, so does he make it suitable for the reception of faith from God; and as he prepares his will by means of charitable actions, so he renders it capable of receiving love from God. For as a craftsman cuts a diamond, so he gives it the faculty of receiving and emitting a brilliant light; and so forth. To prepare oneself to receive and be linked to God is to live in accordance with Divine order, and the laws of order are all the commandments of God. The Lord fulfilled these down to the last comma, and so made Himself a receiver of the Divinity in all its fulness. Therefore Paul says that in Jesus Christ all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily, and the Lord says that all things of the Father’s are His.

[6] ‘It is further to be held that the Lord alone is active in a person, and the person by himself is only passive, but he is moved to activity by the inflow of life from the Lord. This perpetual inflow from the Lord makes it appear to a person that he acts of himself. Because this is so, he also has free will, and this is given to him in order to prepare himself to receive and be linked to the Lord, a state which would be impossible if the linking were not reciprocal. This is accomplished when a person acts of his own free will, yet is led by faith to attribute all activity to the Lord.’

[7] After this I asked whether, like the rest of his companions, he admitted that God is one. He replied that he did. Then I said: ‘I am afraid that in your heart you may believe that there is no God. Surely everything one says with the lips arises from thought in the mind? Therefore a verbal admission that there is one God must inevitably eliminate the idea of three Gods from the mind; and contrariwise, such a thought in the mind must inevitably eliminate the verbal admission that there is one God. So what can be the result, except a belief that there is no God? Surely this will turn into a vacuum all the intervening stages between the thought and the lips, and in the reverse direction between the lips and the thought? So what other conclusion about God can the mind reach, but that nature is God? Or about the Lord, but that His soul was from His mother or from Joseph? All the angels of heaven recoil from these two ideas as horrible and abominable.’

After this the spirit was banished into the abyss described in Revelation (9:2ff) where the angels of the dragon discuss the secrets of their faith.

[8] The next day, when I looked towards the same spot, I saw in place of the tents two statues in human shape, made of dust from the soil, which was a mixture of sulphur, iron and clay. One statue appeared to hold a sceptre in its left hand, it had a crown on its head, and a book in its right hand; its bodice was girded diagonally with a sash decorated with precious stones, and its robe streamed out behind towards the other statue. But these were appearances given to that statue by imagination. Then a voice was heard from one of the followers of the dragon: ‘This statue represents our faith as a queen, and the other one behind it is charity represented as her handmaid.’ This statue was made out of a similar mixture of powders; it was placed right at the end of the robe streaming out behind the queen, and it held in its hand a placard on which was written: ‘Beware of coming too close and touching the robe.’ Then a sudden shower fell from heaven, which drenched both the statues, and since they were made of a mixture of sulphur, iron and clay, they began to bubble, as a mixture of those substances will when water is poured on*. So they caught fire from internal combustion, fell apart and were reduced to heaps, which afterwards stuck up above ground like mounds in a graveyard.

*Sulphur here means a combustible material of a sulphurous nature.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 111 111. The second experience*.

In the natural world people’s speech is twofold, because so is their thought, for it may be external or internal. For one can speak as a result of internal thought and at the same time of external thought, or simply as the result of external thought without the internal, or even contrary to it. This is the origin of pretence, insincerity and hypocrisy. But in the spiritual world people do not have twofold speech but only one way of speaking; they speak as they think, otherwise the sound of their voices is harsh and hurts the ears. One can, however, still keep quiet and not reveal the thoughts arising in the mind. Consequently a hypocrite on coming into the company of wise people either goes away, or hurries into a corner of the room, makes himself inconspicuous and sits in silence.

[2] There was once a large assembly in the world of spirits to discuss this subject. They said that being unable to speak except as one thought was hard for those who did not have right ideas about God and the Lord, when they mixed with good people. The middle of the assembly consisted of people from the Reformed Churches, many of them clergy, and next to them were the Roman Catholics and their monks. To begin with, both parties said that this was not hard. ‘What need is there,’ they said, ‘to speak otherwise than one thinks? And if perhaps anyone does not think aright, can he not keep his mouth shut and be silent?’

A clergyman said: ‘Is there anyone who does not think aright about God and the Lord?’

But some people in the assembly said: ‘Let us put them to the test.’ So they told those who have a firm conviction about God as a Trinity of Persons to think about and say ‘One God’. They could not do so; they twisted and screwed up their mouths into all kinds of shapes, but were unable to utter any words except those which agreed with their thoughts, and these were about three Persons, so consequently three Gods.

[3] They went on to tell those who had convinced themselves of the doctrine of faith separated from charity to name ‘Jesus’. They could not do so, though they were able to say ‘Christ’, and also ‘God the Father’. This surprised them and they asked why. The reason they discovered to be the fact that they had prayed to God the Father for the sake of His Son, and not to the Saviour Himself; and ‘Jesus’ means Saviour.

sRef Matt@28 @18 S4′ sRef John@17 @2 S4′ sRef John@3 @35 S4′ sRef Matt@11 @27 S4′ [4] Then they were told to think about the Lord’s Human and say ‘the Divine Human’. None of the clergy present was able to do so; but some of the laymen could. So they made this the subject of a profound debate. Then (i) the following passages from the Gospels were read to them:

The Father gave all things into the hand of the Son. John 3:35.

The Father gave the Son power over all flesh. John 17:2.

All things were handed to me by the Father. Matt. 11:27.

All power has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Matt. 28:18.

‘Now keep in mind,’ they were told, ‘that Christ both in His Divine and in His Human is the God of heaven and earth, and while doing so say the Divine Human.’ But they were still unable to do so; and they said that although they could retain some thoughts coming from their understanding of the subject, still they could not acknowledge this at all, and that was the reason for their failure.

[5] (ii) Then the passages from Luke (1:32, 34, 35) were read to them, which prove that the Lord in His Human was the Son of Jehovah God, and that He is there called ‘the Son of the Most High’, and in many other passages ‘the Son of God’, as well as ‘the Only-begotten’. They begged them to keep this in mind, and also that the only-begotten Son of God who was born in the world must inevitably be God, just as His Father is God, and then to say ‘the Divine Human.’ But they said: ‘We cannot, because our spiritual, that is, interior thought does not permit any but similar ideas to enter the thought which is nearest to speech.’ As a result they said they perceived that now they were not allowed to divide their thoughts, as they had in the natural world.

sRef John@10 @30 S6′ sRef John@14 @8 S6′ sRef John@14 @10 S6′ sRef John@14 @9 S6′ sRef John@14 @11 S6′ [6] (iii) Next, these words of the Lord to Philip were read to them:

Philip said, Lord, show us the Father; and the Lord said, He who sees me sees the Father; do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father in me? John 14:8-11.

Also other passages stating that the Father and He are one (e.g. John 10:30). They were told to keep these in mind, and so to say ‘the Divine Human.’ But because their thought was not rooted in the acknowledgment of the Lord as God in His Human too, they screwed up their mouths until they became indignant, wanting to force their mouths to utter the words, but being unable to do so. The reason was that the ideas one thinks of, which are derived from acknowledgment, are identical with the words of language, when one is in the spiritual world. In the absence of those ideas, the words will not come, for speaking is putting ideas into words.

[7] (iv) Then the following passage was read to them from the doctrine received throughout the Christian world:

The Divine and the Human in the Lord are not two, but one, in fact one Person, united like soul and body in man.

This is from the Athanasian Creed, and has been accepted by the Councils. Then they were told: ‘This at least will give you some idea and enable you to acknowledge that the Lord’s Human is Divine, because His soul is Divine. This is the doctrine of your church, and you acknowledged it in the world. Moreover, the soul is the very essence of a person, and the body is the form, and essence and form make one, like being and coming-into-being, or like the efficient cause which produces the effect and the effect itself.’ They held this idea in mind, and tried by means of it to say ‘the Divine Human’, but still they could not. For the idea deep within their minds about the Lord’s Human banished and drove out this new supplementary idea, as they called it.

sRef Colo@2 @9 S8′ sRef John@1 @14 S8′ sRef John@1 @1 S8′ sRef 1Joh@5 @20 S8′ [8] (v) After this the following passage from John was read to them:

The Word was with God, and the Word was God; and the Word was made flesh. John 1:1, 14.

and also this:

Jesus Christ is the true God and everlasting life. 1 John 5:20.

and from Paul:

In Christ Jesus all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily. Col. 2:9.
2:9.

They were told to think along these lines: that God who was the Word became man; that He was the true God; and that all the fulness of the Godhead dwelt in Him bodily. They did so, but only in their external thought; for the resistance of their internal thought prevented them from saying the words ‘the Divine Human.’ They said frankly that they could not have any idea of a Divine Human, ‘because God is God, and man is man; and God is a spirit, and we have never understood spirit as anything but wind or ether.’

sRef John@15 @4 S9′ sRef John@15 @5 S9′ [9] (vi) Finally they were told: ‘You know that the Lord said:

Remain in me and I in you; he who remains in me, and I in him, bears much fruit, because without me you can do nothing. John 15:4, 5.

Because some of the English clergy were present, a passage was read to them from one of the prayers used in the Holy Communion:

For, when we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ and drink the blood, then we dwell in Christ, and Christ in Us.**

Now consider that this would be impossible, if the Lord’s Human were not Divine, and then say ‘the Divine Human’, acknowledging this in your thought. But they were still unable to do so, because the idea was so deeply stamped on their minds that what is Divine could not be human, and what is human could not be Divine; and that the Lord’s Divine was from the Divine of the Son born from eternity, while His Human was like that of any other man. They were told: ‘How can you think this? Can the rational mind ever conceive of a Son born of God from eternity?’

[10] (vii) Then they turned to the Evangelical party and said that the Confession of Augsburg and Luther taught that the Son of God and the Son of Man were one Person in Christ, and that even in His human nature He was omnipotent and omnipresent; and this enabled Him to sit at the right hand of God the Father, and control all things in the heavens and upon earth, to fulfil all prophecies, be with us, and dwell and work in us; that there was no distinction in worship, because through the visible nature the invisible Godhead is worshipped; and that in Christ God is man and man is God. On hearing this they replied: ‘Is that so?’ They looked around and after a while said: ‘We did not know this before; that is why we cannot say ‘the Divine Human.’ One or two said: ‘We read that and wrote it, but when we pondered it in our hearts, they were only words, of which we had no inward notion.’

[11] (viii) Lastly they turned to the Roman Catholics and said: ‘Perhaps you can name the Divine Human, because you believe that in your Eucharist Christ is wholly present in the bread and wine, and in every part of them. Moreover you worship Him, when you display and carry around the Host, as the Most Holy God. You also call Mary the mother of God. Consequently you acknowledge that she gave birth to God, that is, the Divine Human.’ Then they tried to say the words, but because there then slipped in a material idea of the body and blood of Christ, and also a belief that His Human could be separated from the Divine, and in fact is so separated in the Pope, to whom only His human and not His Divine power was transferred, they could not pronounce them. Then a monk got up and said that he could think of the Divine Human in the case of the most holy Virgin Mary, or the patron saint of his monastery. Another monk came up who said: ‘The idea which I now cherish in my mind enables me to say the Divine Human of his Holiness the Pope, rather than of Christ.’ But then some of the Catholics pulled him back saying: ‘You should be ashamed of yourself.’

[12] After this heaven appeared to open, and tongues like small flames were seen coming down and lighting on certain people. These then praised the Divine Human of the Lord, saying: ‘Banish the idea of three Gods, and believe that in the Lord all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily, and that the Father and He are one, just as soul and body are one, and that God is not wind or ether, but is man. Then you will be linked with heaven, and the Lord will enable you to name Jesus and to say “the Divine Human.”‘

* This section is repeated with minor changes from AR 294.
** These words are quoted in English in the original.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 112 112. The third experience.

I once woke up around dawn and went out into the garden in front of my house. I watched the sun rising in its splendour, and around it I saw a halo, first of all narrow and later projecting further, shining as if made of gold, and under its lower edge a cloud coming up, which glittered with the sun’s fire like a ruby. This then led me to think about how the earliest people had legends which described the Dawn as having wings made of silver feathers and carrying gold in her mouth.

While my mind was taking pleasure in these thoughts, I passed into the spirit, and heard some people talking to one another. ‘I wish,’ they were saying, ‘we could talk with that original thinker who has thrown the apple of Strife among the leaders of the church; many laymen have run after it, picked it up and held it before our eyes.’ They meant by that apple my little book entitled: A BRIEF EXPOSITION OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW CHURCH. ‘It is a new doctrine never before thought up, designed to divide the church,’ they said. I heard one of them cry out: ‘Divisive indeed, it is heretical!’ But some of the bystanders answered: ‘Be quiet, hold your tongue; it is not heretical. It quotes a large number of sayings from the Word which those who live with us – we mean laymen – pay attention to and support.’

[2] On hearing this, since I was in the spirit, I went up to them and said: Here I am. What is the trouble?’

At once one of them, a German as I learned later, a native of Saxony, said in an authoritative tone of voice: ‘How have you the nerve to upset the mode of worship established for so many centuries throughout the Christian world, namely, the invocation of God the Father as the Creator of the universe, and of His Son as Mediator, and of the Holy Spirit as Worker? You are banishing the first and the last God from our Trinity of Persons, although the Lord Himself says: “When you pray, pray like this: Our Father, who art in the heavens, hallowed be Thy name, Thy kingdom come.” Is this not an instruction to us to invoke God the Father?’

This speech produced silence, and all his supporters took up their stand like the brave fighters on warships when the enemy fleet comes into view, ready to shout: ‘Now let us fight, victory is surely ours.’

sRef John@1 @14 S3′ sRef John@1 @1 S3′ [3] So I began my speech by saying: ‘You all know that God came down from heaven and became man, because we read: “The Word was with God and the Word was God, and the Word was made flesh.” You know all of you,’ and here I looked hard at the Evangelical party, to which the spokesman who had addressed me belonged, ‘that in Christ who was born of the Virgin Mary God is man, and man is God.’ There was an uproar from the assembly at this, so I said: ‘Do you not know this? It is in accordance with the doctrine of your sect called the Formula of Concord; it states this and adds many proofs in support of it.’

Then the spokesman turned to the assembly and asked whether they knew this. They replied: ‘We paid too little attention to what that book says about the Person of Christ; but we worked hard at the section on justification by faith alone. Still, if that is what it says, we are content.’ Then one who could remember it said: ‘Yes, it does say that; and it adds further that Christ’s human nature was raised to Divine majesty and all its attributes, and also that Christ is seated in Divine majesty at the right hand of His Father.’

sRef John@17 @10 S4′ sRef John@10 @30 S4′ sRef John@14 @9 S4′ sRef John@10 @38 S4′ [4] When they heard this, they fell silent. So having got them to agree to this, I said: ‘If this is so, is not the Father then the Son, and the Son also the Father?’ But since this again offended their ears, I went on: ‘Listen to the Lord’s actual words, and if you paid no heed to them before, do so now. He said: “The Father and I are one; the Father is in me and I in the Father; Father, all things of mine are yours, and all of yours are mine; He who sees me sees the Father.” How can you understand these sayings, except as meaning that the Father is in the Son and the Son in the Father, and that they are one like soul and body in man, so they are one Person? You will find that this is part of your faith too, if you believe the Athanasian Creed, which says something very much like this. But take from what I have quoted just this one utterance of the Lord: “Father, all things of mine are yours, and all of yours are mine.” What does this mean, if not that the Father’s Divine belongs to the Son’s Human, and the Son’s Human to the Father’s Divine? Consequently in Christ God is man and man is God, and thus they make one as soul and body make one.

sRef Luke@1 @32 S5′ sRef Luke@1 @35 S5′ aRef John@1 @18 S5′ [5] Everyone can say the same things about his soul and body. Each person can say: all things of yours are mine, and all of mine are yours; you are in me and I in you; he who sees me sees you, we are one in person and have one life. The reason is that the soul pervades the whole and every part of the person, for the life of the soul is the life of the body, and is possessed by them in common. It is plain from this that the Father’s Divine is the Son’s soul, and the Son’s Human is the Father’s body. Where can a son’s soul come from, if not from his father, and where can his body come from, if not from his mother? When we say the Father’s Divine we mean the Father Himself, since He and His Divine are the same; this is also one and indivisible. The truth of this is established by the words with which the angel Gabriel addressed Mary: “The power of the Most High will overshadow you, and the Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the holy thing that shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God.” Shortly before He is called “the Son of the Most High,” and elsewhere “the only-begotten Son.” You, however, who call Him only the Son of Mary, destroy the idea of His divinity; but the only ones who do this are some of the learned clergy and well-educated laymen, who, when they lift their thoughts above the level of the bodily senses, have in view the enhancement of their reputations. This not only casts a shadow, but actually puts out the light, through which the glory of God comes in.

sRef Matt@6 @9 S6′ sRef Matt@6 @10 S6′ sRef John@12 @28 S6′ sRef John@14 @6 S6′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S6′ [6] ‘But let us go back to the Lord’s Prayer, which says: “Our Father, who art in the heavens, hallowed be Thy name, Thy kingdom come.” Those of you who are present here understand by these words the Father in His Divine alone; but I understand Him in His Human, and this too is the Father’s name. For the Lord said: “Father, glorify your name,” that is, your Human. When this happens, the kingdom of God comes. The instruction to use this prayer has been given us for the present time, that is, so that God the Father may be approached through His Human. The Lord also said: “No one comes to the Father except through Me,” and the prophet said: “A child is born for us, a Son is given to us, whose name is God, Hero, the everlasting Father”; and elsewhere: “You, Jehovah, are our Father, your name is our Redeemer from of old.” There are thousands of other passages where the Lord our Saviour is called Jehovah. This is the true explanation of those words in the Lord’s Prayer.’

[7] On finishing this speech I looked at them and noticed that their faces had changed in accordance with the change in their mental state. Some of them supported me and were watching me; some did not, and they turned their faces away. Then I saw on the right a pearly-coloured cloud, and on the left a murky cloud, from both of which rain was falling. The rain from the dark cloud was like a shower in late autumn, that from the other like dew in early springtime. Then suddenly I passed from the spirit into the body, and so returned from the spiritual world into the natural one.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 113 113. The fourth experience.*

I looked out into the world of spirits and saw an army mounted on chestnut and black horses. Those who sat upon them looked like monkeys, their faces and chests turned towards the hind quarters and tails of the horses, the backs of their heads and bodies towards the horses’ necks and heads; the reins hung loosely about the necks of the riders. They raised a shout against those who rode on white horses, and pulled on the reins with both hands to keep their horses away from the battle, and they kept on doing this.

Then two angels came down from heaven, and on approaching me said: ‘What do you see?’ I described this ridiculous cavalry and asked: ‘What is this, and who are they?’

The angels replied: ‘They come from the place called Armageddon (Rev. 16:16), where some thousands have gathered to do battle with the members of the Lord’s new church, which is called the New Jerusalem. They were talking there about the church and religion; yet there was not a trace of the church in them, because they were without any spiritual truth, or any trace of religion, because they were without any spiritual good. There was much talk there on their lips about both subjects, but their motive was to exercise power by their means.

[2] ‘As young men they had learned to believe in faith alone, and they knew a little about God. After being promoted to the higher offices of the church, they retained their beliefs for a while. But since they then began to think no more about God and heaven, and only about themselves and the world, and so abandoned blessedness and everlasting happiness for temporal distinction and wealth, they pushed the doctrines they had learned in youth out of the interiors of the rational mind, which are in contact with heaven and so illuminated by its light, and banished them to the exteriors of the rational mind, which are in contact with the world and are illuminated only by its faint beams. They ended by relegating those doctrines to the level of the natural senses. This made them treat the doctrines of the church merely as formulas to be repeated, and no longer thought about rationally, much less affectionately loved. By making themselves like this, they do not receive the Divine truth which the church provides, nor any real good which comes from religion. To use a simile, the interiors of their minds have become like leather bags filled with a mixture of iron filings and powdered sulphur; if then water is poured in, there is first heat generated, and then flame, which makes the bags burst. In like manner, when these people hear anything about living water, which is the real truth of the Word, and it penetrates through their ears, they become furiously heated and angry, and reject it as something which would burst their heads.

[3] ‘These are the people who appeared to you like monkeys riding back to front on chestnut and black horses with the reins about their necks. This is because those who do not love the truth and good which the church has from the Word, are unwilling to look towards the front of a horse, but only its hinder parts. For ‘horse’ means the understanding of the Word, ‘a chestnut horse’ understanding of the Word bereft of good, ‘a black horse’ understanding of the Word bereft of truth. The reason why they yelled to do battle against the riders on white horses is that ‘a white horse’ means the understanding of the truth and good of the Word. They seemed to be holding their horses back by the neck because they were frightened of fighting, for fear the truth of the Word might reach many people and so come to light. That is the interpretation.’

[4] The angels went on to say: ‘We are from the community in heaven named Michael, and we have been ordered by the Lord to go down to the place called Armageddon, from which the cavalry you saw had broken out. Armageddon for us in heaven means the state of wishing to fight with falsified truths, which arises from the love of controlling and surpassing all others. Since we perceive you have a desire to learn about that battle, we will tell you something about it. After coming down from heaven we approached the place called Armageddon and saw several thousands of people gathered there. However, we did not go into that assembly, but there were some houses on the south side where there were boys with their teachers; we went into these, where we were made welcome, and we enjoyed their company. They were all good-looking because of the liveliness of their eyes and the animation of their conversation. The liveliness in their eyes came from their perception of truth, the animation of their conversation from their affection for good. Because of this we presented them with hats, the brims of which were ornamented with bands of gold thread intertwined with pearls, and also with clothes of a white and dark blue pattern.

‘We asked them whether they had looked towards the neighbouring place called Armageddon. They said they had done so through the window they had under the roof of their house. They said they had seen a great gathering of people there, who took on varying appearances. At one time they resembled tall** men, at another no longer people at all, but they looked like images and carved statues, and around them was a crowd kneeling. These too seemed to us to have varying appearances,- some looked like human beings, some like leopards, some like goats, and these had downward-pointing horns, which they used to dig up the ground. We were able to interpret their transformations, and know whom they represented and what they meant.

sRef Matt@6 @10 S5′ sRef Matt@6 @9 S5′ [5] ‘But to return to the story; when the people assembled heard that we had gone into those houses, they said to one another: “What are they doing, going to see those boys? Let us send some of our number to turn them out.” They did so, and when they came they said to us: “Why have you gone into those houses? Where do you come from? We have authority to tell you to go away.”

‘But we replied: “You have no authority to tell us that. In your own eyes you may be like the Anakim, and the people here like dwarfs, but still you have no power or right here, except through trickery, and that will not work. So go back and report to your people, that we have been sent here from heaven to investigate whether there is any religion among you or not; if not, you will be thrown out of the place you occupy. So set before them the following question, which touches the very essence of the church and religion, what is the meaning of these words from the Lord’s Prayer: Our Father, who art in the heavens, hallowed be Thy name, Thy kingdom come.”

‘Their first reaction on hearing this was indignation, but then they agreed to put the question. So they went away and told their people what had happened, and they replied: “What does this question mean and what sort of a question is it?” But they understood the concealed point, that the questioners wished to know whether these words favoured the way their faith approaches God the Father. So they said: “These words clearly mean that we should pray to God the Father, and because Christ is our mediator, that we should pray to God the Father for the sake of His Son.”

‘Then in their indignation they resolved to approach us and to assert this face to face, saying too that they would tweak our ears. They actually left the place where they were, and went into the park adjacent to the houses where the boys were with their teachers. In the middle of the park there was a raised platform like an arena, and holding one another’s hands they went into the arena where we stood waiting for them. There were small mounds of earth there covered with turf, and they sat on these, saying to one another: “In such company we will not remain standing, but sit down.”

‘Then one of them who had the trick of making himself look like an angel of light, and who had been appointed by the rest to act as their spokesman, said: “You have asked us to reveal our opinion on how we should understand the first words of the Lord’s Prayer. So I beg to inform you that we understand them like this: we should pray to God the Father; and because Christ is our mediator, and our salvation depends upon His merit, we should pray to God the Father trusting in Christ’s merit.”

[6] ‘Then we told them: “We are from the community in heaven known as Michael. We have been sent to visit you, and enquire whether you who are gathered here have any religion or not. For the idea of God enters into every part of religion, and it is this which establishes a link with God, and that link is the means of salvation. We in heaven recite that prayer every day, just as people on earth do; but then we do not think of God the Father, since He is invisible, but we think of Him in His Divine Human, since in this He is visible. In this you call Him Christ, we call Him the Lord; thus the Lord is our Father in the heavens. The Lord too taught that He and the Father are one, that the Father is in Him and He is in the Father; that he who sees Him, sees the Father; and that no one comes to the Father except through Him. He also taught that it is the Father’s will that people should believe in the Son; that he who does not believe in the Son will not see life; rather the wrath of God remains upon him. From these passages it is clear that the Father is to be approached through the Son and in Him. For that reason too He also taught that all power in heaven and on earth was given to Him. The Prayer says, “Hallowed be Thy name, Thy kingdom come,” and we have proved from the Word that the Father’s name is His Divine Human, and that the Father’s kingdom comes when the Lord is directly approached, and not at all when God the Father is directly approached. So too the Lord told His disciples to preach the kingdom of God, and this is what is meant by the kingdom of God.”

sRef Mark@16 @15 S7′ sRef John@3 @35 S7′ sRef Dan@7 @13 S7′ sRef Mark@1 @15 S7′ sRef Rev@11 @15 S7′ sRef John@17 @2 S7′ sRef Mark@1 @14 S7′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S7′ sRef Matt@28 @18 S7′ sRef Dan@7 @14 S7′ sRef Matt@3 @2 S7′ sRef Matt@4 @23 S7′ sRef Matt@4 @17 S7′ sRef Matt@11 @27 S7′ [7] ‘On hearing this our opponents said: “You quote many passages from the Word. We may have read such things there, but we do not remember them. So open the Word in our presence, and read us those passages from it, especially the ones which say that the Father’s kingdom comes when the Lord’s kingdom does.” Then they told the boys to fetch the Word, and when they did so, we read to them from it the following passages:

John*** preaching the Gospel of the kingdom said, The time has come, the kingdom of God is at hand. Mark 1:14, 15; Matt. 3:2.

Jesus Himself preached the Gospel of the kingdom, and said that the kingdom of God was at hand. Matt. 4:17, 23; 9:35.

Jesus ordered His disciples to preach and proclaim the good news of the kingdom of God (Mark 16:15; Luke 8:1; 9:60); likewise the seventy whom He sent out (Luke 10:9, 11.)

And many passages besides, such as Matt. 11:5; 16:27, 28; Mark 8:35; 9:1, 47; 10:29, 30; 11:10; Luke 1:19; 2:10, 11; 4:43; 7:22; 17:20, 21;**** 21:31; 22:18. The kingdom of God, the good news of which they were to proclaim, was the Lord’s kingdom, and so the Father’s kingdom. This is plain from the following passages: The Father gave all things into the Son’s hand (John 3:35); The Father gave the Son power over all flesh (John 17:2).

All things are handed over to me by the Father. Matt. 11:27.

All power has been given to me in heaven and on earth. Matt. 28: 18.

Further from the following:

Jehovah Zebaoth is His name and the Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, He shall be called the God of the whole earth. Isa. 54:5.

I saw and behold, one like the Son of Man, to whom was given dominion, glory and the kingdom; and all peoples and nations shall worship Him. His dominion is a dominion for ever, which will not pass away, and His kingdom one which will not perish. Dan. 7:13, 14.

When the seventh angel sounded, mighty voices were heard in the heavens saying, The kingdoms of the world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ; and He shall reign for ever and ever. Rev. 11:15; 12:10.

sRef John@14 @9 S8′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S8′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S8′ [8] ‘In addition we instructed them from the Word that the Lord came into the world not only to redeem angels and men, but also so that they might be united with God the Father through Him and in Him. For He taught that He is in those who believe in Him and they are in Him (John 6:56; 14:20; 15:4, 5). On hearing this they asked: “How then can your Lord be called Father”? We said: “It follows from the passages we have read, and also from these:

A child is born for us, a son is given to us, whose name is God, Hero, the everlasting Father. Isa. 9:6.

You are our Father, Abraham does not recognise us, neither does Israel acknowledge us; You, Jehovah, are our Father, our Redeemer from of old is your name. Isa. 63:16.

Did He not say to Philip, when he wanted to see the Father.

Philip, do you not know me? He who sees me sees the Father. John 14:9; 12:45.

What other Father then is there, than the one whom Philip saw with his own eyes?”

‘To this we added the following. “It is said throughout the Christian world that the members of the church constitute the body of Christ, and that they are in His body. How then can any person in the church approach God the Father, except through Him in whose body he is? Otherwise he would inevitably leave the body to approach Him.” Finally we informed them that at the present time a new church is being established by the Lord, which is meant by the New Jerusalem in Revelation. In this church worship will be directed to the Lord alone, as it is in heaven, and thus all will be accomplished which the Lord’s Prayer contains from beginning to end.

‘We proved everything from the Gospels and the Prophets in the Word, and from Revelation, which deals from beginning to end with that church, and went on at such length that they became tired of listening.

[9] ‘The Armageddon party listened with indignation, and wanted repeatedly to interrupt our speech. Eventually they broke in and cried: “You have spoken against the doctrine of our church, which states that God the Father is to be approached directly, and is to be believed in. You have thus become guilty of violating our faith. So begone from here, or you will be thrown out.” Their tempers were so roused they passed from threats to attempted action. But then by the powers we had been given we struck them blind, so that, being unable to see us, they broke out and ran blindly in all directions. Some fell into the abyss described in Revelation (9:2), which is now in the southern quarter towards the east; this is where those are to be found who are convinced that justification is effected by faith alone. Those there who prove that doctrine by quoting the Word are cast out into a desert, where they are driven to the edge of the Christian world and mix with the pagans.’

* The first part of this section is repeated from AR 839.
** The Latin has ‘leading men’ (proceres), but the following reference to giants (Anakim) shows that this must be a misprint for ‘tall men’ (proceros).
*** Apparently a slip for ‘Jesus’; John is mentioned earlier in the verse.
**** This reference was inserted in the author’s copy.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 114 114. REDEMPTION

It is well known in the church that the Lord has two functions, the priestly and the kingly; but since few are aware of what distinguishes either of them, this needs to be stated. The Lord in His priestly function is called Jesus, in His kingly function Christ; and in the Word He is also called in His priestly function Jehovah and Lord, and in His kingly function God and the Holy One of Israel, as well as King. The distinction between them is like that between love and wisdom, or, what is the same, between good and truth. Therefore whatever the Lord did or performed from Divine love or Divine good, He did in His priestly function; whatever He did from Divine wisdom or Divine truth, in His kingly function. In the Word too priest and priesthood mean Divine good, king and royalty Divine truth, and this same pair were represented by priests and kings in the Israelite church. Redemption concerns both functions, but in what respects it concerns one or the other will be revealed in what follows. For the sake of clarity of detail the discussion will be divided into separate topics or sections, as follows:

(i) The real redemption was the conquest of the hells and the ordering of the heavens, and preparation by this means for a new spiritual church.
(ii) But for that redemption no person could have been saved, nor could the angels have remained unharmed.
(iii) The Lord thus redeemed not only men, but also angels.
(iv) Redemption was an entirely Divine deed.
(v) This redemption could only be effected by an incarnate God.
(vi) The passion on the cross was the last temptation which the Lord underwent as the greatest Prophet; this was the means by which He glorified His Human, that is, united it with His Father’s Divine; so this was not in itself the redemption.
(vii) It is a fundamental error on the part of the church to believe that the passion on the cross was the real act of redemption. That error, together with the erroneous belief in three Divine Persons existing from eternity, has so perverted the whole church that there is no remainder of spirituality left in it.

These points will be discussed one by one.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 115 115. (i) THE REAL REDEMPTION WAS THE CONQUEST OF THE HELLS AND THE ORDERING OF THE HEAVENS, AND PREPARATION BY THIS MEANS FOR A NEW SPIRITUAL CHURCH.

I can assert with complete certainty that these three events constitute redemption, since the Lord is to-day too carrying on the process of redemption, which began with the accomplishment of the Last Judgment in 1757. This redemptive process has continued from that time down to the present. The reason is that to-day the Second Coming of the Lord is taking place, and a new church is to be established, something which could not happen unless the conquest of the hells and the ordering of the heavens had taken place first. Since I have been permitted to witness all that has happened, I am able to describe how the hells were conquered and how a new heaven has been founded and arranged, but it would take a whole book to do so. However, I did reveal how the Last Judgment was carried out, in a small book published in London in 1758.*

[2] Redemption consisted in the conquest of the hells, the ordering of the heavens and the establishment of a new church, because without them no one could have been saved. This is their proper order: the hells had first to be conquered, before a new heaven of angels could be formed, and this had to be formed before a new church could be established on earth. For people in the world are so linked with the angels in heaven and the spirits in hell, that in the interiors of their minds they are identified with one party or the other. This subject will be discussed in detail in the last chapter of this book, dealing with the Ending of the Age, the Lord’s Coming and the New Church.

* Entitled THE LAST JUDGMENT.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 116 sRef Isa@63 @2 S1′ sRef Isa@63 @1 S1′ sRef Isa@63 @7 S1′ sRef Isa@63 @6 S1′ sRef Isa@63 @9 S1′ sRef Isa@63 @8 S1′ sRef Isa@63 @5 S1′ sRef Isa@63 @3 S1′ sRef Isa@63 @4 S1′ 116. There are many passages in the Word which prove that, when the Lord was in the world, He fought against the hells, overcame and conquered them and thus made them obedient to Him; I will quote only these few. In Isaiah:

Who is this coming from Edom, with stained clothes from Bozrah? A fine figure he is in his clothing, striding out in the excess of his strength. It is I who speak in righteousness, I who am mighty to save. Why are your clothes ruddy, like the clothing of one who treads the wine-vat? I have trodden the wine-vat alone, and of the people there was not a man with me. Therefore I trod them down in my anger, and I trampled them in my wrath. Hence their victory is sprinkled over my clothing. For the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed has come. My arm was my salvation, I brought their victory down to the ground. He said, Behold, they are my people, my sons. Therefore he became a saviour for them. For his love and tenderness he redeemed them. Isa. 63:1-9.

This is a description of the Lord’s battle against the hells. The clothing which is ruddy and in which He is a fine figure, means the Word, to which the Jewish people offered violence. The actual battle with the hells and His victory over them is described by His treading them down in His anger and trampling them in His wrath. His fighting alone and by His own power is described by the words ‘of the people there was not a man with me, my arm was my salvation, I brought their victory down to the ground.’ His saving and redeeming is described thus: ‘Therefore he became a saviour for them, for his love and tenderness he redeemed them.’ This was the reason for His coming, as is meant by ‘the day of vengeance is in my heart, and the year of my redeemed has come.’

sRef Isa@59 @16 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@59 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@59 @20 S2′ sRef Jer@46 @5 S2′ sRef Jer@46 @10 S2′ [2] In another passage of Isaiah:

He saw that there was no one, and was amazed that there was none to intercede, Therefore his arm was his salvation and righteousness raised him up. So he put on righteousness as a breast-plate, and the helmet of salvation on his head, and he put on the clothing of vengeance, and covered himself with jealous anger like a cloak. Then the Redeemer came to Zion. Isa. 59:16, 17, 20.

In Jeremiah:

They were broken, their brave men were bruised. They fled away and did not look back. That is the day of the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth, a day of revenge, that He may take vengeance on his enemies; let the sword devour and be sated. Jer. 46:5, 10.

Both of these passages describe the Lord’s battle against the hells and His victory over them. In the Psalms of David:

Gird your sword on your thigh, o mighty one. Sharp are your arrows, the peoples will fall before you, the enemies of the king will lose heart. Your throne is for ever, eternal; you loved righteousness, therefore has God anointed You. Ps. 45:3-7.

There are many other passages besides.

sRef Ps@24 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@24 @10 S3′ sRef Luke@10 @18 S3′ sRef John@12 @31 S3′ sRef John@16 @11 S3′ sRef John@16 @33 S3′ [3] Since the Lord conquered the hells alone with no help from any angel, He is therefore called ‘Hero and Man of War’ (Isa. 42:13; 9:6), ‘the King of glory, Jehovah the strong, the hero of war’ (Ps. 24:8, 10), the strong one of Jacob (Ps. 132:2) and in many places ‘Jehovah Zebaoth’, that is, ‘Jehovah of hosts.’ His coming is called ‘the day of Jehovah, terrible, cruel, the day of indignation, of anger, of wrath, of vengeance, of ruin, of war, of the trumpet, of sounding off, of uproar, etc.’ In the Gospels we read:

Now is the judgment of the world; the prince of this world shall be cast out. John 12:31.
The prince of this world has been judged. John 16:11.
Be of good cheer, I have overcome the world, John 16:33.
I saw Satan falling from heaven like a thunderbolt. Luke 10:18

The world, the prince of the world, Satan and the devil all mean hell.

[4] Apart from these passages, the whole of Revelation from beginning to end describes the present state of the Christian church, and prophesies the Lord’s second coming, His conquest of the hells, the creation of a new heaven of angels and then the establishment of a new church on earth. All these things were there foretold, but they have not been revealed before the present time. The reason is that Revelation, like all the prophetical parts of the Word, was written purely in correspondences, and if these had not been revealed by the Lord, hardly anyone could have correctly understood a single verse. Now for the sake of the new church all its contents have been revealed in my book THE APOCALYPSE REVEALED (published at Amsterdam, 1766). Those will see this who believe the Lord’s words in Matthew, chapter 24, about the state of the church to-day and about His coming. But this is only a flickering faith so far with those who have, so deeply that it cannot be extirpated, imprinted on their hearts the faith of the present-day church about a Trinity of Divine Persons from eternity, and about Christ’s passion as being the real act of redemption. But these people are (as was said above in the experience related in 113) like leather skins filled with iron filings and powdered sulphur; if water is poured in, heat is first produced, then flame which makes the skins burst. It is the same with those who hear something about living water, which is the genuine truth of the Word, and this enters through their eyes or ears; they become hot and inflamed with anger, and they reject it as something which would burst their heads.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 117 aRef 1Ki@4 @25 S0′ aRef 1Ki@4 @24 S0′ aRef Micah@4 @3 S0′ aRef Micah@4 @4 S0′ 117. A variety of similes can be used to illustrate the conquest of the hells, the ordering of the heavens and then the establishment of the church. These can be compared with a band of robbers or rebels who invade a kingdom or a city, set fire to the houses in it, loot the inhabitants’ goods, divide their booty between them and enjoy themselves boasting of their prowess. The act of redemption then can be compared to a just king who attacks them with his army, puts some of them to the sword, shuts up others in labour camps, and takes away their booty and returns it to his subjects, and afterwards imposes order on his kingdom, making it safe from any similar attack. Another comparison might be with troops of wild beasts breaking out from the forests and attacking flocks and herds, and people too, so that no one dares to leave the walls of their town to till the ground; so the fields are bare and the townsmen likely to die of famine. Then redemption can be compared with the killing and putting to flight of those wild beasts, and the protection of fields and countryside from any further such attack. Another comparison might be with a swarm of locusts eating all the greenstuff on the earth, and with measures taken to block their further progress. Likewise with caterpillars in early summer which strip trees of their leaves, and thus of their fruit too, so that they stand all bare as at midwinter; and the shaking of them off, so that gardens are restored to their flowering and fruitful condition. It would be the same with the church, if the Lord had not by the act of redemption separated the good from the evil, and cast one lot into hell, and raised the others into heaven. What would happen to an empire or a kingdom devoid of justice and law-courts, designed to remove the wicked from the society of the good, and to protect the good from violence, so that everyone could live at home in safety, and, as it says in the Word, sit quietly under his own fig-tree and vine?

TCR (Chadwick) n. 118 118. (ii) BUT FOR THAT REDEMPTION NO PERSON COULD HAVE BEEN SAVED, NOR COULD THE ANGELS HAVE REMAINED UNHARMED.

It must first be stated what redemption is. To redeem means to free from damnation, to reclaim from everlasting death, to snatch from hell, and to release the captives and those in bondage from the hands of the devil. The Lord performed this by conquering the hells and founding a new heaven. The reason why people could not by any other means be saved was that the spiritual world is so closely integrated with the natural world that they are inseparable. This principally affects people’s interiors, what is called their souls and minds; those of the good are linked with the souls and minds of angels, those of the wicked with the souls and minds of the spirits of hell. Their union is such that if a person were deprived of them, he would fall lifeless, like a block of wood. Likewise neither could angels and spirits remain in existence, if human beings were taken away from them. This will make it plain why redemption took place in the spiritual world, and why heaven and hell had to be brought into order before a church could be established upon earth. This is clearly stated in Revelation, where it is said that after the creation of a new heaven, the New Jerusalem, which is the new church, came down from that heaven (Rev. 21:1, 2).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 119 119. The reason why, but for redemption by the Lord, neither could the angels have remained unharmed is that the whole heaven of the angels together with the church on earth forms in the Lord’s sight a single person. The heaven of the angels makes up his internal, the church his external; or in more detail, the highest heaven makes up his head, the second and lowest heavens his chest and the middle region of his body, and the church on earth his loins, legs and feet. The Lord Himself is the soul and life of this whole person. So if the Lord had not performed the act of redemption, this person would have been destroyed. The eclipse of the church on earth entails destruction of the feet, legs and loins, that of the lowest heaven the gastric region, that of the second heaven the chest, and then the head, having no correspondence with the body, loses consciousness.

[2] This can be illustrated by similes. It is as when mortification of the flesh attacks the feet, and this necrosis progressively climbs up, infecting first the loins, then the abdominal viscera, and finally the region of the heart. As everyone knows, this causes death. Another illustration is when the viscera beneath the diaphragm are diseased, and their failure produces palpitation of the heart, difficulty in respiration, and eventually the heart and lungs fail too. There is another possible simile with the internal and external man; the internal flourishes so long as the external obediently discharges its functions; but if the external man disobeys and resists, and even more if it attacks the internal, then the internal eventually is undermined, and at length is carried away by the pleasures of the external, until it takes its part and agrees with it. Another possible simile is with a man standing on top of a mountain, watching a flood cover the land below him, as the water rises stage by stage; and when it reaches the level at which he stands, he too is submerged, unless a boat comes for him across the waves to allow him to escape. Likewise if anyone standing on a mountain sees a dense fog rising higher and higher above the ground, hiding fields, villages and towns; and then when the fog reaches his level, he can see nothing, not even where he is.

sRef Rev@6 @9 S3′ sRef Rev@6 @11 S3′ sRef Rev@6 @10 S3′ [3] The lot of the angels is like this when the church on earth fails, for then the lower heavens too fade out. The reason is that the heavens are composed of human beings from the earth; and when there is no longer any good left in their hearts nor any truth from the Word, the heavens are flooded by the rising tide of evil and drowned by it as if by the waters of the Styx. However, they are taken to safety elsewhere by the Lord, and kept until the day of the Last judgment, when they are raised to a new heaven. It is these who are meant in this passage of Revelation:

I saw underneath the altar the souls of those put to death on account of God’s Word and the witness they bore. And they shouted in a loud voice, saying, How long, Lord, you who are holy and true, before you give judgment and take vengeance for our blood from the inhabitants of the earth? And each of them was given a white robe, and they were told to rest yet a little while, until the numbers should be made up of their fellow servants and brothers, who were to be put to death as they were. Rev. 6:9-11.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 120 120. There were many reasons why, but for redemption by the Lord, injustice and wickedness would have spread throughout the Christian peoples in either world, spiritual as well as natural. One of these is that everyone after death comes into the world of spirits, and is then exactly like what he was before. No one on arrival can be prevented from talking with his dead parents, brothers, relations and friends. Every husband then first seeks out his wife, every wife her husband. By these contacts of both kinds they are brought into the company of people who look outwardly like sheep, but inwardly resemble wolves. They are able to corrupt even those who led religious lives. Thus, as a result of unspeakable tricks unknown in the natural world, that world is filled with wickedness, like a pool covered with a green slime of frogs’ spawn.

[2] The effect of keeping bad company there can be rendered plain to view by considering these parallels. If a person spends his time with thieves or pirates, he ends up by becoming like them; if he lives with adulterers and whores, he ends up by thinking adultery of no consequence. Again if he mixes with terrorists, he ends up by thinking nothing of using violence on anyone. All evils are contagious, and can be likened to a plague which infects people simply by their being exposed to the victims’ breath; or to a cancer or gangrene which spreads, and makes first the surrounding parts, and then those further and further away, rot, until the whole body is destroyed. It is the pleasures of evil, to which everyone is prone from birth, that cause this.

sRef John@15 @4 S3′ sRef John@15 @6 S3′ sRef John@15 @5 S3′ [3] Now these facts will establish that but for the redemption effected by the Lord no one could be saved, nor could the angels remain unharmed The sole refuge to avoid destruction is to betake oneself to the Lord, for He says:

Remain in me, and I in you. Just as the branch can bear no fruit by itself, but only if it remains part of the vine, so neither can you, unless you remain in me. I am the vine, you are the branches. He who remains in me and I in him bears much fruit, because without me you can do nothing. Unless a person abides in me, he is cast out and withers, and is thrown into the fire and burnt. John 15:4-6.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 121 121. (iii) THE LORD THUS REDEEMED NOT ONLY MEN, BUT ALSO ANGELS.

This follows from the statement in the previous section that without the Lord’s redemption neither could the angels have continued to exist. To the reasons given above the following may be added.

(1) At the time of the Lord’s first coming the hells had grown to such a height that they filled the whole world of spirits, which lies midway between heaven and hell. Thus the hells had not only thrown into confusion what is called the lowest heaven, but they had even attacked the middle heaven, which was being plagued in a thousand different ways, and but for the Lord’s protection would have been destroyed. Such an assault by the hells is what is meant by the tower built in the land of Shinar, the top of which reached to heaven. This attempt was stopped by the confusion of tongues, and its builders were scattered; the city was called Babel (Gen. 11:1-9) The meaning of the tower there and the confusion of tongues has been explained in ARCANA CAELESTIA, published in London.*

[2] The reason why the hells had grown to such a height was that at the time when the Lord came into the world, the whole globe had utterly alienated itself from God by the worship of idols and the practice of magic; and the church established among the Children of Israel, and at a later period among the Jews, had been totally destroyed by falsifying and adulterating the Word. All of both these parties came after death into the world of spirits, where they ended by so growing and multiplying that they could not be dislodged from there except by God Himself coming down, and then using the strength of His Divine arm. A description of how this took place was given in the short book THE LAST JUDGMENT published in London in 1758. This event was accomplished by the Lord during His time on earth. A similar act has been performed by the Lord at the present time, since, as stated above, now is His second coming, foretold throughout Revelation, in Matthew (24:3, 30), in Mark (13:26), in Luke (21:27), in the Acts of the Apostles (1:11) and elsewhere. The difference is that at His first coming the growth of the hells was due to worshippers of idols, sorcerers and falsifiers of the Word, but at His second coming it was due to the so-called Christians, both those who had been tainted with nature-worship and those who had falsified the Word by convincing themselves of their fictitious faith in three Divine Persons from eternity, and the Lord’s passion as being the real act of redemption. These are the people meant by ‘the dragon and his two beasts’ in Revelation (chapters 12 and 13).

[3] (2) The second reason why the Lord redeemed the angels too is that not only every man, but also every angel, is held back from evil by the Lord and kept in a state of good. For no one, whether angel or man, is of himself in a state of good, but all good is from the Lord. Thus when the angels’ footstool, which they have in the world of spirits, was snatched away, they suffered the same as someone sitting on a chair when the platform it stands on is removed. The angels are not pure in the sight of God, as is shown by the prophetical parts of the Word, and also from job, as well as from the fact that there is no angel who was not previously a man. These statements confirm what was said in the statement of faith of the new heaven and the new church set out both in universal and particular terms placed at the beginning of this book:

The Lord came into the world to take hell away from men, and He did this by fighting against hell and winning victories over it. In this way He subdued it and made it subject to His command.

Also the following passage:

Jehovah God came down and took upon Himself human form so as to reduce to order everything in heaven, [in hell] and in the church. For at that time the power of the devil, that is, of hell, was stronger than the power of heaven, and on earth the power of evil was stronger than the power of good, so that utter damnation stood threateningly at the gates. This impending damnation was removed by Jehovah God by means of His Human, and thus He redeemed angels and men.

These passages show that without the Lord’s coming no one could have been saved. The situation to-day is similar. So unless the Lord comes into the world again, no more can anyone be saved (see above 2, 3).
* Volume 1 (1749), 1283-1328.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 122 122. The Lord’s rescue of the spiritual world, and His forthcoming rescue by this means of the church from complete damnation can be illustrated by a comparison with a king, who, when his sons, the princes, have been captured by an enemy, cast into prison and held in chains, frees them by victories over the enemy and brings them back to his court. We may also use as a comparison a shepherd, who, like Samson or David, snatches his sheep from the jaws of a lion or bear, drives away the wild beasts that come out of the forests to raid the meadows, and pursues them to the furthest reaches, finally driving them into lakes or deserts; and then he comes back to his sheep and pastures them safely, and gives them drink from springs of limpid water. Another comparison might be with a person who sees a snake coiled up lying on a road, waiting for a chance to strike at the heel of a traveller; he grasps its head, and although it twists its head around to bite his hand, carries it home and there cuts its head off, throwing the remains into the fire. Another illustration would be a fiancee or husband, who, seeing an adulterer trying to force his fiancee or wife, attacks him, and either wounds his hand with his sword, or showers his legs and back with blows, or has his servants throw him into the street and chase him home with cudgels, so that he is able to bring the rescued woman to the bridal chamber. Bride and wife in the Word also mean the Lord’s church, and adulterers mean those who do violence to it; these are those who adulterate His Word. It is because the Jews did this that the Lord called them ‘an adulterous nation.’

TCR (Chadwick) n. 123 123. (iv) REDEMPTION WAS AN ENTIRELY DIVINE DEED.

If anyone knows the nature of hell, and how high it rose to flood the whole of the world of spirits at the time of the Lord’s coming, as well as the power the Lord used to cast it down and scatter it, and afterwards to reduce it, together with heaven, to order, it must make him cry out in wonder that that deed was entirely Divine. First, the nature of hell: it consists of myriads of myriads of spirits, since it contains all those who from the creation of the world have estranged themselves from God by wicked lives and false beliefs. Secondly, the height to which hell rose to flood the whole of the world of spirits at the time of the Lord’s coming has been described to some extent in the preceding paragraphs. No one has had knowledge of the situation at the time of the first coming, because it was not revealed in the literal sense of the Word; but I have been permitted to see with my own eyes the situation at the time of His second coming, and this allows some conclusions to be drawn about the earlier event. A description is contained in my short book THE LAST JUDGMENT, published in London in 1758; and, thirdly, this also shows the power the Lord used to cast down and scatter that hell. But it is superfluous to repeat here the eye-witness descriptions given there, since the book is available, and there is still a large stock of copies at the printer’s in London. Anyone who reads that can see clearly that it was the work of almighty God.

[2] Fourthly, I have not yet written a description of how the Lord reduced to order everything both in heaven and in hell, because the ordering of the heavens and the hells has continued from the time of the Last Judgment until the present day, and is still going on. But after the publication of this book, I shall publish this too, if there is a demand. For my part in this affair, I have seen day by day, and continue to see, the Lord’s Divine omnipotence, as it were face to face. This last action is really concerned with redemption, the earlier one is really part of the Last Judgment. Those who are prepared to look for this distinction can see that much which is concealed under metaphors in the prophetical parts of the Word is none the less a description of it, when the understanding is enlightened by the explanation of the correspondences.

[3] Both of these Divine actions can only be illustrated by. comparisons, and then only to a limited extent. A possible comparison might be with a battle against the armies of all the nations of the whole world equipped with spears, shields, swords, muskets and cannon, and led by skilled and cunning generals and officers. I say this because many in hell possess skills unknown in our world, and devote themselves to practising how they can attack, ambush, besiege and engage those who are from heaven.

[4] The Lord’s battle against hell can also be compared, though very imperfectly, with a battle against the wild beasts of the whole earth, in which they are killed or subdued, until not a single one dares to venture out and attack anyone under the Lord’s protection. If any of them shows a threatening face, it retires at once, as if it felt a vulture battening upon its breast in the attempt to break through to its heart. The Word too describes the spirits in hell as wild beasts, and this is also the meaning of the wild beasts among which the Lord spent forty days (Mark 1:13).

[5] It can also be compared with stemming the whole ocean, when it bursts the dykes and breaks into fields and towns with its waves. The subduing of hell by the Lord is also meant by His calming the sea, when He said ‘Hush, be still’ (Mark 4:38, 39; Matt. 8:26; Luke 8:23, 24). The sea there, as in many other passages, means hell.

[6] The Lord employs similar Divine power to-day to fight against hell in every person who is undergoing re-birth. For all these people are attacked by hell with devilish fury, and unless the Lord resisted and subdued hell, they would inevitably be overcome. For hell is like a single monstrous person, or a huge lion, another comparison found in the Word. So unless the Lord kept that lion or monster fettered hand and foot, that person would inevitably in trying to escape one evil fall into many others, one after another, of his own accord.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 124 sRef Rev@6 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@33 @20 S1′ 124. (v) THIS REDEMPTION COULD ONLY BE EFFECTED BY AN INCARNATE GOD.

The previous section showed that redemption was an entirely Divine deed, and consequently it could only have been accomplished by almighty God. The reason why it had to be by means of His incarnation, that is, by making Himself man, is that Jehovah God, as He is in His infinite essence, cannot approach hell, much less enter it, since He exists at the purest and first level. Therefore if Jehovah God, being in essence of that nature, were so much as to breathe upon those in hell, He would destroy them in an instant. For He said to Moses, when he desired to see God:

You cannot see my face, for no man shall see me and live. Exod. 33:20.

Since then Moses could not, far less can those in hell, where all are at the lowest, grossest and therefore most distant level, since they are the lowest of natural men. Therefore if Jehovah God had not taken upon Himself human form, and thus clothed Himself with a body at the lowest level, it would have been vain for Him to attempt any kind of redemption. For how can anyone attack an enemy, unless he comes to grips and equips himself with weapons to fight with? How can anyone drive off and destroy snakes, hydras and basilisks in some desert, unless he protects his body with armour and his head with a helmet, and takes a spear in his hand? Or how can anyone catch whales at sea, without a ship and equipment designed for the purpose? These and similar images are not so much a comparison as an illustration of almighty God’s battle with the hells, which He could not have started without first taking human form.

sRef Rev@6 @15 S2′ sRef Isa@2 @19 S2′ sRef Rev@6 @17 S2′ sRef Rev@6 @16 S2′ [2] But it needs to be known that the Lord’s battle with the hells was not a battle of words, like people arguing a point or disputing in a court of law. That sort of battle is quite ineffectual here. It was a spiritual battle, Divine Truth fighting with the strength of Divine Good, that is, the very life force of the Lord. No one in the hells can stand its effects when made visible. Its power is such that at a mere glance the spirits of hell take to their heels, hurl themselves into the depths and force themselves underground to hide from it. This is the same as is described by Isaiah:

They shall go into caverns in the rocks and into cracks in the dust, for fear of Jehovah, when He arises to terrify the earth. Isa. 2:19.

and in Revelation:

All shall hide themselves in caves in the rocks and in rocky mountains; and they shall say to the mountains and the rocks, Fall upon us and hide us from the face of Him that sits upon the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb. Rev. 6:15-17.

[3] What the Lord’s strength that He has from Divine good was like when He was effecting the Last judgment in 1757 can be proved by the descriptions given of that event in my small book on the subject.* For example, it tore from their places hills and mountains in the world of spirits, which spirits from hell had seized, transferred them to different locations and made some sink into the ground; it flooded towns, villages and their surrounding land, completely upheaved their fields and cast them together with their inhabitants into chasms, lakes and marshes, and much besides. All this was accomplished by the Lord alone by the power of Divine truth coming from Divine good.

* See 123.1.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 125 125. Various comparisons may be used as illustrations of the fact that Jehovah God could not set in motion and produce such results except through His Human. For instance, an invisible man cannot shake hands with or talk to anyone except someone who is visible; not even an angel or a spirit can do so with a person, although he stands next to him or right before his face. Neither can anyone’s soul talk or deal with another person, except by means of his own body. The sun cannot penetrate any person, animal or tree with its light and heat, unless it first penetrates the air and acts through it; likewise it cannot affect fish except through water.. It must act through the element in which the subject is. No more can anyone take the scales off a fish without* a knife, or pluck a crow without fingers; or go down into the depths of a lake without a diving bell. In short, each thing must be suited to the other before communication can be established, and work can be done either against or with it.

* The Latin has ‘with a knife’, but it is corrected in the author’s copy.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 126 aRef Rev@21 @4 S0′ 126. (vi) THE PASSION ON THE CROSS WAS THE LAST TEMPTATION WHICH THE LORD UNDERWENT AS THE GREATEST PROPHET; THIS WAS THE MEANS BY WHICH HE GLORIFIED HIS HUMAN, THAT IS, UNITED IT WITH HIS FATHER’S DIVINE; SO THIS WAS NOT IN ITSELF THE REDEMPTION.

The Lord had two purposes in coming into the world, redemption and the glorification of His Human; and by these He saved both men and angels. These two purposes are quite distinct, but still they are combined in effecting salvation. The nature of redemption was shown in the preceding paragraphs to be a battle against the hells, their subjugation and afterwards the ordering of the heavens. Glorification, however, is the uniting of the Lord’s Human with His Father’s Divine. This took place by stages and was completed by His passion on the cross. For every person ought for his own part to approach God, and the more nearly he does so, the more closely does God on His side enter into him. It is similar to the building of a church: its construction by human hands must come first, and then afterwards it must be consecrated, and finally prayers must be said for God to be present and unite Himself with its congregation. The reason why the actual union was fully achieved by the passion on the cross is that it was the last temptation which the Lord underwent in the world; and temptations create a link. In temptation it looks as if a person is left to himself, but he is not, since God is then most closely present in his inmost, and secretly gives him support. When therefore anyone is victorious over temptation, he is most inwardly linked with God, and in this case the Lord was most inwardly united with God His Father.

sRef John@10 @18 S2′ [2] The Lord’s being left to Himself, when He suffered on the cross, is evident from His cry then:

O God, why have you abandoned me? [Matt. 27:46]

as well as from these words of the Lord:

No one takes my life from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have the power to lay it down, and I have the power to take it back; this charge I received from my Father. John 10:18.

These passages then can prove that the Lord did not suffer in His Divine, but in His Human, and then a most inward and complete union took place. An illustration of this might be the fact that while a person is suffering physical pain, his soul feels nothing but is merely distressed. But when the victory is won, God takes away that distress, wiping it away as one does tears from the eyes.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 127 127. Redemption and the passion on the cross must be thought of as two distinct events; otherwise men’s minds will ground like a ship on sandbanks or rocks and sink, steersman, captain, crew and all, that is to say, it will go astray in all matters which concern salvation from the Lord. Without a clear view of these two distinct events a person is like one who sees imaginary things in a dream, and draws inferences from things he takes to be real, but are in fact absurd. Or he is like someone walking at night-time, and when he grasps the branches of a tree, thinks it is someone’s hair, so he comes closer and gets his own hair entangled. But although redemption and the passion on the cross are two distinct events, still they are combined in effecting salvation, since the Lord by His union with the Father, the result of His suffering on the cross, became the Redeemer for ever.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 128 sRef Luke@24 @26 S0′ sRef John@17 @5 S0′ sRef John@17 @1 S0′ sRef John@13 @31 S0′ sRef John@12 @27 S0′ sRef John@13 @32 S0′ sRef John@12 @28 S0′ 128. On the subject of glorification, meaning the uniting of the Lord’s Divine Human with the Father’s Divine, a union which was fully accomplished by the passion on the cross, the Lord Himself speaks in the Gospels:

After Judas had gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in Him. If God is glorified in Him, God will also glorify Him in Himself, and will glorify Him at once. John 13:31, 32.

Here the glorification is described both of God the Father and of the Son, for it says, ‘God is glorified in Him, and will glorify Him in Himself.’ It is plain that this means union.

Father, the time has come, glorify your Son, so that your Son too may glorify you. John 17:1, 5.

It is put thus because the union was reciprocal and, as is said, the Father was in Him and He in the Father.

Now my soul is vexed; and He said, Father, glorify your name. And a voice came out of heaven, I have glorified it, and I will do so again. John 12:27, 28.

This is said because the uniting took place by stages.

Did not Christ have to suffer this and enter upon His glory? Luke 24:26.

Glory in the Word referring to the Lord means the Divine truth united to Divine good. These passages show clearly that the Lord’s Human is Divine.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 129 sRef Deut@18 @18 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @57 S0′ sRef Deut@18 @17 S0′ sRef Deut@18 @19 S0′ sRef Luke@13 @33 S0′ sRef Luke@7 @16 S0′ sRef Deut@18 @16 S0′ sRef Matt@21 @11 S0′ sRef Deut@18 @15 S0′ 129. The reason why the Lord was willing to undergo temptations even to the point of suffering upon the cross, was that He was the Prophet, and prophets in ancient times meant the church’s doctrine from the Word; consequently they represented the church in its state at that time by the various unfair, harsh and even criminal acts imposed on them by God. However, since the Lord was the Word itself, by His passion on the cross as the Prophet He represented the way in which the Jewish church profaned the Word. Another reason was that He should thus be acknowledged in the heavens as the Saviour of both worlds. For all the details of His passion stand for details of the profanation of the Word; and the angels understand them spiritually, while men in the church do so naturally. The following passages establish that the Lord was the Prophet:

The Lord said, Nowhere is a prophet less honoured than in his native country and in his own home. Matt. 13:57; Mark 6:4; Luke 4:24. Jesus said, It is not fitting for a prophet to die outside Jerusalem. Luke 13:33.

Fear seized them all, and they praised God, saying that a great prophet had been raised up among them. Luke 7:16.

They called Jesus ‘The Prophet from Nazareth.’ Matt. 21:11; John 7:40, 41. It was said that a prophet should be raised up from among the brothers, whose words they were to obey. Deut. 18:15-19.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 130 sRef Ezek@12 @11 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @7 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @2 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @1 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @15 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @14 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @6 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @5 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @4 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @11 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @8 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @9 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @10 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @12 S0′ sRef Ezek@12 @6 S0′ sRef Ezek@12 @7 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @3 S0′ sRef Ezek@12 @5 S0′ sRef Ezek@4 @13 S0′ sRef Ezek@12 @3 S0′ sRef Ezek@12 @4 S0′ sRef Hos@1 @2 S0′ sRef 1Ki@20 @35 S0′ sRef Hos@1 @8 S0′ sRef 1Ki@20 @38 S0′ sRef 1Ki@20 @36 S0′ sRef Hos@1 @6 S0′ sRef Hos@1 @9 S0′ sRef 1Ki@20 @37 S0′ sRef Hos@1 @3 S0′ sRef Hos@1 @4 S0′ sRef Hos@1 @7 S0′ sRef Hos@1 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@20 @3 S1′ sRef Isa@20 @2 S1′ 130. The following passages establish that prophets represented the state of their church as regards doctrine from the Word, and living in accordance with that doctrine. The prophet Isaiah was commanded to strip the sackcloth from his loins and his shoe from his foot, and to go naked and barefoot for three years as a sign and a token (Isa. 20:2, 3). The prophet Ezekiel was commanded to represent the state of the church by packing his bags for an exile, and to move to another place in the sight of the Children of Israel; he was to bring out his baggage during the day, and go out in the evening through a hole in the house-wall; he was to cover his face so as not to see the ground, and thus he would be a token for the house of Israel, and he was to say, ‘Behold, I am your token; as I have done, so shall it be with you’ (Ezek. 12:3-7, 11). The prophet Hosea was commanded to represent the state of the church by taking a prostitute as a wife; he did so, and she bore him three children, one of whom he called Jezreel, the second No-pity, and the third Not-my-people. Again he was commanded to go and love a woman who was loved by another man, an adulteress; and he bought her (Hosea 1:2-9; 3:2, 3). Another prophet was commanded to put ashes on his eyes, and to allow himself to be struck and beaten (1 Kings 20:35, 38).

The prophet Ezekiel was commanded, in order to represent the state of the church, to take a brick and to draw a picture of Jerusalem on it; to lay siege to it, and make a rampart and a mound to attack it; to place an iron griddle between himself and the city; and to lie on his left side and on his right side. Also to take wheat, barley, lentils, millet and spelt, and to make bread from them; also to make a cake of barley mixed with human dung; and because he begged off this, he was allowed to make it with cow-dung. It was said to him:

Lie on your left side, and put the iniquity of the house of Israel upon it; for the number of days that you lie on that side, you shall carry their iniquity. For I will make you carry the iniquity of the house of Israel for a number of days equal to the years of their iniquity, namely, three hundred and ninety days. When you have completed this period, you are to lie a second time on your right side, to carry the iniquity of the house of Judah. Ezek. 4:1-15.

sRef Isa@53 @11 S2′ sRef Isa@53 @6 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @13 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @16 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@53 @4 S2′ [2] It is clear from what follows this passage that the prophet by these actions carried the iniquities of the house of Israel and the house of Judah, and did not remove and so expiate them, but merely represented and demonstrated them:

Thus said Jehovah, the Children of Israel shall eat their bread unclean. Behold, I break the staff of bread, so that they may lack bread and water, and they shall be desolate, a man and his brother, and they shall waste away because of their iniquity. Ezek. 4:13, 16, 17.

The meaning is similar where it is said of the Lord:

He bore our sicknesses, He carried our pains. Jehovah made the iniquities of us all to fall upon Him. By His knowledge He made many righteous, in that He carried their iniquities Isa. 53:4, 6, 11.

The whole of this chapter deals with the Lord’s passion.

[3] The details of the Lord’s passion show clearly that as the Prophet He represented the state of the Jewish church with regard to the Word. For example, His betrayal by Judas; His arrest and conviction by the chief priests and the elders; His being beaten; His head being struck with a reed; His crowning with a crown of thorns; the dividing of His garments, and the casting of lots for His tunic; His crucifixion; His being given vinegar to drink; His side being pierced; His burial and resurrection on the third day.

His betrayal by Judas meant that He was betrayed by the Jewish nation, which possessed the Word, since Judas represented that nation. His arrest and conviction by the chief priests and elders meant that the whole of that church so behaved. His being beaten, being spat upon in the face, being flogged and having His head struck with a reed meant their similar treatment of the Word as regards the Divine truths it contains. The crowning with thorn meant that they falsified and adulterated these truths. The dividing of His garments and throwing lots for His tunic meant that they threw to the winds all the truths of the Word, but not its spiritual sense, which is what the tunic meant. The crucifixion meant that they destroyed and profaned the whole Word. Their giving Him vinegar to drink meant that they offered only falsified truths, which is why He did not drink it. The piercing of His side meant that they utterly extinguished all the truth and all the good of the Word. His burial meant the rejection of all He had left from His mother. His resurrection on the third day meant His glorification, or the union of His Human with the Father’s Divine. From this it is now plain that ‘carrying iniquities’ does not mean removing them, but representing the profaning of truths in the Word.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 131 sRef John@10 @11 S0′ sRef John@10 @17 S0′ 131. These matters too may be illustrated by comparisons for the benefit of the simple, who see better from comparisons than from analysis and deductions drawn from the Word, or on the basis of reason. Every citizen or subject becomes devoted to his king by carrying out his orders and instructions, and the more so if he suffers hardship on his behalf, more still, if he gives his life for him, as happens in war and battles. Likewise friends are drawn closer together, or a son to his father, or a servant to his master, by carrying out his wishes; and the more so, if they defend them against their enemies, more still, if they fight to defend their honour. Everyone becomes attached to the girl he seeks as a bride, if he fights a duel with those who speak ill of her, and especially if the duel with his rival reaches the point of inflicting wounds. It is a law of nature that such events bring people together. The Lord says:

I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for his sheep, for which reason the Father loves me. John 10:11, 17.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 132 132. (vii) IT IS A FUNDAMENTAL ERROR ON THE PART OF THE CHURCH TO BELIEVE THAT THE PASSION ON THE CROSS WAS THE REAL ACT OF REDEMPTION. THAT ERROR, TOGETHER WITH THE ERRONEOUS BELIEF IN THREE DIVINE PERSONS EXISTING FROM ETERNITY, HAS SO PERVERTED THE WHOLE CHURCH THAT THERE IS NO REMAINDER OF SPIRITUALITY LEFT IN IT.

Is there any subject which does more to fill and pack the books of orthodox theology to-day, or any that is taught and driven home more zealously in colleges, and is more often preached and ranted about in pulpits, than the belief that God the Father in His anger with the human race not only drove it away from Him, but actually placed it under the ban of universal damnation, thus excommunicating it; but because He is gracious, He persuaded or impelled His own Son to come down and take upon Himself the sentence of damnation, so as to appease His Father’s anger; and it is only in this way that He is able to look upon man with any favour? They add that this too was accomplished by means of the Son, for instance, in order to take upon Himself the damnation of the human race, by allowing Himself to be flogged by the Jews, have His face spat upon, and then be crucified as accursed in the sight of God (Deut. 21:23). The Father was propitiated when this had been done, and through His love for His Son revoked the damnation, but only for those for whom the Son interceded, so that He became in perpetuity a Mediator with His Father.

[2] These and similar phrases ring through our churches to-day, re-echoing from the walls like the echoes in woodlands and filling the ears of all listeners. But is there anyone, whose reasoning faculty is enlightened and made whole by the reading of the Word, who cannot see that God* is mercy and clemency itself, since He is love itself and good itself, and these qualities are His essence? And that it is therefore a contradiction to say that mercy itself or good itself could look upon man in anger, and pass sentence of damnation on him, and still remain what He is in His Divine essence? Such actions can hardly be attributed to an upright person, but rather to a wicked one; nor to an angel of heaven, but rather to a spirit from hell. So it is an unspeakable crime to attribute such acts to God.

sRef Isa@28 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@28 @8 S3′ [3] But if one enquires the reason, it is this: people have taken the passion on the cross to be the real act of redemption. From that source these errors have flowed, just as one mistake produces a whole series, or as a jar of vinegar can only yield vinegar, or a disordered mind nothing but madness. The one deduction leads to other theories of the same type, for they lie hidden in the deduction, and come forth one after another. From the belief that the passion on the cross was the redeeming act, yet more scandalous and ignoble ideas about God can emerge and be extracted, until, as Isaiah says:

The priest and the prophet go astray through strong drink. They stumble in judgment, all the tables are covered with vomit brought up. Isa. 28:7, 8.

* The Latin text here inserts qui ‘who’, apparently in error.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 133 133. This idea of God and redemption has reduced the whole of theology from the spiritual to the lowest natural level, by attributing to God purely natural properties. Yet everything in the church depends upon the idea of God, and the idea of redemption, which makes one with salvation. For that idea is like the head which controls all actions in the body. So long as it is spiritual, everything in the church becomes spiritual too, and as long as it is natural, everything in the church becomes natural too. Therefore, since the ideas of God and redemption have become purely natural, that is, under the influence of the bodily senses, everything too is purely natural which the heads and members of the church have made traditional in their statements of dogma. The reason why this can produce nothing but falsity is that the natural man is continually acting in opposition to the spiritual, and so looks upon spiritual things as ghosts and illusions in the air. So it can be said that that sensual idea of redemption, and thus of God, has rendered the roads to heaven, leading to the Lord God the Saviour, beset by thieves and robbers (John 10:1, 8, 9); and that the doors of the temples have been thrown down, allowing dragons, owls, tziim and iyim* to come in and howl in discordant chorus.

[2] It is well known that this idea about redemption and God has been foisted into present-day faith. This prescribes that one should pray to God the Father to forgive sins on account of the crucifixion and the shedding of His Son’s blood, and to God the Son to pray and intercede for one, and to God the Holy Spirit to make one righteous and sanctified. What else is this but praying to three Gods, one after the other? How then can one think of the rule of God except in terms of aristocratic or hierarchical rule, or as it were a triumvirate such as there once was at Rome, only that instead of a triumvirate it should be called a triumpersonate?** What then is easier for the devil than, as the saying goes, to divide and rule – that is to destroy unanimity and stir up rebellious movements, at one time against one God, at others against another, as has actually happened from the time of Arius*** down to the present? And thus to dethrone the Lord God the Saviour, who has all power in heaven and on earth (Matt. 28:18), and enthrone instead one of one’s own supporters and give him worship, or, because it is taken away from him, to take away worship from the Lord Himself.

* Hebrew words perhaps meaning ‘howling creatures,’ used, e.g., in Isa. 34:14, Jer. 50:9, understood by the author as birds (CL 264.4).
** On two occasions in the first century BC Rome was governed by a triumvirate or committee of three; Swedenborg here invents the word ‘triumpersonate’ on the model of triumvirate.
*** i.e. the early fourth century.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 134 sRef Deut@21 @22 S0′ 134. At this point I shall insert more accounts of experiences, of which this is the first.

Once in the world of spirits I went into a church where there was a large congregation, and before the sermon they had a discussion on the subject of redemption. The church was square in plan without any windows in the walls, but with a large opening in the middle of the roof, allowing light from heaven to stream in, making the interior brighter than windows at the sides could have done.

While they were talking about redemption, a black cloud suddenly blew up from the north and covered the opening. This caused such thick darkness that people could not see one another, and hardly their hands in front of their faces. While they were standing struck dumb by this, the black cloud was split down the middle, and through the gap angels were seen, sent down from heaven to dispel the cloud in either direction, so that the church was filled with light again. The angels then sent down one of their number into the church to ask the congregation in their name the subject of their dispute, which had caused so dark a cloud to come over, block out the light, and spread darkness. They replied that they were talking about redemption, how this was effected by the passion of the Son of God on the cross, by which means He made expiation and rescued the human race from damnation and everlasting death.

To this the angel who has been sent down replied: ‘Why do you say “by the passion on the cross”? Explain why you say it was by that means.’

aRef Deut@21 @23 S2′ aRef Gala@3 @13 S2′ [2] Then a priest came forward and said: ‘I will give an orderly exposition of our knowledge and belief. These are that God the Father in His anger against the human race damned it and shut it out from the sphere of His clemency, declaring all its members condemned and accursed, and consigning them to hell. He was willing for His Son to take that sentence on Himself; the Son consented, and therefore came down, took human form, and allowed Himself to be crucified. He thus transferred to Himself the damnation of the human race; for we read “Cursed is everyone who hangs upon the wood of the cross.” The Son thus by His intercession and mediation appeased the Father; and then the Father out of His love for the Son, and as the result of witnessing His suffering on the cross, was moved to pity, and decreed that He would forgive men, “but only those to whom I impute your righteousness. These I will turn from sons of wrath and cursing into sons of grace and blessing, and I will make them righteous and save them. Let the rest remain as previously decreed, sons of wrath.” Such is our faith, and these things are what is meant by the righteousness which God the Father introduces into our faith, so that by itself it makes us righteous and saves us.’

[3] On hearing this the angel kept silent for some time, he was so astonished. But eventually he broke silence and spoke as follows: ‘Can the Christian world have become so mad, and have abandoned sound reason for such ravings, as to deduce the fundamental dogma of salvation from those paradoxes? Is there anyone who cannot see that this is diametrically opposed to the Divine essence itself, that is, to God’s Divine love and His Divine wisdom, and at the same time to His omnipotence and omnipresence? No decent master would treat his servants and maids like this; not even a wild beast would so treat its pups or young. It is unspeakable. Is it not contrary to His Divine essence to revoke the invitation given to every single member of the human race? Is it not contrary to the Divine essence to change the laws of order established from eternity, which prescribe that each person should be judged by the life he leads? Is it not contrary to the Divine essence to withdraw love and pity from any person, and more so from the whole of the human race? Is it not contrary to the Divine essence to be brought back to pitying by witnessing the Son’s suffering, and since it is the very essence of God to pity, to be brought back to His own essence? It is utter wickedness to think that He could ever depart from it, for He is His essence from eternity to eternity.

[4] ‘Is it not impossible to implant in anything, such as your faith, the righteousness of redemption, which in itself is a part of God’s omnipotence, and impute or assign it to a person, and without any other means to pronounce him righteous, pure and holy? Is it not impossible to forgive anyone his sins, or to make anyone new, regenerated and saved, simply by imputing righteousness to him, which would be turning unrighteousness into righteousness, and cursing into blessing? Could one thus turn hell into heaven, and heaven into hell, or the dragon into Michael, and Michael into the dragon, and so put a stop to the battle between them? What would it take but to withdraw the imputation of your faith from one person and give it to another? In that case we in heaven would go in fear for ever. Nor is it consistent with righteousness and judgment for one person to take another’s crime upon himself, so that the guilty should be held innocent, and the crime thus be purged. Is this not contrary to both Divine righteousness and human justice? The Christian world is still ignorant of the existence, even more so of the nature, of the laws of order that God introduced at the creation of the world; and that God cannot act contrary to order because that would be acting against Himself. For God is order itself.’

[5] The priest understood what the angel had said, because the angels up above poured down light from heaven. Then he gave a groan and said: ‘What are we to do? Everyone nowadays preaches and prays and believes this. Everyone is saying “Gracious Father, have mercy upon us and forgive us our sins for the sake of your Son’s blood, which He shed for us upon the cross.” Then they pray to Christ: “Lord, intercede for us”; and we priests add, “Send us the Holy Spirit.”‘

Then the angel said: ‘I have noticed that priests make ointments from a superficial understanding of the Word, which they smear on the eyes of those who have been blinded by their faith; or make up a poultice from the same source, which they place upon the wounds inflicted by their dogmas, but without healing them, since they have become chronic. So go to the man who is standing over there – and he pointed to me – he will teach you from the Lord that the passion on the cross was not the act of redemption, but the uniting of the Lord’s Human with the Father’s Divine. Redemption was the conquest of the hells and the ordering of the heavens; and had the Lord not performed these acts when He was in the world, no one on earth, nor anyone in the heavens, could have been saved. He will go on to teach you the laws of order, which were imposed from the time of creation, by which people must live to be saved. Those who live by them are counted among the redeemed and called the chosen.’

After this speech windows appeared in the sides of the church, brightness flooded in from all four quarters, and cherubs were seen flying in a radiance of light. Then the angel was lifted up through the opening in the roof to rejoin his companions, and we went away in a cheerful frame of mind.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 135 sRef Ex@33 @20 S1′ 135. The second experience.

On waking up one morning I saw the sun of the spiritual world shining brightly, and below it I saw the heavens at a great distance, as remote as the earth is from its sun. From these heavens inarticulate sounds were audible, which joined to form an intelligible utterance: ‘God is one, He is man and His dwelling is in that sun.’ This utterance passed down through the middle heavens to the lowest, and from there into the world of spirits, where I was; and I noticed that the angels’ idea of one God as it gradually descended was turned into the idea of three Gods. This observation induced me to start a conversation with those who thought of three Gods. ‘What a monstrous idea!’ I said, ‘Where did you get it?’

‘We think of three,’ they replied, ‘because this is how we grasp the idea of a Triune God, but still we do not allow it to pass our lips. In speaking we always say out loud that God is one. If we have a different idea in our minds, so be it, so long as it does not spill over and shatter the oneness of God when we speak. Even so, from time to time it does spill over, because it is within our minds, and at such times, if we were to speak out, we should say that there were three Gods. We take care to avoid this, so as not to become a laughing stock to our hearers.’

aRef Hebr@12 @24 S2′ aRef Hebr@8 @6 S2′ aRef 1Tim@2 @5 S2′ aRef Gala@3 @19 S2′ aRef Gala@3 @20 S2′ aRef Hebr@9 @15 S2′ [2] Then they began openly to speak as they thought. ‘Surely there are three Gods,’ they said, ‘since there are three Divine Persons, each of whom is God. We cannot think differently when the leader of our church quotes a whole bookcase full of his holy dogmas, ascribing to one creation, to a second redemption, to a third sanctifying; even more so when he attributes to each of them His own characteristic, which he says cannot be shared; and these are not merely creation, redemption and sanctifying, but also imputation, mediation and performance. Is there not then one God who created us and also imputes righteousness to us? Another who redeemed us, and also acts as mediator? And a third who puts into effect the imputation which is achieved through mediation, and also sanctifies us? Is there anyone who does not know that the Son of God was sent into the world by God the Father to redeem the human race, and thus become an expiator, mediator, propitiator and intercessor? And since He is identical with the Son of God from eternity, are there not two quite distinct Persons? And since these two Persons are in heaven, one sitting at the right hand of the other, must there not be a third Person, who puts into effect in the world the decrees issued in heaven?’

[3] On hearing this I said nothing, but thought to myself: ‘What idiocy! They do not have the slightest idea of what is meant by mediation in the Word.’

Then at the Lord’s command three angels came down from heaven and joined me, so that I could employ inward perception in speaking with those who thought of three Gods. I was especially enabled to speak about mediation, intercession, propitiation and expiation, the functions they attribute to the second Person, the Son, but only after He had become man; and His incarnation took place many centuries after creation, so that during this period these four means to salvation did not yet exist. So then God the Father was not propitiated, no expiation had been made for the human race, nor had anyone been sent from heaven to intercede and mediate.

sRef John@1 @18 S4′ sRef John@5 @37 S4′ [4] Then I spoke with them by means of the inspiration I had received. ‘Gather round,’ I said, ‘as many of you as can, and listen to what is meant in the Word by mediation, intercession, expiation and propitiation. These are the four things predicated of the grace of the one God in His Human. God the Father could under no circumstances be approached, nor can He approach any person, because he is infinite and in His Being (esse), which is Jehovah. If He approached anyone in that form, He would destroy him, as fire does wood, reducing it to ashes. This is plain from His reply when Moses desired to see Him: that no one can see Him and live (Exod. 33:20). The Lord too said that no one has ever seen God, except the Son who is in the Father’s bosom (John 1:18; Matt. 11:27); and again, that no one has heard the Father’s voice or seen His appearance (John 5:37). We do read that Moses saw Jehovah face to face, and spoke personally with Him; but this was done through an angel, and the same happened in the cases of Abraham and Gideon. Now because such is God the Father in Himself, He was pleased to take upon Himself human form, and in this to allow people to approach Him, so as to hear them and speak with them. It is this Human which is called the Son of God, and this it is which mediates, intercedes, propitiates and makes expiation. I shall tell you therefore what is the meaning of those four actions attributed to the Human of God the Father.

[5] ‘Mediation means that the Human is the intermediary by means of which a person can approach God the Father, and God the Father can approach him, and so teach and guide him to salvation. This is why the Son of God, meaning the Human of God the Father, is called the Saviour, and on earth Jesus, which means salvation. Intercession means continual mediation; for love itself, to which mercy, clemency and grace belong, continually intercedes, that is, acts as intermediary for those who obey His commandments, and whom He loves. Expiation means the removal of the sins into which everyone would rush, if he were to approach Jehovah without mediation. Propitiation means the working of clemency and grace, to prevent anyone consigning himself to damnation through sins; likewise, protection against profaning what is holy. This was the meaning of the Mercy Seat above the Ark in the Tabernacle.*

[6] ‘It is well known that in the Word God spoke in terms of appearances. For instance, He is said to be angry, take vengeance, tempt, punish, cast into hell, damn, in fact to do evil. Yet the truth is that He is angry with no one, never takes vengeance, tempts, punishes, casts anyone into hell or damns him. Such actions are as remote from God as hell is from heaven, or rather infinitely more so. This is why they are expressions of appearances. In another sense, expiation, propitiation, intercession and mediation are also expressions of appearances, meaning the characteristics of approach to God and of grace coming from God by means of His Human. Failure to understand these things has led people to divide God into three, and base all the church’s doctrine upon these three, thus falsifying the Word. This is the origin of the “abomination of desolation” which was predicted by the Lord in the book of Daniel, and further mentioned in Matthew, chapter 24.’

At the end of this speech the group of spirits around me broke up, and I noticed that those who were really thinking of three Gods were looking towards hell, and those who were thinking of one God, in whom is the Divine Trinity, which is in the Lord God the Saviour, were looking towards heaven. To this party there appeared the sun of heaven, in which is Jehovah in His Human.

* Exod. 25:17-22.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 136 sRef Mark@16 @19 S1′ 136. The third experience.

I saw in the distance five colleges, each of which was surrounded by radiance from heaven. The first college was surrounded by a purple light, such as is seen in the clouds on earth before the sun rises in the morning. The second was surrounded by a yellowish light, like that of the dawn after sunrise. The third was surrounded by a brilliant light, like that of mid-day on earth. The fourth was surrounded by a moderate light, like that of the afternoon when the shades of evening begin to fall. The fifth actually stood in the shades of evening-time. Colleges in the world of spirits are meeting places where scholars gather to discuss various mysteries, which are of use in their progress towards knowledge, intelligence and wisdom.

On seeing them I felt a desire to visit one of them, so being in the spirit I went to that which had the moderate light. I went in and saw a gathering of scholars debating the question, what is meant by what is said of the Lord, that He was lifted up into heaven and sits at the right hand of God (Mark 16:19).

[2] Most of the gathering said that they understood the words perfectly literally, to mean that the Son sat next to the Father. But they disputed why He did so. Some said that the Son has been placed by the Father on His right on account of the redemption which He accomplished. Some said that it was out of love that He was given that seat. Some said it was so that He should be His counsellor, because He is such as to be honoured by the angels. And some said because the Father had given Him power to reign in His stead, for we read that to Him is given all power in heaven and on earth. But a large number asserted it was to hear those on the right for whom He intercedes. For all in the church to-day approach God the Father and pray to Him to have mercy for the sake of the Son; this, they said, makes the Father turn to Him to hear His mediation. But some held that only the Son of God from eternity sits at the Father’s right to share His divinity with the Son of Man who was born in the world.

sRef John@14 @11 S3′ sRef John@14 @10 S3′ [3] On hearing this I was very surprised that learned men, although they had spent some time in the spiritual world, were still so ignorant of heavenly matters. But I could detect the reason, that they had such confidence in their own intelligence that they had not allowed themselves to learn from wise men. But to prevent them remaining any longer in ignorance about the Son’s sitting on the right hand of the Father I raised my hand, and asked them to listen to a few words which I wanted to say on the subject. As they agreed to this, I said: ‘Do you not know that the Word says that the Father and the Son are one, and that the Father is in the Son, and the Son in the Father? The Lord says so quite openly (John 10:30; 14:10, 11). If you do not believe this, you are dividing God into two; and this will inevitably make you think of God in a natural manner, or in the manner of the bodily senses, or even in material terms. This too has happened in the world since the time of the Council of Nicaea, which introduced the concept of three Divine Persons from eternity, and so turned the church into a theatre hung with curtains to act as scenery, in front of which actors played new scenes. Is there anyone who does not know and acknowledge that God is one? If you acknowledge this in your hearts and spirits, all your debate collapses of its own accord, and rebounds into the air, like nonsense from the wise man’s ear.’

sRef Isa@62 @8 S4′ sRef Ps@80 @15 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @35 S4′ sRef Matt@26 @64 S4′ sRef Luke@22 @69 S4′ sRef Ps@110 @2 S4′ sRef Ps@80 @17 S4′ sRef Isa@48 @13 S4′ sRef Ps@110 @1 S4′ [4] This speech made many of them very angry with me, and they wanted to tweak my ears and make me be silent. But the chairman of the meeting said indignantly: ‘We are not talking about the oneness and plurality of God, because we believe in both. The question is, what is implied by the Son sitting at His Father’s right hand; if you know anything about this subject, speak.’

‘I will,’ I replied, ‘but please put a stop to the uproar. Sitting at the right hand does not here mean sitting on the right, but it means God’s omnipotence by means of the Human which He took upon Himself in the world. This allows Him to operate at the last as well as at the first level. This enabled Him to enter, overthrow and conquer the hells, as well as to impose order on the heavens. It was by this that He redeemed men and angels, and He continues to do so for ever. If you consult the Word, and are of such a nature that you can receive illumination, you will see that “the right hand” here means omnipotence, as it does in [Isaiah and], the Psalms of David:

My hand has laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand has measured out the heavens. Isa. 48:13.

Jehovah* has sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength. Isa. 62:8. Your right hand upholds me. Ps. 18:35.

Pay heed to the Son, whom you have made strong for you, your hand for the man at your right, for the Son of Man whom you made strong for you. Ps. 80:15, 17.

This shows how the following passage should be understood:

The saying of Jehovah to my Lord, Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a foot-stool for your feet. Jehovah will send from Zion a sceptre to show your strength, rule in the midst of your enemies. Ps. 110:1, 2.

The whole of that Psalm describes the Lord’s battle with the hells and their conquest. Since “the right hand of God” means omnipotence, therefore the Lord says that He will sit “on the right hand of power” (Matt. 26:63, 64); and “on the right hand of the power of God” (Luke 22:69).’

[5] At this point I was interrupted by an uproar in the assembly; but I said: ‘Take care! There may perhaps appear from heaven a hand, such as appeared to me. If it does, it strikes unbelievable fear of its power into you. This proved to me that “the right hand of God” means omnipotence.’

Hardly had I said this, when a hand was seen stretched out beneath heaven. Its appearance struck such terror into them that they rushed pell-mell to the doors; some rushed to the windows to throw themselves out, some were unable to breathe and fainted. However, I was not terrified, so I stayed behind, and then walked slowly after them. When I looked back from a distance, I saw that the college was surrounded by a dark cloud; and I was told from heaven that this was because they had spoken from their belief in three Gods, and that its earlier light would return, when more sensible people gathered there.

* Corrected in the author’s copy from ‘God’ in keeping with the Hebrew.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 137 137. The fourth experience.

I was told that a council had been summoned, made up of people famous for their books and learning, to discuss the present state of faith, and how the chosen are made righteous by it. This took place in the world of spirits, and I was allowed to be present at it in the spirit. I saw a gathering of clergy, composed of both those who agreed and those who disagreed with this. On the right stood those who in the world were called the Apostolic Fathers, and lived in the period before the Council of Nicaea*. On the left stood men who since that time had been famous for their books, either, printed or copied in manuscript by apprentices. Many of these were clean-shaven and wore wigs made of curly women’s hair; some of them had rolled collars, some winged collars. The other party, however, had beards and their own hair.

In front of the two parties stood a man who was a judge and reviewer of worldly writings. He rapped for silence on the ground with a staff he held in his hand. Then he went up the steps to his chair of office, and uttered a groan; he intended to follow it with a loud cry, but the groan choked his breath back in his throat.

[2] At length he was able to speak as follows: ‘Brothers, what an age is this we live in! A person has arisen from the throng of laymen, one without the cap and gown of learning nor honoured with academic laurels, and has dislodged our faith from its place in heaven, and hurled it into the river Styx. What a dreadful crime! Yet that faith alone is our guiding star, shining like Orion by night, and like the Morning Star at dawn. For all his years that man is totally blind to the mysteries of our faith, because he has not opened it up to see in it the righteousness of our Lord and Saviour, and His mediation and propitiation; and not seeing these, he has failed too to see the wonders of how He makes us righteous, the remission of sins, regeneration, sanctifying and salvation. This man has taken away our faith with its outstanding saving power, because it is directed to three Divine Persons, and so to God in His totality, and concentrated it upon the Second Person – and not even all of that, but upon His Human. We do of course call this Divine as the result of the incarnation of the Son from eternity, but no one thinks of it as anything but purely human. And what then can come from this but a faith which is a plentiful source of nature-worship? That sort of faith, lacking spirituality, is little different from faith in the Vicar of Christ, or in a Saint. You know what Calvin in his time said about worship founded on that sort of faith. Will one of you please tell me, what is the source of faith? Surely it comes directly from God, in whom lies everything needed for our salvation?’

[3] At this his companions on the left, the party without beards, who wore curly wigs and a rolled collar about their necks, clapped their hands and shouted: ‘Most wisely spoken! We know that we cannot receive anything which is not given to us from heaven. Let that prophet tell us the source of faith, and what else faith is. It is impossible for it to be other or of other origin. It is as impossible to present any other faith, which truly is a faith, as it is to ride to some constellation in the sky, catch a star, and bring it back stored in one’s coat pocket.’ This speech was designed to make his companions laugh at any new sort of faith whatever.

aRef Ex@32 @0 S4′ [4] On hearing this the party on the right, who wore beards and had their own hair, became angry. One of them got up, an old man, though afterwards he appeared young, because he was an angel from heaven, where people of any age grow young again. He spoke and said: ‘I have heard what sort of faith you have, the faith that was so highly praised by the man who holds the chair of office. But what is that faith but our Lord’s tomb after the resurrection, when it was sealed again by Pilate’s troops? I opened it up and I could see nothing in it but some conjurers’ wands, which the wise men of Egypt used to perform their miracles. Rather, your faith is outwardly in your eyes like a bookcase of solid gold, set with precious stones, which when opened is empty, except perhaps for a little dust from the relics of Roman Catholics in its corners. For they have the same faith as you, only it is nowadays wrapped up in outward displays of holiness. To go on with comparisons, it is like the Vestal Virgin of antiquity, who allowed the sacred fire to go out, and was buried alive. I can assure you that in my eyes your faith is like the golden calf around which the Children of Israel danced, when Moses had gone away to climb Mount Sinai to Jehovah.

[5] ‘You need not be surprised at my using such comparisons to speak of your faith, because that is how we speak of it in heaven. On the other hand, our faith is, has been, and ever will be in the Lord God the Saviour, whose Human is Divine and whose Divine is Human. This makes it easy for us to accept, as uniting the Divine spiritual to the natural of men. So it becomes a spiritual faith at the natural level, and this makes the natural as it were translucent, as the result of the spiritual light which illuminates our faith. The truths of which it is made up are as numerous as the verses in Holy Writ; all its truths are like stars, which by their light show it forth and give it form. A person acquires faith from the Word by means of his own natural powers of enlightenment, which are based upon knowledge, thought and false belief. But with those who believe in the Lord, He turns these into conviction, trust and confidence. This makes the natural faith spiritual, and charity gives it life. This faith appears to us like a queen decked out with as many jewels as the wall of the Holy Jerusalem (Revelation 21:17-20).

sRef Colo@2 @9 S6′ sRef Acts@20 @21 S6′ sRef 1Joh@5 @20 S6′ sRef Matt@28 @18 S6′ [6] ‘But to prevent you believing that my words are mere exaggeration and consequently not to be taken seriously, I will read you some passages from the Holy Word, which will show plainly that our faith is not in a man, as you think, but in the true God, in whom is all that is Divine. John says:

Jesus Christ is the true God and everlasting life. 1 John 5:20.

Paul says:

In Christ all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily. Col. 2:9.

In the Acts of the Apostles:

Paul preached both to Jews and Greeks repentance toward God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. Acts 20:21.

The Lord Himself said that to Him was given “all power in heaven and upon earth” (Matt. 28:18). These are but a few quotations.’

[7] After this the angel looked at me and said: ‘You know what those who call themselves Evangelical believe, or should believe, about the Lord the Saviour. Recite some of their tenets, so that we can know whether they are so foolish as to believe that His Human is purely human, or whether they attribute any Divinity to it, and, if so, how.’

Then in front of the whole assembly I read out the following statements from the handbook of orthodoxy called ‘The Formula of Concord,’ published in Leipzig in 1756:

In Christ the Divine and the Human natures are so united as to make one Person. (pp. 606 762). Christ is truly God and Man in one undivided Person, and remains so for ever. (pp. 609 673, 762). In Christ God is Man and Man is God. (pp. 607, 765).

Christ’s human nature was raised to fully Divine majesty; this is also said by many of the Fathers. (pp. 844-852, 860-865, 869-878).

Christ as to His human nature is omnipresent and fills all space. (pp. 768, 783-5.)

Christ as to His human nature has all power in heaven and on earth. (pp. 775, 776, 780).

Christ as to His human nature sits at the right hand of the Father. (pp. 608, 764).

Christ as to His human nature is to be invoked; this is proved by quotations from Scripture (p. 226).

The ‘Confession of Augsburg’ gives the highest degree of approval to that mode of worship (p. 19).

[8] After reading these statements I turned to the man in the chair of office and said: ‘I know that everyone here is paired with someone like him in the natural world; please tell me whether you know who your colleague is.’

He answered in a solemn tone: ‘Yes. I am paired with a famous man** who is a leader of the noble troops of the church militant.’

Since he spoke in such a solemn tone, I said: ‘Forgive my asking, but do you know where this famous leader lives?’

‘Yes,’ he said, ‘not far from Luther’s tomb.’

I smiled at this and said: ‘Why do you say “his tomb”? Do you not know that Luther has risen again, and has now renounced his erroneous doctrines about justification by faith in three Divine Persons from eternity, and has therefore been transferred to live with the blessed of the new heaven, where he sees and laughs at those who follow him in this madness?’

‘I know this,’ he replied, ‘but how does it concern me?’

So then I addressed him in equally solemn tones: ‘Put the idea,’ I said, ‘into the mind of your famous man who is paired with you, that I am afraid that contrary to the orthodoxy of his own church, he then for the moment took His divinity away from the Lord, or allowed his pen to plough a furrow, in which he unwittingly planted the seeds of nature-worship, when he wrote an attack on the worship of the Lord our Saviour.’

To this he answered: ‘I cannot do this, because he and I are of almost one mind on this subject; but he does not understand what I say, while I have a clear understanding of everything he says.’ This was because the spiritual world enters into the natural world and perceives the thoughts of people there, but not the reverse. This is the nature of the association between spirits and men.

[9] Since I had now begun a dialogue with the holder of the chair, I said: ‘If I may, I should like to put in another question or two. Do you not know that Evangelical orthodoxy, as stated in their church’s handbook called ‘The Formula of Concord’, teaches that in Christ God is Man and Man is God, and that His Divine and His Human are in one undivided Person, and so remain for ever? How then could he, and how can you, defile the worship of the Lord with nature-worship?’

To this he answered: ‘This I know, and yet I do not know.’

So I went on and said: ‘I put the question to him, absent as he is, or to you in his place, what was the source of the soul of the Lord our Saviour? If you answer that it was from His mother, you are mad; if that it was from Joseph, you are doing violence to the Word; but if that it was from the Holy Spirit, you are right, so long as by the Holy Spirit you understand the Divine coming forth and working, so that He is the Son of Jehovah God.

[10] ‘I ask you again, what is the meaning of hypostatic union? If you answer that it is like a union between two, one of whom is above and the other below, you are mad, for in this way you could have made God the Saviour into two, just as you make God into three. But if you say that it is a union in one person, as between the soul and the body, you are right. This too is in accordance with your doctrine and that of the Fathers: see The Formula of Concord, pp. 765-768. See also the Athanasian Creed, which contains these words:

The correct belief is that we should believe and confess that our Lord Jesus Christ is God and Man; and though He is God and Man, there are not two, but there is one Christ. He is in every way one, not by confusion of substance, but by unity of Person. For just as the reasoning soul and the flesh make one man, so God and Man make one Christ.

sRef Jer@23 @5 S11′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S11′ [11] I ask yet further, what else was the abominable heresy of Arius, which led to the calling of the Council of Nicaea by the Emperor Constantine the Great, but a denial of the divinity of the Lord’s Human? Tell me further, whom you understand by these words in Jeremiah:

Behold, the days will come, when I shall raise up for David a righteous shoot, who will reign as King, and this will be his name, Jehovah our righteousness. Jer. 23:5, 6; 33:15, 16.

If you say the Son from eternity, you are mad; He was not the Redeemer. But if you say the Son born in time, who was the only-begotten Son of God (John 1:18; 3:16), you are right. He by His redeeming act became righteousness, on which you base your faith. Read too Isaiah 9:6 and other passages, which predict that Jehovah Himself was to come into the world.’

The holder of the chair kept silence at this and turned away his face.

sRef Matt@12 @30 S12′ [12] When this was over, the presiding officer intended to close the meeting with prayer, but from the party on the left there suddenly sprang out a man, who had a cap on his head and a hat on top of it. He put his finger to his hat and said: ‘I too am paired with a man in your world, who occupies a high position there.*** I know this because I can speak his mind like my own.’

‘Where,’ I asked, ‘does this eminent person live?’

‘At Goteborg,’ he replied. ‘I have on occasion gathered from his thoughts that your new doctrine smacks of Mohammedanism.’

At this I saw all the party on the right, where the Apostolic Fathers were standing, amazed and crestfallen, and heard exclamations rising from their minds to their lips: ‘What an abominable thing! What an age we live in!’

To allay their righteous anger I held up my hand and requested to be heard. When permission was given, I said: ‘I know that a man of the eminence you describe has written something of the sort in a letter, which was subsequently printed. But if he had then known what a grave slander it is, he would surely have torn it in pieces, and consigned it to the flames. That is the same sort of insult as was meant by the Lord’s words to the Jews, when they said that Christ performed His miracles by some other power than God’s (Matt. 12:22-32). In addition, the Lord also says there:

Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me, scatters. Matt. 12:30.

When I said this, his colleague lowered his gaze, but after a little raised it again to say: ‘I have never heard you speak so harshly.’

‘The reason,’ I replied, ‘is the two dogmas of nature-worship and Mohammedanism, which are criminal lies cunningly invented, and two lethal blows designed to lead men’s wills astray and repel them from the holy worship of the Lord.’ I then turned to the second colleague and said: ‘Tell the man in Goteborg if you can, to read the Lord’s words in Revelation 3:18, and also the passage at 2:16 of that book.’

[13] When I said that, uproar broke out; but it was quelled by a light which shone down from heaven. This induced many of the party on the left to cross over to those on the right. But those remained on the left whose thoughts were entirely vacuous, and who therefore hang on the lips of any teacher, as well as those who think of the Lord as wholly human. The light streaming down from heaven seemed to be reflected off both these last two groups, but to flow into those who crossed over from left to right.
* AD 325.
** The reference is to Dr Ernesti (1707-1781), who lived at Eisleben in Germany. He published a violent attack on Swedenborg, who replied briefly, referring to this passage. See ‘Small Theological Works and Letters,’ ed. Elliot, p. 197.
*** This may refer to Dr O. A. Ekebom, Dean of Goteborg in Sweden in 1761.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 138 138. CHAPTER THREE

THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE WAY GOD WORKS

On entering the spiritual world, which generally happens on the third day after death, all ordained priests, who have had a fairly correct idea of the Lord our Saviour, are first taught about the Divine Trinity; and in particular that the Holy Spirit is not God in His own right, but when mentioned in the Word means the Divine activity which proceeds from the one omnipresent God. The reason why they particularly need to be taught about the Holy Spirit is that most of those who claim inspiration fall after death into the crazy fancy that they are themselves the Holy Spirit. Another reason is that many in the church, who while in the world believed that the Holy Spirit spoke through them, frighten other people by quoting the Lord’s saying in Matthew, that speaking against what they say by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit is an unforgivable sin (Matt. 12:31, 32). Those who after receiving instruction abandon their belief that the Holy Spirit is God in His own right, are then told about the oneness of God, that He is not divided into three Persons, each of which is individually God and Lord, as the Athanasian Creed asserts, but that the Divine Trinity is contained in the Lord the Saviour, just as soul, body and the power they exert are in any human being. They are then prepared to receive the faith of the new heaven, and when this preparation is complete, the way is opened for them to reach a community in heaven which has a similar faith, and they are given a place to live with their companions, with whom they are destined to live in a blessed state to eternity.

Now having dealt with God the Creator and the Lord the Redeemer, I must deal with the Holy Spirit. This subject, like the previous ones, needs to be split up into a series of propositions, as follows:

(i) The Holy Spirit is Divine Truth, and also the Divine power and activity which proceeds from the one God, in whom is the Divine Trinity, and so from the Lord God the Saviour.
(ii) The Divine power and activity meant by the Holy Spirit are, generally speaking, reformation and regeneration, which lead to renewal, quickening, sanctification and justification; and these lead to purification from evils and the forgiveness of sins, and ultimately to salvation.
(iii) The Divine power and activity meant by the sending of the Holy Spirit, with the clergy takes the particular form of enlightenment and instruction.
(iv) The Lord confers these benefits on those who believe in Him.
(v) The Lord works of Himself from the Father, and not the reverse.
(vi) A person’s spirit is his mind, and whatever comes from it.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 139 139. (i) THE HOLY SPIRIT IS DIVINE TRUTH, AND ALSO THE DIVINE POWER AND ACTIVITY WHICH PROCEEDS FROM THE ONE GOD, IN WHOM IS THE DIVINE TRINITY, AND SO FROM THE LORD GOD THE SAVIOUR.

The Holy Spirit means properly the Divine Truth, so also the Word; and in this sense the Lord is Himself also the Holy Spirit. But the present-day church uses the term ‘Holy Spirit’ to describe the way God works, that is, the actual process of making a person righteous, so this is the meaning given here to the Holy Spirit, and this will be the principal subject discussed. Another reason is that the activity of God takes place by means of the Divine Truth which proceeds from the Lord; and that which proceeds is of one and the same essence as He from whom it proceeds. This is like the trio of soul, body and what proceeds making up a single essence, which in the case of a human being is purely human, but in the case of the Lord is Divine and human at the same time, these essences after His glorification being united as what is prior is with what follows from it, or like essence and the appropriate form. So the three essentials called the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit are one in the Lord.

sRef Isa@11 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@59 @19 S2′ sRef Isa@59 @20 S2′ sRef Isa@11 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@11 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@11 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@61 @1 S2′ [2] I showed before that the Lord is the Divine Truth itself or Divine Verity. The following passages will prove that the Holy Spirit is Divine Truth.

A shoot will come forth from the stock of Jesse. The spirit of Jehovah will rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and intelligence, the spirit of counsel and power. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked. Righteousness will be the belt around his loins, and truth the belt around his thighs. Isa. 11:1, 2, 4, 5.

He shall come like a narrow stream, the spirit of Jehovah shall advance his standard against him, then shall the Redeemer come from Zion. Isa. 59:19, 20.

The spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon me. Jehovah has anointed me. He has sent me to preach the gospel to the poor. Isa. 61:1; Luke 4:18.

This is my covenant. My spirit which is upon you and my words shall not depart from your mouth from now on for ever. Isa. 59:21.

sRef John@16 @15 S3′ sRef John@14 @17 S3′ sRef John@16 @7 S3′ sRef John@16 @13 S3′ sRef John@14 @16 S3′ sRef John@14 @18 S3′ sRef Isa@59 @21 S3′ sRef John@16 @14 S3′ sRef John@14 @19 S3′ sRef John@15 @26 S3′ [3] Since the Lord is Truth itself, then everything that proceeds from Him is truth, and this is what is meant by the Comforter, who is also called the Spirit of Truth and the Holy Spirit. The following passages will prove this:

I tell you the truth, it is to your advantage that I should go away. For if I were not to go away, the Comforter will not come to you. But if I go away, I will send him to you. John 16:7.

When the Spirit of Truth comes, he will lead you to all truth. He will not speak of himself, but will say whatever he has heard. John 16:13.

He will glorify me, because he will take from what is mine and communicate it to you. All things that the Father has are mine. This is why I have said that he will take from what is mine and communicate it to you. John 16:14, 15.

I will ask the Father to give you another Comforter, the Spirit of truth, which the world cannot receive, because it neither sees nor knows him. But you know him, because he remains with you and will be in you. I shall not leave you bereft, I am coming to you and you will see me. John 14:16-19.

When the Comforter comes whom I shall send you from the Father, the Spirit of truth, he will bear witness about me. John 15:26.

He is called the Holy Spirit. John 14:26.

sRef Matt@28 @20 S4′ [4] The Lord meant Himself by ‘the Comforter’ or ‘the Holy Spirit’, as is clear from His own saying about the world not yet knowing him, ‘But you know Him’; ‘I will not leave you bereft, I am coming to you’; ‘You will see Me’; and elsewhere ‘Behold I am with you every day until the ending of the age’ (Matt. 28:20). This is further shown by the expression ‘He will not speak of Himself, but that which He receives from me.’

TCR (Chadwick) n. 140 sRef Matt@1 @20 S0′ sRef John@20 @22 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @35 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef Matt@1 @25 S0′ sRef John@7 @39 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ 140. Now because the Holy Spirit means the Divine truth, and this was in the Lord Himself and was the Lord Himself (John 14:6), and so because the Holy Spirit could not proceed from any other source, it is said:

The Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified. John 7:39.

and after His glorification:

He breathed on His disciples and said, Receive the Holy Spirit. John 20:22.

The reason why the Lord breathed on the disciples and said this was that breathing on was the external sign standing for inspiration by God; and inspiration means being brought into contact with communities of angels. This will allow the understanding to grasp what the angel Gabriel said about the Lord’s conception:

The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; so that the holy thing that is born of you will be called the Son of God. Luke 1:35.

Also:

The angel of the Lord said to Joseph in a dream, Do not be afraid to take Mary as your betrothed, for what is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit; and Joseph did not touch her until she had given birth to her first-born son. Matt. 1:20, 25.

The Holy Spirit stands there for the Divine truth proceeding from Jehovah the Father; it was this that came forth which was ‘the power of the Most High’ which overshadowed His mother. So this statement tallies with what John says:

The Word was with God, and the Word was God; and the Word was made flesh. John 1:1, 14.

For a demonstration that the Word there means the Divine truth see the Faith of the New Church (3 above).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 141 141. It was shown above that the Divine Trinity is in the Lord, and this will be further amplified in a following passage devoted to the subject of the Trinity [163-188]. Here I propose only to point out some of the absurdities which result from dividing that Trinity into persons. It would be as if a minister of the church were to teach from the pulpit what people should believe and do, and have another minister standing next to him whispering in his ear: ‘You are right to say that, and add a little more too’; and these then say to, a third standing on the steps: ‘Go down into the church, open the ears of the people and pour this out into their hearts, at the same time making them pure, holy and pledges of righteousness.’

A Divine Trinity divided into persons, each of which is by Himself God and Lord, is like having three suns in one world, one up high next to the second, and a third down below bathing angels and men with its radiation, and transmitting the heat and light of the other two in all their power to their minds, hearts and bodies, sharpening them like fire in a retort clarifying and sublimating matter. Anyone can see that, if this happened, man would be burnt to a cinder.

The rule of three Divine persons in heaven again would be like having three kings ruling in one kingdom; or having three generals of equal rank controlling one army; or better, like the Roman government before imperial times, when they had a consul, the senate and a tribune of the people, with power so divided between them that supreme authority was in the hands of all at once. Anyone can see that it is absurd, ridiculous and crazy to introduce that sort of government into heaven. Yet this is what those do who attribute the power of the supreme consul to God the Father, the power of the senate to the Son, and the power of the tribune of the people to the Holy Spirit. This is what happens if each is assigned his own peculiar office, and even more so if it is also asserted that these peculiar characteristics cannot be shared.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 142 142. (ii) THE DIVINE POWER AND ACTIVITY MEANT BY THE HOLY SPIRIT ARE, GENERALLY SPEAKING, REFORMATION AND REGENERATION, WHICH LEAD TO RENEWAL, QUICKENING, SANCTIFICATION. AND JUSTIFICATION; AND THESE LEAD TO PURIFICATION FROM EVILS AND THE FORGIVENESS OF SINS, AND ULTIMATELY TO SALVATION.

This is the series of virtues which the Lord produces in those who believe in Him, adapting and making themselves suitable for Him to be received and dwell in them. This is done by means of the Divine truth, and in the case of Christians by the Word; for this is the one and only means which allows a person to approach the Lord, and allows the Lord to come in to him. For, as stated before, the Lord is Divine truth itself, and so is whatever proceeds from Him. But it must be understood as Divine truth acting from good, which is the same as faith inspired by charity; for faith is nothing but truth, and charity is nothing but good. It is by means of Divine truth acting from good, in other words by means of faith inspired by charity that a person’s reformation and regeneration is effected, and by this means too he is renewed, quickened and made holy and righteous. As all these processes advance and increase, he is cleansed from evils, and this cleansing is what is meant by the forgiveness of sins.

All of these processes effected by the Lord cannot here be discussed one by one, because each demands its own particular analysis, which must be proved from the Word and have light shed on it by the faculty of reason, and this is not the place for it. The reader is therefore referred to the following chapters of this book, which will deal in turn with charity, faith, free will, repentance, reformation and regeneration. It should be known that the Lord continually effects these means of salvation in the case of each individual, for they are steps to heaven, and the Lord desires the salvation of everyone. Thus the salvation of everyone is the end the Lord has in view, and to will the end is to will the means. His coming, redeeming and passion on the cross were all for the sake of man’s salvation (Matt. 18:11; Luke 19:10). So because man’s salvation was and ever will be His end, it follows that the various activities listed above are the mediate ends, and salvation is the ultimate end.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 143 sRef Ps@51 @12 S0′ sRef Ezek@36 @26 S0′ sRef Ps@51 @10 S0′ sRef Zech@12 @1 S0′ sRef Isa@26 @9 S0′ sRef Ezek@18 @31 S0′ sRef Ezek@36 @27 S0′ 143. The production of those virtues is the province of the Holy Spirit, whom the Lord sends to those who believe in Him and make themselves fit to receive Him. This is what is meant by the Spirit in these and other passages:

I will give you a new heart and a new spirit, I will put my spirit within you, and make you walk according to my statutes*. Ezek. 36:26, 27; 11:19.

Create a clean heart in us, o God, and make new a steadfast spirit within me. Bring back to me the joy of your salvation, and let the Spirit which acts of its own accord uphold me. Ps. 51:10, 12.

Jehovah forms the spirit of man within him. Zech. 12:1.

With my soul I have waited for you by night, and with my spirit within me I have waited for you in the morning. Isa. 26:9

Make yourselves a new heart and a new spirit. Why will you die, o house of Israel? Ezek. 18:31.

In these passages a new heart means the will to do good, and a new spirit the understanding of truth. It is clear from what it says there that the Lord effects these things with those who do good and believe the truth, that is, those who have the faith of charity, when it says that God gives breath to those that walk according to His statutes*, and that it is called ‘the Spirit which acts of its own accord.’ It is clear that man must take action on his own side from the words, ‘Make yourselves a new heart and a new spirit. Why will you die, o house of Israel?’

* The Latin has ‘in the way of salvation’, but this is corrected in the author’s copy.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 144 144. We read that when Jesus was baptised, the heavens were opened and John saw the Holy Spirit coming down in the form of a dove (Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 3:21; John 1:32, 33). This was because baptism stands for regeneration and cleansing, and so does a dove. How can anyone fail to see that the dove was not the Holy Spirit, nor was the Holy Spirit in the dove? In heaven doves are often to be seen, and the angels know that, when they are, they are correspondences of affections and consequently of thoughts about regeneration and cleansing in the minds of some bystanders. So as soon as they approach them and engage them in conversation about any subject other than what they were thinking about when they appeared, the doves immediately vanish. This is similar to many of the visions seen by the prophets, as for instance John’s vision of the Lamb on Mount Zion (Rev. 14:1 and elsewhere).

sRef Matt@3 @11 S2′ sRef John@3 @5 S2′ [2] Is there anyone who does not know that the Lord was not the Lamb, nor in it, but that the Lamb was a representation of His innocence? This makes clear as daylight the error of those who deduce the three persons of the Trinity from the dove seen over the Lord at His baptism, and the voice then heard from heaven saying, ‘This is my beloved Son.’ The way the Lord brings about a person’s regeneration by faith and charity is meant by what John the Baptist said:

I baptise you with water for repentance, but he who will come after me will baptise with the Holy Spirit and with fire. Matt. 3:11; Mark 1:8; Luke 3:16.

To baptise with the Holy Spirit and with fire is to regenerate by means of the Divine truth of faith and by means of the Divine good of charity. The following words of the Lord have a similar meaning:

Unless a person has been born by water and the spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God. John 3:5.

Water here as elsewhere in the Word means truth in the natural or external man; spirit means truth arising from good in the spiritual or internal man.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 145 145. Now since the Lord is Divine truth itself coming from the Divine good, and this is His essence, and since everyone acts as he does by reason of his essential nature, this proves that it is constantly the Lord’s will to implant truth and good, that is, faith and charity, in every person, and His will could not be any different. Many things in the world can be used to illustrate this. For instance, everyone’s will and thought, and, as far as can be, his speech and actions, are the product of his essential nature. For example, a loyal person has loyal thoughts and intentions, an honest, upright, pious or religious person has honest, upright, pious or religious thoughts and intentions; on the other hand a proud, cunning, deceitful or greedy person has thoughts and intentions which match his essential nature. The clown has no wish but to raise laughs, the fool none but to gabble the opposite of wise sayings. In brief, an angel’s plans and efforts are all heavenly, a devil’s all hellish.

[2] It is much the same with all the creatures of lower rank in the animal kingdom, for instance, birds, beasts, fish, flying and earth-bound insects. Each of these can be recognised by its essential nature, and each has instincts which are derived from and in accordance with its nature. Likewise in the vegetable kingdom, every tree, every shrub and every vegetable can be recognised by its fruit and seed, in which its essential nature is innate. Nor can they produce anything but what is their own and like them. Indeed it is its essential nature which allows us to judge every kind of soil or clay, every stone, precious as well as ordinary, every mineral and metal.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 146 sRef Acts@2 @3 S0′ sRef Acts@2 @4 S0′ 146. (iii) THE DIVINE POWER AND ACTIVITY MEANT BY THE SENDING OF THE HOLY SPIRIT, WITH THE CLERGY TAKES THE PARTICULAR FORM OF ENLIGHTENMENT AND INSTRUCTION.

The activities of the Lord listed in the preceding section, reformation, regeneration, renewal, quickening, sanctification, justification, cleansing, the forgiveness of sins and finally salvation, are sent by the Lord to affect the clergy as well as laymen, and they are received by those who are in the Lord and have the Lord in them (John 6:56; 14:20; 15:4, 5). The reason why enlightenment and instruction are especially given to the clergy is that these things are a part of their duties, and that ordination into the ministry carries these with it. The clergy also believe that, when zeal leads them to preach, they are inspired like the Lord’s disciples, on whom He breathed and said:

Receive the Holy Spirit. John 20:22; see also Mark 13:11.

Some even assert that they have felt it flowing into them. But they should take extreme care not to be convinced that the zeal, by which many are carried away while preaching, is God working in their hearts. For similar or even more ardent zeal is felt by fanatics and also by those who hold the falsest doctrines, even by those who care not a whit for the Word, but worship nature as god, and pack faith and charity away in the knapsack on their backs. When they are preaching and teaching they hang it round their necks like a sort of second stomach, from which they bring up and regurgitate such things as they know will appeal to their listeners’ appetites.

Zeal considered in itself is an outburst of heat in the natural man. If it has the love of truth in it, then it is like the holy fire which affected the Apostles, as we read in Acts:

There appeared divided among them tongues as it were of fire, which settled upon each of them; and they were thus all filled with the Holy Spirit. Acts 2:3, 4.

But if that zeal or outburst of heat has the love of falsity lurking within it, then it is like fire smouldering in a log, which bursts out and sets fire to the house. Do you, reader, if you deny the holiness of the Word and the divinity of the Lord, please take your knapsack off your back and open it, which you are free to do at home, and then you will see. I know that those from Babel, who are meant by Lucifer in Isaiah, on entering a church, and even more when climbing into a pulpit, especially those who call themselves members of the Society of Jesus, are carried away by a zeal which in many cases comes from a hellish love; and this makes them cry out more violently and heave deeper sighs from their chests, than those whose zeal comes from heavenly love. There are two more ways in which the spirit works upon the clergy, which will be mentioned later (155).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 147 147. The church up to now has been almost totally ignorant of the fact that a person’s every wish and thought, and consequently every action and utterance, has an internal and an external side, and people are taught from childhood to speak in accordance with the external side, no matter how much the internal disagrees. This is the origin of pretence, insincerity and hypocrisy. It follows that people are duplicitous, and the only man who is simple is the one whose external thinks and speaks, and wills and acts, in accordance with the internal. It is these people who are meant in the Word by the simple (e.g. Luke 8:15, 11:34, etc.), although they are wiser than the duplicitous. Every created thing is double or triple, as can be proved from the human body. Every nerve is composed of fibres, every fibre of fibrils; every muscle of bundles of fibres, and these bundles are composed of motor fibres; every artery is composed of a triple series of tunics. It is the same in the human mind, which is spiritually organised in the same way, because, as stated before, the human mind is divided into three levels. The highest, which is also the inmost, is called celestial, the middle spiritual, and the lowest natural. The minds of all who deny the holiness of the Word and the Lord’s divinity think on the lowest level. But because they have also learned from childhood the church’s teaching on spiritual matters, and they accept these though they subordinate them to natural matters – that is, various facts, political and civil behaviour – and since these lie at the bottom of the mind, ready to hand when speaking, they can draw on these when speaking in churches and meetings. The extraordinary thing is that they are then quite unaware that they are speaking and teaching otherwise than in accordance with their belief. Yet the truth is that when they are left to themselves, as they are at home, the door which blocked off the internal of their mind is thrown open, and then they sometimes laugh at what they said when speaking in public, saying in their hearts that theology is a collection of specious traps for catching doves.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 148 148. The internal and external of such people can be compared to poisonous substances coated with sugar; or to the gourds which the prophets’ lads gathered and put in their porridge, so that when they came to eat it, they cried, ‘Death in the pot’ (2 Kings 4:38-41). Another possible comparison is with the beast from the land*, which had two horns like a lamb’s and which had a voice like a dragon’s (Rev. 13: 11). Later on the beast is called ‘the false prophet.’ Such people are like brigands in town among well-behaved citizens, who so long as they are there behave properly and speak reasonably, but when they return to the forest are wild beasts; or again like pirates who behave like human beings ashore, but like crocodiles at sea. Both of these groups, while they are ashore or in town, walk around like panthers dressed in sheepskins; or like monkeys dressed in human clothing, with a mask of a human face tied in front of their faces.

[2] They can also be likened to a prostitute who steeps herself in perfume, makes up her face with rouge, and dresses in white silk with a floral pattern; but when she returns home, she strips in front of a lascivious audience** and infects them with her contagion. Years of experience in the spiritual world have taught me that those who in their hearts deny the holiness of the Word or the divinity of the Lord are like this; for in that world all are at first kept in their external forms, but later on they are exposed in their internal forms, and then the comedy turns into tragedy.

*The Latin has ‘from the sea’, but this is not in this passage, but Rev. 13:1
**Latin luperci, the name of the ancient Roman worshippers of a fertility god.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 149 sRef Rev@12 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@12 @11 S0′ sRef Rev@19 @10 S0′ 149. (iv) THE LORD CONFERS THESE BENEFITS ON THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN HIM.

The Lord confers these benefits, which are meant by the sending of the Holy Spirit, on those who believe in Him. That is to say, He reforms them, regenerates them, renews, quickens, justifies and cleanses them from evils, and so eventually saves them. This is proved by all the passages in the Word which attribute salvation and everlasting life to those who believe in the Lord, and which were quoted before (107). In addition there is this:

Jesus said, If anyone believes in me, as the Scripture says, streams of living water will flow from his belly; He said this about the spirit, which those who believe in Him are to receive. John 7:38, 39.

Also this:

The witness of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. Rev. 19:10.

The spirit of prophecy means the truth of doctrine drawn from the Word. Prophecy always means doctrine, and to prophesy means to teach it; the witness of Jesus means confessing one’s faith in Him. His witness has a similar meaning in this passage:

Michael’s angels defeated the dragon by the blood of the Lamb, and the word of their* witness. And the dragon departed, to make war on the remainder of His seed, who kept the commandments of God, and bear witness to Jesus Christ. Rev. 12:11, 17.

* ‘His’ in the Latin, but corrected in the author’s copy.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 150 150. Those who believe in the Lord Jesus Christ are to receive those spiritual benefits, because He Himself is salvation and everlasting life. He is salvation, because He is the Saviour, for this is the meaning of His name Jesus; He is everlasting life, because those in whom He is, and who are in Him, have everlasting life. This is why He is called everlasting life in 1 John 5:20. Now since He is salvation and everlasting life, it follows that He is also every means which leads to salvation and everlasting life. Thus He is the whole of reformation, regeneration, renewal, quickening, sanctification and justification, cleansing from evils, and finally salvation. In the case of every single person the Lord confers these benefits, or rather, He attempts to impart them; and when a person makes himself ready and suitable to receive them, He does impart them. The activity of readying and making oneself suitable comes from the Lord too, but if the person does not receive them with spontaneity of spirit, then the Lord cannot go beyond the attempt to introduce them, and this attempt is constantly kept up.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 151 151. Believing in the Lord is not just a matter of acknowledging Him, but includes keeping His commandments. Merely to acknowledge Him only demands some thought on the part of the understanding, but to keep His commandments requires acknowledgment too on the part of the will. The human mind is made up of the understanding and the will. It is the function of the understanding to think, of the will to act. So as long as a person’s acknowledgment is merely in thought on the part of the understanding, he approaches the Lord with no more than half his mind; but when he acts, then he does so with his whole mind, and that is what believing is. Otherwise a person can split his heart in two, and force its surface to soar aloft, while its flesh sinks downwards; and so he flies like an eagle between heaven and hell. Yet he does not follow his gaze, but the delights of the flesh; and since they lie in hell, he flies down there, and after indulging in his pleasures there and tasting the demons’ new wine, he puts on a jolly face, and his eyes sparkle as if with fire, so as to impersonate an angel of light. This is the satanic appearance after death of the people who acknowledge the Lord, but do not keep His commandments.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 152 152. In an earlier paragraph [150] it was shown that the salvation of men and their everlasting life are the Lord’s first and last ends in view. Since the first and last ends contain within them the intermediate ends, it follows that the spiritual benefits described above are at the same time in the Lord, and in people by the Lord’s gift, but they still come forth one after the other. For the human mind grows as the body does, but the one grows in size, the other in wisdom. The mind too is lifted from one level to another, from the natural to the spiritual, and from this to the celestial. At this level a person is wise, at the spiritual intelligent, at the lowest level knowledgeable. But this lifting of the mind happens only from time to time, as a person acquires truths and links them to good. This is like building a house: first of all one buys the materials for it, such as bricks, tiles, planks and beams, and then one lays the foundations, builds the walls, partitions the interior to make rooms, provides them with doorways, puts windows in the walls and constructs stairs from one floor to the next. All of these things are at the same time contained in the end in view, which is the comfortable and dignified dwelling which the builder foresees and provides. It is similar when a church is being built; all the details of its construction are contained in the end, which is the worship of God. It is the same with all other plans, for instance for gardens and farms, as well as official positions or businesses; the end in view equips itself with the supports necessary to its accomplishment.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 153 sRef John@14 @13 S0′ sRef John@14 @14 S0′ sRef John@15 @26 S1′ sRef John@16 @7 S1′ sRef John@16 @14 S1′ sRef John@20 @22 S1′ sRef John@7 @39 S1′ sRef John@16 @13 S1′ sRef John@16 @15 S1′ 153. (v) THE LORD WORKS OF HIMSELF FROM THE FATHER, AND NOT THE REVERSE.

Working here means much the same as sending the Holy Spirit, since the activities listed above, which are in general reformation, regeneration, renewal, quickening, sanctification, justification, [cleansing] from evils, forgiveness of sins [and salvation], are the Lord’s doing, though at the present time they are attributed to the Holy Spirit as an independent God. These things are performed by the Lord from the Father, and not the reverse, as will first be proved from the Word and then illustrated by many reasoned arguments. The following passages from the Word will serve:

When the Comforter comes whom I shall send from the Father, the Spirit of truth who comes forth from the Father, he will bear witness about me. John 15:26.

If I do not go away, the Comforter will not come to you; but if I go away, I will send him to you. John 16:7.

The Comforter, the Spirit of truth, will not speak of himself, but he will receive of mine and tell it to you. Everything that the Father has is mine; it is for this reason that I said that he would receive of mine and tell it to you. John 16:13-15.

The Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified. John 7:39.

Jesus breathed on the disciples and said, Receive the Holy Spirit. John 20:22.

Whatever you ask in my name, that will I do, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son; if you ask anything in my name, I shall do it. John 14:13, 14.

sRef John@5 @26 S2′ sRef John@3 @35 S2′ sRef John@1 @18 S2′ sRef John@14 @20 S2′ sRef John@16 @15 S2′ sRef John@5 @37 S2′ sRef John@6 @63 S2′ sRef John@15 @26 S2′ [2] These passages show clearly that it is the Lord who sends the Holy Spirit, that is to say, performs the works which at the present day are attributed to the Holy Spirit as an independent God. For He said that He would send him from the Father; that He would send him to you; that the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified; that after He was glorified He breathed on the disciples and said, Receive the Holy Spirit; He also said, Whatever you ask in my name, I will do, and also that the Comforter will receive of mine what he is to tell. The Comforter is identical with the Holy Spirit; see John 14:26. The following passages show that God the Father does not confer these benefits of Himself acting through the Son, but the Son does so of Himself from the Father:

No one has ever seen God; the only-begotten Son, who is in the Father’s bosom, He has revealed Him. John 1:18.

Elsewhere:

You have never heard the Father’s voice, nor have you seen His appearance. John 5:37.

[3] So it follows from these passages that God the Father works in the Son and upon the Son, not through the Son; but the Lord works of Himself

from His Father, for He says:

All things of the Father’s are mine. John 16:15. The Father has given all things into the hand of the Son. John 3:35.

Also:

As the Father has life in Himself, so did He grant the Son to have life in Himself. John 5:26.

The words which I speak are spirit and life. John 6:63.

The Lord says that the Spirit of truth comes forth from the Father (John 15:26), because it comes forth from the Father into the Son, and out of the Son from the Father. For this reason too He says:

On that day you will know that the Father is in me, and I am in the Father, and you are in me and I am in you. John 14:11, 20.

These plain sayings of the Lord’s show up the manifest error of the Christian world, that it is God the Father who sends the Holy Spirit to men, as well as the error of the Greek church, that God the Father sends Him without any mediation. This teaching, that the Lord of Himself sends the Holy Spirit from God the Father, and not the reverse, has come to me from heaven; the angels call it a secret, because it has not previously been revealed in the world.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 154 154. These points may be illustrated by a number of reasoned arguments. For instance, it is well known that, after the Apostles had been given the Holy Spirit by the Lord, they preached the Gospel throughout much of the world, and spread the news of it by word of mouth and by their writings. They did this of themselves from the Lord; for Peter taught and wrote in one way, James in another, John in another and Paul in another, each according to his own intelligence. The Lord filled them all with His Spirit, but each drew a contribution from that source which was determined by the nature of his perception, and they carried out their duty in a way determined by the nature of the ability of each. All the angels in the heavens are full of the Lord, for they are in the Lord and the Lord is in them; but still each speaks and acts in accordance with his own mental state, some simply, some wisely, and so with infinite variety, yet each one speaks of himself from the Lord.

[2] It is the same with every minister of the church, the one who preaches truths as much as the one who preaches falsities; each has his own mouth and his own intelligence, and each speaks as he is guided by his own mind, that is, the spirit which he possesses. All Protestants, whether they go by the name of Evangelical or Reformed, once they have been taught the dogmas handed down from Luther, Melanchthon or Calvin, do not have these three or their dogmas speaking of themselves through their mouths, but they themselves speak of themselves from the leaders. Moreover, each separate dogma can be expounded in a thousand ways, for each is like a cornucopia, from which each preacher chooses what suits and matches his own character, and expounds it according to the talents he possesses.

[3] This can be illustrated by the action of the heart in and on the lungs, and by the spontaneous reaction of the lungs from the heart. These are two distinct actions, but still reciprocally connected. The lungs breathe spontaneously from the heart, but the heart does not breathe by means of the lungs. If this happened, both of them would cease working. It is the same with the heart’s action in and on the viscera throughout the body. The heart circulates blood to all parts, but the viscera draw on this blood, each part taking its proper ration to enable it to perform its proper use, and acting in accordance with this, but in different ways.

[4] A further illustration of the same point is this. The evil which comes from one’s parents, what is called hereditary evil, works in and on a person; and likewise the good which comes from the Lord, but this is above or within, the evil is below and outside. If the evil worked by means of the person, he could not be reformed, nor would he be liable to blame; and likewise if the good coming from the Lord worked by means of the person, he could not be reformed in that case either. But because either action depends upon a person’s free choice, he incurs guilt when he acts of himself from evil, and remains innocent when he acts of himself from good. Now since evil is the devil and good is the Lord, he incurs guilt if he acts from the devil, and is innocent if he acts from the Lord. It is that free choice, which is open to every individual, that makes it possible for a person to be reformed.

[5] It is the same with everything internal and external in a person’s character; internal and external are two different things, but still joined in a reciprocal bond. The internal acts in and on the external, not by means of it. For the internal has thousands of plans, from which the external selects only those which can be of use. In a person’s internal, by which is meant the voluntary and perceptive mind, there is a vast heap of ideas, which if they escaped through a person’s mouth would be like wind from a bellows. Since the internal is concerned with universals, it can be compared with an ocean, a flower-bed or a garden, from which the external helps itself to sufficient for its purposes. The Lord’s Word is like an ocean, a flower-bed and a garden. When the Word is present in considerable fulness in a person’s internal, then he speaks and acts of himself from the Word, but the Word does not act by his means. It is the same with the Lord, since He is the Word, that is, the Divine truth and Divine good it contains. The Lord of Himself or from the Word acts in and on people, but not by their means, since everyone freely acts and speaks from the Lord when he does so from the Word.

sRef John@16 @27 S6′ sRef John@16 @26 S6′ [6] A closer parallel to this might be the mutual relationship between the soul and the body, which are two separate things, but linked in a reciprocal bond. The soul acts in and on the body, but not by means of the body; and the body acts of itself from the soul. The soul does not act by means of the body, because they do not consult and deliberate together; nor does the soul order or beg the body to do this or that, or to speak by its own mouth. Nor does the body demand or request the soul to give it or supply something, for everything of the soul’s belongs to the body, and vice versa. It is the same with the Lord’s Divine and His Human; for the Divine of the Father is the soul of His Human, and the Human is His body. The Human does not ask its Divine what it is to say or do. Therefore, the Lord says:

On that day you will ask in my name; and I do not tell you that I shall ask the Father for you, for the Father Himself loves you, because you have loved me. John 16:26, 27.

‘On that day’ means after His glorification, that is, after His union with the Father was accomplished and completed. This is a secret revealed by the Lord Himself for the benefit of those who are going to belong to His new church.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 155 155. It was shown in section (iii) above [146] that the particular Divine benefit meant by the working of the Holy Spirit on the clergy is enlightenment and the process of being instructed; but to these two must be added the two intermediate states of perception and disposition. There are therefore four processes which the clergy undergo in sequence: enlightenment, perception, disposition and instruction. Enlightenment comes from the Lord. Perception is on the person’s part, depending upon how his mental state has been formed by what he has been taught. If the teaching is true, there is clear perception from the light which illuminates the mind. But if the teaching is false, there is only dim perception, though it may appear clear since it is supported by proofs; this, however, is the result of deceptive light, which to purely natural sight looks like clarity.

[2] Disposition, however, is the result of an affection of love on the part of the will. It is the pleasure given by this love which so disposes the mind. If this pleasure comes from the love of evil and of falsity arising from evil, it arouses enthusiasm, which outwardly appears rough, hairy, burning and spitting fire, and inwardly is anger, rage and cruelty. But if it is the pleasure which comes from the love of good and truth arising from good, the enthusiasm appears outwardly smooth, hairless, thundering and flaming, and inwardly is charity, grace and mercy. The process of being instructed follows as the result of the other processes which cause it. Thus enlightenment coming from the Lord is turned into light and heat of various kinds, differing in each person’s case in accordance with his mental state.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 156 sRef Ezek@18 @31 S0′ sRef Ezek@13 @3 S0′ sRef Ezek@21 @7 S0′ sRef Isa@57 @15 S0′ sRef Ezek@20 @32 S0′ sRef Hos@5 @4 S0′ sRef Isa@61 @3 S0′ 156. (vi) A PERSON’S SPIRIT IS HIS MIND, AND WHATEVER COMES FROM IT.

A person’s spirit, regarded as an object, is nothing but his mind. It is this which lives on after death, and it is then called a spirit; if he is good, an angelic spirit and later an angel, if wicked, a satanic spirit and afterwards a Satan. Everyone’s mind is his internal man, which is the real person and resides within the external man composed of his body. So when the body is cast off as the result of death, the internal man has a fully human form. Those, then, are in error who believe that a person’s mind resides only in his head. There it is only in its beginnings, from which first emerge everything a person’s understanding allows him to think and his will induces him to do. But in the body the mind is present in derivatives from those beginnings, and these have been so constructed as to permit sensation and action. Since it is inwardly attached to the bodily structures, it imparts to them sensation and movement, together with a feeling that the body thinks and acts of itself. Yet every intelligent person knows that this is a fallacy. Now since a person’s spirit is allowed by his understanding to think and is induced by his will to act, and the body does not do so of itself but from the spirit, it follows that a person’s spirit means his intelligence and the affection of his love, and everything which comes from it and acts.

sRef Ex@31 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@32 @2 S2′ sRef Deut@34 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@33 @11 S2′ sRef Gen@41 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@51 @17 S2′ sRef Matt@5 @3 S2′ sRef Micah@2 @11 S2′ sRef Ps@78 @8 S2′ [2] There are numerous passages in the Word to prove that a person’s spirit means such things as are to do with the mind; their mere quotation will show anyone that this is so. The following are a few among many:

Bezaleel was filled with the spirit of wisdom, intelligence and knowledge. Exod. 31:3.

Nebuchadnezzar said of Daniel that an outstanding spirit of knowledge, intelligence and wisdom was in him. Dan. 5:12, 14.

Joshua was filled with the spirit of wisdom. Deut. 34:9.

Make yourselves a new heart and a new spirit. Ezek. 18:31.

Blessed are the poor in spirit, for of such is the kingdom of the heavens. Matt. 5:3.

I dwell in a broken and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble. Isa. 57:15.

The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit. Ps. 51:17.

I will give a cloak of praise in place of a depressed spirit. Isa. 61:3.

Spirit also stands for the products of a wrong and unjust mind, as these passages prove:

He said to the foolish prophets, who run after their own spirit. Ezek. 13:3.

Conceive chaff, bring forth stubble; as to your spirit, fire shall devour you. Isa. 33:11.

A man who is in spirit a vagabond and utters a lie. Micah 2:11.

A generation whose spirit is not steadfast with God. Ps. 78:8.

A spirit of whoring. Hosea 4:12; 5:4.

That every heart may melt and every spirit be depressed. Ezek. 21:7.

That which rises upon your spirit shall never be. Ezek. 20:32.

Provided there is no deceit in his spirit. Ps. 32:2.

The spirit of Pharaoh was troubled. Gen. 41:8.

Likewise that of Nebuchadnezzar. Dan. 2:3.

These and very many other passages plainly establish that spirit means a person’s mind and what is to do with it.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 157 sRef Ezek@3 @14 S0′ sRef Ezek@3 @12 S0′ sRef Ezek@11 @24 S0′ sRef Ezek@8 @3 S0′ sRef Ezek@11 @1 S0′ sRef Ezek@40 @2 S0′ 157. Since a person’s spirit means his mind, ‘being in the spirit’, a phrase which occurs a number of times in the Word, means the state in which the mind is separated from the body. That was the state the Prophets were in when they saw the kind of things which happen in the spiritual world, so it is called ‘the vision of God.’ They were then in the same state as that of the spirits and angels of that world. In that state a person’s spirit, as the visual capacity of his mind, can be transported from place to place while his body remains in one place. This is the state in which I have been for the last twenty-six years, with the difference that I have been simultaneously in the spirit and in the body, and only at times outside the body. Ezekiel, Zechariah, Daniel and John the writer of Revelation were evident from the following passages.

Ezekiel says: ‘A spirit lifted me up, and brought me back to Chaldaea to the captives in a vision, in the spirit of God; so the vision which I had seen went up from me’ (Ezek. 11:1, 24). A spirit lifted him up and he heard behind him an earthquake (Ezek. 3:12, 14). A spirit lifted him up between earth and heaven, and carried him off to Jerusalem, and he saw abominations (Ezek. 8:3ff). He saw four creatures, which were Cherubim, and various sights with them (Ezek. chapters 1 and 10); also a new earth and a new temple, and an angel measuring them (Ezek. chapters 40-48). He was then in receipt of a vision and in the spirit (Ezek. 40:2; 13:5).

sRef Zech@3 @1 S2′ sRef Zech@4 @1 S2′ sRef Dan@8 @1 S2′ sRef Zech@5 @1 S2′ sRef Zech@1 @18 S2′ sRef Zech@2 @1 S2′ sRef Dan@9 @21 S2′ sRef Dan@9 @22 S2′ sRef Zech@1 @8 S2′ sRef Zech@5 @6 S2′ sRef Dan@7 @1 S2′ [2] Similar things happened to Zechariah, when he was with an angel and saw a man riding a horse among myrtles (Zech. 1:8ff); four horns [1:18] and a man with a measuring line in his hand (Zech. 2:1, 5ff); Joshua the high priest (Zech. 3:1ff); four chariots coming out between two mountains, and their horses (Zech. 6:1ff). Daniel was in the same state when he saw four beasts coming up out of the sea and various other details about them (Dan. 7:1ff); the fights between a ram and a he-goat (Dan: 8:1ff). He saw these things in a vision (Dan. 7:1, 2, 7, 13; 8:2; 10:1, 7, 8); the angel Gabriel appeared to him in a vision and spoke with him (Dan. 9:21).

sRef Rev@9 @17 S3′ sRef Rev@17 @3 S3′ sRef Rev@1 @10 S3′ sRef Rev@21 @10 S3′ [3] It was the same with John when he wrote Revelation. He says that he was in the spirit on the Lord’s day (Rev. 1:10); that he was carried in the spirit into the desert (Rev. 17:3); onto a high mountain in the spirit (Rev. 21:10); that he saw [horses] in a vision (Rev. 9:17). Elsewhere he says that he saw what he described, as for instance the Son of Man in the midst of the seven lampstands; a tabernacle, a temple, an ark and an altar in heaven; a book sealed with seven seals, and horses that came out of it; four creatures around the throne; twelve thousand chosen from each tribe; then the Lamb upon Mount Zion; locusts coming up from the abyss; the dragon and his battle with Michael; a woman bearing a son, and fleeing into the desert because of the dragon; two beasts, one coming up from the sea, the other from the earth; a woman sitting on a scarlet beast; the dragon cast out into a lake of fire and brimstone; a white horse and a great banquet; the Holy City of Jerusalem coming down, with a description of its gates, wall and the foundations of the wall; a river of living water, and trees of life which bear fruit in every month; and much else besides. Peter, James and John were in a similar state when they saw Jesus transfigured; and so was Paul when he heard from heaven things past telling.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 158 sRef John@7 @39 S0′ sRef Luke@1 @35 S0′ 158. ADDITIONAL NOTE

Since this chapter has dealt with the Holy Spirit, it is of importance to note that the Holy Spirit is nowhere named in the Old Testament Word, but only ‘the Spirit of holiness’ in three passages, one in the Psalms of David (Ps. 51:11), and two in Isaiah (63:10, 11). But there are frequent references in the New Testament Word, as much in the Gospels as in the Acts of the Apostles and in their Epistles. The reason is that the Holy Spirit first existed when the Lord came into the world, for it came out of Him from the Father; for ‘the Lord alone is holy’ (Rev. 15:4). For this reason too the angel Gabriel speaking to Mary the mother of Jesus said ‘the holy thing which will be born of you’ (Luke 1:35). The reason why we read ‘The Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified’ (John 7:39), although it was said earlier that the Holy Spirit filled Elizabeth (Luke 1:41) and Zechariah (Luke 1:67), as well as Simeon (Luke 2:25), was that it was the spirit of Jehovah the Father which filled them; and it was called the Holy Spirit because the Lord was already at that time in the world.
This is why nowhere in the Old Testament Word does it say that the Prophets spoke from the Holy Spirit, but from Jehovah. For everywhere we read ‘Jehovah spoke to me’, ‘The Word from Jehovah came to me’, ‘Jehovah said’, ‘The saying of Jehovah.’

To remove all possibility of doubt I propose to quote the passages solely in Jeremiah where these expressions occur: 1:4, 7, 11-14, 19; 2:1-5, 9, 19, 22, 29, 31; 3:1, 6, 10, 12, 14, 16; 4:1, 3, 9, 17, 27; 5:11, 14, 18, 22, 29; 6:6, 9, 12, 15, 16, 21, 22; 7:1, 3, 11, 13, 19-21; 8:1, 3, 12, 13; 9:3, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, 22, 24, 25; 10:1, 2, 18; 11:1,[3,]6, 9, 11, 17, 18, 21, 22; 12:14, 17; 13:1, 6, 9, 11-15, 25; 14:1, 10, 14, 15; 15:1-3, 6, 11, 19, 20; 16:1, 3, 5, 9, 14, 16; 17:5, 19-21, 24; 18:1, 5, 6, 11, 13; 19:1, 3, 6, 12, 15; 20:4; 21:14, 7, 8, 11, 121, 141; 22:2, 5, 6, 11,[16,]18, 24, 29, 30; 23:2, 5, 7, 12, 15, 24, 29, 31, 38; 24:3, 5, 8; 25:1, 3, 7-9, 15, 27-29, 32; 26:1, 2, 18; 27:1, 24, 8, 11, 16, 19, 21, 22; 28:2, 12, 14, 16; 29:4, 8, 9, 16, 19-21, 25, 30-32; 30:15, 8, 10-12, 17, 18; 31:1, 2, 7, 10, 15-17, 23, 27, 28, 31-38; 32:1, 6, 14, 15, 25, 26, 28, 30, 36, 421, 441; 33:1, 2, 4, 10-13, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25; 34:1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 22; 35:1, 13, 17-19; 36:1, 6, 27, 29, 30; 37:6, 7, 9; 38:2, 3, 17; 39:15-18; 40:1; 42:7, 9, 15, 18, 19; 43:8, 10; 44:1, 2, 7, 11, 24-26, 30; 45:2, 5; 46:1, 23, 25, 28; 47:1; 48:1, 8, 12, 30, 35, 38, 40, 43, 44, 47; 49:2, 5-7, 12, 13, 16, 18, 26, 28, 30, 32, 35, 37-39; 50:114, 10, 18, 20, 21, 30, 31, 33, 35, 40; 51:25, 33, 36, 39, 52, 58. These are solely from Jeremiah. There are similar expressions in all the other Prophets, but it is never said that the Holy Spirit spoke, nor that Jehovah spoke to them by means of the Holy Spirit.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 159 159. At this point I shall describe some more experiences, of which this is the first.

Once when I was in company with angels in heaven, I saw far below a huge cloud of smoke with fire bursting out of it from time to time. I remarked to the angels who were talking with me, that few people here know that the sight of smoke in the hells arises from arguments in favour of falsities, and that fire is an outburst of anger against those who contradict them. I added that this is as little known in that world, as it is in the world where I live in the body, that flame is nothing but ignited smoke. I have often observed this, when, seeing smoke rising from wood on a hearth on earth, I have applied a lighted taper to it and seen the smoke turn into flame; and the flames copied the shape of the smoke, for each particle of smoke becomes a spark, and they join to make a blaze, just as also happens with gunpowder. ‘It is the same with the smoke we can see down here below. It is composed of so many falsities, and the fire bursting out as flames is the outburst of zeal in their favour.’

[2] Then the angels said to me: ‘Let us beg the Lord to allow us to go down and come near, so as to find out what falsities they have that produce so much smoke and fire.’

Permission was granted, and at once a beam of light surrounded us and brought us down without a break to that place. There we saw four groups of spirits who were arguing vigorously that God the Father, because He is invisible, should be approached and worshipped, and not His Son who was born in this world, because He was a man and visible. On looking to either side I saw on the left the learned clergy, and behind them the unlearned clergy; and on the right the educated laymen, and behind them the uneducated. But between us and them yawned an unbridgeable gap.

[3] We turned our eyes and ears towards the left, where the clergy were with the learned ones in front and the unlearned behind, and heard them arguing about God in these terms. ‘We know from the teaching of our church, which on the subject of God is one and the same throughout Europe, that one should approach God the Father, being invisible, and at the same time God the Son and God the Holy Spirit, who are also invisible, being co-eternal with the Father. Since God the Father is the creator of the universe, and consequently in the universe, He is present wherever we turn our gaze. When we pray to Him, He is graciously pleased to accept our prayers, and when the Son has mediated for us, He sends the Holy Spirit to put in our hearts the glory of His Son’s righteousness and to make us blessed. We, who have been made doctors of the church, felt, when we preached, the holy working of the Spirit’s mission in our breasts, and we breathed the devotion aroused by His presence in our minds. We feel these emotions because we direct all our senses towards the invisible God who works not in a single way on the sight of our understanding, but universally throughout our mental and bodily systems by means of His emissary, the Spirit. Such effects could not be produced by the worship of a visible God, or one apprehensible mentally as a man.’

[4] This speech was greeted with applause from the unlearned clergy, who stood behind them. ‘What is the source,’ they added, ‘of holiness, if it is not from an invisible and imperceptible Divine? As soon as this idea crosses the threshold of our hearing, our faces break into smiles and we are cheered as by the soothing breath of an incense-laden breeze, and we also beat our breasts. It is quite different if we think of a visible and perceptible Divine; if this idea penetrates our ears, it is reduced to something purely natural and no longer Divine. It is for a similar reason that the Roman Catholics conduct their masses in the Latin language, and take the Host, the alleged subject of Divine mysteries, from repositories on the altar and display it. At this moment the people fall on their knees as if before the profoundest mystery and reverently hold their breath.’

[5] After this we turned to the right, where the educated, and behind them the uneducated, laymen stood. I heard the educated speak as follows: ‘We know that the wisest of the ancients worshipped an invisible God whom they called Jehovah, but in the period which followed this they made themselves gods out of dead rulers, including Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Apollo as well as Minerva, Diana, Venus, and Themis, building temples to them and giving them Divine worship. This worship in the course of time led to idolatry, a madness which finally pervaded the whole world. We are therefore unanimous in assenting to the opinion of our priests and elders, that there were and are three Divine Persons from eternity, each of whom is God. It is enough for us that they are invisible.’

The uneducated behind them added: ‘We agree. Surely God is God and man is man? But we know that if anyone proposed God-man, the common people, whose idea of God is only derived from the senses, will accept it.’

[6] At the end of this speech their eyes were opened and they saw us standing near them. Then they became angry that we had heard them and refused to say another word. But the angels used the power they had been given to shut off the exterior or lower levels of their thought, and open the interior or higher levels; so they compelled them to speak about God in this state. Then they said: ‘What is God? We have not seen His appearance, nor have we heard His voice. God then must be merely nature in its first and last manifestations. Nature we have seen, because it is clear before our eyes, and nature we have heard, for its sounds are ever in our ears.’

On hearing this we said to them: ‘Have you ever seen Socinus, who would acknowledge only God the Father? Or Arius, who denied the divinity of our Lord and Saviour? Or any of their followers?’ ‘No,’ they replied. ‘They are,’ we said, ‘in the depths below you.’ Then some people were sent for from that place and questioned about God. They spoke in much the same way as the others had done, adding: ‘What is God? We can make as many gods as we wish.’

sRef John@3 @18 S7′ sRef John@14 @14 S7′ sRef John@14 @13 S7′ sRef John@3 @16 S7′ sRef John@3 @36 S7′ sRef John@14 @6 S7′ sRef John@14 @9 S7′ sRef John@14 @7 S7′ sRef John@14 @8 S7′ sRef John@14 @11 S7′ sRef John@14 @12 S7′ sRef John@3 @15 S7′ sRef John@14 @10 S7′ sRef John@14 @15 S7′ [7] ‘It is useless,’ we said then, ‘to talk to you about the Son of God born in the world, but this at least we shall say. To prevent faith about God, in Him and from Him, from becoming, merely because no one has seen Him, like a water-bubble floating in the air, full of beautiful colours in the first and second moments of its existence, but in the third and thereafter collapsing into nothing, it has pleased Jehovah God to come down and take upon Himself human form, thus putting Himself on view, and proving that God is no entity conceived by the faculty of reason, but That which was, is and shall be, from eternity to eternity. God is no three-letter* word, but the whole of reality from alpha to omega. Consequently He is life and salvation to all who believe in Him as a visible God, not to those who say that they believe in an invisible God. For believing, seeing and recognising make up a single act, which is why the Lord said to Philip:

He who sees and knows me sees and knows the Father.

and elsewhere that it is the Father’s will that they should believe in the Son, and he who believes in the Son has everlasting life, but he who does not believe in the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God will rest upon him. (Both this and the previous passage are in John 3:15, 16, 36; 14:6-15.)’ On hearing this many of the four groups became so furious that smoke and fire came out of their nostrils. So we went away, and after escorting me home the angels went up to their own heaven.

* This is a puzzling expression, since God in Latin is Deus; but as the conversation took place in the spiritual world, it may refer to a word in the spiritual language.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 160 160. The second experience.

I was once walking in the company of angels in the world of spirits. This lies half-way between heaven and hell, and it is where everyone comes first after death; here the good are prepared for heaven, the wicked for hell. I discussed a number of topics with the angels, one of which was that in the world where I am bodily there are to be seen at night-time countless stars of various sizes, and each of these is a sun, emitting only light to the solar system; ‘and on seeing,’ I said, ‘that stars are to be seen in your world too, I hazarded the guess that they are as numerous as in the world where I am.’

The angels were delighted at this remark, and said that they might well be as numerous, since each community in heaven appears at times to those who are beneath shining like a star. The communities of heaven are countless, all arranged as their affections for the love of good vary; these affections are in God infinite, and under His influence therefore countless. Since these were foreseen before creation, I imagine that to agree with that number the same number of stars was provided or created in the world where human beings were to live in natural, material bodies.

[2] While we were talking like this, I saw in the north a paved road, so crowded with spirits there was hardly room to set foot between two of them. I told the angels that I had seen this road previously, with spirits passing along it in as close order as squadrons of troops; and that I had been told that this is the road along which all pass when they leave the natural world. The reason why it is crowded with such numbers of spirits is that tens of thousands of people die every week, and all after death pass into this world.

The angels went on to say: ‘The road ends in the middle of this world, where we now are. The reason why it ends in the middle is that on the eastern side are the communities dedicated to love to God and towards the neighbour; on the left, towards the west, are the communities composed of those who oppose these loves. In front, to the south, are communities composed of those who are above average intelligence. That is why recent arrivals from the natural world come here first. When here they are at first outwardly exactly as they had been most recently in their previous world; but later on they are step by step brought into their inward state, and submitted to examination of their nature. After this the good are transferred to their places in heaven, the wicked to theirs in hell.’

[3] We halted at the centre, where the access road ended, and said: ‘Let us wait here a little while and talk with some of the newcomers.’ We selected a dozen of those arriving; and since they had all just come from the natural world, they did not know that they were not still there. We asked them their opinions about heaven and hell and life after death.

One of them replied as follows: ‘Our priestly order has taught me to believe that we shall live after death, and that there are such places as heaven and hell. Consequently I have always believed that those who lead decent lives go to heaven; and since everyone lives a decent life, no one goes to hell. So hell is just a story made up by the clergy to keep people from leading wicked lives. What difference does it make whether I hold one opinion or another about God? Thought is only like froth or a bubble on the surface of water, which bursts and disappears.’

A second next to him said: ‘My belief is that heaven and hell exist, and that God rules heaven and the devil rules hell. Since they are enemies and thus take opposite views, one calls evil what the other calls good. Decent people are hypocrites who can make evil appear good and good evil, so they stand on either side. What difference does it make then whether I am with one lord or the other, so long as he supports me? People take just as much pleasure in evil as in good.’

[4] A third, next to the second, said: ‘How does it concern me whether I believe in heaven and hell, since no one has ever come back from there to tell me? If everyone lived on after death, surely one out of all that vast number would have come back and told us?’

The next, the fourth, said: ‘I will tell you why no one has come back and told us. It is because when a person has breathed out his soul and died, then he either becomes a ghost which is quickly dissolved, or he is like the breath from the mouth, which is just air. How can anyone like that come back or talk to anyone?’

The fifth took up the tale: ‘My friends,’ he said, ‘wait until the day of the Last judgment, for then all will return to their bodies, and you will see them and talk with them, and then each will be able to tell the others what happened to him.’

[5] The sixth, who stood opposite, said with a smile: ‘How can a spirit which is just air return to a body which has been eaten by worms, or to a skeleton burnt up by the sun and reduced to dust? And how can an Egyptian, who has been mummified, and then mixed by a druggist into his extracts, emulsions, potions and pills, come back and tell anything? So if that is your belief, go on waiting for that last day, but you will wait for ever and ever in vain.’

Then the seventh said: ‘If I believed in heaven and hell and so in life after death, I should believe that birds and animals would live on too; some of them are as decent and rational as human beings. But they say that animals have no life after death, so I say that people do not either. The cases are identical, one follows from the other. What is man but an animal?’

The eighth, who was standing behind him, came forward and said: ‘Believe in heaven if you like, but I do not believe in hell. God is omnipotent, isn’t He, and can save everyone?’

[6] Then the ninth shook his hand and said: ‘God is not only omnipotent, but also gracious. He could not send anyone to everlasting fire; and if there is anyone there, He would take him out and raise him up.’

The tenth left his place and hurried to the middle saying: ‘Neither do I believe in hell. Did not God send His Son, and did not He make expiation and take away the sins of the whole world? What power then has the devil against that? And if he has none, what then becomes of hell?’

The eleventh, who was a priest, was angry to hear this and said: ‘Don’t you know that those who have acquired faith, on which Christ’s merit is imprinted, are saved, and that those whom God chooses acquire that faith? So the choice is at the discretion of the Almighty, and it depends upon His judgment who are worthy. Can anyone dispute this?’

The twelfth, who was a politician, kept silence. But when asked to sum up the replies, he said: ‘I shall not offer any profound statements about heaven, hell and life after death, because there is no one who knows anything about them. But still you should not abuse the priests, but allow them to go on preaching about them. For in this way the minds of the common people are kept by an invisible bond subject to the laws and their rulers. And is this not the key to the preservation of Society?’

[7] We were astonished to hear such sentiments and said to one another: ‘Although these people call themselves Christians, they are neither human beings nor animals, but human animals., However, to rouse them from their sleep we said: ‘Heaven and hell do exist, and there is a life after death. You will be convinced of this when we dispel your ignorance about your present state. For everyone for some days after death is totally unaware that he is no longer living in the same world as formerly. The time that has passed is like a sleep, and when anyone wakes from it, he feels he is exactly where he was. It is the same with you at present, and this is why you spoke exactly as you thought in the previous world.’

Then the angels dispelled their ignorance, so that they saw they were in another world and among people they did not know. ‘Oh, where are we?’ they cried. ‘You are no longer,’ we said, ‘in the natural world, but in the spiritual world and we are angels.’

Then, when they had woken up, they said: ‘If you are angels, show us where heaven is.’ ‘Stay here a little while,’ we replied, ‘and we will come back.’ After half an hour we returned and found them waiting for us, so we said: ‘Follow us and we will take you to heaven.’ They did so, and we went up with them, and since we were with them the guards opened the gate and let us in. We told those who received the newcomers on the threshold to examine them. So they turned them around, and saw that the backs of their heads were largely hollowed out. Then they said: ‘Begone from here, for you find pleasure in the love of evil-doing, so you can have no link with heaven. In your hearts you have denied the existence of God and have despised religion.’ ‘Don’t delay,’ we told them, ‘otherwise you will be thrown out.’ So they hastened back down and were gone.

[8] On the way home we talked about the reason why those in this world who take pleasure in evil-doing have the backs of their heads hollowed out. I stated the reason, that human beings have two brains, one in the back of the head, which is called the cerebellum, the other in the front of the head, which is called the cerebrum. The cerebellum is the seat of loving on the part of the will, the cerebrum that of thinking on the part of the understanding. When the thought of the understanding does not guide the love of the will, the inmost regions of that person’s cerebellum, which are in themselves heavenly, collapse; this causes the hollowing out.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 161 161. The third experience*.

Once in the spiritual world I heard a noise like a mill; it was in the northern region. To begin with I wondered what it was, but then I remembered that a mill and milling mean seeking support for doctrine from the Word. So I approached the place where I had heard the noise, and when I came close the noise disappeared. Then I saw a covered area above ground, the approach to which was through a cave. On seeing this I went down and went inside.

There was a room there in which I saw an old man sitting among his books, holding a copy of the Word in front of him and looking out passages in it in support of his doctrine. Slips of paper were lying around, on which he had copied out supporting passages. In the next room were scribes, who were collecting the slips and writing out what was on them on clean sheets of paper. I asked first about the books he had around him.

He said that they were all on the subject of justifying faith. ‘Those from Sweden and Denmark are profound, more profound those from Germany, still more profound those from Britain, and the most profound are those from Holland.’ He added that they differed in various respects, but all agreed on the subject of justification and salvation by faith alone. He went on to say that he was now gathering support from the Word for the first tenet of justifying faith, that God the Father withdrew His favour from the human race on account of its wrong-doing, and God therefore needed in order to save men to receive satisfaction, be reconciled, propitiated and have as mediator someone who would take upon himself the righteous condemnation; and there was no way this could be done except through His only Son. When this had been done, the way was opened up to God the Father for His sake, for we say: ‘Father, have mercy on us for the sake of the Son.’ ‘I see,’ he said, ‘and have long done so, that this is in accordance with all sound reason and Scripture. How else could anyone approach God the Father, except through faith in the merit of the Son?’

[2] On hearing this I was amazed that he asserted it to be in accordance with sound reason and Scripture, when in fact it is contrary to both, as I told him plainly. This provoked an outburst of zeal and he retorted: ‘How can you talk like that?’

So I stated my opinion and said: ‘Is it not contrary to sound reason to think that God the Father withdrew His favour from the human race, reproved it and cut off communication with it? Surely Divine favour is an attribute of the Divine Essence? So withdrawing His favour would be withdrawing His Divine Essence, and that would mean ceasing to be God. Surely God cannot become estranged from Himself? Believe me, favour on God’s part is both infinite and eternal. God’s favour can be lost on man’s part, if he fails to accept it, [but never on God’s part].** If the favour shown by God were taken away, it would be the end of the whole of heaven and the whole human race. Therefore favour on God’s part is shown permanently and for ever, not only to angels and men, but even to the devils in hell. Since this is in accordance with sound reason, why do you say that the sole approach to God the Father is through faith in the Son’s merit, when in fact God’s favour ensures that the approach is perpetually open?

[3] ‘But why do you talk about approaching God the Father for the sake of the Son, rather than through the Son? Is not the Son the mediator and saviour? Why do you not approach the mediator and saviour Himself? Is He not God and Man? On earth does anyone approach directly any emperor, king or prince? Surely he finds a chamberlain to introduce him? Do you not know that the Lord came into the world so that He should introduce us to the Father, and that it is impossible to approach Him except through the Lord? This approach is perpetually open when you directly approach the Lord Himself, because He is in the Father and the Father is in Him. Now consult Scripture and you will see that this is in accordance with it, and that your approach to the Father is contrary to it, just as it is contrary to sound reason. I tell you too, it is presumptuous to go up to God the Father, except through Him who is in the Father’s bosom, and who alone is with Him. Have you not read John 14:6?’

On hearing this the old man was so enraged he jumped up from his chair and shouted to his scribes to throw me out; and when I had immediately of my own accord gone out, he threw after me out of the door the book which he happened to be holding in his hand. The book was the Word.

* This section is repeated from AR 484.1-3.
** These words are inserted from the earlier use of the passage in AR 484.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 162 sRef John@3 @27 S1′ sRef John@14 @6 S1′ 162. The fourth experience*.

A dispute arose among some spirits, whether anyone can see any truth on a matter of theological dogma in the Word, unless he is led to it by the Lord. They all agreed that no one can do this except by Divine guidance, because

A man cannot take anything unless it is given him from heaven. John 3:27.

So the argument was about whether anyone can do this, if he does not directly approach the Lord.

One party asserted that the Lord should be directly approached, because He is the Word. The other party held that the truth of doctrine is also seen when God the Father is directly approached. So the dispute centred on this preliminary point, whether any Christian is allowed to approach God the Father directly, and thus go over the Lord’s head; and whether this is not improper and rash boldness and insolence. For the Lord says that no one comes to the Father except through Him (John 14:6). But they left this point aside and said that man can see the truth of doctrine from the Word by his own natural enlightenment; but this view was rejected. So they insisted that it can be seen by those who pray to God the Father. A passage from the Word was read to them, and then they went down on their knees and prayed God the Father to enlighten them. About the passage read to them from the Word they said that certain things were true, when in fact they were untrue. This happened so many times they became tired of it, and at last admitted that they were unable to tell. However, the other party who directly approached the Lord were able to see the truth, and they told the others.

[2] When this dispute had been decided, some people came up out of the abyss, who looked at first like locusts, but later on like tiny people. They were those who in the world had prayed to God the Father, and convinced themselves of the doctrine of justification by faith alone. They were the same people as are described in Revelation (9:1-11). They said that they could see in a clear light the doctrine that man is justified by faith alone without the actions prescribed by the Law, and that they could prove this from the Word. They were asked what faith this was, and they answered: ‘Faith in God the Father.’ But when they had been examined, they were told from heaven that they did not know a single truth of teaching from the Word. They retorted that they could still see their truths bathed in light.

Then they were told that they saw them by a deceptive light. ‘What,’ they asked, ‘is this deceptive light?’ They were told that deceptive light is that which comes from proving what is not true; it corresponds to the light enjoyed by owls and bats, who look upon darkness as light and light as darkness. This was proved to them by the fact that when they looked up to heaven, the source of true light, they saw only darkness, and when they looked down to the abyss from which they had come they saw light.

[3] This proof made them angry, and they said it showed that light and darkness have no real existence, but it is merely the condition of the eye that causes us to call light light and darkness darkness. However, it was shown that their light was the deceptive light which comes from proving what is not true; and that their light was only an activity of their minds arising from the fire of longings, of the same sort as the light enjoyed by cats, whose burning appetite for mice makes their eyes shine by night in cellars like candles.

On hearing this they said angrily that they were not cats or like them, since they could see if they wished. But then they went away, because they were afraid of being asked why they did not wish to see, and plunged into their abyss. The people there and those like them are also called by the angels owls and bats, as well as locusts.

[4] When they met their companions in the abyss and related that the angels had told them that ‘we do not know any truth of teaching, not a single one,’ and called them owls, bats and locusts, there was a riot. ‘Let us pray God,’ they said, ‘to allow us to go up and we will give a clear demonstration that we possess many truths of teaching, which the archangels themselves will acknowledge.’ Since they prayed to God, permission was granted, and they went up, to the number of three hundred.

When they appeared above ground, they said: ‘In the world we were well-known and famous, because we knew and taught the secrets of justification by faith alone; and our proofs of this not only allowed us to see the light, but also to see it as a glittering sunbeam, and now we see it in the same way in our cells. Yet we have heard from our companions who visited you that this light is not light, but darkness, because you allege we have no truth of teaching from the Word. We know that every truth in the Word shines, and we have believed that that was what produced the glittering effect when we meditated profoundly on these secrets of ours. We shall therefore demonstrate that we have a vast supply of truths from the Word.’

‘Do we not,’ they said, ‘possess this truth, that there is a Trinity, God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, and that we ought to believe in the Trinity? Do we not possess this truth, that Christ is our redeemer and saviour? Do we not possess this truth, that Christ alone is righteousness, and He alone has merit, and it is wrong and impious if anyone wishes to attribute to himself any of Christ’s merit and righteousness? Do we not possess this truth, that no mortal can do of his own accord any spiritual good, and that all good which is good in itself is from God? Do we not possess this truth, that there exist meritorious good and hypocritical good, and that these forms of good are evil? Do we not possess this truth, that none the less good deeds should be done? Do we not possess this truth, that there exists faith, that one ought to believe in God, and that everyone has life in accordance with his belief? We have many truths besides from the Word. Can any of you deny a single one of them? Yet you said that we in our debates do not possess any truth, not a single one. Are you not unjustified in casting such reproaches at us?’

[5] But they received the reply: ‘All the statements you quoted are in themselves true, but you have falsified them; by deriving them from a false principle you make them false. We shall give you a visual demonstration that this is so. Not far from here there is a place where the light pours down directly from heaven; in the middle there is a table, and when a piece of paper is placed on it which has a truth from the Word written on it, the paper is caused by the truth written on it to shine like a star. So write your truth on a piece of paper, put it on the table, and you will see.’

They did so and gave it to the custodian, who put it on the table and said to them: ‘Go to a distance and watch the table.’ They went away and watched, and suddenly the paper shone like a star. Then the custodian said: ‘You see that what you wrote on the paper are truths; but come closer and fix your gaze on the paper.’ They did so, and suddenly the light went out, and the paper became black as if it had been covered with soot from a chimney. ‘Touch the paper with your hands,’ the custodian went on, ‘but be careful not to touch the writing.’ On their doing so, the paper burst into flame and was burnt up. When they saw this, they were told: ‘If you had touched the writing, you would have heard an explosion and would have burnt your fingers.’

Then they were told by those who were standing behind: ‘You have seen now that the truths which you have misused to prove your secrets about justification are in themselves truths, but in your hands they have became falsified.’ Then they looked up, and heaven appeared to them like blood, and later on like total darkness. In the eyes of the angelic spirits these people appeared some like bats, some like owls, some like horned owls. So they fled away to their regions of darkness, which in their eyes shone with a deceptive light.

[6] The angelic spirits present were surprised because previously they had known nothing of that place and the table it contained. Then a voice came to them from the southern quarter which said: ‘Come this way and you will see something even more wonderful.’ So they went and entered a room, the walls of which shone as if made of gold, and there too they saw a table on which was laid a copy of the Word, surrounded by precious stones in a heavenly pattern. The custodian angel said: ‘When the Word is opened, a light shines out from it of indescribable brightness, and at the same time the precious stones give a rainbow effect above and around the Word. When an angel from the third heaven comes near, the rainbow appears above and around the Word on a red background; when an angel comes from the second heaven and looks at it, the rainbow appears on a blue background; when an angel from the lowest heaven comes and looks, the rainbow appears on a white background. When a good spirit comes and looks, there is a variegated effect of light like marble.’ They were given a visual demonstration of these effects. The custodian went on to say: ‘If anyone approaches who has falsified the Word, first of all the radiance disappears; and if he comes close and fixes his gaze on the Word, the surroundings change to the colour of blood. Then he is warned to go away, as it is dangerous.’

[7] However, a certain person who in the world had been a leading writer on the doctrine of justification by faith alone, came boldly up saying, ‘When I was in the world, I did not falsify the Word. Together with faith I also upheld charity, and I taught that a person in a state of faith, in which he acts charitably and does what charity requires, is renewed, regenerated and sanctified by the Holy Spirit. I also taught that there is no such thing as solitary faith, that is, separated from good deeds, just as there is no good tree without fruit, no sun without light, and no fire without heat. I also criticised those who claimed that good deeds were not necessary. Moreover I paid great attention to the Ten Commandments and to repentance, and so made a remarkable application of everything in the Word to my tenets about faith, which still I showed and proved to be the means of salvation.’

Thus confident of his claim not to have falsified the Word he approached the table, and despite the angel’s warning touched the Word. There was a sudden burst of fire and smoke from the Word, and a loud explosion was heard which threw him into a corner of the room, where he lay for some time as if dead. The angelic spirits were surprised at this, but they were told that this leader had gone farther than the rest in praising the good deeds of charity as the product of faith; but still he had not put into this category any but political deeds, what are also called moral and civic duties, which need to be performed for the world’s sake and one’s prosperity there, and have very little to do with salvation. He had also imagined the existence of invisible activity by the Holy Spirit, quite unknown to the person concerned, which is engendered in his faith when he is in that state.

[8] The angelic spirits held a discussion about the falsification of the Word, and agreed that falsifying the Word consists in taking truths from it and using them to prove untrue propositions; this is done by taking truths from the Word out of context and murdering them. For instance, this happens if one uses all the truths mentioned above by the people from the abyss to support the present-day faith, and if one explains them in the light of that faith. It will be shown later that that faith is impregnated with false ideas. Or again, if anyone takes from the Word this truth, that one should show charity, and do good to one’s neighbour; if anyone then uses it to prove that these things should be done, but not in order to be saved, since all the good a person does is not really good, because it is a way of seeking merit, that man is dragging that truth from the Word out of context and butchering it. For the Lord in His Word lays the duty on everyone who wants to be saved of loving his neighbour and doing good to him from love. It is the same with the other truths.
* This section is repeated with minor changes from AR 566.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 163 163. THE DIVINE TRINITY

I have discussed God the Creator, and at the same time the creation, and then the Lord the Redeemer, and at the same time the process of redemption; and now finally the Holy Spirit, and at the same time how God works. So having discussed God the Three-in-one, I must now also discuss the Divine Trinity, a subject familiar to Christian people, yet actually one they know nothing about. For this is the only way of acquiring a correct idea of God; and a correct idea of God is to the congregation like the sanctuary and altar in a church, or like a crown on the head and a sceptre in the hand of a king, as he sits upon his throne. From this hangs the whole body of theology, like a chain from its anchor-point. If you are prepared to believe me, the idea everyone has of God determines his place in the heavens. It is like the touchstone used to test gold and silver, that is to say, it tests the nature of the good and truth a person has. For he cannot have any good which leads to salvation except from God, nor any truth which does not get its quality from the good deep within it. But to reveal the nature of the Divine Trinity so that it can be seen by both eyes, the discussion must be split up into propositions, as follows.

(i) There is a Divine Trinity consisting of Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
(ii) Those three, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, are the three essentials of a single God, which make one as soul, body and activity do with a person.
(iii) This Trinity did not exist before the creation of the world, but it was provided and made after the creation of the world, when God became incarnate, and then it was in the Lord God, the Redeemer and Saviour, Jesus Christ.
(iv) A Trinity of Divine persons from eternity, or existing before the creation of the world, implies thinking about a Trinity of Gods; and this thought cannot be banished by a verbal confession of belief in one God.
(v) The Trinity of persons was unknown to the Apostolic church, but was the invention of the Council of Nicaea, leading to its introduction into the Roman Catholic church, and thus to the churches which split from it.
(vi) The Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and by Athanasius caused a faith to arise which has perverted the whole Christian church.
(vii) This is the source of the abomination of desolation and the affliction such as never has been nor shall be, both of which the Lord predicted in Daniel, the Gospels and Revelation.
(viii) Further, unless a new heaven and a new church are founded by the Lord, no flesh can be saved.
(ix) From a Trinity of persons, each of which individually is God, as asserted by the Athanasian Creed, many absurd ideas of various kinds have arisen about God, which are mere fancies and abortions.

These propositions will now be explained one by one.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 164 sRef Luke@1 @35 S0′ sRef Matt@3 @17 S0′ sRef Matt@3 @16 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @19 S0′ sRef 1Joh@5 @7 S0′ 164. (i) THERE IS A DIVINE TRINITY CONSISTING OF FATHER, SON AND HOLY SPIRIT.

The existence of a Divine Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, is plainly demonstrated by the Word, especially the following passages:

The angel Gabriel said to Mary, The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you, so that the holy thing that is born of you will be called the Son of God. Luke 1:35.

Here all three are named: the Most High, who is God the Father, the Holy Spirit, and the Son of God.

When Jesus was baptised, behold, the heavens were opened, and John saw the Spirit of God* coming down like a dove, and alighting upon Him; and a voice from heaven saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Matt. 3:16, 17; Mark 1:10, 11; John 1:32.

It is even clearer in the words which the Lord used to the disciples:

Go and make all nations disciples, baptising them in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Matt. 28: 19.

Moreover in this passage of John:

Three there are that bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word and the Holy Spirit. 1 John 5:7.

In addition there is the fact that the Lord prayed to His Father, and spoke about Him and with Him, saying that He would send the Holy Spirit, and this too He did. Moreover, the Apostles frequently named in their Epistles the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. These passages show plainly that there is a Divine Trinity consisting of Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

* The Latin has ‘the Holy Spirit’, but this is corrected in the author’s copy.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 165 165. If the reason is left to itself, there is no way it can see how these statements are to be understood; it could be that there are three Gods, who are one in essence and therefore in name; it could be that they are three aspects of a single subject, so that it is merely qualities or attributes of one God which bear these names; or other solutions may be possible. What then are we to do? The only way is to approach the Lord God the Saviour, and read the Word under His guidance, since He is the God of the Word; we shall then be enlightened and see the truths, which the reason too will acknowledge. But if you do not approach the Lord, though you should read the Word a thousand times and see in it the Divine Trinity as well as the oneness of God, still you will never be able to grasp anything but the doctrine of three Divine persons, each of which taken singly is God; and this means three Gods. However, since this is repugnant to the general perception shared by all people throughout the world, to avoid criticism they invented the doctrine that although in truth there are three Gods, faith none the less demands that we should not speak of three Gods, but one. Moreover, to avoid having insults heaped on them, in this respect especially the understanding has to be imprisoned and kept chained under the control of faith; and this is henceforward to be prescribed by the ordained ministry of the Christian church.

[2] That is the kind of paralysed offspring which is produced by not reading the Word under the Lord’s guidance. Everyone who does not read the Word under His guidance must do so under the guidance of his own intelligence; and this is as blind as an owl in matters illuminated by spiritual light, as are all the essential doctrines of the church. When such a person reads about the Trinity in the Word and is led by this to think that although there are three Gods they are none the less one, he finds this as enigmatic as a reply from the Delphic oracle*. Since he does not understand it, he rolls it round his teeth, for if he put it before his eyes, it would be a riddle, which becomes the more obscure the more he strives to solve it, until finally he begins to think about it without using his understanding, which is like seeing without using one’s eyes. In brief, reading the Word under the guidance of one’s own intelligence, as all do who fail to acknowledge the Lord as the God of heaven and earth and do not approach Him and worship Him alone, can be compared to children who in play tie a bandage over their eyes, and then try to walk in a straight line; they even think they are walking straight when step by step they turn to one side and end up walking in the opposite direction, so that they trip over a stone and fall down.

[3] They are also like ships’ captains who sail without a compass, run their ship on rocks, and so are drowned. Or they are like a man who walking through a broad plain in a thick fog sees a scorpion and thinks it is a bird; he goes to grasp it and pick it up, and then gets a fatal sting. He is also like a sea-bird or a kite, which spots a small patch on the back of a large fish breaking the surface of the water, dives on it and jabs its beak into it, but is pulled under by the fish and drowns. He is also like a man who goes into a maze without a guide or a thread to pay out, and the farther he goes in, the more he loses track of the way out. A person who reads the Word under the guidance of his own intelligence instead of the Lord’s thinks he is gifted with the vision of Lynceus**, and has more eyes than Argus*** when in fact he cannot inwardly discern the smallest truth, but only falsity. But having persuaded himself that this is the truth, he shapes the course of all his thinking by reference to this apparent cynosure. Yet then he is as blind to truth as a mole, and what he does see, he bends to suit his fancy, so perverting and falsifying the holiness of the Word.

* Literally, ‘from the tripod’, the source of oracles given at Delphi.
** A man in Greek myth famous for keenness of sight.
*** The hundred-eyed monster of Greek myth.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 166 166. (ii) THOSE THREE, FATHER, SON AND HOLY SPIRIT, ARE THE THREE ESSENTIALS OF A SINGLE GOD, WHICH MAKE ONE AS SOUL, BODY AND ACTIVITY DO WITH A PERSON.

Each object has general essentials and particular essentials; and the two together make up a single essence. A person’s general essentials are his soul, body and activity. These make up a single essence, as can be seen from the fact that one arises from the next, and exists on account of the next, in an unbroken chain. Every person starts from the soul, which is the true essence of the seed. This not only initiates but also produces one after the other the bodily structures; and later on it initiates the products of the soul and the body working together, what are called its activities. Since then one is produced by the next and by its being implanted and attached, it is plain that these three belong to a single essence. This is why they are called the three essentials.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 167 167. Everyone acknowledges that those three essentials, namely, soul, body and activity, were and are in the Lord God the Saviour. No one but Antichrist can deny that His soul was from Jehovah His Father; for in the Word, in both testaments, He is called the Son of Jehovah, the Son of the Most High God, the Only-begotten. So the Father’s Divine is His first essential, as the soul is in man. It follows from this that the Son born to Mary is the body of that Divine soul, for what grows in the mother’s womb is simply the body conceived and derived from the soul. So this is the second essential. Activities make up the third essential, since they are produced by the soul and the body working together; and anything so produced is of the same essence as the productive agents. The three essentials, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, make one in the Lord, as the soul, body and activity do in man. This is plainly demonstrated by the Lord’s saying that the Father and He are one, and that the Father is in Him and He is in the Father; likewise that He and the Holy Spirit are one, since the Holy Spirit is the Divine which proceeds out of the Lord from the Father, as was fully proved from the Word above (153, 154). To prove it again, therefore, would be filling one’s stomach* to overflowing, and like loading the table with food when one has eaten one’s fill.

* This curious word means strictly the first stomach of a ruminant animal.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 168 168. When we say that Father, Son and Holy Spirit are the three essentials of a single God, in the same way as soul, body and activity are in man, it may look to the human mind as if the three essentials are three persons. This is impossible. But when we understand that the Father’s Divine which makes up the soul, and the Son’s Divine which makes up the body, and the Holy Spirit’s Divine or the Divine which proceeds and makes up the activity, are the three essentials of a single God, then it can be grasped by the understanding. For God the Father is His own Divine, the Son out of the Father is His own, and the Holy Spirit out of both is His own. Since these are of one essence and one mind, they make up a single God. If, however, those three Divines are called persons, and each has attributed to Him His own property, imputation to the Father, mediation to the Son, and activity to the Holy Spirit, then the Divine essence is divided. Yet it is one and indivisible. In this case none of the three is fully God, but each is God to the power of one third*, a proposition no sane understanding can accept.

* i.e. the cube root.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 169 169. Can anyone fail to see how the Trinity is in the Lord, if he considers the trinity in any human being? Every person has a soul, a body and activity; likewise the Lord, ‘for in the Lord all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily,’ as Paul said (Col. 2:9). Therefore the Trinity in the Lord is Divine, that in men human. Is there anyone who does not see that reason plays no part in this mystic belief that there are three Divine persons, yet only one God; and that this God, for all that He is one, is still not one person? When the reason is asleep, it can still force the mouth to speak like a parrot. When the reason is asleep, can the speech which comes from the mouth be anything but lifeless? If the mouth says one thing and the reason goes a different way and disagrees, speech must inevitably be foolish. As far as the Divine Trinity is concerned, human reason to-day is fettered, as completely as a prisoner shackled hand and foot. It can also be compared to a Vestal Virgin* buried alive for having let the sacred fire go out. Yet the Divine Trinity ought to shine like a lantern in the minds of the people who make up the church, since God in His Trinity and in the oneness of the Trinity is the ultimate of all holiness in heaven and the church. To make one God out of the soul, another out of the body and a third out of the activity is no different from making three separate parts out of those three essentials of a single person; and this is dismembering and killing him.

* The Vestals were Roman priestesses, whose duty was to maintain a sacred fire.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 170 170. (iii) THIS TRINITY DID NOT EXIST BEFORE THE CREATION OF THE WORLD, BUT IT WAS PROVIDED AND MADE AFTER THE CREATION OF THE WORLD, WHEN GOD BECAME INCARNATE, AND THEN WAS IN THE LORD GOD, THE REDEEMER AND SAVIOUR, JESUS CHRIST.

The Christian church to-day recognises a Divine Trinity existing before the creation of the world, stating that Jehovah God fathered a Son from eternity, and the Holy Spirit issued from both of them; and each of the three is by Himself or singly God, because each is one person, who exists of Himself. Since this lies beyond the grasp of reason, it is called a mystery, which is only accessible by the belief that the three share a single Divine essence; by this is meant eternity, immensity, omnipotence and so equal Divinity, glory and majesty. But it will be proved in what follows that this is a trinity of three Gods, and thus no Divine Trinity. Yet it is obvious from everything said before that the Trinity, also of Father, Son and Holy Spirit, which was provided and made after God’s incarnation, so after the creation of the world, is the Divine Trinity, because it consists of one God.

sRef Luke@24 @39 S2′ [2] The reason why this Divine Trinity is in the Lord God, the Redeemer and Saviour, Jesus Christ, is that the three essentials of one God, which compose a single essence, are in Him. All the fulness of the Godhead is in Him, as Paul says, and this is clear from the words of the Lord Himself, that all things of the Father’s are His, and the Holy Spirit does not speak of Himself but from Him; moreover, when He rose from the dead, He took from the tomb His whole human body, flesh as well as bones (Matt. 28:1-8; Mark 16:5, 6; Luke 24:1-3; John 20:11-15), a thing no other person can do. He gave the disciples a living proof of this when He said:

Look at my hands and my feet, as proof that it is I myself; touch me and look, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones, as you see me have. Luke 24:39.

This can convince anyone, who is willing to believe, that the Lord’s Human is Divine, and thus in Him God is man and man God.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 171 sRef Ezek@34 @24 S0′ sRef Ezek@34 @25 S0′ sRef Ezek@34 @23 S0′ 171. The idea of the Trinity which the present-day Christian church has embraced and introduced into its faith, is that God the Father fathered a Son from eternity, and the Holy Spirit then issued from both, each by Himself being God. There is no way this Trinity could be conceived by human minds except as a triad of rulers, like having three kings in one kingdom, or three generals in command of one army, or three masters in one house, each of whom has equal power. This can only lead to ruin. And if anyone wants to form a mental picture or sketch of this triad of rulers while preserving their oneness, he can only conceive of it as a man with three heads on one body, or with three bodies beneath a single head. Such is the monstrous image of the Trinity which will be seen by those who believe in three Divine persons, each of whom is by Himself God, and link them to form a single God, denying that being one makes God one person.
[2] The idea that a Son of God fathered from eternity came down and took upon Himself human form can be compared with the myths of the ancients, that human souls were created from the beginning of the world, and they enter into bodies and become men and women. It is also like the absurd idea that the soul of one person passes into another, as many of the Jewish religion have believed; for instance, that the soul of Elijah came back in the body of John the Baptist, and that David will return to his own or someone else’s body, and reign over Israel and Judah, because Ezekiel says:

I will raise up over them a shepherd who shall feed them, my servant David. He shall be their shepherd, and I Jehovah will be their God, and David shall be prince in their midst. Ezek. 34:23, 24.

There are other such passages. But they do not know that David here means the Lord.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 172 172. (iv) A TRINITY OF DIVINE PERSONS FROM ETERNITY, OR EXISTING BEFORE THE CREATION OF THE WORLD, IMPLIES THINKING ABOUT A TRINITY OF GODS; AND THIS THOUGHT CANNOT BE BANISHED BY A VERBAL CONFESSION OF BELIEF IN ONE GOD.

It is perfectly plain from the following passage in the Athanasian Creed that a Trinity of Divine persons from eternity is a Trinity of Gods:

There is one person of the Father, another of the Son, and another of the Holy Spirit. The Father is God and Lord, the Son is God and Lord, and the Holy Spirit is God and Lord; yet there are not three Gods and Lords, but one God and Lord, because just as we are forced by Christian verity to confess each person singly to be God and Lord, so we are forbidden by the catholic religion to speak of three Gods or three Lords.

This creed has been accepted by the whole Christian church as worldwide and universal, and it is the source of all current knowledge and acknowledgment of God. Anyone who reads it merely with his eyes open can see that the members of the Council of Nicaea, which gave birth as it were posthumously to the so-called Athanasian Creed, understood the Trinity as a Trinity of Gods. It follows that not only did they understand the Trinity as a Trinity of Gods, but that no other idea of the Trinity is current in the Christian world, because this creed is the source from which all gain their knowledge of God, and everyone subscribes to the belief indicated by its wording.

[2] If anyone doubts that the current belief of the Christian world is in a Trinity of Gods, let me appeal to any witness, lay as well as clerical, to the masters and doctors of universities as well as consecrated bishops and archbishops, and to cardinals in their purple, indeed to the Roman Pontiff himself. Let each consider the matter and then pronounce as the ideas in his mind dictate. Is it not as clear and transparent as water in a crystal goblet, if we follow the words of this universally accepted doctrine about God? For instance, it states that there are three persons, and each of these is God and Lord; and that in accordance with Christian verity they ought to confess or acknowledge each person singly as God and Lord, but the catholic or Christian religion or faith prohibits speaking of or naming three Gods and Lords. So verity and religion, or verity and faith, are not one, but two mutually opposed things. The additional clause, that there are not three Gods and Lords, but one God and Lord, has been inserted to prevent its authors being exposed to ridicule before the whole world, for anyone would laugh at the idea of three Gods. Can anyone fail to see the contradiction in this addition?

[3] If, however, they had said that the Father had a Divine essence, the Son had a Divine essence and the Holy Spirit had a Divine essence, but there were not three Divine essences, but a single and indivisible one, then this mystery might have been capable of explanation, to be precise, by understanding the Father as the originating Divine, the Son as the Divine Human from that origin, and the Holy Spirit as the Divine which proceeds from them, since these three belong to a single God. Or again, if we understand by the Father’s Divine something resembling the soul in man, by the Divine Human something resembling the body belonging to that soul, and by the Holy Spirit something resembling the activity which comes from both, then the three essences become intelligible as belonging to one and the same person, and so making up a single, indivisible essence.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 173 173. The reason why the idea of three Gods cannot be banished by a verbal confession of belief in one God is that this idea has been planted in the memory from childhood up, and what the memory contains is the source of everyone’s thought. The memory with human beings resembles the ruminatory stomach of birds and animals. They put food into it, and then they live on it bit by bit, taking it out from time to time and swallowing it into the stomach proper, where the food is digested and circulated to provide for the body’s needs. The human understanding is the stomach proper, as the memory is the first stomach. Anyone can see that the idea of three Divine persons from eternity, being the same as the idea of three Gods, cannot be banished by the verbal confession of belief in one God, merely from the fact that it has still not been banished, and is still current with famous people who resist its banishment. For they insist that the three Divine persons are one God, but are so obstinate as to deny that, because God is one, He is also one person. But surely everyone who is wise thinks in his heart that ‘person’ cannot really be understood as person, but as a predication of some quality? But no one knows what quality, and because of this ignorance the idea remains implanted in the memory from childhood up, like the root of a tree in the ground, which even if the tree is cut down will still send up a shoot.

[2] Do not, my friend, just cut down the tree, but dig up the root, and then plant your garden with trees that bear good fruit. Take care therefore that your mind is not beset by the idea of three Gods, while your mouth, being totally devoid of ideas, rings with the sound of ‘one God.’ If so, then the understanding up above the memory thinking of three Gods, and the understanding underneath the memory which enables the mouth to say the words ‘one God’, are, taken together, like a clown on the stage, who can play two parts scuttling from one side to the other, saying one thing on one side and the opposite on the other, so that he has a quarrel with himself, calling himself wise on one side and crazy on the other. The result of this must surely be that, when he stands in the middle and looks in either direction, he thinks neither to be of any consequence, and so perhaps that, since there is neither one God nor three Gods, there cannot be a God at all. The nature-worship so prevalent to-day comes from no other source.

[3] No one in heaven can utter the words ‘A Trinity of persons, each of whom singly is God.’ For the very aura of heaven, the medium through which the waves of their thoughts are transmitted, as sounds are through air, offers strong resistance. The only person who can do this in heaven is a hypocrite; but the sound of his voice grates in the aura of heaven like teeth grinding together, or screeches like a crow trying to sing like a song-bird. I have also been told from heaven that it is as impossible to banish a belief in a Trinity of Gods, once it is implanted in the mind by finding proofs of it, by merely making oral confession of one God, as it is to pass a tree through its own seed, or a man’s chin through a hair of his beard.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 174 sRef John@10 @1 S1′ sRef John@10 @9 S1′ 174. (v) THE TRINITY OF PERSONS WAS UNKNOWN TO THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH, BUT WAS THE INVENTION OF THE COUNCIL OF NICAEA, LEADING TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, AND THUS TO THE CHURCHES WHICH SPLIT FROM IT.

The Apostolic church means not only the church which existed in various places in the time of the Apostles, but also in the following two or three centuries. But eventually they began to tear the door of the temple off its hinges, and like thieves to break into its sanctuary. The temple means the church, its door the Lord God the Redeemer, and the sanctuary His Divinity. For Jesus says:

Truly I say to you, he who does not enter the sheepfold by the door, but climbs up another way, is a thief and a robber. I am the door; if anyone enters by me, he will be saved. [John 10:1, 9.]

[2] This crime was committed by Arius and his followers. Consequently a Council was summoned by Constantine the Great to meet at Nicaea, a city of Bithynia*; and its members, in order to expel the damaging heresy of Arius, invented, concluded and laid down the doctrine that the three Divine persons, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, existed from eternity, each of whom had a personality, and came into and continued in existence by Himself and in Himself. They also held that the second person, the Son, came down and took upon Himself human form and carried out the redemption, and by this means His Human has divinity by hypostatic union, so that by this union He has close kinship with God the Father. This was the beginning from which there spread over the earth heaps of unspeakable heresies about God and the person of Christ. Antichrist then began to rear his head, and split God into three, and the Lord the Saviour into two, thus destroying the Temple the Lord had built by means of His Apostles; this went so far that every stone was pried loose, until not one was left upon another, as predicted by His words (Matt. 24:2). Here ‘Temple’ does not mean just the Temple in Jerusalem, but also the church; and the whole of that chapter deals with its consummation or end.

[3] But could anything else have been expected of that Council, or those which followed it, seeing that they likewise divided the Divinity into three parts, and put the incarnate God on their footstool beneath them? For they cut off the church’s head from its body by climbing up another way, that is, by by-passing the Lord and crossing over to God the Father, as if He were another God, simply keeping on their tongues the phrase ‘Christ’s merit,’ so that He should pity them for its sake. Thus, they thought, justification would flow directly into them, together with all that accompanies it, forgiveness of sins, renewal, sanctification, regeneration and salvation, and all this without any intervention on the person’s part.

* The ancient name for the north-western province of Asia Minor.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 175 175. The Apostolic church knew nothing about a Trinity of persons or three persons from eternity, as is perfectly plain from the Creed of that church which is known as the Apostles’ Creed. This contains the words:

I believe in God the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary; and in the Holy Spirit.

There is no mention there of any Son from eternity, but of a Son conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary. For they knew from the Apostles that Jesus Christ was the true God (1 John 5:20); and in Him all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily (Col. 2:9); and the Apostles preached belief in Him (Acts 20:21); and He had all power in heaven and on earth (Matt. 28:18).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 176 176. How can one trust Councils, when they do not directly approach the God of the church? Is not the church the Lord’s body, and is He not its head? What use is a body without a head? And what sort of body is it that has three heads on it, under the guidance of which they debate and pass decrees? Surely then enlightenment, which, coming from the Lord alone, who is God of heaven and the church and at the same time God of the Word, is spiritual, becomes more and more natural until it finally reaches the level of the senses. Then it cannot scent out any real theological truth in its inward form without it being instantly expelled from the thinking of the rational understanding, like chaff being scattered to the winds from a winnowing shovel. In that state fallacies then take the place of truths and darkness the place of light rays. Then these people stand as it were in a cavern with spectacles on their noses, candle in hand, and keep their eyelids shut against spiritual truths illuminated by heavenly light, and open them to sense impressions illuminated by the deceptive light of the bodily senses. What happens when the Word is read is much the same; the mind then goes to sleep confronted with truths, and is wide awake confronted with falsities, becoming like the description of the beast from the sea, ‘its mouth like a lion’s, its body like a leopard’s, and its feet like a bear’s’ (Rev. 13:2).

sRef Matt@24 @29 S2′ [2] It is said in heaven that when the Council of Nicaea finished its work, there took place simultaneously the things the Lord foretold to the disciples:

The sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and stars will fall from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. Matt. 24:29.

In fact the Apostolic church was like a new star appearing in the starry sky; but the church after the two Nicene Councils became like the same star later dimming and vanishing, an event recorded a number of times in the natural world according to astronomical observations. We read in the Word that ‘Jehovah God dwells in inaccessible light’ [1 Tim. 6:16]. So who could approach Him, did He not dwell in accessible light, that is, had He not come down, taken upon Himself human form, and in this become the Light of the World (John 1:9; 12:46)? Can anyone fail to see that approaching God the Father in His light is as impossible as taking the wings of the morning and using them to fly to the sun? Or living on sunlight rather than material food? Or for a bird to fly in the ether, or a stag to run through the air?

TCR (Chadwick) n. 177 177. (vi) THE TRINITY AS DEFINED BY THE COUNCIL OF NICAEA AND BY ATHANASIUS CAUSED A FAITH TO ARISE WHICH HAS PERVERTED THE WHOLE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.

It was shown above (172) from the Creeds that both the Nicene and the Athanasian definitions of the Trinity were of a Trinity of Gods.

This was the source of the faith of the present-day church, in God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. It is in God the Father, so that He may impute the righteousness of His Son the Saviour and ascribe it to man; in God the Son, so that He may intercede and add His authority; in the Holy Spirit, so that He may realise the imputed righteousness of the Son by inscribing it, and when it is established sealing it, making man justified, sanctified and regenerated. This is the present-day faith, which by itself is evidence enough that it is a Trinity of Gods which is acknowledged and worshipped.

[2] The faith of any church is not only the source from which its worship flows, but all its theology. Hence it can be said that such as its faith is, such is its doctrine. It follows from this that the present faith, being faith in three Gods, has subverted everything in the church; for faith is the principle, and matters of doctrine are derivatives, and derivatives get their essence from their principle. If anyone puts to the test any points of doctrine, such as their belief about God, the person of Christ, charity, repentance, regeneration, free will, election, the use of the sacraments of baptism and the Holy Supper, he will see plainly that they each contain the idea of a Trinity of Gods. And even if this does not in fact appear to be contained in them, it is still the source from which they gush forth. Since such a testing cannot be undertaken here, useful though it would be to open people’s eyes, I shall add an Appendix to this book, in which this will be proved.

[3] A church’s belief about God is like the soul in relation to the body; and its doctrines are like the members of the body. Again, faith in God is like a queen, and its dogmas are like the officials of her court. just as they hang upon the queen’s lips, so the dogmas depend upon the statement of faith. At least one can see from that faith how the Word is understood in that church; for faith grapples and hauls in to itself as it were by ropes whatever it can. If it is a false faith, it commits adultery with every truth in it, leading it astray and falsifying it, so that people become of unsound mind in spiritual matters. If, however, it is a true faith, then it enjoys the favour of the whole Word, and the God of the Word, who is the Lord God the Saviour, pours in light, and breathes His Divine assent upon it, so that people become wise.

[4] It will also be seen in the Appendix that the present-day faith, which in inward form is faith in three Gods, though the outward form speaks of one God, has put out the light in the Word, and banished the Lord from the church, thus chasing its morning headlong into night. This is what was done by the heretics before the Council of Nicaea, and then by the heretics in it and after it. But what reliance can be placed on Councils which do not enter the sheep-fold through the door, but climb up another way, as the Lord said in John 10:1, 9? Their debates are not far different from a blind man walking about by day, or a man with sight walking by night, neither of whom see the pitfall before falling into it. For example, what reliance can be placed in Councils which have established the position of the Pope as God’s vicar, the canonisation of the dead, their invocation as if they were divine powers, the veneration of their images, the authority to grant indulgences, and the division of the Eucharist, not to mention many more things? What reliance can be placed in the Council which established the unspeakable heresy of predestination, and hung this out as an ensign in front of the churches of their sect? Rather, my friend, approach the God of the Word, and so the Word, and enter by this gate into the sheep-fold, that is, into the church, and you will be given enlightenment. Then you will see, as if you stood on a mountain, not only the way most people have gone, but also your own previous steps and wanderings in the dark wood lying below the mountain.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 178 178. The faith of any church is like a seed, from which spring all its dogmas. It may be compared to the seed of a tree, from which grow all its parts up to and including its fruit; and to the human seed from which are procreated offspring and, generation by generation, families. Therefore if one knows what is the leading faith, which is from its dominant role called necessary for salvation, one can know what kind of church it is. The following example will serve to illustrate this.

Suppose the faith is that nature is the creator of the universe. it follows from this that the universe is what is called God, and that nature is its essence; that the ether is the supreme God, whom the ancients called Jupiter, and the air is a goddess, whom the ancients called Juno, and made Jupiter’s wife; that the ocean is a god of lower rank, who following the ancients can be called Neptune; and because the divinity of nature reaches right to the centre of the earth, that there is a god there too, who following the ancients can be called Pluto; that the sun is the meeting-house of all the gods, where they assemble when Jupiter summons a council; moreover, fire is life from God, and thus birds fly in a god, animals walk in a god, and fishes swim in a god; [2] further, thoughts are mere modifications of the ether, just as the speech which expresses thoughts is a modulation of the air; and the affections of love are changes of state occasioned by the radiation of sunlight impinging on them. This also involves the idea that life after death, together with heaven and hell, is a tale devised by the clergy in pursuit of honours and profit, but it is none the less a useful tale, not to be made fun of in public, because it serves the civic need to keep the minds of ordinary people rigidly obedient to the magistrates. Yet those who are hooked on religion are out of touch with reality, their thoughts are wild imagination, their behaviour ridiculous, and they are lackeys of the priests, believing what they cannot see and seeing things far beyond the reach of their minds. All these consequences, and many more of the same sort, are contained in that faith that nature is the creator of the universe, and emerge from it when it is laid open. This demonstration has been given so that people may know that the faith of the present-day church which is inwardly in three Gods, though outwardly in one, contains battalions of falsities. From this can be extracted as many falsities as there are tiny spiders in one ball produced by a female spider. Is there anyone, whose mind has become truly rational under the enlightenment the Lord gives, who does not see this? But how can anyone else see it, when the door leading to that faith and its offshoots is barred by the rule that it is unlawful for the reason to enquire into its mysteries?

TCR (Chadwick) n. 179 sRef Rev@14 @20 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @11 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@14 @19 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@11 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @8 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @5 S0′ sRef Rev@16 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@6 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S0′ sRef Dan@9 @27 S0′ sRef Rev@16 @13 S0′ sRef Rev@16 @17 S0′ 179. (vii) THIS IS THE SOURCE OF THE ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION AND THE AFFLICTION SUCH AS HAS NEVER BEEN NOR SHALL BE, BOTH OF WHICH THE LORD PREDICTED IN DANIEL, THE GOSPELS AND REVELATION. We read in Daniel:

Finally upon the bird of abominations desolation, to the point of ending and cutting off, shall be poured drop by drop upon devastation. Dan. 9:27.

In Matthew’s gospel the Lord says:

Then many false prophets shall arise and lead many astray. When therefore you see the abomination of desolation predicted by the prophet Daniel standing in the holy place, let him who reads take due notice. Matt. 24:[11,] 15.

Later in the same chapter:

Then there shall be great affliction, such as never was from the beginning of the world until now, nor ever will be. Matt. 24:21.

This affliction and the abomination are dealt with in seven chapters of Revelation. These are what is meant by the black horse and the pale horse which came out of the book, when the Lamb opened its seals (Rev. 6:5-8); and by the beast coming up out of the abyss, which made war on the two witnesses, and killed them (11:7ff.); as by the dragon which stood in front of the woman who was about to give birth, to devour her child, and pursued her into the desert, and there ejected water from its mouth like a river, to drown her (chapter 12); also by the beasts of the dragon, one from the sea, the other from the land (chapter 13); also by the three spirits like frogs, who came out of the mouth of the dragon and the mouth of the beast and the mouth of the false prophet (16:13); moreover by the fact that after the seven angels had poured out the bowls of the wrath of God, in which were the seven last plagues, upon the earth, the sea, the springs and streams, the sun, the throne of the beast, the Euphrates and finally the air, a great earthquake took place such as had never occurred since the creation of man (chapter 16). The earthquake means the overthrow of the church, the result of falsities and falsifications of truth, much as is meant by the great affliction such as never has been since the beginning of the world (Matt. 24:21). The following passage has a similar meaning:

The angel put in his sickle and reaped the grape-harvest of the earth, and threw it into the great winepress of the wrath of God; and the winepress was trodden, and blood came out up to the bridles of the horses at a distance of one thousand six hundred stades*. Rev. 14:19, 20.

Blood means falsified truth. There are many more such passages in those seven chapters.

*The stade was an ancient measure of length, roughly 170 metres; the distance is approximately 170 miles.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 180 180. In the Gospels (Matt. chapter 24; Mark chapter 13; Luke chapter 21) there are descriptions of how the Christian church stage by stage fell away and was corrupted. The mention there of the ‘great affliction such as never was from the beginning of the world, nor ever will be’ means, as in many other passages in the Word, the way truth was attacked by falsities, until there was no truth left which was not falsified and brought to an end. This too is the meaning of the ‘abomination of desolation’ there and the ‘desolation upon the bird of abominations’ and the ‘ending and cutting off’ in Daniel. It is the same thing which is described in Revelation, in the passages just quoted. It was caused by the church failing to acknowledge the oneness of God in the Trinity and His Trinity in oneness in one person, but rather dividing it into three persons. Thus they founded the church on the mental concept of three Gods, while verbally confessing belief in one God. For by this they separated themselves from the Lord, and eventually to such an extent that they had no idea left of divinity in His human nature, when in fact God the Father Himself is in the Human. This too is why He is called ‘the Father of eternity’ (Isa. 9:6), and He says to Philip, ‘He who sees me sees the Father’ (John 14:7, 9).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 181 sRef Matt@24 @21 S0′ 181. The question may be asked, what is the very source and spring from which has flowed forth such an abomination of desolation, as described in Daniel (9:27), and such an affliction as never was nor ever will be (Matt. 24:21)? The answer must be that it comes from the actual faith universally held throughout the Christian world, and from its influence, activity and imputation, as traditionally taught. It is astonishing that the doctrine of justification by that faith alone plays the leading role in the Christian churches, when it is no true faith, but a chimera; that is to say, it dominates the clergy almost as if it were the only theological dogma. It is this that all the recruits to the clergy in their schools avidly learn, swallow and absorb. And afterwards, as if inspired by heavenly wisdom, this is what they teach in their pulpits, publish in their books, and use to pursue and borrow a reputation for superior learning, fame and glory. It is for this that they are presented with diplomas, degrees and prizes. And this happens despite the fact that as a result of that faith alone to-day the sun has been darkened, the moon deprived of her light, the stars have fallen from the skies, and the powers of the heavens have been shaken, as predicted by the Lord’s words in Matthew (24:29). I have been given evidence that the doctrine of that faith has to-day so blinded people’s minds that they are unwilling and therefore unable to see any Divine truth inwardly in sunlight, or in moonlight, but only outwardly with its rough exterior in the light of a fire by night. Therefore I am able to prophesy that if there were sent down from heaven, written in letters of silver, the Divine truths about the true linking of charity and faith, about heaven and hell, about the Lord, about life after death and about everlasting happiness, these believers in justification and sanctification by faith alone would not judge them worth reading. But it would be quite different if a paper on justification by faith alone were sent up from hell; this they would seize on, kiss and carry off home in their pockets.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 182 sRef Matt@24 @22 S1′ sRef Matt@24 @21 S1′ 182. (viii) FURTHER, UNLESS A NEW HEAVEN AND A NEW CHURCH ARE FOUNDED BY THE LORD, NO FLESH CAN BE SAVED.

We read in Matthew:

Then there shall be great affliction, such as never was from the beginning of the world until now, nor ever will be. Indeed, unless those days were cut short, no flesh would be saved. Matt. 24:21, 22.

That chapter deals with the completion of the age, by which is meant the end of the present-day church. Therefore ‘cutting short those days’ means bringing it to an end and setting up a new one. Is there anyone who does not know that if the Lord had not come into the world and carried out the redemption, no flesh could have been saved? Carrying out redemption means founding a new heaven and a new church. The Lord predicted in the Gospels that He would come into the world again (Matt. 24:30, 31; Mark 13:26; Luke 12:40; 21:27), and also in Revelation, especially in the last chapter. I have shown above in the section on Redemption [114-137], that the Lord is carrying out redemption to-day too, founding a new heaven and starting a new church, for the sake of man’s salvation.

sRef Rev@12 @12 S2′ sRef Rev@12 @9 S2′ sRef Rev@12 @13 S2′ [2] The great secret about no flesh being able to be saved, if the Lord had not started a new church, is this. So long as the dragon with his crew stays in the world of spirits, into which he was thrown, no Divine truth united with Divine good can get through to people on earth without being perverted and falsified or being destroyed. This is what is meant by this passage in Revelation:

The dragon was cast down to earth, and his angels were cast down with him. Woe to those that live on the earth and the sea, because the devil has come down to them having great wrath. Rev. 12:9, 12, 13.

But after the dragon was cast into hell (20:10), then John saw a new heaven and a new earth, and the New Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven (21:1, 2). The dragon means those who hold the faith of the present-day church.

[3] I have several times in the spiritual world talked with those who believe that man is justified by faith alone, and I have told them that their doctrine is wrong and also absurd; it induces carelessness, blindness, sleep and darkness in spiritual matters, leading to the death of the soul. I have pleaded with them to abandon it. But I got the answer: ‘Abandon it? Surely this is the one thing upon which the superiority of the clergy’s learning over that of laymen depends.’ I replied that in that case the salvation of souls was no part of their purpose, but only the superiority of their reputations. Because they had used the truths of the Word to support their false principles, thus adulterating them, they were angels of the abyss, those called Abaddons and Apollyons* (Rev. 9: 11), by whom are meant those who destroy the church by totally falsifying the Word. ‘What do you mean?’ they replied; ‘our knowledge makes us oracles of the mysteries of that faith, and we give its replies as if from a shrine. So we are not Apollyons, but Apollos.’ This made me cross and I said: ‘If you are Apollos, you are also leviathans, your first rank twisted leviathans, the second elongated leviathans, whom God will visit with His hard and mighty sword (Isa. 27: 1). But at this they laughed.

* Hebrew and Greek words for ‘destroyer’.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 183 183. (ix) FROM A TRINITY OF PERSONS, EACH OF WHICH INDIVIDUALLY IS GOD, AS ASSERTED BY THE ATHANASIAN CREED, MANY ABSURD IDEAS OF VARIOUS KINDS HAVE ARISEN ABOUT GOD, WHICH ARE MERE FANCIES AND ABORTIONS.

The doctrine of three Divine persons from eternity, which is in itself the chief of all the doctrines held by the Christian churches, has given rise to many unbecoming ideas about God, unworthy of the Christian world, which, however, can and ought to be a light to all peoples and races in all four quarters of the globe concerning God and His oneness. All who live outside the Christian church, Mohammedans as well as Jews, and the heathen besides of whatever religion, reject Christianity solely on account of its belief in three Gods. Missionaries are well aware of this; so they take the greatest care not to speak openly of the Trinity of persons as described in the Nicene and Athanasian Creeds, since then their converts would run away and make fun of them.

[2] The absurd, ridiculous and frivolous ideas which have arisen from the doctrine of three divine persons from eternity, and which still arise in the mind of anyone who sticks to believing the wording of that doctrine, rising from the ears and eyes to the level of mental contemplation, are these. God the Father sits overhead on high, with the Son at His right hand and the Holy Spirit in front of them listening, and rushing off on the instant through the world to hand out the gifts of justification according to the decision taken, inscribing these gifts and making their recipients sons of grace instead of sons of wrath, and elect instead of damned. I challenge the learned among the clergy and educated laymen to say whether they have in their minds any other picture than this imaginary one. For this springs to mind of its own accord from the doctrine itself; see the experience described in 16 above.

[3] Another thing that springs to mind is a curiosity to guess what they talked to each other about before the creation of the world. Did they talk about creating the world, about who were predestined to be saved and justified, as the Supralapsarians believe, and also about redemption? Likewise, what do they talk to each other about since the creation of the world, the Father with His authority and power to impute, the Son with His power to mediate; that imputation, which is election, is dependent upon the mercy of the Son who intercedes for all, and individually for some; and these receive grace from the Father, who is moved by love for His Son and by seeing His suffering on the cross. Can anyone fail to see that such ideas of God are the ravings of a deranged mind? Yet in Christian churches those are the holy things to be kissed with the lips, not inspected by any mental vision, because they are above the level of reason; if anyone were to lift them above the memory level to that of the understanding, they would drive him mad. But still this does not banish the idea of three Gods, but induces a foolish faith, which makes people think about God like someone dreaming in his sleep, walking in pitch darkness at night, or like a person blind from birth walking in daylight.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 184 184. The fact that the minds of Christians are obsessed with the idea of a Trinity of Gods, for all that shame makes them deny it, is perfectly clear from the ingenuity many of them display in proving that three are one and one is three. They use various devices in geometry, solids, arithmetic and physics for the purpose, as well as folds in garments and sheets of paper. So they make the Divine Trinity a subject for games, like scenes between comic actors. This farce can be likened to the vision of patients in fevers, who see a single object, whether it be a person, a table or a candle, as three, or see three objects as one. It can also be likened to the game in which the players knead soft wax between their fingers, and pinch it into various shapes, now making it triangular to represent the Trinity, now into a ball to show it is all one, saying, ‘Is it not still one and the same substance?’ Yet the Divine Trinity is like a pearl* of great price; but divided into persons it is like a pearl cut into three, which is obviously completely ruined.

* The Latin word for ‘pearl’ is here unio, which also means ‘union’.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 185 185. Here I shall add some more experiences, of which this is the first.

The spiritual world contains climatic zones similar to those in the natural world. There is nothing in this world which does not have its counterpart in the other, but their origins are different. In the natural world the varying seasons depend upon how far the sun is from the equator; in the spiritual world they depend upon how remote the affections of the will, and so the thoughts of the understanding, are from true love and true faith. Everything there corresponds to these two.

The cold zones of the spiritual world look much like the cold zones in the natural world. There are stretches of frozen land to be seen there, frozen lakes and a covering of snow. The people who come and live there are those who in the world had put their understanding to sleep through being too lazy to think about spiritual matters, and at the same time too lazy to do anything useful. These are called boreal* spirits.

[2] I once had a wish to see a district in the cold zone, where these boreal spirits live. So I was taken in the spirit northwards, to an area where all the ground was snow-covered and all the water frozen over. It was Sunday, and I saw the people, or spirits, of the same physique as people on earth; but on account of the cold they had lions’ skins on their heads, with the face fitting over their faces; their bodies both front and back down to the loins were covered with leopards’ skins, their legs and feet with bears’ skins. I also saw many of them riding in carriages; some of them were in carriages carved to resemble dragons with their horns projecting forwards. These carriages were pulled by small horses with docked tails. They ran like terrifying wild beasts, and the driver holding the reins in his hands constantly drove them on and yelled at them to run. Eventually I saw that the crowds were converging on a church, which was so deep in snow it was invisible. But the guardians of the church were clearing away the snow and digging out a way in for the worshippers as they arrived. They got out of their carriages and entered the church.

[3] I was also allowed to see the inside of the church. It was plentifully lit with lamps and lanterns. The altar was of ashlar, and behind it was hung up a board, on which was written: ‘The Divine Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit, who are in essence one God, but three in person.’

At length the priest who was standing by the altar, after three genuflexions towards the board behind it, climbed into the pulpit holding a book in his hand, and began to preach about the Divine Trinity. ‘How great a mystery it is,’ he cried, ‘that God in the highest fathered a Son from eternity, and through Him produced the Holy Spirit, the three of whom linked themselves by essence, but divided themselves by properties, that is, imputation, redemption and activity! But if we consider these things by the use of reason, our sight grows dim and a blot obscures our vision, such as affects anyone who gazes directly at the sun. Therefore, my listeners, in this respect let us keep the understanding subject to the dictates of faith.’

[4] After this he gave another cry and said: ‘How great a mystery is our holy faith! This tells us that God the Father imputes the righteousness of the Son, and sends the Holy Spirit to effect by that imputation the rewards of justification. These are briefly the forgiveness of sins, renewal, regeneration and salvation. A person knows no more about the influence and action of the Holy Spirit than the pillar of salt into which Lot’s wife was turned. Nor is he any more aware of His presence and state within him than a fish is in the sea. But, my friends, within our faith lies hidden a treasure, so hedged about and concealed that not a scrap of it is to be seen. Therefore in respect to this too let us keep the understanding subject to the dictates of faith.’

[5] He heaved a few sighs, and then cried out again, saying: ‘How great a mystery is election! Anyone becomes one of the elect to whom God imputes the faith which of His free choice and purely of His grace He pours into any He wishes, whenever He wishes. When he receives the infusion the person is like a bare tree-trunk, but afterwards he becomes like a tree. But although the fruits, which are good deeds, hang from that tree, which may be taken to represent our faith, still they do not form part of it, so that the tree’s value does not depend upon its fruit. However, since this, for all it is a mystic truth, has a heterodox ring to it, let us, my brethren, keep the understanding subject to the dictates of this faith.’

[6] After an interval, during which he stood as if trying to recall something from his memory, he went on to say: ‘From the heap of mysteries I will extract just one more. This is that a person in spiritual matters has not a grain of free will. The leaders and champions of our rule say in their theological canons that in matters which concern faith and salvation, what are especially called spiritual matters, a person cannot will, think or understand anything, nor even prepare and devote himself to acquiring these things. So I hold for my part that a person cannot for his part on these subjects think rationally, or speak thoughtfully otherwise than a parrot, magpie or crow. So in spiritual matters he is truly a donkey, and only human in natural matters. But in this, my colleagues, as in other respects, to prevent the understanding attacking your reason, let us keep it subject to the dictates of faith. Our theology is a bottomless pit, and if you plunge your intellectual gaze into it, you will sink and perish in the wreck. But please listen to this: we are none the less enlightened by the Gospel, which shines out high above our heads; yet how painfully would it hurt, did not our hair and the bones of our skull keep it out and prevent it from penetrating into the chamber of our understanding.’

[7] At the end of this speech he came down from the pulpit, said a few prayers at the altar, and brought the service to an end. Then I went up to a group of people, including the priest, who were talking together. The people around said to the priest: ‘You have our undying thanks for such a magnificent sermon, so full of wisdom.’ Then I said to them: ‘Surely you did not understand anything of it?’ ‘We strained our ears to catch every word,’ they answered. ‘But why do you ask whether we understood it? Are not such things likely to amaze the understanding?’ The priest on hearing this added: ‘Because you have heard and have not understood, you are blessed, for that is the source of your salvation.’

[8] Subsequently I talked with the priest and asked him if he had a degree; he replied that he held a master’s degree. Then I said: ‘Master, I have listened to you preaching of mysteries. If you know of them, but nothing of what they contain, you know nothing. For they are merely like bookcases locked with three bolts; and unless you open them and look inside, which will require the use of the understanding, you do not know whether the contents are valuable, worthless or dangerous. They may be snakes’ eggs and spiders’ webs, as described in Isaiah (59:5).’

When I said this, the priest gave me a black look, and the worshippers went off and got into their carriages, drunk with paradoxes, stupefied with inanities and plunged in thick darkness as regards everything conducive to faith and instrumental for salvation.

* Or ‘of the north wind’.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 186 186. The second experience.

Once I turned over in my mind the question in what part of the human mind theology is stored. I thought at first that since theology is spiritual and celestial, it must be at the highest level; for the human mind is divided into three levels, like a house with three storeys, or like the dwellings of the angels in three heavens.

Then an angel visited me and said: ‘With those who love truth because it is truth, theology reaches the highest level, since that is where their heaven is, and they enjoy the same light as angels. Ethics, however, considered and perceived theoretically are located at the second level, because they communicate with spiritual matters; political affairs lie beneath these at the first level. Facts, however, which are of many kinds and can be classified into genera and species, constitute the door to the higher regions. Those in whom spiritual, ethical, political and factual matters are subordinated to one another in this way have their thoughts and actions controlled by righteousness and judgment. The reason is that the light of truth, which is also the light of heaven, shines down from the highest level on those beneath, just as sunlight passing through the ethers, and so eventually the air, gives light to enable men, animals and fish to see.

[2] ‘The case is different, however, with theology in those who do not love truth because it is truth, but only because it enhances their own reputation. With these people theology resides at the lowest level, where factual knowledge is stored; in some cases it becomes mixed with these, in others they cannot mix. Political matters lie beneath these at the same level, and ethics beneath these, since in these cases the two higher levels are not open on the right-hand side. These people therefore do not have any power of inward judgment, nor any affection for righteousness, but only ingenuity. This allows them to talk on any subject as if they were intelligent, and to adduce what appear to be rational proofs of any proposition which comes up. But the objects of their reason, which are what they chiefly love, are false, because they are inseparable from the fallacies of the senses. This explains why there are so many people in the world who can no more see the truths of doctrine to be drawn from the Word, than those born blind; and when they hear them, they hold their noses to prevent their smell from assailing them and causing nausea. But when faced with falsities, they open every sense-organ and suck them in as whales do water.’

TCR (Chadwick) n. 187 187. The third experience*.

Once when I was meditating on the dragon, the beast and the false prophet described in Revelation, an angelic spirit appeared to me and asked: ‘What are you meditating about?’ ‘The false prophet,’ I told him. Then he said: ‘I will take you to a place where those live who are meant by the false prophet.’ He told me that the same people are meant in chapter 13 of Revelation by the beast from the land, which had two horns like a lamb’s, and spoke like a dragon.

I followed him, and came upon a crowd surrounding some leading ecclesiastics, who taught that nothing but faith in Christ’s merit confers salvation on people, and that deeds are good but do not contribute to their salvation. None the less, they said, these should be taught in accordance with the Word, so that laymen, particularly the simple, should be kept more rigorously subject to the dictates of magistrates, and thus be impelled, as if by religion and thus inwardly, to exercise ethical charity.

[2] Then one of them saw me and said: ‘Would you like to see our shrine, which contains a statue representing our faith?’

I went along and looked; and there was a magnificent shrine, and inside it a statue of a woman wearing a scarlet dress, holding a gold coin in her right hand and a pearl necklace in her left. But both the statue and the shrine were imaginary, for the spirits in hell can by their imagination produce magnificent representations, by closing the interiors of the mind, and opening only its exteriors. When I realised that all this was mere conjuring, I prayed to the Lord, and the interiors of my mind were suddenly opened. Then in place of that magnificent shrine I saw a ruinous building with cracks in the walls from ceiling to floor; and in place of the woman I saw hanging in that building an image with a head like a dragon’s, a body like a leopard’s, feet like a bear’s and a mouth like a lion’s, exactly as the beast from the sea is described in Revelation 13:2. Instead of the floor there was a marsh teeming with frogs. I was told that beneath the marsh there was a great squared stone, beneath which lay the Word, deeply hidden away.

[3] On seeing this I asked the conjurer: ‘Is this your shrine?’ He said it was. But then suddenly his interior sight was opened, which made him see what I saw. At this sight he shouted very loudly: ‘What is this? Where has it come from?’ I told him that it was the result of light from heaven, which reveals the true nature of every form, and consequently the true nature of his faith separated from spiritual charity.

Immediately the east wind sprang up and blew away the shrine with its statue. It also dried up the marsh, thus laying bare the stone beneath which the Word lay. After this a warm wind, as in springtime, blew from heaven, and then in the same place was to be seen a tent, of simple external construction. The angels with me said: ‘This is what Abraham’s tent was like, when the three angels came to him and told him that Isaac was to be born. This may appear to view as simple, but it becomes more and more magnificent as light flows in from heaven.’

They were allowed to open the heaven where the spiritual angels are, who possess wisdom, and the light which poured in from there made that tent look like a temple such as that in Jerusalem. When I looked inside, I saw the stone base under which the Word was stored inlaid all around with precious stones. A sort of radiance was projected from these on to the walls, which were decorated with carved cherubs; and these the radiance beautifully picked out in various colours.

sRef Rev@21 @3 S4′ sRef Rev@21 @22 S4′ [4] When I admired this, the angels said: ‘Now you will see something even more wonderful.’ They were allowed to open the third heaven, where the celestial angels are who possess love. Then the flame-coloured light flooding in made that whole temple vanish, and in its place was to be seen the Lord alone, standing upon the stone base which was the Word, in appearance as He was seen by John (Rev. chapter 1). But because a feeling of holiness then filled the interiors of the angels’ minds, causing them to long to fall on their faces, the path of light from the third heaven was suddenly blocked by the Lord, and the path for light from the second heaven was opened up, thus restoring the previous appearance of the temple, and also of the tent, but this was inside the temple. These sights provided an illustration of what is meant by the verse in Revelation:

Here is the tabernacle of God with men, and He will dwell with them. Rev, 21:3.

and also this:

I saw no temple in the New Jerusalem, for the Lord God almighty and the Lamb are its temple. Rev. 21:22.
* This section is repeated from AR 926.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 188 188. The fourth experience*.

Since I have been allowed by the Lord to see the wonders in the heavens and in the regions below the heavens, my instructions impose on me the duty of relating what I have seen.

I saw a magnificent palace, and at its heart a church. In the middle of this was a table made of gold, on which was the Word, with two angels standing by it. Seats were arranged around it in three rows. The seats of the first row were covered in silk cloth of purple colour, those of the second row in silk cloth of blue colour, those of the third row in white cloth. Beneath the roof, high above the table, was to be seen a curtain drawn across, glittering with precious stones, from which shone a radiance resembling the rainbow to be seen when the sky clears after rain. Then suddenly there appeared clergy to the same number as the seats, all dressed in their priestly vestments. At one side was a strong-box guarded by an angel, in which lay splendid vestments arranged in beautiful order.

sRef Matt@1 @25 S2′ sRef Isa@25 @9 S2′ sRef Matt@1 @20 S2′ sRef Luke@1 @34 S2′ sRef Luke@1 @31 S2′ sRef Luke@1 @35 S2′ sRef Luke@1 @32 S2′ [2] It was a council summoned by the Lord; and I heard a voice from heaven saying: ‘Debate.’ ‘But on what subject?’ they said. They were told to debate about the Lord the Saviour and the Holy Spirit. When they began to think about these subjects, they had no enlightenment; so they prayed for it, and then light poured down from heaven, which first of all lit up the backs of their heads, then their temples, and finally their faces. Then they began, speaking first as instructed about the Lord the Saviour.

The first question proposed for discussion was: who was it that took upon himself human form in the Virgin Mary? The angel who stood by the table holding the Word read to them this passage from Luke:

The angel said to Mary, Behold, you will conceive in your womb, and will give birth to a son; and you are to call his name Jesus. He will be mighty, and will be called the Son of the Most High. And Mary said to the angel, How will this be, seeing I have no knowledge of a man? And the angel answered and said, The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; hence what is born of you will be holy, and will be called the Son of god. Luke 1:31, 32, 34, 35.

He also read this passage in Matthew:

The angel said to Joseph in a dream, Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your betrothed, for what is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. And Joseph did not know her, until she had given birth to her first-born son; and he called his name Jesus. Matt. 1:20, 25.

In addition he read many passages from the Gospels (such as Matt. 3:17; 17:5; John 1:18; 3: 16; 20:31), and many other passages where the Lord in His Human is called the Son of God, and where He from His Human calls Jehovah His Father, for instance, the passages in the Prophets which predict the coming of Jehovah Himself into the world. Among these were the following two from Isaiah:

On that day it will be said, Behold, He is our God, whom we have awaited to free us. He is Jehovah, whom we have awaited, let us exult and rejoice in His salvation. Isa. 25:9.

The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare the way of Jehovah, make smooth in the desert a path for our God. For the glory of Jehovah will be revealed, and all flesh will see it together. Behold, the Lord Jehovih comes in might, like a shepherd will He feed His flock. Isa. 40:3, 5, 10, 11.

sRef Jer@23 @5 S3′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S3′ sRef Isa@40 @5 S3′ sRef Isa@40 @3 S3′ sRef Hos@13 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@40 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@40 @10 S3′ sRef Zech@14 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@48 @17 S3′ sRef Jer@50 @34 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @14 S3′ sRef Isa@47 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @21 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @22 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @15 S3′ sRef Isa@44 @24 S3′ sRef Isa@43 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S3′ sRef Ps@19 @14 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @26 S3′ [3] The angel said: ‘Since Jehovah Himself came into the world and took upon Himself human form, [and by this means saved and redeemed man]** therefore in the Prophets He is called the Saviour and the Redeemer.’ Then he read to them the following passages:

Only among you is God, and there is no God besides. You surely are the hidden God, the God of Israel, the Saviour. Isa. 45:14, 15.

Am I not Jehovah, and there is no God besides me, there is no righteous God and Saviour beside me. Isa. 45:21, 22.

I am Jehovah, and there is no Saviour beside me. Isa. 43:11.

I am Jehovah your God; and you are not to acknowledge any God beside me, and there is no Saviour beside me. Hosea 13:4.

That all flesh may know that I am Jehovah your Saviour and your Redeemer. Isa. 49:26; 60:16.

As for our Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth is His name. Isa. 47:4.

Their Redeemer, the mighty Jehovah Zebaoth is His name. Jer. 50:34.

Jehovah, my rock and my Redeemer. Ps. 19:14.

Thus spoke Jehovah your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am Jehovah your God. Isa. 48:17; 43:3***; 49:7; 54:8.

You are Jehovah our Father, our Redeemer from eternity is your name. Isa. 63:16.

Thus spoke Jehovah your Redeemer, I am Jehovah the maker of everything, and I alone by myself. Isa. 44:24.

Thus spoke Jehovah, the King of Israel and his Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth; I am the first and the last and there is no God beside me. Isa. 44:6.

Jehovah Zebaoth is His name, and your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel; He will be called God of all the earth. Isa. 54:5.

Behold, the days will come, when I shall raise up for David a righteous shoot, who will reign as King; and this is His name, Jehovah our righteousness. Jer. 23:5, 6; 33:15, 16,

On that day Jehovah will be King over all the earth; on that day Jehovah will be one, and His name one. Zech. 14:9.

[4] Both sets of passages were accepted as proofs by those who sat on the seats, and they said with one accord that Jehovah Himself took upon Himself human form to redeem and save mankind. But then a voice spoke up from the Roman Catholics, who had hidden behind the altar, saying: ‘How can Jehovah God become man? Is He not the Creator of the universe?’ One of those sitting in the second row of, seats turned round and said: ‘Who did then?’ The one who had been behind the altar stood up near it and replied: ‘The Son from eternity.’ But he received the reply: ‘Is not the Son from eternity according to your creed also the Creator of the universe? And what is the Son but God born from eternity? How can the Divine essence, which is one and indivisible, be separated so that one part of it came down, and not the whole at once?’

sRef John@10 @30 S5′ sRef John@14 @6 S5′ sRef John@14 @9 S5′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S5′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S5′ sRef John@14 @11 S5′ sRef John@14 @8 S5′ sRef John@12 @44 S5′ sRef John@12 @45 S5′ sRef John@17 @10 S5′ sRef John@14 @10 S5′ [5] The second debate about the Lord was whether the Father and He are one, just as the soul and the body are one. They said that this followed because the soul is from the father. Then one of those sitting in the third row read the following words from the Creed known as Athanasian:

Although our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, is God and man, still there are not two, but one Christ; indeed He is utterly one. He is one person. For as the soul and body make up one man, so God and man is one Christ.

The reader said that the Creed containing these words is accepted throughout the Christian world, including the Roman Catholics.

‘What need,’ they said, ‘is there to go on? God the Father and the Lord are one, just as soul and body are one. Since this is so, we see that the Lord’s Human is Divine, because it is the Human of Jehovah; and the Lord is to be approached in His Divine Human, because this is the only possible way to approach the Divine called the Father.’

[6] This conclusion of theirs was confirmed by the angel citing many passages from the Word, including:

A child is born for us, a son is given to us, whose name is Wonderful, Counsellor, God, Hero, the everlasting Father, the Prince of peace. Isa. 9:6.

Also:

Abraham does not know us, and Israel does not acknowledge us. You, Jehovah, are our Father, our Redeemer from eternity is your name. Isa. 63:16.

In John:

Jesus said, He who believes in me believes in Him who sent me, and he who sees me sees Him who sent me. John 12:44, 45.

Philip said to Jesus, Show us the Father. Jesus said to him, He who has seen me has seen the Father. Why then do you say, Show us the Father? Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? Believe me, I am in the Father and the Father is in me. John 14:8-11. Jesus said, I and the Father are one. John 10:30.

Also:

All things which the Father has are mine, and all of mine are the Father’s. John 16:15; 17:10.

Finally:

Jesus said, I am the way, truth and life; no one comes to the Father except through me. John 14:6.

The reader went on to say that similar statements to those made here by the Lord about Himself and His Father can also be made by a man about himself and his soul. On hearing this all declared with one heart and voice that the Lord’s Human is Divine, and this must be approached in order to approach the Father, because by means of the Human Jehovah God brought Himself into the world and made Himself visible to human eyes, and thus accessible. Likewise He made Himself visible and accessible to the ancients in human form, but at that time by means of an angel. But because this form represented the Lord who was to come, among the ancients everything that concerned the church was representative.

[7] This was followed by a debate about the Holy Spirit. To begin it the popular idea about God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit was presented, namely, that God the Father sits on high, the Son at His right hand, and they send out from themselves the Holy Spirit, to enlighten, teach, justify and sanctify men. But a voice was then heard from heaven, saying. ‘We find this mode of thought intolerable. Surely everyone knows that Jehovah God is omnipresent. A person who knows and acknowledges this will also acknowledge that it is He who enlightens, teaches, justifies and sanctifies, and that there is no mediating God separate from Himself, much less from two other Gods, as one person is separate from another. You must therefore rid yourselves of the first idea, seeing it is meaningless, and accept this, which is correct, and then you will see this plainly.’

[8] But at this point a voice was heard from the Roman Catholics who were standing near the altar of the church, saying: ‘What then is the Holy Spirit who is mentioned in the Word, in the Gospels and Paul, and by which so many of the learned clergy, especially ours, allege they are guided? Is there any Christian to-day who denies the existence of the Holy Spirit and His activity?’ On hearing this one of those sitting in the second row turned round and said: ‘You claim that the Holy Spirit is a person by Himself and God by Himself. But what is the meaning of a person going forth and proceeding from a person, if it is not the activity which goes forth and proceeds? One person cannot go forth and proceed from another, but his activity can. What is meant by God going forth and proceeding from God, if not the Divine which goes forth and proceeds? One God cannot go forth and proceed from another by means of a third; but the Divine can from a single God.’

[9] On hearing this the assembly in session reached the unanimous conclusion that the Holy Spirit is not a person by Himself, so not God by Himself either, but the Holy Divine which goes forth and proceeds from the one omnipresent God, who is the Lord. The angels who were standing by the golden table on which the Word was placed said to this: ‘Good. Nowhere in the Old Testament do we read that the prophets spoke the Word from the Holy Spirit, but from Jehovah; and where the Holy Spirit is mentioned in the New Testament, the Divine which proceeds is meant. This is the Divine which enlightens, teaches, quickens, reforms and regenerates.’

sRef John@3 @34 S10′ sRef John@3 @35 S10′ sRef Isa@42 @1 S10′ sRef John@16 @14 S10′ sRef John@14 @26 S10′ sRef John@16 @7 S10′ sRef John@7 @39 S10′ sRef John@20 @22 S10′ sRef John@16 @15 S10′ sRef John@15 @26 S10′ sRef Rev@15 @4 S10′ sRef Isa@11 @2 S10′ sRef Isa@11 @1 S10′ [10] This was followed by another debate about the Holy Spirit: from whom does the Divine meant by the Holy Spirit proceed, from the Father, or from the Lord? While they were discussing this, a light shone on them from heaven which allowed them to see that the Holy Divine, meant by the Holy Spirit, does not proceed from the Father by means of the Lord, but from the Lord acted upon by the Father; as for comparison in man, his activity does not proceed from the soul by means of the body, but from the body acted upon by the soul.

This was confirmed by the angel standing at the table by these passages in the Word:

He whom the Father has sent speaks the words of God; not by measure does God give him the Spirit. The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. John 3:34, 35.

A shoot will come forth from the stock of Jesse; the Spirit of Jehovah will rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and intelligence, the spirit of counsel and power. Isa. 11:1, 2.

The Spirit of Jehovah was put upon him, and was in him. Isa. 42:1; 59:19, 20; 61:1; Luke 4:18.

When the Holy Spirit comes, whom I shall send you from the Father, John 35:26.

He will glorify me, because He will take from what is mine and communicate it to you. All things that the Father has are mine. That is why I have said that He will take from what is mine and communicate it to you. John 16:14, 15.

If I go away, I will send the Comforter to you. John 16:7.

The Comforter is the Holy Spirit. John 14:26.

The Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified. John 7:39.

But after His glorification:

Jesus breathed upon the disciples and said to them, Receive the Holy Spirit. John 20:22.

And in Revelation:

Who will not glorify your name, Lord, since you alone are holy? Rev. 15:4.

sRef John@14 @28 S11′ sRef John@14 @18 S11′ sRef Matt@28 @20 S11′ sRef John@14 @20 S11′ [11] Since the Holy Spirit means the Lord’s Divine activity from His Divine omnipresence, so when He spoke to the disciples about the Holy Spirit, which He was to send from the Father, He also said:

I will not leave you bereft; I go away and come to you; and on that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you are in me, and I in you. John 14:18, 20, 28.

Shortly before He left the world, He said:

Behold, I am with you always up to the ending of the age. Matt. 28:20.

After reading these passages to them the angel said: ‘It is plain from these and many other passages in the Word that the Divine called the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Lord acted upon by the Father.’ Those in session replied: ‘This is Divine truth.’

sRef Colo@2 @9 S12′ [12] Finally the following resolution was passed: ‘We have seen clearly from the deliberations in this council, and thus acknowledge as a holy truth, that in the Lord God the Saviour Jesus Christ there is a Divine Trinity, consisting of the originating Divine called the Father, the Human Divine called the Son, and the Divine which proceeds called the Holy Spirit.’ And they cried out together that in Christ all the fulness of the Godhead dwells bodily (Col. 2:9). ‘Thus there is one God in the church.’

[13] When this magnificent council had reached these conclusions, its members rose; and the angel in charge came and brought from the strong-box for each of those who had taken part in the session splendid garments with here and there gold threads interwoven, and said: ‘Accept these wedding garments.’ Then they were taken in glory to the new Christian heaven, with which the Lord’s church on earth, the New Jerusalem, is to be linked.

* This section is repeated from AR 962.
** Restored from the parallel passage in AR 962.
*** The original has 43:24.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 189 189. CHAPTER FOUR

THE SACRED SCRIPTURE OR THE WORD OF THE LORD*

I

The sacred scripture, that is the Word, is Divine truth itself.

Everyone professes the Word to be from God, divinely inspired and therefore holy, but up to the present no one has known where in it the Divine is. For taken literally the Word looks like any ordinary book, written in a strange style, neither high-flown nor brilliant as many secular books appear to be. This is why if a person worships nature as God or in preference to God, so that his thought comes from himself and his own personality (proprium) rather than from heaven inspired by the Lord, he can easily fall into error about the Word and come to despise it. Thus he may say to himself when he reads it: ‘What does this or that mean? Can this be divine? Can God, whose wisdom is infinite, talk like this? Where is there anything holy in it, and where does this holiness come from, except from religious belief and the conviction it carries?’

* The whole of this chapter is closely modelled on THE DOCTRINE OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURE, published in Amsterdam in 1763.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 190 sRef John@1 @4 S0′ sRef John@6 @63 S0′ sRef John@14 @6 S0′ sRef John@6 @68 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef Rev@7 @17 S0′ sRef John@7 @37 S0′ sRef John@4 @14 S0′ sRef John@4 @6 S0′ sRef John@4 @10 S0′ sRef Mark@13 @31 S0′ sRef John@7 @38 S0′ 190. The person who thinks like this fails to reflect that the Lord Jehovah, who is the God of heaven and earth, uttered the Word by means of Moses and the Prophets, and consequently it cannot be anything but Divine truth. For this is what everything is that the Lord Jehovah Himself speaks. He fails too to reflect that the Lord the Saviour, who is the same as Jehovah, uttered the Word in the Gospels, much of it from His own lips, and the remainder by the spirit of His mouth, which is the Holy Spirit, through His twelve Apostles. This is why, as He Himself says, His words contain spirit and life, and why He is the light that enlightens, and why He is truth. This is plain from the following passages:

Jesus said, The words which I speak to you are spirit and life. John 6:63. Jesus said to the woman at Jacob’s well, if you knew the gift of God, and who it is who says to you, Give me a drink, you would ask him, and he would give you living water. He who drinks of the water which I shall give, will never thirst, but the water which I shall give will become a well of water springing up in him to give everlasting life. John 4:6, 10, 14.

‘Jacob’s well’ means the Word, as it also does in Deut. 33:28. That is why the Lord, being the Word, sat down there, and talked with the woman. ‘Living water’ means the truth of the Word.

Jesus said, If anyone is thirsty, let him come to me, and drink. If anyone believes in me, as the scripture says, streams of living water will flow from his belly. John 7:37, 38.

Peter said to Jesus, You have the words of everlasting life. John 6:68. Jesus said, Heaven and earth will pass away; my words will not pass away. Mark 13:31.

The reason why the Lord’s words are truth and life is that He is truth and life, as He teaches in John:

I am the way, truth and life. John 14:6.

In the same Gospel:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. John 1:1-4.

The Word means the Lord in respect of Divine truth, in which alone there is life and light. That is why the Word, which is from the Lord and is the Lord, is called ‘a spring of living waters’ (Jer. 2:13; 17:13; 31:9), ‘a spring of deliverance’ (Isa. 12:3), ‘a spring’ (Zech. 13:1) and ‘a river of the water of life’ (Rev. 22:1); and it is said that ‘the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, [and bring them] to living springs of water’ (Rev. 7:17). There are other passages too where the Word is called a ‘sanctuary’ and ‘tabernacle*’ in which the Lord dwells with man.

* Or: tent.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 191 191. But the natural man still cannot be convinced by these quotations that the Word is Divine truth itself, containing Divine wisdom and Divine life, because he looks at it from the point of view of its style, and in this he cannot see these things. However, the style of the Word is the actual style of God, beyond comparisons with any other style, however high-flown and magnificent. Such is the style of the Word that there is holiness in every sentence, every word, in some places even every letter. Thus the Word forms a link between man and the Lord, and opens the way to heaven. There are two things which proceed from the Lord, Divine love and Divine wisdom, or in other words Divine good and Divine truth. The Word is in its essence both of these; and because it forms a link between man and the Lord, and opens the way to heaven, as I have said, the Word therefore fills man with the good affections of love and the truths of wisdom, his will with good affections of love, his understanding with the truths of wisdom. This is how man has life by means of the Word. But it ought properly to be known that the only people to have life from the Word are those who read it with the intention of drawing Divine truths from it, like water from the spring, and at the same time with the intention of putting the Divine truths drawn from it into practice in their lives. The reverse happens to those whose only intention in reading the Word is to win honours and gain worldly advantages.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 192 192. Everyone who is unaware that the Word contains a spiritual sense, as the body contains a soul, can only judge the Word from its literal sense. Yet this is like a case full of precious goods; these are its spiritual sense. So as long as this internal sense remains unknown, one can no more judge the Divine holiness of the Word than one can a precious stone from the matrix in which it is embedded, and which sometimes looks like an ordinary stone; or from a chest made of jasper, lapis lazuli, amianthus (also called mica), or agate, but containing rows of diamonds, rubies, sardonyxes, oriental topazes, etc. So long as this remains unknown, it is no wonder that the chest is not valued more highly than the worth of its visible materials. It is similar with the literal sense in the Word. Therefore to prevent people from doubting that the Word is Divine and most holy, the Lord has revealed to me its internal sense, which in its essence is spiritual. This lies within the external or natural sense like the soul within the body. That sense is the spirit which gives life to the literal form. Consequently that sense can bear witness to the divinity and holiness of the Word, and convince even the natural man, if he is willing to be convinced.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 193 193. II

The Word contains a spiritual sense unknown up to the present.

Is there anyone who does not acknowledge and assent to the proposition that the Word, being Divine, is in its inmost spiritual? But who up to now has known what spiritual means, and where it is hidden in the Word? It will be shown in an experience recounted at the end of this chapter [280] what spiritual means; where it lies hidden in the Word will be revealed in the following paragraphs.

The reason why the Word is spiritual in its inmost is that it has come down from the Lord Jehovah and has passed through the heavens of the angels; and the actual divinity, which in itself is beyond expression and perception, has become as it came down adapted so as to permit angels, and finally men, to grasp it. Thus there is a spiritual sense, which is inside the natural sense like the soul in a person, or like the thinking of the understanding in speech, and the affection of the will in actions. If we may compare it with the kinds of things to be seen in the natural world, the spiritual sense is within the natural sense like the whole brain inside its membranes or integuments; or like the shoots of a tree within its bark and bast, or, rather, like everything needed to produce a chick inside the eggshell, and so on. But no one up to the present has guessed that the natural sense of the Word contains a spiritual sense of this kind. It is therefore necessary to make plain to the view of the understanding this secret, which is in itself far superior to all secrets disclosed so far. This can be achieved by expounding the matter in the following sequence:

(i) What the spiritual sense is.
(ii) This sense is present in every part and detail of the Word.
(iii) It is this which makes the Word divinely inspired and holy in every word.
(iv) This sense has up to the present been unknown.
(v) It will in future only be granted to those who are in possession of genuine truths from the Lord.
(vi) Remarkable effects produced by the Word from its spiritual sense.

These I shall now discuss one by one.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 194 194. (i) WHAT THE SPIRITUAL SENSE IS.

The spiritual sense is not the one which transparently underlies the literal sense of the Word, when it is scrutinised and expounded to support some dogma of the church; such a sense can be called the literal sense of the Word as understood by the church. But the spiritual sense is not to be seen in the literal sense; it lies within it, like the soul in the body, or as what is thought by the understanding shows in the eyes, or as the affection of love shows in the face. This sense is the principal reason why the Word is spiritual, not only for human beings, but also for the angels. This is why this sense enables the Word to act as a channel of communication with the heavens. Since the Word is inwardly spiritual, it was composed simply by the use of correspondences; anything written by using correspondences emerges in its outermost sense as resembling the style used by the Prophets, the Gospels and Revelation. For all that it seems ordinary, it still has stored within it Divine wisdom and all the wisdom of the angels. The nature of correspondence may be seen from My HEAVEN AND HELL (published in London in 1758), where there is a section (87-102) on the correspondence of everything in heaven with everything in man, and another on the correspondence of everything in heaven with everything on earth (103-115); and it will be further demonstrated by the examples from the Word, which I shall quote below.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 195 195. From the Lord there proceed, one after the other, the celestial Divine, the spiritual Divine and the natural Divine. The name ‘celestial Divine’ is given to whatever proceeds from His Divine love, and it is good. The name ‘spiritual Divine’ is given to whatever proceeds from His Divine wisdom, and it is all truth. The natural Divine comes from both of these, being their totality at the outermost level. The angels of the celestial kingdom, which make up the third or highest heaven, are in the Divine called celestial which proceeds from the Lord, for they are in possession of the good of love coming from the Lord. The angels of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, who make up the second or middle heaven, are in the Divine called spiritual which proceeds from the Lord, for they are in possession of Divine wisdom coming from the Lord. The angels of the Lord’s natural kingdom, who make up the first or lowest heaven, are in the Divine called natural which proceeds from the Lord, and they possess the faith of charity coming from the Lord. However, the people who make up the church are in one or other of those kingdoms, depending upon their love, wisdom and faith; and after death they come into the same kingdom as that in which they were previously. The pattern of heaven is repeated in the Word of the Lord. In its outermost sense it is natural, in a more inward sense spiritual, and in its inmost sense celestial, each sense being Divine. It is consequently suitable for the angels of the three heavens and also for men.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 196 sRef Rev@19 @11 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @16 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @17 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @18 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @15 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @14 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @13 S1′ sRef Rev@19 @12 S1′ 196. (ii) THE SPIRITUAL SENSE IS PRESENT IN EVERY PART AND DETAIL OF THE WORD.

This can be seen by examples, such as the following. John says in Revelation:

I saw heaven open, and there was a white horse; and he who sat on it was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and fights. And his eyes were a flame of fire; and on his head were many diadems. He had a name written, which no one but he knows. And he was clothed in a garment dyed in blood; and his name is called The Word of God. His armies in heaven followed him on white horses, clothed in white, clean linen. He has written on his garment and on his thigh his name: King of kings and Lord of lords. I saw further an angel standing in the sun, who cried in a loud voice, Come and gather for the great feast, to eat the flesh of kings and the flesh of captains and the flesh of strong men, and the flesh of horses and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all free men and slaves, both small and great. Rev. 19:11-18.

No one can see what all this means except from the spiritual sense of the Word; and no one can see this except by knowing the correspondences. For every word corresponds to something and not one is without meaning. A knowledge of correspondences shows the meaning of ‘a white horse’, ‘him who sat on it’, ‘eyes like a flame of fire’, the ‘diadems’ on his head, ‘the garment dyed in blood’, ‘the white linen’ worn by His army in heaven, ‘the angel standing in the sun’, ‘the great feast’ to which they were to come and gather, as well as ‘the flesh of kings and captains’ and many more, which they were to eat.

sRef Rev@17 @14 S2′ [2] The meaning in the spiritual sense of all these details has been expounded in My APOCALYPSE REVEALED (820-838), and my short work THE WHITE HORSE, so it would be superfluous to expound them further. It was shown there that this is a description of the Lord as the Word. His eyes like a flame of fire mean the Divine wisdom of His Divine love. The diadems on His head and the name which no one but He knows mean the Divine truths in the Word which come from Him, and that no one sees what the Word is like in its spiritual sense except the Lord and those to whom He reveals it. A garment dyed in blood means the natural sense of the Word, that is, the literal sense, to which violence was done. It is quite plain that it is the Word which is so described, for it says ‘His name is called The Word of God.’ It is also quite plain that it is the Lord who is meant, for it says that the name of him who sat on the white horse was ‘King of kings and Lord of lords’, much as in Revelation 17:14, where it says: ‘And the Lamb shall overcome them, because He is Lord of lords and King of kings’.

[3] The spiritual sense of the Word being laid bare at the end of the church is what is meant not only by what is said about the white horse and him who sat on it, but also by the great feast, to which the angel standing in the sun invited all to come, and to eat the flesh of kings and captains, etc.; this means making one’s own all the kinds of good given by the Lord. All the expressions used there would be meaningless, devoid of life and spirit, if they did not inwardly contain a spiritual sense, just as the body contains a soul.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 197 197. In Revelation, chapter 21, the New Jerusalem is described as having in it a source of light like a most precious stone, similar to the jasper stone, shining like crystal. It had a great and high wall with twelve gates, and twelve angels above the gates, and the names inscribed of the twelve tribes of the Children of Israel. The wall was one hundred and forty-four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, an angel. The material of the wall was jasper, and its foundation of every precious stone, jasper, sapphire, chalcedony, emerald, sardonyx, sardius, chrysolite, beryl, topaz, chrysoprase, jacinth and amethyst. Its gates were twelve pearls. The city itself was of pure gold, resembling clear glass; and it was four-square, its length, width and height all equal, twelve thousand stades*, and other details [Rev. 21:11, 12, 16-21].

All this must be understood spiritually, as is evident from the fact that the New Jerusalem means the new church which is to be founded by the Lord, as shown in APOCALYPSE REVEALED (880). Since Jerusalem there means the church, it follows that everything which is said of that city, its gates, its wall, their foundations, and its measurements contain a spiritual sense, because anything that relates to the church is spiritual. Their meaning was demonstrated in APOCALYPSE REVEALED (896-925), so it is unnecessary to pursue this demonstration here. It is enough to know from this that the details of the description contain a spiritual sense, as the body does a soul. Without that sense nothing of what is written there could be understood as referring to the church; for instance, that the city was of pure gold, its gates were of pearls, its wall of jasper, the foundations of the wall of precious stones, the wall measured one hundred and forty-four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, an angel; and the city was twelve thousand stades in length, width and height, and so forth. Anyone who knows the spiritual sense from a knowledge of correspondences can understand these statements; as for instance, the wall and its foundations mean the doctrines of that church derived from the literal sense of the Word; and the numbers twelve, one hundred and forty-four, and twelve thousand mean everything belonging to it, truths as well as various kinds of good, all taken together.

* See note on 179; i.e. about 1350 miles.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 198 sRef Isa@13 @9 S0′ sRef Isa@13 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@13 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @30 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @31 S0′ sRef Joel@2 @2 S0′ sRef Joel@2 @10 S0′ sRef Ezek@32 @8 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @29 S0′ sRef Ezek@32 @7 S0′ sRef Joel@2 @1 S0′ 198. Where the Lord speaks in the presence of His disciples about the ending of the age, meaning the last stage of the church, He says towards the end of the predictions of its successive changes of state:

Immediately after the affliction of those days the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from the sky, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. And then will the sign of the Son of Man appear in the sky, and all the tribes of the earth will wail; and they will see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And He will send forth angels with a loud blast of the trumpet, and they will gather His chosen from the four winds from one end of the heavens to the other. Matt. 24:29-31.

In the spiritual sense this does not mean that the sun and the moon will be darkened, stars will fall from the sky, and the Lord’s sign will appear in the skies, and that they will see Him in the clouds accompanied by angels with trumpets. All the expressions here have spiritual meanings referring to the church; and they describe its state at its end. In the spiritual sense the sun, which will be darkened, means love to the Lord. The moon, which will not give its light, means faith in Him. The stars which will fall from the sky, mean items of knowledge concerning truth and good. The sign of the Son of Man in the sky means the Divine truth given by Him in the Word being made visible. The tribes of the earth, who will wail, means the failure of all truth to do with faith and of all good to do with love. The coming of the Son of Man in the clouds of heaven with power and glory means the Lord’s presence and His revelation in the Word. The clouds of heaven mean the literal sense of the Word, the glory the spiritual sense of the Word. The angels with the loud blast of the trumpet mean heaven from which Divine truth comes. Gathering the chosen from the four winds from one end of the heavens to the other means the new heaven and the new church, composed of those who have faith in the Lord and live in accordance with His commandments. It is quite plain that the darkening of the sun and the moon is not meant, nor the falling of stars to earth, because of the Prophets, where similar statements are made about the state of the church at the time the Lord was to come into the world. For instance, in Isaiah:

Behold the fierce day of Jehovah will come and the blaze of His anger. The stars of the skies and their constellations will not shine with their light, the sun will be darkened in its rising, and the moon will not cause its light (lumen) to shine, I shall visit upon the world its wickedness. Isa. [13:9-11;] 24: 21, 23.

In Joel:

The day of Jehovah is coming, a day of darkness and murk. The sun and the moon will be turned black, and the stars will abate their shining. Joel 2:1, 2, 10; 3:15.

In Ezekiel:

I shall cover the heavens and make the stars black. I shall cover the sun with a cloud and the moon will not cause it light to shine. I shall darken all the luminaries that give light, and make darkness upon the earth. Ezek. 32:7, 8.

The day of Jehovah means the Lord’s coming, which took place when there was no more good of love and truth of faith left in the church, nor any knowledge of the Lord. That is why it is called a day of darkness and murk.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 199 sRef Matt@25 @4 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @12 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @2 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @1 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @11 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @7 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @8 S0′ 199. The Lord, when He was in the world, spoke by means of correspondences; so He spoke spiritually as well as naturally. This can be proved by His parables, the individual expressions of which contain a spiritual sense. Let us take as an example the parable of the ten virgins. He said:

The kingdom of the heavens is like ten virgins, who took their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were wise, but five were foolish. The foolish ones, when they took their lamps, failed to take oil, but the wise ones took oil in their lamps. But when the bridegroom was late, they all became drowsy and went to sleep. However, in the middle of the night a cry went up, Look, the bridegroom is coming, go out to meet him. Then all those virgins woke up and trimmed their lamps. But the foolish ones said to the wise ones, Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out. The wise ones, however, replied and said, Perhaps there may not be enough for us and for you; go rather to the sellers and buy some for yourselves. While they were away buying it, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the wedding; and the door was shut. At length the other virgins came too, and said, Lord, Lord, open the door to us. But he replied and said, In truth I tell you, I do not know you. Matt. 25:1-12.

No one who does not know that there is a spiritual sense, and what sort of sense it is, can see that each of these details contains a spiritual sense, and therefore a Divine holiness. In the spiritual sense the kingdom of the heavens means heaven and the church, the bridegroom means the Lord, the wedding the Lord’s marriage with heaven and the church by means of the good of love and the truth of faith. The virgins mean those who belong to the church, ten means all, five a part. The lamps mean things to do with faith, oil things to do with the good of love. Sleeping and waking mean a person’s life in the world, which is natural, and his life after death, which is spiritual. Buying means acquiring, going to the sellers and buying oil means acquiring the good of love from others after death. Because it cannot then any longer be acquired, although they came with their lamps and the oil they had bought to the door where the wedding was, still the bridegroom told them, I do not know you. This is because after his life in the world a person remains such as his life in the world made him. It is plain from this that the Lord spoke purely in correspondences, and this was because He spoke from the Divine which was in Him and was His. It is because virgins stand for those who belong to the church that we find so often in the prophetic parts of the Word mention of the virgin and daughter of Zion, of Jerusalem, of Judah, or of Israel, and it was because oil stands for the good of love, that all the holy things of that church were anointed with oil. It is the same in the rest of the parables and in every expression which the Lord used; thus it is that the Lord says that His words are spirit and life (John 6:63).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 200 200. (iii) IT IS THE SPIRITUAL SENSE WHICH MAKES THE WORD DIVINELY INSPIRED AND HOLY IN EVERY WORD.

People in the church say that the Word is holy, and that this is because the Lord Jehovah spoke it. But because its holiness is not apparent in the literal sense by itself, if anyone for this reason once begins to doubt its holiness, he finds, when he subsequently reads the Word, much there to support his belief; for he says to himself: ‘Surely this cannot be holy? Surely this is not Divine.’ Therefore, to prevent this way of thinking from affecting a large number of people and then becoming prevalent, so that the Word would be rejected as a worthless book and the link it makes between such a person and the Lord would be broken, it is the Lord’s good pleasure now to reveal its spiritual sense, in order that it may be known where the Divine holiness is hidden within it. Let us take examples to illustrate this.

At various places in the Word there is talk of Egypt, Assyria, Edom, Moab, the Children of Ammon, the Philistines, Tyre and Sidon, and Gog. Anyone who does not know that their names stand for matters that relate to heaven and the church, may be led into the erroneous belief that the Word has much to say about peoples and nations, and only a little about heaven and the church, much, that is, on worldly subjects and little on heavenly ones. But when he knows what is meant by these peoples or their names, he can be rescued from his error and brought back to the true belief.

[2] It is similar when one sees in the Word so many mentions of a garden, a grove, a wood, or the trees in them, such as the olive, the vine, the cedar, the poplar or the oak; or so many mentions of the lamb, the sheep, the goat, the calf or the ox; or of mountains, hills, valleys and the springs, rivers and waters in them, or many other similar things. Anyone who knows nothing of the spiritual sense of the Word cannot help thinking that it is merely these things which are intended. For he is unaware that garden, grove and wood mean wisdom, intelligence and knowledge, or that olive, vine, cedar, poplar and oak mean the good and truth of the church in their celestial, spiritual, rational, natural and sensual forms. Nor does he know that lamb, sheep, goat, calf and ox mean innocence, charity and natural affection; or that mountains, hills and valleys mean the highest, lower and lowest elements in the church. [3] Nor does he know that Egypt means factual knowledge, Assyria the faculty of reason, Edom the natural level, Moab the adulteration of good, the Children of Ammon the adulteration of truth, the Philistines faith without charity, Tyre and Sidon the knowledge of good and of truth, Gog external worship without any internal. In general, Jacob in the Word means the natural church, Israel the spiritual church, Judah the celestial church. When one knows all these meanings, it is possible to reflect that the Word speaks only of heavenly matters, and those worldly matters are merely the underlying supports for the others. Let us take an example from the Word to illustrate this point too.

sRef Isa@19 @25 S4′ sRef Isa@19 @23 S4′ sRef Isa@19 @24 S4′ [4] We read in Isaiah:

On that day there shall be a highway from Egypt to Assyria, so that Assyria may come to Egypt and Egypt to Assyria, and the Egyptians may serve with Assyria. On that day Israel shall be a third with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the earth; and Jehovah Zebaoth shall bless them, saying, Blessed is Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel my inheritance. Isa. 19:23-25.

In the spiritual sense this passage means that at the time of the Lord’s coming factual knowledge, the faculty of reason and the spiritual will make one; and factual knowledge will then serve the faculty of reason and both of these will serve the spiritual. For, as said before, Egypt means factual knowledge, Assyria the faculty of reason and Israel the spiritual. The twice repeated mention of the day refers to the Lord’s first and second comings.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 201 201. (iv) THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD HAS UP TO THE PRESENT BEEN UNKNOWN.

I showed in my book HEAVEN AND HELL (87-105), that every single thing to be found in nature corresponds to something spiritual, and likewise every single part of the human body. But up to the present it has remained unknown what correspondence is. Yet in the most ancient times it was very well known; for those who lived at that period regarded the knowledge of correspondences as the outstanding science, and it was so universally known that all their documents and books were written by means of correspondences. The book of Job, which is a book of the Ancient Church, is full of correspondences The hieroglyphic writings of the Egyptians, as well as the myths of the most ancient peoples, were nothing else. All the ancient churches served to represent spiritual ideas; their rites and the rules which governed the establishment of their modes of worship were made up of nothing but correspondences. The same is true of all the details of the church among the Children of Israel. Their burnt offerings, sacrifices, sacrificial cakes and libations in all their particulars had meaning as correspondences; likewise the tabernacle and all its contents, as well as their festivals, such as the feast of unleavened bread, the feast of tabernacles and the feast of first-fruits, and also the priesthood of Aaron and the Levites, together with their holy vestments. I have shown in ARCANA CAELESTIA (published in London) what were the spiritual ideas to which all these things correspond. In addition to these, all the laws and judgments governing their worship and way of life had meaning as correspondences. Now since Divine ideas are presented in the world as correspondences, this and no other is the way the Word was written. Therefore the Lord, since He spoke from the Divine, spoke in correspondences. For whatever is Divine descends at the natural level into the kind of things which correspond to Divine ones, and then contain in their inmost the Divine things called celestial and spiritual.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 202 202. I have been taught that the people of the Most Ancient church, which existed before the flood, had such heavenly characters that they conversed with angels in heaven. They were able to do this by correspondences. So they reached such a pitch of wisdom that they not only thought naturally about anything they saw on earth, but at the same time also thought spiritually about it, and this established their link with angels in heaven. I was also taught that Enoch, who is mentioned in Genesis 5:21-24, together with his colleagues collected these correspondences by listening to their talk, and transmitted this science to posterity. As a result the science of correspondences was not merely known but held in high esteem in many Asiatic kingdoms, especially in the land of Canaan, Egypt, Assyria, Chaldaea, Syria, Arabia, Tyre, Sidon and Nineveh. From there it was transmitted to Greece, but was there transformed into myths, as is evident in the earliest Greek authors.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 203 203. To show that the science of correspondences was long preserved among the nations of Asia, by those who were called soothsayers and wise men, in some cases scorcerers, I should like to quote one example from 1 Samuel, chapters 5 and 6. There is there a description of how the Ark containing the two tables on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed was captured by the Philistines and placed in the shrine of Dagon in Ashdod. Dagon fell to the ground in the presence of the Ark, and later his head torn from the body, together with the palms of his hands, was found lying on the threshold of the shrine. On account of the Ark the people of Ashdod and of Ekron to the number of several thousand were smitten with haemorrhoids, and their territory was laid waste by rats. Consequently the Philistines summoned satraps* and soothsayers, and as a remedy for their plague they decreed that they were to make five models of haemorrhoids and five models of rats out of gold, and a new wagon, and to put the Ark upon it, with the gold haemorrhoids and rats next to it. Then the Ark was to be sent back to the Children of Israel pulled by two cows, which lowed on the way before the wagon. The Children of Israel sacrificed the cows and the wagon, and by this the God of Israel was propitiated.

[2] It is clear from their meaning that all these details were thought up by the Philistines’ soothsayers as correspondences. The meanings are as follows. The Philistines themselves mean those whose faith is separated from charity; Dagon symbolised their religion. The haemorrhoids with which they were smitten meant natural loves, which, when separated from spiritual love, are unclean. The rats meant the wasting of the church by falsifying truth. The new wagon meant the natural teaching of the church, for a vehicle in the Word means teaching derived from spiritual truths. The cows meant natural good affections. The haemorrhoids made of gold meant natural loves which have been purified and made good. The rats made of gold meant the wasting of the church being removed by good, since gold in the Word means good. The lowing of the cows on the way meant the difficult transformation of the evil longings of the natural man into good affections. The cows together with the wagon being sacrificed as a burnt-offering meant that the God of Israel was by this propitiated. All these things which the Philistines did on the advice of their soothsayers were correspondences; and this shows plainly that the science of correspondences was long preserved among the gentiles.

* ‘Priests’ in most versions of the Bible.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 204 204. Since the representative rites of the church, which were correspondences, began in the course of time to be turned into idolatrous practices, and also into magical rites, the Lord’s Divine providence ensured that the science should be gradually lost, and among the Israelite and Jewish people totally wiped out. This people’s worship consisted purely of correspondences, and was therefore representative of heavenly things; but still they were unaware what each detail meant. For they were purely natural people, so that they neither wished nor were able to have any knowledge of spiritual and celestial things. Consequently they could not know anything about correspondences, since these are the use of natural objects to represent spiritual and celestial things.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 205 205. The reason why the idolatrous practices of the gentiles in antiquity originated from the science of correspondences was that everything to be seen on earth has a corresponding meaning; this is true not only of trees, but also animals and birds of every kind, as well as fish and other things. The ancient people who possessed the science of correspondences made themselves images to correspond to heavenly ideas; and they took pleasure in them because they stood for such things as concern heaven and the church. They placed these images therefore not only in their temples, but also in their houses, not so as to worship them, but to call to mind the heavenly ideas they stood for. Hence it was that in Egypt and elsewhere they used images of calves, oxen and snakes, not to mention children, old men and young women. Calves and oxen meant the affections and powers of the natural man, snakes the prudence and craftiness of the man who relies upon his senses. Children meant innocence and charity, old men wisdom, young women affections for truth, and so on. Once the knowledge of correspondences had been wiped out, their descendants started to worship as holy, and finally as deities, the images and statues their ancestors had erected, because they were in or near temples. This too was the reason why the ancients worshipped in gardens and plantations, depending on the species of tree, as well as on mountains and hills. Gardens and plantations meant wisdom and intelligence, and each tree meant some particular detail of them. For instance, the olive meant the good of love, the vine truth coming from that good, the cedar rational good and truth; a mountain meant the highest heaven and a hill the heaven below this.

[2] The fact that the science of correspondences was preserved among a number of eastern peoples right down to the Lord’s coming can be established by the wise men from the east, who came to visit the Lord at the time of His birth; therefore the star went before them, and they brought gifts with them, gold, frankincense and myrrh (Matt. 2:1, 2, 9-11). The star which went before them meant knowledge learned from heaven, gold celestial good, frankincense spiritual good, and myrrh natural good; it is these three kinds of good which are the source of all worship. Nonetheless correspondences were totally unknown to the Israelite and Jewish people, even though all the details of their worship, all their laws and judgments given them by Moses, and everything in the Word were nothing but correspondences. The reason was that they were at heart idolatrous, and therefore of such a character that they did not even want to know that anything in their worship had a celestial or spiritual meaning, since they believed that these things were all in themselves holy. If therefore the celestial and spiritual meanings had been revealed to them, they would not only have rejected them, but also profaned them. On account of this heaven was so closed to them that they scarcely knew that there was an everlasting life. The truth of this is perfectly plain from the fact that they failed to acknowledge the Lord, even though the whole of Sacred Scripture was a prophecy about Him and foretold His coming. The only reason why they rejected Him was that He taught them about a kingdom in heaven, not one on earth. For they wanted a Messiah who would make them superior to all peoples throughout the world, not one who would provide for their eternal salvation.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 206 206. The reason why the science of correspondences, which allows one to grasp the spiritual sense of the Word, was not revealed after this period was that the Christians of the earliest church were very simple people, so it could not be revealed to them, since, had it been, it would not have been understood and would have been of no use to them. After their times darkness arose to cover the whole Christian world, first by the spread of a number of heresies, and soon afterwards by the decisions and decrees of the Council of Nicaea, about the existence of three Divine Persons from eternity, and about the Person of Christ as being the Son of Mary and not the Son of Jehovah God. That is the source from which gushed forth the current belief in justification, according to which three gods are approached in turn. On this belief depends every single detail of the church to-day, just as all the parts of the body are dependent upon the head. Because they used everything in the Word to prove this erroneous belief, the spiritual sense could not be revealed, for had it been, they would have used this sense for the same purpose. By this they would have profaned the very holiness of the Word, and thus completely closed heaven to themselves and banished the Lord from the church.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 207 207. The science of correspondences, which allows the spiritual sense to be grasped, has been revealed at the present time, because the Divine truths of the church are now coming into light, and it is of these that the spiritual sense of the Word consists. When people possess these, the literal sense of the Word cannot be corrupted. The literal sense of the Word can be bent in either direction; if it is bent towards falsehood, then its inward, and with it its outward, holiness is destroyed. But if it is bent towards truth, its holiness is maintained. But I shall have more to say on this subject in the following pages.

The opening out of the spiritual sense at the present time is meant by John’s vision of heaven being opened and of a white horse, and also by his seeing and hearing an angel standing in the sun, inviting all to a great feast, as described in Revelation (19:11-18). The fact that for a long time it would not be recognised is meant by the beast and the kings of the earth, who were going to make war on the rider of the white horse (Rev. 19:19); and also by the dragon’s pursuit into the desert of the woman who had borne a son, and there emitting water from its mouth like a river, to drown her (Rev. ’12:13-17).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 208 208. (v) THE SPIRITUAL SENSE OF THE WORD WILL IN FUTURE ONLY BE GRANTED TO THOSE WHO ARE IN POSSESSION OF GENUINE TRUTHS FROM THE LORD.

The reason is that no one can see the spiritual sense, except only if it is granted him by the Lord, and if he is in possession of Divine truths given by the Lord. For the spiritual sense of the Word is solely concerned with the Lord and His kingdom. That is the sense known to His angels in heaven, since it contains His Divine truth. A person who knows the science of correspondences, and wants to use his own intelligence to explore the spiritual sense of the Word, can do violence to this Divine truth. For a knowledge of a few correspondences will enable him to corrupt that sense, and even misapply it to proving false propositions. This would be to do violence to Divine truth, and thus to heaven where that truth resides. Therefore if anyone wishes to lay bare that sense, relying on himself instead of on the Lord, heaven is closed to him, and this results in his being unable to see any truth at all, or becoming spiritually deranged.

Another reason is that the Lord teaches every person by means of the Word, and uses in teaching the knowledge he already has, rather than directly implanting new knowledge. Therefore, if a person is not in possession of Divine truths, or only a few truths accompanied by false notions, he can use these to falsify the truths. This too is what all heretics do with the literal sense of the Word. So to prevent anyone coming into possession of the spiritual sense and perverting genuine truth, the Lord has established guards, who are meant by the cherubim in the Word.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 209 209. (vi) REMARKABLE EFFECTS PRODUCED BY THE WORD FROM ITS SPIRITUAL SENSE.

In the natural world the Word does not produce any remarkable effects, because the spiritual sense is not evident there, and is not inwardly accepted by a person in its real form. In the spiritual world, however, remarkable effects can be seen produced by the Word, because all the people there are spiritual, and spiritual things affect people just as natural things do natural people. There are many remarkable effects produced by the Word in the spiritual world, a few of which I shall describe here.

The Word itself kept in the sanctuaries of churches there is seen by the angels shining like a great star, at times resembling the sun, and the most beautiful rainbows are to be seen produced by its radiance. This happens as soon as the sanctuary is opened.

aRef Ex@34 @29 S2′ [2] I was able to establish that every single truth in the Word shines from the fact that, if a verse from the Word is written out on a piece of paper and the paper is tossed into the air, the paper itself shines, outlining the shape into which it has been cut. Spirits are therefore able to use the Word to make various shining shapes, including birds and fishes. Something even more remarkable is that when anyone rubs his face, his hands or the clothes he is wearing with the open Word, putting the writing against them, his face, hands and clothes shine, as if he were standing in a star with its light streaming round him. I have often seen this happen to my astonishment. This showed me how it was that Moses’ face shone when he carried down the tablets of the covenant from Mount Sinai.

[3] Apart from these there are many more remarkable effects in the spiritual world produced by the Word. For instance, if someone who is full of false notions looks towards the Word as it lies in its holy place, thick darkness descends upon his eyes making the Word look black to him, at times as if coated in soot. If the same person touches the Word, there is a loud explosion and he is hurled into the corner of the room, where he lies for some time as if dead. If anyone full of false notions copies out anything from the Word on a piece of paper, and then tosses the paper up towards heaven, then there is a similar explosion in the air between his eye and heaven, and the paper is shredded and disappears. The result is the same, if the paper is thrown towards the angel* who stands near by. I have seen this happen many times.

[4] This has made it plain to me that there can be no communication with heaven by means of the Word for those who have false notions about doctrine; their reading falls apart on the way up and vanishes, like gunpowder wrapped in a screw of paper, set alight and tossed into the air. The opposite is the case with those who have true ideas about doctrine, learned from the Lord by means of the Word; when they read the Word it reaches all the way to heaven and makes a link with angels there. The angels themselves, when they come down from heaven to perform a duty below, appear to be surrounded by small stars, especially round their heads; this is a sign that they possess Divine truths from the Word.

[5] Moreover, the spiritual world contains similar things to those on earth, but every one of them has a spiritual origin. So there are gold and silver there too, and precious stones of all kinds. The spiritual origin of these is the literal sense of the Word. That is why in Revelation the foundations of the wall of the New Jerusalem are described as of twelve precious stones. The reason is that the foundations of its wall mean the teachings of the new church derived from the literal sense of the Word. That too is why the ephod of Aaron contained twelve precious stones called Urim and Thummim, and replies were given from heaven by means of them.

In addition, there are still more remarkable effects produced by the Word, relating to the power of truth there, which is so immense that no one would believe a description. Its power there is enough to overturn mountains and hills, carry them to a distance, throw them into the sea, and other things. In short, the Lord’s power derived from the Word is boundless.

* An emendation for ‘corner’ (reading angelum for angulum); cf. 164.6-7.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 210 210. III

The literal sense of the Word is the basis, container and support of its spiritual and celestial senses.

Everything Divine contains a first, middle and last; the first passes through the middle to the last, and so it comes into and remains in existence; the last is consequently its basis. The first is also present in the middle term, and through this in the last. So the last is a container; and because it is a container and basis, it is also a support. An educated reader will grasp that those three terms can be named end, cause and effect; and also being, becoming and coming-into-being; the end is being, the cause is becoming and the effect is coming-into-being. Consequently everything contains a triad, called first, middle and last, or end, cause and effect. When this is grasped, it will also be grasped that every Divine work is complete and perfect in its last, and that the last contains everything, because the prior terms are simultaneously present in it.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 211 sRef 1Sam@20 @41 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @39 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @22 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @23 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @38 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @40 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @35 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @31 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @29 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @30 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @34 S0′ sRef 1Sam@3 @6 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @32 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @33 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @28 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @24 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @25 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @37 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @36 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @27 S0′ sRef 1Ki@17 @21 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @26 S0′ sRef 1Ki@18 @34 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @21 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @42 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @43 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @41 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @44 S0′ sRef Matt@13 @33 S0′ sRef Isa@20 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @61 S0′ sRef Jonah@1 @17 S0′ sRef 1Sam@3 @7 S0′ sRef 1Sam@3 @8 S0′ sRef 1Sam@3 @5 S0′ sRef 1Sam@3 @4 S0′ sRef 1Sam@3 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @34 S0′ sRef Matt@26 @39 S0′ sRef 1Sam@3 @2 S0′ sRef 1Sam@3 @1 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @15 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @16 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @1 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @14 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @42 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @19 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @20 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @17 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @18 S0′ sRef John@21 @15 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @13 S0′ sRef John@21 @17 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @5 S0′ sRef 1Sam@20 @12 S0′ sRef John@21 @16 S0′ 211. That is why three in the Word means in the spiritual sense complete and perfect, as well as the whole taken together. This meaning of the number three explains why it is used so many times in the Word, whenever anything of this sort is mentioned; for instance, in the following passages. Isaiah was told to go naked and barefoot for three years (Isa. 20:3). Jehovah called Samuel three times, and Samuel three times ran to Eli, and the third time Eli understood (1 Sam. 3:1-8). Jonathan told David to hide in the country for three days; Jonathan later shot three arrows beside the stone, and David then bowed down three times before Jonathan (1 Sam. 20:5, 12-42). Elijah measured his length three times upon the widow’s son (1 Kings 17:21). Elijah ordered them to pour water on the burnt-offering three times (1 Kings 18:34). Jesus said that the kingdom of the heavens is like yeast, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, until the whole should be leavened (Matt. 13:33). Jesus said to Peter that he would deny Him three times (Matt. 26:34). Jesus said three times to Peter, Do you love me? (John 21:15-17). Jonah was in the belly of the whale three days and three nights (Jonah 1:17). Jesus said that they would destroy the Temple and He would rebuild it in three days ([John 2:19;] Matt. 26:61). In Gethsemane Jesus prayed three times (Matt. 26:39-44). Jesus rose again on the third day (Matt. 28:1). There are many other passages where the number three is mentioned, in each case where a finished and perfect work is described, because this is the meaning of that number.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 212 212. There are three heavens, the highest, the middle and the lowest. The highest heaven makes up the Lord’s celestial kingdom, the middle heaven His spiritual kingdom, the lowest heaven His natural kingdom. Just as there are three heavens, there are three senses in the Word, a celestial, a spiritual and a natural sense. What was said above in 210 applies to these too; that is to say, the first is contained in the middle and through the middle in the last, exactly as the end is contained in the cause and through the cause in the effect. This makes plain the nature of the Word; its literal sense, which is natural, contains an interior sense which is spiritual, and this contains an inmost sense which is celestial. Thus the last sense, the natural one called the literal sense, is the container, basis and support of the two interior senses.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 213 sRef Isa@4 @5 S0′ 213. It follows from this that the Word without its literal sense would be like a palace without any foundations, a palace built not on land but in the air, which would be the mere evanescent shadow of a palace. The Word without its literal sense would be like a church containing a number of sacred objects and in its centre a sanctuary, but devoid of the roof and walls which hold it together. If they were missing or removed, the sacred objects would be stolen by thieves and ruined by land animals or the birds of the air, and thus scattered. It would also be like the Tabernacle of the Children of Israel in the desert (in the inmost part of which was the Ark of the Covenant, and in its midst a golden lampstand, a golden altar bearing incense and a table for the bread of the Presence), if this were stripped of its outer covering, that is, curtains, veils and posts. Rather, the Word without its literal sense would resemble the human body without its outer covering called skin, or its framework called bones. If deprived of these two, all the contents of the body would fall apart. Again it would be like the heart and lungs in the chest deprived of their covering called the pleura, and its supports called ribs. Or like the brain without its coverings called the dura and pia mater and without its general covering, container and support called the skull. That is what the Word would be like without the literal sense, and this is why it is said in Isaiah that Jehovah creates a covering over all glory (Isa. 4:5).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 214 sRef John@6 @63 S0′ 214. IV

The Divine truth in the literal sense of the Word is in its fulness, holiness and power.

The Word in its literal sense is in its fulness, holiness and power, because the two prior or interior senses, called the spiritual and celestial senses, are simultaneously present in the natural or literal sense, as stated above (210, 212). But it needs to be explained further in what way they are simultaneously present. In heaven and in the world there exist two kinds of order, successive and simultaneous order. In the case of successive order one comes after and follows the other from highest to lowest; in simultaneous order, however, one is alongside the other from inmost to outermost. Successive order is like a column which spreads out in steps from top to bottom; but simultaneous order is like an object made up of cohering rings from centre to outermost surface.

[2] It must now be explained how at the lowest level successive order becomes simultaneous. It is like this. The highest levels of a successive order become the inmost parts of a simultaneous order, and the lowest levels of a successive order become the outermost parts of a simultaneous order. This can be illustrated by a stepped column subsiding to become a coherent object in a single plane. So the simultaneous is formed from the successive, and this operates in every single thing in the natural world, and in every single thing in the spiritual world. For everywhere there is a first, middle and last, and the first reaches out through the middle and advances towards its last. But it needs to be clearly understood that it is degrees of purity which determine the development of either order.

[3] Now if we apply this to the Word, the celestial, spiritual and natural proceed from the Lord in successive order, and are in simultaneous order at the last level. So that is how the celestial and spiritual senses of the Word are simultaneously present in its natural sense. Once this has been grasped, it can be seen how the natural sense of the Word is the container, basis and support of its spiritual and celestial senses, as well as how Divine good and Divine truth are present in the literal sense of the Word in their fulness, holiness and power. From this it can be established that the Word in its literal sense is the real Word, for it contains in itself spirit and life. This is what the Lord said:

The words which I speak to you are spirit and life. John 6:63.

For the Lord uttered His words in their natural sense. The celestial and spiritual senses without the natural sense are not the Word, for that would be like spirit and life without a body; and they are (as said before in 213) like a palace which has no foundations.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 215 215. The truths in the literal sense of the Word are in part not bare truths, but appearances of truth. They are like similes and comparative analogies taken from appearances in the natural world. Thus they are adapted and brought down to the level at which they may be understood by simple people and even children. But because they are at the same time correspondences, they serve to receive and make a home for genuine truth. They are containers in the sense that a crystal cup is a container of vintage wine, a silver salver of tempting foods; or like the clothes which we wear, whether a baby’s shawls or the pretty dresses of a girl. They are also like the facts stored in the memory of the natural man, which include his perception of and affections for spiritual truth. The bare truths themselves which are wrapped, contained, clothed and grasped, exist in the spiritual sense of the Word; the bare forms of good exist in its celestial sense. But illustrations must be given from the Word.

sRef Matt@23 @25 S2′ sRef Matt@23 @26 S2′ [2] Jesus said:

Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, because you clean the outside of the cup and dish, but the insides are full of robbery and intemperence. You blind Pharisee, clean first the inside of the cup and dish, so that the outside too may be clean. Matt. 23:25, 26.

In saying this the Lord spoke in similes and comparisons which are at the same time correspondences. When He said ‘the cup and dish’, cup not only means but stands for the truth of the Word, since cup implies wine and wine stands for truth. Dish, however, implies food, and food stands for good. Therefore cleaning the inside of the cup and dish means purifying the interior parts of the mind, the seats of will and thought, by means of the Word. ‘So that the outside may be clean’ means that in this way the exterior things too, what we do and say, are purified, for their essence is drawn from the interior.

sRef Luke@16 @19 S3′ sRef Luke@16 @20 S3′ [3] Again Jesus said:

There was a certain rich man who dressed in purple and fine linen, and feasted magnificently every day; and there was a poor man named Lazarus, who lay in his entrance porch full of sores. Luke 16:19, 20.

Here too the Lord spoke in similes and comparisons which were correspondences and had a spiritual content. The rich man means the Jewish nation, which is called rich, because it possessed the Word containing spiritual riches. The purple and fine linen which he wore mean the good and truth of the Word, purple its good and fine linen its truth. Feasting magnificently every day means taking pleasure in having the Word, and hearing many things from it in their temples and synagogues. The poor man Lazarus means the gentiles who did not possess the Word. The contempt and rejection they suffered at the hands of the Jews are meant by Lazarus lying in the entrance porch of the rich man. Full of sores means that the gentiles were plagued by many false notions due to their ignorance of truth.

[4] The reason the gentiles were meant by Lazarus was that the gentiles were loved by the Lord, just as Lazarus, who was revived after being dead, was loved by the Lord (John 11:3, 5, 36). He is also called the Lord’s friend (John 11: 11), and he reclined at table with the Lord (John 12:2). These two passages show plainly that the truths and kinds of good in the literal sense of the Word are like vessels and garments serving to clothe bare good and truth, which both lie hidden in the spiritual and celestial senses of the Word.

The Word being like this in the literal sense, it follows that those who possess Divine truths, and believe that the Word inwardly in its depths is something holy and Divine, and more so those who believe that the Word is like this because of its spiritual and celestial senses, these people, when they read the Word and receive enlightenment from the Lord, see Divine truths by natural light. For the light of heaven, which illuminates the spiritual sense of the Word, exerts an influence on the natural light which illuminates its literal sense, and enlightens man’s intellectual, also called rational, faculty, enabling it to see and recognise Divine truths, whether plain to view or hidden. The light of heaven has this effect upon people, sometimes even without their knowing it.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 216 216. At its very heart the celestial sense of the Word makes it like a gentle flame setting on fire; at the intermediate level its spiritual sense makes it like a light giving illumination. Consequently at its outermost level its natural sense makes it like a diaphanous object which the flame turns red as purple, and the light turns white as snow. It resembles either a ruby or a diamond, the celestial flame making it like a ruby, the spiritual light like a diamond. Since the Word is like this in its literal sense, this is what is meant by:

(i) The precious stones forming the foundations of the New Jerusalem.
(ii) The Urim and Thummim on Aaron’s ephod.
(iii) The precious stones in the garden of Eden, in which the King of Tyre is said to have been.
(iv) The curtains, veils and posts of the Tabernacle.
(v) Likewise, the external features of the Temple at Jerusalem.
(vi) The Word in its glory was represented in the Lord at His transfiguration.
(vii) The power of the Word at its outermost level was represented by the Nazirites.
(viii) The Word’s power is beyond description.

These points must now be illustrated one by one.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 217 sRef Rev@21 @18 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @17 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @20 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @19 S0′ 217. (i) THE TRUTHS OF THE LITERAL SENSE OF THE WORD ARE MEANT BY THE PRECIOUS STONES FORMING THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW JERUSALEM IN REVELATION (21:17-21).

I mentioned above (209) that in the spiritual world precious stones are to be found just as in the natural one, and that they have a spiritual origin from the truths in the literal sense of the Word. Incredible as it may seem, this is in fact the truth. This is the reason why, every time there is a reference in the Word to precious stones, they mean in the spiritual sense truths, It follows from this that the precious stones, of which the foundations of the wall surrounding the city of the New Jerusalem are said to have been built, mean the truths of doctrine in the new church. For the New Jerusalem means the new church in respect of the doctrine it derives from the Word. Therefore its wall and the foundations of the wall must mean the external of the Word. This is its literal sense as the source of its doctrine, and by means of its doctrine the church. This sense is like a wall with its foundations, surrounding a city and making it secure.

[2] The description in Revelation of the New Jerusalem and its foundations is this:

The angel measured the wall of the city of Jerusalem as one hundred and forty-four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, an angel. The wall had twelve foundations, decorated with every kind of precious stone. The first foundation was jasper, the second sapphire, the third chalcedony, the fourth emerald, the fifth sardonyx, the sixth sardius, the seventh chrysolite, the eighth beryl, the ninth topaz, the tenth chrysoprase, the eleventh turquoise, the twelfth amethyst. Rev. 21:15-20.

The reason why the wall had twelve foundations, made of the same number of precious stones, is that the number twelve means the whole of truth derived from good, so here the whole of doctrine. These matters, together with the preceding and following parts of that chapter, can be found expounded in detail, with confirmations drawn from parallel passages in the Prophets, in my book APOCALYPSE REVEALED.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 218 sRef Ex@28 @21 S1′ sRef Ex@28 @20 S1′ sRef Ex@28 @6 S1′ sRef Ex@28 @29 S1′ sRef Ex@28 @30 S1′ sRef Ex@28 @15 S1′ sRef Ex@28 @17 S1′ sRef Ex@28 @16 S1′ sRef Ex@28 @18 S1′ sRef Ex@28 @19 S1′ 218. (ii) THE FORMS OF GOOD AND TRUTH IN THE LITERAL SENSE OF THE WORD ARE MEANT BY THE URIM AND THUMMIM ON AARON’S EPHOD.

The Urim and Thummim were mounted on Aaron’s ephod, and his priesthood represented the Lord in respect of Divine good and the effecting of salvation. The garments of priesthood or of holiness represented Divine truths coming from the Lord. The ephod represented Divine truth in its outermost form, that is, the Word in its literal sense, for this is Divine truth in its outermost form. Thus the twelve precious stones called Urim and Thummim, which bore the names of the twelve tribes of Israel, represented Divine truths coming from Divine good and all that goes with them. We read about these in the writings of Moses:

They are to make the ephod of [gold]*, violet and purple, with doubledyed scarlet and lawn interwoven. (Later) you are to make the breastpiece of judgment, of similar workmanship to the ephod, and you are to fill it with settings for stones. There are to be four rows of stones: ruby, topaz and emerald in the first row; chrysoprase, sapphire and diamond in the second row; turquoise, agate and amethyst in the third row; aquamarine, sardius and jasper in the fourth row. These stones are to answer to the names of the sons of Israel. The inscriptions as on a seal are to have each the name of one of the twelve tribes. And Aaron is to wear upon the breast-plate of judgment the Urim and Thummim; and let them be upon Aaron’s heart, when he comes into the presence of Jehovah. Exod. 28:6, 15-21, 29, 30.

[2] The representations of Aaron’s garments, his ephod, mantle, tunic, turban., and sash, have been explained in ARCANA CAELESTIA (published in London) in the commentary on this chapter. It was there shown that the ephod represented Divine truth in its outermost form; the precious stones the truths made pellucid by good; the twelve set out in four rows represented the whole from first to last; the twelve tribes the whole of the church. The breast-plate represented Divine truth coming from Divine good in the universal sense; the Urim and Thummim the splendour of Divine truth coming from Divine good in its outermost form. Urim is shining fire and Thummim splendour in the language of the angels, or wholeness in Hebrew. Again, replies were given by changes in the quality of light, accompanied by an unspoken perception, or by direct speech, and there is much besides. These explanations establish that these stones stood for truths coming from good in the outermost sense of the Word. For this is the only source by which replies are given from heaven, because that sense contains the Divine which proceeds in all its fulness.

* Apparently omitted by accident.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 219 sRef Ezek@28 @13 S0′ sRef Ezek@28 @12 S0′ 219. (iii) THE PRECIOUS STONES IN THE GARDEN OF EDEN, IN WHICH THE KING OF TYRE IS SAID TO HAVE BEEN, HAVE A SIMILAR MEANING. We read in Ezekiel:

King of Tyre, you who set the seal upon your measured space, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty. You were in Eden, God’s garden; every kind of precious stone was your covering, ruby, topaz and diamond, chrysolite, sardonyx and jasper, sapphire, chrysoprase and emerald, and gold. Ezek. 28:12, 13.

Tyre in the Word means the church in respect of its knowledge of good and truth; king means the church’s truth, the garden of Eden wisdom and intelligence derived from the Word. Precious stones mean truths with light shining through them from good, of the sort found in the literal sense of the Word. It is because these were the meanings of those stones that they are called his covering. The literal sense is a covering for the interiors of the Word; see above (213).

TCR (Chadwick) n. 220 sRef Ex@26 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@26 @31 S0′ sRef Ex@26 @36 S0′ 220. (iv) TRUTHS AND DIFFERENT KINDS OF GOOD IN THEIR OUTERMOST FORMS, OF THE SORT FOUND IN THE LITERAL SENSE OF THE WORD, WERE REPRESENTED BY THE CURTAINS, VEILS AND POSTS OF THE TABERNACLE.

The tabernacle constructed by Moses in the desert was a representation of heaven and the church. That is why its description was revealed by Jehovah on Mount Sinai. Thus all its contents, the lampstand, the golden altar for incense and the table holding the bread of the Presence, represented and stood for the holy things of heaven and the church. The holy of holies, where the Ark of the Covenant stood, represented and so stood for the inmost of heaven and the church. The Law itself inscribed upon two tables stood for the Word, and the cherubim above it meant protection to prevent the holiness of the Word being violated.

Now since externals derive their essence from internals, and both of these derive theirs from the inmost, which in this case was the Law, therefore all the details of the tabernacle represented and stood for the holy things of the Word. Hence it follows that the outermost parts of the tabernacle, the curtains, veils and posts which covered, contained and supported it, meant the outermost form of the Word, which is the truths and forms of good contained in its literal sense. It was because that was their meaning that all the curtains and veils were made of lawn interwoven and violet and purple, and double-dyed red, with cherubim (Exod. 26:1, 31, 36). I explained in ARCANA CAELESTIA in the commentary on that chapter of Exodus the general and the specific representations and meanings of the tabernacle and all its contents. It was there shown that the curtains and veils represented the externals of heaven and the church, so also those of the Word; and that lawn or fine linen meant truth of spiritual origin, violet truth of celestial origin, purple celestial good, double-dyed red spiritual good, and the cherubim the protection of the interiors of the Word.

TCR (Chadwick) n. 221 sRef 1Ki@6 @30 S0′ sRef 1Ki@6 @29 S0′