Conjugial Love (Wunsch)

CL (Wunsch) n. 0

0. CONTENTS

PART I

MARITAL LOVE: ITS WISE DELIGHTS

Preliminary – THE JOYS OF HEAVEN AND A WEDDING THERE

I. MARRIAGES IN HEAVEN
II. THE STATE OF PARTNERS AFTER DEATH
III. TRUE MARITAL LOVE
IV. THE ORIGIN OF MARITAL LOVE IN THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH
V. THE MARRIAGE OF THE LORD AND THE CHURCH, AND ITS CORRESPONDENCE
VI. CHASTE AND NON-CHASTE
VII. THE CONJUNCTION OF SOULS AND MINDS BY MARRIAGE
VIII. THE CHANGE IN STATE OF LIFE MADE IN MEN AND WOMEN BY MARRIAGE
IX. UNIVERSALS ABOUT MARRIAGES
X. CAUSES OF COLD, SEPARATION AND DIVORCE IN MARRIAGE
XI. CAUSES OF APPARENT LOVE, FRIENDSHIP AND FAVOR IN MARRIAGES
XII. BETROTHALS AND WEDDINGS
XIII. REMARRIAGE
XIV. POLYGAMY
XV. JEALOUSY
XVI. THE CONJUNCTION OF MARITAL LOVE WITH LOVE FOR CHILDREN

PART II

SCORTATORY LOVE: ITS INSANE PLEASURES

XVII. THE OPPOSITION OF SCORTATORY LOVE TO MARITAL LOVE

XVIII. FORNICATION

XIX. CONCUBINAGE

XX. ADULTERIES: KINDS AND DEGREES

XXI. THE LUST OF DEFLOWERING

XXII. THE LUST FOR VARIETY

XXIII. THE LUST OF VIOLATION

XXIV. THE LUST OF SEDUCING INNOCENCES

XXV. THE CORRESPONDENCE OF WHOREDOM WITH VIOLATION OF SPIRITUAL MARRIAGE

XXVI. THE IMPUTATION OF EACH LOVE, SCORTATORY AND MARITAL



CL (Wunsch) n. 1

1. MARITAL LOVE: ITS WISE DELIGHTS

PRELIMINARY

THE JOYS OF HEAVEN AND A WEDDING THERE

I foresee* that many who read the Memorabilia immediately following and those after the chapters will believe that they are inventions of the imagination. I solemnly declare, however, that they are not inventions, but things which were actually done and seen�seen, moreover, not in a state of the mind asleep, but in a state of full wakefulness. For the Lord has been pleased to manifest Himself to me and to send me to teach what is intended for a new Church, meant by the New Jerusalem in the Apocalypse. To this end He has opened the interiors of my mind and spirit, so that it has been my privilege to be with angels in the spiritual world and at the same time with men in the natural world, and this now** for twenty-five years.
* In the original Latin this paragraph is enclosed in quotation marks. It occurs again in True Christian Religion, n. 851.
** In the year 1768; Swedenborg was to live, and to continue in this privilege, four years longer. See note at n. 419.

CL (Wunsch) n. 2 2. On a time* I saw an angel flying beneath the eastern heaven, holding a trumpet to his mouth. He blew a blast to the north, to the west, and to the south. He wore a cloak which streamed behind him as he flew, and a girdle which flashed and shone as with rubies and sapphires. He flew downwards and descended gently to the earth near me, where he began to go erect on foot to and fro until, seeing me, he came toward me. I was in the spirit, and in that state was standing on a hill in the southern quarter. When he was close, I addressed him, and asked,
“What is going on? I heard your trumpet-blast and observed your descent through the air.”
“I have been sent,” he said, “to call together residents here from countries of the Christian world who are the most noted for learning, the most clear-sighted mentally, and the most eminent in reputation for wisdom. They are to assemble on this hill where you tarry, and to tell from the heart what thoughts, understanding and wisdom they had in the world about Heavenly Joy and Eternal Happiness. [2] The reason I was sent is this. Some newcomers from the world who were received into our heavenly society in the east, reported that no one in all the Christian world knows what heavenly joy and eternal happiness are, or, consequently, what heaven is. My brothers and companions were amazed at this, and said to me, ‘Go down, call together the wisest in the world of spirits (into which all mortals are first gathered after their departure from the natural world) and assemble them so that we may ascertain from the mouths of a number if it is true that such thick darkness and dense ignorance obtain among Christians about the future life’.” The angel added, “Wait a little while, and you will see the companies of the wise flocking here. The Lord will prepare them an assembly-hall.”
[3] I waited, and after half an hour beheld two bands approaching from the north, two from the west, and two from the south. When they had arrived, they were led by the angel trumpeter into the building prepared, and took places appointed them according to the quarter whence they came. There were six bands or companies. There was a seventh company from the east, but it was invisible to the others on account of the light. When all were assembled, the angel broached the reason for the convocation, and asked the companies to express in turn their wisdom about Heavenly Joy and Eternal Happiness. Thereupon each company arranged itself in a circle, with all facing one another, to recall the subject according to the ideas which they had formed in the world, and to review it, and after conference to give their conclusion.
* The Memorabilia following (nn. 2-25) occur again in True Christian Religion, nn. 731-752.

CL (Wunsch) n. 3 3. After conference the First Company, which was from the north, said: “Heavenly joy and eternal happiness are identical with dwelling in heaven. Whoever enters heaven, therefore, enters in his life on its festivities, quite as a guest at a wedding enters into its festivities. Is not heaven above us to the sight and therefore in a place? There, and there only, are bliss upon bliss, pleasures upon pleasures. On entering heaven a man is let into these in every perception of the mind and in every sensation of the body, due to the plenitude of the joys in the place. Heavenly happiness, which is also eternal happiness, is therefore simply admission to heaven, and admission is by Divine grace.”
[2] Thereupon the Second Company from the north out of their wisdom pronounced this surmise: “Heavenly joy and eternal happiness are nothing but very cheerful intercourse and pleasant talk with angels, by which the countenance is kept expanded in cheer, and all faces wreathed in glad smiles at the pleasantries and witticisms. What are heavenly joys but variations of such pleasures to eternity?”
[3] The Third Company, which was the first of the wise from the western quarter, spoke from their hearts’ thought: “What are heavenly joy and eternal happiness but feastings with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob,* whose tables will be spread with rich and dainty viands and generous and noble wines? After the feasts follow games, and dances of youths and maidens moving to the measures of strings and pipes, with the sweetest songs sung in the intermissions. In the evening there are dramatic representations, then banquets again, and so on, every day to eternity.”
[4] After this deliverance, the Fourth Company�the second from the western quarter�gave their opinion, saying: “We have entertained a number of opinions about heavenly joy and eternal happiness, but after considering different joys and comparing them, we have come to the conclusion that the joys of heaven are the joys of a paradise. What is heaven but a paradise, throughout which from east to west and south to north there are fruit-trees and beautiful flowers and in the midst of all the magnificent tree of life, around which the blessed will be seated, enjoying fruits of delicate flavor, and adorned with wreaths of the most fragrant flowers? Under the breath of perpetual spring, trees and flowers spring up daily and in infinite variety, by their perpetual birth and blooming, together with the constantly vernal temperature, ever renewing the spirits of the blessed, so that they cannot but breathe in and breathe out new joys with every day. They therefore return to the flower of life, to that pristine state, too, in which Adam and his wife were created, and thus are restored to their paradise, transferred now from earth to heaven.”
[5] The Fifth Company, the first of the gifted from the southern quarter, spoke thus: “Heavenly joy and eternal happiness are nothing else than supreme power, limitless wealth, a more than regal magnificence and a more than brilliant splendor. We have seen clearly from those who possessed them in the former world that such things are the joys of heaven and that the perpetual enjoyment of them is eternal happiness. We feel the more sure of this, because the blessed in heaven are to reign with the Lord,** and are to be kings and princes, being sons of the King of kings and Lord of lords, and are to sit on thrones, with the angels for ministers. We have also glimpsed heaven’s magnificence in that the New Jerusalem, in which the glory of heaven is depicted, is to have gates each of a single pearl, streets of pure gold, and a wall with foundations of precious stones.*** Every one received into heaven therefore has his own palace, resplendent with gold and precious materials; and enjoys power according to rank, one above another. Knowing that joys and happiness are inborn and inherent in such things, and that they are God’s promise which cannot be broken, we are unable to trace the very happy state of heavenly life to any other source.”
[6] Thereupon the Sixth Company, the second from the southern quarter, said with a loud voice: “The joy of heaven and its eternal happiness are nothing else than perpetual glorification of God, solemn festival maintained to eternity, and very blessed worship, with songs and paeans. They consist in constant uplifting of the heart to God, with full trust that He accepts the prayers and praises which in His Divine bounty He endows with such bliss.”
Some of the company added that this glorification would be attended with magnificent lights and very fragrant incense, with processions of great pomp, too, led by a chief pontiff with a great trumpet, followed by primates and other officials, great and small, and these by men bearing palms and women carrying golden images.
* Cf. Matthew viii. 11.
** Revelation xx. 6.
*** Revelation xxi. 18-21.

CL (Wunsch) n. 4 4. The Seventh Company, invisible to the rest because of the light, was from the east in heaven. These were angels from the same society as the angel with the trumpet. On hearing in their heaven that not a person in all Christendom knew what heavenly joy and eternal happiness are, they had told one another, “Surely it is not so. Such thick darkness and obtuseness cannot obtain among Christians. Let us go down and hear whether it is so, for if it is true, it is indeed amazing.” [2] These angels now said to the angel trumpeter, “You are aware that all who have desired heaven and entertained any definite thought about its joys, are let after death into the joys
which they have pictured; and that when they have tried those joys and found that they only reflect their vain conceits and crazy phantasies, they are brought out of them and instructed.”
(This takes place in the world of spirits with most of those who in the former life had reflected about heaven and formed some conclusion about heavenly joys to the point of desiring them.)
On hearing these words the angel trumpeter said to the six companies assembled from the wise of the Christian world: “Follow me, and I will usher you into your joys and so into heaven.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 5 5. So saying, the angel led the way and was followed first by the company of those who had persuaded themselves that heavenly joys consist in very cheerful social life and highly entertaining talk. The angel took them to assemblies in the northern quarter, composed of those who in the world had had this same conception of the joys of heaven. These were gathered in a large house, of more than fifty rooms, each room distinguished by a different kind of conversation. In some of the rooms people were talking about what they had seen and heard in city square or street. In others they talked about the many charms of the fair sex, with pleasantries kept up until the faces of all in the company expanded in smiles of merriment. In other rooms they talked over the news of the palace, of the ministries, of the body politic, or of various matters which had transpired from privy councils, adding their reasonings and conjectures about the outcome. In still other rooms, they talked about business, things literary, concerns of civic prudence and the moral life, or about ecclesiastical matters and the sects; and so on. I was allowed to look into the house. I saw people running from room to room, seeking companionship to their taste and enjoyment. They were of three sorts: some panted to talk, some longed to ask questions, and some were eager to listen. [2] The house had four doors, one towards each quarter; and I noticed that many had abandoned their companies and were hurrying to get out. I followed some to the east door, and seated there I saw a number looking downcast. I approached and asked why they sat there so sad. They replied: “The entrances of this house are tightly closed against those who would leave. We have now been here three days and have exhausted our desire for company and conversation. We are so wearied by the constant talking that we can hardly endure the murmur of it. In our tedium we betook ourselves to this door and knocked. We were told that the doors are not opened to let any one out, only to let people in. ‘Remain and enjoy the joys of heaven.’ The reply makes us think we must remain here to eternity. Our minds have been seized by sadness and our breasts feel oppressed. We are filled with foreboding.”
[3] The angel then addressed them and said, “Your state is the sure doom of the joys which you thought were the only heavenly ones, but which as a matter of fact are only accompaniments of heavenly joy.”
They asked the angel, “What then is heavenly joy?”
He replied briefly: “It is the joy of doing something of use to oneself and others. The joy of service has its essence from love, and its existence by wisdom. Originating from love by wisdom, that joy is the soul and life of all heavenly joys. [4] There are, indeed, very cheerful social occasions in heaven, exhilarating and diverting the mind, rejoicing the heart, and recreating the body; the angels enjoy them after they have done the uses of their employments and occupations. The soul and life of all their cheer and diversions comes from these uses. If you remove this soul and life, any attendant joys gradually cease to be joys, becoming first indifferent, then valueless, and finally gloomy and anxious.”
Thereupon the door was opened, and those sitting by it leaped up and ran home, to be revived each in his employment and work.

CL (Wunsch) n. 6 6. Next the angel addressed those who had induced upon themselves the idea that the joys of heaven and eternal happiness would be feastings with Abram, Isaac and Jacob, and games and shows after the feasts, and once again feasts, and so on to eternity. He told them to follow him and he would introduce them into the happinesses of their joys. He led them through a grove to a level spot with a platform on which stood tables, fifteen on one side, fifteen on the other. “Why so many tables?” they asked. The angel replied that the first table was Abram’s, the second Isaac’s, the third Jacob’s, and extending on from these in order the tables of the twelve Apostles. “On the other side are as many tables for their wives; the first three belong to Sarah, Abram’s wife, Rebekah, Isaac’s wife, and Leah and Rachel, Jacob’s wives, while the other twelve belong to the wives of the twelve Apostles.”
[2] They had not waited long before all the tables appeared full of dishes of food, the spaces between the dishes embellished with pyramids holding sweetmeats. About the tables stood guests, awaiting their hosts. Presently these were seen entering, in order from Abram to the last of the Apostles. Each went to his table and reclined on a couch at its head. They bade the company, “Recline with us, too.” They did so, the men with the Fathers, and the women with their wives, and ate and drank with joy and veneration.
After the banquet, the Fathers withdrew. Games and dances of youths and maidens began, succeeded by theatrical performances.
When the shows were over, all were invited to feast again, with the stipulation that they should eat with Abram on the first day, with Isaac on the second, with Jacob on the third, with Peter on the fourth, with James on the fifth, with John on the sixth, with Paul on the seventh, and in turn with the others until the fifteenth day, when they were to repeat the festivities in the same order, only changing seats, and so on to eternity.
[3] Thereupon the angel called together the members of his company and told them: “All whom you saw at the tables have had the same imaginary ideas about the joys of heaven and the eternal happiness they yield, as you. Mock festivities like this were started (they are permitted by the Lord) that people may see for themselves the vanity of their ideas and be withdrawn from them. The leaders whom you saw at the heads of the tables were counterfeited Fathers, men largely from the peasantry, who being bearded and comparatively wealthy are rather puffed up, on whom, too, the phantasy has been induced that they are those ancient Fathers. But follow me to the exits from this training-school.”
[4] As they left, they saw fifty here and fifty there who had crammed their bellies with food to the point of nausea, and who longed to return to their usual affairs, stations, business or labor. Many were stopped by guards at the grove and questioned about their days of feasting�had they eaten yet with Peter, and with Paul? They were told that they should be ashamed to leave before they had done so; it would not be proper. Most of them replied, “We are sated with our joys. Food has turned tasteless and all relish for it is gone, our stomachs loathe it, we cannot endure it. We have spent long days and nights in this excess and earnestly ask to be allowed to go.” On being released, they raced breathlessly home.
[5] The angel then collected the men in his charge and as they went along taught them as follows about heaven. “In heaven as in the world there are food and drink, feasts and banquets. The tables of the prominent are spread with sumptuous feasts, delicacies and luxuries, which exhilarate and revive one’s spirits. There are games, too, and shows, music and song, all in the greatest perfection. Such things are joys to the angels, too, but not happiness. Happiness must fill and spring from the joys. It is the happiness within the joys which makes them joys, giving them value and keeping them from becoming cheap and tedious. This happiness one finds in the use he serves in his employment. [6] Hidden in the affection of the will of an angel, is a certain impulse which urges the mind to do what brings it tranquillity and satisfaction. The satisfaction and tranquillity render the mind receptive of the love of use from the Lord. And by the reception of this love, comes heavenly happiness, which is the life of the joys mentioned above. Heavenly food in its essence is nothing else than love, wisdom and use together, that is, use from love by means of wisdom. Every one in heaven is therefore given food for the body according to the use which he performs�sumptuous food to those in an exalted use, modest food but of exquisite flavor to those in a moderate degree of use, ordinary to those in an ordinary use, but none to the inactive.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 7 7. After this the angel summoned the company of the reputedly wise who had placed heavenly joys and the eternal happiness therefrom in supreme power, limitless wealth, a more than regal magnificence and a more than brilliant splendor, all because we read in the Word that men are to be kings and princes, reign* with Christ to eternity, and be ministered to by angels, with much else to the same effect. To these the angel said, “Follow me, and I will introduce you into your joys.”
He led them to a portico of pillars and pyramids. A low palace in front of it gave access to it. Led through this by the angel, they saw groups of twenty waiting. Suddenly, an impersonated angel appeared, who told them, “The way to heaven lies through this portico. Wait a while, and prepare yourselves, for the older among you are to be kings, the younger, princes.”
[2] At these words there appeared beside each pillar a throne, and on the throne a silken cloak, and on the cloak a scepter and a crown. Beside each pyramid there appeared a chair of state, three cubits high, and on each chair a gold chain and the ribbon of a knightly order with circlets of diamonds for clasps. Proclamation was made: “Come, array yourselves, be seated, and wait!”
Instantly the older men ran to the thrones, and the younger to the chairs of state, arrayed themselves, and sat down. Then a mist seemed to come up from below. As the occupants of the thrones and chairs breathed the mist, their faces puffed up, their breasts swelled, and they felt sure that they were kings and princes. The mist was only an aura of the phantasy which inspired them. Young men suddenly flew down, as if from heaven, and took posts, two at a throne, one at a chair of state, to serve as pages. From time to time a herald cried: “Ye kings and princes, wait yet a little while. Your courts in heaven are being made ready for you. Courtiers with a retinue will soon attend and introduce you.” They waited and waited, until their spirits gasped for breath, and they were worn out with desire.
[3] After three hours heaven opened above them, and angels looked down and, moved to pity, said, “Why do you sit there so foolish and indulge in these theatricals? They have made game of you, and turned you from men into statues, all because your hearts are persuaded that you will reign with Christ as kings and princes and will be ministered to by angels. Have you forgotten the Lord’s words** that he who would be great in heaven must be as a servant? Learn then what is meant by ‘kings’ and `princes’ and by ‘reigning with Christ,’ namely, to be wise and do uses. The kingdom of Christ, or heaven, is a kingdom of uses. For the Lord loves all and out of love wills good to all, and good is use. Inasmuch as the Lord does uses or goods through the instrumentality of angels and in the world through the instrumentality of men, He imparts to those who do uses faithfully the love of use and its reward, which is internal beatitude, and this is eternal happiness. [4] Supreme power and boundless wealth are to be found in heaven as in the world, for governments exist there, greater and less, and therefore greater and lesser powers and dignities. Occupants of the highest posts have palaces and courts far surpassing in magnificence and splendor those of earthly kings and emperors. Honor and glory surround them in the splendid raiment and the number of their courtiers, ministers and attendants. Still, rulers are chosen from among those whose hearts are in the public welfare�their bodily senses only are in this display of magnificence, for the sake of obedience to authority. The public welfare requires that every member of a society, as of any general body, shall serve a use; and as every use is from the Lord, and is accomplished through angel or man as if by effort of his own, obviously to reign with the Lord means to perform a use.”
On hearing these words from heaven, the mimic kings and princes quit their thrones and chairs and flung away their scepters, crowns and cloaks. The mist in which was the aura of phantasy receded, and a bright cloud enveloped them, in which was an aura of wisdom, restoring sanity to their minds.
* Revelation xx. 6.
** Matthew xx. 26.

CL (Wunsch) n. 8 8. Upon this the angel returned to the house where the wise from the Christian world were gathered, and called to him those who were persuaded that the joys of heaven and eternal happiness are the delights of a paradise. He bade them: “Follow me, and I will introduce you into a paradise, your heaven, and you can begin on the blessedness of your eternal happiness.”
He led them through a lofty gateway formed of the interwoven boughs and branches of noble trees. The way began to wind about. The place was in fact a paradise at the first entrance to heaven, where those are sent who in the world have believed that all heaven is just a paradise because it is so called, and who also have impressed on themselves the notion that after death there is rest from all work�a rest which is spent in inhaling the soul of delights, in walking on roses, in enjoying the most delicate grape-wines, and going to festive gatherings�and that such an existence is to be had only in a heavenly paradise. [2] Conducted by the angel, they beheld a vast multitude of men old and young, and boys, and of women and girls, too, some sitting by threes and tens in rose-gardens, weaving garlands with which to adorn the heads of the old and the arms of the young, and to festoon the boys. Others were picking fruit from the trees and bearing it in osier baskets to their friends; others were pressing the juice of grapes, cherries and berries into cups and gaily drinking; others were breathing in the fragrances exhaled and diffused by flower, fruit and scented leaf; others were singing sweet songs which charmed the listeners’ ears; others sat beside fountains and changed the up-gushing water into different patterns; others were walking about, chatting, and jesting; others were running, playing, or dancing, some by themselves, some in groups; still others went and reclined on couches in the small garden-houses; not to mention many other pleasures of the paradise.
[3] After they had seen these things, the angel conducted his companions here and there by winding ways, and finally up to some people who were sitting in a very beautiful rose-garden enclosed by olive, orange and citron trees. These folks, their drooping heads propped on their hands, were weeping and wailing. The angel’s companions addressed them and asked, “Why are you sitting here so sad?” They replied, “This is the seventh day since we came into this paradise. When we entered, our minds seemed to be swept up to heaven and carried into the inner happinesses of its joys. After three days, however, this happiness began to dull, to be banished from our minds, and to turn unreal and into nothing at all. When the joys we imagined had died, we feared we should lose all delight in living, and began to question whether indeed any eternal happiness exists. Then we wandered by paths and open places, seeking the gate by which we entered. We strayed in circles, and asked directions of those we met. Some of them said, ‘It is impossible to find the gate; this garden-paradise is such an extensive labyrinth that any one who wants to get out of it only gets farther into it. There is nothing to do but to remain here forever. You are in the heart of the paradise, where all delights center.'” And they continued to the angel’s companions, “We have sat here now a day and a half. Having lost hope of finding the way out, we have been resting in this rose-garden, where we look upon this wealth of olives, grapes, oranges and citrons. But the more we look at them, the more our eyes tire with looking, our nostrils with smelling, our tongues with tasting. Now you know the cause of the gloom, grief and weeping in which you behold us.”
[4] Hearing this, the angel of the company told them, “This labyrinthine paradise is in truth an entrance to heaven. I know the way out and will lead you forth.”
At these words they sprang up, embraced the angel, and joined his company. As they proceeded the angel instructed them what heavenly joy and eternal happiness therefrom are�that these are not to be found in the external delights of a paradise if unaccompanied by internal paradisaical delights. “The external are only delights of the bodily senses, whereas the internal are delights of the affections of the soul. The external have no heavenly life in them apart from the internal, being then without a soul. Any delight apart from its corresponding soul becomes languid and dull, and tires the mind more than work does. Everywhere in heaven are garden-paradises, which afford the angels joys; but it is only as far as delight of the soul is in these joys, that they are joys.”
[5] Hearing this, they all asked, “What is delight of the soul, and whence is it?”
The angel answered, “Delight of the soul is from love and wisdom from the Lord. Love is the doer, and it acts by means of wisdom; the two therefore have their settled abode in deed, which is use. The delight flows from the Lord into the soul, and descends through the higher and lower ranges of the mind into all the bodily senses, where it fulfils itself. Joy then becomes joy, and is eternal from the Eternal Being whence it is. You have seen a paradise, and I assure you that there is not a thing there, not even a small leaf, which is not from the marriage of love and wisdom in use. When a man is in this marriage, he, too, is in the heavenly paradise or in heaven.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 9 9. Herewith the angel guide returned to the hall, to those who were firmly persuaded that heavenly joy and eternal happiness are a perpetual glorification of God and a service maintained to eternity. Their persuasion grew out of their belief in the world that they would see God, and out of the fact that the life of heaven from its worship of God is called a perpetual Sabbath.
The angel said to them, “Follow me, and I will introduce you into your joy.” He led them into a small city, in the center of which stood a temple, and all of the houses in which were called sacred buildings. In this city they saw people gathered from every corner of the surrounding country, and among them a number of priests, who met and greeted the arrivals, and leading them by the hand to the temple-gates and into some of the buildings around the temple, initiated them into the perpetual worship of God. They told them that the city was a forecourt of heaven, and that the temple was the entrance to a magnificent and very large temple in heaven, where the angels glorify God with prayers and praises to eternity. “The regulations, both here and there, are that you enter the temple and remain three days and three nights, and then proceed into the city’s homes, which are so many chapels we have consecrated, and go from chapel to chapel, and pray, proclaim and preach in fellowship with those assembled there. Take every care to speak to your companions, and to think, only what is holy, pious and religious.”
[2] The angel then led his company into the temple, which was filled to the doors with many who had stood high in the world, and also with many of the common people. Guards were stationed at the doors, permitting no one to leave who had not remained the three days. The angel remarked: “These worshipers have been here two days. Observe them and you will see how they glorify God.” They looked, and most were asleep, and those who were awake yawned again and again. Some�what with the constant uplifting of their thoughts to God, without consideration for the body�looked like faces severed from the body. They felt so to themselves, and hence appeared so to others. Some were wild-eyed from gazing into space. In short, their breathing was labored, and they were wearied in spirit from the tedium. They had their backs to the pulpit, and were shouting, “Our ears are stunned. Bring your sermons to an end. We no longer hear a word, and begin to loathe the sound.” Then they arose, rushed in a body to the doors, broke them open, jostled the guards and drove them off. [3] Seeing this the priests followed, and clinging close to them, went on teaching and praying, sighing and exhorting, “Keep up the service! Glorify God! Sanctify yourselves! In this forecourt of heaven we will initiate you into everlasting glorification of God in a magnificent and most spacious temple in heaven, and so into the enjoyment of eternal happiness.”
But these appeals went uncomprehended and were hardly heard, so dull were their minds after the two days’ inactivity and detention from domestic and business affairs. Still, when they tried to get away, the priests seized them by the arms and sleeves, to push them into the buildings where they were to preach; but in vain. The people cried, “Let us alone! We shall swoon.”
[4] At these words there appeared four men in mitres and white raiment. One of these had been an archbishop in the world, and the other three, bishops; all now were angels. They called the priests together and said to them: “From heaven we saw you and these sheep, and took note how you feed them. You feed them even to insanity. You do not know what the glorification of God means. It means to bring forth the fruits of love; that is, to do the work of one’s calling faithfully, sincerely and diligently. For this belongs to love for God and to love for the neighbor, and is the bond of society, and its well-being. By this is God glorified, and then at stated times by worship. Have you not read these words of the Lord?

Herein is my Father glorified, that you bear fruit, and be made my disciples (John xv. 8).

sRef John@15 @8 S5′ [5] You priests can persist in glorification by worship, for that is your office and thence are your glory, honor and reward; but not even you, any more than they, could continue in that glorification were not glory, honor and reward connected with your office.”
So saying the bishops ordered the doorkeepers to let all in and out freely, “for there is a mass of people who can imagine no heavenly joy other than perpetual worship of God, so ignorant are they about the state of heaven.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 10 10. After this the angel returned with his companions to the place of assembly, which the companies of the wise had not yet left, and summoned those who believed that heavenly joy and eternal happiness are simply admission into heaven and that this admission is by Divine grace; and that thereupon they will have joy as one does in the world when one enters a royal court on festival days or attends a wedding.
The angel said to them, “Wait a while here. I will sound my trumpet, and there will come hither men of an illustrious name for wisdom in the spiritual things of the Church.” A few hours later, nine men came, each decorated with laurel in token of his renown. The angel conducted them into the assembly-hall where were all who had been summoned at the first. Before them all, the angel addressed the nine laureates. “I understand that in compliance with your own wish and idea, you were privileged to ascend into heaven, and that you have returned to this lower or subheavenly land with full knowledge of what heaven is like. Tell us, therefore, what heaven seemed like to you.”
[2] They answered in turn. The First said: “From early boyhood to the close of my life in the world I thought of heaven as the home of every beatitude, bliss, joy, gladness and pleasure. I supposed that if I were admitted, I should be encompassed with the aura of all this happiness and should inhale it deeply, like a bridegroom celebrating his marriage and entering the bridal chamber with his bride. In this opinion I ascended to heaven. I passed the first guards, and the second, but when I came to the third, the captain of the guard accosted me and asked, ‘Who are you, friend?’ I replied: ‘Is not heaven here? I have come up at the bidding of my desire; I beg you, let me in.’ He did so, and I saw angels in white, who gathered around me, and examining me, murmured: a new guest not clad in heaven’s garments!’ Hearing this, I seemed to myself like the man of whom the Lord said that he had come to a wedding without a wedding garment.* So I said, ‘Give me such garments,’ but they laughed. Then a courier arrived from the court with the command, ‘Strip him, cast him out, and throw his clothes after him.’ So I was cast out.”
[3] The Second said, “I believed as did he, that if only I were admitted to heaven, up above my head, joys would flow around me, and I should be animated by them forever. I, too, obtained my wish, but when the angels saw me, they fled, saying to one another, ‘What monster is this? How came this bird of night here?’ And though I was not altered, I actually felt changed from being human; breathing the heavenly air did it. Presently a man came running from the court, with an order that two servants should conduct me out, and take me back by the way I had ascended, and to my home. Once home, I seemed to myself and others a man.”
[4] The Third said, “I had always fashioned my idea of heaven on a conception of place, not of love. When I came into this world, therefore, I longed intensely for heaven. I saw some ascending, and followed, and was admitted, but only a few steps. And when I sought to gladden my spirit according to my conception of the joys and beatitudes there, then, owing to the light of heaven, which was white as snow, and the essence of which is said to be wisdom, a stupor assailed my mind, and darkness my sight, and I began to be insane. Moreover, owing to the heat of heaven, which corresponded to the whiteness of that light, and the essence of which is said to be love, my heart pounded, anxiety seized me, an inward pain racked me, and I threw myself flat on the ground. While I lay there, an attendant came from the court, with the order to carry me slowly back into my own light and heat. As I came into these, my breath and heartbeat returned.”
[5] The Fourth said that he, too, had thought of heaven as a place, not as a state of love. “When I first came into the spiritual world,” he said, “I asked the wise if one might mount to heaven. They said that one could, but would have to take care that he was not cast down. I laughed and ascended, believing as others do that all in the world are capable of receiving in full the joys of heaven. Sure enough, when I was in, I nearly expired; and suffering pain and torment in head and body, I pitched headlong to the ground and writhed like a serpent put close to a fire. I crept to a precipice and flung myself over it. Later I was picked up by some standing below, and carried to an inn, where I recovered health.”
[6] The other Five also related amazing things about their ascent into heaven. They compared the change of state which befell them to the condition of fish lifted from the water into the air, and to that of birds lifted into the ether. They declared that after these hard experiences they no longer desired heaven but only a life of companionship with their like, wherever these were. They had also learned that all are prepared beforehand in the world of spirits (“where we are”), the good for heaven, and the evil for hell. They also said that when men have been prepared, they see ways open to the societies of others like themselves, with whom they can remain to eternity; and that they enter on these ways with joy, because they are the ways of their own love.
On hearing these accounts, all the members of the original assembly confessed that they, too, had thought of heaven as a place primarily, where they would drink in freely and forever the joys surrounding them.
[7] After this the angel trumpeter said to them, “You appreciate now that the joys of heaven and eternal happiness are not those of a locality, but of a state of human life. The state of the heavenly life is from love and wisdom; and as use contains in it these two, the state of heavenly life is from the union of the two in use. It is the same thing if we say that it is from charity, faith and good works; for charity is love, faith is truth from which is wisdom, and good works are use. Moreover, there are spaces in our spiritual world as there are in the natural world�otherwise there would be no abiding-places and individual homes. Still, place is not place here, but an appearing of place according to the state of
[8] love and wisdom or of charity and faith. Everyone who becomes an angel carries his own heaven within him, because he carries within him the love of his own heaven. By creation man is a miniature effigy, image and type of the great heaven; the human form is nothing else. Every one passes, therefore, into that heavenly society of whose form he is an especial effigy. Entering that society, he enters a form corresponding to himself. There is a mutual fitness between it and himself, and he breathes the society’s life as his own, and his own life as its life. Each society is a general body, of which the angels are similar parts, constituting it. It follows from all this that those who, being in evils and thence in falsity, have formed an effigy of hell in themselves, are tortured in heaven due to the influx and violent action of opposite on opposite. For infernal love is opposed to heavenly love, and the delights of the two loves clash in enmity, and in any contention destroy each other.”
* Matthew xxii. 11.

CL (Wunsch) n. 11 11. After these things a voice was heard from heaven addressing the angel trumpeter, “Pick ten of all who were called together, and bring them to us. We have heard from the Lord that He will prepare them so that for three days the heat and light, or love and wisdom, of our heaven will not hurt them.”
Ten were selected, and followed the angel. They took a steep path up a hill, and then went on up a mountain, on which was that heaven of angels which from a distance had looked to them earlier like an expanse in the clouds. Gates were opened to them, and after they had passed through the third one, the angel guide hastened on to the prince of that society or heaven and announced their arrival. The prince replied, “Take some of my retinue and tell your company that they are welcome. Bring them into my forecourt and assign each an apartment with a sleeping-room. Take some of my courtiers and their servitors, and have them wait on their pleasure.” It was so done.
When they had been ushered in by the angel, they asked whether they might go and see the prince. The angel replied, “It is morning still. He cannot be seen before noon; until then all are engaged at their posts and in their employments. But you have been invited to dinner and will sit at table with the prince. Meanwhile I will take you to his palace, where you will see magnificent and splendid things.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 12 12. Conducted to the palace, they viewed it first from outside. It was large, built of porphyry with a foundation of jasper, and had six lofty columns of lapis lazuli at the entrance. The roof was sheets of gold; the lofty windows were of clearest crystal with frames of gold. They were then conducted inside and led from room to room, where they saw ornamentation of ineffable beauty, and, decorating the ceilings, inimitable carved work. Along the walls stood silver tables inlaid with gold on which were various useful articles of precious stones and of whole gems in heavenly patterns. They saw many other things which no eye on earth has ever seen, so that you would never imagine there are such things in heaven.
As they stood in awe at the magnificence, the angel said, “Do not marvel. What you see was not made or fashioned by any angelic hand, but by the Maker of the universe, whose gift it all is to the prince. The art of architecture is therefore in its very art here; the world derives hence all its rules of the art.” The angel went on, “You may suppose that things like these enchant our eyes and even infatuate them until we come to believe that they are the joys of our heaven, but, as we do not set our hearts on them, they are only accompaniments of our heart’s joy. Viewing them so and as God’s work, we behold in them the Divine omnipotence and mercy.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 13 13. Thereupon the angel said to them, “It is still not noon; come with me into our prince’s garden at the side of the palace.” They went; and at the entrance he said:
“Behold the most magnificent garden in this heavenly society.”
They answered, “What did you say? There is no garden here. We see only one tree, fruit seemingly of gold on its branches and top, and leaves as of silver, their edges ornamented with emeralds, and under the tree little children with their nurses.”
At this the angel said in an inspired tone, “This tree occupies the center of the garden, and we call it the tree of our heaven, some the tree of life. But proceed, go nearer, your eyes will be opened, and you will see the garden.”
They did so; and their eyes were opened. They saw trees weighed down with delicious fruit and entwined with the tendrils of vines, their tops inclining with their fruit toward the tree of life in the center. [2] The trees were arranged in an unbroken row, which extended in the recurring circles or gyres of what seemed to be an endless spiral. It was a perfect spiral of trees, arranged by kinds in the order of the excellence of their fruits. The spiral began at a little distance from the tree in the center. Across the intervening space a shaft of light shone on all the trees of the gyre from first to last in a graduated splendor. The first trees, called trees of paradise, were the finest of all, luxuriant with the choicest fruits,�they are not to be seen on any earth of the natural world and cannot exist there. Then came oil-trees; then wine-trees; then fragrant trees; and finally timber trees for building. Here and there in the unending spiral or gyre of trees were seats formed of the trained and interlaced boughs of the trees behind them, and enriched and adorned by their fruits. In it, too, passageways opened on flower-gardens and on the level stretches and sloping banks of lawns beyond.
[3] The companions of the angel cried out at the sight, “Behold, the very form of heaven! Wherever we turn our gaze, there flows in something ineffable of a heavenly paradise.”
The angel rejoiced to hear this. “All our gardens,” he said, “are in origin representative forms or types of heavenly beatitudes. It was because an influx of these beatitudes uplifted your minds that you exclaimed, ‘Behold, the very form of heaven!’ These paradises look like woods to those who do not receive an influx. All who are in the love of use receive an influx, but not those who love glory without loving use.” Then he explained and taught them what the several objects in the garden represented and signified.

CL (Wunsch) n. 14 14. While they were listening a messenger arrived from the prince, inviting them to break bread with him. Two court attendants at the same time brought garments of fine linen, and bade them: “Put these on, for no one is admitted to the prince’s table unless he is clothed in the garments of heaven.”
They dressed, and accompanied by their angel were led into a corridor, an ambulatory of the palace, where they awaited the prince. There the angel introduced them among noted and influential men who were also expecting the prince. Soon the doors opened, and by a wide one on the west they saw the prince enter in the order and pomp of a procession. Before him went the chief counsellors, then the chamberlains, and then the heads of the court. Midway came the prince, followed by courtiers of different ranks, and lastly by personal attendants�in all a hundred and twenty persons.
[2] The angel at the head of the ten newcomers (who in their dress looked like inhabitants now) approached the prince with them, and respectfully called attention to their presence. Without halting, the prince bade them, “Come, and dine with me.”
They followed into the dining-hall, where they saw a table handsomely set. In the center was a high golden pyramid, with a hundred small dishes on three rows of shelves, holding cakes, wine-jellies, and other delicacies composed of wine and bread. From the top of the pyramid gushed a fountain with a wine-like nectar, the stream dividing as it fell and filling cups. At either side of the high golden pyramid projected different heavenly forms of gold, holding dishes and plates filled with every kind of food. The heavenly forms were forms of wisdom’s own art, such as no art in the world can produce, nor can words describe them. Dishes and plates were of silver, they and their supporting forms graven around with reliefs of similar pattern. The cups were of transparent gems. Such was the arrangement of the table.

CL (Wunsch) n. 15 15. And this was the apparel of the prince and his ministers. He was dressed in a long purple robe, embroidered with stars of the color of silver. Under the robe he wore a tunic of shining silk of a blue shade. This was open at the breast, where the badge of his society was to be seen on a sash. The badge showed an eagle on a tree-top, brooding over her young; it was of shining gold in a circle of diamonds. The chief counsellors wore garments not unlike those of the prince but without the badge, in place of which carved sapphires hung from the neck by a gold chain. The courtiers wore gowns of brown, on which were woven flowers around young eagles. Their tunics were of an opal-colored silk, as were their breeches and stockings. Such was their clothing.

CL (Wunsch) n. 16 16. The counsellors, chamberlains and magistrates stood around the table, and at a word from the prince folded their hands and murmured a prayer of praise to the Lord; then, at a nod from the prince, reclined upon the couches at the table.
To the newcomers the prince said, “Recline with me, too. See, there are your places.” And they reclined. The attendants whom the prince had sent to minister to them took their places behind them. The prince then bade them, “Take each a plate from its ring, and then a little dish from the pyramid.” They did so, and fresh plates and dishes at once appeared in the place of those removed. Their cups were filled with the wine jetting from the high pyramid, and they ate and drank. [2] When they were moderately satisfied, the prince addressed the ten guests, saying:
“I hear that you were called together on the earth under this heaven to tell what you thought about the joys of heaven and the eternal happiness coming from them. I also hear that you expressed divergent views, each according to the delights of his bodily senses. But what are the delights of the bodily senses apart from the delights of the soul? The soul is what renders them delightful. The delights of the soul in themselves are imperceptible beatitudes, but become more and more perceptible as they descend into the thoughts of the mind, and from these into the sensations of the body. They are perceived in the thoughts of the mind as states of bliss; in the sensations of the body as enjoyments; and in the body itself as pleasures. Eternal happiness is derived from them all together. The happiness derived from the last alone, however, is not eternal, but transitory, coming to an end and passing away, sometimes turning into unhappiness. You have seen that all your joys are indeed joys of heaven, and are keener than you could ever have supposed, and yet they do not affect our minds interiorly. [3] Three things flow as one into our souls from the Lord. These three, which are one or a trine, are love, wisdom and use. Love and wisdom exist only ideally if they exist only in the affection and thought of the mind; in use they exist really, being then also in the work and activity of the body. Where they exist really, they also persist. Now because love and wisdom exist and subsist in use, it is use which affects us. Use is to do the work of one’s employment faithfully, sincerely and diligently. The love of use and the resulting zeal in use keep the mind from being diffuse, and from straying and imbibing all those lusts which flow in with their allurements from body and world through the senses, and which scatter the truths of religion and morality along with their goods to the winds. The mind’s absorption in a use binds and holds these truths together and disposes the mind into a form capable of receiving wisdom from them, thrusting aside the mischiefs and mockeries of vanities as well as of falsities. But you will hear more on these subjects from wise men whom I shall send to you this afternoon.”
Having spoken thus, the prince arose, and the guests with him, and after bidding them farewell, he told their angel guide to conduct them again to their apartments and to show them every courtesy; also to invite affable men from the city to entertain them with discussion of the different joys of that society.

CL (Wunsch) n. 17 17. On their return it was so done. Those invited from the city to entertain them with discussion of the different joys of the society arrived, and having greeted them, began talking amenities to them as they walked. But their angel guide said: “These ten men were invited here to see the joys of this heaven and to gain a new conception of eternal happiness. Tell them therefore something about the joys of heaven which affect the bodily senses. Afterwards, wise men are coming who will discuss what renders these joys really happy.” Those who had been invited from the city then gave them the following information.
1. Our prince appoints days of festivity to relax the mind from the fatigue which the ambition to excel brings to some. On these days there are concerts of music and song in the squares, and games and shows outside the city. In the squares platforms are erected, with balustrades entwined with vines and hanging clusters, where the musicians are seated on three levels, with their string and wind instruments of high pitch and low, loud and soft. At the sides are men and women singers, who delight the citizens with the sweetest anthems and songs, in chorus and solo, varied in kind at intervals. On festive days these concerts last from morning until noon, and again into the evening.
[2] 2. Every morning the sweetest singing by young women and girls is to be heard from the houses around the squares�the whole city resounds with it. Each morning they sing some affection of spiritual love. That is, some affection is so expressed by modifications or modulations of the voice that the song seems the affection itself. It flows into the souls of listeners and excites them to correspondence with it. Such is the nature of heavenly song. The singers declare that the volume of the song is as it were inspired and animated from within, and delightfully exalted in the measure in which it is received by listeners. This ended, the windows and doors of the houses on the squares and streets are closed, and the whole city falls silent; not a sound is to be heard anywhere, and no loiterers are to be seen. All have made ready and now engage in the duties of their several occupations.
[3] 3. At noon the doors are opened, and here and there windows in the afternoon, and boys and girls appear playing in the streets, while their governesses and tutors oversee them from the porches of the houses.
[4] 4. In the outskirts of the city there are various games for boys and youths�running games, ball-games, games with balls struck back and forth, called tennis. There are trials of skill for the boys, to see how ready they are in speech, action and comprehension. The readiest receive laurel leaves for prizes. Not to mention many other games to call out the latent aptitudes of the boys.
[5] 5. Outside the city there are also theatrical performances with players depicting the different virtues and excellencies of the moral life, among them some actors, too, to create contrasts.
One of the ten asked, “Why contrasts?”
“No virtue,” they replied, “can be shown to the life in its grace and seemliness except by contrasts between greater and less; there are actors to present even the least phase of virtue down to the vanishing point. But the law requires that nothing of the opposite, or of what is called dishonorable or unseemly, shall be exhibited, except figuratively and so to speak remotely. This requirement is laid down because nothing honorable or good in a virtue passes over progressively into the dishonorable or evil, but only to its least, when it perishes. Then the opposite sets in. Heaven, where all is honorable and good, has nothing in common therefore with hell, where all is dishonorable and evil.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 18 18. In the midst of the conversation a servant came and announced that by command of the prince eight wise men were present and wished to come in. The angel, hearing it, went out, welcomed them, and brought them in. After the usual formalities of introduction, the wise men talked with them, first about the beginnings and growth of wisdom, adding to this some talk of its progress, and said that wisdom has no limit or end with the angels, but grows and increases to eternity.
On hearing this the angel of the company said to them, “At table the prince spoke with these men about the residence of wisdom in use. Will you also speak to them on this subject, please?” They said: “As first created, man was imbued with wisdom and a love of it, not for his own sake, but that he might communicate it from himself to others. It is inscribed on the wisdom of the wise, therefore, that no one is wise and none lives for himself alone, but at the same time for others. So society arises, which otherwise would not be. To live for others is to do uses. Uses are the bonds of society, which are as numerous as good uses, and these are infinite in number. There are spiritual uses, pertaining to love of God and love of the neighbor. There are moral and civil uses, belonging to love of the society or the community in which a man lives, and to love for his companions and fellow-citizens. There are natural uses, pertaining to love of the world and of the necessities of life. And there are uses of the body, belonging to the love of self-preservation in the interest of the higher uses. [2] All these uses are inscribed on the human being and follow in order one after the other; when they occur together, one is within the other. Men who are in the first or spiritual uses are also in those which follow, and are wise men. Those not in the first uses, and yet in the second and in the rest, are not so wise, but only appear to be so, because of their outward morality and civility. Those not in the first and second uses, but in the third and fourth, are not at all wise; in fact, loving only themselves and doing so for the world’s sake, they are satans. Those in the fourth use only are least wise of all; living for themselves alone, and if for others only for the sake of themselves, they are devils. [3] Every love, moreover, has its delight, in which it finds its life. The delight of the love of use is a heavenly delight which enters the succeeding delights in turn, exalting them and making them eternal.”
Then they enumerated heavenly delights issuing from the love of use, saying, “There are tens of thousands of them, and into them those enter who are in heaven.” They spent the day with them until evening, in further wise discourse about the love of use.

CL (Wunsch) n. 19 19. Towards evening there came to the ten newcomers and companions of the angel a runner, clothed in linen, who invited them to a wedding to be celebrated the next day. It overjoyed the newcomers that they were also to see a wedding in heaven. They were then conducted to the house of a chief counsellor, with whom they supped. They returned to the palace after supper and retired one after another to his chamber and slept until morning. On awaking they heard the singing of the young women and girls from the homes about the square, of which we told above. This time the affection of marital love was being sung. Deeply affected and moved by its sweetness, they felt a blessed pleasantness instilled, exalting and renewing their joys.
When the time came, the angel said, “Dress yourselves, and put on the garments of heaven which our prince sent you.” They did so, and found their garments shining as if with a flamy light. They asked the angel the reason, and he said, “You are going to a wedding. Our garments shine then and become wedding garments.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 20 20. The angel thereupon conducted them to the house of the wedding, and a porter opened the doors. They were promptly received inside by an angel representing the bridegroom who greeted them and showed them to the seats intended for them. But presently they were invited into an anteroom of the bridal chamber where they saw, in the center, a table on which a magnificent candlestick stood, made with seven branches and sconces of gold. On the walls hung silver lamps, the light from which turned the air golden. At the sides of the candlestick they saw two tables with loaves in three rows; and in the corners of the room tables on which were cups of crystal.
[2] While they were gazing at these things, a door opened from a room adjoining the bridal chamber, and they saw six young women come out, and behind them the bridegroom and bride holding each other by the hand. They led each other to a seat placed opposite the candlestick, and sat down, the bridegroom on the left with the bride at his right; while the six young women stood beside the seat near the bride. The bridegroom was dressed in a glistening purple robe and a tunic of shining linen, with an ephod on which was a plate of gold set around with diamonds; on the plate a young eagle was engraved, the nuptial badge of that heavenly society; on his head the bridegroom wore a mitre. The bride was dressed in a crimson cloak, under which was an embroidered gown reaching from the neck to the feet; around her waist she wore a golden girdle; and on her head she had a crown of gold set with rubies.
[3] After they had seated themselves together, the bridegroom turned to the bride and placed a gold ring on her finger; and taking some bracelets and a necklace of pearls, he fastened the bracelets on her wrists, and the necklace about her neck, and said: “Accept these pledges.” As she did so, he kissed her, and said, “Now you are mine,” and called her his wife. Thereupon the guests cried out, “May there be a blessing!” The cry came from each separately and then from all together. Some one delegated by the prince to represent him also joined in the cry. At that instant the room filled with an aromatic incense, a sign of heaven’s blessing. Attendants then took bread from the two tables beside the candlestick and cups full of wine from the tables in the corners, and gave each guest his bread and his cup, and they ate and drank.
After this the husband and his wife arose, and the six virgins, with the silver lamps now lighted in their hands, attended them to the threshold of the bridal chamber. The married pair entered, and the door was closed.

CL (Wunsch) n. 21 21. Afterwards the angel guide called his ten companions to the notice of the guests, saying that he had brought them by command, and had shown them the magnificent things in the prince’s palace, and the wonders there; that they had eaten with the prince at his table, and later had talked with their wise men. He asked, “May they be allowed to have some conversation with you, also?” And they came and conversed with them.
One of the wedding guests, a sage, inquired, “Do you understand what the things signify which you have seen?” They replied that they understood a little of them; but then asked him, why the bridegroom, now a husband, was dressed as he was.
He answered: “The bridegroom, now a husband, represented the Lord, and the bride, now a wife, represented the Church, because nuptials in heaven represent the marriage of the Lord with the Church. That is why the bridegroom wore a mitre on his head and was dressed in a robe, tunic and ephod like Aaron; and the bride, now a wife, wore a crown on her head and was attired in a cloak like a queen. Tomorrow they will be differently clothed, because this representation is only for today.”
[2] “Why,” they asked again, “if he represented the Lord and she the Church, did she sit at his right hand?”
The wise man replied: “Two things constitute the marriage of the Lord and the Church, namely, love and wisdom. The Lord is love and the Church wisdom. Wisdom is at love’s right hand. For the man of the Church becomes wise as if of himself, and as he does so, receives love from the Lord. The right hand, moreover, signifies power, and love has power through wisdom. But as I said before, the representation is changed after the wedding; for then the husband represents wisdom, and the wife the love of his wisdom. This love, however, is not the prior love, but a secondary one�the wife has it from the Lord through her husband’s wisdom. The love from the Lord which is the prior love, is the husband’s and is a love of growing wise. After the wedding, therefore, the two together, husband and wife, represent the Church.”
sRef Ps@45 @10 S3′ sRef Ps@45 @12 S3′ sRef Ps@45 @15 S3′ sRef Ps@45 @14 S3′ sRef Ps@45 @11 S3′ sRef Ps@45 @9 S3′ sRef Rev@14 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@45 @13 S3′ [3] Again they asked, “Why did not you men stand beside the bridegroom, now a husband, as the six young women stood beside the bride, now a wife?”
The wise man answered, “For the reason that we are numbered today among the virgins, and the number six signifies all and what is complete.” But they asked, “How is that?”
He answered, “Virgins signify the Church, which consists of both sexes. As respects the Church we also are virgins. This is plain from the following words in the Apocalypse:

These are they who were not defiled with women; for they are virgins; and they follow the Lamb wherever He goes (xiv. 4).

Because ‘virgins’ signify the Church, the Lord likened it to

Ten virgins invited to a wedding (Matthew xxv. 1 seq.).

And because Israel, Zion and Jerusalem mean the Church, the Word speaks so often of the ‘Virgin’ and `Daughter’ of Israel, of Zion and Jerusalem. The Lord describes His marriage with the Church by these words, too, in David:

At your right hand the queen in the best gold of Ophir … Her clothing is inwrought with gold; she shall be brought unto the king in broidered work; the virgins, her companions, after her … shall enter into the king’s palace (Psalm xlv. 9-15).”

[4] Afterwards they asked, “Is it not fitting that a priest be present and officiate at weddings?”
The sage replied, “It is fitting on earth, but not in heaven, in view of the representation by the two of the Lord Himself and the Church. This is not known on earth. Even with us a priest officiates at betrothals, and hears, receives, confirms and consecrates consent. Consent is the essential in a marriage; the ceremonies which follow are its formalities.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 22 22. After this the angel guide went to the six young women, telling them, too, of his companions, and asked them to honor his friends with their company. And they approached, but on coming near, suddenly withdrew and rejoined their young women friends in the women’s apartment. Seeing this, the angel guide followed, and asked them why they had withdrawn so abruptly without speaking to his companions. They answered, “We could not go near.”
He asked, “Why?” They answered, “We do not know; but we perceived something which repelled us and drove us back. They must excuse us.”
The angel returned to his companions, and told them the reply, and added, “I suspect that you have not a chaste love of the sex. In heaven we love young women for their beauty and their lovely ways, and we love them very much, but chastely.” His companions smiled, and said, “You surmise rightly. Who can see such beauty near him and not feel some desire?”

CL (Wunsch) n. 23 23. After the social festivity the wedding guests all left, and the ten men also, with their angel guide; and as it was late in the evening, they all retired.
At dawn they heard a proclamation, “Today is a Sabbath!” They arose and asked the angel, “Why is that?” He answered that it is for the worship of God, which recurs at stated times and is proclaimed by the priests. “A service is conducted in our temples and lasts about two hours. If you will, come with me, and I will introduce you.” They made ready, accompanied the angel and entered. They found a large temple, semicircular, capable of holding about three thousand people, with benches or seats extending around in an arc following the outline of the temple, and the rear seats higher than those in front. The pulpit was in front of the seats, a little over from center. Behind the pulpit towards the left was a door.
The ten newcomers with their angel guide entered, and he shewed them where to sit, remarking, “Every one who enters the temple knows his own place. He does so from an innate perception and cannot sit elsewhere. If he sits anywhere else, he hears or perceives nothing, and also upsets the order, and when this is upset, the priest is not inspired.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 24 24. When all were assembled, the priest mounted the pulpit and preached a sermon full of the spirit of wisdom. It was about the holiness of Sacred Scripture and about the Lord’s union by means of the Scripture with both the spiritual world and the natural world. In the illumination which the priest enjoyed, he showed convincingly that the Holy Book was dictated by Jehovah, the Lord; that therefore He is in it, even to being the wisdom in it; but that the wisdom which is He in it, lies concealed under the sense of the letter and is opened only to those who are in truths of doctrine and at the same time in goods of life and therefore in the Lord, and He in them. To the sermon he added a prayer, and descended.
As the listeners dispersed, the angel asked the priest to speak some farewell words to his ten companions. He came and talked with them for half an hour, discussing the Divine Trinity, and saying that it is in Jesus Christ, in whom the fullness of all Divinity dwells bodily, according to the deliverance of the Apostle Paul.* Afterwards he spoke of the union of charity and faith, but himself said, “the union of charity and truth,” for faith is truth.
* Colossians ii. 9.

CL (Wunsch) n. 25 25. After voicing their thanks the ten left for home, and there the angel said to them, “This is the third day since you ascended into this society of heaven, and you were prepared by the Lord to remain here three days. The time has come, accordingly, for us to part. Put off, therefore, the garments the prince sent you, and put on your own.” When they had done so they were inspired with a desire to leave. They departed and descended, their angel guide accompanying them as far as the assembly-hall. There they gave thanks to the Lord for having deigned to bless them with knowledge and intelligence about heavenly joys and eternal happiness.

* * * * *

CL (Wunsch) n. 26 26.* Once more I solemnly declare that these things were done and spoken as I have related them, the first-mentioned in the world of spirits which is between heaven and hell, and the rest in that heavenly society from which came the angel trumpeter who acted as guide. Who in Christendom would have known anything about heaven and the joys and happiness there, knowledge of which is also knowledge of salvation, had not the Lord been pleased to open the sight of some man’s spirit, and to show and teach him these things? That such things exist in the spiritual world is plain from the things seen and heard by the Apostle John and described in the Apocalypse: as that he saw:

The Son of man in the midst of the seven candlesticks (i. 12, 13);
Tabernacle, temple, ark, and altar in heaven (xv. 5, 8; xi. 19, vi. 9, viii. 3, ix. 13);
A book sealed with seven seals; opened; and horses issuing from it (v. 1, vi. 1, 2, 4, 5, 8);
Four animals around the throne (iv. 6);
Twelve thousand chosen from each tribe (vii. 4-8); Locusts ascending from the abyss (ix. 3, 7);
The dragon and his battle with Michael (xii. 7);
The woman giving birth to a son, and fleeing into the wilderness to escape the dragon (xii. 1, 2, 5, 6);
Two beasts, one ascending from the sea, the other from the land (xiii. 1, 11);
A woman seated: on a scarlet beast (xvii. 3);
The dragon cast into the lake of fire and sulphur (xx. 3, 10);
A white horse and a great supper (xix. 11, 17);
A new heaven and a new earth, and the holy Jerusalem descending, described as to its gates, wall, and foundations (xxi. 1, 2, 12, 14, 17-20);
Also a river of the water of life, and trees of life yielding fruit every month (xxii. 1, 2);

besides much else, all of which John saw, and saw while he was in the spiritual world and in heaven as to the spirit. Then there are the things which the Apostles saw after the Lord’s resurrection; and Peter (Acts xi); also what Paul saw and heard.** Furthermore, what the Prophets saw, like Ezekiel, who saw

Four animals which were cherubim (i, x);
A new temple, and a new earth, and an angel measuring them (xl-xlviii);
He was carried to Jerusalem, and saw abominations there; and to Chaldea, into captivity (viii and xi).

The like befell Zechariah: he saw

A horseman among the myrtle trees (i.8 seqq.);
Four horns, and a man with a measuring reed in his hand iii. 1 seqq.);
A candlestick and two olive trees (iv. 1 seqq.);
A flying scroll, and an ephah (v. 1, 6);
Four chariots coming from between two mountains; and horses (vi. 1 seqq.).

Likewise what befell Daniel; he saw

Four beasts ascending from the sea (vii. 3 seqq.);
Also combats of a ram and a he-goat (viii. 2 seqq.);
The angel Gabriel, and spoke much with him (viii, ix. 20).

Furthermore

Elisha’s servant saw chariots and horses of fire around Elisha; and he saw them when his eyes were opened (2 Kings vi. 17).

It is apparent from these and many other passages in the Word that objects existing in the spiritual world have been seen by many before and after the Lord’s advent. What wonder then that they are seen now, too, when the Church is beginning anew,*** and the New Jerusalem is descending from the Lord out of heaven?
* This paragraph, in the original enclosed in quotation marks, was employed again in substance in True Christian Religion, n. 851.
** 2 Corinthians xii. 4.
*** See n. 532 [2].

CL (Wunsch) n. 27

27. I

MARRIAGES IN HEAVEN

The fact that there are marriages in heaven cannot be credited by those who think that after death man, as a soul or spirit, is like the ether or a breath; or by those who think that the human being lives as such again only after the last judgment-day; or, in general, by those who know nothing about the spiritual world, where angels and spirits are, and so where the heavens and hells are. Nothing could be revealed about marriages in heaven while ignorance prevailed about that world, especially while it was not known that the angels of heaven are human beings in complete form (the spirits of hell are also human beings, but are deformed). The question would have been raised, “How can soul be united with soul or breath with breath, as partner is united with partner on earth?” And much else, which, the moment it was said, would have taken away or routed belief in marriages there. But now that much has been revealed about the spiritual world, and its nature described (which was done in Heaven and Hell and Apocalypse Revealed), the fact that marriage is to be found there can be established to the reason by the following considerations:

i. The human being lives as such after death.
ii. Male is male then, and female female.
iii. The life-love remains with every one after death.
iv. In particular, love for the sex remains, and so does marital love with those who enter heaven, namely, those who on earth become spiritual.
v. Full substantiation of these facts from observation.
vi. Hence there are marriages in the heavens.
vii. The Lord’s words that “after the resurrection they are not given in marriage” refer to spiritual nuptials.

We proceed to exposition of these propositions in the order given.

CL (Wunsch) n. 28 sRef Luke@20 @37 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @38 S0′ 28. (i) The human being lives as such after death. For reasons given above, the world has been ignorant of this fact. Strange to say, even Christendom has not known that the human being lives as such after death, though it has the Word and enlightenment from it about eternal life, and though it has the Lord’s own teaching that

All the dead rise again, and that God is God not of the dead, but of the living (Matthew xxii. 31, 32; Luke xx. 37, 38).

As to affection and thought, moreover, every man is in the midst of angels and spirits, and is so associated with them that he cannot be parted from them without dying. The general ignorance is the more strange in that every person who has died since the first creation, has passed at
death, or as the Word says, has been “gathered,” to his people. There is also a common perception (which is an influx of heaven into the interior of the mind) by virtue of which the human being perceives and sees truths as it were inwardly in himself, and in particular the truth that he lives as a human being after death, happy if he has lived well, and unhappy if he has lived ill. What man does not think so, if his mind is raised at all above the body and above the thought nearest the body’s senses, as it is in inward Divine worship or when he lies dying and awaiting the end? We think so, too, when we hear about the dead and their lot. I have reported thousands of things about the dead, telling people how their brothers, married partners or friends fared; I have written of the lot after death of the English and the Dutch, of Papists, Jews and Gentiles, and also of the lot of Luther, Calvin and Melancthon; but I have never yet heard any one object, “How can their lot be as you say when they have not yet arisen from their graves, inasmuch as the Last Judgment has not yet been effected? Are they not souls, like breaths, and in an undefined somewhere?” I have never heard such objections made, and can conclude that we perceive in ourselves that we live as human beings after death. What man, who has loved his partner, and his babies and children, does not assure himself, when they die, at least if his thought rises above the sensuous things of the body, that his loved ones are in God’s hands, and that, after his own death, he will see them again and rejoin them in a life of love and joy?

CL (Wunsch) n. 29 29. Who cannot in reason see, if he will, that after death man is not a breath, of which we can only conceive as a puff of wind or as air or ether, and yet of which we are to think that it (or in it) is man’s soul, wanting and awaiting reunion with its body, in order to enjoy the senses and their pleasures again as in the world? Who cannot see that if this were man’s state after death, it would be meaner than that of the fishes, birds and beasts of the earth, whose souls do not survive and so are not in such suspense from longing and expectation? Were man such a breath or a waft of air after death, either he would be flying about in the universe or, according to the traditions of some, would be confined until the Last Judgment in some unknown place or with the Fathers in limbo. Who would not be forced to conclude that those who have lived from the original creation, put at six thousand years, are still in this suspense�indeed, in increasing anxiety, since expectation from longing always causes anxiety, which also grows with the lapse of time? Or that they must still be flying about in the universe, or held confined in some unknown place, and so be in extreme misery? So Adam and his wife; so Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and so all the rest from that time onward? Nothing then would be more lamentable than to be born a human being. On the contrary, the Lord, Who is Jehovah from eternity and the Creator of the world, has provided that the state of a man united with Him by a life according to His commandments, is more blessed and happy after death than it was in the world before death. The human lot becomes more blessed and happy after death because man is then a spiritual being, who senses and perceives spiritual enjoyment, which surpasses natural enjoyment, exceeding it a thousandfold.

CL (Wunsch) n. 30 30. That angels and spirits are human beings is plain from those seen by Abraham, Gideon, Daniel and the prophets, especially by John when he wrote the Apocalypse, and also by the women at the Lord’s sepulchre. Indeed, the Lord Himself was seen by the disciples after His resurrection. These had such vision because the eyes of their spirits were opened then. When these eyes are opened, angels appear in the form they have, namely, the human form; but when those eyes are closed, that is, veiled with the vision of the eyes which derive their all from the material world, angels do not appear.

CL (Wunsch) n. 31 31. Let it be known that the human being after death is not a natural but a spiritual being. He seems to himself the same, so much so that he does not know but that he is still in the natural world, for he has a body, face, speech and senses as he had before, having affection and thought or will and understanding as before. Actually he is not the same, being spiritual and thus an interior human being; but the difference does not appear to him, as he cannot compare the state he has entered with his earlier natural state, which he has put off. Often enough, therefore, have I heard spirits say that they do not know but that they are in the former world, with the sole difference that they no longer see those whom they left in that world, but those who have departed from it or died. The reason is that they are not natural beings but spiritual or substantial. The spiritual or substantial man sees a spiritual or substantial man as the natural or material man sees another natural or material man. But spiritual does not see natural, or natural spiritual, because of the difference between what is substantial and what is material. The difference is like that between prior and posterior; the prior, in itself purer, cannot appear to the posterior, in itself grosser, nor the other way about. No angel can appear therefore to a man of this world, nor a man of this world to an angel. After death the human being is the spiritual or substantial man which lay hidden in the natural or material man. The one was like clothing to the other, or like exuviae, on the discarding of which the spiritual or substantial man or purer and more interior and more perfect being, emerges. That a spiritual man is still fully a human being, even if he is not visible to the natural man, is plain from the Lord’s appearing to the Apostles after the resurrection, when He appeared and disappeared, and yet was a Man like Himself, whether seen or unseen. They also said, when they saw Him, that their eyes were opened.

CL (Wunsch) n. 32 sRef Gen@2 @21 S0′ sRef Gen@2 @23 S0′ sRef Gen@2 @22 S0′ 32. (ii) Male is male then, and female female. Inasmuch as the human being lives as such after death, and is male and female, and the masculine and the feminine are different, and so different that one cannot be changed into the other, it follows that after death the male is male, and the female female, each a spiritual being. We say that the masculine cannot be changed into the feminine or the feminine into the masculine, and that therefore male is male after death, and female female. As it is not understood, however, in what masculine and feminine essentially consist, this shall be told briefly. The difference consists essentially in the fact that inmost in the male is love, with wisdom for its envelopment, or, what is the same, the masculine is love cloaked in wisdom; while inmost in the female is that male wisdom, with love of it for its envelopment. The latter love is woman’s love, given a wife by the Lord through her husband’s wisdom, while the former and prior love is masculine and is a love of being wise, given the husband by the Lord in the measure of the reception of wisdom. Accordingly, the male is wisdom from love, and the female a love for that wisdom. There has therefore been implanted in each from creation a love for union into one (but on these subjects more in what follows).* The following words in Genesis make it evident that the feminine is from the masculine, or that woman was taken from man.

Jehovah God . . . took one of the man’s ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; and He built . . . the rib, which he had taken from the man, into a woman; and He brought her to the man; and the man said, This is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman, having been taken from man (ii. 21-23).

We shall tell elsewhere** what “rib” and “flesh” signify.
* N. 156r and elsewhere.
** N. 193.

CL (Wunsch) n. 33 33. It follows from this original formation that the male is by nature intellectual and the female volitional, or what is the same, he is born into an affection for knowing, understanding and being wise, and she into a love for uniting herself with that affection in the man. As interiors fashion exteriors to their likeness, and the masculine is a form of understanding and the feminine a form of the love of understanding, the male is different from the female in appearance, utterance and body, having a rougher appearance, a harsher utterance, and a stronger body, a bearded chin, too, in general a less beautiful form than woman. They also differ in bearing and ways. In a word, nothing is the same in them, though throughout there is what unites them. Indeed, the man is masculine throughout, in every least part of the body, in every idea of thought, in every particle of affection; similarly the woman is feminine. As one cannot be made into the other, it follows that after death male is male, and female female.

CL (Wunsch) n. 34 34. (iii) The life-love remains with, every one after death. The world knows that love exists, but hardly what it is. Everyday speech is full of reference to love�we say that others love us, that a king loves his subjects, and they their king, that a husband loves his wife, a mother her children, and the converse; so, too, that such and such men love their country, their fellow-citizens, their neighbors; we even speak of loving this or that thing. And yet, though the word is so generally on the tongue, hardly any one knows what love is. Meditating on love, and finding ourselves unable to form such an idea of thought about it as to bring it into the light of the understanding, because it is not an entity of light but of heat, we say either that it is nothing, or something arising from sight, hearing and association and thus affecting us. We are ignorant that it is our very life, not only the life in general of the body and the mind, but of the least things in each. A wise man perceives this on raising such questions as these: If you take away the affection of love, can you think anything? Or do anything? Do not thought, speech and action cool in the measure that love’s affection cools, and do they not grow warm as it does? Love is therefore the heat of human life or man’s vital heat. The very warmth and ruddiness of the blood have no other source, the cause being that the heavenly sun, which is pure love, is a fire.

CL (Wunsch) n. 35 35. The infinite variety of human faces attests that every man has his own life-love, or one distinct from and not like another’s. Faces are types of love; we know how faces change and vary according to the love’s affections. From the face shine the moods of love, too, both its joys and its griefs. It is evident then that a human being is a love which is his own, indeed is the form of that love. But this, it should be noted, is true of the inward man, or the spirit, which survives death, and not of the outward man who from infancy has learned to conceal his love’s desires, and indeed to feign and present others than his own.

CL (Wunsch) n. 36 36. The love which is one’s own remains with one after death, because, as we said above (n. 34), love is man’s life, and is the very man. A man is his own thought, too, that is, his own intelligence and wisdom, but in the degree in which these make one with his love. For we think from and according to our love, and when in freedom, also speak and act from it. Hence we may see that love is the esse or essence of human life, and thought the existere or standing-forth of it. Speech and action, then, flowing from thought, do not flow from thought, but from love through thought. I have been given by much experience to know that the human being after death is not his own thought, but the affection which is his and the thought therefrom, or the love which is his and the intelligence therefrom; likewise, that after death he puts off everything not congruous with his love, and indeed, gradually puts on the appearance, voice, speech, bearing and ways of the love which is his. Hence all heaven is arranged according to the varieties of the affections of the love of what is good, and all hell according to the affections of the love of what is evil.

CL (Wunsch) n. 37 37. (iv) In particular, love for the sex remains, and so does marital love with those who enter heaven, namely, those who on earth become spiritual. Love for the sex persists after death, inasmuch as male is male then and female female, and the masculine in the man pervades him, as the feminine does the woman; and throughout either there is what is uniting. As something uniting the two has been implanted from creation and is always present, one desires and hopes for union with the other. Considered in itself, love is nothing else than the desire and the effort after union, and marital love, after conjunction into one life. Male and female have been so created that from two they can become, as it were, one being or one flesh. When they do, they are the human life in its fullness; apart from that union, they are two, and each as it were a human being divided and halved. Inasmuch then as something uniting lies inmostly in the being of male and female, and faculty and desire for conjunction into one are present in them, it follows that mutual and reciprocal love for the sex persists after death.

CL (Wunsch) n. 38 38. We make separate mention of sexual and marital love because they are different. Love for the sex is found with the natural man, marital love with the spiritual. The natural man loves and desires only external unions and the bodily pleasures to be had from them. The spiritual man loves and desires inward union, and the joys of the spirit to be had from them. These he perceives are to be had with one wife with whom he can be united more and more closely forever. The closer the union, the higher he perceives the joys mount, and the more surely constant they remain to eternity. The natural man cherishes no such thought. So we speak of marital love remaining after death with those who enter heaven, who are those who become spiritual on earth.

CL (Wunsch) n. 39 39. (v) Full substantiation of these facts from observation. So far I have been content to establish by rational considerations the fact that the human being lives as such after death, and that male is male then, and female female, and that the life’s love continues with every one, and that in particular love for the sex and marital love persist. But from infancy men have picked up from parents and teachers and from the learned and the clergy, the belief that the human being does not live again after death until the last judgment-day, now awaited for six thousand years, and many have placed human survival among subjects to be grasped by faith and not by the mind. I must therefore establish my propositions by the evidence of observation, too. Otherwise, in the belief impressed upon him, the man who credits only his senses, will say, “If human beings continued to live as such after death, I should hear and see them. Who has descended from heaven, or ascended from hell, and told us so?” As it is impossible for an angel of heaven to descend or a spirit of hell to ascend and speak with man, except with such men as the Lord has made ready by opening the interiors of their minds or spirits (something which can be effected fully only in those prepared by Him to receive the things of spiritual wisdom), the Lord has been pleased to do this with me, to the end that the state of heaven and of hell, and the state of man’s life after death, may not remain unknown or allowed to lie in ignorance, and finally be buried in denial. The witness of my observation to the facts stated above cannot be cited here, however, because of its extent, but is to be found in the work Heaven and Hell, again in Continuation about the Last Judgment, once again in Apocalypse Revealed; and in the present work and on the specific subject of marriages, in the Memorabilia which follow the sections or chapters.

CL (Wunsch) n. 40 40. (vi) Hence there are marriages in the heavens. The fact does not require further demonstration; for we have established it by reason and from experience.

CL (Wunsch) n. 41 sRef Luke@20 @37 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @38 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @36 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @35 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @34 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @31 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @33 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @32 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @28 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @27 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @30 S0′ sRef Luke@20 @29 S0′ 41. (vii) The Lord’s words that “after the resurrection they are not given in marriage” refer to spiritual nuptials. We read in the Gospels:

Certain Sadducees, who deny the resurrection, asked Jesus, saying, Master, Moses wrote . . . If a man’s brother die, having a wife, and himself is childless, the brother shall take the wife, and raise seed to his brother. There were seven brothers, of whom one after another took the wife; but they died childless; . . . finally the woman died too. In the resurrection whose wife of them all will she be? But Jesus said in reply, The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, but those deemed worthy to attain another age and resurrection from the dead, neither marry nor are given in marriage; for they can no longer die, but are like the angels and are sons of God, since they are sons of the resurrection. But that the dead rise again, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; for He is not God of the dead, but of the living; for to Him all are living. Luke xx. 27-38; Matthew xxii. 23-32; Mark xii. 18-27).

[2] By these words the Lord taught two truths, first that the human being rises after death, and second, that they are not given in marriage in heaven. The first He taught in the words that God is not God of the dead but of the living, and that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are living�He taught the like in the parable of Dives in hell and Lazarus in heaven (Luke xvi. 22-31). He taught the other truth�that they are not given in marriage in heaven�in the words that those who are deemed worthy of attaining the other world do not marry nor are given in marriage. The reference is to spiritual nuptials, as what follows makes plain, namely, that they can no more die, being like the angels, and are sons of God, since they are sons of the resurrection. Spiritual nuptials are union with the Lord, and this union is effected on earth; accomplished there, it is accomplished for heaven. Hence men are not “wedded” in heaven, nor “given in marriage” there. The same is meant in the words “the sons of this age marry and are given in marriage, but those who are deemed worthy to attain the other age, neither marry nor are given in marriage.” The Lord also calls them “sons of the marriage” (Matthew ix. 15, Mark ii. 19), and here “angels,” “sons of God” and “sons of the resurrection.” sRef Matt@22 @2 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @3 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @7 S3′ sRef Rev@19 @7 S3′ sRef Rev@19 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @4 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @5 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @13 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @12 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @6 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @14 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @11 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @8 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @13 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @10 S3′ sRef Matt@22 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @8 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @7 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @3 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @2 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @4 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @10 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @1 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @9 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @5 S3′ sRef Matt@25 @6 S3′ [3] That “to marry” is to be united with the Lord, and that to “enter on marriage” is to be received into heaven by the Lord, is plain from these words:

The kingdom of the heavens is like a man, a king, who made a marriage for his son, and sent his servants forth and gave invitations to the marriage (Matthew xxii. 1-14);
“The kingdom of the heavens is like ten maidens, who went forth to meet the bridegroom;” of whom the five who were ready, entered into the marriage (Matthew xxv. 1 seq.)

In these words the Lord alluded to Himself, as is plain from verse 13, which reads,

Watch, for you know not the day and hour when the Son of man will come.

So in the Apocalypse:

The time of the marriage of the Lamb has come, and His wife has made herself ready: blessed are those who are called to the marriage supper of the Lamb (xix. 7, 9).

In Doctrine of the New Jerusalem on the Sacred Scripture, published at Amsterdam in 1763, we have shown that there is a spiritual understanding in each and all things which the Lord said.

CL (Wunsch) n. 42 42. I add two Memorabilia from the spiritual world.

I

Looking up to heaven one morning I saw one expanse after another above me. As I watched, the first expanse, which was near by, opened, and presently the second which was higher, and finally the third which was highest. By enlightenment thence I perceived that on the first expanse were angels such as compose the first or lowest heaven; on the second expanse were angels of the second or middle heaven; and on the third expanse angels of the third or highest heaven. At first I wondered what it all meant, but I soon heard a voice from heaven as of a trumpet, saying:
“We perceived and see now that you are meditating on Marital Love. We know that as yet no one on earth knows what true marital love is in origin and in essence; and yet it is important that it should be known. The Lord has therefore been pleased to open the heavens to you, that illumination and perception from it may flow into the interiors of your mind. With us in the heavens, especially in the third heaven, our heavenly delights are chiefly from marital love. Having been given leave, we shall send down a married pair that you may see.”
Thereupon there appeared, descending from the highest or third heaven, a chariot in which one angel was seen; but as it approached two were visible in it. [2] At a distance the chariot glittered like a diamond before my eyes. Young horses, white as snow, were harnessed to it; and the occupants held two turtledoves in their hands. They called to me, saying:
“You wish us to come nearer. Be careful that the flame-like effulgence from our heaven whence we have descended, does not penetrate interiorly. The influx of it will indeed illuminate the higher ideas of your understanding, which are in themselves heavenly; but in your own world they are ineffable. Therefore receive rationally what you are about to hear, and explain it so to the understanding.”
I answered, “I shall take care; come nearer.”
They came, and lo! they were a husband and his wife.
“We are married partners,” they said. “We have lived blessed in heaven since the first age, called by you the Golden Age; and always in the same flower of youth in which you behold us today.”
[3] I observed them attentively, perceiving that they represented marital love, both in its life and in its adornment; in its life in their faces, and in its adornment in their apparel. For all angels are affections of love in human form; the ruling affection itself shines forth from their faces. And by the affection and according to it are garments appointed. They say in heaven therefore that a person’s affection clothes him. The husband looked to be of an age between youth and early manhood. From his eyes beamed a light sparkling with the wisdom of love. His face seemed inmostly radiant from this light, and in the irradiation from it the very skin seemed refulgent. His whole face was one shining comeliness. He was dressed in a robe which reached to the ankles, and wore under this a blue garment, girded with a golden girdle with three precious stones on it, two sapphires at the sides and in the middle a carbuncle. His stockings were of shining linen interwoven with threads of silver; and his shoes were wholly of silk. This was the representative form of marital love with the husband.
[4] But with the wife it was this: I saw her face and did not see it. I saw it as beauty itself, and did not see it because this was inexpressible. For in her face was the flame-like light which is found with the angels of the third heaven, and it dazzled my sight. I was simply dumbfounded. Observing this she spoke to me, saying,
“What do you see?”
I answered, “I see only marital love and the form of it. But I see and do not see.”
At this she turned herself obliquely from her husband, whereupon I was able to regard her more intently. Her eyes sparkled with the light of her heaven, which, as was said, is flame-like and derived from the love of wisdom. For in that heaven wives love their husbands for and in their wisdom; and husbands love their wives from and in that love toward themselves�and so they are united. Hence her beauty was a beauty no painter could emulate and portray in its form; for there is no such coruscation in his color, nor is any such symmetry expressible by his art. Her hair was gracefully arranged to suit her beauty, with diadems of flowers in it. She wore a necklace of carbuncles, and pendent from it a rosary of chrysolites; and she had bracelets of large pearls. She was dressed in a flowing red robe, and under this had a bodice of purple clasped in front with rubies. But, what astonished me, the colors varied according to her address to her husband, and according to it they were also now more, now less brilliant, more when the two turned toward each other, and less when they were partly turned away from each other.
[5] When I had observed these things they talked with me again, and when the husband was speaking he spoke as if at the same time from his wife; and when the wife was speaking she spoke as if at the same time from her husband; for such was the union of minds whence the speech came. I also heard the very utterance of marital love, inwardly coincident with, and also proceeding from, the delights of a state of peace and innocence.
At length they said, “We are recalled. We must go.”
Once again they seemed to be conveyed in a chariot, and were borne along a paved way between flower-gardens around which stood olive trees and well-laden orange trees. As they approached their heaven young women came out to meet them, and received and conducted them in.

CL (Wunsch) n. 43 43. After this an angel of that heaven appeared to me holding in his hand a parchment which he unrolled, saying:
“I saw that you were meditating upon marital love. In this parchment are arcana of wisdom on the subject not hitherto made known in the world. They are now disclosed, because it is important that they should be. More of these arcana are to be found in our heaven than in others, because we are in the marriage of love and wisdom. But I predict that only those will possess themselves of this love who are received by the Lord into the new Church, which is the New Jerusalem.”
So saying the angel let down the unrolled parchment. An angelic spirit* intercepted it and laid it on a table in a certain room which he immediately locked. Handing me the key, he said, “Write.”
* Angelic spirits are good spirits in the world of spirits, not yet prepared for heaven. True Christian Religion, n. 387.

CL (Wunsch) n. 44

44. II

I once saw three spirits newly arrived from the world, who were roaming about, observing and inquiring. They were astounded that they were living as men, just as before, and that they saw things similar to those they had seen before. For they were aware that they had left the former or natural world; there they had believed that they would not live as men until after the last judgment-day, when they would be reclothed with the flesh and bones which had been laid away in the grave. From time to time they examined and felt of themselves and of others, and touched things, in order to rid themselves of all doubt that they really were men. By a thousand evidences they convinced themselves of the fact that they were now men as in the former world, except that they beheld one another in brighter light and saw objects in greater splendor and more perfectly.
[2] Two angelic spirits happened on them at that time, and stopping them, asked, “Whence are you?”
They replied, “We left a world, and again are living in a world. We seem to have migrated from one world to another. We are astonished.”
And then they asked the two angelic spirits about heaven. Two of the newcomers were young men, and a gleam of lust for the sex shone from their eyes. The angelic spirits remarked: “Perhaps you have seen some women?”
They replied that they had.
As they were asking about heaven, the angelic spirits said:
“In heaven all things are magnificent and splendid beyond anything the eye has ever seen. And there are young men and maidens in heaven�maidens of such beauty that they may be called beauty in its own form; and young men of such morality that they may be called morality in its own form. The beauty of the maidens and the morality of the young men answer to each other, as mutually adapted forms.”
The two newcomers asked whether human forms in heaven are altogether like those in the natural world, and were told:
“They are altogether like them; nothing is subtracted from either the man or the woman. In a word, a man is a man and a woman is a woman in all the perfection of form in which they were created. If you like, withdraw and examine yourselves, and see whether anything whatever is wanting, and whether you are not men as before.”
Again the newcomers said,
[3] “We heard in the world which we left by death that in heaven ‘they are not given in marriage, because they are angels.’ Does sexual love not exist there then?”
The angelic spirits replied, “Not your love of the sex, but an angelic love of the sex which is chaste, devoid of all the allurement of lust.”
“Just what is sexual love without allurement?” the newcomers wanted to know.
As they thought about this love, they sighed and exclaimed, “Oh, how insipid is the joy of heaven! What young man can desire heaven then? Is such love not empty and lifeless?”
The angelic spirits laughed and replied: “Angelic love of the sex, or love of the sex such as it is in heaven, is full of inmost delights. It is a most pleasing expansion of all things of the mind and thence of all things of the breast, in the breast resembling the interplay of heart and lungs whence are breath, voice and speech. These delights render the companionship of the sexes or of young men and maidens, heavenly sweetness itself, which is pure. [4] All newcomers ascending into heaven are examined as to their chastity. They are admitted to the companionship of maidens�beauties of heaven�who perceive from the tone of voice and from the speech, face, eyes, bearing, and outflowing sphere, what their quality is in respect to love for the sex; and if it is unchaste they flee away, and tell their companions that they have seen satyrs or priapi. Such newcomers are also actually changed and appear hairy to the angels, and seem to have feet like calves or leopards. They are soon cast down, lest they defile the aura of heaven with their lust.”
[5] Hearing this the two newcomers said again, “So there is no love of the sex in heaven. What is a chaste sexual love but a love emptied of the essence of its life? Are not then the companionships of your young men and maidens insipid joys? We are not stones and stocks, but perceptions and affections of life.”
[6] Hearing this, the two angelic spirits replied indignantly:
“You are altogether ignorant what chaste love for the sex is, because you are not yet chaste. That love is the very delight of the mind and thence of the heart, but not at the same time of the flesh below the heart. Angelic chastity, which is common to both sexes, prevents the passing of that love beyond the enclosure of the heart; but within and above this, the morality of the youth delights in the beauty of the maiden, with the delights of a chaste love for the sex which are too interior and too rich in pleasantness to be described by words. But angels have this love of the sex because they have only marital love, along with which unchaste love of the sex cannot exist. True marital love is chaste and has nothing in common with unchaste love. It is love for only one of the sex to the removal of all others; for it is a love of the spirit and thence of the body, and not of the body and thence of the spirit or infesting the spirit.”
The two young novitiates were glad to hear this, and said,
“Then there is such a thing as love for the sex in heaven after all. What else is married love?”
But to this the angelic spirits replied: “Think more deeply and reflect. You will perceive that your love for the sex is an extra-marital love and that marital love is altogether different�as different from it as wheat from chaff or rather as the human from the bestial. Ask women in heaven what extra-marital love is, and I assure you they will answer, ‘What did you say? How can a question fall from your lips which so offends the ears? How can a love that was not created be engendered in a man?’ Then ask them what true marital love is, and I know they will answer: ‘It is not love for the sex, but love for one of the sex,’ which springs up when a young man sees the maiden and the maiden the young man whom the Lord has provided, and they mutually feel the marital enkindled in their hearts, and perceive, he that she is his, and she that he is hers. For love meets love, makes itself known, conjoins the souls at once, and afterwards the minds, and thence enters the breast, and after the nuptials farther; so it becomes a full love, which grows daily to conjunction, until they are no more two, but like one. [7] I know also that they will solemnly aver that they know no other love of the sex. For they say, ‘How can there be love for the sex unless it is so meet and mutual that it breathes after eternal union, which is that the two may become one flesh?”
To this the angelic spirits added: “In heaven there is no knowledge at all what whoredom is, or that it exists, or can be. Angels turn cold in the whole body at unchaste or extra-marital love; and, on the other hand, they grow warm in the whole body at chaste or marital love. As for men in heaven, all their nerves are unstrung at the sight of a harlot and grow tense at the sight of a wife.”
[8] Having heard these things the three newcomers asked, “Is there love between married partners in heaven like that on earth?”
The two angelic spirits answered: “It is quite similar.”
Perceiving that they wished to know whether there are similar ultimate delights there, they said: “They are altogether similar, but far more blessed, because angelic perception and sensation is far more exquisite than human perception and sensation. What life has that love except from a vein of potency? If this fails, does not the love diminish and grow cold? And is not that vigor the very measure, degree and basis of that love? Is it not the beginning, foundation and completion of it? It is a universal law that first things exist, subsist and persist by last things. So also with this love. If there were no ultimate delights, there would not be any delights of marital love.”
[9] Then the newcomers asked, “Are offspring born there from the ultimate delights of this love? If not, what use do those delights serve?”
The angelic spirits replied, “Spiritual offspring are, but not natural.”
And they asked, “What are spiritual offspring?” They answered:
“By the ultimate delights married partners are more closely united in the marriage of good and truth, which is the marriage of love and wisdom; and love and wisdom are the offspring which are born of that marriage. Consider that there the husband is wisdom, and the wife is a love of wisdom, and that both of these are spiritual; then no other than spiritual offspring can be conceived and born there. Hence it is, too, that angels do not become sad after the delights, as some do on earth, but cheerful. This results from the perpetual influx of fresh powers succeeding the former, renewing and enlightening the angels. For all who come into heaven return into the springtime of their youth and into the vigor of those years, and remain so to eternity.”
[10] Hearing these things the three newcomers said, “Do we not read in the Word that there are no nuptials in heaven because they are angels?”
To this the angelic spirits replied, “Look up into heaven and you will be answered.”
And they asked, “Why look up into heaven?”
They said, “Because all our interpretations of the Word are from heaven. Inwardly the Word is spiritual, and the angels, being spiritual, are bound to teach a spiritual understanding of it.”
After some delay heaven was opened above their heads, and two angels came into sight, and said:
“There are nuptials in heaven as on earth; but only with those who are in the marriage of good and truth; no others are angels. Therefore it is spiritual nuptials, or marriages of good and truth, which are meant in Scripture. These nuptials take place on earth and not after death, thus not in the heavens. So we are told that the five foolish virgins who also were invited to the nuptials, could not enter, because there was no marriage of good and truth in them; for they had no oil, but only lamps. By oil, good is meant, and by lamps, truth, and to be given in marriage is to enter into heaven where that marriage is.”
The three newcomers rejoiced to hear these things. Filled with a desire for heaven and with the hope of nuptials there, they declared: “We will strive eagerly after morality and a right life, that we may realize our desires.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 45

45. II

THE STATE OF PARTNERS AFTER DEATH

In our first chapter we showed that there are marriages in the heavens; here our question is, whether or not the particular marital tie formed in the world will remain and endure after death. As this is not a matter for judgment but for observation, and I have been enabled to make the observation through association with angels and spirits, I must relate what the facts are; but still in a fashion to engage the reason in assent. Partners long and desire to know how this is. Husbands who have loved their deceased wives, and wives who have loved their husbands, want to know whether it is well with them, and whether they will meet again. Many partners also wish to know whether they will be parted after death or live together; those who are inharmonious of mind, whether they will not be separated; those harmonious of mind, whether they will not live together. Because it is sought, the information is offered, and will be presented in this order:

i. Love for the sex continues after death with every person such as it was inwardly, that is, such as it was in the interior will and thought in the world.
ii. In the same way, marital love persists.
iii. Two partners usually meet after death, recognize each other, associate again, and for a time live together. This takes place in the first state, thus while they are in externals as in the world.
iv. But gradually, as they put off externals and enter into their internal selves, then perceive of what sort their love and inclination for each other had been, and thus whether they can live together or not.
v. If they can live together, they remain partners; but if they cannot, they part, sometimes the man from the wife, sometimes the wife from the man, and sometimes the two mutually.
vi. The man is then given a suitable wife, and the woman a suitable husband.
vii. Partners enjoy an intercourse like that in the world, but pleasanter and more blessed; but without prolification, for which, or in its place, there is spiritual prolification, which is one of love and wisdom.
viii. This is what befalls those who come into heaven; but it is otherwise with those who go into hell.

Explanation follows, elucidating and demonstrating these propositions.

CL (Wunsch) n. 46 46. (i) Love for the sex continues after death with every person such as it was inwardly, that is, such as it was in the interior will and thought in the world. All one’s love
follows one after death, for love is the esse of man’s life. The ruling love, which is the head of the rest, and subordinate loves along with it, persist with man to eternity. Loves persist because strictly they are of man’s spirit, and of the body from the spirit, and after death the human being becomes a spirit, and thus takes his love with him. As love is the esse of man’s life, it is plain that such as a man’s life was in the world, such is his lot after death. As for sexual love, it is the universal love, having been put by creation in man’s very soul, which is his whole essence, and this for the sake of the propagation of the race. This love in particular remains, because a man after death is a man and a woman a woman, and there is nothing in soul, mind or body, which is not masculine in the male and feminine in the female. The two have been so created, moreover, that they seek after conjunction, yes, to be one; this striving is the love of the sex, which precedes marital love. A conjunctive inclination which has been inscribed on each and all things of man and woman certainly cannot be blotted out and perish with the body.

CL (Wunsch) n. 47 47. Love for the sex continues such as it was inwardly in the world, because in every person there are an internal and an external, which are also called internal and external man, and thence there are internal and external will and thought. When a man dies, he leaves the external and retains his internal. For, strictly, the externals are of the body, and the internals are of the spirit. Because man is his own love, and love resides in his spirit, it follows that sexual love remains with him after death such as it had been inwardly with him. If, for instance, it had been marital and chaste, after death it remains marital and chaste; but if inwardly it had been scortatory, such also it remains after death. It is also to be understood that sexual love is not the same with all; there are endless differences; still, such as, it was in one’s spirit, such it remains.

CL (Wunsch) n. 48 48. (ii) Marital love likewise continues such as it was inwardly, that is, such as it was in the man’s interior will and thought in the world. Because they are different things, we make separate mention of love for the sex and marital love, and are explicit that the latter, too, remains after death such as it had been with man in his inward man while he lived in the world. Few know the distinction between the two loves, however, and I will therefore say something about it at the threshold of this discussion. Love for the sex is love for and with many of the sex, while marital love is solely for and with one of the sex. Love for and with many is natural love, for man has it in common with beasts and birds, and these are natural, while marital love is spiritual, and special and peculiar to man, for man was created and is born to become spiritual. Accordingly, in the measure a man becomes spiritual, in that measure he puts off love for the sex and puts on marital love. At the outset of marriage, love for the sex seems to unite with marital love; but as a marriage progresses, they are separated, and then with those who become spiritual, sexual love is exterminated and marital love introduced; but with those who become natural, the reverse takes place. It is plain from what has been said that love for the sex, being with many, and in itself natural, in fact animal, is impure and unchaste, and because it is wandering and unrestrained, is scortatory; while it is quite otherwise with marital love. In what follows, it will be plainly demonstrated that marital love is spiritual and properly human.

47r. (iii) Two partners usually meet after death, recognize each other, associate again and live together for a time. This takes place in the first state, thus while they are in externals as in the world. The human being experiences two states after death, an external and an internal. He comes first into his external self, and then into the internal. While he is in the external, partner meets partner (if each is dead), and recognizes the other, and if they have lived together in the world, they associate and for some time live together. While this state lasts, one does not know the other’s inclination to himself, for this is hidden in the internal self. But later, when they come into their internal state, the inclination becomes manifest, and if it is accordant and sympathetic, they continue their married life, but if discordant and antipathetic, they dissolve it. A man who has had a number of wives unites himself with them in turn while in the external state; but when he enters the internal state, in which he perceives the inclinations of love, and of what sort these are, he either takes one or leaves all; for in the spiritual world, equally as in the natural, no Christian is permitted to marry several wives, for this infests and profanes religion. The like takes place with the woman who has had several husbands. Women, however, do not betake themselves to the husbands; they only become present, and the husbands join themselves to them. It should be known that husbands rarely recognize their wives, but that wives readily recognize their husbands; the reason is that women have an interior perception of love, and men only an exterior.

48r. (iv) But gradually, as partners put off externals and enter into their internal selves, they perceive of what sort their love and inclination for each other had been, and thus whether they can live together or not. This does not need to be explained further, for it follows from what has been said in the preceding paragraph. Here we shall only explain how a person after death puts off externals and puts on internals.
After death every one is first introduced into the world called the world of spirits, which is intermediate between heaven and hell, and is prepared there, a good man for heaven, and a bad man for hell. [2] The preparation has for its object that internal and external shall agree and make one, and not disagree and make two. In the natural world they make two; only with the sincere in heart do they make one. How they make two is plain from the deceitful and adroit, and especially from hypocrites, flatterers, fawners and liars. In the spiritual world, however, it is not permissible to have a mind thus divided. A person who has been evil inwardly will be so outwardly; similarly a man is good both inwardly and outwardly. [3] For after death the whole man becomes such as he had been inwardly, and not such as he was outwardly. To this end he is let by turns into external and internal. Every person, moreover, while he is in his external state, is wise, that is, wishes to appear wise, even the evil man, who in his internal nature is insane. In these alternations of state a man can see his insanities and repent of them. But if he had not repented in the world, he cannot afterwards, for he loves his insanities and wishes to remain in them. Therefore he drives his external to be insane likewise. So his internal and external become one, and when this has been effected, he is ready for hell. [4] It is the other way about with the good man. Because he looked to God in the world and repented, he was wiser in his inward nature than in his outward; for in the outward he was foolish at times, influenced by the attractions and vanities of the world. For this reason his external, too, is reduced to accord with his internal, which, as we said, is wise. This done, he is ready for heaven. We have said so much to illustrate how one “puts off the external” and “puts on the internal” after death.

CL (Wunsch) n. 49 49. (v) If man and wife can live together, they remain partners; but if they cannot, they part, sometimes the man from the wife, sometimes the wife from the man, and sometimes the two mutually. Separations occur after death because the unions which take place on earth rarely come of an internal perception of love, but of an external one, which conceals the internal. External perception of love has its cause and origin in such things as are of the love of the world and the body. Riches and possessions are especially of the love of the world, and dignities and honors of the love of the body. Besides these there are also various alluring attractions, like beauty and feigned seemliness of manners; sometimes even unchastity attracts; furthermore, alliances are contracted within the district, city or village of one’s birth or residence, where only a narrow and limited choice is open in homes one knows, and then with those of a corresponding station. As a result, marriages contracted in the world are for the most part external and not at the same time internal, when nevertheless it is the internal union, which is of the souls, which really constitutes marriage. This deeper conjunction is not perceptible until a man puts off the external and puts on the internal, which is done after death. Hence separations take place then, and new unions are formed with those of a like and homogeneous nature unless, indeed, such unions were provided upon earth, as they are for those who from their youth have loved, desired and petitioned of the Lord a lawful and lovely partnership with one woman, and who spurn and are repelled by wandering lusts.

CL (Wunsch) n. 50 50. (vi) The man is then given a suitable wife, and the woman a suitable husband. For no other partners can be received permanently into heaven except those inwardly united or capable of being united as it were into one. Two partners there are not even called two, but one angel. This is meant by the Lord’s words that they are no longer two but one flesh.* No other partners are received into heaven because no others can live together there, that is, be together in one home, chamber and bed. For all in the heavens are associated and have their dwellings according to affinities and nearnesses of love. For spaces do not exist in the spiritual world, but appearances of spaces, which answer to the states of life, and these to the states of love. Therefore no one can remain anywhere but in his own home, which is provided him and marked out by his love’s nature. Elsewhere he labors in chest and breathing. Two cannot dwell together, either, in the same home, unless they are likenesses; and partners emphatically cannot unless they are mutual inclinations. If they are external inclinations but not at the same time internal, the house or the place itself separates, rejects and expels them. Those, therefore, who after preparation are introduced into heaven, are provided a marriage with a partner whose soul inclines to union with the other’s, so much so that they wish not to be two lives but one. Hence after a separation there is given the man a suitable wife, and the wife a suitable husband.
* Matthew xix. 6, Mark x. 8.

CL (Wunsch) n. 51 51. (vii) Partners enjoy an intercourse like that in the world, but pleasanter and more blessed; but without prolification, in place of which there is spiritual prolification, which is one of love and wisdom. Partners enjoy an intercourse like that in the world for the reason that male is male after death, and female female, and an inclination to union is implanted in each from creation. This inclination in the human being is of the spirit and thence of the body, wherefore after death, when man becomes a spirit, the same mutual inclination persists. This is not possible without like intercourse. For the human being is a human being as before, nor is anything lacking in either male or female; they are like themselves in form as well as in affections and thoughts. What else can follow except that there is similar intercourse? And because marital love is chaste, pure and holy, that the intercourse is full? Of this see more in some Memorabilia (n. 44). The intercourse becomes pleasanter and more blessed because that love, on becoming of the spirit, becomes interior and purer, and so more perceptible. All pleasure increases according to perception, and grows until the blessedness is felt in the pleasure.

CL (Wunsch) n. 52 52. The reason why marriages in heaven are without prolification, but instead there is spiritual prolification, is that the third entity, which is natural, is lacking with those in the spiritual world, and the natural is the container of things spiritual, and without this container spiritual things do not assume fixed form, as do those which are procreated in the natural world. Spiritual things regarded in themselves relate to love and wisdom; therefore it is these that are born of marriages in heaven. They are said to be born because marital love perfects an angel, uniting him with his partner, so that he becomes more and more a human being. As we said above, two partners in heaven are not two but one angel; by the marital union they fill themselves with the human, which is to desire to be wise and to love what is of wisdom.

CL (Wunsch) n. 53 53. (viii) This is what befalls those who come into heaven, but it is otherwise with those who go into hell. What we have been saying�that after death a man is given a suitable wife, and the wife a suitable husband, and that partners enjoy pleasant and blessed intercourse, but without any prolification other than a spiritual one�all this is to be understood of those who are received into heaven and become angels. For these are spiritual, and marriages themselves are spiritual and therefore holy. But all who go into hell are natural, and marriages merely natural are not marriages, but connections springing from unchaste desire. We shall speak of the character of the latter conjunctions in what follows, where we consider what is chaste and unchaste, and again when we discuss scortatory love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 54 54. To what has been said so far about the state of partners after death, let these items be added: 1. All partners who are merely natural separate after death, for the reason that the love of marriage is cold with them and the love of adultery warm. After separation they do sometimes associate themselves with others as married partners, but in a short time they leave each other. This may happen repeatedly, but finally the man is released to a whore, and the woman to an adulterer, which takes place in an infernal prison, where promiscuous whoredom is forbidden to each under penalty (see Apocalypse Revealed, n. 153 [10]). [2] 2. Partners, of whom one is spiritual and the other natural, also separate after death, and there is given the spiritual a suitable partner, but the natural partner is relegated to his like in places of lasciviousness. [3] 3. Those, however, who lived single in the world and who altogether alienated the mind from marriage, if they are spiritual, remain single; if natural, they become whoremongers. But otherwise those who in their bachelorhood wished marriage, and still more those who sought it unsuccessfully. Blessed marriages are provided them, if they are spiritual, but not before they are in heaven. [4] 4. Those who were immured in monasteries in the world, young women as well as men, after a stated period of monastic life after death, are discharged and released, and gain the liberty they have craved for their desires, whether they wish to live married or not: if married, they become so; if not, they are carried to the celibate at the side of heaven; but those who burned with unlawful lust, are cast down. [5] 5. The celibate are at the side of heaven because the sphere of perpetual celibacy infests the sphere of marital love, which is heaven’s own sphere. The sphere of marital love is heaven’s own sphere because marital love descends from the heavenly marriage of the Lord and the Church.

CL (Wunsch) n. 55 55. I add two Memorabilia.

I

Once the sweetest of melodies was heard from heaven. Wives together with maidens were singing a song the sweetness of which was like the affection of some love flowing forth harmoniously. Song in heaven is nothing else than affection sounding, or affection expressed and formulated in sound; just as thought is expressed by speech, so affection is by song. From the symmetry and flow of the utterance the angels perceive the subject of the affection.
There were a number of spirits about me at the time. Some of them said that they heard the very sweet melody, and that it was the song of some lovely affection the subject of which they did not know. They made various conjectures, but in vain; some that the song was an expression of the affection of bridegroom and bride at betrothal; others that it expressed the affection of bridegroom and bride at the nuptials; and still others that it expressed the early love of husband and wife.
[2] But an angel appeared in the midst of them from heaven, and said that they were singing chaste love of the sex. But those standing around asked,
“What is chaste love for the sex?”
The angel said, “It is the love a man has for a maiden or wife of beautiful form and becoming manner, free from all idea of lasciviousness, or the similar love of a maiden or wife toward a man.” So saying, the angel vanished.
The singing continued, and now that they knew what affection it expressed they heard it with much variety, each according to the state of his love. Those who regarded women chastely, found the song melodious and sweet; but those who regarded women unchastely, found it unmelodious and sad; while those who regarded women disdainfully, found it discordant and harsh. [3] Suddenly the plain on which they were standing was turned into a forum, and a voice was heard, saying, “Look into this love.”
Immediately spirits were present from different societies, and among them some angels in white. The latter spoke and said:
“We have inquired in this spiritual world into all kinds of love, not only into the love of man for man and of woman for woman, and into the mutual love of husband and wife, but also into the love a man feels toward women and a woman toward men. We have been enabled to traverse and explore whole societies, and we have yet to find sexual love chaste except with those who are in constant potency from true marital love, and these are in the highest heavens. We were also enabled to perceive the influx of this love into the affections of our hearts; it seemed to us to exceed every other love in sweetness, except the love of two married partners whose hearts are one. But we pray you to consider this love, for it is new and unknown to you; while by us in heaven it is called heavenly sweetness, because it is pleasantness itself.”
[4] In their consideration, those spoke first who could not predicate chastity of marriages. These said: “Who, on seeing a beautiful and lovely girl or wife can chasten and purify the ideas of his thought from all lust so as to love her beauty and yet not desire at all, if allowed, to taste it? Who can turn the lust which is innate in every man into such chastity, that is, into what is not itself, and yet love? Can love for the sex, as it enters from the eye into the thought, stop at a woman’s face? Does it not descend in a moment into the breast and beyond? The angels have idly said that this love can be chaste and yet be of all loves the sweetest; and that it is found only with husbands who are in true marital love and thence in extraordinary potency with their wives. Can they, any more than others, when they see beautiful women, keep the ideas of their thoughts on high and as it were suspended, so that they do not descend and go on to what constitutes the love?”
[5] Then those spoke who were both in cold and in heat, in cold towards their wives and in heat towards the sex; and they said:
“What is chaste love for the sex? Does not sexual love become a contradiction when chastity is added? And what is the contradiction in the addition except that a subject from which its predicate is taken away is then nothing? How can a chaste love for the sex be the sweetest of all loves when chastity robs it of its sweetness? You all know in what the sweetness of that love resides. When, then, all idea connected with this is banished, where and whence is its sweetness?”
Some interposed here, saying, “We have been with the most beautiful and have felt no desire; we therefore know what chaste love for the sex is.”
But their companions, acquainted with their lewdness, replied, “You were then in a state of distaste for the sex
for lack of potency; and this is not chaste love for the sex, but the last state of unchaste love.”
[6] Indignant at what they had heard, the angels asked those to speak who were standing at the right or to the south. These said:
“There is a love of man and man, and of woman and woman; and there is a love of man for woman and of woman for man; and these three pairs of loves are entirely different from one another. The love of man and man is like the love of understanding and understanding; for man was created and hence is born to become understanding. The love of woman and woman is like the love of affection and affection for the understanding of men; for the woman was created and is born to become the love of man’s understanding. These loves, namely, of man for man and of woman for woman, do not enter the breast deeply, but stand outside and merely touch; thus do not conjoin the two inwardly. So two men contend against each other by arguments like two athletes; and sometimes two women by passions like two pantomimists fighting. [7] But the love of a man and a woman is love between understanding and its affection, and this enters deeply and conjoins; and the conjunction is the love. But conjunction of minds and not at the same time of bodies, or the effort toward just this conjunction is spiritual and therefore chaste love. Only they know this love who are in true marital love and thence in eminent potency, because in their chastity they do not admit the influx of love from the body of any other woman than their own wife; and in eminent potency they cannot but love the sex and at the same time hold in aversion what is unchaste. Thence they have a chaste love for the sex which regarded in itself is interior spiritual friendship, which derives its sweetness from eminent but chaste potency. They have this eminent potency from their total renunciation of whoredom; and it is chaste because the wife only is loved. Their love then, not partaking of the flesh but only of the spirit, is chaste; and it is sweet, because woman’s beauty does naturally enter the mind at the same time.”
[8] On hearing these things many of the bystanders clapped their hands to their ears, saying, “These words offend our ears! What you have said, to us is trash.” They were unchaste.
Again the singing was heard from heaven, sweeter now than before. But to the unchaste it grated so discordantly that because of the harshness of the discord they rushed from the forum and fled, only a few remaining who in wisdom loved marital chastity.

CL (Wunsch) n. 56 56. II

Talking with angels on a time in the spiritual world, I was inspired with a pleasant desire to see the Temple of Wisdom which I had seen once before. asked them the way to it. They replied,
“Follow the light and you will come to it.”
I said, “How do you mean, ‘Follow the light’?”
“Our light grows brighter and brighter,” said they, “as we approach the temple. Follow the light, therefore, as it increases in brightness. Our light proceeds from the Lord as a Sun and therefore considered in itself is wisdom.”
In company with two of the angels I walked on, following the increasing brightness of the light, and ascended by a steep path to the very top of a hill which lay in the southern quarter, where I came to a magnificent gate.
Seeing the angels with me, the guard opened the gate, and an avenue of palms and laurels appeared, along which we proceeded. The avenue wound about and ended at a garden in the midst of which was the Temple of Wisdom.
I looked around me and saw some small buildings, replicas of the temple, wherein were wise men. We approached one of the buildings, and at the entrance spoke to the host there, and told the reason of our coming, and how we came. He replied,
“Welcome! Come in; be seated. Let us join in discourses of wisdom.”
[2] I saw that the house was divided in two inside and yet was one. It was bisected by a transparent partition; it seemed like a single room because the transparence was like that of the purest crystal. I asked why the room was so arranged.
“I am not alone,” he said, “my wife is with me. We are two and yet not two, but one flesh.”
I said: “I know that you are a wise man; what has a wise man or wisdom to do with a woman?” At this our host in some indignation changed expression. He stretched out his hand, and immediately other wise men were present from neighboring houses, to whom he said jocosely,
“Our newcomer here wants to know, ‘What has a wise man or wisdom to do with a woman?'”
They all laughed at this, and said, “What is a wise man or wisdom apart from a woman or without love? A wife is the love of a wise man’s wisdom.”
[3] But the host said, “Now let us engage in some conversation of wisdom. Let us converse about causes; and first, about the cause of the beauty of the female sex.” Then they spoke in turn. The first gave this cause: women were created by the Lord affections of the wisdom of men, and the affection of wisdom is beauty itself. The second assigned this cause: woman was created by the Lord through the wisdom of man because from man; she is therefore a form of wisdom inspired with the affection of love; as the affection of love is life itself, woman is the life of wisdom, while the male is wisdom; and the life of wisdom is beauty itself. The third mentioned this cause: woman is given a perception of the delights of marital love, and her whole body is an organ of that perception; the habitation both of the delights of marital love and of the perception of them is beauty. [4] The fourth named this cause: the Lord has taken life’s beauty and grace from man and transcribed them on woman; hence without reunion with this beauty and grace in woman, man is stern, austere, uninspired and unlovely; nor is he wise unless for himself alone, and such a one is foolish; but when man is united with this beauty and grace of life in a wife, he becomes agreeable, pleasant, animated and lovely, and thus wise. The fifth mentioned this cause: women are created beauties not for their own sake but for men; in order that men, of themselves hard, may be softened; their dispositions, of themselves severe, may become gentle; and their hearts, of themselves cold, may become warm; such they do become when they become one flesh with their wives. [5] The sixth gave this cause: the universe was created by the Lord a most perfect work; but nothing in it was created more perfect than woman, beautiful of face and charming in her ways, to the end that man may render thanks to the Lord for this bountiful gift and repay it by the reception of wisdom from Him.
After these and many such things had been said, the wife appeared through the crystal partition and said to her husband, “Speak, if you please.” As he spoke, the life of wisdom from the wife was perceived in his speech; for the love of it was in the tone of his voice. Thus did experience bear witness to that truth.
Afterwards we viewed the Temple of Wisdom and the surrounding paradise, too, and filled thereby with joy we took our leave, followed the avenue to the gate, and descended by the way we had come.

CL (Wunsch) n. 57

57. III

TRUE MARITAL LOVE

Marital love has infinite variety; it is not the same with any two persons. It seems the same, indeed, with a number, but it so appears only to the bodily judgment, a coarse and dull judgment, from which one discerns little about such matters. (By bodily judgment is meant judgment of the mind by the external senses.) But differences appear to those who see from the spirit’s judgment, and the more distinctly as they raise the vision of this judgment higher, by withdrawing the outlook from the senses and elevating it into higher light. These can at length confirm themselves in the comprehension and insight that marital love is not the same in any two persons. Still, no one can see its infinite varieties in any light of the understanding, however elevated, unless first he knows what the nature of this love is in its essence and integrity, thus what it was like when, together with life, it was imparted to man by God. Unless this, its first and most perfect state, is known, in vain are its differences to be discovered by any scrutiny. For there is then no fixed point from which, as a beginning, the differences can be determined, and to which, as to a criterion, they can be referred so as to appear truly and not misleadingly. We therefore proceed now to describe this love in its genuine essence; and because it had this essence when together with life it was infused in man by God, to describe it as it was in its first state. In that state it was true marital love, and the present chapter is therefore entitled, “True Marital Love.” We proceed with the description in this order:
i. There is a true marital love which is so rare today that its character is not known, and hardly that it exists.
ii. The origin of this love is in the marriage of good and truth.
iii. There is a correspondence between this love and the marriage of the Lord and the Church.
iv. In view of its origin and correspondence, this love is celestial, spiritual, holy, pure and clean above every love which the angels of heaven or men of the Church have from the Lord.
v. It is also the fundamental love among all celestial and spiritual loves and among natural loves thence.
vi. Into this love are gathered all joys and delights from first to last.
vii. Only those come into this love, however, or can be in it, who approach the Lord, and love the truths and do the goods of the Church.
viii. This love was the love of loves with the ancients who lived in the golden, silver and copper ages, but afterwards it gradually declined.

Explanation of these propositions follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 58 58. (i) There is a true marital love which is so rare today that its character is not known, and hardly that it exists. The existence of a marital love such as is described in the following pages may indeed be recognized in the first state of the love, as it creeps into the heart of a young man or woman; or in the experience of those who are beginning to love only one of the sex and to desire her for a wife; and still more in the period of betrothal, throughout the interval and as the wedding approaches; and, finally, at the wedding and in the first days after it. Who does not then acknowledge and assent to the propositions that this love is basic in all loves; likewise that into it are gathered all joys and delights from first to last? And who does not know that after this honeymoon these gladnesses gradually fade and go, until at last they are hardly ever felt? If now people are told as before, that this love is the fundamental love of all loves, and that all joys and gladnesses are gathered into it, they do not assent or acknowledge it; and they may say that those feelings were trivial, or are mysterious and transcendent. From this it is plain that the early love in a marriage emulates true marital love and presents it to sight in a kind of image. For at that time love for the sex, which is unchaste, is cast out, and in its place is implanted a love for one of the sex which is true marital love and chaste. Who does not look then on other women without love and on his only one with love?

CL (Wunsch) n. 59 59. True marital love is so rare that its character is not known, and scarcely that it exists, because the state of pleasantness before the wedding is changed later by a growing insensibility, into a state of indifference. The causes of this change of state are too numerous to give here, but will be given below, where the causes of cold, separation and divorce are disclosed in due order. There it will be seen that with most partners today the above-mentioned image of marital love, with the knowledge it affords of that love, is so far destroyed that men do not know what that love is like and hardly that it exists. We know that every human being is merely physical at birth, and from physical becomes more and more interiorly natural, and so rational, and at length spiritual. There is such a development because the physical is like ground in which things natural, rational and spiritual in turn are sown. So the human being becomes more and more a human being. [2] A development not unlike this ensues upon marriage. The human being then becomes a fuller human being, being united with a partner with whom he acts as one being, though in the first state this takes place only in a kind of image, of which above. At that time, too, he starts in the physical, and advances in the natural, now, however, in respect of the married life and thus of the union into one. Those who then love corporeal natural things and rational things only for these, cannot be united with the partner into one being except in things external; and on the failure of things external, inward cold makes itself felt, driving the joys of that love from the body as it does so from the mind, and afterwards from the mind as it drives them from the body. This goes on until the two retain no recollection and thus no knowledge of the first state of their marriage. As this is what occurs with most today, it is obvious that men do not know what true marital love is like or that it exists. It is otherwise with partners who are spiritual. To them the first state is the beginning of perpetual joys, which grow as the spiritual rational of the mind and from this the natural sensuous of the body in the one are joined and united with those of the other. But such partners are few.

CL (Wunsch) n. 60 60. (ii) The origin of this love is in the marriage of good and truth. The intelligent man acknowledges that all things in the universe are referable to good and truth, for this is a universal truth; also that in each and all things good is united with truth and truth with good, for this again is a universal truth, cohering with the other. All things in the universe are referable to good and truth, and good is united with truth and truth with good, because the two proceed from the Lord and do so as one. As they proceed from Him, they are love and wisdom; these are the Lord and so are from Him; and all things of love are called goods, and all things of wisdom are called truths. Proceeding from the Lord as the Creator, good and truth are in all created things. Let the heat and light proceeding from the sun serve for illustration; these pervade all vegetation, for it germinates as they are present and as they are present together. Natural heat, moreover, corresponds to spiritual heat, which is love; and natural light to spiritual light, which is wisdom.

CL (Wunsch) n. 61 61. We shall offer our demonstration that marital love proceeds from the marriage of good and truth in the next chapter; here the fact is only mentioned, that the reader may see that this love, having a celestial, spiritual and holy origin, is itself celestial, spiritual and holy. Still, to make it somewhat clear that the origin of marital love is in the marriage of good and truth, we need to say a brief word on the subject here. We said just above that in each and all things created there is a conjunction of good and truth. Conjunction is impossible, however, unless it is reciprocal, for conjunction on one side and not also on the other dissolves of itself. Because, then, there is a conjunction of good and truth and this is reciprocal, it follows that there is “truth of good” or truth from good, and that there is “good of truth” or good from truth. In the following chapter it will be seen that truth of good, or truth from good, is in the male and constitutes masculinity, and that good of truth, or good from truth, is in the female and is femininity; likewise that there is a marital union between the two. But we seek only to give a preliminary idea of the subject here.

CL (Wunsch) n. 62 62. (iii) There is a correspondence between this love and the marriage of the Lord and the Church. That is, husband and wife love each other as the Lord loves the Church and wishes the Church to love Him. The Christian world has known that there is a correspondence between the two unions, but not what the nature of it is. This correspondence, too, will be explained in a separate chapter* to follow. Mention is made of it here to the end that it may be seen that marital love is celestial, spiritual and holy from its correspondence with the celestial, spiritual and holy marriage of the Lord and the Church. This correspondence indeed results from the origin of marital love in the marriage of good and truth (of which in the preceding proposition), inasmuch as this marriage is the Church with a human being. For the marriage of good and truth is the same thing as the marriage of charity and faith, good being of charity, and truth of faith, and that this marriage makes the Church cannot but be acknowledged, for it is a universal truth, and every universal truth is acknowledged when first heard, due to influx from the Lord and to confirmation from heaven. Furthermore, as the Church is the Lord’s, being from Him, and as marital love corresponds to the marriage of the Lord and the Church, it follows that this love is from the Lord.
* Chap. V.

CL (Wunsch) n. 63 63. How the Church, and by it marital love, are formed by the Lord with two partners, however, shall be told in the chapter to which reference was made just above; here only let it be said that the Church is formed by the Lord with the husband, and through the husband with the wife; and after it has been formed with both, it is a full Church; for then there is a full conjunction of good and truth, and the conjunction of these two is the Church. It will be shown in what follows in a series of propositions to be demonstrated, that the conjunctive inclination, which is marital love, is present in the same measure as the conjunction of good and truth, which is the Church.

CL (Wunsch) n. 64 64. (iv) In view of its origin and correspondence, this love is celestial, spiritual, holy, pure and clean above every love which the angels of heaven or men of the Church have from the Lord. It was briefly confirmed above, but only by way of anticipation, that marital love is of this character due to its origin, which is the marriage of good and truth; also due to its correspondence with the marriage of the Lord and the Church. These two marriages, out of which marital love springs like an offshoot, are very sanctities. If then marital love is received from its Author, who is the Lord, holiness follows from Him, which constantly refines and purifies it. Given a desire and effort after it in the will, this love becomes clean and pure daily to eternity. Marital love is called celestial and spiritual because it is to be found with the angels of the heavens; with the angels of the highest heaven it is celestial, for so those angels are called; with the angels below that heaven, it is spiritual, for so they are called. The celestial angels are so called because they are loves and thence wisdoms, and the spiritual because they are wisdoms and thence loves. Their marital inclination is similar in nature. Being found with the angels of higher and lower heavens (as was shown in the first chapter on “Marriages in Heaven”), marital love, plainly, is holy and pure. Regarded in its essence and origin, it is holy and pure above every love with angels and men, because it is the head, as it were, of all other loves. Some things will be said of its eminence in the proposition now to follow.

CL (Wunsch) n. 65 65. (v) It is also the fundamental love among all celestial and spiritual loves and among natural loves thence. Marital love, regarded in its essence, is the basic love in all the loves of heaven and the Church, because it has its origin in the marriage of good and truth; from that marriage proceed all loves constituting heaven and the Church with the human being. The good of that marriage gives love, and the truth gives wisdom. When love approaches wisdom or unites with it, then love becomes love; when wisdom in turn approaches love and unites with it, then wisdom becomes wisdom. True marital love is nothing but the conjunction of love and wisdom. Two partners, in and between whom that love exists, are an effigy and form of it. In the heavens, moreover, where faces are the actual types of the affections of one’s love, all are semblances of it, for one’s love wholly pervades one, as was shown above. As two partners are marital love in effigy and form, all love proceeding from such a form must have a like character. If the marital love is celestial and spiritual, the loves which proceed from it are celestial and spiritual. Marital love is therefore like a parent, and other loves like a progeny. Hence a spiritual progeny, which is one of love and wisdom, or of good and truth, is generated from the marriages of the angels in the heavens (see above, n. 51).

CL (Wunsch) n. 66 66. How two become the very form of marital love is evident also from the creation of human beings into that love, and from their origination from it afterwards. The male is created to become wisdom through the love of being wise, and the female is created to become the love of the man for his wisdom and according to it. Plainly, then, two partners are the very forms and effigies of the marriage of love and wisdom or of good and truth. It is clearly to be understood that neither good nor truth occurs apart from a substance as its subject. Disembodied goods and truths are not to be found, for they do not exist, having no abode, and cannot even appear as fugitive entities. They may seem entities of which reason can think, but still it cannot conceive of them except in given subjects, for every human image or idea, however sublimated, is substantial, that is, attaches to substances. It is also to be known that there is no such thing as substance which is not also form. Substance with no assignable form is also nothing, for nothing can be predicated of it, and a subject without predicates is no rational entity. We add these philosophic considerations to show in this way, too, that two partners who are in true marital love are actually forms of the marriage of good and truth or of love and wisdom.

CL (Wunsch) n. 67 67. Because natural loves flow from spiritual, and spiritual from celestial, we say that marital love is fundamental not only among all celestial and spiritual loves, but also among natural loves thence. Natural loves mean loves of self and the world, spiritual loves mean love of the neighbor, and celestial loves love for the Lord. In view of these interconnections among loves, it is evident in what order they come and in what order they are present in the human being. When they are in their due order, then natural loves live from spiritual, and these from the celestial, and all from the Lord, from whom they are.

CL (Wunsch) n. 68 68. (vi) Into marital love all joys and delights are gathered from first to last. All the joys we feel imply a love. The love shows itself in them, in fact exists and lives in them. As we know, our joys are exalted in the degree in which love is exalted, also as any incident affections touch the ruling love more nearly. But marital love is fundamental among all good loves, and (as was shown above) is inscribed on the least things in man. Therefore its joys exceed those of all other loves. It also gladdens these other loves to the extent that it is present and united with them. For it expands the inmost things both of the mind and of the body, as its delicious current sweeps through them and opens them. All joys from first to last are gathered into marital love on account of the excellence of its use above that of any other love. Its service is the propagation of the human race and of the angelic heaven therefrom. Because this use is the end of ends in creation, all the beatitude, satisfaction, joy, gladness and pleasure that can ever be conferred on man by the Lord the Creator, are gathered into this human love. The joys of the five senses show how joys attend on use, and are present in a man according to the love of use. Each sense �sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch�has its joys with variation according to the particular use. What joy shall the sense of marital love not have, whose use is the sum of all other uses?

CL (Wunsch) n. 69 69. I know that few will acknowledge that all joys and delights from first to last are gathered into marital love. For the marital love of which alone this is true is so rare today that it is not known what it is, and hardly that it exists, as was explained and shown above (nn. 58, 59). As this marital love is so rare on earth, we can only describe its surpassing felicities from the mouth of angels, who possess it. They have said that its inmost delights (which are of the soul, into which the marital inclination of love and wisdom or of good and truth from the Lord first flows) are imperceptible and hence ineffable, because they are at once things of peace and of innocence. But these imperceptible joys as they descend become more and more perceptible, in the higher reaches of the mind as beatitudes, in the lower as satisfactions, in the bosom as joys from these, and from the bosom are diffused into each and all things of the body, and finally unite in the ultimates in the delight of delights. Angels have related wonderful things about these joys, also saying that the variety of them in the souls of partners and thence in their minds and thence again in their bosoms, is infinite and also eternal; and that the joys are exalted according to the wisdom with the husbands; and this because they live in the flower of their age to eternity, and because there is nothing more blessed to them than to become increasingly wise. But still more information from the mouths of the angels about these delights may be seen in the Memorabilia, especially in those* which follow some chapters farther on.
* Nn. 155r, 209; 293, 294.

CL (Wunsch) n. 70 70. (vii) Only those come into this love, however, or can be in it, who approach the Lord, and love the truths and do the goods of the Church. Only those who approach the Lord come into this love because monogamous marriages, or those of one man with one wife, correspond with the marriage of the Lord and the Church, also because marriages have their origin in the marriage of good and truth (of which above, nn. 6o and 62). It follows from both source and correspondence that true marital love is from the Lord, and that they have it who approach Him directly. This cannot be fully shown, however, without treating specifically two arcana, which we shall do in the next succeeding chapters, giving one chapter to the origin of marital love in the marriage of good and truth, and the other to the marriage of the Lord and the Church, and its correspondence. There the reader will also see that it follows that marital love exists with a human being according to the state of the Church with him.

CL (Wunsch) n. 71 71. Only those who receive it from the Lord, who are they who approach Him directly and live the Church’s life from Him, can be in true marital love, because this love, in view of its source and correspondence, is celestial, spiritual, holy, pure and clean above every other love with the angels of heaven and men of the Church (as above, n. 64). It can have this character only with those who are conjoined with the Lord and by Him associated with angels of heaven. For these shun, as the soul’s ruin and as the lakes of hell, all extra-marital loves or conjunctions with others than one’s own partner. In the measure that a partner shuns those conjunctions in the very lusts of the will and so in the intentions, in that measure this love is purified and becomes by stages spiritual, first during life on earth and afterwards in heaven.
[2] No human or angelic love can ever become utterly pure, thus neither can marital love; but the intention which is of the will is what is primarily regarded by the Lord. Therefore as far as a man has the intention and perseveres in it, so far he is introduced into and gradually advances in the purity and holiness of marital love. Only those who become spiritual from the Lord can be in spiritual married love, for heaven is in that love. The natural man, with whom the love derives its pleasure solely from the flesh, cannot draw near heaven or near an angel; for that matter, he cannot approach a man in whom the love is, for this love is the basic one among all celestial
[3] and spiritual loves (see above, nn. 65-67). I have been made sure of this fact by much experience. I have seen genii in the spiritual world, who were being prepared for hell, approach an angel who was enjoying his partner; even as they were coming in the distance, they grew into furies and sought caverns and crevices for asylum, into which to throw themselves. From what was related in the preliminary section (n. 10) it can be concluded that evil spirits love what is homogeneous with their affection, however unclean the thing is, and being averse to what is pure, as to what is heterogeneous, are averse to heavenly spirits.

CL (Wunsch) n. 72 72. Only those come into, or can be in, true marital love, who love the Church’s truths and do its goods, because no others are received by the Lord. These are in conjunction with Him, and so can be held by Him in that love. Two things make the Church and thus heaven with the human being: truth of faith and good of life. Truth of faith brings the Lord’s presence, and good of life according to truths of faith effects conjunction with Him and makes the Church and heaven. Truth of faith effects presence, because it is of light; spiritual light is nothing else. Good of life effects conjunction, because it is of heat; spiritual heat is nothing else, for it is love, and good of life is of love. It is known that all light, even winter light, effects presence, and that heat united to light effects conjunction, for gardens and flower-beds appear in any light, but they do not flower and fructify unless heat is joined to the light. The conclusion is plain, that not those who only know the Church’s truths, but those who know them and do its goods, are gifted by the Lord with true marital love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 73 73. (viii) This love was the love of loves with the ancients who lived in the golden, silver and copper ages. We cannot know from historical data that marital love was the love of loves with the most ancient and the ancient people who lived in the early ages so named. For their writings are not extant; extant writings come from writers of later days. But those epochs are mentioned by these later writers, and the purity and integrity of life at that time is described, likewise its gradual deterioration as from gold to iron. Something about the last or iron age, coincident with those writers, is to be gleaned, however, from historical information about the lives of their kings and judges and the wise men called sophi in Greece and elsewhere. Of that age Daniel (ii. 43) predicted that it would not hold together, but would be like iron mixed with clay, which do not cohere. In view of the fact, then, that the ages named from gold, silver and copper, had passed away before any extant writings were done, and therefore no knowledge about marriages of that time is to be had on earth, the Lord has been pleased to make information available to me by a spiritual way, by taking me to the heavens where the homes of those early people are, to learn from their lips what marriage among them was like when they lived in their several epochs. For all souls who have passed from the natural world since the creation are now in the spiritual world, and they are all what they were as to their loves and so remain to eternity. The things I have learned are worth knowing and telling; they establish the holiness of marriages. I desire to publish them, as they were shown me in the spirit awake and later recalled to me and described by the angel. As they are deliverances from the spiritual world, like the rest appended to the chapters of this book, I have decided to distribute them into six Memorabilia following the sequence of epochs.

CL (Wunsch) n. 74 74. These six Memorabilia�from the spiritual world about marital love�disclose the nature of marital love in the early eras, its nature later, and also its quality today. It is evident from the narratives that that love has declined step by step in holiness and purity, until it has become scortatory; but still that there is hope of its restoration to its primeval or ancient holiness.

CL (Wunsch) n. 75

75. I

As I was meditating once* on marital love, my mind was seized with a desire to know what that love was like with those who lived in the Golden Age; and what it was like later with those who lived in the ages following, named from silver, copper, and iron. Knowing that all who lived well in those ages are in the heavens, I prayed the Lord that I might be allowed to speak with them and be instructed.
And lo! an angel presented himself and said, “The Lord has sent me to be your guide and companion. I will guide and accompany you first to those who lived in the first age or epoch, called the Golden Age.” He added, “The way to them is arduous. It lies through a dark forest which no one can get through without a guide given him by the Lord.”
[2] I was in the spirit and prepared myself for the journey. We turned our faces eastward. As we proceeded I saw a mountain which rose above the region of clouds. We crossed a great desert and came to the forest of which the angel had spoken, thick with different kinds of trees and dark from their density. The forest was intersected by many narrow paths, which the angel said were so many winding ways leading astray, remarking that unless the eyes were opened by the Lord to see olive trees encircled with vine tendrils, and the steps were directed from olive tree to olive tree, the traveller would wander away into Tartarus, which is round about at the sides. The forest is of this character in order to guard the approach; for only the earliest of the race dwell upon that mountain. [3] After we entered the forest our eyes were opened and we saw the olive trees here and there, bound with vines from which hung clusters of dark blue grapes. These trees were arranged in perpetual circles; keeping them in view, we circled around and around. At last we saw a grove of lofty cedars and some eagles in their branches.
At sight of the grove the angel said, “We are now on the mountain not far from its summit.”
We kept on, and beyond the grove came to a circular plain where male and ewe lambs were feeding, which were forms representing the state of innocence and peace of the mountain dwellers. We crossed the plain and saw tents after tents ahead and on either side, many thousands in number, as far as the eye could reach.
And the angel said, “We are now in the encampment where is the army of the Lord Jehovih! So they call themselves and their habitations. When they lived in the world, these most ancient people dwelt in tents; therefore they dwell in tents now, too. But let us bend our way southward, where the wiser ones are, and find some one with whom we may converse.”
[4] As we proceeded I saw at a distance three boys and three girls sitting in the door of one of the tents; but as we came near they proved to be men and women of average stature.
The angel remarked, “All the inhabitants of this mountain appear from a distance like little children because they are in a state of innocence, of which infancy is an appearance.”
On seeing us the men ran up to us and asked, “Whence are you? And how came you here? Your faces are not our mountain faces.”
In reply the angel told them our means of getting through the forest and our reason for coming. Hearing this, one of the three invited and led us into his tent. He was clothed in a blue mantle and a tunic of white wool; and his wife in a flowing purple robe, and under it, about the breast, a tunic of fine embroidered linen. [5] As I was eager to learn about the marriages of the most ancient people, I contemplated husband and wife by turn, and noted the unity of their souls as it were in their faces.
“You two are one,” I said.
“We are one,” the man replied. “Her life is in me and mine in her. We are two bodies but one soul. The union between us is like that of the two tents in the breast called heart and lungs. She is my heart and I am her lungs. But as we here mean love by the heart and wisdom by the lungs, she is the love of my wisdom and I am the wisdom of her love. Therefore her love envelops my wisdom, and my wisdom is inwardly in her love. Hence, as you said, the unity of our souls appears in our faces.”
[6] I then asked, “If your union is so close, can you look at any other woman than your own?”
He replied, “I can; but as my wife is united to my soul, we two look together; then nothing of desire can enter. For when I look at the wives of others I look at them through my wife whom alone I love. And as she, my own, has a perception of all my inclinations, as intermediary she directs my thoughts, averts everything discordant, and imparts a cold and horror at everything unchaste. It is therefore as impossible for us to look from lust upon a comrade’s wife as it is for a man to look from the darkness of Tartarus at the light of our heavens. We therefore possess no idea of thought, still less any word of language, for the allurements of wanton love.” He could not say “whoredom,” for the chastity of their heaven resisted.
The angel guide said to me, “You are listening now, in the speech of the angels of this heaven, to the language of wisdom; for they speak from causes.”
[7] Then looking about I noticed that their tent seemed to be overspread with gold, and I asked, “Whence is this?”
“Our flaming light does that,” he replied. “It gleams like gold, and lights and tints the curtains of our tent when we are conversing about marital love. For the heat of our sun, which in its essence is love, bares itself then and tinges the light, which in its essence is wisdom, with its own golden color. The reason is that marital love in origin is the interplay of wisdom and love; for man is born to be wisdom, and woman to be the love of man’s wisdom. So the delights of that play exist in marital love and, from that love, between us and our wives. For thousands of years we have seen clearly that these delights are excellent and exalted in abundance, degree and vigor according to the worship of the Lord Jehovih among us, from whom inflows the heavenly union, or the heavenly marriage, namely, of love and wisdom.”
[8] After these words I saw a great light on a hill in the midst of the tents, and asked, “Where does that light come from?”
“From the holy place in our tent of worship,” was his reply.
I asked whether it was allowable to visit the tent. He said it was; and I went and saw a tabernacle, inside and out exactly like the tabernacle which was built for the children of Israel in the wilderness, the pattern of which was shown to Moses on Mount Sinai (Exodus xxv. 40; xxvi. 30).
I asked, “What is in the holy place, that so much light comes from it?”
“A tablet with the inscription, ‘The Covenant between Jehovah and the heavens,'” he replied, and said no more.
[9] We were ready to go now, and I asked, “Did any of you live with more than one wife in the natural world?”
He answered that he knew not one. “For we could not think of more. Those who did think of more told us that the states of heavenly blessedness of their souls, and along with those states the stamp of virility, instantly retreated from inmosts to the extremities of their bodies, even to the nails. When this was perceived they were expelled from our countries.”
Having spoken so, the man ran to his tent and returned with a pomegranate, containing an abundance of seeds of gold. He gave it to me and I brought it away as a token that we had been with those who had lived in the Golden Age. After farewells we left and returned home.
* These Memorabilia are repeated with some variations in Coronis, n. 37.

CL (Wunsch) n. 76

76.* II

The next day the same angel came to me and said, “Would you like me to guide and escort you to the people who lived in the Silver Age or epoch, to hear from them about the marriages of their time?” He added that neither can these be approached save under the Lord’s auspices.
I was in the spirit as before. I accompanied my guide, first to a hill in the southeast. When we had gained its gently sloping height, he showed me a wide stretch of land; far away we beheld a mountainlike eminence, between which and the hill where we stood was a valley and beyond it a plain from which the high ground rose gently.
Descending the hill to cross the valley, we saw here and there on either side wood and stone carved in the likeness of men and of various beasts, birds and fishes. I asked the angel, “What are these? Are they idols?”
“Not at all,” he replied. “They are figures representing different moral virtues and spiritual truths. The peoples of this epoch had a knowledge of correspondences; and as every man, beast, bird or fish corresponds to some quality, therefore each piece of sculpture represents an aspect of a virtue or truth, and several together the virtue or truth itself as a whole. They are what in Egypt were called hieroglyphics.”
[2] We passed through the valley, and entering the plain beheld horses and chariots�horses variously caparisoned and harnessed, and chariots of different form; some carved like eagles, others like whales, others like stags with horns, others like unicorns; and at the farther end also some wagons and stables around at the sides. But as we approached, both horses and chariots disappeared. In their stead we saw men, walking in pairs, conversing and reasoning. And the angel said to me, “Semblances of horses, chariots and stables, seen at a distance, are appearances of the rational intelligence of the men of this epoch. For by correspondence a horse signifies the understanding of truth; a chariot, doctrine about truth; and stables, instruction. In this world, you know, all things appear according to correspondences.”
[3] But we proceeded past these and went up a long ascent, and at last saw a city, which we entered. As we walked along, we surveyed the houses from street and square. They were so many palaces built of marble, with steps of alabaster in front, and pillars of jasper at the sides of the steps. We also saw temples of precious stone of the color of sapphire and lapis lazuli.
And the angel told me, “Their houses are of stone because stones signify natural truths, and precious stones spiritual truths; and all those who lived in the Silver Age had intelligence from spiritual truths and from natural truths thence. Silver has a like significance.”
[4] As we traversed the city we saw consorts here and there in pairs; and because they were husbands and wives, we hoped to be asked in somewhere. As we were going by in that expectation, we were called back by two to their house; and we ascended and entered. Speaking for me, the angel explained to them our reason in coming to this heaven, that it was “for instruction about marriages among the ancients from among whom you in this heaven are.”
“We were from peoples in Asia,” they answered. “The study of our age was truths, by which we had intelligence. This was the study of our soul and mind. But the study of our bodily senses was the representation of truths by forms. The knowledge of correspondences united what was of the bodily senses with the perceptions of our minds, and so integrated our intelligence.”
[5] Hearing this the angel asked them to tell us something about marriages among them.
“There is a correspondence,” said the husband, “between spiritual marriage, which is of truth with good, and natural marriage, which is that of a man with one wife. As we have applied ourselves to correspondences, we have seen that the Church with its truths and goods cannot exist at all except with those who live in true marital love with one wife. For the marriage of good and truth is the Church in man. Therefore all of us here say that the husband is truth and the wife is its good; and that good cannot love any other truth than its own, nor can truth in return love any other good than its own. If any other were loved, the inward marriage which makes the Church would perish, and a merely external relationship would take its place, to which idolatry and not the Church corresponds. For this reason we call marriage with one wife `sacrimony,’ but were it contracted among us with more than one, we should call it sacrilege.”
[6] After this speech, we were admitted into an antechamber where were many designs on the walls, and small statues as if cast of silver. I asked, “What are these?” He said, “They are pictures and figures representing many of the qualities, attributes and delights of marital love. These represent the unity of the souls; these the conjunction of minds; these the concord of heart; and those, delights springing from them.”
While we were examining the designs and statues, we beheld on the wall what seemed to be a rainbow, composed of three colors, purple, blue and white. We saw the purple cross the blue and tinge the white with dark blue, and saw this color flow back through the blue into the purple, intensifying it to a dazzling radiance.
“Do you understand these things?” the husband asked.
I answered, “Instruct me.”
[7] He replied, “By correspondence the purple signifies the wife’s marital love; the white, the husband’s intelligence; the blue, the incipience of marital love from the wife in the husband’s perception; and the dark blue tingeing the white, marital love then in the husband. The fact that the color flowed back through the blue into the purple, intensifying it to a dazzling radiance, signifies the marital love of the husband flowing back to the wife. Such things are represented on the walls when, in meditation on marital love and its mutual, successive and simultaneous union, we watch intently the rainbows painted there.”
To this I said, “These figurative things are more than mystical today, for they are representations of arcana in the marital love of one man with one wife.”
“They are,” he said, “but to us here they are not arcana and therefore not mystical either.”
[8] When he had spoken, a chariot appeared in the distance drawn by two small white horses. At sight of it, the angel said, “That chariot is a sign we must go.”
As we descended the steps, our host gave us a cluster of white grapes with leaves from the vine attached; and lo! the leaves turned silver. We brought them away as a token that we had spoken with people of the Silver Age.
* These Memorabilia are repeated with some variations in Coronis, n. 37.

CL (Wunsch) n. 77

77.* III

The next day my angel guide and companion came again and said, “Make ready, and let us go to the heavenly inhabitants in the west, the people who lived in the third epoch or Copper Age. Their dwelling-places extend from the south over the west northward, but not into the north.”
I made ready and accompanied him. We entered their heaven from the south, where was a magnificent grove of palms and laurels, through which we passed. At its western border we came upon giants, of twice the size of ordinary men. They asked us, “Who let you in through the grove?”
“The God of heaven,” said the angel.
They responded, “We are guards of the ancient western heaven, but pass on.
[2] We proceeded and from a lookout saw a mountain towering to the clouds. Between us on the lookout and the mountain was village after village, with gardens, groves and fields between. We travelled past the villages to the mountain and ascended. Its summit proved to be, not a peak, but a plain with an extensive and spacious city on it. All its houses were of rosin tree woods and their roofs of boards.
I asked, “Why are the houses here of wood?”
The angel replied, “Because wood signifies natural good, and the men of the third era on earth were in that good. Copper also signifies natural good, and therefore those early people named the age in which they lived from copper. The sacred buildings here are also built of olive wood. In the center of each is a sanctuary where in an ark lies the Word given to the inhabitants of Asia before the Israelitish Word, the historical books of which are called, ‘The Wars of Jehovah,’ and the prophetical books, ‘Enunciations,’** both mentioned by Moses in Numbers xxi. 14, 15, 27-30. This Word is now lost in the countries of Asia and is preserved only in Great Tartary.”
The angel then led me to one of the buildings, and we looked in and saw the sanctuary at the center, all in the most brilliant white light. The angel said, “The light is from that ancient Asiatic Word; all Divine truth shines in the heavens.”
[3] Leaving the building we heard that the news had spread in the city that two strangers were there, and that they ought to be questioned whence they were, and what their business in the place was. An attendant from the palace appeared and ordered us before the judges.
To the question whence we were and what our business was, we answered, “We came through the grove of palm trees and also passed the abodes of the giants who are the guards of your heaven, and afterwards through the district of villages, from which you may conclude that it is not of ourselves but of the God of heaven that we have arrived here. The business on which we have come is to be informed about your marriages, whether they are monogamous or polygamous.”
They replied, “What are polygamous marriages? Are they not scortatory?”
[4] Thereupon the assembled judges deputed an intelligent man to instruct us in his own house on our business. At his home he drew his wife to his side and addressed us as follows:
“We possess precepts on marriage preserved among us from the primeval or most ancient people, who were in true marital love and thus more than others in the vigor and potency of that love in the world, and who are now in a most blessed state in their heaven, which is in the east. We are their descendants. They as fathers gave us as sons canons of life, among which is this on marriage: `Sons, if you would love God and the neighbor, and if you would be wise, and be happy to eternity, we counsel you to live in monogamy. If you depart from this precept, every heavenly love will flee from you, and internal wisdom with it, and you will be destroyed.’ To this precept of our fathers we as sons have hearkened. And we have perceived the truth of it, which is, that in so far as a man loves his married partner alone he becomes heavenly and internal; and that in so far as a man does not love his married partner alone he becomes natural and external, and does not love at all, except himself and the imaginations of his own mind, and is foolish and mad. Hence all of us in this heaven live in monogamy. [5] Because we do, all the boundaries of our heaven are guarded against polygamists, adulterers and whoremongers. If polygamists get in, they are cast out into the darkness of the north; if adulterers, they are cast out into the fires of the west; and if whoremongers, they are cast out into the fatuous lights of the south.”
On hearing this I asked what he meant by the darkness of the north, the fires of the west, and the fatuous lights of the south.
He answered, “The darkness of the north is mental obtuseness and ignorance of truth; the fires of the west are loves of what is evil; and the fatuous lights of the south are falsifications of truth. Falsifications of truth are spiritual whoredoms.”
[6] Then he said, “Follow me to our treasure house.”
We followed, and he showed us writings of the most ancient peoples, pointing out that they were on tablets of wood and stone, and later on polished tablets of wood; while the second age inscribed its writings on parchments. He brought out a parchment onto which the canons of the first people had been copied from tables of stone, among which also was the precept on marriage.
When we had seen these and other memorable things of very early antiquity, the angel said, “It is time for us to go now.”
Thereupon our host went out into his garden, broke some twigs from a tree and tied them in a bunch, and gave them to us, saying, “These twigs are from a tree native or peculiar to our heaven, the sap of which has a balsamic fragrance.”
We brought the bunch away with us, and descended by a way at the east, which was not guarded. Behold, the twigs turned to shining brass and the tips of them to gold, as a token that we had been with the people of the third age, which is named from copper or bronze.
* These Memorabilia are repeated with some variations in Coronis, n. 37.
** Translated “Proverbs” in the Authorized Version.

CL (Wunsch) n. 78

78.* IV

Three days later the angel spoke to me again, saying, “Let us finish the cycle of the ages. There still remains the last age, named from iron. The people of the Iron Age live in the north, on the westward side, and far westward. They are all from ancient inhabitants of Asia who had the Ancient Word and worshiped according to it; of a time, therefore, prior to the advent of our Lord into the world. This is evident from writings of the ancients in which those epochs are so named. The same ages are meant by the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar, the head of which was gold, the breast and arms silver, the belly and thighs brass, the legs iron, and the feet iron and clay (Daniel ii. 32, 33).
[2] The angel told me these things along the way, which was shortened and speeded by changes of state induced on our minds according to the genius of the inhabitants through the midst of whom we passed; for spaces and therefore distances in the spiritual world are appearances according to states of mind. When we raised our eyes, behold, we were in a forest of beeches, chestnut trees and oaks; and looking about we saw bears to the left and leopards to the right.
When I wondered at this the angel said, “They are not bears or leopards, but men, who guard these dwellers in the north. With their nostrils they scent the spheres of life of such as go by, and rush upon all who are spiritual; for the inhabitants are natural. Those who read the Word but draw nothing of doctrine from it appear in the distance like bears, and those who confirm falsities from it appear like leopards.” But seeing us, they turned away and we passed on.
[3] After the forest there appeared thickets; and then grassy fields divided into plots hedged by box. Then the country descended gently into a valley in which were any number of cities. We went by some, but entered a large one. Its streets were irregular; the houses likewise. They were built of brick with timbers between and plastered. In the squares were shrines of hewn limestone, the substructure of which was below the ground and the superstructure above. We went down into one of these by three steps; round about against the walls we saw idols in various forms and a crowd on their knees adoring them. In the center was a group over whom projected the head of the tutelary god of the city. As we were leaving, the angel told me that among the ancients who lived in the silver age (of whom we spoke above), idols were images representing spiritual truths and moral virtues; but that when the knowledge of correspondences was lost to memory and became extinct, those images first became objects of worship, and later were adored as gods. Hence arose idolatry.
[4] When we were outside the temple, we observed the people and their dress. They had faces like steel, of a bluish gray color; and were dressed like comedians, with skirts about the thighs hanging from a vest fitted tightly to the chest; on their heads were the curled hats of mariners.
“But enough of this,” said the angel. “Let us learn about the marriages of the peoples of this age.”
We entered the house of an important man, on whose head was a turret-like hat. He received us kindly, and said, “Walk in. Let us talk.
We entered the vestibule and sat down. I asked him about the marriages of this city and country. He said, “We do not live with one wife, but some of us with two or three, and some with more; for we delight in variety and in the obedience and honor accorded to majesty. These we receive from our wives when there are several. With only one there would not be enjoyment in variety but tedium from sameness; nor the flattery that comes from obedience but irritation from equality; nor would there be the satisfaction of ruling and so of honor, but disquiet from bickering about superiority. And what is woman? Is she not born subject to man’s will? To serve and not to rule? Therefore every husband here has royal majesty as it were in his own house. As this is what we love, it is also the blessedness of our life.”
[5] “But,” I asked, “where then is marital love, which makes two souls one, conjoins the minds, and blesses man? That love cannot be divided; divided, it becomes a burning heat which cools and passes away.”
To this he replied, “I do not understand what you say. What else blesses man but the rivalry of wives for the honor of first place with their husband?”
Saying this the man went to the seraglio, opening both doors. A lustful effluvium issued which stank like mire; it was from a polygamous love, which is at the same time connubial and scortatory. I got up and shut the doors.
[6] Afterwards I said, “How can you subsist on this earth when you have no true marital love and when you also worship idols?”
“As for connubial love,” he responded, “we are so violently jealous of our wives that we permit no one to enter our houses farther than the vestibule; where there is jealousy, there is love. As for the idols, we do not worship them, but we cannot think of the God of the universe except with the help of images before our eyes. For we cannot raise our thoughts above the senses of the body, or our thought of God higher than things visible.”
Again I asked, “Are not your idols highly diverse? How can they give a vision of the one God?”
“That is a mystery to us,” he answered. “Something of the worship of God lies hid in each form.”
I said, “You are merely sensuous and corporeal. You have neither a love of God nor a love of the married partner which derives anything from the spiritual. Yet these loves together make man, and from sensuous make him heavenly.”
[7] As I was saying this there appeared as it were lightning through the portal; and I asked, “What is that?”
He said, “Such lightning is a sign to us that the Ancient One from the East will come who teaches us about God, that He is one, and the only Omnipotent, who is the First and the Last. He also admonishes us not to worship idols, but to look on them only as images representative of those forces, proceeding from the one God, which together fashion the worship of Him. This Ancient One is our Angel whom we revere and to whom we hearken. He visits us and raises us up when we slip into obscure worship of God from phantasy about our images.”
[8] Having heard these things we left the house and the city. On the way we drew conclusions from what we had seen in the heavens, respecting the circuit and the progress of marital love. As for its circuit, marital love had passed from the east into the south, on into the west, and thence into the north. As for its progress, it had declined as it followed this circular course; that is to say, in the east it was celestial, in the south spiritual, in the west natural, and in the north sensuous; furthermore it declined in the same degree as did the love and worship of God. From which comes the conclusion that in the first age this love was like gold, in the second like silver, in the third like copper, in the fourth like iron, and that finally it ceased.
Then my angel guide and companion said, “Nevertheless, the hope upholds me that this love will be revived again by the God of heaven, who is the Lord; for it can be revived.”
* These Memorabilia are repeated with some variations in Coronis, n. 37.

CL (Wunsch) n. 79 sRef Dan@2 @41 S0′ sRef Dan@2 @42 S0′ aRef 1Cor@6 @9 S0′ sRef Dan@2 @43 S0′

79. V*

The angel who had been my guide and companion to the ancient peoples who had lived in the four ages, the golden, silver, copper, and iron, came to me again and said, “Do you wish to see what the age was like, and still is like, which succeeded those earlier epochs? Follow me, then, and you shall see. They are the people of whom Daniel prophesied:

A kingdom shall arise after those four wherein iron shall be mixed with miry clay; they shall mingle themselves by the seed of man, but they shall not cleave the one to the other, even as iron is not commingled with clay (Daniel ii. 41-43).”

He added, “‘The seed of man by which the iron shall be mingled with clay and yet they shall not cohere,’ means the truth of the Word falsified.”
[2] Whereupon I followed him, and on the way he told me: “These people dwell in the southwest, but at a great distance behind those who lived in the four earlier ages and also at a greater depth.”
We came by the south to a region bordering on the west and passed through a dreadful forest. In it were stagnant pools, out of which crocodiles lifted their heads and opened wide on us their gaping jaws set with teeth. Between the pools were frightful dogs, some three-headed like Cerberus, others two-headed; and as we passed they all glared at us with a horrible ravenous look and ferocious eyes. We entered the western part of this region and saw dragons and leopards, like those described in Revelation xii. 3 and xiii. 2.
[3] The angel said to me, “All the wild beasts which you have seen are not beasts but correspondences, and thus representative forms, of the lusts in which are the people whom we are about to visit. The lusts themselves are represented by those frightful dogs; the deceitfulness and craftiness of the people by the crocodiles; their falsities and depraved interest in the things of worship by the dragons and leopards. But the inhabitants represented do not dwell next to the forest, but beyond a great desert which intervenes, so that they can be kept entirely separate and apart from the peoples of the preceding ages. They are also totally alien and different from them. They have heads indeed above their breasts, and breasts above their loins, and loins above their feet, like the earliest men; but there is nothing of gold in their heads, or silver in their breasts, or of bronze in their loins, no, not even anything of pure iron in their feet; but in their heads is iron mixed with clay; in their breasts, both of these mixed with brass; in their loins, both also mixed with silver; and in their feet these are mixed with gold. By this inversion they have been changed from men into graven images of men, in whom nothing within coheres; for that which was highest has become lowest, so that what was the head has become the heel, and vice versa. To us in heaven they look like acrobats who, with the body upside down, lie upon their elbows and hitch forward; or like beasts which lie upon their backs, lift up their feet, and with the head buried in the earth, look up to heaven.”
[4] We passed through the forest and entered the desert which was no less terrible. There were mounds of stone with gullies between, from which hydras and vipers stealthily crept, and fiery serpents flew forth. The whole desert was a continuous descent, and going down the long decline, we came at length into a valley where dwell the inhabitants of that region and age.
Huts here and there grew in number and at length clustered in the form of a city. We entered the city, and lo! the houses were constructed of charred branches of trees cemented with mud. The roofs were covered with black slates. The streets were irregular, all narrow at first, but widening as they ran on, and broad at the ends, where there were squares. There were as many squares as there were streets.
As we entered the city darkness fell, for heaven could not be seen. We therefore looked up and light was given us and we saw. I asked those whom I met, “Can you see when heaven is not visible above you?”
“What makes you ask that?” they wanted to know. “We see clearly. We walk about in full light.”
Hearing this, the angel said to me, “Darkness is light to them and light darkness, just as with birds of night; for they look down and not up.”
We stepped into hovels here and there, and in each saw a man with his woman. We asked whether all of them dwelt each in a house with only one wife.
They answered, hissing, “Why do you say with only one wife? Why not ask whether we live with only one harlot? What is a wife but a harlot? It is not permissible under our laws to commit whoredom with more than one woman. And yet, to do so with more is not dishonorable or disgraceful among us, but it must be done outside the home. We boast about it among ourselves. In this way we enjoy license and its pleasure more than polygamists do. Why is a plurality of wives denied to us, when it has been granted and is granted to all the world around us? What is life with only one woman but captivity and imprisonment? But then, we break the bars of our prison and deliver and liberate ourselves from this slavery. Who is angry with a captive who frees himself when he can?”
[6] To this we answered, “Friend, you talk like one devoid of religion. Who that is imbued with any reason does not know that adulteries are profane and infernal? And that marriages are holy and heavenly? Are not adulteries to be found among the devils in hell, and marriages with the angels in heaven? Have you not read the sixth commandment** of the Decalogue? Or in Paul*** that adulterers can in no wise enter heaven?”
At this our host laughed heartily and looked on me as a simpleton and almost as a madman. At that moment a messenger came running from the head of the city and said, “Bring the two strangers into the square. If they will not come, drag them there. We have seen them in the shadows. They came in secretly. They are spies.”
And the angel said to me, “The reason we appeared to them in shadow is that the light of heaven in which we are is shadow to them, and the darkness of hell is light to them. This befalls them because they consider nothing sin, not even adultery, and therefore they see falsity altogether as truth. For falsity emits light to the satans in hell; while truth darkens their eyes like the shade of night.”
aRef John@8 @7 S7′ [7] We said to the messenger, “We are not going to be forced, still less dragged to the forum, but will go with you of our own accord.”
And we went. There was a great crowd there out of which some lawyers stepped and whispered in our ears, “Take care not to say anything against religion or the form of government or good manners.”
We replied, “We mean to speak in favor of them and according to them.”
And we asked, “What is your religion regarding marriages?”
At this the crowd muttered, and said, “What concern are marriages to you here? Marriages are marriages.”
We asked again, “What is your religion about whoredoms?”
The crowd murmured at this, too, saying, “What have you to do here with whoredoms? Whoredoms are whoredoms. Let him that is without guilt first cast a stone.”****
We asked a third time, “Does your religion teach that marriages are holy and heavenly? and that adulteries are profane and infernal?”
At this many in the crowd laughed aloud and mocked and jeered, saying, “Ask our priests, not us, about matters of religion. We acquiesce entirely in their pronouncements; for nothing of religion falls within the judgment of the understanding. Have you not heard that the understanding is insane as to the mysteries of which religion altogether consists? And what have deeds to do with religion? Is it not the utterances of a devout heart about expiation, satisfaction and imputation, and not works which render souls blessed?”
[8] Then some of the so-called wise of the city came to us and said,
“Leave the place! The crowd is inflamed. There will be a riot. We will talk with you about this matter alone.
There is a walk behind the court; let us withdraw there. Come along.”
And we followed. Then they asked us whence we came and what our errand was. We said:
“To be instructed about marriages; whether with you as with the ancients who lived in the golden, silver and copper ages they are sacred or not.”
They replied, “What! Sacred! Are they not deeds of the flesh and of the night?”
We answered, “Are they not also deeds of the spirit? And is not what the flesh does from the spirit, spiritual? And all that the spirit does, it does from the marriage of good and truth. Does not this spiritual marriage enter into the natural marriage of husband and wife?”
To this the so-called wise men responded, “You refine and exalt this thing too much. You climb above rational things to spiritual. Who can start there, descend thence, and thus form a judgment about anything?” and they added derisively, “Perhaps you have the wings of an eagle and can fly into the topmost region of heaven and see such things. We cannot.”
[9] Then we asked them to tell us from the height or element in which the winged ideas of their minds flew, whether they knew or could know that there is such a thing as a marital love of one man with one wife, into which are gathered all heaven’s beatitudes, satisfactions, joys, gladness and pleasure, and that this love is from the Lord according to the reception of good and truth from Him, that is, according to the state of the Church.
[10] Hearing this they turned away and said, “These men rave. They soar with their judgment into the ether; in empty speculation they disseminate nothings.”
Then they turned to us and replied, “We will make a direct answer to your windy conjectures and dreams.” And they said, “What has marital love in common with religion or with inspiration from God? Has not every man that love according to the state of his potency? Is it not equally with those outside the Church and with those inside it? Equally with Gentiles and with Christians? Yes, equally with the impious and the pious? Is not the strength of that love either from heredity, or good health, or temperate living, or the warmth of the climate? Can it not also be strengthened and stimulated by medicines? Is it not like that of beasts, especially birds, which love in pairs? Is that love not carnal? What has a carnal thing in common with the spiritual state of the Church? Does that love in its ultimate expression with a wife differ in the least from love in its ultimate expression with a harlot? Is there not similar lust? Similar delight? It is therefore damaging to trace the origin of marital love to holy things of the Church.”
[11] On hearing this we said to them, “You reason from the heat of lasciviousness and not from marital love. You are totally ignorant what marital love is because it is cold with you. We are convinced by what you have said that you are from the age named from and composed of iron and clay, which do not cohere, according to the prophecy in Daniel (ii. 43). For you make marital love and scortatory love to be one and the same. Do these cohere any more than iron and clay do? You are reputed to be wise and are so called; and yet you are anything but wise.”
Enraged, they shouted, and rallied the crowd to cast us out. But then by power given us by the Lord we held up our hands, and fiery serpents, vipers, hydras and dragons appeared from the desert, and rushed in and filled the city, from which the inhabitants fled in terror.
The angel informed me, “Newcomers from the earth arrive in this vicinity daily. The inhabitants are removed at intervals and cast down into gulfs at the west, which at a distance look like lakes of fire and brimstone. All these men are both spiritual and natural adulterers.”
* These Memorabilia are repeated with some variations in Coronis, n. 37.
** In dividing the Commandments, Swedenborg followed the custom of the church of his upbringing, the Lutheran Church, taking Exodus xx. 3-6 as one commandment, and making two of verse 37. The Commandment numbered the seventh in other Protestant churches is then the sixth.
*** Corinthians vi. 9.
**** John viii. 7.

CL (Wunsch) n. 80 80 VI

At those words, I looked to the far west, and behold! There appeared as it were lakes of fire and brimstone. I asked the angel, “Why do the hells in that quarter have this appearance?”
He answered, “They appear like lakes from falsifications of truth; water in the spiritual sense is truth. The likeness of fire appears around and in them from love of evil; and of brimstone from love of the false. These three, lake, fire, and brimstone, are appearances, being correspondences of the evil loves in which those hells are. The inhabitants are locked up in eternal workhouses, where they labor for food, clothing and lodging. When they do evil, they are severely and miserably punished.”
[2] Again I asked the angel, “Why did you say that the people in this place are spiritual and natural adulterers? Why not say evil doers and impious?”
He replied, “Because all who consider adulteries nothing, that is, believe from confirmation that they are not sins, and therefore do them deliberately, are at heart evil doers and impious. For the human marital and religion take every step together. Every advance and every step from religion and toward religion is also an advance and step by and toward the marital which belongs to the Christian man and is peculiar to him.”
To the question, “What is this �marital’?” he said, “It is the desire of living with one wife only. The Christian has this desire as he has religion.”
sRef Matt@24 @21 S3′ sRef Matt@24 @15 S3′ [3] Afterwards I grieved in spirit that marriages, in ancient ages so very holy, had been so wretchedly changed into adulteries.
And the angel said, “It is the same with religion at the present day; for the Lord says:-

In the consummation of the age there shall be the abomination of desolation foretold by Daniel. And there shall be great affliction, such as has not been from the beginning of the world . . . (Matthew xxiv. 15, 21)

�The abomination of desolation’ signifies falsification and derivation of all truth; �affliction’ signifies the state of the Church infested by evils and falsities; and �the consummation of the age,’ of which these things are predicated, signifies the lat time or end of the Church. The end is now; for no truth is left which has not been falsified; and falsification of truth is spiritual whoredom, which acts as one with natural whoredom; they cling together.

CL (Wunsch) n. 81 sRef Rev@1 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @11 S0′ sRef Dan@2 @43 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @12 S0′ sRef Dan@2 @44 S0′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S0′ 81.* As we were conversing and grieving about these things, a beam of light suddenly appeared, compelling my gaze. I looked up, and the whole heaven above us appeared luminous, and from east to west a prolonged glorification pealed.
The angel said to me, “The Lord is being glorified by angels of eastern and western heavens on account of His advent.”
From southern and northern heavens only a gentle murmur was heard.
The angel followed it perfectly and told me first of all that glorifications and celebrations of the Lord are done from the Word, being done then from the Lord; for He is the Word, that is, the very Divine Truth therein.
Then he said, “Just now they are glorifying and celebrating the Lord in words spoken by Daniel the prophet:

You saw iron mixed with miry clay; they shall mingle themselves by the seed of man, but shall not cohere. .. . But in those days the God of the heavens shall make to arise a kingdom that shall not be destroyed for ages. It shall break in pieces and consume all those kingdoms, but itself shall stand for ages (Daniel ii. 43, 44).”

sRef Dan@7 @14 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @7 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @5 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @6 S2′ sRef Rev@1 @8 S2′ sRef Dan@7 @13 S2′ [2] After this I heard as it were the sound of a song, and saw deeper in the east a gleaming light more brilliant than the first. I asked the angel what the glorification there was.
He said, “In these words from Daniel:�

I saw in visions of the night, and behold! with the clouds of heaven one like unto the Son of man, and unto Him was given dominion … and a kingdom; and all peoples and nations … shall worship Him. His dominion is the dominion of an age, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom one that shall not be destroyed (Daniel vii. 13, 14).

In addition, they celebrate the Lord in words from the Apocalypse:-

To Jesus Christ be glory and might. Behold He comes with the clouds. He is the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last, … who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty. I John heard this from the Son of man out of the midst of the seven candlesticks (Revelation i. 5-7, 8, 9, 10-13; xxii. 13; and from Matthew xxiv. 30, 31).”

sRef Rev@21 @1 S3′ sRef Rev@21 @10 S3′ sRef Rev@22 @16 S3′ sRef Rev@22 @17 S3′ sRef Rev@21 @9 S3′ sRef Rev@21 @2 S3′ sRef Rev@22 @20 S3′ [3] I looked again toward the eastern heaven and a light burst out on the right and spread to the southern expanse. I heard a sweet sound, and asked the angel, “For what are they glorifying the Lord there?”
He said, “In these words of the Apocalypse:-

I saw a new heaven and a new earth, and I saw the holy city, the New Jerusalem, descending from God out of heaven prepared as a bride for her husband. And the angel spoke with me and said, Come, I will show you the Bride, the Lamb’s Wife. And he carried me away in the spirit onto a mountain, great and high, and showed me the city, the holy Jerusalem (Revelation xxi. 1, 2, 9, 10).

And in these words:-

I Jesus am the bright and morning Star. And let the Spirit and the Bride say, Come. He said, Yea, I come quickly. Amen, yea, come, Lord Jesus (xxii. 16, 17, 20).”

sRef Isa@49 @26 S4′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S4′ sRef Jer@23 @5 S4′ sRef Zech@14 @9 S4′ sRef Isa@40 @3 S4′ sRef Isa@54 @5 S4′ sRef Isa@40 @5 S4′ sRef Jer@23 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@44 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@40 @10 S4′ sRef Isa@40 @11 S4′ sRef Isa@25 @9 S4′ [4] After these glorifications here and there, a general glorification began, extending from the east to the west of heaven, and also from the south to the north. I asked the angel, “What is it now?” He said, “A glorification in these words from the Prophets:-

Let all flesh know that I, Jehovah, am your Savior and your Redeemer (Isaiah xlix. 26).
Thus said Jehovah, the King of Israel, and your Redeemer, Jehovah of hosts, I am the First and the Last, and beside Me there is no God (Isaiah xliv. 6).
It shall be said in that day, Lo, This is our God, whom we have waited for, that He should deliver us. This is Jehovah, for whom we have waited (Isaiah xxv. 9).
The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare the way of Jehovah. Behold, the Lord Jehovih comes in strength. He shall feed His flock like a shepherd (Isaiah xl. 3, 10, 11).
Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given, whose name is Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, the Father of Eternity, the Prince of Peace (Isaiah ix. 6).
Behold, the days come when I will raise unto David a just Branch, who shall reign as King. And this is His name, Jehovah our Righteousness (Jeremiah xxiii. 5, 6; xxxiii. 15, 16).
Jehovah Zebaoth is His name; and your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, the God of the whole earth shall He be called (Isaiah liv. 5).
In that day . . . Jehovah shall be for a King over all the earth; in that day there shall be one Jehovah, and His name one (Zechariah xiv. 8, 9).”

[5] My heart exulted to hear and understand these glorifications. I went home in joy. There, returning from the state of the spirit into that of the body, I wrote down what I had seen and heard. To all of which I now add this: Marital love will be raised up anew by the Lord after His advent, such as it was with the ancients. For that love is from the Lord alone, and is with those who are made spiritual by Him through the Word.
* With some variations this paragraph appears as Memorabilia at True Christian Religion, n. 625.

CL (Wunsch) n. 82 sRef Colo@2 @9 S0′ 82. After this a man from the northern quarter ran up to me in a rage, looked at me menacingly, and talking excitedly said, “Are you the man who would seduce the world by establishing a new Church, which you understand by the ‘New Jerusalem’ which is to descend from God out of heaven, and by teaching that the Lord will grant to those who embrace the doctrinal ideas of that Church a true marital love, the delights and felicity of which you exalt even to heaven? Is this not an invention? Do you not hold this out as a bait and enticement to the acceptance of your novelties? But tell me briefly what these doctrinal ideas of the new Church are. I shall see whether they are consistent or not.”
I answered, “The doctrinal ideas of the Church which is meant by the ‘New Jerusalem’ are as follows: (1) There is one God, in whom is the Divine Trinity, and He is the Lord Jesus Christ. (2) Saving faith is to believe in Him. (3) Evils are to be shunned as sins, because they are of the devil and from the devil. (4) Goods are to be done, because they are of God and from God. (5) They are to be done by a man as of himself; yet he must believe that they are from the Lord with him and through him.”
sRef John@3 @35 S2′ sRef John@1 @18 S2′ sRef Matt@28 @18 S2′ sRef John@14 @7 S2′ sRef John@16 @15 S2′ sRef John@14 @9 S2′ sRef John@10 @30 S2′ sRef John@14 @11 S2′ sRef John@14 @10 S2′ sRef John@14 @6 S2′ sRef John@17 @2 S2′ [2] On hearing these words, his fury abated for a few moments. But after some deliberation he looked at me grimly again and said, “Are these five precepts doctrinal ideas of the faith and charity of the new Church?”
I answered, “They are.”
Whereupon he asked me roughly, “How can you prove the first, ‘That there is one God, in whom is the Divine Trinity, and that He is the Lord Jesus Christ’?”
I said, “I prove it thus: Is not God one and indivisible? Is there not a Trinity? If God is one and indivisible, is He not one person? If one person, is not the Trinity in that person? That He is the Lord Jesus Christ, I prove by this saying:

He was conceived of God the Father (Luke i. 34, 35);

so that as to the soul He is God, and hence, as He Himself says:-

The Father and He are one (John x. 30).
He is in the Father and the Father in Him (John xiv. 10, 11). He who sees Him and knows Him, sees and knows the Father (John xiv. 7, 9).
No one sees and knows the Father but He who is in the bosom of the Father (John i. 18).
All things of the Father are His (John iii. 35; xvi. 15).
He is the way, the truth, and the life, and no man comes to the Father but by Him (John xiv. 6).

Thus He is from Him because He is in Him; and, according to Paul

In him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily (Colossians ii. 9).

Further:

He has power over all flesh (John xvii. 2).
He has all power in heaven and on earth (Matthew xxviii. 18).

It follows that He is the God of heaven and earth.”
sRef John@3 @36 S3′ sRef John@3 @16 S3′ sRef John@6 @40 S3′ sRef John@3 @15 S3′ [3] Then he asked how I proved the second, ‘That saving faith is to believe in Him.’
I replied, “I prove it by these words of the Lord Himself:

This is the will of the Father, that every one who believes in the Son shall have everlasting life (John vi. 40).
God so loved the world that He gave His only-begotten Son, that whosoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have everlasting life (John iii. 16).
He who believes in the Son has everlasting life; but he who believes not the Son shall not see life, but the anger of God abides on him (John iii. 36).”

[4] Then he said, “Prove the third also, and those that follow.”
I answered, “What need is there to prove that ‘evils are to be shunned because they are of the devil and from the devil’? And that ‘goods are to be done because they are of God and from God’? And that ‘these things ought to be done by man as if of himself, yet that he ought to believe that they are done from the Lord with him and through him’? Sacred Scripture from beginning to end confirms the truth of these three doctrines. What else does it contain in summary but admonition to shun evils and do goods and to believe in the Lord God? Without these three, moreover, there is no religion. Is not religion a matter of life? And what is life but shunning evils and doing goods? And how can a man do and believe these things except as of himself? Therefore if you take these doctrines away from the Church you take away the Sacred Scriptures from it, and you also take religion away from it, and when that is removed from it, the Church is not a Church.”
On hearing these things the man withdrew and pondered; but still he left in indignation.

CL (Wunsch) n. 83

83. IV

THE ORIGIN OF MARITAL LOVE IN THE MARRIAGE OF GOOD AND TRUTH

Marital love has internal and external origins, of each of which there are a number, but there is one inmost or universal origin. This, as we shall show in what now follows, is the marriage of good and truth. Marital love has not been traced to this source before because the existence of a union between good and truth has lain hidden. This has lain hidden because good does not, like truth, come into the light of the mind, and thus knowledge of it has concealed itself and eluded investigation. As good is consequently among things unknown, no one could surmise that there is a marriage between it and truth. Indeed, in the view of natural reason, good seems so remote from truth that conjunction is impossible. So our references to the two bear witness, for when the assertion is made, “This is good,” there is no thought of truth; and when the assertion is made, “This is truth,” there is no thought of good. Many therefore believe today that truth is one thing, and good wholly another. Indeed, there are many who think that a man is intelligent and wise, and thus a human being, according to the truths which he thinks, speaks, writes, and believes, and not at the same time according to goods. Yet there is no good without truth nor truth without good; consequently there is an eternal marriage between them, and this marriage is the origin of marital love, all of which we shall explain in this order:
i. Good and truth are the universals of creation and hence are in all created things, but are in the created subjects according to the form of each of these.
ii. Good does not occur solitary, nor does truth, but they are everywhere conjoined.
iii. There is “truth of good,” and “good of truth” therefrom, or “truth from good” and good from such truth, and an inclination to unite into one has been implanted in the two by creation.
iv. In subjects of the animal kingdom truth of good or truth from good is the masculine, good of truth therefrom or good from that truth is the feminine.
v. Love for the sex and marital love come by an influx of the marriage of good and truth from the Lord.
vi. Love for the sex is of the external or natural man, and so is common to all animals.
vii. But marital love is of the internal or spiritual man, and is therefore peculiar to man.
viii. In man marital love is within love for the sex like a gem in its matrix.
ix. Love for the sex with man is not the origin but the first stage of marital love, and is like an external natural in which an internal spiritual is implanted.
x. When marital love has been implanted, love for the sex alters and becomes chaste love for the sex.
xi. Male and female were created to be the very form of the marriage of good and truth.
xii. It is as the interiors of their minds are opened, that they come into this form in their inmosts and then in the derivations from the inmosts.

CL (Wunsch) n. 84 84. (i) Good and truth are the universals of creation and hence are in all created things, but are in the created subjects according to the form of each of these.
Good and truth are the universals of creation inasmuch as they are in the Lord God the Creator, indeed are God, for He is Divine Good itself and Divine Truth itself. This may fall more clearly into the perception of the understanding and into the idea of thought, if instead of good we say love, and instead of truth, wisdom. To put it so, there are in the Lord God the Creator Divine Love and Divine Wisdom, and these are God, that is, He is Love itself and Wisdom itself. These two are the same as good and truth, good being of love, and truth of wisdom, for love consists of goods and wisdom of truths. Since the two sets of terms mean the same thing, in what follows we shall use now one and now the other, intending no difference of meaning. We premise this note, lest the understanding conceive a difference when the terms are used in what follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 85 85. Since, then, the Lord God the Creator is Love itself and Wisdom itself, and the universe was created by Him and is like a work proceeding from Him, something of good and truth from Him cannot but be in each and all created things; for what is made and proceeds from any one, derives from him something similar. Reason can see this from the order impressed upon each and all things of the created universe: one thing is for another, and hence one depends on the other, as a chain on links. For all things are for the sake of the human race, that there may arise from it an angelic heaven, in which creation returns to its Creator, from whom it is; so there is conjunction of the universe with its Creator, and by conjunction everlasting maintenance. Hence it is that good and truth are called the universals of creation. That they are universals, is plain to any reasoning observer. In everything created he sees something referable to good, and something referable to truth.

CL (Wunsch) n. 86 86. Good and truth are in created subjects according to the several forms of these for the reason that everything receives influx according to its form. The maintenance of the whole is nothing but the perpetual influx of Divine Good and Divine Truth into forms created by them, for subsistence or maintenance is perpetual existence or creation. The fact that an object receives influx according to its form, may be illustrated by various things, as by the influx of heat and light from the sun into growths of every kind; each growth receives of these what accords with its form, thus every tree, shrub, herb and grain, each according to its form. Influx is the same into all, but reception according to the form causes each species to continue what it is. We might illustrate the fact further from the influx into animals of every sort according to the form of each. The simplest person can see that influx is according to form, if he considers various instruments of sound�reed-pipes, flutes, trumpets, horns and organs; all give forth sounds according to their forms under the same afflatus or influx of air.

CL (Wunsch) n. 87 87. (ii) Good does not occur solitary, nor does truth, but they are everywhere conjoined. By whatever grasp one tries to acquire an idea of good, one cannot do it without finding something added, which presents and manifests good. Apart from this, good is a nameless thing. That by which it is presented and manifested, is referable to truth. Say only “good,” without including this or that with which it is found in connection, or define it abstractly or without the cohering adjective, and you will see that it is not anything, but that with what is adjoined, it is something. Reason closely, and you will perceive that without the adjunct, good is not characterizable, and so is a thing without relation, state or power to affect; in a word, it has no character. It is the same with truth, when one hears of truth without an implicate; elevated reason can see that what is implicated is referable to good. [2] But goods are innumerable; each also ascends to a maximum and descends to its minimum as if by the rungs of a ladder; again, each varies in name according to its progress and character; hence it is difficult for any but the wise to see the relation of good and truth to things or their conjunction in things. Yet, when once it is acknowledged that each and all things of the universe are referable to good and truth (as was shown in an earlier proposition, nn. 84, 85), it is evident, due to a general perception, that good does not occur without truth, nor truth without good. [3] The fact that neither good nor truth occurs solitary can also be illustrated and confirmed by various things, as by these: essence does not occur apart from form, nor form apart from essence; moreover, good is essence or esse, and truth is that by which essence is formed and esse is manifested. Again, in the human being there are will and understanding, and good is of the will, and truth of the understanding; the will does not act alone, but through the understanding, and the understanding does nothing by itself, but from the will. Again, the life of man’s body has two fountains, heart and lungs; the heart can produce no sensitive and motor life without the breathing lungs, nor can the lungs without the heart. The heart relates to good, the respiration of the lungs to truth; there is also a correspondence. [4] It is the same in each and all things of the mind, and in each and all things of man’s body; but there is not room to offer more substantiation. The reader may see these things fully established in Angelic Wisdom about the Divine Providence (nn. 3-26), where they have been explained in this order: i. The universe with all things in it was created from the Divine Love by the Divine Wisdom, or (what is the same) from the Divine Good by the Divine Truth; ii. Divine Good and Divine Truth proceed as one from the Lord; iii. This one exists in every created thing as in an image; iv. Good is not good except so far as it is united to truth, and truth is not truth except so far as it is united to good; v. The Lord does not permit anything to remain divided; therefore the human being must either be in good and at the same time in truth, or in evil and at the same time in falsity. Besides much else.

CL (Wunsch) n. 88 88. (iii) There is “truth of good,” and “good of truth” therefrom; or “truth from good,” and good from such truth: and an inclination to unite into one has been implanted in the two by creation. It is necessary to gain a distinct idea of these things; a knowledge of the essential origin of marital love depends upon it. For, as will appear, “truth of good” or “truth from good” is the masculine, and “good of truth” or good from that truth is the feminine. But this will be grasped more clearly if we say love instead of good, and wisdom for truth (that they are the same, see above, n.84). Wisdom can come to be with a man only through a love of being wise. Take this love away, and a man cannot become wise. Wisdom from this love is what is meant by “truth of good” or “truth from good.” But when a man has gained wisdom from this love, and loves his wisdom or himself on account of it, he forms a love which is the love of wisdom, and this is what is meant by “good of truth” or good from the “truth of good.” There are therefore two loves with a man, of which the one, which is earlier, is the love of being wise, and the other, which comes later, is the love of wisdom. The latter love, if it remains in a man, is an evil love and is called pride and love of one’s own intelligence. In what follows it will be shown that by a provision at creation this love was taken from man lest it destroy him, and transcribed into woman, to become marital love, which makes him whole again. The reader will find something about these two loves, and about the transcription of the second into woman, at nn. 32, 33 above, and in the preliminary section at n.21. If then we put good for love, and truth for wisdom, in what has been said, it is plain that there is “truth of good” or “truth from good,” and “good of truth” or good from such truth.

CL (Wunsch) n. 89 89. An inclination to unite into one has been implanted in these two by creation, because one is formed from the other: wisdom from the love of being wise or truth from good, and the love of wisdom from that wisdom, or good of truth from that truth; and due to this formation it can be seen that there is a mutual inclination to reunite and join into one. But this reunion takes place with men who are in genuine wisdom, and with women who are in the love of that wisdom in the husband, thus with those who are in true marital love. More will be said in what follows about the wisdom which the husband must have, and which the wife must love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 90 90. (iv) In subjects of the animal kingdom truth of good or truth from good is the masculine, and good of truth therefrom or good from that truth is the feminine. We have shown above (nn. 84-86) that from the Lord the Creator and Upholder of the universe a perpetual union of love and wisdom or marriage of good and truth inflows, from which created subjects receive each what accords with its form. Reason in its own light can see from various things that the masculine receives truth of wisdom from the marriage or union, and that to this the Lord conjoins good of love according to reception�a reception which takes place in the understanding, for the masculine is born to become intellectual. Reason may see this especially from masculine affection, activity, ways and figure. [2] From masculine affection: this is an affection of knowing, of being intelligent and wise�in boyhood, an affection of knowing, in adolescence and early manhood, an affection of becoming intelligent, and from early manhood to old age, an affection of becoming wise. It is evident from this that a man’s nature or disposition tends to the forming of the intellect, consequently that he is born to become intellectual, but as this cannot be accomplished except by love, the Lord adjoins love according to reception, that is, according to the disposition and desire to become wise. [3] From masculine activity: a man is active in things of the understanding or things in which understanding predominates, most of which are activities and entail duties outside the home. From masculine ways: these are all characterized by predominance of the mental; thence it is that the acts of a man’s life, which are meant by “ways,” are rational, or if they are not, he wishes them to appear so: masculine rationality is to be seen, too, in a man’s virtues. From the masculine figure, different and altogether distinct from the feminine (see on this subject above, n.33). It is to be added that generative power is in the male; it has no other source than the intellect, for it exists by truth from good there. That generative power has this source will be seen in what follows.*
* Nn. 220 [1, 2], 433.

CL (Wunsch) n. 91 91. Woman, on the other hand, is born to be volitional from the understanding of the man, or what is the same, to be the love of man’s wisdom, because she was formed through his wisdom (on this see above, nn. 88, 89). In turn this is evident from woman’s affection, activity, ways and figure. From her affection: this is an affection for loving knowledge, intelligence and wisdom, yet not in herself, but in man, and so of loving the man, for a man cannot be loved just for his semblance or because he appears like a man, but for the endowments which make him a man. From woman’s activity: she engages in such things as handwork, like knitting, embroidery, and so on, serving for adornment to decorate herself and heighten her beauty; and also in various domestic duties, which supplement the man’s duties, which, as we have said, are outside the home. Women pursue these activities from an inclination to marriage, to become wives and thus one with their husbands. It needs no words to show that this is evident also from feminine ways and figure.

CL (Wunsch) n. 92 92. (v) Love for the sex and marital love come by an influx of the marriage of good and truth from the Lord. Good and truth, we have said, are the universals of creation and so are in all created things, in each according to its form. Good and truth also proceed from the Lord not as two but as one. It follows (see nn. 84-87) that a universal marital sphere proceeds from the Lord and pervades the universe from first to last, from the angels to the lowliest forms of life. The sphere of the marriage of good and truth proceeding from the Lord has this range because it is also the sphere of propagation, that is, of prolification and fructification; which is the same as the Divine Providence’s maintenance of the universe by successive generations. Now, because this universal sphere, which is the sphere of the marriage of good and truth, flows into subjects according to the form of each (n. 86), it follows that the male receives it according to his form, thus in the understanding, because he is an intellectual form; and that the female receives it according to her form, thus in the will, because she is a volitional form from man’s intellectual. Inasmuch as the same sphere is also one of prolification, it follows that sexual love is thence.

CL (Wunsch) n. 93 93. Marital love also comes of this sphere, because in men and angels this sphere flows into the form of wisdom. The human being can increase in wisdom to the end of life in the world and afterwards to eternity in heaven. As wisdom increases, his form is perfected. This form does not receive love for the sex, but love for one of the sex. With her he can be united to the inmosts, in which is heaven with its happinesses, and this union is one of marital love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 94 94. (vi) Love for the sex is of the external or natural man and hence is common to all animals. Every human being is born corporeal, becomes more and more interiorly natural, and as he loves intelligence becomes rational, and afterwards, as he loves wisdom, becomes spiritual (by what wisdom he becomes spiritual, will be told in what follows, n. 130). As a man advances from knowledge to intelligence in this way, and on into wisdom, his mind changes its form, for it is developed more and more and united more closely with heaven and through heaven with the Lord; so one becomes a greater lover of truth and ever more studious of the good of life. If then one stops at the first threshold of this progress toward wisdom, the form of the mind remains natural, and this receives the influx of the universal sphere (the sphere of the marriage of good and truth) no differently from the way the lower subjects of the animal kingdom, or beasts and birds, receive it. These are merely natural, and the man becomes like them and loves the sex in the same way they do. So is the proposition meant that love for the sex is of the external or natural man and hence is common to all animals.

CL (Wunsch) n. 95 95. (vii) But marital love is of the internal or spiritual man, and is therefore peculiar to man. Marital love is of the internal or spiritual man, for the reason that the more intelligent and wise the human being becomes, the more he becomes internal and spiritual; so much more, too, is his mind’s form perfected, and this form receives marital love. For it perceives and feels in that love a spiritual joy which inwardly is beatific, and a natural joy which has its soul, life and essence from the spiritual joy.

CL (Wunsch) n. 96 96. Marital love is peculiar to the human being because only he can become spiritual. He can raise his understanding above his natural loves, from that elevation can see them below himself and judge of what character they are, and can amend, discipline or remove them. This no animal can do, for its loves are bound up with its inborn knowledge, which cannot be heightened to intelligence, still less to wisdom. As a result, an animal is led by the love implanted in its knowledge as a blind man is led through the streets by a dog. Hence marital love is peculiar to the human being. It can be said to be native and germane to man, because he possesses the faculty of becoming wise, with which marital love makes one.

CL (Wunsch) n. 97 97. (viii) In the human being marital love is within love for the sex like a gem in its matrix. This is only a simile; the idea will be explained in the following article. The simile serves to indicate, too, that sexual love is of the external or natural man, and marital love of the internal or spiritual (as was shown just above, n.95).

CL (Wunsch) n. 98 98. (ix) Love for the sex with the human being is not the origin but the first stage of marital love, and is like an external natural in which an internal spiritual is implanted. (We are dealing here with true marital love, and not with ordinary marital love, which with some is nothing more than a limited sexual love.) True marital love exists only with those who strive after and advance in wisdom more and more. The Lord foresees these, and provides marital love for them. Even with them this love begins, to be sure, in love for the sex, or rather by love for the sex; it does not, however, arise from it. For it arises as wisdom advances and moves into light with a man; wisdom and marital love are inseparable companions. [2] Marital love begins in sexual love for the reason that until a partner is found, the sex in general is loved, regarded affectionately, and treated with civility and respect. The young man has a choice to make, and his external nature is gently warmed at the time from an implanted inclination, hidden in his mind’s sanctuary, to marriage with one young woman. It must be remarked, too, that for many reasons decisions upon marriage are often delayed well into manhood; meanwhile the beginnings of love are like lust, in some becoming an actualized love for the sex, though they give it rein no farther than to conduce to health. This last has been said, not of the female sex, but only of the male sex, which feels an enticement which actively enkindles. It is evident from these things that sexual love is not the origin of marital love, but its first manifestation in time, though not in purpose. First in purpose is what is first in mind and in the intention, because this is primary. What is first in purpose is approached only by successive stages: the stages are not themselves what is first, but lead to what is first in itself.

CL (Wunsch) n. 99 99. (x) When marital love has been implanted, love for the sex alters and becomes chaste love of the sex. It is said that love for the sex is changed, even inverted ,because when marital love rises to its origin, which is in the mind’s interiors, it sees sexual love not before it but behind it, not above it but below it, and thus as something which it leaves in passing. It is much as when one mounts by a number of offices to one of especial prestige, and from it sees behind or below him the offices he has passed through. Or as when one makes a journey to the court of some king, and after arrival looks back over what he saw along the way. That love for the sex remains then and becomes chaste, and yet is sweeter than before to those who are in marital love, can be seen from the description of it in two Memorabilia (nn. 44 and 55) given from the spiritual world by dwellers in that world.

CL (Wunsch) n. 100 100. (xi) Male and female were created to be Me very form of Me marriage of good and truth, for the reason that the male was created to be an understanding of truth, thus truth in embodiment, and the female to be a will of good, thus good in form, and on both there has been impressed inmostly an inclination to conjunction into one (see above, n.88). The two thus make one form, which emulates the marital form of good and truth. It is said to emulate it, for it is not identical with it, but like it. For while the good which is conjoined with truth in the husband is immediately from the Lord, the wife’s good which conjoins itself with truth in the husband, is from the Lord mediately through the wife. There are accordingly two goods, one internal, the other external, which conjoin themselves with truth in the husband; and they bring it about that the husband is constantly in an understanding of truth and so in wisdom through true marital love; but of this more in what follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 101 101. (xii) It is as the interiors of their minds are opened that two partners come into this form in their inmosts, and then in the derivations from the inmosts. Every human being consists of three things, which follow in order in him, soul, mind and body; his inmost is the soul, the mind his mediate, and the body his last. Everything that flows from the Lord into the human being flows into his inmost, the soul, and thence descends into his mediate, the mind, and by this into his last, which is the body. The marriage of good and truth from the Lord flows into man in the same way; immediately into his soul, thence into what follows, and by this to the extremes; throughout, therefore, it brings marital love. An idea of this influx will make it plain that two partners are this form in their inmosts, and thence in what follows from the inmosts.

CL (Wunsch) n. 102 102. Partners become such a form, however, only as the interiors of the mind are opened. The human mind is gradually opened from infancy to advanced old age. For man is born corporeal, and as the mind next above the body is opened, he becomes rational; then as this rational is purified and as it were decanted of the fallacies inflowing from the body’s senses, and of the lusts inflowing from enticements of the flesh, it, too, is opened, which is done solely through wisdom; and finally when the rational mind’s interiors have been opened, the human being is a form of wisdom, and this form is the receptacle of true marital love.
The wisdom which makes this form and receives this love is rational wisdom and at the same time moral wisdom. Rational wisdom regards goods and truths, which appear interiorly in one, not as one’s own, but as inflowing from the Lord. Moral wisdom shuns as leprosies evils and falsities, especially things lascivious which contaminate its marital love.*
* In the original Latin this paragraph is enclosed in quotation marks.

CL (Wunsch) n. 103 103. I add two Memorabilia.

I

One morning before sunrise, as I looked toward the east in the spiritual world, I beheld four horsemen flying, so it seemed, out of a cloud resplendent with the glow of dawn. On the horsemen’s heads appeared crested helmets; on their arms, as it were wings; and about their bodies light tunics of an orange color. Thus arrayed as for speed, they bent forward and drew the reins taut over the manes of their horses, which sped along as though their feet were winged. I followed their course or flight with my eyes, with a mind to know where they were going. Three of the horsemen shot off in three directions, south, west and north; and the fourth came to an abrupt stop in the east.
[2] Wondering at this, I looked up to heaven and asked where the horsemen were going. I received for answer:
“To the wise in the kingdoms of Europe, men of keen reason and acute insight in investigating subjects, who enjoy high praise among their people for their genius; that they may come and explain the secret of The Origin of Marital Love and of its Vigor or Potency.”
They said from heaven, “Wait a while and you will see twenty-seven chariots, three with Spaniards in them, three with French or Gauls, three with Italians, three with Germans, three with Batavians or Hollanders, three with English, three with Swedes, three with Danes, and three with Poles.”
After two hours the chariots appeared, drawn by small, light-bay horses, elegantly caparisoned. They swept toward a spacious building which was to be seen in the southeast. There all the occupants of the chariots alighted, and entered with an air of confidence.
And I was bidden, “Do you go in, too, and listen.”
[3] I went and entered. Examining the building inside, I noted that it was square, the sides turned to the four quarters. On each side were three lofty windows of crystalline glass, with frames of olive wood. Beside each window were projections from the walls like chambers, vaulted over, with tables in them. The walls of the chambers were of cedar, the roof of noble thyine-wood, and the floor of poplar plank. Against the eastern wall, which had no windows, stood a table overlaid with gold, on which was placed a tiara studded with precious stones; this was to be bestowed as a prize or reward on the man who should solve the secret about to be propounded. [4] As I glanced along the chambered projections, like so many closets beside the windows, I saw in each five men from each kingdom of Europe, ready and awaiting the subject on which they were to form judgments.
At that instant an angel stood in the center of the palace, and said, “The subject on which you are to form a judgment is The Origin of Marital Love and of its Vigor or Potency. Consider it and decide. Set down your decision on a paper to be put into this silver urn which you see placed beside the golden table. Subscribe yourselves with the initial letter of the kingdom from which you are; that is, for the French or Gauls, F; for the Batavians or Hollanders, B; for the Italians, I; for the English, E; for the Poles, P; for the Germans, G; for the Spaniards (Hispani), H; for the Danes, D; and for the Swedes, S.” With these words the angel departed, saying, “I shall return.”
Then the five compatriots in the apartments by the windows revolved and analysed the proposition, and according to the excellence of their gift of judgment made their decision, wrote it on sheets of paper subscribed with the initial letter of their kingdom, and cast it into the silver receptacle. This was over in three hours, when the angel returned, drew the papers out of the urn, one after another, and read them to the assemblage.

CL (Wunsch) n. 104 104. From the first paper, which his hand seized at random, he read as follows: “We five compatriots, in our cubicle, have concluded that marital love had its origin with the most ancient people in the Golden Age, and indeed in the creation of Adam and his wife. Thence is the origin of marriages, and along with marriages, of marital love. As for the vigor or potency of marital love, we trace it to a single source, climate, or the incidence of the sun and its heat in a land. We have considered the subject not by vain conjectures of the reason, but from the plain indications of experience. We have considered, for instance, peoples under the equinoxial line or circle, where the heat of day is a burning heat, and peoples who dwell nearer to that circle or farther from it. We have also noted the cooperation of solar heat with vital heat in animals of the earth and in birds of the air in the springtime, when they propagate. Besides, what is marital love but heat, which, with the addition of the re-enforcing heat of the sun, becomes vigor or potency?” To this was subscribed the letter H, the initial letter of the kingdom to which the writers belonged.

CL (Wunsch) n. 105 105. Thereupon the angel thrust his hand into the urn a second time and drew out a paper from which he read as follows: “We compatriots in our booth have agreed that the origin of marital love is the same as the origin of marriages. Marriages have been sanctioned by law to restrain the innate human lusts for adulteries, which ruin the soul, debase the reason, defile the morals and waste the body with disease. For adulteries are not human but bestial, not rational but brutish, and thus not by any means Christian but barbarous. Marriages, and along with them marital love, arose in condemnation of such evils. The like applies to the vigor or potency of marital love, for potency depends upon chastity, which is abstinence from vagrant whoredoms. For with a man who loves only his married partner, vigor or potency is kept for one and thus is self-possessed and, as it were, concentrated; and then it becomes what we may call a noble quintessence, freed from defilements which otherwise would dissipate and scatter it in every direction. One of us five, who is a priest, adds predestination also as a cause of that vigor or potency, saying, ‘Are not marriages predestined? If they are, any fruit from them and the power thereto are also predestined.’ He has insisted upon this cause, having sworn to it.” To this was subscribed the letter B.
On hearing this some one said in a mocking tone, “Predestination! What a handsome justification for defect or impotence!”

CL (Wunsch) n. 106 106. Presently the angel produced a paper from the urn for the third time, and read as follows: “We compatriots, in our cell, have pondered the causes of the origin of marital love, and have found that the chief cause is the same as that for the origin of marriage. Previously that love had no existence; it arose from the fact that when one pines for or desperately loves a young woman with heart and soul, he desires to have her as a possession lovely above all things. As soon as she pledges herself, he regards her quite as self regards its own. That this is the origin of marital love is very clear from a man’s fury at rivals, and from his jealousy toward trespassers. We afterwards considered the origin of the vigor or potency of that love. Three have prevailed against two that vigor or potency with a married partner is from some license with the sex. They said that they know from experience that the potency of sexual love surpasses the potency of marital love.” This was subscribed with the letter I.
Hearing this there was a cry from the tables, “Put that paper aside and take another from the urn.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 107 107. In a moment the angel drew out a fourth, from which he read the following: “We compatriots at our window have decided that the origin of marital love and of love for the sex is the same, because the former is from the latter, only sexual love is unlimited, indeterminate, loose, promiscuous and vagrant; while marital love is limited, determinate, restrained, individual and constant. Hence, in the prudence of the race’s wisdom, married love has been sanctioned and established. Otherwise no empire, kingdom or republic, nor any society at all could exist; but bands of men would roam field and forest with harlots and ravished women; and people would fly from settlement to settlement to escape the bloody murders, violations and rapine, by which the race would be extirpated. This is our judgment concerning the origin of marital love. But the vigor or potency of the love we trace to bodily health steadily maintained from birth to old age. For a man who has always been sound and is possessed of firm health, does not fail in virility; his fibres, nerves, muscles and virile cords do not become torpid, relaxed and flaccid, but continue in the strength of their powers. Farewell.” This was subscribed with the letter E.

CL (Wunsch) n. 108 108. A fifth time the angel took a paper from the urn and read from it as follows: “We compatriots at our table have looked by the rational light of our minds into the origin of marital love, and into the origin of its vigor or potency. We have seen and confirmed by careful reasonings that the origin of marital love is none other than this: due to cravings and their urgings concealed in the secret chambers of mind and body, a man, after various lusts of the eyes, at length turns and inclines his mind to one woman, until he inwardly kindles toward her. From this time his ardor proceeds from flame to flame until he is all on fire. Lust toward the sex is banished then, and marital love arises in its place. In his ardor a young husband does not know but that the vigor or potency of this love will never cease; for he has no experience and hence no knowledge of a state of deficient powers or of the cooling of love after its delights. Marital love has its origin, therefore, in this first ardor before the nuptials; and its vigor or potency is thence. But after love’s nuptial torches potency changes, decreasing and increasing; and yet, with steady alternation in decreasing and increasing, it endures even to old age if there is prudent moderation and if the lusts are bridled which break out from the still uncleansed caverns of the mind. For lust precedes wisdom. This is our judgment respecting the origin and persistence of marital vigor and potency.” To this was subscribed the letter P.

CL (Wunsch) n. 109 109. The sixth time the angel drew out a paper from which he read as follows: “We compatriots in our fellowship have considered causes of the origin of marital love and have agreed upon two; one of which is that children may be reared properly, and the other that the line of inheritance may be preserved. We have selected these two because they converge on and aim at one object�the public good. The public good is secured by marital love inasmuch as the children conceived and born of such love become society’s acknowledged own, and through love for offspring, heightened because they are of legitimate descent, are educated as heirs of all the possessions, both spiritual and natural, of their parents. It is evident to reason that the public good is founded on the right bringing-up of children and on the preservation of the line of inheritance. There is sexual love, and there is marital love, and the latter love seems to be one with the former, but they are decidedly different. Nor is one by the side of the other, but within the other, and what is within is nobler than what is without. We have also seen that by creation marital love is within and is concealed in sexual love as an almond is in its shell. When, then, marital love is drawn from its shell, which is love for the sex, it shines before the angels like a gem, a beryl or astroite. This is because the salvation of the whole human race, which is what we mean by the public good, is inscribed on marital love. This is our judgment respecting the origin of that love. But the origin of its vigor or potency (we conclude from a consideration of the causes) is the disengaging and separation of marital love from love for the sex, which is effected by wisdom on the part of the man, and by love of the man’s wisdom on the part of the wife. For sexual love is common to man and beast, but marital love is peculiar to the human being. In so far, therefore, as marital love is freed from love for the sex, man is man and not beast. A man also has vigor or potency from his own love, as a beast has from his.” This was subscribed with the letter G.

CL (Wunsch) n. 110 110. A seventh time the angel drew out a paper, from which he read as follows: “We compatriots in the chamber under the light of our window have exhilarated our thoughts and thence our judgments by meditation upon marital love. Who would not be exhilarated by that love? For when it is in the mind it is at the same time in the whole body. We judge of the origin of this love from its delights. Who has ever known anything whatever of any love except from the delight and pleasure of it? The delights of marital love are felt in their origins as beatitudes, satisfactions and felicities, and in their derivations as gladnesses and pleasures, and in ultimates as the delight of delights. Love of the sex therefore arises when the interiors of the mind and thence the interiors of the body are opened to the influx of those joys; but marital love arises when, through betrothings, the early sphere of this love further enhances the joys. As regards the vigor or potency of marital love, it comes from the fact that the stream of this love can pass from the mind into the body; for the mind is in the body from the head, when it is feeling and acting, especially when it is in delight from this love. Hence, we judge, are the degrees of potency and the constancy of its alternations. We also trace virile strength to the physical stock. If this is noble in the father, it is noble as transmitted to the offspring. That this nobility is reproduced, inherited and passed to descendants, is a fact on which reason agrees with experience.” To this was subscribed the letter F.

CL (Wunsch) n. 111 111. For the eighth time a paper was lifted out, from which the angel read as follows: “We compatriots in our meeting have not found the very origin of marital love, for that lies inmostly secluded in the sanctuaries of the mind. Not even the most consummate wisdom can by any line of understanding reach that love in its origin. We have made many conjectures, but after vainly attempted subtleties, we do not know whether our surmises are trifles or sound judgments. Any one who wants to draw the origin of that love from the sanctuaries of the mind, and set it before his eyes, must go to Delphi. We have contemplated the love below its source�how in the mind it is spiritual, and how it flows thence as from a fountain with a delicious current into the breast, where it becomes delightful and is called bosom love, which considered in itself is utter friendship and trust with a full mutual inclination; and how when it passes through the breast it becomes generative love. When a young man revolves these and like things in his thoughts, as he does when he chooses one of the sex for himself, they kindle in his heart the fire of marital love; this fire, being the first stage of that love, is its origin. We also acknowledge nothing besides that love itself as the origin of its vigor or potency, for they are inseparable companions, though sometimes one, sometimes the other, is first. When the love is first and vigor or potency follows, each is noble, because the potency is then the vigor of marital love. But if the potency precedes and love follows, each is ignoble because then the love comes of carnal potency. We therefore judge the quality of either by the order, according as the love descends or ascends and so proceeds from origin to goal.” To this was subscribed the letter D.

CL (Wunsch) n. 112 sRef Matt@19 @6 S0′ sRef Gen@2 @24 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @4 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @5 S0′ 112. The last and ninth time the angel drew a paper, from which he read as follows: “We compatriots in our assemblage have applied our judgment to the two points propounded�the origin of marital love, and the origin of its vigor or potency. While pursuing the subtleties of the origin of marital love, in order to avoid obscurity in our reasoning we distinguished between spiritual, natural and carnal love of the sex. By spiritual love of the sex we mean true marital love, for this is spiritual; by natural love of the sex we mean polygamous love, for this is natural; and by merely carnal love of the sex we mean scortatory love, because this is merely carnal. Looking with the judgment into true marital love, we have seen clearly that it is possible only between one man and one woman; and that by creation it is heavenly, inmost, and the soul and father of all good loves, having been inspired into our first parents, and being inspirable into Christians. It is also so uniting that two minds can be made one by it, and two human beings like one man, which is meant by becoming ‘one flesh.’ That this love was inspired from creation is plain from these words in the Book of Creation:�

And a man shall leave father and mother; and shall cleave to his wife, and they shall be one flesh (Genesis ii. 24).

That it may be inspired into Christians is plain from these words:�

Jesus said, Have you not read that He who made them from the beginning made them male and female? And He said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother and shall cleave to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh; wherefore they are no more two but one flesh (Matthew xix. 4-6).

So much on the origin of marital love. But the origin of the vigor or potency of true marital love, we conjecture, arises from similarity of minds and unanimity. For when two minds are conjoined in marriage, their thoughts spiritually kiss each other and breathe their vigor or potency into the body.” To this was subscribed the letter S.

CL (Wunsch) n. 113 113. Behind a rather long partition, erected near the doors in the palace, some strangers from Africa were standing, who called out to the natives of Europe, “Allow one of us to offer an opinion about the origin of marital love and its vigor or potency.”
All the tables agreed by show of hands to give permission.
One of the Africans thereupon entered and standing by the table on which the tiara was placed, said, “You Christians trace the origin of marital love to the love itself. We Africans trace it to the God of heaven and earth. Is not marital love a chaste, pure and holy love? Are not the angels of heaven in that love? Are not the whole human race and the whole angelic heaven therefrom the fruitage of that love? Can anything so preeminent have any other source than God Himself, the Creator and Sustainer of the universe? You Christians trace marital vigor or potency to different rational and natural causes. We Africans trace it to man’s state of conjunction with the God of the universe. This state we call a state of religion, but you call it a state of the Church. For when the love is from that union and is steady and perpetual, it is bound to put forth its vigor which bears its likeness and therefore is also steady and perpetual. True marital love is the experience of the few who are near to God; and therefore the potency of that love is known to no others. The love and the potency are described by the angels in heaven as the delight of perpetual spring.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 114 114. Following these words, all arose; and behind the golden table on which was the tiara, a window showed, invisible before, and from beyond the window a voice was heard, “Let the Tiara be the African’s!” The angel gave it into his hand, but did not place it on his head, and the African went home with it. And the natives of the countries of Europe filed out, entered their chariots, and returned to their own people.

CL (Wunsch) n. 115

115. II

Aroused* from sleep in the middle of the night, I saw at a height toward the east an angel holding in his right hand a paper, which was glistening white under the inflowing light of the sun; and in the middle of it was some writing in letters of gold. I saw written: The Marriage of Good and Truth. From the writing flashed a radiance which spread in a wide circle around the paper. The widening circle looked like a dawn in springtime.
After this I saw the angel descending with the paper in his hand. As he descended, it glistened less and less, and the inscription, “The Marriage of Good and Truth,” changed in color from gold to silver, then to copper, afterwards to iron, and finally to the color of iron rust and copper rust. At last the angel seemed to pass into a bedimming mist and through it to the ground, and there the paper, although still in the angel’s hand, was not to be seen. This happened in the world of spirits where all men first meet after death.
[2] Then the angel spoke to me, saying, “Ask those who come this way whether they see me, or anything in my hand.”
There came a multitude, a company from the east, one from the south, another from the west, and a company from the north. I asked those who came from the east and the south (in the world they had devoted themselves to learning) whether they saw anybody with me, and saw anything in his hand. All replied they saw nothing at all. I then put my question to those who came from the west and the north (men who in the world had rested their belief on words of the learned). They said they saw nothing. But some in the background (who in the world had lived in simple faith from charity or in some truth from good), when the rest had left, said that they saw a man with a paper�a man in seemly apparel, and a paper with letters on it. When they looked more closely, they said that they read, “The Marriage of Good and Truth.” They addressed the angel, and asked him to tell what this meant.
[3] And he said, “All things which exist anywhere in either heaven or the world are nothing but a marriage of good and truth. Each and all things, both those which live and breathe and those which do not live and breathe, were created by and into the marriage of good and truth. Nothing whatever is created in truth alone and nothing whatever in good alone. Neither good solitary nor truth solitary is anything; they exist and become something by marriage, and something of a similar kind with the marriage. Divine Good and Divine Truth are to be found in their very substance in the Lord the Creator. The esse of His substance is Divine Good, and the existere of His substance is Divine Truth. Good and truth are also in their very union in Him; for they make one infinitely in Him. Being one in the Creator Himself, these two are also one in each and all things created by Him. Thereby the Creator and all things created by Him are united in an eternal covenant as it were of marriage.”

[4] The angel said further that Sacred Scripture, which proceeded directly from the Lord, is in general and in particular a marriage of good and truth. Moreover, as the Church, which is formed by truth of doctrine, and religion, which is formed by good of life according to truth of doctrine, are derived with Christians solely from Sacred Scripture, it is evident that the Church, too, in general and in particular, is a marriage of good and truth. (That it is, see Apocalypse Revealed, nn. 373, 483.) What we have said about the marriage of good and truth may be said as well of the marriage of charity and faith, for good is of charity and truth is of faith.
Some of those who had failed to see the angel or the writing, but were still standing near, hearing these things, said under their breath, “Why, of course, that is plain.” Whereupon the angel said to them, “Turn away a little from me and repeat what you said.” They turned away and said in a loud voice, “It is not so.”
[5] After this the angel spoke about the marriage of good and truth with married partners, saying that if their minds were in that marriage, or if the husband was truth and the wife the good of this truth, they would both be in the delights of the blessedness of innocence, and thence in the happiness in which the angels of heaven are. In that state the generative power of the husband would be at a perpetual springtime, and so in the effort and ability to propagate his truth; and the wife would be in perpetual reception of it from love: “Wisdom from the Lord with men knows nothing more agreeable than to propagate its truths. Love of wisdom with wives knows nothing more delightful than to receive these truths as in the womb and so to conceive them, carry them in the womb and give them birth. Of this sort are the spiritual prolifications among the angels of heaven. And if you will believe it, natural prolifications have the very same origin.”
After a salutation of peace the angel rose from the earth, and passing through the mist ascended into heaven. Then the paper in his hand glistened as before, ever more brightly as he ascended. The circle of light about it which had looked like the dawn, crept down and dispelled the mist which had thrown a shadow over the earth; and the sun came out.
* These Memorabilia, abbreviated, occur again in True Christian Religion, n. 624.

CL (Wunsch) n. 116

116. V

THE MARRIAGE OF THE LORD AND THE CHURCH, AND ITS CORRESPONDENCE

We also deal at this point with the marriage of the Lord and the Church, and its correspondence, because without knowledge and intelligence on this subject one can hardly know that marital love is holy, spiritual and celestial in origin and is from the Lord. Some in the Church do say that marriages bear a relation to the marriage of the Lord and the Church, but what the relation is, is not known. In order to place the relation in some light of the understanding, we give a separate chapter to that holy marriage, which is with and in those who constitute the Lord’s Church; these and no others have true marital love. To elucidate this arcanum, our discussion is to be divided into the following propositions:
i. In the Word the Lord is called Bridegroom and Husband and the Church Bride and Wife; and the conjunction of the Lord with the Church and the reciprocal conjunction of the Church with the Lord, is called marriage.
ii. So, too, the Lord is called Father, and the Church Mother.
iii. The offspring of the Lord as Father and of the Church as Wife and Mother are all spiritual, and are meant in the spiritual sense of the Word by sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, sons-in-law and daughters-in-law, and by other names denoting generation.
iv. The spiritual offspring, born of the marriage of the Lord and the Church, are truths, from which are understanding, perception and all thought; and goods, from which are love, charity and all affection.
v. From the marriage of good and truth, proceeding and in flowing from the Lord, the human being receives truth; to this the Lord conjoins good; and so the Church is formed with man by the Lord.
vi. The husband does not represent the Lord and the wife the Church, inasmuch as both together, husband and wife, constitute the Church.
vii. There is therefore no correspondence of the husband with the Lord or of the wife with the Church in the marriages either of the angels in heaven or of men on earth.
viii. But the correspondence is with marital love, impregnation, the bearing of offspring, love for children, and like things in and of marriages.
ix. The Word is the medium of conjunction, for it is from the Lord, and is the Lord.
x. The Church is from the Lord and with those who approach Him and live according to His commandments.
xi. Marital love is according to the state of the Church with a man, because it is according to the state of wisdom with him.
xii. Because the Church is from the Lord, marital love also is.

Explanation of the propositions follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 117 sRef John@3 @29 S0′ sRef Matt@9 @15 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @10 S0′ sRef Rev@19 @7 S0′ sRef Rev@19 @9 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @2 S0′ sRef Rev@21 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@25 @13 S0′ 117. (i) In the Word, the Lord is called Bridegroom and Husband and the Church Bride and Wife, and the conjunction of the Lord with the Church and the reciprocal conjunction of the Church with the Lord, is called marriage. That the Lord is called Bridegroom and Husband in the Word, and the Church Bride and Wife, is evident from these passages:

He who has the Bride is the Bridegroom; but the friend of the Bridegroom, who stands and hears Him, rejoices with great joy at the Bridegroom’s voice (John iii. 29);

John the Baptist spoke this of the Lord.

Jesus said, As long as the Bridegroom is with them, the children of the nuptials cannot fast: the days will come when the Bridegroom will be taken away from them, then will they fast (Matthew ix. 15, Mark ii. 19, 20, Luke v. 34, 35).
I saw the Holy City, New Jerusalem .. . prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband (Revelation xxi. 2);

by the ‘New Jerusalem,’ the Lord’s new Church is meant (see Apocalypse Revealed, nn. 880, 881 ).

The angel said to John, Come, I will show you the Bride, the Lamb’s Wife; and he showed him the Holy City, Jerusalem (Revelation xxi. 9, 10) .
The time of the nuptials of the Lamb has come, and His Wife has made herself ready: . . . blessed are those who have been called to the marriage supper of the Lamb (Revelation xix. 7, 9).
The Lord also is meant by the Bridegroom whom the five virgins who were ready went to meet and with whom they entered into the wedding (Matthew xxv. 1-10), as is plain from verse 13, where it is said,

Watch therefore, for you know not the day or the hour in which the Son of man will come.

We might cite many passages from the Prophets, too.

CL (Wunsch) n. 118 sRef John@10 @30 S0′ sRef Matt@7 @18 S0′ sRef Matt@7 @17 S0′ sRef John@12 @45 S0′ sRef John@16 @15 S0′ sRef Isa@63 @16 S0′ sRef John@10 @38 S0′ sRef Isa@9 @6 S0′ sRef John@14 @9 S0′ sRef John@14 @8 S0′ sRef John@14 @7 S0′ 118. (ii) So, too, the Lord is called Father, and the Church, Mother. That the Lord is called Father is evident from these passages:

A Child is born to us, a Son is given us, and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, God, … the Father of eternity, the Prince of peace (Isaiah ix. 6).
Thou, Jehovah, art our Father, Redeemer from eternity is Thy name (Isaiah lxiii. 16).
Jesus said, He who sees Me, sees the Father, who sent Me (John xii. 45).
If you had known Me, you would have known My Father also; and from henceforth you know Him and have seen Him (John xiv. 7).
Philip said, Show us the Father, . . . Jesus said to him . . . He that has seen Me, has seen the Father; why then do you say, show us the Father? ( John xiv. 8, 9).
Jesus said, The Father and I are One (John x. 30).
All things which the Father has, are mine (John xvi. 15; xvii. 10).
The Father is in Me, and I in the Father (John x. 38; xiv. 10, 11, 20).

We have demonstrated in the Apocalypse Revealed that the Lord and His Father are one as soul and body are one; that God the Father descended from heaven and assumed the humanity to redeem and save men; and that it is the humanity which is called the Son, who was sent into the world.

CL (Wunsch) n. 119 sRef Ezek@16 @45 S0′ sRef Hos@2 @5 S0′ sRef Hos@2 @2 S0′ sRef Ezek@19 @10 S0′ sRef Isa@50 @1 S0′ sRef Luke@8 @21 S0′ sRef John@19 @26 S0′ sRef John@19 @27 S0′ sRef John@19 @25 S0′ 119. That the Church is called Mother is evident from these passages:

Jehovah said, Plead with your mother, she is not my wife, and I am not her husband (Hosea ii. 2);
You are your mother’s daughter, who loathes her husband (Ezekiel xvi. 45)
Where is the bill of your mother’s divorcement, whom I put away? (Isaiah 1.i);
Your mother is like a vine … planted by the waters, fruitful (Ezekiel xix. 10);

all this with reference to the Jewish Church.

Stretching forth His hand, Jesus said, My mother and my brothers … are those who hear the Word of God and do it (Luke viii. 21; Matthew xii. 49, 50; Mark iii. 33-35)

the Church is meant by the “Lord’s disciples.”

His mother stood at Jesus’ cross … And Jesus, seeing His mother and the disciple standing near whom He loved, said to His mother, Woman, behold, your son; and He said to the disciple, Behold, your mother; wherefore from that hour the disciple took her in his own home (John xix. 25-27).

These words indicate that the Lord did not recognize Mary but the Church as His mother; hence He calls her “woman” and mother of the disciple. He called her the mother of this particular disciple, John, for the reason that John represented the Church as to the goods of charity�these are the Church in its whole effect. Therefore it is said that John took her to his home. See in Apocalypse Revealed (nn. 5, 6, 790, 798, 879) that Peter represented truth and faith, James charity, and John the works of charity; and (nn. 233, 790, 903, 915) that the twelve disciples together represented the Church as to all its elements.

CL (Wunsch) n. 120 120. (iii) The offspring of the Lord as Husband and Father and of the Church as Wife and Mother are all spiritual, and are meant in the spiritual sense of the Word by sons and daughters, brothers and sisters, sons-in-law and daughters-in-law, and by other names denoting generation. We do not need to demonstrate that only spiritual offspring can be born of the Lord by the Church; reason sees this for itself. From the Lord all good and truth proceed, and the Church receives them and gives them effect; and all things spiritual of heaven and the Church relate to good and truth. Hence it is that truths and goods are meant by “sons and daughters” in the Word in its spiritual sense,�by “sons” truths conceived in the spiritual man and born in the natural, and goods similarly by “daughters.” Those who are regenerated by the Lord are therefore in the Word called “sons of God,” “children of the kingdom,” and “born from Him”; the Lord also called His disciples “children.” No different offspring is signified by the male child which the woman brought forth and which was caught up to God (Revelation xii. 5; see Apocalypse Revealed, n. 543). Because goods of the Church are signified by “daughters”, there is such frequent mention in the Word of the “daughter of Zion,” of the “daughter of Jerusalem,” of the “daughter of Israel” and “of Judah”; no daughter is meant, but the affection of good, which is an affection of the Church (see Apocalypse Revealed, n. 612). The Lord also called those who are of His Church brothers and sisters (Matthew xii. 50; xxv. 40; xxviii. 10; Mark iii. 35; Luke viii. 21).

CL (Wunsch) n. 121 121. (iv) The spiritual offspring, born of the marriage of the Lord and the Church, are truths, from which are understanding, perception and all thought; and goods, from which are love, charity and all affection. Truths and goods are the spiritual offspring which are born of the Lord by the Church, for the reason that the Lord is good itself and truth itself, and these are not two in Him but one, and because nothing can proceed from the Lord except what is in Him and is He. We have shown in the preceding chapter on the marriage of good and truth that that marriage proceeds from the Lord, flows in with men, and is received according to the state of mind and life of those who are of the Church. The human being has understanding, perception and all thought by truths, and love, charity and all affection by goods, for the reason that all the human life is referable to good and truth. Two things constitute man, namely, will and understanding, and the will is the receptacle of good and the understanding of truth. It needs no light from demonstration to see that love, charity and affection are of the will, and perception and thought are of the understanding, for there is light in the proposition from the understanding itself.

CL (Wunsch) n. 122 122. (v) From the marriage of good and truth, proceeding and inflowing from the Lord, the human being receives truth; to this the Lord conjoins good; and so the Church is formed with man by the Lord. The human being receives truth from the good and truth which proceed as one from the Lord, because truth he receives as his own, appropriating it as his, for he thinks it as of himself and in like manner speaks from it. For truth stands in the light of the understanding, and hence he sees it; and whatever he sees in himself or in his mind, of that he does not know the source, for he does not see the influx, as he does of those things which fall into the sight of the eye. Hence he thinks of truth as in himself. Man is given by the Lord to see truth in this way, in order that he may be a human being and have the power of reciprocal conjunction. Add to this, that man is born a faculty of knowing and being intelligent and wise, and that this faculty receives the truths by which one has knowledge, intelligence and wisdom. As woman was created by means of the truth of the male, and after marriage is formed more and more fully into love of this truth, she also receives the husband’s truth in her, and conjoins it with her good.

CL (Wunsch) n. 123 123. The Lord joins and unites good to the truths man receives, because man cannot take good as it were of himself; it is not a visible quantity to him, being an entity not of light but of heat, and heat is felt, and not seen. When therefore a man sees truth in thought, he rarely reflects upon the good which flows into it from the love of the will and gives it life. Nor does the wife reflect on the good with herself, but on the husband’s inclination toward her, which is according to the ascent of his understanding toward wisdom; the good which she has from the Lord she also brings to bear without the husband’s realizing it. From this it is plain that man receives truth from the Lord, and that the Lord adjoins good to that truth in the measure in which truth is applied to use, thus as the man wills to think wisely and thence to live wisely.

CL (Wunsch) n. 124 124. In this way the Church is formed in a man by the Lord, because the man is then in conjunction with the Lord�in good from the Lord and in truth as if from himself; in other words, he is in the Lord, and the Lord in him, according to the Lord’s words in John (xv. 4, 5). It amounts to the same thing if we say “in charity” instead of “in good,” and “in faith” instead of “in truth,” for good is of charity, and faith is of truth.

CL (Wunsch) n. 125 aRef 1Cor@11 @3 S0′ 125. (vi) The husband does not represent the Lord and the wife the Church, inasmuch as both together, husband and wife, constitute the Church. It is commonly said in the Church that as the Lord is the head of the Church, so the husband is the head of the wife, which would imply that the husband represents the Lord, and the wife the Church. But while the Lord is the head of the Church, man and woman together, and still more husband and wife together, make the Church. In the case of husband and wife, the Church is implanted first in the man and through him in the wife, because he receives its truth in the understanding, while the wife does so from him. When it is the other way about, order is violated. Still this does sometimes happen, but with men who either are not lovers of wisdom and so not men of the Church, or are slavishly at the beck of their wives. On this subject something may be seen under “Preliminary” (n. 21).

CL (Wunsch) n. 126 126. (vii) There is therefore no correspondence of the husband with the Lord or of the wife with the Church in the marriages either of the angels in heaven or of men on earth. This follows from what has been said. Still, let us add here that truth has the appearance of being the primary element of the Church, being its first in time. On account of this appearance, ecclesiastical leaders have given the palm to faith, which is of truth, rather than to charity, which is of good; similarly the learned have given the palm to thought, which is of the understanding, rather than to affection, which is of the will. What, therefore, good of charity and affection of the will are, lies buried and hidden in a tomb, as it were; earth has even been thrown by some upon these dead, lest they rise. Nevertheless, it is easy to see that good of charity is the primary element in the Church, if one has not shut the way from heaven into the understanding by confirmations in favor of faith to the effect that it alone makes the Church, and in favor of thought to the effect that this alone constitutes man. It is evident what makes the Church, namely, the conjunction of charity and faith; for good of charity is from the Lord, and truth of faith is with the human being seemingly by his own effort, and these two effect that conjunction of the Lord with man and of man with the Lord, which is meant by the Lord’s words, that

He is in them, and they in Him (John xv. 4, 5).

CL (Wunsch) n. 127 127. (viii) But the correspondence is with marital love, impregnation, the bearing of offspring, love for children, and like things in and of marriages. These are more recondite things than can enter the understanding in any light unless a knowledge of correspondence has preceded. Unless such knowledge has been disclosed and is present to the understanding, the contents of this chapter will be grasped in vain, however they may be explained. We have shown many times what correspondence is and that it is the relation between things natural and things spiritual, as in the Apocalypse Revealed, also in the Arcana Coelestia, and especially in the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem on the Sacred Scripture; some Memorabilia will follow especially about correspondence. Until such knowledge has been acquired, these few things may be said, though only in shade to the understanding: marital love corresponds to the affection of genuine truth and to its chastity, purity and holiness; impregnation to the power of truth; bearing offspring to the propagation of truth; and love for children to the fostering of good and truth. Now because truth with man seems to be his, and good is adjoined to it by the Lord, it is plain that these correspondences are between the natural or external man and the internal or spiritual; but these subjects will be lent some light in Memorabilia to follow.

CL (Wunsch) n. 128 128. (ix) The Word is the medium of conjunction, for it is from the Lord and is the Lord. The Word is the medium of the Lord’s conjunction with man and of man’s conjunction with the Lord, because in essence it is Divine Truth united to Divine Good, and Divine Good united to Divine Truth. (This union is in each and all things of the Word in its celestial and spiritual senses (see Apocalypse Revealed, nn. 373, 483, 689, 881)). It follows that the Word is a perfect marriage of good and truth. Moreover, as it is from the Lord, and as what is from Him is also He, when one reads the Word and takes truths from it, the Lord adjoins good. For a man does not see the goods which affect him, because he reads from the understanding, and this takes only its own thence, which is truth. The understanding does indeed feel from the pleasure which inflows when it is enlightened, that the Lord adjoins good to the truth. But this takes place interiorly only with those who read the Word to the end of becoming wise, and only those cherish this purpose who wish to learn genuine truths from the Word and thereby to form the Church with themselves. Those, on the other hand, who read it merely for the glory of learning, also those who read in the opinion that mere reading or hearing inspires faith and conduces to salvation, do not receive any good from the Lord. For the latter think to save themselves by mere words, in which nothing of truth inheres; and the former mean to be conspicuous for learning; with that end no spiritual good is conjoined, but a natural enjoyment of worldly glory. Being the medium of conjunction between the Lord and man, the Word is called a covenant, old and new; ‘covenant’ signifies conjunction.

CL (Wunsch) n. 129 sRef John@14 @24 S0′ sRef John@14 @21 S0′ sRef John@14 @23 S0′ sRef John@1 @1 S0′ sRef John@14 @22 S0′ sRef John@1 @14 S0′ sRef John@1 @6 S0′ sRef John@1 @3 S0′ sRef John@1 @5 S0′ sRef John@1 @12 S0′ sRef John@1 @13 S0′ sRef John@1 @7 S0′ sRef John@1 @4 S0′ sRef John@1 @8 S0′ sRef John@1 @2 S0′ sRef John@1 @11 S0′ sRef John@1 @10 S0′ sRef John@1 @9 S0′ 129. (x) The Church is from the Lord and with those who approach Him and live according to His commandments. It is not denied at this day that the Church is the Lord’s, and being His, is from Him. It exists with those who approach Him, because in Christendom His Church is from the Word, which is from Him and in such wise as to be Himself. In the Word Divine Truth and Divine Good are united, and these are also the Lord. Nothing less is meant by the Word

Which was with God, and which was God, from which is the life and light of men, and which was made flesh (John i. 1-14).

Again, the Church is with those who approach the Lord, because it is with those who believe in Him. To believe that He is God the Savior and Redeemer, Jehovah our Righteousness, the Door by which one enters the sheepfold or the Church, and that He is the Way, the Truth, and the Life; that no one comes to the Father except by Him; that the Father and He are one, besides much else which He teaches�these things, I say, no one can believe except from Him. One cannot believe them unless the Lord is approached, for the reason that He is God of heaven and earth, as He also teaches. Who else is there to approach? And who else can be approached? Finally, the Church is with those who live according to His commandments, for the reason that only with these is conjunction effected. For he says,

He who has My commandments and does them, he it is that loves Me, … and I will love him … and will make My abode with him … but he who loves Me not, does not keep My commandments (John xiv. 21-24).

Love is conjunction, and conjunction with the Lord is the Church.

CL (Wunsch) n. 130 130. (xi) Marital love is according to the state of the Church with a man, because it is according to the state of wisdom with him. It has been said often before and will be said often again that marital love is according to the state of wisdom with a man. Here, therefore, we shall only explain what wisdom is and how it makes one with the Church.
*Man has knowledge, intelligence and wisdom. Knowledge is a matter of cognition, intelligence of reason, and wisdom of life. Comprehensively regarded, wisdom is a matter at once of cognition, reason and life. Cognitions come first, reason is formed by them, and wisdom by both as a man lives rationally in accord with the verities of knowledge. Wisdom is therefore both of the reason and of life; while it is of the reason and thence of life, it is becoming wisdom, and when it has been made a thing of life and thence of reason, it is wisdom. The most ancient people in the world acknowledged no wisdom other than wisdom of life. Such was the wisdom of those who used to be called sophi. The ancient people who succeeded the most ancient, took for wisdom the wisdom of reason; they were known as philosophi. But today there are many who call mere knowledge wisdom; the trained, erudite and merely informed are called wise; so has wisdom slipped from peak to valley.
[2] But let us say something, too, about what wisdom is in its rise, progress and whole estate. The things of the Church, which are called spiritual, reside in man’s inmost being; the things of the state, called civic, occupy a place below them; and those of knowledge, experience and skill called natural, constitute the substructure. The things of the Church, called spiritual, reside in the inmosts, because these things are conjoined with heaven and by heaven with the Lord; no other things enter man from the Lord by way of heaven. The things of the state, called civic, occupy a place below the spiritual because they are conjoined with the world, being of the world; for they are statutes, laws and regulations binding men together into a stabilized and orderly society and state. The things of knowledge, experience and skill, called natural, make the substructure because they are closely bound up with the five senses of the body, and these are lowest things in which interior things, which are of the mind, and inmost things, which are of the soul, are as it
[3] were seated. Now, in view of the fact that the things of the Church, called spiritual, reside in the inmost, and what resides there makes the head, and those which come under them, called civic things, make the body, and the last things, called natural, make the feet, it is plain that when these three follow in order, the human being is a perfected man; for they inflow then as do those which are of the head into the body, and by the body into the feet; that is, the spiritual into the civic, and by the civic into the natural. Being in the light of heaven, spiritual things illuminate with their light the things which follow in order, and with their heat, which is love, they animate them, and when this happens, man has wisdom.
[4] We said above that wisdom is of the life and thence of the reason; just what is this wisdom of life? Briefly apprehended, it is this: to shun evils, because they are the ruination of the soul, of the state, and of the body; and to do goods, because these are the enrichment of soul, state and body. This is the wisdom with which marital love is bound up. Marital love is inevitably bound up with a wisdom which shuns the evil of adultery as a bane to soul, state and body. This wisdom springs from things spiritual, moreover, which are of the Church, and it follows that marital love is according to the state of the Church with a man, with which his state of wisdom accords. By this is meant, too, as has been said frequently in what precedes, that as far as a man is spiritual, so far he is in true marital love; for man is made spiritual through the spiritual things of the Church. More about the wisdom with which marital love is united, may be seen below (nn. 163-165).
* From this point this number in the original Latin is enclosed in quotation marks.

CL (Wunsch) n. 131 131. (xii) Inasmuch as the Church is from the Lord, marital love also is. I let this go without further argument because it is a consequence from what has been said. Besides, all the angels of heaven bear witness that true marital love is from the Lord, and that that love is according to the state of wisdom, and the state of wisdom according to the state of the Church with them. That the angels of heaven so testify, is evident from Memorabilia after the chapters, which are things that were seen and heard in the spiritual world.

CL (Wunsch) n. 132 132. I add two Memorabilia.

I

I was speaking once* with two angels, one from an eastern heaven, the other from a southern heaven, who, when they perceived that I was meditating on arcana of wisdom about marital love, inquired, “Are you acquainted with the Schools of Wisdom in our world?” I replied that I was not. They remarked, “There are a number of them. Men who love truths from spiritual affection, or because they are truths, and wisdom is to be had thereby, meet at a given signal, and discuss and draw conclusions on questions calling for unusually profound understanding.” Then they took me by the hand, saying, “Come with us; you shall see and hear. The signal has been given for a meeting today.”
I was led across a plain to a hill; from the foot of the hill an avenue of palms stretched to the very top. We entered the avenue and ascended. On the summit of the hill a grove appeared, the trees of which on a rising ground formed a kind of amphitheater, with a level space paved with multicolor pebbles. Around this space were placed seats forming a square, where the lovers of wisdom were seated; and in the center was a table on which lay a paper sealed with a seal. [2] The occupants of the seats invited us to places still vacant; but I responded, “I was shown here by two angels to see and hear, not to join the assembly.” Then the two angels went to the table in the center of the level area, broke the seal on the paper, and read to those who sat there the arcana of wisdom written on it, which they were to consider and unfold. These had been written by angels of the third heaven, and lowered upon the table.
There were three arcana: First, What is “Me image of God,” and what is” the likeness of God,” in which man was created? Second, Why is man not born into the knowledge belonging to a love, when yet beasts and birds, ignoble and noble alike, are born into the knowledges belonging to their loves? Third, What is meant by “the tree of life”? And what by “the tree of the knowledge of good and evil”? And what by “eating” of them?
Underneath was written, “Combine these three into one view, write it on a clean sheet of paper, place it on the table, and we shall see. If, on being weighed, the view seems balanced and just, each of you will be given a reward of wisdom.” Having read aloud the instructions, the two angels withdrew and were taken up into their heavens.
sRef Gen@1 @26 S3′ sRef Gen@1 @27 S3′ sRef Gen@2 @7 S3′ [3] Then those who sat there began to consider and unfold the arcana propounded to them. They spoke in turn, first those who sat on the north side, then those on the west, after them those on the south, and last of all, those at the east. They took up the first topic for consideration, which was, What is “the image of God,” and what is “the likeness of God,” in which man was created? But to begin with, the following words from the Book of Creation were read aloud before them all:

And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him (Genesis i. 26, 27).
In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him (v. 1).

Those who sat at the north spoke first, saying, “The image of God and the likeness of God are the two lives breathed into man by God�the life of the will and the life of the understanding. For we read:

Jehovah God … breathed into the nostrils of Adam the breath of lives; and man became a living soul (Genesis ii. 7).

`Into the nostrils’ means into a perception that in him are a will of good and an understanding of truth, thus the breath of lives. As life was breathed into man by God, the image and likeness of God mean integrity in man from wisdom and love and from righteousness and judgment.”
Those who sat at the west approved; only they added that this state of integrity breathed into man by God has been breathed into every man since; but it is in man as in a receptacle; only as far as he is a receptacle is a man an image and likeness of God.
sRef Gen@5 @1 S4′ sRef Gen@3 @22 S4′ [4] Then the third in turn, those who sat at the south, said,
“The image of God and the likeness of God are two distinguishable things, but are united in man from creation. We see, as from interior light, that the image of God may be destroyed by man, but not the likeness of God. We find a suggestion of this in the fact that Adam retained the likeness of God after he had lost the image of God; for we read after the curse:

Behold the man is as one of us, in knowing good and evil (Genesis iii. 22).

And later he is called the likeness of God, but not the image of God (Genesis v. 1). But let us leave it to our associates in the east who are in greater light, to say what, strictly, the image of God and the likeness of God are.”
[5] There was a hush, and then those sitting at the east rose from their seats and looked up to the Lord. Resuming their seats, they said, “The image of God is a receptacle of God; and as God is love itself and wisdom itself, the image of God in man is the receptacle in him of love and wisdom from God. But the likeness of God is the complete look and entire appearance that love and wisdom are in man, just as if they were his own. For man feels no otherwise than that he loves and is wise of himself, or that he wills good and understands truth of himself, when yet it is not at all of himself, but of God. God alone loves and is wise of Himself, for He is very love and very wisdom. The look or appearance that love and wisdom or good and truth are in man as his own, causes him to be man, and renders him capable of being united to God and so of living to eternity. It follows that man is man in that he can will good and understand truth as of himself, but still know and believe that it is of God. For, through his knowing and believing this, God puts His image in him. This could not be if a man believed that all is from himself and not from God.”
[6] Having said so much, in an access of zeal from their love of truth they continued: “How can man receive anything of love and wisdom, or retain and reproduce it, unless he feels it is his own? How can there be conjunction with God through love and wisdom unless the man has a reciprocal part in the conjunction? There is no conjunction without what is reciprocal; and man’s reciprocal role in this union is that he shall love God and be wise in the things which are of God as of himself, and yet believe that it is of God. Further, how can man live to eternity unless he is conjoined with the eternal God? And consequently, how can man be man without the likeness of God in him?”
[7] All had listened with approval, and said, “Let the conclusion be this: ‘The human being is a receptacle of God, and a receptacle of God is an image of God; and as God is love itself and wisdom itself, it is of these that man is a receptacle; and in proportion as he receives, the receptacle becomes an image of God. Man is a likeness of God in that he feels within himself that the things which are of God are as his own in him; and yet with this likeness he is only so far an image of God as he acknowledges that love and wisdom or good and truth in him are not his own and hence not of himself, but are solely in God and therefore of God.'”
* These Memorabilia are repeated in True Christian Religion, n. 48.

CL (Wunsch) n. 133 133. Thereupon they took up the second topic for discussion, Why is man not born into the knowledge belonging to a love, when yet beasts and birds, ignoble and noble alike, are born into the knowledges belonging to their loves? First they established the truth of the proposition by various considerations, as, with respect to man, that he is born into no knowledge, not even into knowledge concerning marital love. They inquired and learned from investigators that an infant cannot from connate knowledge even apply itself to the mother’s breast, but must be moved to it by mother or nurse; and that it only knows how to suck�a knowledge acquired from the continual suction in the womb. Later, it does not know how to walk; or how to form any human word with the voice, or indeed, even how to utter the affection of its love as beasts do. Furthermore, it does not know the food suited to it, as all beasts do, but seizes anything at hand, clean or unclean, and puts it into its mouth. The investigators said that apart from instruction a man does not know the distinction of sex, and nothing at all about the ways of sexual love; young women and men know them only by learning from others, educated though they may be in various sciences. In a word, man is born corporeal, like a worm; and remains corporeal unless he learns from others to know, understand and become wise.
[2] Then they confirmed the statement that beasts, both noble and ignoble, such as land animals, birds of the air, reptiles, fish, the worms called insects, are born into all the knowledges necessary to the loves of their life. For example, into knowledge about food and shelter, about sex-love and breeding, and about raising their young. They confirmed this by remarkable examples which they recollected from what they had seen, heard, and read in the natural world (so they called our world in which they had once lived), where animals are not representative but real. Having thus established the truth of the proposition, they turned their minds to investigate and discover those ends and causes through which they might unfold and disclose this arcanum. They were agreed that such things must spring from Divine Wisdom, in order that man may be man, and beast be beast, and that the imperfection of man at his birth thus becomes his perfection, and the perfection of the beast at its birth becomes its imperfection.

CL (Wunsch) n. 134 134. Those on the north began first to express their mind, and said, “Man is born without knowledge so as to be able to receive all knowledge. If he were born into knowledge he could receive only what he was born into; nor could he then appropriate any to himself.” They illustrated this by the following comparison: “A man just born is like ground in which no seeds have been planted, but which can receive, bring forth and fructify all seeds. But a beast is like ground already planted and filled With grasses and herbs, which receives no seeds beyond those planted; if it received others it would choke them. Hence man is many years in maturing, years during which he can be cultivated like the ground to bring forth, as it were, every kind of grain, flower and tree; while a beast matures in a few years, during which it can be perfected only in what is inborn.”
[2] Next those on the west spoke, and said, “Man is not born with knowledge like a beast, but is born a faculty and an inclination�a faculty for knowing and an inclination for loving. Indeed, he is born a faculty not merely for knowing, but also for understanding and for becoming wise; and he is born to an inclination, the most perfect, for loving not only the things which are of self and of the world, but also those which are of God and of heaven. Consequently, man is born from his parents an organism which lives only in the external senses and at first in none that are internal, in order that he may become successively, first a natural, then a rational, and finally a spiritual man; which he never would become, were he born into knowledges and loves as beasts are. For connate knowledge and affection limit progress, while a connate faculty and inclination set no limit. Man can therefore be perfected in knowledge, intelligence and wisdom to eternity.”
[3] Then those on the south took up the subject and expressed their opinion, saying, “It is impossible for man to acquire any knowledge by himself, but he must acquire it from others, for no knowledge is connate with him. As he cannot get knowledge, neither can he get love from himself, since there is no love where there is no knowledge, for knowledge and love are inseparable companions. They can no more be separated than will and understanding, or affection and thought, indeed, no more than essence and form. Therefore as far as man gets knowledge from others, love joins it as its companion. The universal love which adjoins itself is the love of knowing, understanding and becoming wise. This love only man has, and no beast; and it flows in from God. [4] We agree with our companions from the west that man is not born into any love, and therefore not into any knowledge, but is only born into an inclination to love and hence into a faculty for receiving knowledges, not from himself but from others, that is, through others. We say ‘through others’ because neither have these received anything of knowledge from themselves, but from God. We also agree with our companions from the north, that at birth man is like ground in which no seeds have been planted, but in which all seeds may be planted, good and bad. To these considerations we add that beasts are born into natural loves and hence into knowledges corresponding to them; and yet they do not know, think of, understand and become wise from knowledges; but are led by their loves with the help of knowledge, much as a blind man is led along the street by a dog, for as to understanding they are blind; or better, they are like sleepwalkers, doing all they do from blind knowledge, the understanding being asleep.”
[5] Last, those from the east spoke, and said, “We agree with what our brothers have said, that man has no knowledge from himself, but from and through others, to the end that he may come to know and acknowledge that all his knowledge, understanding and wisdom are of God; and that he cannot otherwise be conceived, born and generated of the Lord and become His image and likeness. For he becomes an image of the Lord by acknowledging and believing that he has received and continues to receive every good of love and of charity, and every truth of wisdom and of faith from the Lord, and nothing at all from himself. He becomes a likeness of the Lord in feeling as though this were all of himself. He feels so because he is not born into knowledges but receives them, and what a man receives appears to him as if from himself. Man is given to feel so by the Lord that he may be man and not a beast; for in willing, thinking, loving, knowing, understanding and becoming wise as if of himself, he receives knowledge and exalts it to intelligence and, through applications of it, into wisdom. Thus the Lord conjoins man to Himself, and man conjoins himself to the Lord. This could not have been if the Lord had not provided that man should be born in total ignorance.”
[6] After this pronouncement all desired that a conclusion be reached on the basis of the deliberations. The following was arrived at: “Man is born into no knowledge in order that he may come into all knowledge, and advance to intelligence and by intelligence to wisdom. He is born into no love that he may come into all love through the application of knowledge from intelligence; and into love to the Lord through love towards the neighbor; and so may be conjoined to the Lord, and through this conjunction may become a man and live to eternity.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 135 135. Thereupon they took the paper and read the third subject of inquiry, namely, What is meant by “the tree of life,” by “the tree of the knowledge of good and evil,” and by “eating” of them? They all requested that those from the east should unfold this secret, as it called for profounder understanding, and because those from the east are in a flaming light, that is, in the wisdom of love, or the wisdom signified by the garden of Eden, in which the two trees named were placed.
They responded, “We shall speak; but as man cannot obtain anything whatever of himself, but receives all from the Lord, we shall speak from Him; and yet we shall do so as if of ourselves.” Then they said, “A tree signifies a man, and its fruit signifies the good of life. By the tree of life, therefore, is meant man living from God, or God living in man. And as love and wisdom, or charity and faith, or good and truth, make the life of God in man, these are meant by the tree of life, and from these man has life eternal. The like is signified by the tree of life of which it is given to eat, in Revelation ii. 7; xxii. 2, 14. sRef Gen@3 @5 S2′ [2] By the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, on the other hand, is signified the man who believes that he lives of himself, and not from God; thus, that love and wisdom, charity, and faith, that is, good and truth, are in man, his own, and not of God; believing this because he thinks and wills, and speaks and acts with all the look and appearance of doing so of himself. It is because man in this belief persuades himself that God has imparted Himself or infused His Divine into him, that the serpent said:

God knows that in the day that you eat of the fruit of that tree your eyes will be opened, and you will be as God, knowing good and evil (Genesis iii. 5).

[3] By eating of those trees is signified reception and appropriation; by eating of the tree of life, the reception of life eternal; and by eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, the reception of condemnation; therefore also both Adam and his wife, together with the serpent, were accursed. By the serpent is meant the devil as to the love of self and the pride of one’s own intelligence. This love is the owner of the tree of knowledge; and men who are in pride from this love are such trees. Those are in monstrous error, therefore, who believe that Adam was wise and did good from himself, and that this was his state of integrity; when, as a matter of fact, it was on account of Adam’s believing so, signified by his eating of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, that he was accursed. He then fell from the state of integrity, in which he was by virtue of believing that he was wise and did good only from God, and not at all from himself; which is meant by eating of the tree of life. The Lord alone when He was in the world was wise of Himself and did good from Himself; for the Divine Itself was in Him and was His by nativity. He therefore became the Redeemer and Savior by His own power, too.”
[4] From all that had been said they formed this conclusion: “By the tree of life, and by the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and by eating of them, is signified that life for man is God in him; and that then he has heaven and eternal life; but the persuasion and belief that life for man is not God, but himself, is death to him; by such belief he reaps hell and eternal death, which is damnation.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 136 136. After this they consulted the paper left on the table by the angels, and saw written underneath, “Combine these three into one view.” Then they gathered up the three and saw that they made a series, and the series or whole view was this: “Man was created to receive love and wisdom from God, and yet to all appearance as of himself, and this for the sake of reception and conjunction. For this reason man is not born into any love or knowledge, not even into any power of loving or becoming wise of himself. If therefore he ascribes every good of love and truth of wisdom to God, he becomes a living man; but if he ascribes them to himself, he becomes a dead man.”
They wrote this upon a clean piece of paper, which they placed on the table. Suddenly, in a brilliant white light, angels were present and carried the paper into heaven. When it had been read there, the members of the assembly heard from heaven the words, “Well done! Well done! Well done!” And on the instant a figure appeared, as if flying thence, with two wings at the feet and two at the temples, bringing the rewards, which were robes, caps and wreaths of laurel. He alighted and gave those sitting at the north robes of an opal color; those sitting at the west, scarlet robes; those at the south, caps, the edges of which were adorned with fillets of gold and pearls, and the upper left side with diamonds cut in the forms of flowers; while to those on the east he gave wreaths of laurel in which were rubies and sapphires. Decorated with these rewards they all went home from the school of wisdom; and as they were about to show themselves to their wives, their wives came out to meet them, also decorated with honors bestowed from heaven, at which they wondered!

CL (Wunsch) n. 137

137. II

While I was meditating on marital love, two naked infants appeared in the distance, with baskets in their hands and turtledoves fluttering around them. Even when I saw them nearer by, they still seemed to be naked, becomingly adorned with wreaths of flowers�chaplets of flowers bedecked their heads; garlands of blue lilies and roses, hanging obliquely from shoulder to hip, adorned their breasts; and around the two ran a common bond, as it were, woven of little leaves and olives. But when they came closer still, they did not appear as infants or naked, but as two persons in the first bloom of life, clad in robes and tunics of shining silk, into which were woven flowers very beautiful to see. And as they reached my side there breathed on me through them a vernal warmth from heaven with the fragrance of early things in garden and field. They were two married partners from heaven.
They addressed me; and as what I had just seen filled my thoughts, they asked me, “What did you see?”
[2] I related how they had looked like naked infants to me at first, then as infants adorned with wreaths, and at last as adults clothed in beflowered garments, and how forthwith spring had breathed on me with its delights.
They smiled with pleasure, and said they did not seem to themselves on the way like infants, or naked, or garlanded, but all along as they looked now. Their marital love, they said, was so represented at a distance-its state of innocence by their appearing like naked infants, its delights by the garlands of flowers, and the same delights again by the flowers woven into their robes and tunics.
They continued, “You said that when we approached, a vernal warmth breathed on you with its pleasant aromas, as from a garden. We will tell you why that was.” [3] They explained, “We have been married partners for ages now, and constantly in the flower of age in which
you now behold us. Our first state was the first state of a virgin and youth when they join in marriage. We supposed that that state was the very blessedness of our life!
We heard from others in our heaven, however, and afterwards we ourselves perceived that it was a state of heat not tempered with light, and that it would be modified gradually, as the husband was perfected in wisdom and the wife loved that wisdom in the husband; and that this is effected by uses and according to them�uses which the two in mutual helpfulness render society; and that delights ensue according as heat and light, or wisdom and its love, are tempered. [4] A springlike warmth breathed on you as we approached because marital love and vernal warmth act as one in our heaven. For among us love is heat, and wisdom is the light with which heat is united; and use is like an atmosphere which holds them both in its bosom. What are heat and light without a containant? Likewise, what are love and wisdom without their use? The marital is not in them, because the subject in which they must be, is lacking. In heaven, where the heat is vernal, there is true marital love. True marital love is found there because the vernal is only where heat is equally united with light, or where there is as much heat as light, and vice versa. We aver that as heat delights itself with light, and in turn light with heat, so love delights itself with wisdom, and wisdom in turn with love.”
[5] He remarked further, “There is perpetual light with us in heaven and never any evening dusk. Still less is there darkness. Our sun does not set and rise like your sun, but always remains midway between the zenith and the horizon, or in your manner of speech at an elevation of forty-five degrees. Hence the heat and light proceeding from our sun make perpetual spring; and a perpetual springtime breathes on those in whom love is equally united with wisdom. Our Lord, through the eternal union of heat and light, breathes forth nothing else than uses; thence also are the germinations on your earth, and the mating of your birds and animals, in the springtime. For the vernal heat opens their interiors to the very inmosts, which are called their souls, and affects these and imparts what is marital. It brings their breeding impulse into its delights, in a continual endeavor to serve its use, which is the propagation of the species. [6] But with men there is perpetual influx of vernal heat from the Lord, wherefore they can at all seasons, even in mid-winter, enjoy the delights of marriage. For men were created receptions of light, that is, of wisdom, from the Lord; and women were created receptions of heat, that is, of the love of the man’s wisdom, from the Lord. This, then, is the reason why, at our approach, a vernal warmth breathed on you, with a redolence like that of early things in garden and field.”
Having said this the man gave me his right hand and led me to homes where were other married partners in the prime of life like themselves. He remarked, “These wives, now looking like young women, were old women in the world; and their husbands, who look like young men, were infirm old men. They were restored by the Lord to this flower of age because they loved each other mutually and from religion shunned adulteries as monstrous sins.”
And they added, “Only he knows the blessed delights of marital love who rejects the horrid delights of adultery; and only he can reject these who is wise from the Lord; and only he is wise from the Lord who performs uses from the love of use.”
I also noted the furnishings of their houses, every article of a heavenly pattern, and glistening with gold, aflame, as it were, from the rubies studding it.

CL (Wunsch) n. 138

138. VI

CHASTE AND NON-CHASTE

We are still only entering upon the discussion of marital love in particular. What marital love is, can be known only indistinctly and obscurely unless one sees in some measure what its opposite is, which is the unchaste. What this is, appears in a measure or in shade when the chaste is described along with the non-chaste (non-chastity comes with removal* of what is unchaste from what is chaste). I shall therefore say something here of chaste and non-chaste. What is unchaste, however, or wholly opposite to the chaste, will be discussed in the latter part of this work, where it will be described in its whole extent and with its variations under the title, “Scortatory Love: its Insane Pleasures.” Now what chaste and non-chaste are, and with whom they are found, shall be made clear in this order:
i. Chaste and non-chaste are predicable only of marriages and of such things as concern marriage.
ii. The chaste is predicable only of monogamous marriages, or marriages of one man with one wife.
iii. The Christian marital tendency alone occurs chaste.
iv. True marital love is chastity itself.
v. All the delights of true marital love, including the ultimate, are chaste.
vi. With those who from the Lord become spiritual, marital love is more and more purified and rendered chaste.
vii. Chastity in marriage comes about through total renunciation of whoredoms for religion’s sake.
viii. Chastity cannot be predicated of infants, or of boys and girls, nor can it be predicated of young men and women before they experience love of the sex.
ix. Chastity cannot be predicated of eunuchs, so born or made.
x. Chastity cannot be predicated of those who do not believe that adulteries are evils to religion, and still less of those who do not believe that adulteries are a damage to society.
xi. Chastity cannot be predicated of those who refrain from adulteries only for various external reasons.
xii. Chastity cannot be predicated of those who believe that marriages are unchaste.
xiii. Chastity cannot be predicated of those who have renounced marriages by vowing perpetual celibacy, unless they have and retain a love for a true marital life.
xiv. The state of marriage is to be preferred to the state of celibacy.

Explanation of these propositions follows.
* Clarified in n. 146.

CL (Wunsch) n. 139 139. (i) Chaste and non-chaste are predicable of marriages and of such things as concern marriage, for the reason that true marital love is chastity itself (to be shown in what follows); whereas the love opposite to it, called scortatory, is unchastity itself. As far as marital love is purified of scortatory, therefore, so far is it chaste, for in so far its destructive opposite is removed. Hence it is plain that the purity of marital love is what is called chastity. There is indeed a marital love which is not chaste and yet is not unchastity�as between partners who for various external reasons refrain from acts of lasciviousness even to not thinking of them; nevertheless if this love is not purified in their spirits it is not chaste; its form is chaste, but a chaste essence is not in it.

CL (Wunsch) n. 140 aRef 2Sam@22 @27 S0′ aRef 2Sam@22 @23 S0′ 140. Chaste and non-chaste are predicated of such things as concern marriage because the marital is inscribed on each sex from inmosts to outmosts, and the man is what that is both in thought and affection and thence inwardly in bodily deed and action. This is most apparent in unchaste persons. The unchastity resident in their minds is betrayed in the tone of their speech, and in their finding allusions in all conversation, even in that of the chaste, to libidinous things. As speech tones are from the affection of the will, and speech from the understanding’s thought, the will and the understanding with all their contents, thus the whole mind and so all things of the body from inmosts to outmosts, must then teem with what is unchaste. I have heard from angels that unchastity is detected by the ear in the most consummate hypocrites, howsoever chastely they speak, and is felt, too, in the sphere emanating from them. This is also a sign that unchastity resides in the inmosts of their mind and thence in the inmosts of the body, and that these inmosts are covered over as with a mask painted with varicolored figures. That a sphere of lasciviousness pours forth from the unchaste, appears from statutes of the children of Israel, declaring unclean everything which those who were defiled in given ways only touched. It may be concluded that the like is true of the chaste, namely, that with them each and all things from inmosts to outmosts are chaste; and that the chastity of marital love brings this about. Hence the saying* in the world that all things are clean to the clean and unclean to the unclean.
* Cf. Titus i. 15.

CL (Wunsch) n. 141 141. (ii) The chaste is predicable only of monogamous marriages, or marriages of one man with one wife. The chaste is predicable only of these marriages because in them marital love does not reside in the natural man, but enters the spiritual, and gradually makes its way to the spiritual marriage of good and truth, which is its origin, and merges with it. For marital love comes with the growth of wisdom, and this growth, as we have shown many times, is according to the implantation of the Church by the Lord. With the polygamous, no such thing takes place, for they divide marital love, and this love divided, is not unlike sexual love, which in itself is natural. But on this subject some things worthy of attention will be seen when we discuss polygamy.

CL (Wunsch) n. 142 142. (iii) The Christian marital tendency alone occurs chaste, because true marital love advances in man step for step with the state of the Church in him, and because that state is from the Lord (shown in the preceding section, nn. 130, 131, and elsewhere); also, because the Church in its genuine truths is in the Word, and the Lord is present in those truths there. Hence it follows that chaste marital tendency is found only in Christendom, or at least can occur only there. By the Christian marital tendency is meant marriage of one man with one wife. This marital tendency can be implanted in Christians, and devolve by heredity on the offspring of parents who are in true marital love. There are born of it also both a faculty and an inclination for being wise in the things of heaven and the Church, as will be seen in its place. Christians who marry more than one wife commit not only natural adultery, but spiritual adultery also, as will be demonstrated in the chapter on “Polygamy.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 143 143. (iv) True marital love is chastity itself for the following reasons: 1. It is from the Lord and corresponds to the marriage of the Lord and the Church. 2. It descends from the marriage of good and truth. 3. It is spiritual, in the measure that the Church is with man. 4. It is the basic love and the head of all celestial and spiritual loves. 5. It is the rightful seminary of the human race and of the angelic heaven therefrom. 6. It therefore exists with the angels of heaven, too, with whom spiritual offspring�of love and wisdom�are born from it. 7. Its use is superior to the rest of the uses of creation. It follows from all this that true marital love, viewed in its origin and essence, is pure and holy, to the point that it can be called purity and holiness, therefore chastity itself. In proposition vi (n.146) following, it will be seen that even marital love is not altogether pure, however, in either men or angels.

CL (Wunsch) n. 144 144. (v) All the delights of true marital love, including the ultimate, are chaste. This follows from what was explained above, namely, that true marital love is chastity itself. For the delights make its life. We told above how the delights of that love ascend and enter heaven, and on the way pass through the joys of the heavenly loves in which the angels of heaven are, and also unite with the delights of the marital love of the angels. I have also heard from angels that they perceive their delights being intensified and filled when delights ascend from chaste partners on earth. When some bystanders, who were unchaste, raised the question whether ultimate delights were meant, too, they nodded and said quietly, “How can it be otherwise? Are not those delights the delights of marital love in their fullness?” See above, n.69, and in the Memorabilia, especially in the next following, on the source and nature of the delights of marital love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 145 145. (vi) With those who from the Lord become spiritual, marital love is purified more and more and rendered chaste. The reasons are: 1. The first love, by which is meant love before and soon after the nuptials, derives something from sexual love, thus from ardor proper to the body not yet qualified by the love of the spirit. 2. Man, from being natural becomes spiritual only gradually. For he does so as the rational, which is intermediate between heaven and the world, begins to draw its breath from influx out of heaven, which takes place as it is affected by and rejoices in wisdom (of which above, n. 130). Furthermore, the mind is then raised into the higher air which is the containant of heavenly light and heat, or (what is the same) of the wisdom and love in which the angels are; for heavenly light makes one with wisdom, and heavenly heat one with love. Finally, as wisdom with its love increases with partners, marital love is purified with them. All this is gradual, and it follows that the love becomes more and more chaste. We may liken this spiritual purification to the purification of natural spirits, performed by chemists, and called defecation, rectification, castigation, cohobation, sharpening, decantation, and sublimation; and we may liken wisdom purified to alcohol, which is highly rectified spirits. 3. Spiritual wisdom in itself is such that it warms more and more with the love of growing wise, and as a result increases to eternity, and in doing so is, as it were, perfected by defecations, castigations, rectifications, sharpenings, decantations and sublimations, all accomplished by withdrawals and abstractions of the understanding from fallacies of the senses, and of the will from enticements of the body. It ought to be plain then that marital love, being born of wisdom, likewise becomes more and more pure and thus chaste. See in the Memorabilia at n. 137 that the first state of love between partners is a state of heat not yet qualified by light, but that it is tempered gradually as the husband is perfected in wisdom and the wife loves that wisdom in the husband.

CL (Wunsch) n. 146 146. It is to be known, however, that marital love wholly chaste or pure is not to be found among men or angels. Something not chaste or not pure is still adjoined or subjoined to it. But this is different from unchastity. For in those whom we have in mind the chaste is above and the non-chaste below, and between chaste and non-chaste there is interposed by the Lord a door, as it were on a hinge, which opens on determination, but care is taken that it shall not stand open, allowing chaste and non-chaste to pass into each other and mingle. For man’s natural being is by birth contaminated and packed with evils; but not his spiritual being, for the birth of this is from the Lord and is regeneration, which is a gradual separation from the evils which grow out of one’s natural inclinations. See above (n. 71) that no love is or can be wholly pure with men or angels, but that the end, purpose or intention of the will is primarily regarded by the Lord, and that therefore as far as one is right in these and perseveres in them, so far he is let into purity and keeps advancing toward it.

CL (Wunsch) n. 147 147. (vii) Chastity in marriage comes about through total renunciation of whoredoms for religion’s sake. The reason is that chastity is the removal of unchastity. It is a universal rule that as far as evil is removed, so far opportunity is given for good to succeed; moreover, as far as evil is held in hatred, so far good is loved; and also vice versa; consequently, as far as whoredom is renounced, the chastity of marriage enters. That marital love is purified and rectified according to the renunciation of whoredoms, any one can see from common perception as soon as it is said or heard, thus without substantiations; yet as all do not enjoy common perception, it is important that it be illustrated by substantiations also. These are that marital love, on being divided, grows cold, and this causes it to perish; the heat of unchaste love extinguishes it. Two opposed heats cannot exist together, without one repelling the other and depriving it of its power. When therefore the heat of marital love removes and repels the heat of scortatory love, marital love begins to grow pleasantly warm and to germinate and flower in a sense of its delights, as an orchard or rose-bed does in springtime�the latter from the vernal temperature of the light and heat of the sun of the natural world, but the former from the vernal temperature of the light and heat of the sun of the spiritual world.

CL (Wunsch) n. 148 148. In every human being there have been implanted by creation and so from birth an internal marital and an external. The internal is spiritual, and the external natural. Man comes first into the latter, and as he becomes spiritual, into the former. If then he remains in the external or natural marital, the internal or spiritual is veiled over until he knows nothing of it, indeed calls it an idle idea. But if a man becomes spiritual, he begins to know something of it, afterwards to perceive the quality of it, and gradually to feel its pleasantnesses, joys and delights; and as this happens, the veil (of which above) between external and internal begins to grow thin, then as it were to melt, and at last to be dissipated and disappear. When this has taken place, the external marital remains, indeed, but is steadily purged and purified of its dregs by the internal, and this until the external is like a face to the internal, and derives its delight and at the same time its life, and the delights of its power, from the blessedness of the internal. Such is the renunciation of whoredoms by which the
[2] chastity of marriages comes to be. One might think that the external marital, continuing after the internal has separated itself from it or it from itself, is the same as the external not separated, but I have heard from the angels that they are entirely dissimilar, as, for instance, that the external from the internal (which they called the external of the internal) is devoid of all lasciviousness, because the internal cannot be lascivious but can only be delighted chastely, and that it imports a like nature into its external, in which it feels its delights: entirely different is the external separated from the internal; this they said is lascivious in whole and in part. The external marital from the internal they likened to choice fruit, whose agreeable flavor and fragrance penetrate the very rind, forming even it in correspondence with themselves. They also likened the external marital from the internal to a granary whose store is never diminished, because what is taken out is steadily replaced. The external separated from the internal, on the other hand, they likened to a wheat-winnower, in which, as it is shaken, only chaff remains, which is scattered by the wind: the like befalls marital love, unless whoredom is renounced.

CL (Wunsch) n. 149 149. The chastity of marriage does not come about through the renunciation of whoredom unless the renunciation is made for religion’s sake, because without religion man does not become spiritual, but remains natural, and if the natural man renounces whoredoms, still his spirit does not do so; and thus though it seems to him that by the renunciation he is chaste, nevertheless unchastity still hides within, as matter in a wound only superficially healed. See above (n. 130) that marital love is according to the state of the Church with man. More may be seen on this subject in the explanation of proposition xi following.

CL (Wunsch) n. 150 150. (viii) Chastity cannot be predicated of infants, or of boys and girls, nor can it be predicated of young men and women before they experience love of the sex. As we have seen (n. 139), chaste and unchaste can be predicated only of marriages and of such things as concern marriage. There is therefore no predicating chastity of those who know nothing of marriages, for it is as nothing to them, and of nothing there is no affection, nor any thought about it. Upon that nothing, however, there ensues something when the first of marriage, that is, something of love for the sex, is felt. The common habit of calling virgins and youths chaste before they have experienced sexual love comes from ignorance of what chastity is.

CL (Wunsch) n. 151 151. (ix) Chastity cannot be predicated of eunuchs, so born or made. By those born eunuchs are meant chiefly those in whom from birth what is ultimate in love is lacking. What is first and what is mediate, having no basis then on which to subsist, do not come into existence; or if they do, are not concerned to distinguish between chaste and unchaste, for both these are indifferent to them; yet there are many distinctions between the two. With those who are made eunuchs it is almost the same as with those born eunuchs; but these castrated, being both men and women, cannot but regard marital love as a phantasy, and its delights as fables. Anything of inclination thereto is rendered neuter in them and is neither chaste nor unchaste; what is neuter cannot be called one or the other.

CL (Wunsch) n. 152 152. (x) Chastity cannot be predicated of those who do not believe that adulteries are evils in religion’s view, and still less of those who do not believe that adulteries are a damage to society. Chastity cannot be predicated of either of these because they do not know what chastity is or that it exists. For chastity belongs to marriage (as was shown in the first proposition above); and those who do not believe that adulteries are evils in religion’s view, make marriages unchaste, when nevertheless religion in partners brings about the chastity of marriages. It is vain to name chastity to those to whom nothing is chaste. These are adulterers ‘by confirmation.’ But those who do not believe that adulteries are a damage to society, know even less than the former what chastity is or that it exists. For they are adulterers ‘from purpose.’ If they say that marriages are less unchaste than adulteries, they do so with the mouth and not from the heart. The fact is that marriages turn cold with them; and those who speak from this cold about chaste heat, can have no idea of chaste heat about marital love. It will be seen in Part II, on the insanities of adulterers, what their character is, and what the character of the ideas of their thoughts is.

CL (Wunsch) n. 153 sRef Matt@5 @28 S1′ 153. (xi) Chastity cannot be predicated of those who refrain from adulteries for various external reasons only. Many think that merely refraining from adulteries in the body is chastity, when yet that is not chastity unless there is abstention in the spirit also. It is man’s spirit, by which is meant here his mind as to affections and thoughts, which makes chaste and unchaste, and the one or the other is thence in the body, for the latter is altogether such as is the mind or spirit. Hence it follows that those who refrain from adulteries in the body and not in the spirit, and those who refrain from them in spirit on the body’s account, are not chaste. Many reasons lead a man to refrain from adulteries in the body and at the same time in the spirit on the body’s account; but still one who does not refrain from them in the body from the spirit is unchaste. For the Lord says,

That if one looks on the woman of another to lust after her, he has already committed adultery with her in his heart (Matthew v. 28).*

[2] All the reasons for refraining from adulteries physically only cannot be recounted, for they vary with the states of marriage and also with the body’s states. There are those who refrain from adultery for fear of the civil law and its penalties; for fear of losing reputation and honor; for fear of diseases; for fear of contentions at home from one’s wife, and thus of intranquillity of life; for fear of the husband’s vengeance or that of a kinsman; and for fear of floggings at the hands of servants. There are also those who refrain out of poverty, or avarice, or out of weakness arising from disease, abuse, age or impotence. Among these are also some who, not able or daring in body, therefore condemn adulteries in spirit; they speak with morality against them and in favor of marriages; but if they do not denounce adulteries in spirit and from religion, they are adulterers still, for though they do not commit them in the body, they still do so in spirit; wherefore, after death, when they become spirits, they speak openly in favor of them. From this it is plain that even the impious can shun adulteries as a damage, but no one but a Christian can shun them as sins. From this now the truth of the proposition is established that chastity cannot be predicated of those who refrain from adulteries for various external reasons only.
* So Swedenborg regularly renders this verse (see also n. 494). But the Greek texts read simply “on a woman”; in adding “of another,” Swedenborg embodies in the verse a traditional Jewish and Christian understanding. The Schmidius Latin Bible used by him read so, obviously embodying an interpretation. His own view, advanced in this very paragraph, is that there may be adulterous love in matrimony; cf. Apocalypse Explained, n. 988 [5].

CL (Wunsch) n. 154 154. (xii) Chastity cannot be predicated of those who believe that marriages are unchaste. These know neither what chastity is nor that it exists, like those of whom above (n. 152), and like those who place chastity in celibacy only, of whom in what now follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 155 155. (xiii) Chastity cannot be predicated of those who have renounced marriages, vowing perpetual celibacy, unless they have and retain a love for a true marital life. Of these there can be no predication of chastity for the reason that after a vow of perpetual celibacy, marital love is thrust out, of which alone, however, is there any predicating chastity. Moreover, from creation and thus by birth, inclination toward the sex is still present, and when this is restrained and repressed, it turns inevitably to heat and with some into a burning, which, though it is bodily, rises into the spirit, infesting and in some befouling it. The spirit so befouled may also befoul the things of religion, casting them from their internal abode where they are in holiness into external things where they become merely words and gestures. The Lord has therefore provided that such celibacy shall exist only with persons who are in external worship, in which they are because they do not approach the Lord or read the Word. With these the life eternal is not imperilled by the imposition of celibacy along with a vow of chastity, as it is with those in internal worship. Add to this that many do not enter the celibate life of their own free will, but some before they enjoy freedom and reason, and some for causes attracting them out of the world. [2] Of those who take up that condition on account of estrangement of mind from the world to be free for Divine worship, there are those chaste enough, with whom a love of true marital life either existed before that state of life or arises afterward and persists; of the love of that life chastity is predicated. Therefore monastics after death are at length released from their vows and given their liberty, so that in accord with the inward vows and desires of their love they may be led to choose either a married or an unmarried life. If they then enter the married life, those who have also loved the spiritual things of worship are given in marriage in heaven, but those who elect the unmarried life are sent to their like, who live at the sides of heaven. [3] I have asked angels whether women who have been zealous in piety and have surrendered themselves to Divine worship, and so withdrawn from the deceits of the world and from the lusts of the flesh, and to that end have vowed perpetual virginity, are received into heaven, and whether they then become chief among the happy in accordance with their faith. The angels answered that they are received indeed, but on feeling the sphere of marital love there, become sad and distressed, and that then some of their own accord, some by permission which they have sought, and some by command, leave or are put out; and that, once outside that heaven, a way opens before them to companions who had been in a like state of life in the world, and from being distressed they turn cheerful and are gladdened by one another.

CL (Wunsch) n. 156 sRef Matt@19 @4 S1′ sRef Gen@2 @23 S1′ sRef Matt@19 @5 S1′ sRef Gen@2 @24 S1′ sRef Gen@2 @22 S1′ sRef Matt@19 @6 S1′ 156. (xiv) The state of marriage is to be preferred to the state of celibacy. This is plain from what has been said so far of marriage and of celibacy. The state of marriage is preferable, being intended by creation. Its origin is the marriage of good and truth; its correspondence is with the marriage of the Lord and the Church; the Church and marital love are steadfast companions; its use excels all other uses in creation, for by marriage is the orderly propagation of the human race and also of the angelic heaven, which is from the human race. Add to these reasons that marriage is the fullness of the human being�by it one becomes a full human being, a truth which comes to demonstration in the following chapter. None of these things is true of celibacy. But suppose the proposition to be that the state of celibacy excels that of marriage, and suppose that this proposition is to be assented to only after examination and established by substantiation. Then these things would have to follow and be established: marriages are not holy, nor do they occur chaste; indeed there is no chastity in the female sex except in those who refrain from marriage and vow perpetual virginity. Moreover, those who have vowed perpetual celibacy must then be meant by the eunuchs who make themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven’s sake (Matthew xix. 12); besides much else, which is itself untrue, following as it does from an untrue proposition. By eunuchs who make themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of God are really meant spiritual eunuchs, namely, those who in marriages refrain from the evil of whoredoms. The Italian castrati are obviously not meant.

151r. I append two Memorabilia.

I

When* I was returning home from the School of Wisdom (of which above, n.132), on the way I saw an angel in raiment of the color of hyacinth. He joined me and said: “I see that you have come from the School of Wisdom, and are gladdened by what you heard there. I also perceive that you are not fully in this world, being at the same time in the natural world. You may not be acquainted with our Olympic Gymnasia where the ancient so phi meet and where they learn from those who come from your world what changes and successions of state wisdom has undergone and is undergoing. If you wish, I will conduct you to a place where many of the ancient so phi and their “sons” or disciples have their homes.”
He led me toward the northeast. Looking ahead from a considerable prominence I beheld a city, and to one side of it two hills, the one nearer the city lower than the other. He told me, “That city is called Athens, the lower hill, Parnassus, and the higher, Helicon. All are so called because in and about the city dwell ancient wise men of Greece, like Pythagoras, Socrates, Aristippus and Xenophon, with their disciples and neophytes.”
I asked about Plato and Aristotle. “They and their followers,” he said, “dwell in another region, for they taught matters of reason which are of the understanding; but these taught morals which are of the life.” sRef Gen@3 @23 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @24 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@19 @12 S2′ [2] He said that students are frequently sent from this city of Athens to the learned from among Christians, to ascertain what at this day Christians think about God, the creation of the universe, the immortality of the soul, the state of man as compared with that of beasts, and about other things which are matters of interior wisdom. He also said that a herald had announced an assembly for that day�a sign that their emissaries had encountered newcomers from the earth, from whom they had heard strange things. We saw many leaving the city and its immediate vicinity, some with laurels on their heads, some bearing palms in their hands, some with books under their arms, and some with pens under the hair of the left temple.
We mingled with them and went up together. On the hill we found an octagonal palace, called the Palladium, which we entered. It had eight hexagonal recesses, each with a bookcase in it, and a table at which those crowned with laurel were sitting. In the Palladium itself appeared seats of hewn stone, on which the others seated themselves. [3] Then a door opened at the left through which two newcomers from the earth were ushered in. After the greetings, one of the laurelled ones asked them, “What news from the earth?”
They said, “There is a report that some men like beasts, or beasts like men, have been found in a forest. From face and body it was plain, however, that they were born men, and must have been lost or left in the woods when two or three years old.” They said, “The report was that they could not utter anything of thought or learn to make words. Nor did they know the food suited to them as do beasts, but thrust into their mouths whatever they found in the woods, both clean and unclean,” and many other like things. “From which,” they said, “some of the learned among us have formed many conjectures, and some have come to many conclusions about the state of men compared with that of beasts.”
[4] On hearing this some of the ancient sophi asked what the conjectures and conclusions from these facts had been. The two newcomers answered, “They were many, but can be reduced to these: (i) Man of his own nature and also by birth is more stupid and as a result meaner than any beast, and so becomes if not instructed. (ii) He can be instructed, for he has learned to articulate sound and hence to speak; and by this means he soon began to express thoughts, and this gradually more and more until he could formulate social laws, many of which, however, have been stamped upon beasts by birth. (iii) Beasts have rationality in like manner with men. (iv) Therefore if beasts could speak they would reason about things as skillfully as men, as is indicated by the fact that they, equally with men, think from reason and prudence. (v) Understanding is but a modification of light from the sun, with heat cooperating, the ether serving as medium; and hence is only an activity of interior nature; and it can be heightened until it appears to be wisdom. (vi) It is idle therefore to believe that a man lives after death any more than a beast; except perhaps that for some days after death, from the exhalation of the life of the body, he may appear like a vapor in the shape of a spectre before being dissolved in nature, much as a twig, protruding in the ashes of a fire, retains a semblance of its shape. (vii) Consequently religion, teaching a life after death, is an invention to keep the simple in restraint inwardly by its laws, as they are kept outwardly by civil laws.” To this they added, “The merely ingenious ones reason in this way, but not the intelligent.”
When asked, “How do the intelligent reason?” they replied that they had not heard, but supposed they must reason differently.

152r. Hearing these things, those seated at the tables exclaimed, “What times these are on earth! Alas, what changes wisdom has undergone! Turned into foolish ingenuity! The sun has set, and is under the earth opposite its meridian! Who cannot see from the evidence of those lost and found in the woods what man is like without instruction? Is he not what he is taught? Is he not born in greater ignorance than beasts? Must he not learn to walk? and to talk? If he did not learn to walk would he stand erect on his feet? And if he did not learn to speak could he give utterance to any thought? Is not every man just as he is taught, insane from falsities or wise from truths? And is not the man insane from falsities in the phantasy that he is wiser than the man wise from truths? Are there not foolish and crazy, who are no more men than those found in the woods? Are not those who have lost their memory like them? We conclude from all this that without instruction man is not man, nor is he a beast. He is a form which can receive in it what makes a man; thus he is not born a man, but becomes a man. Man is born such a form in order that he may be an organ receiving life from God, to the end that he may be a subject into which God can bring every good and which He can render blessed to eternity by union with Himself. We perceive from what you have said that wisdom is so far extinct at this day or is rendered so foolish, that men know nothing at all about the state of human life compared with the life of beasts. As a result they do not know man’s state of life after death. Those who might but do not wish to know it and therefore deny it, as do many of your Christians, we may liken to those found in the woods. Not that they have become so stupid for lack of instruction; they have made themselves so stupid by fallacies of the senses, in which truth is in darkness.

153r. But then a man standing in the center of the Palladium, holding a palm in his hand, said: “Pray, unfold this arcanum: How could man, created in the form of God, be changed into the form of the devil? I know that the angels of heaven are forms of God; the angels of hell, forms of the devil; and that the two forms are opposites, these, forms of insanity, those of wisdom. Tell us, then, how man, created a form of God, could pass from day into such a night as to be able to deny God and eternal life?”
sRef Gen@3 @23 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @24 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@19 @12 S2′ [2] To this the teachers replied in turn; first the Pythagoreans, then the Socratics, and afterwards the others. A certain Platonist among them was the last to speak, and his view prevailed. It was this: “Men of the Saturnian period or golden age knew and acknowledged that they were forms receiving life from God. Wisdom was therefore inscribed on their souls and hearts. Hence they saw truth from the light of truth, and by truths perceived good from the delight of the love of good. But as the human race in subsequent ages fell away from the acknowledgment that every truth of wisdom and hence every good of love with men continually flow in from God, they ceased to be habitations of God; speech with God and association with angels also ceased. For the interiors of their minds�which God had once raised to Himself�were then deflected more and more obliquely out into the world, to be raised by God to Himself only through the world; and at length were turned about in the opposite direction, namely, downwards to themselves. God cannot be kept in view by the man who is turned in on himself and thus turned away. Thus men separated themselves from God and became forms of hell or of the devil. [3] It follows that in the first ages men acknowledged with heart and soul that they had every good of love and every truth of wisdom thence from God; that these were God’s in them, and they themselves only receptacles of life from God; for that reason they were called ‘images’ of God, ‘sons of God,’ and ‘born of God.’ But in subsequent ages this was not acknowledged with heart and soul, but in a kind of persuasive faith; afterwards in a traditional belief; and finally with the mouth only. To acknowledge such a truth with the mouth only is not to acknowledge, but rather to deny it at heart. From these facts it may be seen what wisdom is at this day among Christians on earth, who, though they might be inspired of God by written revelation, do not know the difference between man and beast, and many of whom therefore believe that if man lives after death, a beast also must do so, or because a beast does not live after death neither does man. Has not our spiritual light which enlightens the sight of the mind become thick darkness with them? And has not their natural light which only enlightens the sight of the body, become brightness to them?”

154r. After this they turned to the two newcomers and, thanking them for coming and reporting, begged them to tell their brethren what they had heard. The newcomers replied that they would strengthen their brethren in this truth: that in so far as they attribute every good of charity and truth of faith to the Lord and not to themselves, they are men; in like measure, too, they become angels of heaven.
* These Memorabilia are repeated in True Christian Religion, n. 692.

II

155r. One morning I was aroused from sleep by some very sweet singing, sounding from a height above me. In that first moment of wakefulness, more internal, peaceful and sweet than the rest of the day, I could be kept for a while in the spirit, seemingly out of the body, and could attend alertly to the affection which was being sung. Singing in heaven is nothing else than the melodious utterance of an affection of the mind. The intonations, as distinct from the words, of a speaker come from the affection of love, which gives speech its life. In that state I perceived that it was an affection of the delights of marital love which some wives in heaven were rendering into a melody. So I discerned from the sound of the singing, in which those delights were varied in marvellous ways.
I arose and looked out into the spiritual world. In the east beneath the sun there appeared as it were a Golden Rain. It was the morning dew, falling in great abundance and touched by the rays of the sun, which presented this appearance to my sight. Waked still more fully by this, I walked forth in the spirit and asked an angel, who met me by chance just then, whether he saw the golden rain descending from the sun. sRef Gen@3 @23 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @24 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@19 @12 S2′ [2] He answered that he did as often as he was in meditation on marital love and looked in that direction. He went on:
“The golden rain is falling over a hall in which are three husbands with their wives, who live in the midst of an eastern paradise. The rain seems to be falling upon that hall from the sun, because wisdom about marital love and its delights dwells with them, with the husbands wisdom about marital love, and with the wives, wisdom about its delights. I see that you are meditating on the delights of marital love; let me conduct you to the hall and introduce you.”
He led me through paradisaical scenes to houses built of olive wood, with two columns of cedar at the entrance. He introduced me to the husbands, and asked that I be permitted to speak in their presence with their wives. They nodded assent and called them.
The wives gazed searchingly into my eyes. I asked why they did so. They said, “We can see exactly what your inclination is and your affection from it, and what your thought from this is about love of the sex. We see that you are thinking intensely and yet chastely about love of the sex.” And they asked:
“What would you like us to tell you about it?”
I answered, “Tell me, please, something about the delights of marital love.”
The husbands nodded assent, saying, “If you will, tell something about them. Their ears are chaste.”
[3] But they inquired, “Who taught you to ask us about the delights of that love? Why not ask our husbands?”
I responded, “This angel with me whispered to me that wives are receptacles and sensories of those delights, because they are born loves, and all delights are of love.”
Smilingly they answered, “Be prudent and tell nothing of the kind, save in an ambiguous sense. For it is a wisdom kept deep in the hearts of our sex; a husband is not told unless he is in true marital love. This for many reasons, which we also keep to ourselves.”
The husbands remarked, “Our wives know all the states of our minds; nothing at all is hidden from them. They see, perceive and feel every motion of our wills; while we know nothing of what takes place in them. Wives are thus dowered because they are most tender loves and because they are ardent zeals, as it were, for the preservation of marital friendship and trust and so for the life-happiness of both. They care for this happiness, their husbands’ and their own, from a wisdom implanted in their love�a wisdom so full of prudence that they will not and hence cannot say that they love, but that they are loved.”
I asked, “Why are they not willing and why can they not?”
They answered that if the least such thing escaped their lips, cold would assail their husbands and separate from bed, chamber and sight. This takes place, however, with those who do not consider marriages holy, and therefore do not love their wives from spiritual love. It is otherwise with those who do so love. With them, marital love is spiritual in the mind, and thence natural in the body. “We, in this hall, are in the natural love from the spiritual. We therefore confide arcana about our delights in marital love to our husbands.”
[4] I courteously asked them to disclose some of the arcana to me also. They glanced at once toward a window on the south, and there a white dove, with wings which glittered as with silver, its head decked with a crest as of gold, perched on a bough from which an olive grew.
As the dove tried to spread its wings the wives said, “We will disclose something. When this dove appears, it is a sign to us that we may.” And they said, “Every man has five senses, sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. But we have also a sixth sense, which is the sense of all the delights of the marital love of the husband. We have this sense in the palms of our hands, when we touch the breasts, arms, hands, or cheeks, especially the breasts of our husbands, and also when we are touched by them. All the gladnesses and pleasantnesses of the thoughts of their inner mind, all the joys and delights of their outer mind, and the cheer and mirth of their bosoms pass from them into us and take form and become perceptible, sensible and tangible. We discern them as exquisitely and distinctly as the ear does the modulations of song or as the tongue does the flavors of dainties. In a word, the spiritual delights of our husbands assume as it were a natural embodiment with us. For that reason our husbands call us the sensory organs of chaste marital love and thence of its delights. But this sense of our sex exists and subsists, it endures and is heightened, in the degree that our husbands love us from wisdom and judgment, and as we in turn love them for these qualities in them. This sense of our sex is called in the heavens the disporting of wisdom with its love and of love with its wisdom.”
[5] These disclosures excited my desire to put further questions, some, for instance, about the variety of the delights. They replied, “The variety is infinite. But we do not wish to say more. Nor may we; for the dove on the olive branch at our window has flown away.”
I waited for it to return, but in vain.
Meanwhile I asked the husbands, “Have you a similar sense of marital love?”
They answered, “A general one, not so specific. We enjoy a general blessedness, delight and pleasantness from the particular sensations of our wives. The general sense which we have thence is like the serenity of peace.”
At these words, a swan, standing on a branch of a fig-tree appeared beyond the window; it spread its wings and flew off. At the sight the husbands said, “That is a sign to us for silence about marital love. Return at some other time and perhaps more may be disclosed.”
They withdrew, and we left.


156r. VII

THE CONJUNCTION OF SOULS AND MINDS BY MARRIAGE, MEANT BY THE LORD’S WORDS, “THEY ARE NO LONGER TWO, BUT ONE FLESH.”

It is evident from the Book of Creation and also from words of the Lord that there were set in man and woman by creation and still are present in them an inclination and also a faculty for conjunction as into one. We read in the Book of Creation, called Genesis:

Jehovah God built the rib which He had taken from man, into a woman; and He brought her to the man; and the man said, This now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; her name shall be called Ischah, because she was taken from Isch. On this account shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and they shall be one flesh (ii. 22-24).

The Lord spoke similarly in Matthew:

Have you not read that He who made them male and female at the beginning, said, On this account shall a man leave father and mother and cleave to his wife, and they shall be one flesh; wherefore they are no longer two, but one flesh? (xix. 4, 5, 6).

sRef Gen@3 @23 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @24 S2′ sRef Gen@3 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@19 @12 S2′ [2] From these words it is evident that woman was created from man and that man and woman have both inclination and faculty for reuniting into one. This means into one human being, which is also plain from the Book of Creation, where the two together are called a human being; for we read,

On the day that God created man�He created them male and female, and He called their name Man (v. 1, 2).

The wording is, “He called their name ‘Adam,'” but `Adam’ and ‘Man’ are the same word in the Hebrew language. Moreover, the two together are called man (i. 27, iii. 22-24). By one flesh, also, one human being is meant, as is plain from passages in the Word where “all flesh” occurs, by which all mankind is meant (as Genesis vi. 12, 13, 17, 19; Isaiah xl. 5, 6; xlix. 26; lxvi. 16, 23, 24; Jeremiah xxv. 31; xxxii. 27; xlv. 5; Ezekiel xx. 48; xxi. 4, 5; and elsewhere). [3] But what is meant by the `man’s rib,’ which was built into the woman, by the ‘flesh’ which was closed up in its place, and thus by ‘bone of my bones’ and ‘flesh of my flesh,’ and by ‘father and mother’ whom the man is to leave on marriage, and what by `cleaving to his wife,’ has been shown in the Arcana Coelestia, where the two books of Genesis and Exodus are explained in the spiritual sense. In that work we have shown that by ‘rib’ a rib is notmeant, nor by ‘flesh’ flesh, nor by ‘bone’ bone, nor by ‘cleaving’ cleaving, but spiritual things corresponding to them and therefore signified by them. That spiritual things are meant which from two make one human being, is evident from the fact that it is marital love which conjoins the two; this love is spiritual. We have said more than once that the man’s love of his wisdom was transcribed into his wife, and we shall establish the fact still more fully in chapters to follow. But we must not turn aside, digressing from the proposition under consideration, which concerns the conjunction of two partners into one flesh through union of the souls and minds. We shall explain this conjunction in the following order:
i. By creation a faculty and an inclination were set in each sex as a result of which they can and wish to be conjoined as into one.
ii. Marital love conjoins two souls and hence minds into one.
iii. The wife’s will unites with the man’s understanding, and then the man’s understanding with the wife’s will.
iv. Inclination to unite the man to herself is constant and perpetual with the wife, but inconstant and recurrent with the man.
v. Conjunction is inspired in the man by the wife according to her love, and received by the man according to his wisdom.
vi. This conjunction is effected gradually from the first days of marriage, and with those in true marital love, more and more profoundly to eternity.
vii. The wife’s conjunction with the husband’s rational wisdom is effected from within, but with his moral wisdom from without.
viii. In the interests of this conjunction, the wife has been endowed with a perception of the husband’s affections and with the highest prudence in moderating them.
ix. Wives conceal this perception in themselves and hide it from their husbands for causes which are necessities, that marital love, friendship and confidence, and so the blessedness of living together and happiness of life, may be assured.
x. This perception is the wife’s wisdom; the man does not have it, nor does the wife have his rational wisdom.
xi. A wife in her love is always mindful of the man’s inclination to her, with the intent to conjoin him to her; not so the man.
xii. The wife conjoins herself to the man by address to his will’s desires.
xiii. A wife is conjoined to her husband through the sphere of her life emanating from her love.
xiv. A wife is conjoined to the husband through appropriation of his manhood’s powers, but this takes place according to their mutual spiritual love.
xv. A wife thus receives her husband’s image in herself, and hence perceives, sees and feels his affections.
xvi. There are activities proper to the man and activities proper to the wife; the wife cannot enter on those proper to the man, nor the man on those proper to the wife, and perform them aright.
xvii. In mutual helpfulness these activities also conjoin the two into one; at the same time they make the home one.
xviii. By the conjunctions named above, partners become more and more one human being.
xix. Those in true marital love feel they are a united human being and, as it were, one flesh.
xx. Regarded in itself true marital love is union of the souls, conjunction of the minds, and an effort after conjunction in bosom and so in the body.
xxi. The states of this love are innocence, peace, tranquillity, inmost friendship, full trust, and a mutual desire of mind and heart to do each other every good; and growing out of all these, blessedness, satisfaction, joy, pleasure, and in the eternal fruition of these, heavenly happiness.
xxii. These can by no means be possessed except in a marriage of one man with one wife.

Explanation of these propositions now follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 157 157. (i) By creation a faculty and an inclination were set in each sex as a result of which they can and wish to be conjoined as into one. We showed just above from the Book of Creation that woman was taken out of man. It follows that there are in each sex a faculty thence and an inclination for conjoining themselves into one. For what is taken from something else takes and keeps something of the first entity’s proper nature which it makes its own. It is homogeneous with that entity and therefore seeks reunion with it, and on reunion is as it were in itself when in it, and the other way about. Without question there is a faculty of conjunction of one sex with the other, and an inclination to unite; common observation teaches both facts.

CL (Wunsch) n. 158 158. (ii) Marital love conjoins two souls and hence minds into one. Every human being consists of soul, mind and body, the soul being his inmost, the mind his mediate, and the body the outmost. Being what is inmost in the human being, the soul is celestial in origin; being his mediate, the mind is spiritual in origin; and being outmost, the body is natural in origin. Things celestial or spiritual in origin are not in space, but in appearances of space; this is also known in the world, wherefore it is said that extension and locality cannot be predicated of things of the spirit. Since therefore space is an appearance, remoteness and presence also are. The appearance of remoteness and presence in the spiritual world is according to the nearnesses, resemblances and affinities of love, as we have pointed out and shown often in works on that world. We cite the point here that it may be known that men’s souls and minds are not in space, as their bodies are, being, as was said above, celestial and spiritual in origin; and because they are not in space they can be conjoined as in one, even in bodily absence. This is the case especially with partners who mutually love each other inmostly. Inasmuch, however, as the woman is from man, and the conjunction is a kind of re-unition, it can be seen from reason that there is not conjunction into one, but adjunction, close and near according to the love, amounting even to a sense of contact with those in true marital love. This adjunction may be called spiritual cohabitation, occurring with partners who love each other tenderly, though they are distant in body. There are also many evidences from experience in the natural world to substantiate these things. Hence it is evident that marital love conjoins two souls and minds in one.

CL (Wunsch) n. 159 159. (iii) The wife’s will unites with the man’s understanding, and then the man’s understanding with the wife’s will. This is for the reason that the male is born to become understanding, and the female to become will, loving the male’s understanding. It follows that the marital conjunction is of the wife’s will with the man’s understanding, and reciprocally of the man’s understanding with the wife’s will. Any one sees that the conjunction of will and understanding is very close, and that it is such that one faculty can enter the other, and be delighted in and by the conjunction.

CL (Wunsch) n. 160 160. (iv) Inclination to unite the man to herself is constant and perpetual with the wife, but inconstant and recurrent with the man. For love cannot but love and unite itself, to be loved in return. This is its whole essence and life. Women are born loves, but men, with whom they unite to be loved in return, are receptions. Love, furthermore, is continuously acting; like heat, flame and fire, which if kept from activity, perish. Hence it is that the inclination to unite the man to herself is constant and perpetual with a wife. The man does not have a like inclination toward his wife because he is not love, but only a recipient of love, and because the state of reception is absent or present according to interposing cares, according to changes of warmth or no warmth of mind for various reasons, and according to increase and decrease of bodily power. None of these recurs uniformly or at given times. It follows that inclination to that conjunction is inconstant and recurrent with men.

CL (Wunsch) n. 161 161. (v) Conjunction is inspired in the man by the wife according to her love, and received by the man according to his wisdom. It is hidden today from men, in fact it is universally denied by them, that love and conjunction thence are inspired in the man by the wife. The reason is that wives persuade men that men do the loving and that they themselves receive, or that men are loves and they only obediences. They rejoice at heart to have men think so. For their so persuading men there are many reasons�all of them pieces of prudence and circumspection on their part�of which something will be said in what follows, especially in the chapter on “Causes of Cold, Separation and Divorce between Partners.” Inspiration or insinuation of love in men by wives is the fact, because there is no marital love, and indeed no sexual love with men, but only with wives and women. The truth of this has been shown me to the life in the spiritual world.
[2] There was talk once about this matter there, and men insisted, under the persuasion of their wives, that they loved, and not the wives, but that the wives received love from them. To settle the dispute over this arcanum, all women together with their wives were removed from the men, and with them the sphere itself of love of the sex was taken away. On the removal of this the men came into a state totally strange to them, never before perceived by them, at which they complained much. Then, while in this state, women were brought to them, and their wives to the husbands, and both addressed them softly. But they were cold to their charms, and turned away, and said to one another, “What is this? What is woman?” And when some said that they were their wives, they replied, “What is a wife? We do not know you.” When, however, the wives began to be troubled at the men’s cold indifference, and some to cry, the sphere of feminine love of the sex and of marital love, which had been taken away, was restored, whereupon the men at once returned into their former state, the lovers of marriage into theirs, and the lovers of the sex into theirs. Thus the men were convinced that there is nothing of marital love nor indeed of love of the sex resident with them, but only with wives and women. Still the wives in their prudence afterwards induced the men to believe that love resides with men and that some spark of it can pass from them into themselves.
[3] We have adduced this experience that it may be known that wives are loves and men receptions. Men are receptions according to the wisdom with them, especially according to this wisdom from religion that the wife alone is to be loved. This is plain from the fact that while the wife alone is loved, love is concentrated; and being ennobled, too, it remains in its strength, is steadfast and endures; otherwise it would be like throwing wheat from a granary to dogs, with resulting poverty at home.

CL (Wunsch) n. 162 162. (vi) This conjunction is effected gradually from the first days of marriage, and with those in true marital love, more and more profoundly to eternity. The first heat of marriage does not conjoin, for it is derived from sexual love, which is of the body and thence of the spirit. What is from the body in the spirit does not last long, but love which is from the spirit in the body, endures. Love which is of the spirit and of the body from the spirit, is insinuated into the souls and minds of the partners, together with friendship and trust. When friendship and trust are joined to the first love of marriage, marital love comes to be, which opens the bosoms and inspires in them the sweetnesses of love; and this, more and more profoundly, as friendship and trust join the first love, and it enters them and they enter it.

CL (Wunsch) n. 163 163. (vii) The wife’s conjunction with the husband’s rational wisdom is effected from within, but with his moral wisdom from without. Just from observation and examination one can conclude and see that wisdom in men is twofold, rational and moral, and that their rational wisdom is of the understanding alone, whereas their moral wisdom is at once of the understanding and of life. But examples shall be given that it may be known what is meant by men’s rational wisdom and by their moral wisdom. What goes to constitute their rational wisdom is variously designated. In general it is called knowledge, intelligence and wisdom; in particular, rationality, judgment, talent, learning, sagacity. As there are knowledges peculiar to every one in his work, these are multifarious. For there are knowledges peculiar to the clergy, to magistrates, to their various subordinates, to judges, to medical men and chemists, to soldiers and sailors, to artisans and workmen, to farmers, and so on. To rational wisdom pertains all knowledge, too, into which young men are introduced in school and through which they are later led into intelligence. These knowledges are also variously named, like things philosophical, physical, geometrical, mechanical, chemical, astronomical, juristic, political, ethical, historical, and more, by which, as by gates, one enters things rational, of which comes rational wisdom.

CL (Wunsch) n. 164 164. But to man’s moral wisdom belong all moral virtues, which concern life and enter into living; also spiritual virtues, which issue from and contribute to love for God and love to the neighbor. The virtues which pertain to men’s moral wisdom are also variously named, and are called temperance, sobriety, uprightness, benevolence, friendliness, modesty, sincerity, dutifulness, civility, also earnestness, industry, alertness, alacrity, bounty, liberalness, generosity, activity, courage, prudence; besides more. Spiritual virtues with men are love of religion, charity, truth, faith, conscience, innocence, besides more. The latter and the former virtues may be referred in general to love and zeal for religion, for the public good, for one’s country, for one’s fellow-citizens, for one’s parents, for one’s married partner and for one’s children. In all these, righteousness and judgment rule; righteousness being of moral wisdom, judgment of rational.

CL (Wunsch) n. 165 165. The wife’s conjunction with a man’s rational wisdom is from within, inasmuch as this wisdom is proper to masculine understanding, and rises into a light in which women are not. Women therefore do not speak from this wisdom, but are silent and only listen when such matters are discussed in a company of men. Yet such matters are with wives from within, as is plain from their attention; inwardly they recognize them and favor what they hear and have heard from their husbands. But the wife’s conjunction with men’s moral wisdom is from without, for the virtues of moral wisdom are for the most part akin to like virtues with women and are derived from the intellectual will of the man, with which the wife’s will unites and forms a marriage. The wife’s conjunction with the man’s moral virtues is said to be from without for the further reason that she is better acquainted with those virtues in the man than is the man himself.

CL (Wunsch) n. 166 166. (viii) In the interests of this conjunction, the wife has been endowed with a perception of the husband’s affections and with the highest prudence, too, in moderating them. It is another of the arcana of marital love hidden with wives that they know and prudently govern the affections of their husbands. They know them by three senses, sight, hearing, and touch, and moderate them while their husbands are quite unaware of the fact. But it does not become me to disclose in detail these things which are among the secrets of wives. It is becoming for them to do so, however, and there follow after the chapters four Memorabilia, in which, of their own accord, they disclose these things. Two* of the Memorabilia are from the three wives who dwelt in the hall over which a golden rain seemed to be falling; and two** from the seven wives seated in the rose-garden. If these are read, the present arcanum will stand disclosed.
* Nn. 155r, 208.
** Nn. 293, 294.

CL (Wunsch) n. 167 167. (ix) Wives conceal this perception in themselves and hide it from their husbands for causes which are necessities, that marital love, friendship and trust, and so the blessedness of living together and happiness of life, may be assured. The concealment and hiding by wives of their perception of the husband’s affections is called a necessity because if the affections were revealed, it would estrange the husbands from bed, chamber and home. Deeply seated in most men is a marital cold the causes of which will be disclosed in the chapter on the “Causes of Cold, Separation and Divorce between Partners.” If wives disclosed the husbands’ affections and inclinations, this cold would burst from its coverts and freeze first the mind’s interiors, then the bosom, and finally the ultimates of love devoted to generation. Thereupon marital love would be so far banished that no hope would survive of friendship, trust or the blessedness of living together, and so of happiness of life; but wives are continually sustained by that hope. Revelation that they know the affections and inclinations of love in their husbands, involves a declaration and publication of their own love; and it is known that as far as women declare their own love, to that extent men grow cold and wish separation. The truth of our proposition is evident then, that the causes why wives hide their perception in themselves and conceal it from the husbands, are necessities.

CL (Wunsch) n. 168 168. (x) This perception is the wife’s wisdom; the man does not have it, just as the wife does not have his rational wisdom. This follows from the difference between masculine and feminine. To perceive from the understanding is masculine, and to do so from love is feminine. The understanding also perceives things above the body and beyond the world, for rational and spiritual sight penetrates thither, but love no further than it feels; when love penetrates further, it does so by the conjunction with man’s understanding provided by creation. For understanding is of light, but love of heat, and what is of light is perceived, but what is of heat is felt. In view of this general difference between masculine and feminine, it is plain that the man does not have the wife’s wisdom, or the wife the man’s wisdom. Nor have women man’s moral wisdom, so far as this partakes of his rational wisdom.

CL (Wunsch) n. 169 169. (xi) A wife in her love is always mindful of the man’s inclination to her, with the intent to conjoin him to her. This is bound up with what was explained above, that the inclination to unite the man to herself is constant and perpetual with the wife, but inconstant and recurrent with the man (see n. 16o). It follows that the wife’s thought of the husband’s inclination to her is continuous, with a mind to uniting him to her. Her thought about him is interrupted, of course, by the domestic matters which are her care, but still it persists in the affection of her love, which does not detach itself from the thought in women as it does in men. I am only reporting what I have been told. See the two Memorabilia* from the seven wives seated in the rose-garden.
* Nn. 293, 294.

CL (Wunsch) n. 170 170. (xii) The wife conjoins herself to the man by address to his will’s desires. This is among things well known, and explanation is omitted.

CL (Wunsch) n. 171 171. (xiii) A wife is conjoined to her husband by the sphere of her life emanating from her love. There emanates, indeed pours forth from every person and envelops him, a spiritual sphere from his love’s affections; this rests, moreover, in a natural sphere which is from the body, and the two merge. It is common knowledge that a natural sphere continually flows from the body, not only of man, but of beasts, too; indeed from trees, fruits and flowers, and even from metals. Similarly in the spiritual world. But the spheres flowing from objects in that world are spiritual; and those emanating from spirits and angels are deeply spiritual, because their affections of love and their perceptions and thoughts are interior. All sympathy and antipathy have their source in this fact; so have all conjunction and estrangement, in accord with which there is presence or absence. For what is homogeneous or concordant makes for presence and for conjunction, while the heterogeneous or discordant makes for estrangement and absence. Those spheres therefore cause distances in the spiritual world. It is also known to some what those spiritual spheres can do in the natural world. Now, the inclinations of partners to each other have no other origin; unanimous and concordant spheres unite them, and adverse and discordant spheres disunite them. For concordant spheres are pleasant and agreeable, but discordant unpleasant and disagreeable. [2] I have heard from angels, who have a clear perception of spheres, that there is no part of the human being, internal or external, which does not renew itself, which is done by breakings-down and repairings, and that from this results the sphere which continually pours forth. They said that this sphere encompasses man front and back, but lightly at the back, more densely at the breast; and that the latter sphere, at the breast, is united with the respiration; and that thence it is that married partners who differ in mind and are discordant in affection, lie turned away from each other, back to back, in bed; while on the other hand those of agreeing mind and affections lie turned mutually toward each other. [3] They also said that the spheres, emanating as they do from every part of the human being and extending widely about him, conjoin or disjoin two partners not only from without, but also from within; and that all the differences and varieties of marital love arise thence. Finally they said that the sphere of love going out from a wife who is tenderly loved is perceived in heaven as something sweetly fragrant, far more pleasant than the sphere perceived in the world by a husband during the first days of marriage. From this the truth of what has been asserted is plain, that a wife is conjoined to the man through the sphere of her life emanating from her love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 172 172. (xiv) A wife is conjoined to the husband through the appropriation of his manhood’s powers, but this takes place according to their mutual spiritual love. This fact, too, I have learned from the mouth of angels. They said that the prolific expenditures of husbands are received by wives pervasively and added to their life; and that thus wives lead a life like-minded and ever more like-minded with their husbands; and that complete union of souls and conjunction of minds is thus effected. They gave this reason: the soul of the husband is in the prolific expenditure, and his mind, too, as to its interiors which are joined to the soul. They added that this was provided by creation in order that the man’s wisdom which makes his soul may be appropriated to the wife, and that they may thus become one flesh according to the Lord’s words; furthermore, that this was provided lest the man for some fancy leave his wife after conception. But they appended that applications and appropriations of the husband’s life take place with wives in accord with the marital love, because love, being spiritual union, is what conjoins; and that this, too, has been provided for several reasons.

CL (Wunsch) n. 173 173. (xv) The wife thus receives her husband’s image in herself and thence perceives, sees and feels his affections. From the reasons given above it follows as proved that wives receive into themselves what is of the husbands’ wisdom, thus what is proper to the husbands’ souls and minds, and so from virgins make themselves wives. The reasons from which this follows are: 1. Woman was created from man. 2. As a result she has an inclination to unite or, as it were, reunite herself with man. 3. From that union with her counterpart and for the sake of it, woman is born the love of the man, and becomes more and more his love through marriage, because love then employs her thoughts steadily to conjoin him to her. 4. She is conjoined to her only one through applications to his life’s desires. 5. They are conjoined by the enveloping spheres, which unite them in general and in particular according to the nature of the marital love with the wives and at the same time according to the character of the wisdom receiving it on the part of the husbands. 6. They are also conjoined through appropriations of the husbands’ powers by the wives. 7. Plainly, then, something of the husband is steadily transcribed into the wife and inscribed on her as hers. From all this it follows that an image of the husband is formed in the wife, as a result of which she perceives, sees and feels in herself what is in the husband, and even feels herself in him. She perceives from communication, sees from vision, and feels from touch. The three wives in the hall, and the seven in the rose-garden, of whom in the Memorabilia* disclosed to me that a wife feels her husband’s reception of her love from the touch of palms on cheeks, arms, hands and breasts.
* Nn. 155r, 208; 293, 294.

CL (Wunsch) n. 174 174. (xvi) There are activities proper to the man and activities proper to the wife; the wife cannot enter into the activities proper to the man, nor the man into the wife’s, and perform them aright. There is no need to illustrate by listing them that there are activities proper to the man, and others proper to the wife, for they are many and various. Any one knows how to arrange them by kind and species, if he applies his mind to discern them. The activity above all others by which wives unite themselves to their husbands is the education of the children of either sex and of the girls until they are of an age to be given in marriage.

CL (Wunsch) n. 175 175. The wife cannot enter into the activities proper to the man, nor the man into those proper to the wife, for the reason that man and woman differ like wisdom and the love of it, or like thought and its affection, or like understanding and its will. Understanding, thought and wisdom take the lead in activities proper to men; while in activities proper to wives, will, affection and love take the lead. From the latter the wife carries on her activities, from the former the husband carries on his. Their activities are therefore in their nature diverse, but still conjoining in a continuous series. [2] Many believe that women can perform men’s activities if only they are introduced into them from early days as boys are; but while they can be inducted into the doing of them, they cannot be into the judgment on which the right performance of them inwardly depends. Women who are introduced into men’s activities are therefore driven in matters of judgment to consult men, and if there is room for choice, they choose from the advice what favors their love. [3] Some also suppose that women can raise the sight of the understanding equally with men into the sphere of light in which men are, and view things at that height. They have been led to think so by the writings of certain accomplished authoresses. But these writings have been examined in the spiritual world in the presence of the writers and were found to be works not of judgment and wisdom but of cleverness and eloquence. Writings which come of these two capacities seem sublime and erudite for their elegance and skillful verbal composition, but only to those who call ingenuity wisdom. sRef Deut@22 @5 S4′ [4] Neither can men enter into activities proper to women and perform them rightly, for the reason that they have not their affections, which are utterly distinct from their own. Since the affections and perceptions of the male sex are so different by creation and hence by nature, there stood among the laws of the children of Israel this statute:

A man’s garment shall not be on a woman nor a woman’s on a man; for this is an abomination (Deuteronomy xxii. 5).

The reason is that all in the spiritual world are clothed in accord with their affections, and the two different affections, of man and woman, can be united only between two and never in one person.

CL (Wunsch) n. 176 176. (xvii) In mutual helpfulness these activities also conjoin the two into one; at the same time they make the home one. It is among things known in the world that the husband’s activities are conjoined in some degree with the wife’s, and the wife’s are adjoined to the husband’s, and that these conjunctions and adjunctions are a mutual help and are according to mutual helpfulness. Chief among the activities which league and ally and gather into one the souls and lives of the two partners is the common care of educating the children. In this care the husband’s and the wife’s activities at once diverge and merge. They diverge because the care in nourishment and education of the infants of both sexes and also for the instruction of the girls until they are old enough to be presented to and associate with men belongs to the wife’s proper activity; but the care of the instruction of the boys, from childhood to puberty, and after that until they are their own masters, belongs to the husband’s peculiar duty. The activities merge through counsels, mutual support and much other mutual assistance. It is known that these activities, the separate as well as the united, bring the partners’ minds together, and that the love called storge does so especially. It is also known that these activities, whether pursued by the two severally or together, make one home.

CL (Wunsch) n. 177 177. (xviii) By the conjunctions named above, partners become more and more one human being. This coincides with the thought of article vi, where we said that conjunction is effected by stages from the first days of marriage, and, with those in true marital love, more and more profoundly to eternity. The two become one human being as marital love grows. In the heavens, where, in the celestial and spiritual life of the angels that love is its authentic self, two partners are called two when called husband and wife, but one when called angels.

CL (Wunsch) n. 178 178. (xix) Those in true marital love. feel they are a united human being and, as it were, one flesh. The truth of this is to be established not on the word of any earth-dweller, but from the mouth of angels, citizens of heaven, for true marital love is not to be found today with men on earth. Men on earth are also encompassed with a gross body, which dulls and absorbs the sensation that two partners are one man and, as it were, one flesh. In the world, moreover, those who love their partners only outwardly and not inwardly, do not wish to hear this truth. For they think of the union lasciviously from the flesh. It is otherwise with angels of heaven; for they are in spiritual and celestial marital love and are also not encompassed with a gross body as are men on earth. I have heard some who have lived for ages with their partners in heaven, testify that they feel themselves so united, husband with wife and wife with husband, and each in the other mutually, seemingly in the flesh, even when separated. [2] They said the reason for this (which is such a rare phenomenon on earth) is that the unition of their souls and minds is felt in their flesh, for the soul makes the inmosts not only of the head, but of the body, too. Likewise, the mind, mediate between soul and body, though it appears to be in the head, is actually in the whole body, too. They said that this is the reason why acts which soul and mind intend, issue instantly from the body. Thence, too, it is, they said, that after the discarding of the body in the former world they themselves are still complete human beings. Now, as soul and mind are so closely adjoined to the flesh of the body in order to operate and bring about their effects, it follows that the unition of partners in soul and mind is felt in the very body as if they were one flesh. When the angels said this, I heard spirits who were present remark that these were transcendent matters of angelic wisdom; but those spirits were natural rational, not spiritual rational.

CL (Wunsch) n. 179 179. (xx) Regarded in itself true marital love is union of the souls, conjunction of the minds, and an endeavor toward conjunction in bosom and so in the body. See above (n. 158) that there is a union of souls and conjunction of minds. There is an endeavor towards conjunction in bosom because the bosom is like a meeting-place, and also like a king’s court, with the body resembling the populous city round about. The bosom is like a meeting-place because all things directed by soul and mind into the body flow first into the bosom. It is like a king’s court because the dominion over all bodily things is there, for there are the heart and lungs, the heart ruling through the blood, and the lungs everywhere by respiration. That the body is like a populous city round about, is obvious. When therefore the souls and minds of partners are united�and true marital love unites them�it follows that this lovely union flows into their bosoms, and through these into their bodies, and causes an endeavor towards conjunction, the more so, because marital love directs its effort towards its ultimates, to fulfil its happy delights. As the bosom is midway, it is evident why marital love has found in it the seat of its delicate sense.

CL (Wunsch) n. 180 180. (xxi) The states of this love are innocence, peace, tranquillity, inmost friendship, full trust, a desire in mind and heart to do the other every good; and from all these blessedness, satisfaction, joy, pleasure, and in eternal fruition of these, heavenly happiness. These states are all in marital love and issue from it, because marital love has its origin in the marriage of good and truth, and this marriage is from the Lord. Love wishes to share its gladnesses with another whom it loves from the heart, indeed, to bestow them on him, and in turn to find its own. Infinitely more does the Divine Love of the Lord bear itself so toward the human being. The Lord created man a receptacle of both the love and the wisdom proceeding from Him, and having created him so (the man to receive wisdom, and the woman to receive love for man’s wisdom), He has infused in them from the inmosts a marital love, on which He can bestow all things blessed, happy, joyous and pleasant, proceeding and flowing in from the Divine love by the Divine wisdom along with life into those who are in true marital love, for these alone are receptive of them. Innocence, peace, tranquillity, inmost friendship, full trust, and the mutual desire in mind and heart to do each other every good are severally named, because innocence and peace are of the soul, tranquillity is of the mind, inmost friendship of the bosom, full trust of the heart, and the mutual desire in mind and heart to do each other every good is of the body from them.

CL (Wunsch) n. 181 181. (xxii) These can by no means be possessed except in a marriage of one man with one wife. Such is the conclusion from all that has been said; the same conclusion follows from what is still to be said. There is no need of more comment here to establish the point.

CL (Wunsch) n. 182 182. To the above, two Memorabilia shall be appended.

I

Some weeks later* I heard a voice from heaven, saying, “There is another meeting on Parnassus. Come, we will show you the way.” I went, and drawing near, I saw a trumpeter on Helicon, announcing and proclaiming the assembly.
People were going up from the city of Athens and its neighborhood as before, and in the midst of them three newcomers from the world. These three were from among Christians, one a priest, another a politician, and the third a philosopher. Along the way they were entertained with varied talk, especially about ancient wise men who were mentioned by name. They asked whether they would see these wise men, and were told that they might and would be presented to them if they wished, for they were affable. They asked about Demosthenes, Diogenes and Epicurus. They were informed, “Demosthenes is not here, but is with Plato. Diogenes dwells with his pupils at the foot of Helicon, because he puts no store by the mundane, but occupies his mind solely with the heavenly. Epicurus lives near the western border and does not associate with us, for we distinguish between good and evil affections, and hold that good affections are one with wisdom and evil affections contrary to wisdom.”
[2] When the company had climbed the hill Parnassus, some custodians brought water in crystal goblets from a fountain there, and said, “This is water from that fabulous fountain which the ancients said was broken open by the hoof of the horse Pegasus and later consecrated to the nine virgins. By the winged horse Pegasus they meant the understanding of truth, whence is wisdom; by its hoofs, the experiences through which comes natural intelligence; and by the nine virgins, knowledge and information of every kind. These things are called myths today, but they are correspondences, in the terms of which the early peoples spoke.”
The companions of the three newcomers remarked, “Do not wonder. The custodians have been instructed to make this speech. We understand that to drink water from a fountain means to be instructed about truths, and by the truths about goods, and thus to become wise.”
[3] Thereupon they entered the Palladium, and with them the three novitiates from the world, the priest, the politician, and the philosopher. The laurelled ones seated at the table asked the newcomers, “What news from the earth?” They answered, “This! A certain man asserts that he speaks with angels and that his sight is opened into the spiritual world, just as it is open into the natural world. Thence he brings much which is new, among other things these: That man lives as a man after death, as he did before in the world; that he sees, hears and speaks as before in the world; that he is clothed and adorned as before in the world; that he hungers and thirsts, eats and drinks, as before in the world; that he enjoys marital delight as before in the world; that he sleeps and wakes as before in the world; that there are lands and lakes there, mountains and hills, plains and valleys, fountains and rivers, gardens and groves; palaces and houses, too, and cities and villages, just as in the natural world; writings, also, and books, occupations and business; so also precious stones and gold and silver; in a word, that every thing which exists on earth is there, but in the heavens infinitely more perfect, with the sole difference that all things in the spiritual world have a spiritual origin and are therefore spiritual, being from the sun there which is pure love; while all things in the natural world have a natural origin and hence are natural and material, being from the sun there which is pure fire. In a word, that man is perfectly a man after death, in fact, more perfectly a man than he was before in the world; for previously, in the world, he was in a material body, but in this he is in a spiritual body.”
[4] Being told this the ancient sages asked, “What do the people on earth think about all this?”
The three replied, “We ourselves know that these things are true, because we are here, and have viewed and tested them all. We will relate what people on earth have said about them and how they have reasoned.”
The priest then said, “Members of our order, on first hearing these things, called them visions, then fabrications; afterwards they declared that the man saw ghosts; and finally, at a loss, they said, ‘Believe them if you wish; we have always taught that after death man will not be in a body until the last judgment-day.’
But the sages asked, “Are none of them intelligent enough to show and convince others of the truth that man lives as a man after death?”
[5] The priest replied, “Some do demonstrate it, but fail to convince. They argue, ‘It is contrary to sound reason to believe that a man does not live as a man until after the last judgment-day, and meanwhile is a soul without a body. What is a soul? Where is it meanwhile? Is it a breath? Or a windy something flying in the air? Is it an entity hidden at the earth’s center? Just where is it? Are the souls of Adam and Eve and of all since their day, six thousand years or sixty centuries ago, still flying about in the universe? Or are they kept confined in the bowels of the earth, awaiting the Last Judgment? What could be more distressing and miserable than such suspense? Is their lot not like the lot of men bound hand and foot in prison? If this is man’s lot after death, would it not be better to be born an ass than a man? Is it not also contrary to reason to believe that a soul can be reclothed with its body? Has the body not been consumed by worms, mice and fish? Can the bony skeleton, burnt with the sun or fallen into dust, be placed in a new body? How can cadaverous and decaying bodies be assembled and united to the soul?’ But on hearing such arguments people reply with no attempt at reason, but cling to their belief, saying,
`We hold reason bound under obedience to faith.’ As for assembling all bodies out of the sepulchres at the judgment-day, they say that that is the work of omnipotence. And when they name omnipotence or faith, reason is exiled. I may truly say that sound reason is as nothing then, and to some a mere spectre; indeed, they can say to sound reason, ‘You are insane.'”
[6] Hearing these things the Greek sages said, “Are these paradoxes not so contradictory that they are dissipated of themselves? And yet in the world at this day they cannot be dissipated even by sound reason! What could one believe more paradoxical than their declarations about the Last Judgment? The universe is to perish then, they say, the stars are to fall from heaven upon the earth, which is smaller than the stars, and men’s bodies�corpses then or mummies eaten by men** or bits of dust�are to be reunited with their souls! When we were in the world we believed in the immortality of the human soul from inductions which the reason supplied us; we also assigned places of abode to the blessed, which we called Elysian Fields; and we believed souls had human shape or semblance, but were subtle because spiritual.”
[7] After saying this they turned to the other newcomer, who in the world had been a politician. He confessed that he had not believed in a life after death; and he had thought the news which he had heard of it was fiction and invention. “Meditating on the life after death, I used to say, ‘How can souls be bodies? Does not the whole man lie dead in the tomb? Is not the eye there? How can he see? Is not the ear there? How can he hear? Whence has he a mouth with which to speak? If man lived at all after death would it not have to be as a spectre? But can a spectre eat and drink? Can it enjoy marital delight? Whence has it raiment, house and food? and so on. Spectres, which are airy shapes, only seem to be, but are not.’ So I thought in the world about the life of man after death. But now that I have seen all things and touched things with my hands, I am convinced by my very senses that I am a man as I was in the world. I know no otherwise than that I am living just as I did, with the difference that I now have sounder reason. Many a time have I been ashamed of my former thoughts.”
[8] The philosopher gave much the same account of himself, with this difference, however, that he had put the news which he heard of the life after death in the same category with opinions and hypotheses which he had collated from ancient and modern thinkers.
The sophi were astounded at hearing these things. Those of the Socratic school said that they perceived in this news from the earth that the interiors of men’s minds had been gradually closed and that belief in what is false now shines like truth in the world, and futile cleverness like wisdom; and that since their own times the light of wisdom has sunk from the interiors of the brain to the mouth under the nose, where it appears before the eyes as a verbal glamour, making what is said seem like wisdom.
On hearing these things, a neophyte there exclaimed, “How stupid the minds of men on earth are at this day! If only disciples of Heraclitus and of Democritus were here, who laugh or weep at everything! What laughter and lamenting we should hear!”
When the meeting was concluded the three newcomers from the earth received as badges from that domain bronze platelets on which hieroglyphics were engraved. With these they departed.
* These Memorabilia occur again in True Christian Religion, n. 693.
** In explanation see True Christian Religion, n. 160 [5].

CL (Wunsch) n. 183

183. II*

In an eastern quarter I saw a grove of palms and laurels arranged in spiral coils. I approached and entered, and walked by winding ways over some of the spiral turns; and at the end of the ways saw a garden, which formed the center of the grove. A small bridge, with a gate at either end, marked the garden off from the grove.
I drew near, and a custodian opened the gates.
I asked him the name of the Garden. He replied, “Adramandoni,” that is, The Delight of Marital Love. I entered and saw olive trees, and pendent vines trailing from tree to tree, and under the trees blossoming shrubs. On a grassy circle in the center of the garden sat husbands and wives, and young men and women in pairs. On a mound in the circle’s center a small fountain was leaping aloft in a forceful stream. As I approached, I saw two angels in purple and scarlet, talking with those seated on the grass. They were speaking about the origin of marital love and about its delights. And because that was the topic, there was eager attention and all receptiveness and an exaltation thence in the speech of the angels as from the fire of love.
[2] To summarize what I gathered from their conversation: They first commented on the difficulty of discovering or perceiving the origin of marital love, because that origin is Divine-heavenly. For it is Divine love, wisdom and use, which three proceed from the Lord as one, and also flow as one into men’s souls. From the soul they flow into the interior affections and thoughts of the mind, thence into desires near to the body, and thence through the bosom into the genital region, where all things derived from the first origin are together, and in all their successive phases constitute marital love.
Thereupon the angels said, “Let us pursue the discussion by question and answer. For while the perception of a subject derived from hearing alone, flows in, it does not remain unless the hearer also thinks about it for himself and puts questions.”
[3] Then some of that marital assembly said to the angels, “We have heard that the origin of marital love is Divine-heavenly, inasmuch as it comes by influx from the Lord into men’s souls. This influx from the Lord is one of love, wisdom and use�the three essentials which together constitute the one Divine essence; nothing but what is of this essence can proceed from the Lord and flow into man’s inmost, which is called his soul. We have heard further that these three, in their descent into the body, are changed into what is analogous and correspondent.
“Now, then, we ask first of all, what is meant by the third essential, the proceeding Divine which is called use.”
The angels replied, “Apart from use, love and wisdom are only abstract ideas, which after a brief stay in the mind vanish as the winds do. In use, however, love and wisdom are brought together and make a one which is called a reality. Love cannot rest unless it is doing, for it is the active itself of life; wisdom cannot exist and subsist unless it is doing from and with love; and doing is use. We therefore define use as doing good from love by wisdom. Use is good itself. [4] As all three�love, wisdom and use�flow into men’s souls, it is evident why all good is said to be from God. For everything done from love by wisdom is called good; and use is what is done. Is not love without wisdom something maudlin? And love along with wisdom but apart from use a pretense of the mind? On the other hand, love and wisdom with use not only fashion man; they are the man. Indeed�and this may surprise you�they propagate man. For in man’s seed is his soul in perfect human form, covered with substances from the purest things of nature, out of which a body is formed in the mother’s womb. This use is the highest and ultimate use of Divine love acting by Divine wisdom.”
[5] Finally the angels said, “This must be the conclusion. All fructification, propagation and prolification come originally by the influx of love, wisdom and use from the Lord�into the souls of men by immediate influx from Him; into the souls of animals by mediate influx; and into the inmosts of plants by influx still further mediated �and all are accomplished in things last from things first. Fructifications, propagations and prolifications are plainly continuations of creation; for creation can have only one source, namely, Divine love acting by Divine wisdom in Divine use. All things in the universe are therefore procreated and formed from use, in use, and for use.”
[6] Then those seated on the grassy banks asked the angels, “Whence are the innumerable and ineffable delights of marital love?” The angels answered, “From the uses of love and wisdom. This may be seen from the fact that as far as one loves to be wise for the sake of real use, he is in the vein and potency of marital love, and that as far as he is in these, he is in delights. Use brings this about. For love and the wisdom by which it acts, delight in each other and sport together like little children, and as they mature, enter into a productive union, as though by betrothals, nuptials, marriages and propagations, which continue with variety to eternity. This takes place between love and wisdom inwardly in use. In their beginnings these delights are imperceptible, but become more and more perceptible as they descend by degrees and enter the body. By degrees they pass from the soul into the interiors of the mind, thence into its exteriors, thence into the inmost bosom, and from this into the genital region.
[7] In the soul these heavenly nuptial sports are not in the least perceived, as we have said, but in the interiors of the mind they appear under the form of peace and innocence; in the exteriors of the mind in the form of blessedness, pleasantness and joy; in the inmost bosom, under the form of the delights of inmost friendship; and in the genital region, by influx continuous even from the soul, in the very sense of marital love, or as the delight of delights. These nuptial sports of love and wisdom in use, high in the soul, in proceeding to the inmost bosom settle and present themselves sensibly there under an infinite variety of delights; then, by virtue of the wonderful communication of the inmost bosom with the genital region, they become the delights of marital love, which are exalted above all delights in heaven and earth, because the use of marital love is the paramount use, the procreation of the human race coming thereby, and from the human race the angelic heaven.”
[8] The angels added, “Those who are not in the love of becoming wise from the Lord for the sake of use, know nothing of the varied and innumerable delights which belong to true marital love. As such men do not love to become wise from genuine truths, but love rather to be insane from falsities, and through this insanity do evil uses from some love, in them the way to the soul is closed. The result is that the heavenly nuptial sports of love and wisdom in the soul, being checked more and more, cease, and along with them marital love ceases with its vein, potency and delights.”
To this the auditors responded that they perceived that marital love is according to the love one has from the Lord of becoming wise for the sake of use. The angels replied, ‘So it is.” Then garlands of flowers appeared on the heads of some of them. Asked what this meant, the angels said, “They have comprehended the more profoundly.” With the garlanded in the midst, all then left the garden.
* These Memorabilia occur again in True Christian Religion, n. 693.

CL (Wunsch) n. 184

184. VIII

THE CHANGE IN STATE OF LIFE MADE IN MEN AND WOMEN BY MARRIAGE

What is meant by states of life and by changes in them is very well known to the learned and wise, but unknown to the unlearned and simple. Something on the subject shall therefore be premised. The state of a man’s life is its quality. And as there are two faculties in every one, which make life, called understanding and will, a man’s state of life is its quality as to understanding and will. It is plain, then, that by changes in the state of life are meant changes of quality in what is of the understanding and of the will. We undertake to show in this chapter that every human being is continually changing in respect of these two, but differently before and after marriage-which will be done in this order:
i. One’s state of life continually changes from infancy to the very close of life and afterwards to eternity.
ii. One’s internal form, which is that of one’s spirit, changes likewise.
iii. These changes are of one kind in men and of another in women, because by creation men are forms of knowledge, intelligence and wisdom, and women forms of the love of these with men.
iv. In men there is an elevation of the mind into higher light, and in women an elevation of the mind into higher heat; and the woman feels the delights of this heat in the man’s light.
v. States of life are different with men and women before and after marriage.
vi. After marriage the states of life with partners change and follow one another according to the conjunctions of their minds by marital love.
vii. Marriages also induce other forms on the souls and minds of partners.
viii. The woman is actually formed into the man’s wife according to the description in the Book of Creation.
ix. This formation is effected by the wife in secret ways, which is meant by the woman’s being formed while the man slept.
x. This formation is effected by the wife through the conjunction of her will with the man’s internal will.
xi. The object is that the wills of the two may be made one, and the two, one human being.
xii. This formation is effected by the wife through the appropriation of the husband’s affections.
xiii. This formation is effected by the wife through reception of the propagations of the husband’s soul, with the delight arising from the fact that she desires to be the love of her husband’s wisdom.
xiv. Thus a young woman is formed into a wife, and a young man into a husband.
xv. In a marriage of one man with one wife between whom is true marital love, the wife becomes more and more a wife, and the husband more and more a husband.
xvi. Thus their forms are also gradually perfected and ennobled from within.
xvii. Offspring born of two in true marital love derive from the parents the marital inclination of good and truth, whence they have an inclination and faculty, if a son, to perceive the things of wisdom, if a daughter, to love what wisdom teaches.
xviii. This takes place because the soul of the offspring is from the father, and its covering from the mother.

We proceed to the explanation of these propositions.

CL (Wunsch) n. 185 185. (i) One’s state of life continually changes from infancy to the very close of life and afterwards to eternity. The states of one’s life in general are called infancy, boyhood, adolescence, manhood, and old age. Every one who continues to live in the world passes in turn from one state to the next, so from the first to the last. The transitions are not apparent until an interval of time has elapsed, but reason sees that there is development from moment to moment and so continually. For in this respect the human being is like a tree, which grows and develops in every least fraction of time from the moment the seed is cast into the earth. This unintermitted progress also involves change of state, for what ensues contributes something to what precedes, perfecting the state. [2] Changes, moreover, which take place in man’s internals also have a more perfect continuity than those which take place in his externals. For man’s internals (by which are meant the things of his mind or spirit) are a degree higher, elevated above the externals; and in what is of the higher degree a thousand things take place in the same instant in which only one takes place in externals. The changes which occur in internals, are changes of state in the will as to affections, and changes of state in the understanding as to thoughts. It is these successive changes of state especially which are meant in our proposition. [3] Changes of state in these two lives or faculties continue with man from infancy to the close of life and afterward to eternity, for the reason that there is no end to knowledge, still less to intelligence, and least of all to wisdom. In the inexhaustibleness of these there is infinity and eternity from the Infinite and Eternal, from whom all things are. Hence that ancient piece of philosophy that everything is divisible to infinity, to which is to be added that it may be multiplied similarly. The angels declare that they are perfected in wisdom by the Lord to eternity, which is also to infinity, eternity being an infinity of time.

CL (Wunsch) n. 186 186. (ii) One’s internal form, which is that of one’s spirit, changes likewise. The form of one’s spirit changes continually as one’s state of life does, because nothing exists except in a form, and the state induces the form. It is indifferent, therefore, whether we say that a man’s state of life changes or that his form does. All man’s affections and thoughts are in forms, and thus from forms, for forms are their subjects. If affections and thoughts were not in organized subjects, they might also exist in skulls empty of a brain, which would be like sight without an eye, hearing without an ear, or taste without a tongue; but, as we know, the senses have subjects or organs, and these are forms. The state of life with a man, and therefore his form, is continually changing, because it is a truth�as the wise have long taught�that an identical thing does not recur, nor is there an absolute identity of two things, still less of many. No two human faces, for example, are alike; still less a number of faces. This is also true of stages in things, a subsequent state not being the same as the preceding one. It follows, then, that there is a perpetual change in a man’s state of life, therefore also a perpetual change of form, especially of his internal nature. But let us proceed, after these few remarks which do not directly teach about marriages, but only prepare way for knowledge about them; they are also philosophical inquiries, solely of the intellect, and to some are difficult of perception.

CL (Wunsch) n. 187 187. (iii) These changes are of one kind in men and of another in women, because by creation men are forms of knowledge, intelligence and wisdom, and women forms the love of these with men. See explained above (n. 90) that men were created forms of understanding and women forms of the love of man’s understanding. It follows that the changes of state which occur in each from infancy to mature age, are to integrate the forms, intellectual in the case of men, and volitional in the case of women. It is to be concluded that the changes are of one kind with men, and of another with women. With both, however, the external form, namely, that of the body, is integrated according to the integrations of the internal form, namely, that of the mind. For the mind acts into the body, and not the other way about. For this reason infants in heaven become men of stature and comeliness according to the increase of intelligence with them, differently from infants on earth, because these are encompassed with a material body as animals are. Still they are alike in this, that they grow at first in inclination to such things as appeal to the senses of their bodies, afterwards step by step in such things as affect the internal sense of thought, and by degrees in such as imbue the will with affection. At a point betwixt mature and immature, the marital inclination arises, of maiden to youth, and youth to maiden. As maidens in the heavens as well as on earth, from innate prudence hide their inclinations to marriage, youths there know no otherwise than that they affect the maidens with love; this also seems to them to follow from the male excitation, but even this they have by the influx of love from the fair sex, of which influx we shall speak expressly elsewhere.’ From this the truth of the proposition is plain that changes of state are of one kind in men, and of another in women, because by creation men are forms of knowledge, intelligence and wisdom, and women forms of the love of these in men.

CL (Wunsch) n. 188 188. (iv) In men there is an elevation of the mind into higher light, and in women an elevation of the mind into higher heat; the woman feels the delights of this heat in the man’s light. By the light into which men are raised, intelligence and wisdom are meant, for spiritual light, proceeding from the sun of the spiritual world (this sun in its essence is love), acts identically or unitedly with intelligence and wisdom. By the heat into which women are raised, marital love is meant; for spiritual heat, proceeding from that same sun, in its essence is love, and in women a love uniting itself to intelligence and wisdom in men, comprehensively called marital love, and by determination becoming such love. [2] We say elevation into higher light and heat, because it is elevation into the light and heat in which the angels of the higher heavens are. It is also actual elevation, as from a cloud into the air, from a lower to a higher region of the air, or from the air into the ether. Hence elevation into higher light in the case of men is elevation into superior intelligence, and from this into wisdom; into this there is higher and higher elevation, too. But elevation in women into higher heat is into a purer and more chaste marital love, and steadily towards the marital which lies hidden in inmosts from creation. [3] Regarded in themselves, these elevations are openings of the mind. For the human mind is distinguished into regions as the world is into regions which are atmospheres�the lowest aqueous, a higher one of air, and a still higher of ether, above which there is also a highest. Into similar regions the mind is raised as it is opened, in men by wisdom, and in women by true marital love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 189 189. We have said that a woman feels the delights of her heat in the man’s light. What is meant is that the woman feels the delights of her love in the man’s wisdom. His wisdom is a receptacle, and love, as it finds what corresponds with it, is in its joys and delights. We do not mean that heat is delighted with its light outside of forms, but inside them. Spiritual heat is the more delighted with spiritual light because the forms of love and wisdom in this instance are vital and therefore sensitive. This may be illustrated measurably by the disporting, so to say, of heat with light in plants. Outside the plants there is mere coexistence of heat and light, but within the plants a kind of game between them, because they are in forms and receptacles, where they pass through marvellous labyrinths, inmostly aspire after fruitfulness, and also exhale their pleasures widely on the air, filling it with fragrance. With an even greater animation does spiritual heat delight in spiritual light within the forms of human life, in which the heat is marital love, and the light is wisdom.

CL (Wunsch) n. 190 190. (v) States of life are different with men and women before and after marriage. With both men and women there are two states before marriage, one before inclination to marriage, another after. The changes in these two states and the resulting formations of mind proceed in unbroken order from continual additions; but there is no room to describe them here, for they are various, and different in different subjects. Inclinations to marriage before the event have chiefly a mental existence, becoming more and more sensible in the body. But after marriage the states are states of union and also of productiveness. Obviously these differ from the former as accomplishment does from intention.

CL (Wunsch) n. 191 191. (vi) After marriage the states of life with partners change and follow one another according to the conjunctions of their minds by marital love. The changes and successions of state after marriage with either man or wife are according to the marital love with them, thus either conjunctive or disjunctive of their minds. For marital love is not only variable but even diverse with partners. It is variable with those who love each other inwardly, for it is intermitted by turns with them, but persists constantly in its heat within. The love is diverse with partners who love each other only outwardly. With these it is intermitted by turns not for such causes as operate with the others, but due to alternating cold and heat. [2] The reason for the difference is that with the latter the body plays the first part, and the ardor of it spreads, catching the lower parts of the mind into communion with it. With the former, however, who love each other inwardly, the mind plays the first part, carrying the body into communion with it. Love indeed seems to ascend from body into soul, because when the body first feels allurement, this enters the mind by the gate of the eyes, and so through the vision as an entry-way into the thought and then into the love; but in reality love descends from the mind and acts into things lower according to the disposition of these. Hence the lascivious mind acts lasciviously, and the chaste mind chastely, the latter disposing the body, but the former being disposed by the body.

CL (Wunsch) n. 192 192. (vii) Marriages also induce other forms on the souls and minds of partners. In the natural world it is not so apparent that marriages induce other forms on souls and minds, for here souls and minds are enclosed in a material body, through which the mind rarely shines. Today, moreover, far more than of old, men learn from infancy onward to induce expressions on the face by which they profoundly conceal the mind’s affections. For this reason forms of the mind before and after marriage are not known apart. In the spiritual world, however, it is manifest (even in such men) that the forms of soul and mind after marriage differ from what they were before marriage. For spirits and angels, who are nothing but minds and souls in human form, are then stripped of the coverings which were composed of elements from water and earth and of exhalations thence spread on the air. With these removed, the forms of the minds, such as they were within the body, are seen, and it is clearly observable then that the married have certain forms, and the unmarried other forms. In general, married partners have an inner beauty of countenance, the man receiving from the wife the agreeable glow of her love, and the wife from the man the shining brightness of his wisdom. For the two partners are united in soul. In each appears also a human fullness. This is in heaven, for there are no marriages anywhere else; below heaven there are only matings, which are formed and severed.

CL (Wunsch) n. 193 sRef Gen@2 @22 S0′ sRef Gen@2 @23 S0′ sRef Gen@2 @21 S0′ 193. (viii) The woman is actually formed into the man’s wife according to the description in the Book of Creation. It is said in this Book that woman was created from man’s rib, and that the man, when she was brought to him, said, “This is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; and she shall be called woman because she was taken from man” (ii. 21-23). By a rib of the chest nothing is meant in the Word in the spiritual sense but natural truth. This is also meant by the ribs which the bear bore between his teeth (Daniel vii. 5). For by “bears” are signified those who read the Word in the natural sense and see truths there without understanding. By man’s breast is signified that peculiarity and essential in which it is distinguished from woman’s breast; that this is wisdom, see above (n. 187). Truth sustains wisdom as a rib does the breast. These things are signified because in the breast all things of the human being have, as it were, their center. [2] From this it is plain that woman was created from man through the transfer of his peculiar wisdom, which is from natural truth; that is, the love of this was transferred from man into woman, to become marital love. This was done that there might not be love of self in the man, but love of the wife. Inevitably, by native disposition, she converts the love of self with the husband into a love for her; I have heard that this is effected by the wife’s love itself, while both man and wife are unaware of it. Hence it is that no one ever loves the partner with true marital love who is in the pride of his own intelligence from self-love.
[3] When this arcanum of the original creation of woman from man is understood, one can see that in like manner in marriage the woman is as it were created and formed from the man. This is done by the wife, or rather by the Lord through the wife, for He infuses into women the inclination for bringing it about. For the wife receives in herself the man’s image through appropriating his affections to herself (see above, n. 173); through conjoining the man’s internal will with hers, of which in what follows; and also through making over to herself the propagations of his soul, of which also in what follows. Hence it is plain that the woman is formed into a wife according to the description in the Book of Creation interiorly understood, and by such things as she takes from the husband and his bosom, and inscribes on herself.

CL (Wunsch) n. 194 sRef Gen@2 @22 S0′ sRef Gen@2 @21 S0′ 194. (ix) This formation is effected by the wife in secret ways, which is meant by the woman’s being formed while the man slept. We read in the Book of Creation that Jehovah God made a deep sleep to fall upon Adam so that he slept; and then took one of his ribs and built it into a woman (ii. 21, 22). By the man’s profound slumber is signified his entire ignorance that the wife is formed and as it were created from him. The man’s ignorance of this is plain from what was shown in the preceding chapter and also from what is said in the present chapter about the innate prudence and circumspection of wives not to betray their love or in any way their taking up the affections of the man’s life or their transcribing his wisdom into themselves. From what was explained above it is evident that the wife does all this while the husband is unaware and as it were asleep, thus by secret ways. We also showed that the prudence for accomplishing this is implanted in women by creation and thus from birth for reasons which are necessities, that marital love, friendship, and trust, and so the blessedness of living together and happiness of life, may be secured. That this may all be effected the man is enjoined to leave father and mother, and to cleave to his wife (Genesis ii. 24; Matthew xix. 4, 5). By the father and mother whom a man is to leave are meant in the spiritual sense his will’s own and his understanding’s own, the will’s own being to love himself, and the understanding’s own being to love his own wisdom. By “cleave” is signified to give himself to love for his wife. These two “owns” are deadly evils to the man if they persist in him, but the love of the two is turned into marital love, as the man cleaves to his wife, that is, as he receives her love (see just above, n. 193 and elsewhere). It could be shown fully from passages in the Word (this is not the place) that to be in ignorance and unaware is meant by “sleeping”; that the two things peculiar to man, the will’s own and the understanding’s own, are signified by “father” and “mother”; and to devote oneself to love for some one is meant by “to cleave.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 195 195. (x) This formation is effected by the wife through the conjunction of her will with the man’s internal will. A man has a rational wisdom and a moral wisdom, and the wife conjoins herself with what is of the man’s moral wisdom (see above, nn. 163-165). What is of his rational wisdom makes a man’s understanding, and what is of his moral wisdom, his will; the wife conjoins herself with what makes his will. It is the same whether one says that the wife conjoins herself or her will with the man’s will, for the wife is born volitional, and does what she does from the will. It is said “with the man’s internal will” because the man’s will has its seat in his understanding, and the intellectual in the man is the inmost in the woman, according to what was said about the formation of woman from man (n. 32, and many places since). Men also have an external will, but this is often constituted of pose and dissimulation. The wife descries this will clearly, but conjoins herself with it only in pretense or play.

CL (Wunsch) n. 196 196. (xi) The object is that the wills of the two may be made one, and the two, one human being. For one who conjoins another’s will to himself, also conjoins his understanding to himself; for the understanding, regarded in itself, is only the minister and servant of the will. This is evident from the fact that an affection of love moves the understanding to think at its beck. Every affection of love is a property of the will; what a man loves, he also wills. It follows that one who conjoins a man’s will to himself conjoins the whole man to himself. Hence it is implanted in a wife’s love to unite the husband’s will to her will, for so the wife becomes the husband’s, and the husband the wife’s, and the two one human being.

CL (Wunsch) n. 197 197. (xii) This formation is effected by the wife through the appropriation of the husband’s affections. This is of a piece with the two preceding propositions, for affections are of the will. Affections, which are derivatives of a love, form the will, and make and compose it; with men they are in the understanding, but with women in the will.

CL (Wunsch) n. 198 198. (xiii) This formation is effected by the wife through reception of the propagations of the husband’s soul, with delight arising from the fact that she desires to be the love of her husband’s wisdom. This coincides with what was explained above (nn. 172, 173); further explanation is omitted. Marital delights with wives arise from the fact that they wish to be one with their husbands as good is one with truth in the spiritual marriage (we have shown in a separate chapter that marital love descends from this marriage). It can be seen, then, that the wife unites the man to herself quite as good unites truth to itself. In turn the man conjoins himself to the wife according to his reception of her love, quite as truth in turn joins itself to good according to its reception of good. Thus the wife’s love forms itself through the man’s wisdom, as good forms itself by means of truth, for truth is the form of good. From this it is plain, too, that marital delights with a wife arise primarily from the fact that she wishes to be one with the husband, consequently that she wishes to be the love of her husband’s wisdom. For then she feels the delights of her heat in the man’s light, as explained above in number iv (n. 188).

CL (Wunsch) n. 199 199. (xiv) Thus a virgin is formed into a wife, and a young man into a husband. This follows as a consequence from what precedes in this chapter and in the earlier chapter on the conjunction of partners into one flesh. A virgin becomes or is made into a wife for the reason that in a wife are things taken from the husband, and thus supplemental, which were not in her previously as a virgin. The youth becomes or is made a husband for the reason that there are in the husband things taken from the wife which exalt his susceptibility to love and wisdom, which were not in him earlier as a youth. But this applies to such as are in true marital love. See in the preceding chapter (n. 178) how it applies to those who feel themselves a united man and thus one flesh. From this it is plain that the virginal is changed into the wifely in women, and the juvenile into the husbandly in men. The fact has been verified to me by much experience in the spiritual world. Certain men said that conjunction with a woman before marriage is like conjunction with a wife after marriage. Hearing this, the wives were highly indignant, and said, “There is no similarity at all! There is all the difference between the illusory and the real.” To this the men returned, “Are you not females as before?” To this the wives replied more loudly, “We are not females, but wives; you are in illusory and not in real love, and therefore you speak foolishly.” Then the men said, “If you are not females, still you are women.” And they replied, “We were women at the beginning of marriage; but now we are wives.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 200 200. (xv) In a marriage of one man with one wife between whom is true marital love, the wife becomes more and more a wife, and the husband more and more a husband. True marital love increasingly unites two into one human being (see above, nn. 178, 179). As a wife becomes a wife from and according to conjunction with her husband, the husband also becomes a husband through conjunction with his wife. And because true marital love persists to eternity, it follows that a wife becomes more and more a wife, and a husband more and more a husband. The ultimate reason is that in a marriage of true marital love each becomes a more and more interior human being. For this love opens the interiors of the mind, and as these are opened, the human being becomes more and more a human being, which for the wife is to become more a wife, and for the husband to become more a husband. I have heard from angels that the wife becomes a wife more and more as the husband becomes a husband more and more, but not the other way about. For rarely if ever does a chaste wife fail to love the husband, but the return of love by the husband may fail. It fails because of no elevation of wisdom, which alone receives the wife’s love (of this wisdom see nn. 130, 163-165). They were speaking of marriages on earth.

CL (Wunsch) n. 201 sRef John@15 @5 S0′ 201. (xvi) Thus their forms are also gradually perfected and ennobled from within. The most perfect and the noblest human form is when two forms by marriage become one form, thus when two flesh become one flesh, in accord with the creation. Then the man’s mind is elevated into higher light, and the wife’s into higher heat, and they germinate, flower and are fruitful, like trees in the springtime (see above nn. 188, 189). Under the proposition to follow, the reader will see that from this ennoblement of form noble fruits are born, spiritual in the heavens, natural on earth.

CL (Wunsch) n. 202 202. (xvii) Offspring born of two in true marital love derive from the parents the marital inclination of good and truth, from which they have the inclination and faculty, if a son, to perceive the things of wisdom, if a daughter, to love what wisdom teaches. It is very well known from history in general and experience in particular that offspring derive from parents inclinations to such things as had been of the parents’ love and life; but it has been shown by the wise in the spiritual world (of whom in the two Memorabilia adduced above)* that they do not derive from them or inherit the very affections, or their parents’ lives, but only inclinations and also faculties for them. The fact that inborn inclinations, if these are not broken, lead descendants into similar affections, thoughts, speech and life as their parents, is quite clear from the Jewish race, which today resembles its fathers in Egypt, in the desert, in the land of Canaan and at the time of the Lord. They resemble them not only mentally, but facially; who does not recognize a Jew by his look? It is the same with other progeny. From which it can be concluded, not at all fallaciously, that a person is born with inclinations like those of his parents. But in order that the very things thought and done may not follow, it is Divinely provided that depraved inclinations can be corrected. A faculty for this is implanted, too, affording means for amendment of one’s ways by parents and teachers and afterwards by oneself on coming to judgment of one’s own.
* Nn. 151r, 182.

CL (Wunsch) n. 203 203. Offspring are said to derive the marital tendency of good and truth from parents, because this is set in each soul from creation, for it is what inflows from the Lord into man and makes the human life. But this marital tendency continues on into what follows from the soul to the outmost things of the body; and everywhere it is changed in its passage by the man himself in many ways, and at times into its opposite, called the marital or mating tendency of evil and falsity. When this takes place, the mind is closed from below, and sometimes is twisted right around like a spiral. With some, however, it is not closed, but remains half open above, and with some open. From the one or the other marital tendency, offspring derive inclinations from the parents, a son in one way, a daughter in another. There is such derivation from the marital, because marital love is the basic love of all (shown above, n. 65).

CL (Wunsch) n. 204 204. Offspring born of those in true marital love derive inclinations and faculties, if a son, to perceive the things of wisdom, and if a daughter, to love what wisdom teaches, for the reason that a marital tendency between good and truth has been implanted by creation in every one’s soul and also in what follows from the soul. It has already been shown that this marital tendency fills the universe from first to last, and from the human being to the insect. It has also been indicated before that the power to open the lower parts of the mind even to conjunction with the higher parts, which are in heaven’s light and heat, has been placed in every man from creation. Hence it is plain that the aptitude and facility for conjoining good to truth, and truth to good, thus of growing wise, is by birth transmitted to those who are born of such marriage more than to others; so also is the power of being imbued with what is of the Church and heaven�it has been shown many times above that marital love is conjoined with what is of the Church or of heaven. Hence it appears plainly why marriages of true marital love have been and still are provided by the Lord the Creator.

CL (Wunsch) n. 205 205. I have heard from the angels that the people who lived in the most ancient times live today in the heavens in houses and families and tribes as they did on earth, and that scarcely ever is a member missing from any household. They gave as the reason that there had been true marital love among them, and that offspring inherited thence inclinations to the marital tendency of good and truth and were readily initiated into it more and more deeply by parents through education, and finally were introduced into it by the Lord as of themselves on acquiring judgment of their own.

CL (Wunsch) n. 206 206. (xviii) This takes place because the soul of the offspring is from the father, and its covering from the mother. No wise man calls in question that the soul is from the father. The fact is manifest, too, from dispositions and also from faces, which are types of dispositions, in any posterity which proceeds from the fathers of families in the direct line, the father returning in an image, as it were, if not in his sons, still in grandsons and great-grandsons. This is because the soul constitutes man’s inmost, and though it may be obscured in the first offspring, nevertheless it persists and reveals itself in later progeny. We may illustrate by analogies in the vegetable kingdom that the soul is from the father, and the covering from the mother. In that kingdom, the earth or ground is the general mother; she receives seeds in herself as in a womb and clothes them, indeed as it were conceives them, gestates, bears and rears them, as a mother her offspring from the father.

CL (Wunsch) n. 207 207. I add two Memorabilia.

I

Some time later* I was looking toward the city of Athens, of which there was mention in earlier Memorabilia, and heard a queer clamor thence. I heard laughter, and in this some indignation, and in this again some sadness. Yet the outcry was not discordant, but harmonious, because one element did not accompany the other but was within it. In the spiritual world the various affections commingled in sound are severally perceived.
At a distance still, I asked, “What is the matter?” They said:
“A messenger has come from the place where newcomers from Christendom first arrive, saying that he heard from three of them there that in the world they had believed with others that the blessed and happy after death would enjoy absolute rest from labor; and, as administrations, offices and employments are labor, they would enjoy rest from these.
“The three newcomers have been brought here by our a conference it was decided to show them, not like the earlier newcomers into the palladium on Parnassus, but into the great auditorium there, to tell their news from the Christian world. Men have been deputed to introduce them properly.”
[2] As I was in the spirit, and with spirits distances are according to the states of their affections, and as I then had an affection for seeing and hearing the newcomers, I seemed to myself present there, and saw them introduced, and heard them speak. The older or wiser men were seated at the sides of the auditorium, the rest in the middle; at the front was a raised platform. To this platform, up through the middle of the auditorium, some young men ceremoniously conducted the three strangers with the messenger. When silence had been obtained, they were greeted by one of the elders, who asked:
“What news from the earth?”
They answered, “There is much news. But tell us, please, on what subject?”
The elder replied, “What news is there from the earth about our world and about heaven?”
They answered, “On first coming into this world we heard that here and in heaven there are administrations, ministries, employments, business, all kinds of learned studies, and amazing handicraft. We had supposed, however, that on removal or transition from the natural world to this spiritual world we should enter into eternal rest from labor; but what are employments if not labor?”
[3] To this the elder replied, “By eternal rest from labor, you did not understand, did you, eternal idleness, in which you would continually be sitting or lying down, inhaling delights into your bosoms, and drinking in joys with the mouth?” Smiling complacently, the three strangers said that they had supposed something of the kind. Then answer was made them:
“What have joys and delights and happiness therefrom in common with idleness? In idleness the mind collapses instead of being extended, and a man is deadened, and not quickened. Imagine a person sitting in complete idleness, hands limp, eyes closed and dreaming, and suppose him enveloped at the same time by an agreeable atmosphere, would not lethargy seize head and body? Would not the face lose its lifelike look? And at length, with fibers relaxed, would the man not fall to nodding until he sank to the earth? What keeps the whole bodily system expanded and taut but intentness of mind? And whence comes intentness of mind but from administrations and work, when done with delight? Let me therefore give you news from heaven! There are administrations there, ministries, higher and lower courts of justice, and also trades and handicrafts.”
[4] On hearing that there are higher and lower courts of justice in heaven, the three newcomers said, “Why should there be courts there? Are not all in heaven inspired and led of God? Do they not therefore know what is just and right? What need is there then of judges?”
The elder replied, “We have to be instructed and must learn what is good and true, just and equitable, in this world as in the natural world. We do not learn directly from God but mediately through others. Every angel, like every man, thinks truth and does good as of himself, and his thought and action are more or less pure according to his state. Among angels there are also simple and wise, and the wise must judge, when the simple in their simplicity or ignorance are in doubt about what is just or depart from it. But you are new to this world; if it meets your pleasure, come with me into our city, and we will show you everything.”
[5] They left the auditorium, accompanied by some of the elders. They first visited a great library, subdivided into smaller libraries according to the different branches of knowledge. The three newcomers, seeing so many books, were astounded and exclaimed:
“Books, too, in this world! Whence have you parchment and paper? And pen and ink?”
To this the elders replied, “We perceive that in the former world you believed that this world, being spiritual, is empty. You believed so because you thought of the spiritual as abstract from the material, and regarded what is abstract from the material as nothing and thus empty. In truth, here is a fullness of all things. Every thing here is substantial, not material; the material takes its origin from the substantial. We ourselves are spiritual men, being substantial and not material. Hence all things to be found in the natural world are to be found here in perfection, even books and manuscripts and much else.”
When the three newcomers heard the substantial so spoken of, they began to think it must be so; they saw the written books before them and they had heard the statement that material things originate from things substantial. For further assurance, they were taken to the
houses of scribes who were making copies of works composed by wise men of the city. They inspected the writing and admired its neatness and elegance. [6] After this they were conducted to museums, schools and colleges; and to places where literary sports were held. Some of these sports were called sports of the Heliconians; others, sports of the Parnassians, or of the Athenians, or of the Virgins of the Fountain. These last sports, they were told, are so named because virgins signify the affections of knowledges; according to these affections one has intelligence. These so-called sports are spiritual exercises and trials of skill. Later they were conducted about the city to the rulers and administrators and their subordinates, who showed them wonderful productions wrought in the spiritual manner by artisans.
[7] After they had seen all these things, the elder spoke with them again about the eternal rest from labor into which the blessed and happy enter after death. He told them:
“Eternal rest is not inactivity. From inactivity come only languor, torpidity, stupor, and drowsiness of the mind and thence of the whole body. These are death, not life, still less the eternal life in which the angels of heaven are. Eternal rest is of a kind to dispel languor and drowsiness, and quicken men; it must be something which uplifts the mind. It is in some study or work that the mind is aroused, enlivened and delighted; and this takes place according to the use from, in, and toward which it is working. Hence all heaven in the Lord’s sight is a theater of uses; every angel is an angel according to his use. His pleasure in his use bears an angel along as a favoring current does a ship. It causes him to be in eternal peace, and in the rest of peace. This is what is meant by eternal rest from labor. That an angel is alive according to the zeal of his mind in a use, is attested by the fact that every angel has marital love, with its vigor, potency and delights, according to the zeal with which he pursues the genuine use in which he is.”
[8] When the three strangers felt well assured that eternal rest is not idleness, but joy in doing some useful work, some young women came and presented them with articles they had spun and embroidered with their own hands. And as the novitiate spirits departed the young women sang an ode, in which they expressed in angelic melody the affection for useful work with its pleasures.
* These Memorabilia occur again in True Christian Religion, n. 694.

CL (Wunsch) n. 208 208.* While I was meditating on the arcana of marital love hidden with wives, the Golden Rain appeared again, of which I spoke above (n. 155r). I recalled that it fell over a hall in the east where lived three marital loves, that is, three married pairs who tenderly loved each other. At the sight, as if drawn by the sweetness of meditation on that love, I hastened thither. As I approached, the rain turned from golden to purple, then to scarlet, and when I was close, it was opalescent like dew. I knocked on the door of the palace, and when it was opened, said to the attendant, “Announce to the husbands that he who came before with an angel is here again, and asks permission to enter and converse.” The attendant returned and brought assent from the husbands, and I entered. The three husbands were with their wives in an open court, and on being greeted, returned my greeting with good will. I asked the wives whether the white dove at the window had appeared again.
They said, “This very day! It spread its wings, too! We surmised you must be near and would ask us to disclose one more arcanum about marital love.”
I asked, “Why do you say one, when I have come to learn many?”
[2] They replied, “They are arcana; and some of them so far surpass your wisdom that the understanding of your thought cannot grasp them. You exult over us on account of your wisdom, but we do not exult over you on account of ours; and yet ours excels yours, in that it enters into your inclinations and affections, and sees, perceives and feels them. You know nothing at all about the inclinations and affections of your love, although it is from and according to these that your understanding thinks, and from and according to them, therefore, that you are wise. But wives know the inclinations and affections of their husbands so well that they behold them in their faces, hear them in the tones of their speech, yes, feel them on their breasts, arms, and cheeks. But from the zeal of love for your happiness, and at the same time for our own, we feign not to know them; and yet we modulate them so prudently that we follow whatever is to the liking, pleasure and will of our husbands, permitting and bearing, bending their will on occasion, but never constraining it.”
[3] I asked, “Whence have you this wisdom?”
They answered, “It is implanted in us by creation and so by birth. Our husbands liken it to instinct; but we say it is of the Divine Providence to the end that men may be made happy by their wives. We have heard from our husbands that the Lord wills that the man shall act from freedom according to reason; and that to this end the Lord Himself from within regulates his freedom, including that of the inclinations and affections, and from without does so by means of his wife; and that thus He forms the man along with his wife into an angel of heaven. And besides, love, when coerced, changes its essence and does not become marital love. But we shall be more explicit. We are moved to this, that is, to prudence in modulating the inclinations and affections of our husbands so that they appear to themselves to act from freedom according to their reason, all the more because we take delight in their love, and we love nothing more than that they shall find their delights in ours; if these become cheap to them, they grow dull with us.”
[4] Having said this, one of the wives went into her chamber, and on returning said, “My dove still flutters its wings, which is a sign that we may disclose more.” And they added, “We have observed various changes in the inclinations and affections of men. When they think vain thoughts against the Lord and the Church, husbands are cold to their wives; they are cold also when in the pride of their own intelligence, when they look upon other women from lust, when their attention is directed by their wives to love, and at other times. They are also cold with a varying coldness. We observe it in a shrinking back of the sense from their eyes, ears and body at the presence of our senses. From these few things you can see that we know better than they whether it is well or ill with them. If they are cold to their wives it is ill with them, and if they are warm towards their wives it is well with them. Wives are therefore continually meditating means whereby their husbands shall be warm and not cold towards them, and doing so with a penetration inscrutable to the men.”
[5] After these words a sound was heard as if the dove moaned; and the wives said, “This is an intimation to us that though we would divulge profounder arcana, we must not do so. Perhaps you will tell men those which you have heard?”
I answered, “I had planned to do so. Will it do harm?”
After conferring about it the wives said, “Publish the arcana if you wish. We are not in the dark about the power of persuasion which wives possess. For they will say to their husbands, ‘The man is making game. These are fables. He makes a jest of appearances, with the usual masculine drollery. Do not believe him, believe us. We know that you are loves and we, obediences.’ Publish the arcana then if you wish. But husbands will not hang upon your lips, but upon the lips of their wives which they kiss.”
* These Memorabilia occur again in True Christian Religion, n. 694.

CL (Wunsch) n. 209 sRef Matt@23 @26 S0′

209. IX

UNIVERSALS ABOUT MARRIAGES

There are so many things to say about marriage that, were they told in detail, they would swell this small work into a large volume. For we might discuss in detail: likeness and unlikeness in partners; the elevation of natural marital love into spiritual, and their conjunction; the increase of the one and the decrease of the other; the varieties and the diversities of each of these loves; the intelligence of wives; the universal marital sphere from heaven, and its opposite from hell; the influx and reception of these spheres; besides much else. Were each topic given a chapter, this work would grow into a volume so large it would tire the reader. For this reason, and to avoid pointless prolixity, these topics are gathered into one chapter on “Universals about Marriages.” But, like former topics, they are considered in separate propositions, as follows:
i. The sense of touch is the especial sense of marital love.
ii. The faculty of growing wise increases with those in true marital love, but decreases with those not in marital love.
iii. The joy of living together increases with those in true marital love, but decreases with those not in marital love.
iv. With those in true marital love conjunction of minds increases, and friendship with it, but both decrease with those not in marital love.
v. Those in true marital love continually wish to be one human being, while those not in marital love wish to be two.
vi. Those in true marital love look to eternity in marriage; contrariwise those not in marital love.
vii. Marital love resides with chaste wives, but still their love depends on the husbands.
viii. Wives love the bonds of marriage provided the husbands do.
ix. The intelligence of women in itself is modest, refined, pacific, yielding, gentle, and tender; but men’s intelligence in itself is serious, rough, hard, spirited, and license-loving.
x. Wives have no excitation such as men have, but a state of preparation for reception.
xi. Men have ability according to the love of propagating the truths of their wisdom and according to the love of doing uses.
xii. Determinations are at the husband’s good pleasure.
xiii. There is a marital sphere which flows from the Lord through heaven into each and all things of the universe to the outmost things.
xiv. This sphere is received by the feminine sex, and transmitted by it to the masculine; and not the other way about.
xv. Where true marital love exists, this sphere is received by the wife, and by the husband through the wife alone.
xvi. Where the love is not marital, this sphere is received by the wife, of course, but not by the husband through her.
xvii. True marital love may exist with one partner and not with the other.
xviii. There are various internal and external likenesses and unlikenesses in partners.
xix. Various likenesses can be conjoined, but unlikenesses cannot.
xx. For those who desire true marital love the Lord provides a likeness, and if it is not given on earth, He provides one in the heavens.
xxi. In the measure of the absence or loss of marital love, man approximates the nature of a beast.

Explanation of these propositions follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 210 210. (i) The sense of touch is the especial sense of marital love. Every love has a sense of its own. The love of seeing from a love of comprehending has the sense of sight, and its pleasures are symmetries and beauties; the love of hearing from a love of attending and hearkening has the sense of hearing, and its pleasures are harmonies; the love of knowing what drifts about in the air from a love of perceiving has the sense of smell, and its pleasures are fragrances; the love of nourishing oneself from a love of imbuing oneself with goods and truths has the sense of taste, and its joys are delicacies; the love of knowing objects from a love of observing and taking care has the sense of touch, and its pleasures are sensitive contacts. The love of uniting oneself with a mate, from a love of uniting good and truth, also has the sense of touch. For this sense is common to all the senses and hence levies on them all; and this love, as is known, sweeps all the senses mentioned above into communion with it and appropriates their enjoyments to itself. The fact that the sense of touch has been dedicated to marital love and is its very own, is plain from its every playfulness, and from the intensification of its subtleties to the height of exquisiteness; but we leave it to lovers to pursue the subject.

CL (Wunsch) n. 211 211. (ii) The faculty of growing wise increases with those in true marital love, but decreases with those who are not in marital love. One reason why the faculty of growing wise increases with those in true marital love is that this love exists with partners from and according to wisdom, as has been amply demonstrated in preceding chapters. A second reason is that this love has for its especial sense the touch, common to all the senses and replete with delight, and therefore opens the interiors of the mind as well as the interiors of the senses and therewith the organic things of the whole body. Those who are in this love, therefore, love nothing more than to grow wise; for the human being is wise as his mind’s interiors are opened. As these are opened, the thoughts of the understanding are raised into higher light, and the affections of the will into higher heat, the higher light being wisdom, and the higher heat being the love of wisdom. Spiritual delights united with natural, as they are in partners in true marital love, bring lovingness and therefore the faculty of growing wise. Hence angels have marital love according to wisdom, and the love and with it its delights increase as wisdom does; hence, too, the spiritual offspring, born of their marriages, are such things as are of wisdom from the father and of love from the mother, which they also love from spiritual storge. This last love supplements and continually elevates their marital love, and helps to unite the two partners.

CL (Wunsch) n. 212 212. On the other hand, the faculty of growing wise decreases with those who are not in marital love. These enter marriage with the end (among others) of being lascivious, but in that end there is a love of being insane; for any end regarded in itself is a love, and lasciviousness in its spiritual origin is insanity. By insanity we mean derangement of the mind by falsities; the outstanding derangement is from truths falsified until they are believed to be wisdom. The spiritual world affords obvious confirmation and proof that such men are averse to marital love; there, at the first scent of marital love, such men flee into caverns, shut the doors, and if these are opened, rave like the demented on earth.

CL (Wunsch) n. 213 213. (iii) The joy of living together increases with those in true marital love, but decreases with those not in marital love. The joy of cohabiting increases with those in true marital love for the reason that they love each other mutually with every sense. The wife sees nothing more lovable than her husband, and the husband nothing more lovable than his wife; yes, they neither hear, smell nor touch anything more lovable. Hence their joy in living together in home, chamber and bed. Of this fact you husbands can convince yourselves by the first delights of marriage, in their plenitude at that time, when the wife alone of all the sex is loved. That the reverse befalls those not in marital love, is common knowledge.

CL (Wunsch) n. 214 214. (iv) With those in true marital love conjunction of minds increases, and friendship with it; but both of these decrease with those not ‘in marital love. In the chapter (nn. 156-181) in which we considered the “Conjunction of Souls and Minds by Marriage, meant by the Lord’s words, ‘they are no longer two but one flesh,'” we have already shown that conjunction of minds increases with those in true marital love. [2] The conjunction increases as friendship is joined to love, because friendship is as it were the face of the love, and also its garment, adjoining itself to the love as a garment, and conjoining itself to it as a face. The love preceding friendship resembles love for the sex, and wanes after the marriage vow, whereas love with friendship adjoined, remains and is steadfast. For it enters deeply into the breast, where friendship introduces it, making it truly marital, and then the love in turn makes this its friendship marital, differing markedly from the friendship of any other love, so full is it. [3] It is common knowledge that the reverse befalls those who are not in marital love. With these that first friendship, insinuated at the time of betrothal and also in the first days after the wedding, successively recedes more and more from the mind’s interiors until finally it has retreated to the skin. It departs altogether with partners thinking of separating, while with those who do not meditate separation, love remains in externals, but grows cold in internals.

CL (Wunsch) n. 215 215. (v) Those in true marital love continually wish to be one human being, while those not in marital love wish to be two. Marital love in its essence is nothing else than the wish to be one; that is, the partners desire their two lives to be made one life. This desire is the perpetual endeavor of this love, from which all its effects flow. Investigations by philosophers establish the fact that effort is the very essence of motion, and in the human being the will is living effort; the fact is also plain from the observations of purified reason. It follows that those in true marital love continually endeavor, that is, will to be one human being. Those not in marital love well know that the contrary is the case with them, for they continually deem themselves two from disunion of their souls and minds, and therefore they cannot grasp, either, what is meant by the Lord’s words, “they are no longer two, but one flesh” (Matthew xix. 6).

CL (Wunsch) n. 216 216. (vi) Those in true marital love look to eternity in marriage; contrariwise those not in marital love. Those in true marital love look to what is eternal because there is eternity in the love. Its eternity lies in the fact that this love in the wife and the wisdom in the husband grow to eternity, and in the growth or progress the partners enter more and more deeply into the blessedness of heaven, a blessedness stored up in their wisdom and love of wisdom. The two would feel as if they were cast down from heaven, therefore, were the idea of eternity snatched away or did it by any chance slip from their minds. [2] The state of partners in heaven when the idea of eternity escapes from their minds, and in its place an idea of what is temporary enters, became obvious to me from this experience:

Two partners were with me once from heaven by leave granted them, and their idea of eternity about marriage was spirited away by a certain rascal who talked astutely. Thereupon they began to lament, saying they could not live any longer and that they had never felt so wretched before in their lives. When fellow-angels perceived this in heaven, the rascal was removed and cast down. This done, the idea of what was eternal at once returned to them, at which they were glad indeed at heart and most tenderly embraced each other. [3] I have also heard two partners who cherished the idea of what is eternal about their marriage at one moment, and at the next an idea of what is temporal. This was because there was inner unlikeness between them. When they were in the idea of what is eternal, they were glad of each other, but when in the idea of the temporal, they said, “It is no longer a marriage”; and the wife, “I am no longer a wife, but a concubine,” and the man, “I am no longer a husband, but an adulterer.” When therefore their internal unlikeness was disclosed to them, the man left the woman, and the woman the man; later, as each had entertained an idea of eternity about marriage, they were allied with companions like themselves.
[4] It is to be seen from this that those in true marital love look to eternity, and that if this slips from the inmosts of thought, they are disunited in marital love though they may not be at the same time as to friendship, for this dwells in externals, but that in the internals. The like is true of marriages on earth. Here, too, partners who love each other tenderly, contemplate eternity for the covenant and by no means any termination of it by- death, or if they do, are grieved until they are revived by hope at the thought of its continuance after death.

216r. (vii) Marital love resides with chaste wives, but still their love depends on the husbands. For wives are born loves, and hence there is implanted in them the wish to be one with their husbands, and from this thought of their will they continually nourish their love. To recede from the endeavor to unite themselves to the husbands, would therefore be to recede from themselves. It is different with husbands. They are not born loves, but recipients of marital love from wives, and therefore as far as they receive, the wives enter with their love; but so far as they do not receive, the wives stand outside with their love and wait; but this is the fact with chaste wives; it is otherwise with the unchaste. From this it is plain that marital love resides with wives, but that their love does depend on the husband.

CL (Wunsch) n. 217 217. (viii) Wives love the bonds of marriage provided the husbands do. This follows from what was said under the foregoing proposition. It is to be added that wives instinctively wish to be wives and to be called wives. This is to them a name of dignity and honor. Therefore they love the marriage bonds. And because chaste wives wish to be wives actually and not in name only, and this is done by being bound more and more closely to their husbands, they love the marriage bonds for establishing the covenant, and this the more as their love is returned by their husbands, or what is the same, as the men love those bonds.

CL (Wunsch) n. 218 218. (ix) The intelligence of women in itself is modest, refined, pacific, yielding, gentle, and tender; and the intelligence of men in itself is serious, rough, hard, spirited, license-loving. That women and men are such is manifest from body, face, voice, speech, bearing and ways. From the body: men are hard in skin and flesh, but women soft. From the face: men are harder, sterner, rougher, darker, also bearded, thus less handsome, but women of a softer countenance, more yielding, tender, fair, and hence are beauties. From the voice: men have heavy voices, but women light. From the speech: men are license-loving and aggressive, but women modest and pacific. From the bearing: in men it is bolder and more assured, but in women more timid and shrinking. From the ways: with men these are less restrained, but more refined with women.
[2] How much the nature of men differs from the nature of women even from birth was obvious to me from some groups of boys and girls I once saw. I watched them at times from my window, in a great city square where more than twenty gathered daily. The boys played together in keeping with the disposition born in them, tumbling, shouting, fighting, striking and throwing stones at one another; but the girls sat quietly in the housedoors, some of them playing with babies, some dressing dolls, some embroidering small pieces of linen, some kissing each other; and what I wondered at, they watched those noisy boys with pleased looks. From this it was plain to see that man is born understanding, and woman love; also what understanding and love are like at first; furthermore, what the understanding would be like as it advanced if it was not united with feminine love and finally with marital love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 219 219. ( x) Wives have no excitation such as men have, but a state of preparation for reception. It is plain that men know seminal activity and an excitation thence, but that the latter does not exist with women as the former does not. But I report from things heard that women have a state of preparation for reception and so for conception. It is not allowed to describe the nature of this state with women, however; only they know it, anyway. But whether, when they are in that state, their love is in delight or, as some say, in undelight, has not been divulged. This only is commonly known, that the husband may not say to his wife that he is able but will not, for so the state of reception is decidedly injured, which is made ready according to the husband’s state of ability.

CL (Wunsch) n. 220 220. (xi) Men have ability according to the love of propagating truths of wisdom and according to the love of doing uses. This fact was one of the arcana known to the ancients, but is lost today. The ancients knew that everything which takes place in the body has a spiritual origin. Actions flow from the will, which in itself is spiritual; utterances flow from the thought, which also is spiritual; natural sight is from spiritual sight, which is of the understanding; natural hearing is from spiritual hearing, which is an alertness of the understanding and at the same time an attention of the will; natural smell is from spiritual smell, which is perception; and so on. The ancients saw that seminal activity likewise has a spiritual origin. From many proofs, of reason and experience both, they concluded that its origin is in the truths of which the understanding consists. They pointed out that nothing else than truth and what is referable to truth, is received by males from the spiritual marriage or marriage of good and truth, which inflows into each and all things of the universe. The truth received (they went on) is in its progress formed in the body into seed (hence it is that seeds, spiritually understood, are truths). [2] Touching this formation, they said that the masculine soul, being intellectual, is therefore truth, for the intellectual is nothing else; when, therefore, the soul descends, truth descends, too. This takes place because the soul, which is the inmost in man and animal, and in its essence is spiritual, from an implanted effort after self-propagation follows in the descent and wants to procreate itself, and when this happens, the whole soul organizes, wraps itself up, and becomes seed. This can take place thousands and thousands of times, for the soul is spiritual substance, which has not extent but in-filling, and there is no subtraction of a part from it, but a forth-putting of the whole, with no diminution. Hence the soul is just as fully in the very least receptacles, which are seeds, as it is in its largest receptacle, the body. [3] Since then the soul’s truth is the origin of seed, it follows that men have ability according to the love of propagating the truths of their wisdom. Ability is also according to the love of doing uses, for the reason that uses are goods produced by truths. In the world, too, some know that the industrious have ability, but not the idle.
I have asked how what is feminine is propagated from the male soul. I received the answer that this takes place from intellectual good, for this in its essence is truth. For the understanding can think that a thing is good, or that it is true that a thing is good. The will is otherwise; it does not think good and truth, but loves and does them. Hence by “sons” in the Word are meant truths, and by “daughters” goods (see above n. 120); and by “seed” in the Word is meant truth (Apocalypse Revealed, n. 565).

CL (Wunsch) n. 221 221. (xii) Determinations are at the husband’s good pleasure. The reason is that the aforementioned ability is with husbands and also varies with them according to both’. the mental state and the bodily condition. The understanding is not so constant in its thoughts as the will is in its affections. It is carried up and then down; now it is serene and clear, then troubled and obscure; now it is on pleasing subjects and then on unpleasing. And because the mind, when it acts, is also in the body, the body has like states. Hence it is that now the husband recedes from marital love, and now inclines to it, and ability is withdrawn from him in the one state, and restored in the other. For these reasons, then, determinations are to be left to the husband’s good pleasure. Hence it is that, from a wisdom implanted in them, wives never give reminders of such things.

CL (Wunsch) n. 222 222. (xiii) There is a marital sphere which flows from the Lord through heaven into each and all things of the universe to the outmost things. It was shown above in its chapter that from the Lord proceed love and wisdom or, what is the same, good and truth. These two continually proceed married from the Lord, for they are the Lord, and from Him are all things; what proceeds from Him fills the universe; else nothing which exists would persist. [2] Many spheres proceed from Him,�a sphere, for example, of the conservation of the created universe, a sphere of the protection of good and truth against evil and falsity, a sphere of reformation and regeneration, a sphere of innocence and peace, a sphere of pity and grace, and others. But the universal sphere of all is the marital sphere, for this is also a sphere of propagation and thus is the preeminent sphere in the conservation of the created universe by successive generations. [3] That this marital sphere fills the universe and pervades it from first to last, is evident from what was shown above, that there are marriages in the heavens, the most perfect in the third or highest; and besides marriages among men, marriages in all members of the animal kingdom on earth down to insects; and moreover in all objects of the vegetable kingdom from olive trees and palms down to blades of grass. [4] This sphere is more universal than the sphere of heat and light which proceeds from the sun of our natural world, as the reason may be convinced from the fact that it continues to operate in the absence of the world’s heat, as in winter, and in the absence of its light, as at night, especially with human beings. It continues to operate for the reason that it is from the sun of the angelic heaven, and thence there is a constant equalization of heat and light, that is, a conjunction of good and truth; for that sun is constantly at the springtime. Changes in good and truth or in its heat and light are not variations in that sun, as the variations on earth come from changes in the heat and light of the sun here, but arise from those who receive.

CL (Wunsch) n. 223 223. (xiv) This sphere is received by the feminine sex and transmitted by it to the masculine sex. I saw it attested by experience (n. 161 above) that there is no marital love with the male sex, but only with the female sex, by whom it is transmitted to the male. Therewith this consideration also agrees: the masculine form is an intellectual form, and the feminine a volitional, and an intellectual form cannot grow warm with marital heat of itself, but from the adjoined heat of one in whom that warmth is implanted by creation; hence it cannot receive that love except through the volitional form of a woman adjoined to it, for this is the form of love. The same point could be more fully enforced from the marriage of good and truth, and also, in the eyes of a natural man, from the marriage of heart and lungs, for the heart corresponds to love and the lungs correspond to the understanding; but as most men lack knowledge of these subjects, confirmation by means of them would obscure rather than enlighten. Because of the transmission of this sphere from the feminine to the masculine sex, the mind is enkindled simply by the thought of the sex; thence too, it must follow, is propagative formation and so excitation. For unless heat joins light on earth, nothing blooms or is excited to produce any fruit.

CL (Wunsch) n. 224 224. (xv) Where true marital love exists, this sphere is received by the wife, and by the husband through the wife alone. It is an arcanum today that with partners in true marital love, the husband receives this sphere solely through the wife; and yet it is not in itself an arcanum, for the bridegroom and the young husband should know it well. Is he not affected maritally only by what proceeds from the bride and new wife, but not at that time by anything proceeding from others of the sex? It continues so with those living together in true marital love. And as the sphere of life encompasses every one, both man and woman, densely on the breast and thinly at the back, it is plain why husbands who love their wives much, turn toward them and regard them fondly by day, and that those, on the other hand, who do not love their wives, turn away and regard their wives by day only with averted gaze. True marital love is known and distinguished from spurious, false and frigid marital love by the husband’s receiving the marital sphere through his wife alone.

CL (Wunsch) n. 225 225. (xvi) Where the love is not marital, this sphere is received by the wife, of course, but not by the husband through her. The marital sphere which flows into the universe is Divine in its origin, celestial and spiritual in its progress in heaven with the angels, natural with men, animal with beasts and birds, merely physical with insects, devoid of life with plants; and it also varies in the several objects according to their form. Now inasmuch as this sphere is received directly by the feminine sex and mediately by the masculine, and because it is received according to forms, it follows that, holy as it is in its origin, it can be turned in its subjects into the non-holy, yes, into its very opposite. Then in women the sphere opposed to it is called meretricious, and in men scortatory, and as both these men and women are in hell, the sphere is thence. But this sphere, too, has much variety, and hence there are several kinds of it, and a man draws to him and subtracts the kind which is like him and of the same nature as he, and correspondent. From this it is plain that the man who does not love his wife receives this sphere from elsewhere than from his wife: it is also inspired by the wife still, but in the man’s unawareness, and when he grows warm.

CL (Wunsch) n. 226 226. (xvii) Marital love may exist with one partner and not with the other. One of them may long from the heart for a chaste marriage, and the other not know what is chaste. One of them may love the things of the Church, while the other loves only what is of the world. One as to his mind may be in heaven, but the other as to his in hell. Hence there may be marital love with the one and not with the other. Their minds, turned in opposite directions, are inwardly in collision; and though he may not do so publicly, still the partner not in marital love regards the other because of the bond as an increasing bore; and so on.

CL (Wunsch) n. 227 227. (xviii) There are various internal and external likenesses and unlikenesses in married partners. It is known that there are likenesses and unlikenesses in partners, and that the external appear, but not the internal, except to the partners themselves after a period of living together, and to others by betraying signs. But it is idle to enumerate either of these for the reader’s information; it would fill many pages to recount and describe the varieties. What likenesses are, can be deduced and inferred in part from the unlikenesses due to which marital love passes into cold, and of which we speak in the following chapter. Likenesses and unlikenesses as a whole take their rise in native inclinations varied by education, associations and imbibed persuasions.

CL (Wunsch) n. 228 228. (xix) Various likenesses can be conjoined, but unlikenesses cannot. There are very many varieties of likenesses, more or less remote from one another; but even remote likenesses can in time be conjoined by various means, especially by adjustments to desires, by mutual good offices, by civilities, by abstention from things unchaste, by common love of the little ones and the care of the children; especially, however, by agreement in things of the Church; for by things of the Church conjunction of remote likenesses is effected inwardly, but only outwardly by other means. But there can be no conjunction between unlikenesses, because they are antipathetic.

CL (Wunsch) n. 229 229. (xx) The Lord provides likenesses for those who desire true marital love, and if they are not given on earth, He provides them in heaven. For all marriages of true marital love are the Lord’s provision. See above (nn. 130, 131) that such marriages come from Him. I have heard the angels describe how such marriages are provided in the heavens. The Lord’s Divine Providence* over marriages and in marriages is most detailed and most universal, for all heaven’s joys spring from the joys of marital love, as sweet waters from a fountain-head. It is therefore provided that marital pairs be born. These are educated steadily under the Lord’s auspices for their marriage, neither the boy nor the girl knowing it. After the necessary time the marriageable maiden and the youth ready for marriage meet somewhere as by fate and see each other. At once they know, as by a certain instinct, that they are mates, and by a kind of dictate in them they think, the youth, “She is mine,” and the maiden, “He is mine.” When the thought has made itself at home in their minds, they deliberately address each other and betroth themselves. It is said, “as by fate,” “instinct” and “dictate,” but the Divine Providence is meant, for when this is not known it appears in these guises. For the Lord opens internal likenesses that they may behold each other.
* Cf. n. 316 [3].

CL (Wunsch) n. 230 230. (xxi) In the measure of the absence or loss of marital love, man approximates the nature of a beast. The reason is that as far as man is in marital love, he is spiritual, and as far as he is spiritual, he is a human being. For man is born for a life after death and attains it because there is a spiritual soul in him to which he can be lifted by the power of his understanding. If then his will from the faculty given it is raised at the same time, he lives the life of heaven after death. The reverse is true if a man is in a love opposed to marital love. For as far as he is, he is natural, and the merely natural man is like a beast in his passions, appetites and the enjoyments thereof, with the sole difference that he has the faculty of raising his understanding into the light of wisdom and also the faculty of raising the will into the heat of heavenly love; no human being is ever deprived of these faculties. Therefore the merely natural man, though he is like the beast in lusts, appetites and their enjoyments, still lives after death, but in a state corresponding to the life he has lived. From this it may be seen, then, that the human being approximates the nature of the beast according to the absence of marital love. This seems to be open to contradiction, for there are absence and loss of marital love with those who nevertheless are human beings; but we have in mind those who in scortatory love make nothing of marital love and thus suffer the lack or loss of it.

CL (Wunsch) n. 231 231. We append three Memorabilia.*

I

I once heard outcries which seemed to gurgle up from the lower regions through water�a shout on the left, “Oh, how just!” another on the right, “Oh, how learned!” and a third from behind, “Oh, how wise!” My thought halted at the idea of any just, learned, and wise in hell, and I wanted to see whether there were any. I was told from heaven, “You shall see and hear.”
In the spirit I left the house, and saw an opening in the ground before me. I went to it and looked down, and lo! a ladder. By this I descended, and reaching the bottom, I saw level plains covered with shrubs, with which thorns and nettles were mixed. I asked if this was hell.
I was told that it was the lower earth next above hell.
I made my way to the outcries in turn. I came to the first, “Oh, how just!” and saw a company of men who had been judges in the world for friendship and gifts; then to the second, “Oh, how learned!” and saw a group of men who in the world had been reasoners; and to the third cry, “Oh, how wise!” and saw a company of men who in the world had been confirmers.
[2] But I turned back to the first outcry where were the judges for friendship and gifts, who were proclaimed to be just. To one side I saw what looked like an amphitheater built of brick and roofed with black tiles, and was told that it was called the Tribunal. It had three entrances on the north side and three on the west, but none on the south and east sides, a token that their judgments were not just but arbitrary judgments. In the middle of the amphitheater a fireplace appeared, into which the servants tending the hearth were throwing sulphurous and bituminous pitch-pine torches; the dancing light from them sketched images of birds of evening and of night upon the plastered walls. The fireplace and the dancing light in the shapes of those images were representations, however, of their judgments, for they could throw a light of any color on the subject matter in question and give it a form to suit them. [3] After half an hour I saw old men and young entering in pallia and praetextae, who laid their caps aside and took their places in chairs at the tables to sit in judgment. I listened and perceived how skillfully and cleverly, with an eye on friendship, they warped and inverted judgments into an appearance of justice. They did this so thoroughly that they themselves saw the unjust to be no other than just, and the just to be no other than unjust. Their persuasions about just and unjust were evident in their faces and audible in their speech. Enlightenment was given me from heaven at the time, whereby I could perceive whether the several judgments rested in right or not. I saw how assiduously they obscured the unjust and gave it the look of justice; and how they selected out of the laws what was favorable and drew the rest their way by adroit reasonings. After the judgment the decisions were conveyed to their client friends and favorers. These, to requite them for their favor, shouted for a long way, “Oh, how just! Oh, how just!”
[4] After this I spoke with angels of heaven about these men and related some of the things which I had seen and heard. The angels told me that such judges seem to others to be endowed with a most penetrating acuteness of understanding, when as a matter of fact they do not in the least see what is just and equitable. If you take away their friendship for given persons they sit in judgment mute like statues and only say, “I assent, I am of your opinion.” The reason is that all their judgments are prejudices. Prejudice follows a cause with partiality from beginning to end. Hence they see only their friend’s case; everything against him they set aside, and if they recur to it, they entangle it in reasonings as a spider does its captives in the threads of its web, and do away with it. Only in following the web of their prejudice do they see anything of the right. They were explored as to whether they could see, and it was found that they could not.
“The inhabitants of your world,” said the angels, “will be surprised that this is so; but tell them that it is the truth, tested by the angels of heaven. Because such judges see nothing of what is just, we in heaven consider them not men but monsters, in whom considerations of friendship make the head, injustice makes the breast, items of confirmation make the feet, and justice makes the soles, and if it does not favor a friend, it is forced aside and trampled under foot. But you shall see how they appear to us in heaven; for their end is near.” [5] Suddenly the ground opened, the tables tumbled upon one another, and the judges were swallowed up with the whole amphitheater and thrust into caverns and imprisoned.
I was asked, “Do you wish to see them there?” And behold, they looked as if they had faces of polished steel, with a body from neck to loins like graven stone garbed in leopard pelt, and feet like snakes. The law books which they had laid on the tables I saw turn into playing cards; and now, instead of presiding over court, they were put at making vermilion into rouge, for daubing the faces of harlots and transforming them into beauties.
[6] After seeing these things I wanted to leave for the two other assemblies, the one where were mere reasoners, and the other where were mere confirmers. But I was bidden, “Rest a little. Angel companions will be given you from the society next above them. Through them light will be given you by the Lord and you will see strange things.”
* Also to be found in True Christian Religion, nn. 332-334.

CL (Wunsch) n. 232

232. II

After some time I heard again from the lower earth the cries I had heard before, “Oh, how learned!” and “Oh, how wise!” I looked around to see any angels who might be present, and saw some from the heaven immediately over the men who were crying, “Oh, how learned!” I mentioned the outcry. They said, “These `learned’ are such as only reason whether a thing is or is not, and rarely think that a thing is so. They are therefore like winds which blow and pass, or like the bark of trees without pith, or like almond shells without a kernel, or fruit rinds without pulp. Their minds are without interior judgment and are united only with the bodily senses. If therefore the senses themselves do not judge, they can come to no conclusion. In a word, they are merely sensuous. We call them ‘reasoners’ because they never come to a conclusion but, picking up what they hear and discussing whether it is, quibble endlessly. They like nothing more than to attack essential truths and to rend them by bringing them into dispute. Such are the men who believe themselves learned above all others in the world.”
[2] Hearing these things I asked the angels to guide me down to them. They led me to a cavern from which steps ran down to the lower earth. We descended and followed the shout, “Oh, how learned!” And there stood some hundreds at one spot, stamping the ground with their feet.
Struck first by this, I asked, “Why do they stand and stamp the ground with the soles of their feet?” and remarked, “They may hollow out the ground.” At this the angels smiled and said, “They seem to stand thus, because they do not think concerning anything that it is so, but only think and discuss whether it is. As the thought makes no progress they seem to tread and trample the very same clod, and not to move.” But then I approached the group, and now they seemed to me not unhandsome and to be well dressed. But the angels said, “They appear so in their own light, but if light from heaven flows in, their faces and garments change.” And it was so. They then appeared swarthy of countenance and clothed in black sackcloth. But when the light was withdrawn, they looked as before.
Presently I spoke to some of them and said, “I heard the crowd around you shouting ‘Oh, how learned!’ Perhaps you will permit me to discuss with you some subjects of the highest learning?”
[3] They answered, “Name your subject and we will gratify you.”
I asked them, “What must the religion be like by which a man is saved?”
They replied, “We shall divide the question into several, on which we must reach a conclusion before we can answer. The first inquiry must be whether religion is anything; the second, whether there is such a thing as salvation or not; the third, whether one religion effects more than another; the fourth, whether there is a heaven and a hell; the fifth, whether there is eternal life after death; besides others.”
I asked about the first point, “Whether religion is anything.” With a wealth of arguments they began to discuss whether there is religion and whether what is so called is anything. I begged them to refer the point to the gathering. They did so; and the general answer was that the proposition needed so much investigation that it could not be finished within the evening.
I asked, “Can you finish it within a year?” One of them said it could not be done in a hundred years.
I remarked, “Meanwhile you do without religion.”
He replied, “Should it not first be shown whether there is religion�whether what is so called is anything? If it is, it must be for the wise also. If not, then it must be only for the common people. We know that religion is called a bond; but we ask, ‘For whom?’ If only for the common people, in itself it is nothing. If also for the wise it is something.”
[4] Hearing these arguments I said to them, “You are anything but learned, for you can only think whether a thing is and turn it this way and that. Who can become learned unless he knows something for certain, and advances in it as a man moves step by step, and thus gradually arrives at wisdom? Otherwise you do not so much as touch truths with the finger-tip, but hold them more and more out of sight. Reasoning only whether a thing is, is like arguing about a cap or shoe without ever trying it on. What results except that you do not know whether there is anything,�that is to say, whether there is salvation, whether there is eternal life after death, whether one religion is more effective than another, whether there is a heaven and a hell? How can you have any thoughts on these subjects as long as you stick fast in the first step and thresh the sand there and never put one foot before the other or go forward? Beware lest your minds, while they stand thus at the doors outside judgment, indurate within and turn into statues of salt, and you become companions of Lot’s wife.”
[5] With these words I left, and in indignation they threw stones after me. They appeared to me then like stone images, with nothing of human reason in them. I asked the angels about their lot. They said, “They are let down by an abyss into a desert, and are driven to carrying packs. Being unable to produce anything from reason, they chatter and talk nonsense. At a distance they look like asses heavily laden.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 233

233. III

After this one of the angels said, “Follow me to the place where they are shouting, ‘Oh, how wise!’ ” He added, “You will see human monstrosities. You will see faces and bodies such as men have, and yet they are not men.”
I asked, “Are they beasts then?”
He answered, “They are not beasts but beast-men. They are such as are wholly unable to see whether truth is truth or not, but can make whatever they will to be truth. We call such men confirmers.”
Following up the shouting, we reached the place, and found a group of men surrounded by a crowd. In the crowd some of noble blood, hearing the men confirm everything they said and favoring them with such manifest agreement, turned and cried, “Oh, how wise!”
[2] But the angel said to me, “Instead of going to them, let us call one of them out of the group.” We did so, and going to one side with him, advanced various propositions. He confirmed them all, so that they appeared altogether true. We asked him whether he could also confirm their opposites. He replied, “Just as well.”
Then without disguise and from the heart he said, “What is truth? Is there anything true in the nature of things, other than what a man makes true? Make me any statement you please and I will make it true.”
I said, “Make this true, ‘Faith is the all of the Church.'” This he did so adroitly and skillfully that the learned standing around admired and applauded. Afterwards I asked him to make it true that charity is the all of the Church, and he did so; and after that, that charity is nothing of the Church. Finally he dressed both propositions up and decked them in such plausibility that the bystanders glanced at one another and said, “Is he not wise!”
“But,” I said, “do you not know that to live well is charity, and that to believe well is faith? Does not he who lives well also believe well? Thus faith is of charity and charity is of faith. Do you not see that this is true?”
He replied, “Let me make it true and I shall see.” He did so, and said, “Now I see.” But presently he made its opposite true, and said, “I see that this also is true.”
At this we smiled and said, “Are they not contraries? How can two contraries be regarded as truths?”
He replied indignantly, “You are mistaken. Each is true, for nothing is true but what a man makes true.”
[3] Nearby stood a man who had been a diplomat of the first rank in the world. He was amazed at all this, and said, “I am aware that there is reasoning like this in the world; still you are not sane. Make it true if you can that light is darkness, and darkness light.”
He replied, “I can do it easily. What are light and darkness but states of the eye? Does not light change to dimness when the eye comes out of strong sunshine?
Again, when it gazes into the sun? Who does not know that the state of the eye changes then, and that it is from this that light appears as shade? On the other hand, when the first state of the eye returns, the shade appears as light. Does not an owl see the darkness of night as the light of day, and the light of day as the darkness of night, and the sun itself as an opaque and dusky globe? If a man had eyes like an owl, which would he call light, and which darkness? What then is light but a state of the eye? And if it is a state of the eye, is not light darkness and darkness light? Therefore the one is true, and the other is true.”
[4] The diplomat then asked him to make it true that the raven is white and not black.
He responded: “That also I can do readily,” and said: “Take a needle or a razor and open the feathers or quills of a raven. Are they not white inside? Then pluck the feathers and quills and look at the skin of the raven. Is it not white? What is the black around it but shadow, by which one is hardly to decide the raven’s color. As for black being shadow only, consult experts in the science of optics and they will affirm it. Or pulverize black stone or glass and you will see that the powder is white.”
“But,” replied the diplomat, “does not the raven appear black to the sight?”
“And are you,” responded the confirmer, “who are a man, going to think according to the appearance of a thing? From appearance you can indeed say that the raven is black, but you cannot think it. For example, you can say from appearance that the sun rises, moves and sets, but as you are a man you cannot think it, because the sun stands still and the earth moves. So with the raven. Appearance is appearance. Say what you will the raven is white as can be. It also grows white as it ages�which I have seen.”
[5] We then asked him to tell us honestly whether he was jesting or believed that nothing is true but what a man makes true.
He answered, “I swear that I believe it.”
After that the diplomat asked him if he could make it true that he himself was insane. He said, “I can, but I do not choose to do so. Who is not insane?”
This universal confirmer was afterwards sent to angels who explored him to see what kind of man he was. After the examination they said that he possessed not a grain of understanding, because everything above the rational in him was closed and only what was below the rational was open. Above the rational is heavenly light and below the rational is natural light, which latter light is such that it can confirm whatever one pleases. If heavenly light does not flow into natural light, a man does not see that any truth is true, or that anything false is false. To see these is of heavenly light in natural light; and heavenly light is from the God of heaven, who is the Lord. This universal confirmer is therefore neither man nor beast, but a beast-man.
[6] I asked the angel about the lot of such men, and whether they can associate with the living; because man has life from heavenly light, and his understanding is from the same light. He said that such men when alone are not able to think anything or to speak, but stand dumb like machines and as if in deep sleep, but awake as soon as a sound strikes the ear. He added that those who are inmostly evil become such. Heavenly light from above cannot flow into them, but only something spiritual through the world, from which they have the faculty of confirming.
[7] Thereupon I heard a voice from the angels who examined the man, saying to me, “Form a universal conclusion from what you have heard.” I formed this conclusion: To be able to confirm whatever one pleases is not the mark of an intelligent man. To be able to see that truth is truth and falsity is falsity and to confirm it, is the mark of an intelligent man.
After this I looked towards the assemblage where the confirmers stood, around whom the crowd was shouting, “Oh, how wise!” and lo! a dark cloud covered them, and in the cloud screech-owls and bats were flying. I was told, “The screech-owls and bats flying in the dark cloud are the correspondences and therefore appearances of their thoughts. For confirmations of falsities to the point that they appear like truths are represented in this world under the forms of birds of night, whose eyes are lighted by a fatuous light within, by which they see objects in the dark as if in light. Such fatuous spiritual light is in those who confirm falsities until they seem to be truths and who afterwards say and believe that they are truths. All these are in posterior vision and not in any prior* sight.”
* On the meaning of these terms see n. 408.

CL (Wunsch) n. 234

234. X

CAUSES OF COLD, SEPARATION AND DIVORCE IN MARRIAGE

While we consider causes of cold in marriage we shall take the occasion to consider causes of separation and divorce as well, for all these are closely connected. Separations come wholly from cold gradually engendered after marriage or from causes disclosed after marriage which give rise to cold. Divorces result from adulteries; adulteries are wholly opposite to marriages, and this opposite again induces cold, if not in both partners, at least in one. Hence we assemble the causes of cold, separation and divorce in one chapter. The close connection among them will be better perceived if we view things in a series, as follows:
i. There is spiritual warmth, and spiritual cold, spiritual warmth being love, and spiritual cold the absence of love.
ii. Spiritual cold in marriage is disunion of souls and disjunction of minds, whence come indifference, discord, contempt, disgust, and aversion, which lead at length with many to separation from bed, chamber and house.
iii. Causes of cold in order one after another are many, some internal, some external, and some accessory.
iv. Internal causes of cold concern religion.
v. The first of these causes is the rejection of religion by both partners.
vi. The second, that one partner has religion, and the other has not.
vii. The third, that one is of one religion, the other of another.
viii. The fourth, an imbued falsity of religion.
ix. These are causes of internal cold, yet not at the same time, with many, of external.
x. External causes of cold are also many; and the first of them is unlikeness of minds and ways.
xi. The second is that marital love is deemed to be one with scortatory love, only that the latter is by law illicit, and the former licit.
xii. The third is striving for the upper hand between partners.
xiii. The fourth, no devotion to any concern or business, whence a wandering desire.
xiv. The fifth, inequality of state and condition in externals.
xv. The causes of separation are also several.
xvi. The first of them is vitiation of mind.
xvii. The second is vitiation of body.
xviii. The third is impotence before marriage.
xix. Adultery is the cause of divorce.
xx. Accessory causes are also many; and the first of them is commonness from constant access.
xxi. The second, that living together with the partner under covenant and law seems forced and not free.
xxii. The third, protestation and talk of love by the wife.
xxiii. The fourth, thought on the man’s part day and night about his wife, that she is willing; and in turn thought on the wife’s part about the man that he is not willing.
xxiv. Present in the mind, cold is also present in the body; furthermore, as it increases, the externals of the body are closed up.

Explanation of these propositions follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 235 235. (i) There is spiritual warmth and spiritual cold, spiritual warmth being love, and spiritual cold the absence of love. Spiritual warmth has but one source�the sun of the spiritual world. For there is a sun in that world, proceeding from the Lord, who is in the midst of it. Being from the Lord, that sun in its nature is pure love. It appears fiery in the eyes of the angels, quite as the sun of our world does in the eyes of men; it so appears because love is spiritual fire. From it proceed both heat and light, but as that sun is pure love, the warmth thence in its essence is love, and the light thence in its essence wisdom. It is plain then whence spiritual warmth is, and that it is love. The source of spiritual cold shall also be told briefly. Spiritual cold is from the sun of the natural world and from its heat and light. The sun of the natural world was created that its heat and light might receive spiritual heat and light and convey them by means of atmospheres even to outermost things on earth, so as to work out the effects of the ends which the Lord has in His sun, and also to clothe spiritual things with suitable garments, that is, with matter, for expressing last ends in nature. This is accomplished when spiritual heat is added in the natural. But the contrary happens when natural heat is separated from spiritual heat, which is the case with those who love natural things and reject spiritual things. With these, spiritual warmth turns cold. The two loves concordant by creation thus become opposed, for the master warmth becomes the servant, and vice versa. To escape servitude, spiritual warmth (which is lord by lineage) retreats and turns cold in such people, because it is made opposite. From this it is plain what spiritual cold is, namely, the absence of spiritual warmth. In what we are saying, we mean love by “warmth,” for spiritual heat in animate subjects is felt as love. I have heard in the spiritual world that merely natural spirits grow intensely cold when they attach themselves to the side of an angel who is in a state of love; and that infernal spirits do likewise when heat flows to them from heaven; and yet that among themselves, when heaven’s heat is shut away from them, they grow very warm.

CL (Wunsch) n. 236 236. (ii) Spiritual cold in marriage is disunion of souls and disjunction of minds; whence come indifference, discord, contempt, disgust and aversion, which lead at length with many to separation from bed, chamber and house. It is too well known to need comment that such things befall partners when their early love has waned and turned cold. The reason is that marital cold resides above all other colds in human minds. For the marital is inscribed on the very soul, to the end that soul may be propagated from soul, and the soul of the father to the offspring. Thence it is that this coldness begins there and successively sinks down and infects derivatives, and thus turns the gladness and joy of the early love into sadness and joylessness.

CL (Wunsch) n. 237 237. (iii) Causes of cold in order one after another are many, some internal, some external, and some accessory. The world knows that there are many causes of cold in marriage, and that cold arises from many external causes. But it is not known that the causes have origins hidden in the inmosts, whence they extend into the derivatives, until they become manifest in externals. To make it known, therefore, that external causes are not in themselves causes, but are derived from such as are, which, as we said, are in the inmosts, we first distribute the causes in general into internal and external, and afterwards examine them in detail.

CL (Wunsch) n. 238 238. (iv) Internal causes of cold concern religion. Every one may be convinced by the following facts that the real origin of marital love resides in the inmosts of the human being, that is, in his soul. The soul of the offspring is from the father, which is evident in similarity of inclinations and affections, and also in the facial resemblance persisting from the father to even a remote posterity. Secondly, the propagative faculty is implanted in souls by creation. Again, there is the analogy with subjects of the vegetable kingdom, where inmostly in germination there hides the propagation of a seed itself, and so of a new growth, whether tree, shrub or plant. [2] The propagative or plastic force in seeds in this kingdom, and in souls in the other kingdom, has only one origin, namely, the marital sphere of good and truth, perpetually emanating and inflowing from the Lord the Creator and Sustainer of the universe (see above, nn. 222-225), and the effort therein of those two, good and truth, to unite into one. It is from this marital effort seated in the soul that originally marital love exists. The same marriage from which that universal sphere comes, also makes the Church with man (as we have shown abundantly in the chapter on “The Marriage of Good and Truth,” and many times elsewhere). By all the evidence it is plain to reason, then, that the origin of the Church and the origin of marital love have one seat, and are in continual embrace (of this more may be seen above, n. 130, where it is shown that marital love is according to the state of the Church in a man; hence is from religion, for religion makes this state). [3] The human being has also been so created that he can become more and more interior and so be introduced or elevated more and more closely to that marriage and thus into true marital love, and this until he perceives its state of blessedness. The sole means to this introduction or elevation is religion, as is obvious from what we said above to the effect that the origin of the Church and the origin of marital love are in the same seat and in mutual embrace there, and therefore cannot but be conjoined.

CL (Wunsch) n. 239 239. It follows from what we have just said that where there is no religion, there no marital love can be, either; and that where this is not, there is cold. Marital cold is the absence of that love (n.235). Marital cold is then also the absence of any state of the Church or of religion. A sufficiently plain confirmation of this is to be found in the general ignorance today about true marital love. Who knows or wants to acknowledge, and who is not amazed, that we trace the origin of marital love to the source we do? But this is due solely to the fact that although there is religion, truths of religion are lacking; and what is religion without truths? It has been shown fully in Apocalypse Revealed that truths are lacking today; see also Memorabilia there (n. 566).

CL (Wunsch) n. 240 240. (v) Of internal causes of cold the first is the rejection of religion by both partners. No good love is possible with those who drive the Church’s holy things from the front of the brain to its base or from breast to back. Whatever right love may be shown in the body, there is none in the spirit. In such men goods quarter themselves outside evils and cover them up as a garment shining with gold may cover a decaying body. The evils, resident within and covered up, are in general hatreds, and intestine battles thence, against everything spiritual. For the things of the Church rejected by these men are in themselves all spiritual. And because true marital love is the basic love among all spiritual loves (as was shown above), plainly there is inner hatred against marital love, and the inward love peculiar to such men is for the opposite, or for what is adulterous. They more than others, therefore, deride the truth that every one has marital love in accord with the state of the Church; doubtless they laugh at the mention of true marital love. But let that be. And yet they are to be pardoned, for it is as impossible for them not to think in the very same way of embraces in marriage and in whoredom as it is for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. Such men grow colder than others toward marital love. If they cling to their wives, it is only for some of the external causes, enumerated above (n. 153), which restrain and bind. The interiors of the soul and thence of the mind are closed with them more and more, and stopped up in the body; and then love for the sex also turns cheap or becomes insanely lascivious in the body’s interiors and thence in the lowest reaches of their thoughts. These are the men, too, who are meant in the Memorabilia at n. 79�which they might read, if they will.

CL (Wunsch) n. 241 241. (vi) The second of the internal causes of cold is that one partner has religion, and the other has not. Their souls cannot but be discordant then. For the one partner’s soul is open to the reception of marital love, but the other’s is closed to the reception of that love�it is closed with the one who has no religion, and open with the one who has religion. Hence there can be no living together in soul. But when marital love is in exile from the soul, cold comes, that is, it does in the partner who has no religion. This cold is dissipated only by the reception of a religion agreeing with that of the other, if the latter is true. Else with the partner who has no religion a cold ensues, which descends from the soul into the body even to the skin, until finally he cannot look his partner in the face or speak sympathetically or except under his breath, or touch her with the hand and scarcely with the back, to say nothing of the insanities which steal from that cold into thoughts which remain unspoken. For this reason such marriages dissolve of themselves. It is known, moreover, that an impious man despises his partner; and all who are without religion are impious.

CL (Wunsch) n. 242 242. (vii) The third of the internal causes of cold is that one partner has one religion and the other another. The reason is that in their case good cannot be conjoined with its corresponding truth, for the wife is the good of the husband’s truth, and he the truth of the wife’s good (as was shown above). Hence one soul cannot be made of the two souls. Hence the springs of marital love are closed, and when they are, a marital tendency seated lower is entered on, namely, of good with another truth, or of truth with a good other than its own, between which there can be no harmonious love. Then cold begins with the partner in falsities of religion and intensifies as he differs from the other partner. I was roaming the streets of a great city once, looking for a place to lodge, and entered a house where lived partners of disagreeing religion. The angels addressed me, who was ignorant of the situation, saying, “We cannot remain with you in that house, for the partners there are in disagreeing religion.” They perceived the fact from the internal disunion of their souls.

CL (Wunsch) n. 243 243. (viii) The fourth of the internal causes is falsity of religion. The reason is that falsity in spiritual things either takes away religion or contaminates it. It takes it away in those who have falsified genuine truths. It contaminates it in those in whom there are falsities, indeed, but no genuine truths to be falsified. With the latter, there are goods with which those falsities can be conjoined by the Lord through adjustments, the falsities then being like discords of varying tone, which by skillful resolvings and modulations are brought into harmony, whence, indeed, a harmony is pleasing. With such partners some marital love is possible, but none with those who have falsified genuine truths of the Church. From such falsifications come the prevalent ignorance about true marital love and the scepticism about its possibility. From them, too, comes the madness, seated in the minds of many, that adulteries are not evils for religion.

CL (Wunsch) n. 244 244. (ix) The causes named above are causes of internal cold, but with many not at the same time of external cold. If the causes named and established so far, which are causes of cold in the internals, produced a like cold in externals, there would be as many separations as there are instances of inward cold. There are, indeed, as many internal colds as there are marriages of those who are in falsities of religion, in diverse religion and in no religion (of whom we have treated). Still, it goes without saying, many such partners live together as if they were loves and mutual friendships. We shall give the reason for this in the following chapter on “Causes of Apparent Love, Friendship and Favor between Partners.” There are a number of causes which conjoin the lower minds but not the souls; some of the causes recited above at n. 153 are among them. But still cold lurks deep within, and now and then lets itself be seen and felt. With such partners the affections diverge, but the thoughts, when they issue in speech and action, make up to each other for the sake of seeming friendship and favor. Hence they know nothing of the loveliness and joy and still less of the enjoyment and blessedness of true marital love; these are hardly more than fables to them. Such people are among those who place the origins of marital love in the same sources as did the nine companies of the wise assembled from the kingdoms of Europe, of whom above in the Memorabilia (nn. 103-114 ).

CL (Wunsch) n. 245 245. To what we have affirmed above it may be objected that the soul is propagated nevertheless from the father, even though his soul is not conjoined to the mother’s soul, nay, even if cold, resident in it, separates the two. But souls or offspring are propagated nevertheless, because the man’s understanding is not closed up so that it cannot be raised into the light in which the soul is (though the love of his will is not raised into a heat corresponding to the light there, save by a life which from natural makes him spiritual). Hence the soul is still procreated, but as it descends and becomes seed, is enveloped with such things as are of man’s natural love; from this springs inherited evil. I shall add to this an arcanum from heaven: conjunction between the disjoined souls of two, especially of partners, is effected through a medial love; otherwise no conceptions would take place with mankind. For more about marital cold and its seat in the highest region of the mind, see the last Memorabilia in this chapter (n. 270).

CL (Wunsch) n. 246 246. (x) External causes of cold are also many, and the first of them is unlikeness of minds and ways. There are both internal and external likenesses and unlikenesses. Internal likenesses have their origin in nothing else than religion. For religion is implanted in souls and transmitted through souls as the highest inclination from parents to offspring. For every man’s soul gets its life from the marriage of good and truth, and from this is the Church. As the Church is various and diverse in different parts of the globe, therefore the souls of all mankind are various and diverse; internal likeness and unlikeness is thence, and according to this is the marital union, of which we have been treating.
[2] External likeness and unlikeness, however, is not of the souls but of the minds. By minds are meant the external affections and the inclinations from them, especially such as are insinuated by education, associations and habits. For we say, “I have a mind to do this or that,” by which we understand affection and inclination for the particular action. Preferences formed for one or another kind of life are also wont to form the lower minds. Hence there are inclinations to enter on marriage with those not one’s equals, and also to refuse marriage with one’s equals. But still these marriages, after a period of living together, are altered according to the likenesses or unlikenesses induced by heredity and also by upbringing; and the unlikenesses bring on cold. [3] Similarly unlikenesses in people’s ways, as when an uncouth man or woman unites with a cultivated woman or man, a clean man or woman with an unclean, a contentious person with a peaceable, or an ill-bred person with a well-bred. Marriages between such dissimilitudes are not unlike conjunctions of diverse kinds of animals, as of sheep and goats, stags and mules, hens and geese, sparrows and noble birds, yes, cats and dogs, which do not associate because of their unlikenesses. But in the human race, habits and not faces are the index to the incompatibilities from which cold arises.

CL (Wunsch) n. 247 247. (xi) The second of the external causes of cold is that marital love is deemed to be one with scortatory love, only that the latter is illicit by law, but the former licit. Reason sees for itself that this must be a source of cold, when it considers that scortatory love is diametrically opposed to marital. When therefore it is believed that marital love is one with scortatory, both are conceived in the same way, and the wife is regarded as a whore, and marriage as uncleanness; the man himself is also an adulterer, if not in body, still in spirit. The inevitable consequence is that contempt, disgust and aversion and thus intense cold develop between the man and his woman. For nothing hides so much marital cold in itself as does scortatory love; and as scortatory love also turns into cold, it may not undeservedly be called marital cold itself.

CL (Wunsch) n. 248 248. (xii) The third of the external causes is striving for the upper hand between Partners. For marital love looks foremostly to a union of wills and to freedom of decision. Any striving for the upper hand or for dominion casts both of these out of marriage, dividing and cleaving asunder the wills, and changing freedom of decision into servitude. When the striving persists, the spirit of the one contemplates violence against the other. Were their minds laid open then and regarded with spiritual vision, the partners would appear like people fighting with daggers, and looking at each other with alternate hatred and favor�with hatred while in the vehemence of striving, and with favor while in the hope of dominating or in lust. After a victory of one over the other, the fighting recedes from the externals but betakes itself into the mind’s internals and remains there in hidden unrest. The subjugated partner or slave has cold, and the victress or dominant wife also has. There is cold with her, too, because there is no marital love any longer; the absence of that love is cold (n. 235). In the place of marital love the victor has ardor from having the ascendancy; this warmth disagrees altogether with the warmth of marital love, but outwardly can agree by means of lust. After tacit agreement between such partners it seems as if marital love had become friendship, but the distinction between marital and servile friendship in marriage is like the distinction between light and shadow, between actual fire and illusory, yes, between a well-conditioned man and a man of skin and bone.

CL (Wunsch) n. 249 249. (xiii) The fourth of the external causes of cold is no devotion to any pursuit or business, whence comes a wandering desire. The human being was created for uses, for use is the containant of good and truth, from the marriage of which is creation, and also marital love, as was shown in its chapter. By pursuit and business is meant any application to uses. For while a man is in any pursuit or business or in a use, his mind is limited and circumscribed as by a circle, inside which it is integrated stage by stage into a truly human form, from which as from home it sees various lusts outside itself, and from the sanity of reason within exterminates them and along with them the wild insanities of scortatory lust. As a result, marital warmth lasts better and longer with such than with others. The contrary happens with those who give themselves to inactivity and idleness; with them the mind is unrestrained and undetermined, and hence exposed to everything vain and trivial inflowing from the world or the body and sweeping one into love of world and self. Obviously, marital love is also sent into exile. For as a result of inactivity and idleness, the mind is benumbed, the body grows torpid, and the whole man becomes insensitive to every vital love, especially to marital love, from which as from a fountain emanate the activities and alacrities of life. Marital cold is different in such men from what it is in others; there is absence of marital love, it is true, but now from defect.

CL (Wunsch) n. 250 250. (xiv) Of external causes a fifth is inequality of station and condition in externals. There are many inequalities of station and condition which during cohabitation thwart the marital love begun before the nuptials. They may be classified as inequalities in age, in position, and in possessions. It needs no confirmation that unequal ages induce cold in marriage, as of a boy with an old woman or of an adolescent maiden with a decrepit man. It is also admitted without confirmation that unequal positions result similarly, as in the marriage of a prominent man with a maid-servant or of an honorable matron with a servant. It is plain that inequality in possessions has the same result, unless likeness of minds and ways and a devotion of the one partner to the inclinations and native desires of the other, hold the two together. But in none of these instances does obsequiousness on account of the other’s high station or condition conjoin except slavishly; and a servile conjunction is a cold one. For then there is nothing marital of the spirit and heart, but only of the mouth and in name, at which the inferior may glory, but the superior blushes deeply. In the heavens, however, there is no inequality in age, position or possessions. As for age, all in heaven are in the bloom of youth and remain in it to eternity. As for position, all regard others according to the uses they render, the more eminent in position regarding those in lower stations as brothers, nor do they put position before the rendering of use, but the latter before the former. Young women, moreover, when given in marriage, do not know what their lineage is; for no one there knows his father on earth; the Lord is Father of all. The like is true of possessions: heaven’s wealth is endowment with wisdom; according to this all are given sufficient means. See above (n. 229) on how marriage is contracted in heaven.

CL (Wunsch) n. 251 251. (xv) There are also some causes of separation. There are separations from the bed and separations from the house; the causes of either sort of separation are many; but we treat here of legitimate* causes. Since the causes of separation coincide with the causes of concubinage, of which we treat in a chapter of Part II, the reader is referred to that chapter,** to see the causes in their order. The following are legitimate causes of separation.
* For the meaning with which this word is used see n. 252e; at n. 470 the word is differently used, and there “just” is used with the meaning of “legitimate” here.
** Chap. XIX.

CL (Wunsch) n. 252 252. (xvi) A first cause of legitimate separation is vitiation of mind. Marital love is a conjunction of minds. If then the mind of one pursues a course contrary to the other, the conjunction is dissolved, and therewith love ceases. What vitiated conditions separate, may be seen from an enumeration of them. They are chiefly these: mania, frenzy, insanity, idiocy and imbecility, loss of memory, severe hysteria, extreme simplicity with no perception of good and truth; supreme obstinacy in refusing to yield to what is just and equitable; the utmost pleasure in gabbling and talking only of what is insignificant and frivolous; an ungovernable propensity to divulge the secrets of the house, and to quarrel, strike, take revenge, do mischief, pilfer, lie, deceive, defame; neglect of infants, profligacy, luxury, excessive prodigality, drunkenness, filthiness, immodesty, addiction to magic and witchcraft, impiety, and many others. By legitimate causes here we do not mean judicial causes, but legitimate for the other partner; separations from the house are also rarely decreed by a judge.

CL (Wunsch) n. 253 253. (xvii) A second cause of legitimate separation is a vitiated condition of body. By vitiated conditions of the body, passing illnesses which befall one partner or the other during marriage are not meant, but inherent morbid conditions which do not pass away. Pathology teaches what they are. They are multifarious, like diseases by which the whole body is infected to such a degree as to threaten death by contagion. Such are malignant and pestilential fevers, leprosy, venereal diseases, gangrenes, cancers, and other like maladies. So also diseases by which the whole body is so burdened that there is no associating with the person, and in which hurtful effluvia and noxious vapors are exhaled, either from the body’s surface or from its interiors, especially from stomach and lungs; on the surface of the body are malignant pocks, warty growths, pustules, scurvy, virulent itch�in particular, if the face is defiled with them; while from the stomach come foul, rank, fetid and crude eructations; and from the lungs, noisome and putrid breath, exhaled from tubercles, ulcers, abscesses or from vitiated blood or vitiated lymph therein. Besides these are other maladies variously named, like lipothymy, which is a total physical debility and failure of strength; paralysis, which is a loosening and slackening of the membranes and ligaments which serve for motion; certain chronic diseases arising from loss of tensibility and elasticity of the nerves or from too much density, toughness and acridity of the humors; epilepsy; permanent debility from attacks of apoplexy; certain wasting diseases by which the body is consumed; the iliac passion; the celiac affection; hernia; and other like ailments.

CL (Wunsch) n. 254 254. (xviii) A third cause of legitimate separation is impotence before marriage. This is a cause of separation because procreation of offspring is an end in marriage, and by the impotent is impossible; and since they know this beforehand, they deliberately deprive their wives of the hope of it, a hope, however, which nourishes and re-enforces their marital love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 255 sRef Matt@19 @9 S0′ 255. (xix) Adultery is the cause of divorce. There are many reasons for this, which lie in rational light, too, and yet are hidden today. From rational light it can be seen that marriages are holy and adulteries profane, and thus that the two are diametrically opposed to each other, and that when opposite acts on opposite, one destroys the other, to the last spark of its life. So marital love is destroyed when a married man from what is confirmed and thus of purpose commits adultery. These considerations come into still clearer rational light with those who know something about heaven and hell, for these know that marriages are in and from heaven, that adulteries are in and from hell, that the two cannot be conjoined any more than heaven can be with hell, and that if they are brought together in a man, heaven instantly retreats, and hell enters. Hence then adultery is the cause of divorce. Therefore the Lord says

That any one who puts away his wife except for whoredom, and marries another, commits adultery (Matthew xix. 9).

He says that if a man puts away his wife except for whoredom and marries again, he commits adultery, because the putting away for the cause named is the absolute separation of minds which is called divorce; but the other dismissals for their causes are the separations of which we have just treated; if on a separation a man marries again, he commits adultery, but not on divorce.

CL (Wunsch) n. 256 256. (xx) Accessory causes of cold are also many; and the first of them is commonness from constant access. We call commonness from constant access an accessory cause because it is a supplemental cause of cold with such as think lasciviously of marriage and wife, not, however, with those who think holily of marriage and confidently of the wife. Through commonness from being habitual, all kinds of joys become indifferent and tiresome, as is plain from games, spectacles, concerts, dances, banquets, and like enjoyments, which in themselves are charming and enlivening. The like happens to cohabitation and intimacy between partners, especially between those who have not removed unchaste love of the sex from their love for each other, and when in want of ability they think idly of the commonness from constant access. It is self-evident that to them this commonness is a cause of cold. It is called an accessory cause because it supplements and to the reason reenforces intrinsic cold. To remove the cold so arising, wives from a prudence implanted in them make the allowed unallowed by various reluctances. But the case is quite otherwise with those who judge chastely of their wives. And with angels commonness from being usually allowed is delight of the soul and a containant of their marital love. For they are continually in the enjoyment of this love, and in ultimates according to the advertence of their minds not interrupted by cares, thus in the good judgment of the husbands.

CL (Wunsch) n. 257 257. (xxi) Of accessory causes of cold a second is that living together with the partner under covenant and by law seems forced and not free. This cause exists only with those in whom marital love is cold in the inmosts; supplementing the inward cold, it becomes an additional or accessory cause of cold. With such partners extramarital love, through being countenanced, is inwardly the warmth (for the cold of the one love is the warmth of the other); this warmth, though not felt, is still within, yes, in the midst of the cold; were it not within, there would be no zest.* This heat is what causes the constraint, which is increased as the covenant by agreement and the law from right are regarded by one of the partners as bonds not to be violated. It is otherwise if the bonds are relaxed by them both. The contrary happens with those who have held extra-marital love to be accursed, and who think of marital love as heavenly and as heaven; and still more with those who perceive that this is the fact. The covenant with its agreements and the law with its obligations are written on the hearts of such partners and ever more deeply written on them. With them the bond of marital love is not secured by covenant agreement, nor by legal enactment; obligation and law are implanted by creation in the very love in which they are. From these come the world’s bonds, and not the other way about. The result is that such partners find all the life of marital love unconstrained. There is nothing free which is not from love. I have heard from the angels that the freedom of true marital love is the freest of all, just as that love is the love of loves.
* For meaning see in n. 294 [4, 6e].

CL (Wunsch) n. 258 258. (xxii) Of accessory causes of cold a third is protestation and talk of love by the wife. With angels in heaven there is no refusal or repugnance on the part of wives as there is with some wives on earth. Among the angels in heaven wives also speak of their love and do not maintain the silence that some do on earth. But I may not give the reason for these differences; it would not become me. But see in four Memorabilia* what was related by wives of angels, who freely divulge such things to their husbands:�by the three wives in the hall over which the golden rain appeared, and by the seven wives seated in the rose-garden. I offer these Memorabilia to the end that all facts about marital love, which we are considering both in general and in detail, may be disclosed.
* Nn. 155r, 208; 293, 294.

CL (Wunsch) n. 259 259. (xxiii) Of accessory causes of cold a fourth is the man’s thinking day and night about his wife that she is willing; and the wife’s thought in turn about the man that he is not willing. That the one is a cause of waning love in wives and the other a cause of cold in men, we leave without comment. Husbands who study the secrets of marital love are aware that a man is chilled to the extremities if he thinks at sight of his wife during the day or at her side at night that she desires or wants, and in turn the wife loses her love if she thinks of the man that he can but is unwilling. These facts also are cited to the end that this work on “Marital Love: Its Wise Delights” may be complete and comprehensive.

CL (Wunsch) n. 260 260. (xxiv) Present in the mind, cold is also present in the body; furthermore, as it increases, the externals of the body are closed up. People today believe that the mind is in the head, and nothing of it in the body; when yet both soul and mind are in the body as well as in the head, for the mind and soul are the human being and together constitute the spirit which lives after death. This is in perfect human form, as we have shown fully in other works. Hence it is that a man can instantly utter by the body’s mouth and indicate by gesture what he thinks; and at once do and effect by the members of the body what he purposes. This would be impossible if soul and mind were not together in the body and did not make the spiritual man. In view of this, one can see that when marital love is in the mind, it is like to itself in the body, too; and because love is warmth, that it opens the body’s externals from the interiors. On the other hand, it is plain that the absence of love, which is cold, closes up the body’s externals from the interiors. It appears clearly from this why faculty persists with angels to eternity, and why there is defect with men in a state of cold.

CL (Wunsch) n. 261 261. To this let me add three Memorabilia.

I

In* an upper northeast quarter in the spiritual world are places of instruction for boys and youths and also for men and old men. Thither are sent not only all who die in infancy, to be reared in heaven; but any just come from the world who desire knowledge about heaven and hell. The district is toward the east in order that all may be instructed by influx from the Lord, who is the east, being in the sun there. The sun is pure love from Him; hence the warmth of that sun in essence is love, and the light in its essence is wisdom. These are inspired in men by the Lord from that sun and are inspired according to reception, which is according to the love of becoming wise. After the periods of instruction, those who have become intelligent are sent out and are called disciples of the Lord. They are sent to the west first; and those who do not remain there, to the south, and some by the south into the east, and so all are led into societies where their homes are to be.
[2] As I was meditating once on heaven and hell, I began to desire a universal knowledge of the state of each, knowing that if one has a knowledge of universals one can then comprehend the particulars, for these are in universals as parts are in a whole. With this desire I looked toward that district in the northeast where the places of instruction were, and by a way then opened to me I proceeded thither, and entered one of the schools where young men were. I approached the head teachers who were giving the instruction, and asked them if they knew the universals about heaven and hell.
[3] They replied that they had a little knowledge of them, “but if we will look eastward to the Lord, we shall be enlightened and know.” They did so and said, “The universals of hell are three, and are diametrically opposite to those of heaven. The universals of hell are three loves�the love of ruling from love of self; the love of possessing the goods of others from love of the world; and scortatory love. The diametrically opposite universals of heaven are also three loves�the love of ruling from the love of use; the love of possessing the goods of the world from the love of doing uses by means of them; and true marital love.”
Bidding them farewell, I left and returned home. There I was bidden from heaven, “Examine these which are the three universals overhead and below, and we shall behold them later in your hand.” They said “in your hand” because all that a man examines with the understanding appears to the angels as if inscribed on the hands.
* These Memorabilia occur again in True Christian Religion, n. 661.

CL (Wunsch) n. 262 262. Thereupon I examined the first universal love of hell, or the love of ruling from love of self; and at the same time the universal love of heaven corresponding to it, or the love of ruling from the love of use. For I was not allowed to consider one of these without considering the other, because the understanding does not apprehend one apart from the other, for they are opposites. For either love to be perceived the two must be placed in contrast. A beautiful and well-formed face shines by contrast with a homely and ill-shaped face. In examining the love of ruling from love of self I was given to perceive that this love is supremely infernal and hence is found with those who are in the deepest hell; and that the love of ruling from the love of use is in the highest degree heavenly and so is found with those who are in the highest heaven. [2] The love of ruling from love of self is supremely infernal because domination from love of self is from man’s own, which by nativity is evil itself, and evil itself is diametrically contrary to the Lord; as men continue in that evil, the more do they deny God and the holy things of the Church, and worship themselves and nature. Let those, I pray, who are in that evil examine it in themselves and they will see. This love is such, too, that as far as it is given rein, which is when the impossible does not block the way, it rushes on from step to step, yes, even to the highest; and does not halt there, but grieves and sighs when there is no step higher.
[3] Among politicians this love soars until they want to be kings and emperors, and if possible to dominate over all the world, and to be called kings of kings and emperors of emperors. Among ecclesiastics the same love mounts to the point where they want to be gods, and as far as possible to rule over all things of heaven, and to be called gods of gods. It will be seen in what follows that neither of these at heart acknowledge any God. On the other hand, those who desire to rule from the love of uses do not wish to rule from themselves but from the Lord�for the love of uses is from the Lord and is the Lord Himself. They regard position only as a means of doing uses. They put use far above place, whereas the former put place far above use.

CL (Wunsch) n. 263 263. While I was pondering these things I was told by an angel from the Lord, “This very moment you shall see, and be assured by seeing, how infernal this love is.”
Suddenly, at the left, the earth opened and I saw a devil emerging from hell, with a square cap on his head crushed down over the forehead even to the eyes, a face full of blisters from a high fever, ferocious eyes, and a bosom swollen out of shape. From his mouth belched the fumes of an oven; his loins were all aflame; instead of feet he had ankle bones without flesh; and from his body exhaled a stinking and unclean heat. [2] Terrified at the sight of him, I cried to him:
“Come no nearer! Tell me, whence are you?”
He answered hoarsely, “From the lower regions where I am in a society of two hundred which is supreme over all other societies. We are all emperors of emperors, kings of kings, dukes of dukes, and princes of princes. No one is just an emperor, or just a king, duke, or prince. We sit on thrones of thrones and issue mandates into all the world and beyond.”
I said to him, “Do you not see that you are insane with an hallucination of preeminence?”
He replied, “How can you say that? We seem to have such preeminence, and our companions acknowledge we have.”
Hearing this, I did not wish to say again, “You are insane,” for in his phantasy he really was insane. I was informed that in the world this devil had been only the steward of some one’s house, but was so elated in spirit that he despised the whole human race in comparison with himself and indulged the phantasy that he was worthier than a king or even an emperor. In this arrogance he had denied God and accounted all the holy things of the Church as nothing to him, if still of some account to the stupid multitude.
[3] At length I asked him, “How long will you two hundred boast thus among yourselves?” He said, “To eternity. But those of us who torment others for denying our supereminence sink underground. We are allowed to boast, but not to injure any one.”
I asked again, “Do you know what the lot is of those who sink underground?” He said, “They sink into a kind of prison where they toil and are called viler or vilest of the vile.”
Then I said to this devil, “Better take heed lest you also sink down.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 264 264. After this the earth opened again, but this time at the right, and I saw another devil emerge. On his head was a tiara seemingly twined about with the coils of a snake with its head projecting at the top. His face from forehead to chin, and both hands, were leprous. His loins were naked and black as a soot through which the fire of a hearth is darkly gleaming; his ankles were like two vipers. Seeing him, the first devil knelt and worshiped him.
“Why do you do that?” I asked.
He replied, “He is God of heaven and earth and is omnipotent.”
I asked the other, “What do you say to this?”
He replied, “What should I say? I have all power over heaven and hell. The fate of all souls is in my hand.”
I asked again, “How can this man who is ’emperor of emperors’ abase himself so, and how can you receive his worship?”
He replied, “But he is my slave. What is an emperor before God? In my right hand is the thunderbolt of excommunication.”
[2] I then said, “How can you be so insane? In the world you were only an ecclesiastic; but laboring under the delusion that you also had the keys and hence the power of binding and loosing, you brought your spirit to such a pitch of madness that now you believe you are God Himself.”
Incensed at this, he swore that he was God and that the Lord had no power in heaven. “He has committed it all to us. We need only to command, and heaven and hell obey in awe. The devils immediately receive any one whom we send to hell, the angels any one whom we send to heaven.” I asked further, “How many are there in your society?” He said, “Three hundred; and we are all gods there; but I am the god of gods.”
[3] After this the earth opened under their feet and they sank far down, each into his hell. I was given to see that under their hells are workhouses into which those sink who inflict harm on others. Every devil in hell is left to his phantasy and boasting, but he must not hurt another.
Such are the inhabitants of these hells because man is then in his spirit, and with separation from the body the spirit comes into the full liberty of acting according to its affections and the thoughts thence.
[4] Afterwards it was granted me to look into their hells. The hell where were the “emperors of emperors” and “kings of kings,” was full of every uncleanness; the people looked like various wild beasts with ferocious eyes. Similarly in the other hell where were the “gods” and “the god of gods.” There, flying about the devils, appeared dreadful birds of night, called ochim and ijim.* So the images of their phantasies appeared to me. From these experiences it was evident what the politician’s and what the ecclesiastic’s love of self are like�the one desires to be a god and the other an emperor; as far as rein is given to these loves, men so desire and strive to be.
* Swedenborg’s transliterations of two Hebrew words; the former is found at Isaiah xiii. 21 and the other at Isaiah xiii. 22, xxxiv. 44, and Jeremiah l. 39. The creatures meant have not been identified with certainty by Bible students, but Swedenborg characterizes them as birds of night when he does so at all. At n. 430 Swedenborg also alludes to tsiim (also unidentified), considering them birds, too (tsiim is found at Isaiah xiii. 21, xxiii. 13, xxxiv. 14, Jeremiah l. 39, and Psalms lxxii. 9, lxxiv. 14).

CL (Wunsch) n. 265 265. Then a hell was opened in which I saw two men, one seated on a bench with his feet in a basket full of serpents which seemed to be creeping up over his breast to his neck; and the other seated on a blazing ass, beside which red serpents crawled, stretching neck and head high, and pursuing the rider. I was told that these two had been popes, who had deprived emperors of their dominion and defamed and illtreated them at Rome, whither they had come supplicating and worshiping; and that the basket in which serpents appeared and the blazing ass with serpents beside it were representations of their love of ruling from self-love, but that such things appear only when one looks on from a distance. Some ecclesiastics were present and I inquired whether these were the identical popes. They said they had been acquainted with them and knew that they were.

CL (Wunsch) n. 266 266. After I had seen these sad and hideous sights, I looked around and saw two angels standing and talking not far from me, one clad in a woolen toga bright with flamy purple and under it a tunic of shining linen, the other in similar raiment of scarlet, with a tiara studded at the right side with a number of rubies. Approaching them, I saluted them and asked reverently, “Why are you here below?”
They replied, “We were sent here from heaven at the Lord’s command, to speak with you about the blessed lot of those who desire to rule from the love of uses. We are worshipers of the Lord. I am the prince of a society. My companion is the high priest there.”
[2] The prince said he was the servant of his society, serving it by performing uses. The other said he was the minister of the Church there, and that in serving the people, he administered holy things for the uses of their souls. Both of them, they said, are in perpetual joys from the eternal happiness which is theirs from the Lord.
They remarked that all things in their society are splendid and magnificent, splendid for gold and precious stones, and magnificent for palaces and paradises. “The reason is that our love of ruling is not from love of self but from the love of uses, and as the love of uses is from the Lord, all good uses in the heavens are resplendent and refulgent. All of us in our society are in this love, and therefore the atmosphere appears golden from the light which partakes of the flamy quality of the sun. The flamy quality of the sun corresponds to that love.”
[3] At these words I saw such a sphere about them, and perceived an aromatic odor therefrom, as I also told them. I begged them to add something more to what they had said about the love of uses.
They continued: “We did strive to attain the dignities in which we are, but for no other end than that we might fulfil our uses better and extend them farther. We are also surrounded with honor, and we accept it not on our own account but for the good of the society. Our brethren and associates among the masses of the people scarcely know but that the honors attaching to our dignities are in us, and hence that the uses we perform are from ourselves. We, however, feel otherwise. We feel that the honors of high place are outside us and are like garments with which we are clothed; but the uses we render are from a love for them which we have from the Lord, and this love has its blessedness from sharing with others through uses. We know by experience that as far as we perform uses from a love for them the love increases, and with the love the wisdom by which the sharing is accomplished; but that so far as we keep the uses to ourselves, and do not share them, the blessedness perishes. Thereupon the uses become like food clogging the stomach, which does not, by being distributed, nourish the body and its parts, but remains undigested and produces nausea. In a word the whole of heaven is nothing but a containant of uses, from first to last. What is use but love of the neighbor fulfilled? And what holds heaven together except this love?”
[4] Hearing this I asked, “How can one know whether he is performing uses from the love of self or from the love of uses? Every man, good or evil, does uses and does them from some love. Suppose there were in the world a society composed entirely of devils, and a society composed entirely of angels, I am of the opinion that the devils in their society, from the fire of self-love and the glamour of their own glory, would perform as many uses as the angels in theirs. Who then can know from which love or from which source the uses are?”
[5] To this the two angels replied, “Devils do uses for the sake of themselves and for the sake of fame in order to achieve honors or to amass wealth. But not for these ends do angels perform uses, but for the sake of the uses from love of them. Man cannot distinguish between these uses, but the Lord does. Every one who believes in the Lord and shuns evils as sins does uses from the Lord; but every one who does not believe in the Lord and does not shun evils as sins, performs uses from himself and for the sake of himself. This is the distinction between uses done by devils and uses done by angels.”
Having spoken so the two angels departed, and were taken up into their heaven. At a distance they seemed to be conveyed like Elijah in a chariot of fire.

CL (Wunsch) n. 267

267. II

After some time* I entered a certain grove where I walked meditating on those who are in the lust and thence in the phantasy of possessing the things of the world. At a distance I saw two angels conversing, who from time to time glanced my way. I therefore went nearer. As I approached they addressed me and said, “We perceive within us that you are meditating on the subject of which we are speaking, or that we are speaking on the subject of your meditation. This comes from a mutual sharing of affections.”
[2] So I asked them what they were talking of. They said, “Of phantasy, lust, and intelligence, and at the moment about those who delight in the hallucination and imagination that they possess all things in the world.” I then asked them to express their minds on the three subjects: lust, phantasy, and intelligence.
Beginning their discourse they said that every one is inwardly in lust by birth, but outwardly in intelligence by education. No one is in intelligence, still less in wisdom inwardly or as to the spirit, except from the Lord. “For every one is withheld from the lust of evil and kept in intelligence according as he looks to the Lord and at the same time is united with Him. Short of this, man is nothing but lust. In externals or as to the body, however, he is in intelligence by education. For while man lusts after honors and riches, or eminence and wealth, he does not attain them unless he appears moral and spiritual, thus intelligent and wise; therefore from infancy he learns to appear so. That is why, as soon as he comes among men or into company, he inverts his spirit, withdraws it from lust, and speaks and acts from the idea of what is decorous and honorable which he has learned from infancy and which he retains in the memory of his body, taking every care that nothing of the insanity of lust in which his spirit is, shall betray itself. [3] Hence every one who is not inwardly led by the Lord is a dissembler, flatterer and hypocrite, and thus seemingly a man and yet not a man. It may be said of him that the shell or body is wise and the kernel or spirit insane; or the external, human but the internal, bestial. Such men look upward with the back of the head and downward with the face, and walk as if oppressed with a load, with the head drooping and the face prone. When they put off the body and become spirits and have their freedom, they become the insanity of their own lust. For those in self-love have a burning desire to rule over the universe, indeed to extend its limits in order to amplify their dominion. They never see the end.
“Men who are in love of the world desire to possess all things thereof, and grieve and feel envy if any treasures are sequestered with others. To the end therefore that such may not become mere lusts and thus not men, it is given them in the natural world to think from fear of the loss of reputation and thus of honor and gain, and also from fear of the law and its penalty. And it is also given them to apply the mind to some study or occupation, by which they are kept in their externals, and thus in a state of intelligence, however delirious and insane they are inwardly.”
[4] I then asked whether all who are in a lust are also in the phantasy of it. They replied that those who think inwardly within themselves, and over-indulge their imagination by talking with themselves, are in the phantasy of their lust. These practically sever their spirit from connection with the body, submerge the understanding in illusion, and fatuously delight themselves as if with universal possession. Into such delirium is the man let after death who has abstracted his spirit from the body, and who was unwilling to withdraw from the delight of his delirium by reflecting from religion upon evils and falsities, especially upon unbridled love of self, realizing how destructive it is of love of the Lord, and upon unbridled love of the world, realizing how destructive this is of love towards the neighbor.
* These Memorabilia, through n. 268, occur again in True Christian Religion, n. 662.

CL (Wunsch) n. 268 268. After this a desire overtook the two angels and myself, to see those who from love of the world are in the visionary lust or phantasy of the possession of all riches. We perceived that the desire was inspired to the end that the nature of such persons might be divulged. We looked at one another and said, “Let us go.”
Their dwelling-place was under the earth beneath our feet, yet above hell. An opening appeared, and a ladder, by which we descended. We were told that these people would have to be approached from the east, if we were not to enter into the dark cloud of their phantasy and find our own understanding and vision darkened. [2] We saw a house built of reeds, and full of chinks, standing in a thick cloud which continually drifted like smoke from the chinks on three sides. Entering, we saw fifty here and fifty there sitting on benches.; turned away from the east and south, they faced the west and north. Before each stood a table, on each table were bulging. purses, and around the purses heaps of gold coins.
We asked, “Are these the riches of all in the world?” They replied, “Not of all in the world, but of all in the kingdom.”
Their speech was sibilant; they appeared of a rotund face, which had a reddish glow like a snail-shell; and the
pupil of the eye seemed to glitter from the light of phantasy against a ground of green.
We took our stand in the midst of them and asked, “Do you believe that you possess all the riches of the kingdom?”
They responded, “We do possess them.”
Then we asked, “Which of you?” They answered:
“Each of us.” And we asked, “How so? You are many.”
They said, “Each of us knows that all he has is the other’s. No one is permitted to think, still less to say
`Mine is not yours,’ but he may think and say ‘Yours is mine.'”
The coins on the table looked like pure gold even to us.
But when we let in light from the east, they proved to be tiny grains of gold which in their joint phantasy these spirits magnified. They said that every one who enters has to bring some gold with him, which they divide into small bits, and these into little grains which by dint of their common phantasy they enlarge into coins of higher denomination.
[3] Then we said, “Were you not born reasonable men? Whence have you this visionary foolishness?”
They said, “We know that it is an imagined vanity, but it delights the interiors of our minds; so we come here and delight in the possession seemingly of all things. We remain only a few hours and then leave, and each time a sound mind returns to us. Still, our visionary pleasure overtakes us at intervals and makes us come in and go out by turns, so that we are alternately wise and insane. We also know that a hard lot awaits those who by craft deprive others of their goods.”
We asked, “What is their lot?”
They said, “They are engulfed and thrust naked into an infernal prison where they are forced to work for clothing and food, and afterwards for a few small coins, which they hoard and on which they set their heart’s joy. If they do evil to their companions they pay a part of their tiny coins as a fine.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 269 269.* Thereupon we ascended from these lower regions into the south, where we were before; and there the angels related many memorable things about lust not visionary or phantasmic, in which every man is by nativity. “While men are in such lust they are as it were infatuated, and yet seem to themselves supremely wise. By turns they are remitted from this infatuation into the rational, which with them is in the externals, in which state they see, acknowledge and confess their insanity; and yet from this rational state they long for their insane state, and also cast themselves into it, as from what is forced and undelightful into what is free and delightful. It is lust and not intelligence which is inwardly grateful to them.
[2] “There are three universal loves of which every man is constituted by creation: the love of the neighbor, which is also the love of doing uses; the love of the world, which is also the love of possessing wealth; and the love of self, which is also the love of ruling over others. Love of the neighbor or the love of doing uses is a spiritual love; but love of the world, which is also the love of possessing wealth, is a material love; and love of self or the love of ruling over others is a corporeal love. [3] Man is man when love of the neighbor or the love of doing uses makes the head, love of the world makes the body, and love of self, the feet. But if love of the world forms the head, man is not a man�other than as it were a hunchback; and if love of self makes the head, he is not a man standing on his feet but on his palms, with the head downward and the haunches up. If love of the neighbor forms the head, and the other two loves in order make the body and feet, man appears from heaven of an angelic countenance with a beautiful rainbow about his head; if love of the world makes the head he appears from heaven with the pallid countenance of a dead person, with a yellow circle about his head; but if love of self makes the head he appears from heaven of a dusky countenance, with a white circle around the head.”
On this I asked what the circles about the head represented. They answered, “Their intelligence. A white circle around the head with a dusky countenance means that the man’s intelligence is in things external or is circumferential, while in things internal or within him is insanity. Such a man also is sane while he is in the body, but insane when in the spirit. No man is sane in the spirit except from the Lord, which is the case when he is born again or created anew from Him.”
[4] After these things were said the earth opened at the left, and I saw a devil rising through the opening having a very white circle around his head, and I demanded: “Who are you?”
He said, “I am Lucifer, Son of the Morning.** Because I made myself like the Most High I was cast down.” He was not that Lucifer, but believed he was.
I said, “Having been cast down, how can you rise again out of hell?”
He replied, “There I am a devil, but here I am an angel of light. Do you not see my head encircled with a lucid sphere? You will also see, if you wish, that I am super-moral among the moral, super-rational among the rational, yes, super-spiritual among the spiritual. I can preach, too, and have done so.”
I asked, “What have you preached?”
He said, “Against defrauders, adulterers and all infernal loves. Indeed, I, Lucifer, then called myself a devil, and perjured him�or myself!�and was lauded to heaven for it. That is why I am called the Son of the Morning. Strange to say, when I was in the pulpit I thought no otherwise than that I was speaking rightly and properly. But I have discovered to myself the reason. It was because I was in externals, which were then separated from my internals; but though I discovered this to myself, I could not change myself, for out of pride I did not look to God.”
[5] I then asked him, “How could you speak in this way when you yourself are a defrauder, adulterer and devil?”
He replied, “I am one person when in externals or in the body, and another when in internals or in the spirit. In the body I am an angel, but in the spirit a devil. For in the body I am in the understanding, but in spirit in the will, and my understanding bears me upward, butthe will bears me downward. When I am in the understanding this white zone encircles my head, but when the understanding makes itself over to my will and becomes its understanding�which is our final lot�then the zone grows dim and dies. When that happens we can no longer rise into this light.”
He went on to speak more rationally than any one else about his double state, external and internal; but suddenly, catching sight of the angels with me, he was inflamed in face and voice, turned black, even to the zone about his head, and sank into hell through the opening by which he had come up.
The onlookers concluded from what they had seen that a man is such as his love is, and not such as his understanding is, because the love easily bears the understanding its way and subordinates it.
[6] I then asked the angels, “Whence have devils such rationality?”
They said, “From the glory of self-love. For self-love is encircled with glory, and glory raises the understanding even into the light of heaven. For the understanding can be raised with every man according to his knowledge, but the will only by a life according to the truths of the Church and of reason. Hence even atheists who are in the glory of reputation from the love of self, and thence in the pride of their own intelligence, rejoice in a sublimer rationality than many others; but that is when they are in the thought of the understanding, and not when they are in the affection of the will. The affection of the will has possession of the internal of man, but the thought of the understanding of his external.”
The angel also gave the reason why man is constituted of the three loves mentioned above�the love of uses, the love of the world, and the love of self�namely, in order that he may think from God but still as if from himself. He said that the highest things in man are turned upward to God, the intermediate things outward to the world, and the lowest things downward to himself, and because the last-named are turned downward man thinks just as if from himself, although from God.
* This paragraph occurs again, with slight changes, in True Christian Religion, n. 507.
** Isaiah xiv. 12.

CL (Wunsch) n. 270

270. III

One morning after sleep I was plunged deep in thought about some of the arcana of marital love, finally about this: in what region of the human mind true marital love resides and hence in what region marital cold resides. I knew that there are three regions of the human mind, one above another, and that natural love inhabits the lowest region, spiritual love the higher, and celestial love the highest, and that in each region there is a marriage of good and truth; and as good is of love and truth is of wisdom, that in each region there is a marriage of love and wisdom; and that this marriage is the same as the marriage of the will and the understanding, since the will is the receptacle of love and the understanding is the receptacle of wisdom.
[2] While I was deep in the thought, I beheld two swans flying northward, and presently two birds of paradise flying southward, and also two turtledoves flying in the east. As my gaze followed their flight I saw that the two swans bent their way from the north to the east, likewise the two birds of paradise from the south; and that they joined the two turtledoves in the east and together they flew to a certain lofty palace there, surrounded by olive trees, palms and beeches. The palace had three rows of windows one above another; and as I watched I saw the swans fly into the palace through the opened windows of the lowest row, the birds of paradise through the opened windows of the middle row, and the turtledoves through the opened windows of the top row. [3] As I looked an angel presented himself, and said:
“Do you understand what you have seen?” I replied, “In some small measure.”
He said, “This palace represents the dwelling-places of marital love in the human mind. The highest part of the palace, into which the turtle-doves entered, represents the highest region of the mind, where marital love dwells in the love of good with its wisdom. The middle part to which the birds of paradise betook themselves represents the middle region, where marital love dwells in the love of truth with its intelligence. The lowest part to which the swans betook themselves represents the lowest region of the mind, where marital love dwells in the love of what is just and right with its knowledge. [4] The three pairs of birds have a similar significance�the pair of turtledoves signify the marital love of the highest region, the pair of birds of paradise marital love of the middle region, and the pair of swans marital love of the lowest region. The three kinds of trees around the palace�the olives, palms and beeches�have the same significance. We, in heaven, call the highest region of the mind celestial, the middle spiritual, and the lowest natural. We also conceive of these regions as habitations in a house, one above another, with an ascent from one to the other by degrees as by stairs; and in each part are as it were two apartments, one for love, the other for wisdom; and in front is a bedchamber, as it were, where love with its wisdom, or good with its truth, or, what is the same, where the will with its understanding consociate in bed. All the arcana of marital love appear in that palace as in effigy.”
[5] Hearing these things, and kindled with a desire to see the palace, I asked whether one could enter and view it, inasmuch as it was a representation. He answered:
“Only those in the third heaven can do so, for to them every representative of love and wisdom becomes real. I heard from them what I have related to you. Also this, that true marital love dwells in the highest region in the midst of mutual love in the marriage chamber or apartment of the will, and in the midst of perceptions of wisdom in the marriage chamber or apartment of the understanding; and that they are consociated in bed in the bedchamber which is toward the front and east.”
I asked, “Why are there two marriage chambers?” He said, “The husband is in the marriage chamber of the understanding, and the wife in the marriage chamber of the will.”
[6] And I asked, “Since marital love dwells there, where then does marital cold dwell?”
He answered, “That also dwells in the highest region, but only in the marriage chamber of the understanding, when the marriage chamber of the will is closed. For the understanding can ascend at will with its truths by a spiral stairway into the highest region to its marriage chamber; but if the will does not ascend at the same time with the good of its love into the allied marriage chamber, the latter is shut and cold comes in the other, and this is marital cold. When there is such cold toward the wife, the understanding looks down from this highest region to the lowest, and, if not restrained by fear, also descends to be warmed by illicit fire.”
Having said this, he would have recounted still more about marital love from its effigies in that palace, but said:
“Enough for the present. First inquire whether these things are above the general understanding. If they are, why say more? But if they are not, more will be disclosed.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 271

271. XI

CAUSES OF APPARENT LOVE, FRIENDSHIP AND FAVOR IN MARRIAGES

Having considered the causes of cold and separation, we must consider next in order the causes of apparent love, friendship and favor in marriages. For it is common knowledge that partners live together and procreate despite the fact that at the present day cold separates their minds. This could not be, were there not also apparent loves, at times resembling, at times emulating the warmth of genuine love. It will be seen in what follows that these apparent loves are necessities and utilities and that neither the home nor society would hold together without them. Conscientious persons, furthermore, may be preyed upon by the idea that the dissidences of mind between them and the partner, and the resulting inward estrangements, are their own fault and are chargeable to them, and on this account may grieve at heart. But as it is not in their power to relieve internal dissidences, it is enough if they quiet the qualms which arise from conscience with apparent love and favor. So, too, friendship in which marital love is latent, may return on the one side if not on the other. In view of the many-sidedness of the subject matter, this discussion will be distinguished like the preceding into propositions. The propositions are these:
i. In the natural world nearly all can be united as to external affections, but not as to internal if these disagree and appear.
ii. In the spiritual world all are united as to internal affections, but not as to external except as these make one with the internal.
iii. It is external affections in accord with which matrimony is generally contracted in the world.
iv. But if internal affections are not present, conjoining the minds, the bond of matrimony is loosed in the house.
v. Nevertheless matrimony in the world is to continue to the end of the partner’s life.
vi. In matrimonies in which internal affections do not conjoin, external are possible which simulate the internal and consociate.
vii. Hence come apparent love and apparent friendship and favor between partners.
viii. These appearances are marital simulations which are commendable because useful and necessary.
ix. These marital simulations in the case of a spiritual man united to a natural are inspired by justice and judgment.
x. With a natural man these marital simulations are inspired by prudence for various reasons.
xi. Marital simulations are for the sake of amendment and of mutual adaptation.
xii. They are for the sake of maintaining order in domestic affairs, and for the sake of mutual helpfulness.
xiii. They are for the sake of unanimity in the care of little ones and toward the children.
xiv. They are for the sake of peace in the home.
xv. They are for reputation’s sake outside the home.
xvi. They are for the sake of various favors expected from the partner or from his kindred; and thus for fear of the loss of them.
xvii. They are for the sake of excusing blemishes and of avoiding ill-repute.
xviii. They are for the sake of reconciliation.
xix. If favor does not cease with the wife when ability does with the man, a friendship emulating marital friendship may arise as they grow old.
xx. Various sorts of seeming love and friendship are possible between partners one of whom is subjugated and so a slave to the other.
xxi. There are infernal marriages in the world between partners who inwardly are the bitterest enemies and outwardly like the closest friends.

Explanation of these propositions follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 272 272. (i) In the natural world nearly all can be united as to external affections, but not as to internal affections if these disagree and appear. The reason is that in the world the human being is provided with a material body, replete with cupidities, which are like dregs there, precipitating themselves to the bottom when the wine is clarified. Such are the material things of which the body in the world is composed. Hence internal affections, which are of the mind, do not appear; with many hardly a trace of them shows. For the body either absorbs them and involves them in its dregs or buries them deeply from the sight of others by the dissimulation learned from infancy on. Thereby a man puts himself in the state of affection which he observes in another and draws the latter’s affection to himself, and so they unite. They unite because every affection has its own enjoyment, and enjoyment binds the minds together. It would be otherwise if internal affections like external appeared to the sight in the face and bearing and to the hearing in the voice, or if their joys were perceived by the nostrils or scented, as in the spiritual world. Then if partners disagreed even to discord, they would mutually separate in mind and also remove to a distance from each other in the measure in which they perceived the antipathy. It is plain from this that nearly all may be conjoined in the natural world as to external affections, but not as to internal affections if these disagree and are apparent.

CL (Wunsch) n. 273 273. (ii) In the spiritual world all are united as to internal affections, but not as to external except as these make one with the internal. For then the material body has been cast off which was able to receive and present the forms of any and all affections, as we said above, and stripped of that body the human being is in the internal affections which the body previously hid. Hence it is that in the spiritual world homogeneity and heterogeneity, or sympathy and antipathy, are not only felt, but also show in face, speech and bearing. Therefore likenesses are conjoined there and unlikenesses separate. For this reason all heaven is arranged by the Lord according to the varieties of the affections of the love of good and truth, and hell according to all the varieties of the affections of the love of what is evil and false. [2] Since angels and spirits as well as men in the world have internal and external affections, and since the internal affections cannot be hidden there by the external, they emerge and show themselves; hence the two are reduced with them to likeness and correspondence. Thereupon through the external affections the internal are effigied in the face, perceived in the voice and revealed in the bearing and ways. Angels and spirits have internal and external affections for the reason that they have mind and body; affections and thoughts thence are of the mind, and sensations and pleasures thence are of the body. [3] It often happens that friends meet after death, recall their previous friendship in the world and believe that they will continue to share a life of friendship; but when the alliance only of external affections is perceived in heaven, separation takes place in accord with the internal affections; whereupon some are relegated north from the place of meeting, and some west, and to such distances from one another severally that they never see each other again or know each other. For in the places where they settle they alter in looks, their faces becoming effigies of their internal affections. It is plain from this that all are conjoined as to internal affections in the spiritual world, but as to external affections only as these make one with the internal.

CL (Wunsch) n. 274 274. (iii) It is external affections in accord with which matrimony is generally contracted in the world. Internal affections are rarely consulted; even when they are, the similarity of them in the woman is not descried, for by a native gift she withdraws them into the sanctuary of her mind. External affections leading men to contract matrimony are many. A chief affection of the present age is the enlargement of the household through wealth, both to be enriched and to have ample necessaries. Another is the aspiration after honors, either to be highly regarded or to enjoy a heightened good fortune. There are also various allurements and lusts which do not leave room for examining any agreement in internal affections. These few reflections make it plain that in the world matrimony is generally contracted according to external affections.

CL (Wunsch) n. 275 275. (iv) But if internal affections are not present, conjoining the minds, the bond of matrimony is loosed in the house. We say, “in the house,” because privately between the partners. This takes place when the first fires kindled at the time of betrothal and flaming when the nuptials are at hand, afterwards grow successively less ardent on account of the disparity in the internal affections, and finally pass away into cold. It is common knowledge that the external affections which led and allured to matrimony are then sundered so as no longer to conjoin the partners. We established the fact in the chapter above that colds arise from various causes, internal, external and accessory, and that all these causes derive their influence from unlikeness of the internal affections. The truth is plain from this that unless internal affections, conjoining the minds, are present in external, the bond of matrimony is loosed in the house.

CL (Wunsch) n. 276 sRef Matt@19 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @10 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @8 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @4 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @7 S0′ 276. (v) Nevertheless matrimony in the world is to continue to the end of life. This we adduce to make plainer to the reason the necessity, utility and truth that marital love, when it is not genuine, is to be assumed, or to appear as if it existed. The case would be different if marriages were not entered into and agreed upon for life, but were dissoluble at will, as they were with the Israelitish nation, which arrogated to itself the liberty of putting away wives for any cause, as appears from these words in Matthew:

The Pharisees approached, saying to Jesus, May a man put away his wife for any cause at all? And when Jesus answered that a man may not put his wife away and take another except for whoredom, they replied that Moses nevertheless commanded to give her a bill of divorcement and to put her away; and the disciples said. If the case of a man is so with his wife, it is not expedient to marry (xix. 3-10).

[2] Since therefore the covenant of marriage is for life, it follows that appearances of love and friendship between partners are necessities. It is of the Divine law that matrimonies, once contracted, should continue to the end of life in the world, and being of the Divine law, it is of rational law, too, and hence of civil. It is of the Divine law that one may not put away one’s wife and take another save for whoredom, as above. It is of rational law, because this is founded on the spiritual, for Divine law and rational law are one law. From the two laws together, or by the rational from the Divine, a large number of the enormities and social catastrophes may be descried which would ensue upon the dissolution of marriages before death and on the dismissal of wives at the husbands’ good pleasure. A number of these enormities and social catastrophes are adverted to in the Memorabilia (nn. 103-114) in which companies from nine kingdoms discuss the origin of marital love. We do not need to add further arguments. The reasons for the maintenance of matrimony to the end of life do not, however, obstruct the permission of separations for their own causes (of these above, nn. 252-254); or of concubinages (of which in Part II ).

CL (Wunsch) n. 277 277. (vi) In matrimonies in which internal affections do not conjoin, external affections are possible which simulate the internal and consociate. By internal affections we mean mutual inclinations which are in either partner’s mind from heaven; by external affections, inclinations which are in either partner’s mind from the world. The latter affections or inclinations are indeed equally of the mind, but they occupy its lower region, the former its higher region. As both are allotted a seat in the mind, one might think they are alike and agree. They are not alike, but can appear alike, the external being with some, pieces of conformity, and with others courteous simulations. Implanted in partners by the early covenant of marriage is a certain communion which remains seated in them though they disagree in mind, like the sharing of possessions, and in many cases of uses, and of various necessities of the house, and thence also of thoughts and of certain secrets; there is also the sharing of the bed, and of love for the children, besides much else which, being inscribed on the marriage covenant, is also impressed on their minds. Out of such things especially do the external affections arise which actually resemble the internal. Those, however, which only simulate internal affections are partly from the same origin and partly from another. We are treating of both, however, in what follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 278 278. (vii) Hence come apparent love, friendship and favor between partners. Apparent love, friendship and favor between partners follow from a marriage covenant formed for life and from the marital communion thus impressed on the parties (of this communion are born the external affections resembling the internal, as was pointed out just above). Apparent love, friendship and favor also follow from causes which are utilities and necessities, whence in part are the external affections which are conjoining or simulative, making external love appear like internal, and external friendship like internal.

CL (Wunsch) n. 279 279. (viii) These appearances are marital simulations which are commendable because they are useful and necessary. We call these appearances simulations because they exist between those who disagree in mind and who as a result are inwardly in cold. When, despite that, they live a common life in externals, as is right and proper, then their relations in cohabitation may be called simulations, but marital simulations, which are wholly to be distinguished from hypocritical simulations because they are praiseworthy on account of their service. For by means of them all those benefits are secured which we enumerate in order below (propositions xi-xx). They are praiseworthy as necessities because otherwise those benefits would be lost. To live together nevertheless has been enjoined by covenant and law, and hence rests as a duty on each.

CL (Wunsch) n. 280 280. (ix) These marital simulations in the case of a spiritual man united to a natural are inspired by justice and judgment. A spiritual man, in what he does, acts from justice and judgment. He therefore does not contemplate these simulations as severed from his internal affections, but as coupled with them. He acts soberly and seeks amendment as the end, and failing to achieve that, seeks adaptation for order’s sake in the home, for the sake of mutual aid, for the sake of the care of the children, for the sake of peace and tranquillity. Justice prompts him to seek these things, and judgment enacts them. A spiritual man cohabits so with a natural man because a spiritual man acts spiritually even with a natural man.

CL (Wunsch) n. 281 281. (x) With natural men these marital simulations are inspired by prudence from various causes. First, as between two partners one of whom is spiritual but the other natural. (By spiritual we mean one who loves spiritual things and thus is wise from the Lord; and by natural one who loves natural things only and is wise from himself.) When two such are associated in marriage, marital love with the spiritual is warmth and with the natural, cold. Plainly, warmth and cold cannot be together, and heat cannot kindle one who is in cold unless this is driven out first, nor cold inflow into one who is in the heat, unless this be first removed. Hence inward love is impossible between partners, of whom one is spiritual, the other natural; but a love emulating inward love is possible on the side of the spiritual partner, as was said in the proposition above.
As for two natural partners, however, no inward love is possible between them, for each of them is in cold; if they grow ardent, it is from what is unchaste. Still, though they are of separate minds, they can live together in the house, and although their higher minds are discordant, also assume looks of love and friendship for each other. With these partners, external affections (mainly affections for wealth and possessions or honor and station) can supply the ardor; and as this ardor brings fear for the loss of such things, marital simulations are necessities to them, chiefly the necessities enumerated below in propositions xv-xvii. The other causes enumerated below�causes moving the spiritual man (n. 280)�may operate to some extent with the natural man, too; but only if his prudence partakes of intelligence.

CL (Wunsch) n. 282 282. (xi) Marital simulations are for the sake of amendment and mutual adaptation. Marital simulations or appearances of love and friendship between partners of discordant minds, are for the sake of amendment, because a spiritual man, coupled in a matrimonial covenant with a natural man, aims at amendment of life, and promotes it by wise and courteous address and by favors agreeable to the other’s nature. But if these fall in vain on the other’s ears and ways, he plans adaptations to maintain order in domestic affairs, for mutual aid, and on account of the little ones and children, and other like objects. For the words and deeds of a spiritual man are inspired by justice and judgment, as was shown above (n. 280).
In the case of partners, however, of whom neither is spiritual, but both of whom are natural, there may be similar effort, but for other ends: if toward amendment and adaptation, the end is either to reduce the other into conformity with one’s own ways and subject him to one’s desires, or it is to turn good offices to one’s advantage, or it is peace within the home or reputation outside it, or favors hoped for from the partner or from his relatives, besides other objects. These efforts come with some from their reasoned prudence, with some from an inborn civility, with some from fear of losing enjoyments to which the desires have been accustomed from birth, and so on; favors done then as from marital love and toward such ends become more or less feigned. There are also favors extended as if from marital love outside the house, but not at home; these have the reputation of each in view, or else are mockeries.

CL (Wunsch) n. 283 283. (xii) They are for the sake of maintaining order in domestic affairs, and for the sake of mutual helpfulness. Every house where there are children, and tutors for them, and other domestics, is a copy of society at large. Society at large is also composed of these smaller societies, as anything general is composed of parts. And as the welfare of society at large depends on order, so does the welfare of this small society. Accordingly, just as it concerns magistrates to see and provide that order shall exist and be maintained in the composite society, so it behooves married partners in their especial society. But order is not possible if husband and wife disagree in mind, for then mutual counsel and aid are borne asunder and are as divided as their minds are, and thus the form of the small society is rent asunder. To keep order, therefore, and to provide thereby for oneself and at the same time for the home, or for the home and at the same time for oneself, lest all go to ruin and come to disaster, necessity demands that master and mistress agree and make one; that if it cannot be done on account of mental difference, still for well-being it must and ought to be accomplished through an enacted marital friendship. It is known that concord in the home is contrived out of necessity and for usefulness’ sake.

CL (Wunsch) n. 284 284. (xiii) They are for the sake of unanimity in the care of little ones and toward the children. It is well known that there are marital simulations between couples, or appearances of love and friendship like truly marital ones, for the sake of the little ones and the children. Their common love for the children disposes the partners to regard each other kindly and favorably. The mother’s love for the little ones and children and the father’s respectively unite as heart and lungs are united in the breast: the mother’s love for them is like the heart, and the father’s love for them like the lungs. The reason for our simile is that the heart corresponds to love and the lungs to the understanding, and love is of the will with the mother, and of the understanding with the father. In the case of spiritual men there is marital conj unction through that love from justice and judgment, from justice in that the mother carried them in the womb, bore them in pain, and with unceasing-care has suckled, fed, washed, dressed and educated them.

CL (Wunsch) n. 285 285. (xiv) They are for the sake of peace in the home. Marital simulations or external friendships for the sake of peace and tranquillity at home are found especially with men, because of the native characteristic that they do what they do from the understanding. The understanding, being given to thought, is occupied with various matters which disquiet, distract and upset the mind. If then there is intranquillity at home, their vital spirits droop, their interior life sinks as it were into death, and their health both of mind and body is destroyed. Fears of these and many other risks would beset men’s minds unless there were a refuge at home with their wives to allay the understanding’s agitation. Moreover, peace and tranquillity give serenity to the mind, and dispose it to receive gratefully the kindnesses offered by the wives, who employ every means to banish the clouds, which they are quick to see, from their husband’s minds; and this also makes their presence grateful. Plainly, then, the simulation of a love like one truly marital, is a necessity and a utility, too, for the peace and tranquillity of the home. Add to this that simulations with wives are not what they are with men; though they seem the same, they are from a real love, for women are born the love of man’s understanding. They therefore receive the husbands’ favors kindly, if not in words, still at heart.

CL (Wunsch) n. 286 286. (xv) They are for reputation’s sake outside the home. A man’s fortunes depend largely upon his reputation for being just, sincere and upright; and this reputation depends in part on the wife, who knows the man’s private life. If, therefore, their disagreement in mind should break out into open enmity, quarrels and hateful threats, and these are noised abroad by the wife and her friends and by the servants, they would easily be turned into censures, to his disgrace and to the dishonor of his name. To avoid such results nothing less will avail than either to pay seeming homage to the wife or to have separate homes.

CL (Wunsch) n. 287 287. (xvi) They are for the sake of various favors expected from the partner or from his or her kindred and thus for fear of losing them. This is especially true of marriages between those of dissimilar station and condition (see above, n. 250). Suppose a man has married a wealthy wife, who hides her money in bags or puts her treasure in trust and even boldly insists that the husband is in duty bound to maintain the home himself from his estate and income. The world knows that simulation of something like marital love is forced then. The like takes place when one has married a wife whose parents, relatives and friends are in high office, in lucrative business or in well paid work, and are able to give her the more prosperous standing. It is common knowledge that there are then simulations of a love like marital love. It is plain that in both instances simulation is for fear of losing the advantages indicated.

CL (Wunsch) n. 288 288. (xvii) They are for the sake of excusing blemishes and so to avoid ill-repute. There are numerous blemishes, some serious, and some not serious, on account of which partners fear ill-repute. Among them are blemishes of mind and body less serious than those causes of separation enumerated in an earlier chapter (nn. 252 and 253). These blemishes, meant here, are such as are suffered in silence by the other partner to avoid ill-repute. Besides these, there are occasional offenses which, if divulged, would be subject to legal penalties; to say nothing of the lack of that ability in which men ordinarily glory. It is manifest without further confirmation that the overlooking of such faults in order to avoid ill-repute involves a partner in simulation of love and friendship.

CL (Wunsch) n. 289 289. (xviii) They are for the sake of reconciliation. The world knows that there are alternate dissensions and confidences, alienations and conjunctions, yes, quarrels and adjustments, and thus reconciliations between partners who for one reason and another are of discordant minds; and that apparent friendships serve for reconciliation. There are reconciliations, too, which are affected after partings which are not thus alternating and transient.

CL (Wunsch) n. 290 290. (xix) If favor does not cease with the wife when ability does with the man, a friendship emulating marital friendship may arise as they grow old. Primary among causes of the separation of minds between partners is diminishing favor and hence diminishing love with the wife, as ability ceases with the man. For cold communicates itself just as warmth does. Reason and experience show that on the failure of love in a partner, friendship ceases, and unless domestic ruin is feared, favor too. If therefore the man quietly assumes the fault, and the wife perseveres in chaste favor toward him, a friendship can result, which, existing between married partners, to all appearance emulates marital love. Experience attests that a friendship seemingly of marital love is possible between aging partners, in the tranquil, serene, affectionate and altogether gentle intercourse and partnership of many in their life together.

CL (Wunsch) n. 291 291. (xx) Various sorts of apparent love and friendship are to be found between partners one of whom has been subjugated and thus is subject to the other. It is among things known in the world today that when the first period of marriage is past, strivings spring up between partners over rights and authority�over rights, because according to the terms of the covenant contracted there should be equality, and each should have his station in the duties of his function; and over authority, because superiority in all things at home is insisted on by the men because they are men, while women are made inferior because they are women. Such strivings, notorious today, result from nothing but a lack of conscience about true marital love and of sensitiveness to the beatitudes of that love. Then, instead of that love, there is lust which counterfeits it. From the lust, with genuine love removed, there issues a striving for power, in some due to the enjoyment of the love of domineering, in others implanted by artful women before marriage, and in some not traceable otherwise. [2] Men with such ambition, on obtaining the mastery after the vicissitudes of rivalry, reduce their wives either to chattels under the law, or into puppets of their will, or to slaves, each according to the degree and the peculiarity of the striving implanted and latent in him. But wives with this striving, on obtaining the mastery after the vicissitudes of rivalry, reduce their husbands either to an equality of right with themselves, or into puppets of their will, or to slaves. But after wives have obtained the fasces of authority, there remains with them a lust which counterfeits marital love (a lust restrained by law and by fear of legitimate separation in case they push their authority beyond what is lawful to what is unlawful); they therefore lead a consociate life with their husbands. [3] But it is impossible to describe the nature of the love and friendship between a dominating wife and a servile husband or between a dominating husband and a subservient wife. In fact, if the varieties were grouped in species, and these recounted, pages would not suffice. For they are various and diverse: varying according to the nature of the ambition with men, varying similarly with the wives, and diverse as between men and women. The friendship of love in which such men are, is a fatuous one, and the wives are in a friendship of spurious love from lust. In the following section we shall tell by what art wives acquire power over men.

CL (Wunsch) n. 292 292. (xxi) There are infernal marriages in the world between married partners who inwardly are the bitterest enemies and outwardly like the closest friends. Wives of this sort in the spiritual world indeed forbid me to expose these marriages to the light, for they fear lest their art of gaining power over men be divulged, which they are exceedingly anxious to conceal. At the same time men in that world urge me to disclose the causes of the intestine hatred and fury aroused in their hearts against their wives on account of their clandestine arts. I shall relate only the following. The men said that unconsciously they contracted a terrible fear of their wives, making it impossible for them not to be abjectly obedient to their will�more obsequious to their nod than the meanest slaves, so that they became good for nothing. Not only men of humble position had this experience, but also men of high station, even valiant and renowned generals. They said that after contracting this terror they did not dare to speak to their wives except in a friendly way or do otherwise than according to their good pleasure, although in their hearts they cherished deadly hatred against them; and yet that their wives talked and acted courteously with them and willingly granted some of their requests. [2] Wondering greatly themselves how such antipathy had sprung up in their internals with such seeming sympathy in externals, the men had searched into the causes with the help of women to whom the secret art was known. They said that from the mouths of these women they learned that women deeply conceal in themselves the knowledge by which they understand how to subject men, when they wish, to the yoke of their authority. Unmannerly wives accomplish it by alternate scolding and favor, or by perpetual hard and unpleasant looks, or by other means. But wives of refined manners accomplish it by obstinate and incessant pressing of their requests and by firm resistance to their husbands if they suffer hard things from them, standing on their right of equality under the law, on the strength of which they are boldly stubborn, declaring that if put out of the house they will return at their pleasure and persist in their demands. For they know that men by nature can by no means withstand the persistence of their wives, and once having surrendered to their will are submissive. Thereupon the wives show civility and kindness to the husbands under their authority.
The real cause of a wife’s dominating by such arts is that man acts from the understanding and woman from the will; the will can be obstinate but the understanding cannot. I have been told that the worst women of this sort, inwardly consumed by the ambition to rule, can hold tenaciously to their obstinacies even to a struggle for life. [3] I have also heard the excuses of such women for engaging in these artful practices. They would not have engaged in them, they said, if they had not foreseen utter contempt and future rejection and hence ruin if they were subjugated by their husbands; of necessity therefore they took up these their weapons. They added this admonition to men, that they should leave to wives their rights, and that when at times they are in cold they should not count them meaner than slaves. They also said that many of their sex are not in position to employ this art from innate timidity. But I added, “From innate modesty.” These experiences make known what is meant by infernal marriages in the world between married partners who inwardly are the bitterest enemies and outwardly are like the closest friends.

CL (Wunsch) n. 293 293. I append two Memorabilia.

I

I looked out of my window toward the east on a time and saw seven women sitting in a rose-garden beside a certain fountain, drinking the water. I gazed intently to see what they were doing, and the intentness of my gaze affected them. Whereupon one of them beckoned to me, and I left the house and hastened toward them. Reaching them, I asked politely whence they were.
They said, “We are wives, and are conversing about the delights of marital love. We conclude from much confirmation that these delights are also the delights of wisdom.”
This answer so delighted my mind that I seemed to myself to be in the spirit, and in a more interior and clearer perception than on any previous occasion. Whereupon I said to them:
“May I address some questions to you on these pleasantnesses?”
They nodded assent, and I asked, “Why do you feel sure that the delights of marital love are the same as the delights of wisdom?”
[2] They replied, “We know it because of the correspondence between wisdom in our husbands and the delights of marital love in us. For the delights of this love in us are heightened or diminished and qualified invariably according to wisdom in our husbands.”
On hearing this I asked them, saying, “I know that you are affected by the endearments of your husbands and the vivacity of their minds, and that you delight with all your heart therein, but I am surprised that you say their wisdom has this effect. But tell me, what is wisdom? And what wisdom has this effect?”
[3] To this the wives replied indignantly, “You think we do not know what wisdom is, and what this wisdom in particular is, and yet we continually reflect on it in our husbands and learn it daily from their lips. For we wives think about the state of our husbands from morning to evening. Hardly a brief hour slips by in the day in which our intuitive thought is absolutely withdrawn or absent from them. On the other hand, our husbands think very little during the day about our state. Hence it is that we know what wisdom of theirs takes pleasure in us. Our husbands call it spiritual-rational and spiritual-moral wisdom. Spiritual-rational wisdom they say is of the understanding and of knowledge, and spiritual-moral wisdom, of the will and the life. They conjoin the two and make them one; and conclude that the pleasures of this wisdom are translated from their minds into delights in our bosoms, and’ from ours into their bosoms, thus returning to wisdom, their source.”
[4] I then asked them what more they knew about the wisdom of their husbands which finds its pleasures in them. They said, “This. There is spiritual wisdom, and from it a rational and moral wisdom. Spiritual wisdom is to acknowledge the Lord the Savior as God of heaven and earth, and to acquire from Him the truths of the Church (which is done through the Word and by preaching from it), whence comes spiritual rationality, and from Him to live according to those truths, whence comes spiritual morality. Our husbands call these two the wisdom which in general brings about true marital love. We have also heard from them the reason. The interiors of their mind and thence of their body are opened by this wisdom, and free passage is provided from firsts to lasts for the pulse of love, on the afflux, sufficiency and strength of which marital love depends and lives. Our husbands’ spiritual-rational and moral wisdom in reference to marriage has for its end and object to love the wife only and to put off all lust for others. In so far as this is done, that love is heightened in degree and perfected in quality. The more distinctly and exquisitely, too, do we feel within ourselves the delights which correspond to the joys of our husbands’ affections and to the pleasantnesses of their thoughts.”
[5] Then I asked whether they knew how the communication is effected.
They said, “In all conjunction by love there must be action, reception, and reaction. The delighted state of our love is the agent or action. The state of wisdom in our husbands is the recipient or reception; it is also the reactive or reaction as perceived by us. We perceive this reaction in bosom delights, in a state steadily expanded and made ready to receive what in some measure attends on and proceeds from the husband’s virility and our own full state of love.” They continued: “Be careful not to understand by the delights we have mentioned the ultimate delights of marital love. We never speak of these, but of our bosom delights, which are in constant correspondence with the state of the wisdom of our husbands.”
[6] Thereupon a dove seemed to be flying in the distance with a leaf of a tree in its mouth; but as it came near, a little boy appeared in the place of the dove, with a paper in his hand. Approaching us he handed me the paper, and said, “Read this to the virgins of the fountain.”
I read as follows: “Tell the earth-dwellers with whom you are that there is a true marital love, the delights of which are myriad, scarcely any of them known as yet to the world; the world will know them when the Church betroths herself to her Lord and marries.”
I asked, “Why did the boy call you ‘virgins of the fountain’?” They replied, “We are called virgins when we are sitting at this fountain because we are affections of the truths of our husbands’ wisdom, and the affection of truth is called a virgin. A fountain also signifies the truth of wisdom, and a rose-garden like this signifies its delights.”
[7] Then one of the seven wound a wreath of roses, sprinkled it with water from the fountain, and placed it on the boy’s cap around his little head, saying, “Receive the delights of intelligence. Know that the cap signifies intelligence, and the wreath from this rose-bed signifies delights.” So adorned, the boy took his leave, and at a distance looked once more like a dove flying, but now with a garland on its head.

CL (Wunsch) n. 294

294. II

Some days later I saw the seven wives again in a rosary, but not in the same one as before. It was a magnificent rosary, the like of which I had never seen. It was circular, and its roses formed as it were a rainbow arch, roses or flowers of a purple hue its outmost band, others of a golden yellow the band next within, and others of a deep blue within these, and innermost of all flowers leek-green or bright green; within all, this rainbow rosary encircled a small lake of limpid water. The seven wives sitting there, previously called the virgins of the fountain, on seeing me at the window, called me to them again. When I came they said, “Did you ever see anything more beautiful on earth?” I said, “Never!”
“A marvel like this,” they said, “is created by the Lord in a moment and represents something new on earth, for everything created by the Lord represents something. Divine, if you can, what it represents! We divine that it is the delights of marital love.” Hearing this I said:
[2] “What! The delights of marital love? About which you spoke so fully, with wisdom and eloquence, too? After I left you, I repeated what you said to wives dwelling in our region, and remarked that now, being instructed, I know that you have bosom delights arising from your marital love and can impart them to your husbands according to their wisdom; and that therefore you regard your husbands with the eyes of your spirit continually, from morning to evening, and study to incline and lead their minds to seek wisdom, to the end that you may capture those delights. I related also what you mean by wisdom, namely spiritual-rational and moral wisdom, and with respect to marriage, the wisdom of loving the wife alone and putting off all lust for others.
“But the wives of our region greeted this with laughter, saying, ‘What? All you say means nothing. We do not know what marital love is. If our husbands have any, still we have none. Whence then its delights with us? As for delights which you call ultimate, sometimes we refuse them forcibly, for they are unpleasant to us, scarcely other than violations. Indeed, if you will observe us you will see no sign of such love in our faces. You trifle, too, or jest, if, like the seven wives, you say that we think from morning till evening about our husbands and are constantly attentive to their will and wish, in order to obtain such delights from them.’ I have retained so much of what they said, to repeat it to you, as it contradicts, in fact, is plainly contrary to what I heard you say at the fountain, which I received with so much avidity, and also believed.”
[3] To this the wives sitting in the rosary replied, “Friend, you little know the wisdom and prudence of wives, for they conceal it from men altogether, and do so to no other end than to be loved. The man who is not spiritually but only naturally rational and moral, is cold toward his wife. Cold is latent in his inmosts. This the wise and prudent wife exquisitely and keenly observes, and she conceals her marital love so completely, and drawing it into her bosom, hides it there so deeply, that not the least of it shows in face, voice or gesture. The reason is that in the degree that the love appears, the marital cold of the man is diffused from the inmosts of his mind where it resides, into its ultimates, and induces a total frigidity of the body, and a consequent effort toward separation from bed and chamber.”
[4] Then I asked, “Whence is this cold which you call marital cold?”
They answered, “From the insanity of men in spiritual things. Every man who is insane in spiritual things is inmostly cold to his wife, and inmostly warm toward harlots. Marital love and scortatory love are opposite; it follows that marital love becomes cold when scortatory love is warm; and when the cold rules in him a man cannot bear from his wife any feeling or slightest breath of love. For this reason the wife wisely and prudently conceals it by denying and refusing, and so far as she does, so far relish is restored in the man by the inflowing meretricious sphere. Hence the wife of such a man has no bosom delights such as we have, but only pleasures, which on the part of the man must be called pleasures of insanity, because they are the pleasures of scortatory love. [5] Every chaste wife loves her husband, even though he is unchaste; but because only wisdom is receptive of that love, the wife makes every effort to turn his insanity into wisdom, that is, that he may not lust after others besides herself. She does this in a thousand ways, taking the greatest care that none shall be detected by the man; for she knows well that love cannot be constrained but is insinuated in freedom. Women are therefore given to know every state of mind of their husbands by sight, hearing and touch; husbands, on the other hand, are not given to know any state of mind of their wives. [6] A chaste wife can regard her husband with austere eyes, speak harshly to him and even be angry and quarrel, and yet cherish a kind and tender love for him in her heart. But these angry outbursts and dissimulations have wisdom, and hence the reception of love by the husband for an end, as is plain from the fact that she becomes reconciled in a moment. Wives possess these means of concealing the love inherent in their heart and marrow to the end, too, that marital cold may not break out in the man and, extinguishing the fire of his scortatory heat, turn him from green wood into a lifeless stump.”
[7] After the seven wives had said these and many more things of the kind, their husbands came with clusters of grapes in their hands, some of which had a delicious flavor and some a loathsome; and the wives said, “Why have you brought bad or wild grapes, too?” The husbands replied:
“Because we perceived in our souls, with which yours are united, that you were speaking with this man about true marital love, and saying that its delights are delights of wisdom; and also about scortatory love, saying that its delights are the pleasures of insanity. The latter are the grapes of loathsome flavor or wild grapes, but the former are the grapes of delicious flavor.” And they confirmed what their wives had said, adding, “The pleasures of insanity seem in externals like the delights of wisdom, but not in internals, quite like the good and the bad grapes which we have brought. For the chaste and the unchaste have a like wisdom in externals but utterly unlike in internals.”
[8] After this the little lad came again with a paper in his hand, and handing it to me, said, “Read.” I read as follows: “Know ye that the delights of marital love rise to the highest heaven, and on the way and there, too, conjoin themselves with the delights of all heavenly loves, and thus enter into their felicity which endures to eternity. This is for the reason that the delights of that love are also the delights of wisdom. Know also that the pleasures of scortatory love sink even to the lowest hell, and on the way and finally there conjoin themselves with the pleasures of all infernal loves, and thus enter into their infelicity, which consists in the deprivation of all joys of heart. The reason is that the pleasures of that love are also the pleasures of insanity.”
After this the husbands left with .their wives and accompanied the little boy as far as his path up into heaven. They knew the society from which he had been sent, and were aware that it was a society of the new heaven with which the new Church on earth is to be conjoined.

CL (Wunsch) n. 295

295. XII

BETROTHALS AND WEDDINGS

We treat now of betrothals and weddings and the attendant ceremonies, doing so chiefly from reasoned understanding. For what we have said in this book has for its object that the reader may see truths from his own reasoning and thus may assent. For so his spirit is convinced; and the things of which the spirit is convinced are allotted a place above those which enter on authority and by faith in authority without participation by the reason. For these things enter no more deeply than the memory, where they mix with fallacies and falsities, and thus are below the reasoned conclusions of the understanding. Every man can speak from them with seeming reason, but invertedly, thinking then as a crab walks, with the sight following the tail. It is another matter if he thinks from understanding; then the reason’s vision selects from the memory suitable things by which it confirms truth as seen in itself. [2] Many things are cited in this chapter, therefore, which are accepted customs; as that choice lies with the man; that parents are to be consulted; that pledges are to be given; that previously to the wedding a marriage contract is to be made; that this contract is to be consecrated by a priest; likewise that the nuptials should be celebrated; besides many other customs, adduced to the end that one may see by his own reason that such things are inscribed on marital love as requisites promoting and fulfilling it. The propositions into which we divide our discussion are as follows:
i. Choice belongs to the man, not to the woman.
ii. The man should court and ask the woman in marriage, and not the woman the man.
iii. The woman ought to consult her parents or those in loco parentis, and then deliberate with herself, before she consents.
iv. After the declaration of consent pledges are to be given.
v. Consent is to be assured and established by a solemn betrothal.
vi. By betrothal each is prepared for marital love.
vii. By betrothal the mind of the one is united with the mind of the other, so that a marriage of the spirit is effected before that of the body is.
viii. This happens with those who think chastely of marriages, but not with those who think unchastely.
ix. During betrothal it is not allowable to be united bodily.
x. On the completion of the period of betrothal, the wedding should take place.
xi. Before the celebration of the wedding a marriage covenant should be concluded in the presence of witnesses.
xii. Marriage is to be consecrated by a priest.
xiii. The nuptials should be celebrated with festivity.
xiv. After the wedding, the marriage of the spirit becomes one of the body, too, and thus full.
xv. Such is the order of marital love with its steps from its first warmth to its first torch.
xvi. Precipitated without order and the steps belonging to it, marital love burns out the marrows and is consumed.
xvii. The states of mind arising in each flow in successive order into the state of the marriage; in one way with the spiritual, however, in another with
the natural.
xviii. For there is successive order and there is simultaneous order, and the latter is from the former and according to it.

Explanation of these propositions now follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 296 296. (i) Choice belongs to the man, not to the woman. For man was born to be understanding, but woman to be love. Love of the sex, moreover, prevails with men, but love of one of the sex with women. Nor is it unseemly for men to speak of love and propose it, while for women it is. Women, however, have the power to choose one of their suitors.
As for the first reason why choice belongs to men, namely, that men are born for understanding, this is because the understanding can perceive suitability and unsuitability and discriminate between them, and with judgment select what is compatible. It is otherwise with women, as they are born for love. They do not possess the clear-sightedness of that light, and determinations of theirs on marriage would be only from inclinations of their love; if they have the knowledge for discerning among men, still their love is swayed by appearances.
[2] With regard to the second cause why men and not women have the choice, namely, that love of the sex prevails with men but love for one of the sex with women; men, having love of the sex, have freedom in looking about and freedom of decision, too; it is not so with women, in whom love for one of the sex is implanted. If you wish confirmation, you have only to ask the men you meet about monogamous and polygamous marriage; rarely will you find one who does not reply in favor of polygamous marriage; this is also love of the sex. But ask women, and almost all except prostitutes will reject polygamous marriages. It is clear from this that women have love for one of the sex, thus marital love.
[3] As for the third reason, that it is not unseemly for men to speak of love or to propose, whereas it is for women, this is self-evident. It follows that declaration belongs to men, and if declaration, then choice, too. Women, of course, have the power to choose from among their suitors, but this kind of choice is restricted and limited, while that of men is extended and not limited.

CL (Wunsch) n. 297 297. (ii) The man should court and ask the woman in marriage, and not the woman the man. This follows on choice. Moreover, it is in itself honorable and seemly for men to court and ask women in marriage, but not for the women. If women courted and sued, they not only would be reproached, but after the suit would be held cheap, or after marriage considered wantons with whom no companionship could be had, except one cold and repulsive. Marriages then become tragic scenes. Wives also turn it to their praise that they gave themselves up as conquered at the urgent suit of the men. Who does not see that if women were to court men they would seldom be accepted, but would either be shamefully spurned or enticed to lasciviousness, and in any event would prostitute their modesty? Besides, as we showed above, there is no innate love of the sex with men, and without that love there is no interior charm of life; to exalt their life by that love, therefore, men must make themselves agreeable to women, courting them courteously, deferentially and humbly, and suing for this sweet addition from them to their life. Woman’s beauty of face, body and manners, moreover, surpassing his own, puts a man’s prayers in debt.

CL (Wunsch) n. 298 298. (iii) The woman ought to consult her parents or those in loco parentis, and then deliberate with herself, before she consents. Parents are to be consulted because they deliberate and advise from judgment, knowledge and love. They do so from judgment, being advanced in age; and age commands judgment and sees suitabilities or the want of them. They do so from knowledge of both the suitor and their daughter, obtaining information about the suitor and being acquainted with the daughter, and can conclude about each of them with the other in view. They advise from love, because to consult for the daughter’s good and provide for her home is to do so for theirs, too, and for themselves.

CL (Wunsch) n. 299 299. It would be another matter, were a daughter to consent of herself to an urgent suitor without consulting her parents or those in their place. For she cannot weigh this matter involving her future welfare in the balance from judgment, knowledge and love. She cannot do so from judgment, for in her this is still ignorant of married life and in no position to balance reasons or to see into the ways of men from their dispositions. She cannot from knowledge or acquaintance, for she is acquainted with little beyond the home life of her parents and of some companions, and is not qualified to investigate the private and personal affairs of a suitor. Nor can she from love, for the love of daughters when first marriageable and for some time, complies with desires of the senses and not as yet with the desires of a reflecting mind. But a daughter should nevertheless deliberate with herself on the matter before she gives her consent, lest she be borne unwillingly into a connection with a man whom she does not love. For then she brings no consent on her part, and yet consent makes marriage and initiates her spirit into that love; an unwilled or extorted consent does not initiate the spirit, but may the body, thus turning chastity, which resides in the spirit, into lust, by which marital love is spoiled in its first warmth.

CL (Wunsch) n. 300 300. (iv) After the declaration of consent pledges are to be given. By pledges we mean gifts which, following consent, are confirmations, attestations, first favors and gladnesses. The gifts are “confirmations” because they are tokens of consent. Hence when two consent to a thing, they say, “Give me a token,” and two who have vowed marriage and confirmed their vows by gifts are said to be plighted, thus confirmed. [2] The pledges are “attestations” because they are like constant ocular witnesses of mutual love and thus are also reminders of it, especially things like rings, scent-bottles and sashes, which are worn in sight; there is in such things a certain representative image of the minds of bridegroom and bride. Those pledges are also “first favors,” because marital love bespeaks everlasting favor, of which those gifts are the first-fruits. It will be granted that they are gladnesses of love; the mind is exhilarated at the sight of them, and, given in love, these favors are dearer and more precious than all other gifts. It is as if the hearts of the two were in them. [3] As such pledges are securities of marital love, it was also an established custom among the ancients to make gifts following consent, and on acceptance of them to pronounce the two bridegroom and bride. But it should be known that it is in one’s free choice to present the gifts before or after the act of betrothal; if presented before, they are confirmations and attestations of consent to the betrothal; if afterwards, to the marriage, also.

CL (Wunsch) n. 301 301. (v) Consent is to be assured and established by a solemn betrothal. The reasons for betrothal are these: 1. That after betrothal the souls of the two may be mutually inclined to each other. 2. That the general love of the sex may be determined in each to one of the sex. 3. That the interior affections of each may be known and may be conjoined by mutual address in love’s inward gaiety. 4. That the spirits of the two may enter into marriage and be brought together more and more. 5. That marital love may thus progress duly from its first warmth to the nuptial flame. 6. Consequently, that marital love may advance and grow up in due order from its spiritual origin. The state of betrothal may be likened to the state of spring before summer, and its internal pleasantness to the blossoming of trees before fructification. Betrothals take place in the heavens, too, inasmuch as there is this due order for the inception and progress of marital love, so that it may flow into the active love which begins from the nuptials.

CL (Wunsch) n. 302 302. (vi) By betrothal each is prepared for marital love. The arguments advanced under the preceding proposition make it evident that by betrothal the mind or spirit of the one is prepared for union with the other’s mind or spirit, or what is the same, the love of the one for union with the love of the other. In addition to those arguments this is to be related: there is impressed on true marital love an order by which it ascends and descends. From its first warmth it ascends progressively up toward the soul in the effort to effect conjunction of soul, and this by more and more interior openings of the mind. No love strives for these openings more intently, or opens the interiors of the mind more powerfully and easily, than marital love, for the soul of each intends it. But at the same time that this love ascends toward the soul, it also descends toward the body, and clothes itself with it. But marital love, be it known, is such in its descent as it is in the height to which it ascends. If it attains some elevation, it descends chaste, but if not, it descends unchaste. The reason is that the lower parts of the mind are unchaste, but its higher parts chaste, the lower adhering to the body, but the higher being separate from these (on this subject see more below, n. 305). From these few things it may be evident that the mind of each is prepared by betrothal for marital love, although diversely according to the affections.

CL (Wunsch) n. 303 303. (vii) By betrothal the mind of the one is united with the mind of the other, so that a marriage of the spirit is effected before that of the body is. This is a conclusion from what was said above (nn. 301, 302), and we pass it by without adducing further confirmations from reason.

CL (Wunsch) n. 304 304. (viii) This happens with those who think chastely of marriages, but not with those who think unchastely. With the chaste, who are those who think about marriage from religion, the marriage of the spirit precedes and that of the body follows. It is with these that marital love ascends toward the soul, and then descends from a height (of which above, n. 302). Their souls disengage themselves from unlimited love of the sex and devote themselves to one, with whom they look to an enduring and eternal union, the growing blessings of which are spurs to the hope which constantly renews their minds.
But it is quite otherwise with the unchaste, who are those who do not think from religion about marriage and its sanctity; with them there is a marriage of the body, but none of the spirit. If during the state of betrothal something of a marriage of the spirit appears, still, ascend though it may by elevation of the thoughts about marriage, it falls back into the lusts of the flesh in the will, and by unchaste things there drops headlong into the body and defiles the ultimate expression of love with a seductive ardor. It burns out, therefore, as suddenly as at first it flamed up, and goes off into a wintry cold; all this hastens its failure. With such persons the state of betrothal hardly serves to do anything but fill their lusts with things lascivious, thereby sullying what is marital in love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 305 305. (ix) During betrothal it is not allowable to be united bodily. For thus the order inscribed upon marital love perishes. There are three regions in human minds, the highest of which is called celestial, the middle spiritual, and the lowest natural. Into this lowest the human being is born, but into the higher, which is called spiritual, he ascends by a life according to the truths of religion, and into the highest by the marriage of love and wisdom. In the lowest region, called natural, reside all evil lusts and lasciviousness; but of these there are none in the higher region, called spiritual, for into this region a man is led by the Lord on re-birth. And in the highest region, called celestial, marital chastity is in its proper love; a man is raised into this region by the love of uses, and as the most eminent uses attach to marriage, by true marital love. It can be seen from this summary view that marital love must be raised from the first beginnings of its warmth out of the lowest region into the higher in order to become chaste, whereupon it may be let down chaste through the middle and lowest region into the body. When this is done, the lowest region is purified of its unchastities by the descending chaste. Hence the final expression of that love becomes chaste, too. Now, if the gradual order of this love is precipitated by bodily union before the time, it follows that the man acts from the lowest region which by birth is unchaste. It is common knowledge that cold toward marriage begins and arises so, as do neglect and disdain of the partner. Still there are various differences in the results of premature unions; as also in the results of prolonging the time of betrothal or hastening it overmuch; but on account of their number and variety these can scarcely be set forth.

CL (Wunsch) n. 306 306. (x) On the completion of the period of betrothal, the wedding should take place. There are ceremonies which are only formal, and ceremonies which are also essential. Among the latter are weddings. The following reasons establish the fact that weddings are among essentials, to be solemnly observed and formally celebrated. 1. Nuptials put an end to the previous state inaugurated by betrothal, which was chiefly a state of the spirit, and make the beginning of the succeeding state to be inaugurated through marriage, which is a state of the spirit and of the body at the same time. For then the spirit enters the body and acts there. Therefore on the wedding-day they put off the state and also the name of bridegroom and bride, and put on the state and the name of partners and bed-fellows. 2. The wedding is the introduction and entrance to the new state, in which the young woman becomes a wife, and the young man a husband, and the two one flesh. This they become when their love unites them in its final expression. We showed in earlier chapters that marriage actually changes a young woman into a wife, and a young man into a husband; also, that marriage unites the two into one human form, so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 3. The wedding begins the complete separation of love for the sex from marital love, which is effected when in full opportunity for conjunction there is exclusive devotion of the love of the one to the love of the other. 5. The wedding seems to constitute only a point between those two states, and so to be a formality only, which can be omitted; but still there is also this essential in it, that the new state before-mentioned is then to be entered under covenant, and that consent is to be declared in the presence of witnesses and consecrated by a priest, besides other things which establish it. Weddings are also celebrated in heaven (see above, n.21, and again, nn. 27-41), because there are essentials in the nuptials and not until after them does lawful marriage take place.

CL (Wunsch) n. 307 307. (xi) Before the celebration of the wedding a marriage covenant should be concluded in the presence of witnesses. A marriage covenant should be made before the wedding is celebrated in order that the statutes and laws of true marital love may be known and kept in mind afterwards; also in order that there may be a bond holding the minds to rightful marriage. For after some first experience of marriage the state which preceded betrothal recurs at times, when recollection perishes and forgetfulness of the covenant steals in; indeed, in the allurement which the unchaste has for the unchaste, the covenant is obliterated and if it is recalled, is execrated. But to avert these transgressions society itself has undertaken the protection of the covenant and imposed penalties on those who break it. In a word, the pre-nuptial contract proclaims, upholds, and obliges libertines to heed, the sanctities of true marital love. By this covenant, furthermore, the right to propagate children and the right of children to inherit the parents’ property become matter of law.

CL (Wunsch) n. 308 308. (xii) Marriage is to be consecrated by a priest. Regarded in themselves, marriages are spiritual and hence holy. For they descend from the heavenly marriage of good and truth, and things marital correspond to the Divine marriage of the Lord and the Church, and so are from the Lord Himself, and according to the state of the Church with the contracting parties. Now, because the ecclesiastical order administers on earth what belongs to the Lord’s priesthood, that is, what is of His love and hence pertains to His blessing, marriages ought to be consecrated by ministers of His; and as they are therefore also the chief witnesses, consent to the covenant should be heard, accepted, assured and established by them.

CL (Wunsch) n. 309 309. (xiii) The nuptials should be celebrated with festivity. For the pre-nuptial love of bridegroom and bride descends at that time into their hearts, and in its diffusion thence into all the body, they are made sensible of the delights of marriage. Their thoughts are festive, and their minds engage in all permissible and becoming festivity. To speed this, it is well that these festivities have the help of a company, and that the two should be introduced thus into the joys of marital love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 310 310. (xiv) After the wedding the marriage of the spirit becomes one of the body, too, and thus full. All things one does in the body flow in from the spirit. For, needless to say, the mouth does not speak of itself, but the thought of the mind by means of it; nor do the hands act or the feet move of themselves, but the will of the mind by means of them; in short, the mind speaks and acts by its organs in the body. Obviously, then, such as is the mind, such are the speech of the mouth and the deeds of the body. It follows as a conclusion that the mind by a constant influx disposes the body to activities synchronous and agreeing with itself. Inwardly viewed, therefore, men’s bodies are nothing but the forms of their minds outwardly organized to give effect to the behests of the soul.
These things have been premised that it may be perceived why the minds or spirits are first to be united as it were in marriage before two persons are united bodily, namely, in order that when marriage becomes of the body it may be a marriage of the spirit, consequently that partners may love each other from the spirit and thence in the body.
[2] With this in mind, let us look at marriage. When marital love conjoins and forms the minds of the two for marriage, it then also conjoins and forms their bodies for it. For, as was said, the form of the mind is also inwardly the form of the body, with the single difference that the latter is organized outwardly to effect that to which the inward form of the body is determined by the mind. But the mind, formed under marital love, is not only inwardly everywhere in the body, but is also inwardly in the organs devoted to generation, which are situated in a region of their own below the other parts of the body; in these, the forms of the mind are terminated with those who are united by marital love. Hence the affections and thoughts of their minds are determined thither. In this respect the activities of their minds under other loves are different; those activities do not reach thither. It is to be concluded that such as is the marital love in the minds or spirits of the two, such it is inwardly in these its organs. It is self-evident that the marriage of the spirit after the wedding becomes one of the body, too, thus full; consequently, that if the marriage in the spirit is chaste and partakes of holiness there, it is the same in its fullness in the body; and the reverse, if the marriage in the spirit is unchaste.

CL (Wunsch) n. 311 311. (xv) This is the order of marital love with its steps from its first warmth to its first torch. We say, “from its first warmth to its first torch,” because vital heat is love, and because marital warmth or love grows successively and at length to a flame or torch. By “its first torch,” the first state after the nuptials is meant, when that love is ardent. In foregoing discussions we explained what marital love is like after this torch or in the ensuing marriage itself; here we are explaining the order of that love from its first starting-point to this its first goal.
It can be sufficiently established and elucidated to the reason from things known and visible in the world that all order proceeds from firsts to lasts, and that what is last becomes the first of any succeeding order, likewise that all things of a mediate order are the last things of a prior and the first things of a succeeding order, and that in this way ends are continually progressing by causes to effects. But our subject here is the order by which marital love moves from its first station to its first goal; its order subsequently we pass by, only remarking that such as the order of this love is from its first warmth to its first goal, such for the most part it is and remains in its ensuing development. It continues to unfold in keeping with what the first warmth was. If this was chaste, the chaste is strengthened in it in the further progress; but if unchaste, then the unchaste in it grows until the love is deprived of all the chaste which it had possessed outwardly, though not inwardly, from the time of the betrothal.

CL (Wunsch) n. 312 312 (xvi) Precipitated without order and its steps, marital love burns out the marrows and comes to an end. So some in heaven have put it. By “marrows” they mean the interiors of mind and body. These are burned out or consumed by a marital love which is precipitated, because that love then begins in a flame which eats out and destroys the recesses in which marital love should reside as in its principles, and from which it should commence. This ensues if the man and the woman precipitate marriage without order, not looking to the Lord, not consulting reason, rejecting betrothal, and only complying with the flesh. Beginning in such ardor of the flesh, marital love turns external, not internal, thus not truly marital. It may be called shell-like, not possessed of any kernel, or fleshly, meagre and dry, being emptied of its genuine essence. On this see more above, n. 305.

CL (Wunsch) n. 313 313. (xvii) The states of mind arising in each flow in successive order into the state of marriage; in one way with the spiritual, however, in another with the natural. The educated world acknowledges the truth of the canon that a last state is such as is the successive order by which it is formed and exists. So it is discovered what influx is and what it effects. By influx is meant all which precedes and composes what follows, and which with what follows composes the last. To give examples: all that precedes with man and composes his wisdom; all that precedes with a statesman and composes his prudence; all that precedes with a theologian and makes his learning; similarly all that takes place from infancy and fashions the man; likewise all which in order proceeds from seed and stem and makes the tree, or later what proceeds from the flower and makes its fruit. [2] In the same way we mean by influx here what precedes and proceeds with bridegroom and bride and makes their marriage. It has been unknown hitherto in the world that all things which precede in the mind form series, and that these series accumulate, one beside another and one after the other, and in the aggregate compose the last. This is adduced here because it is a truth from heaven. For it makes plain what influx does, and what manner of thing a last entity is, in which the successively formed series just mentioned co-exist.
It can be seen from this that the states of mind of each partner, arising in successive order, flow into the state of the marriage. Partners after marriage are wholly ignorant of the successive developments which lie insinuated in their minds from what has gone before. Yet those developments are what give marital love its form, and make the state of their minds, from which they act toward each other. [3] A different state from a different order is formed with the spiritual than with the natural, for the reason that the spiritual proceed in true order, and the natural do not. For the spiritual look to the Lord, who foresees and guides the order, but the natural look to themselves and so proceed in inverted order. The state of their marriage therefore is inwardly full of unchastities. As many, moreover, as are the unchastities, so many are the colds, and equally numerous then are the obstructions of the inmost life, as a result of which love’s vein is obstructed, and its fountain dried.

CL (Wunsch) n. 314 314. (xviii) For there is successive order and there is simultaneous order, and the latter is from the former and according to it. We adduce this in support of what has just been said. It is known that there is what is successive and what is simultaneous, but it is not known that simultaneous order is from and according to the successive order. It is very difficult to present to the perception how things successive turn into things simultaneous, and the kind of order they form then, for as yet no idea which will serve for elucidation is to be had from the learned. As an initial conception of this arcanum cannot be conveyed in a few words, and to present it at length here would draw the mind away from a clearer view of marital love, it will be enough to quote for elucidation what was assembled in a compendium on the two orders, successive and simultaneous, and on the influx of the former into the latter, in Doctrine of the New Jerusalem on the Sacred Scripture:

[2] There are in heaven and in the world a successive order and a simultaneous. In successive order one thing follows another from the highest down to the lowest; but in simultaneous order one thing is next to another from inmost even to outmost. Successive order is like a column in segments from top to bottom, but simultaneous order like a work coherent from center to surface. Successive order turns simultaneous in its last in this way: highest things in the successive order become the inmost things of the simultaneous order; and the lowest things in the successive order become the outermost in the simultaneous. Relatively it is as if the column in segments were made to subside into a body assembled on one level. Thus the simultaneous is formed from things successive; and this in each and all things of the spiritual world, and in each and all things of the natural world. (Nn. 38, 65; also see many things on the subject in Angelic Wisdom about the Divine Love and Wisdom, nn. 205-229.)

[3] The like is true of successive order leading to marriage and of simultaneous order in marriage; namely, that the latter is from the former, and according to it. One who knows the influx of successive order into simultaneous, will comprehend why angels can see in a man’s hand all the thoughts and intentions of his mind; also why wives can feel from their husbands’ hands on their breasts their affections (something which has been mentioned several times in the Memorabilia). The reason is that the hands are the human being’s “last things,” in which the movements and conclusions of the mind terminate, and in which they form what is simultaneous. Hence the saying* in the Word that a thing is “written on the hands.”
* Cf. Isaiah xlix. i6, Revelation xiii. 16, xx. 4.

CL (Wunsch) n. 315 315. I append two Memorabilia.

I

I saw* an odd meteor once not far from me. A cloud broke up into small clouds, some blue and some dark; they seemed to me to be clashing together. Streaky rays shot across them, now sharp like swordpoints, then blunt like broken swords; at one moment darting at one another, the next retreating, quite like pugilists. These small varicolored clouds, seemingly fighting one another, were only sporting. As the meteor appeared at no great distance from me, I raised my eyes, and, gazing intently, made out boys, and young and old men, entering a house built of marble with a foundation of porphyry. The phenomenon was over this house.
I addressed one of those entering and asked: “What is happening?”
The man answered, “This is a school where youths are initiated into various matters relating to wisdom.”
[2] Hearing this I entered with them, being in the spirit, that is, in a state like that of men in the spiritual world, who are then called spirits and angels. Inside I found a rostrum up forward, benches in the center, seats at the sides, and over the entrance a balcony. The rostrum was for the youths who, one after another, were to address themselves to the problem to be propounded; the benches were for the auditors; the seats at the sides for those who had answered wisely on previous occasions; and the balcony for the elders, who were to be arbiters and judges. In the center of the balcony was a dais where sat a wise man whom they called the chief teacher; he put the questions to which the young men were to respond from the rostrum.
When all had assembled, the man on the dais arose and said, “Address yourselves now, I pray, to this problem, and solve it if you can: What is the soul, and what is its nature?”
[3] There was a murmur of surprise at the problem. Some of the auditors on the benches exclaimed, “What mortal from the age of Saturn to our own has been able to see and grasp with any rational thought what the soul is, still less what its nature is? Is this not above the sphere of everybody’s understanding?”
But the judges in the balcony replied, “The subject is not above the understanding, but within its grasp and view; only answer.”
Then the young men chosen for that day arose, who were to mount the rostrum and speak to the problem. There were five of them; they had been examined by the elders and found to excel in sagacity. They were sitting on divans at the sides of the rostrum, and went up in the order in which they sat. Each, on going up, put on a tunic of silk of an opal color, over this a toga of soft wool on which flowers were woven, and on his head a cap, on the crown of which was a rosette encircled with small sapphires.
[4] I saw the first youth thus clothed ascend. He said, “What the soul is, and what its nature is, has been revealed to no one since the day of creation. It is a secret in the treasury of the one God. It is known that the soul dwells within man like a queen; but as to where her palace is, learned seers have only conjectured; some, that it is in a small tubercle between cerebrum and cerebellum, called the pineal gland. They have supposed that the seat of the soul is there, because the whole man is governed from those two brains and these the tubercle in turn disposes; what disposes the brains at will must rule the man from head to foot.” He added, “To many in the world this view seemed to be the truth or the probability; but after a time it was rejected as a figment.”
[5] So concluding, he put off toga, tunic and cap, and the second of the chosen put them on, and stepped onto the rostrum. His statement about the soul was as follows:
“In all heaven and in all the world it is unknown what the soul is, and what its nature is. It is known that it exists, and that it is within man, but where, is a matter of conjecture. So much is certain, that it is in the head, for there the understanding thinks, and there the will purposes, and man’s five organs of sense are at the front of the head, in the face. Only the soul which resides in the head gives life to all these. But where in all these, its court is, I do not myself venture to say. At different times I have agreed with those who place its seat in the three ventricles of the brain; with those who place it in the corpora striata there; with those who put it in the medullary substance of each brain; with those who place it in the cortical substance, and with those who place it in the dura mater. [6] Votes have not been wanting in support of each seat�votes for the three ventricles in the brain, because they are receptacles of the animal spirits and of all the lymphs of the brain; votes for the corpora striata, because these form the medulla through which the nerves go forth, and through which each brain is continued into the spine, and from one and the other proceed the fibers out of which the whole body is woven together; votes for the medullary substance of each brain, because this is a collection and assemblage of all the fibers which are the rudiments of the whole man; votes for the cortical substance, because first and last ends are there, and thence are the beginnings of all the fibers, and thus of the senses and motions; votes for the dura mater, because it is the common covering of each brain and extends thence by a kind of continuation over the heart and over the viscera of the body. As for me, I do not decide for any one of these conjectures more than for another. I beg you to decide and choose which you prefer.”
[7] Having spoken so he descended and handed tunic, toga and cap to the third, who mounted the rostrum and said:
“What have I, a young man, to do with so sublime a theme? I appeal to the learned men sitting at either side, I appeal to you wise men in the balcony, yes, I appeal to the angels of the highest heaven, whether one can gain an idea of the soul by one’s own rational light. Like the others I can conjecture, however, about its seat in man. I opine that it is in the heart and thence in the blood. The reason for my opinion is that the heart by its blood governs both the body and the head. By the great vessel called the aorta it reaches into all the body and by the vessels called carotids into all the head. There is universal agreement, therefore, that from the heart and by means of the blood the soul sustains, nourishes and vivifies the whole organic system of the body and of the head. It lends credibility to this view that “soul” and “heart” are so often coupled in Sacred Scripture:

Thou shalt love God with all the heart and with all the soul; and God creates in man a new soul and a new heart (Deuteronomy vi. 5; x. 12; xi. 13; xxvi. 16; Jeremiah xxxii. 41; Matthew xxii. 37; Mark xii. 30, 33; Luke x. 27; and other places).

It is plainly said, too:

The blood is the soul of the flesh (Leviticus xvii. 11, 14).”
On hearing this some raised their voices and exclaimed, “Learned! Learned!” They were ecclesiastics.

[8] Then the fourth, having put on the garments of the previous speaker, stepped onto the rostrum, and said:
“I also surmise that no one possesses a genius subtle and refined enough to discover what the soul is and what its nature is. I am therefore of the opinion that one who seeks to pry into this subject wastes subtlety on the impossible. Yet I have persisted from boyhood in the opinion of the ancients that the soul of man is in the whole of him and in every part�in the head, therefore, and in its least parts, and in the body and its least parts. I think the moderns originated the groundless notion of fixing the seat of the soul somewhere, and not everywhere. The soul is a spiritual substance of which neither extension nor place is predicable, but indwelling and impletion. Moreover, when one speaks of the soul, does one not mean the life? And is not the life in the whole and in every part?”
Many in the auditorium favored this opinion.
[9] Then the fifth youth arose, and adorned with the same insignia, spoke thus from the rostrum:
“I do not stop to say where the soul is, whether in some part or everywhere in the whole. But from my stock and store I open my mind on the question, What is the soul? And what is its nature? The soul is conceived by every one to be a pure something, comparable to ether, air or wind, in which is something vital from the reason which man has above the beasts. I base this opinion upon the fact that when a man expires he is said to breathe out or give up the soul or spirit. Hence also the soul living after death is believed to be such a breath, in which is the thought-life called the soul. What else can the soul be? But as I heard you say from the balcony that the problem of what the soul is and what its nature is, is not above the understanding but within its grasp and view, I beg and pray that you yourselves will unveil this eternal arcanum.”
[10] Then the elders in the balcony looked toward the chief teacher who had proposed the question. Understanding from their regard that they wished him to descend and teach them, he quit his platform in the balcony and, passing through the auditorium mounted the rostrum. With hand extended, he said:
“Listen, if you will. Who does not believe that the soul is the inmost and subtlest essence of the human being? But essence without form is a mere creation of the reason. The soul then is a form. But what form? It is the form of all things of love and all things of wisdom, all things of love being what are called affections, and all things of wisdom being what are called perceptions. From and with the affections the perceptions constitute a single form, in which are innumerable things in such order, series, and coherence, that they can be called one. They can be called one because nothing can be subtracted and nothing can be added if the form is to remain what it is. What is the human soul but such a form? Are not all things of love and all things of wisdom essentials of that form? And with man they are in the soul, and from the soul in the head and in the body. [11] You are called spirits and angels. In the world you believed that spirits and angels are like winds or ethers, and thus minds and breaths. Now, however, you see clearly that you are really and actually men, who in the world lived and thought in a material body. You know that the material body does not live and think, but the spiritual substance in that body, and this you called the soul, whose form you did not know. Now you have seen it and see it. You yourselves are all souls, about the immortality of which you have heard, thought, spoken and written so much; being forms of love and wisdom from God, you cannot die to eternity. The soul then is the human form, from which nothing can be subtracted and to which nothing can be added. It is the inmost form of all forms in the entire body; the outer forms have both essence and form from the inmost. Therefore you, as you appear to yourselves and to us, are souls. In a word, the soul is the man himself, being the inmost man; its form is the human form in fullness and perfection. Still the soul is not life, but the first receptacle of life from God; thus it is God’s dwelling-place.”
sRef Gen@2 @7 S12′ [12] Many applauded these words, but some said, “We will think it over.”
I then started home. And now, instead of the former phenomenon, there appeared over the school a bright white cloud without the belligerent streaks or rays, and this cloud penetrated the roof and illuminated the walls. I heard that inscriptions sprang into sight on the walls, this among others:

Jehovah God breathed into man’s nostrils the soul of lives and man became a living soul (Genesis ii. 7).
* These Memorabilia occur again in True Christian Religion, n. 697.

CL (Wunsch) n. 316

316. II

Once as I was strolling in tranquillity of spirit and pleasant peace of mind, I saw in the distance a grove, through which an avenue stretched to a small palace, into which I saw young men and women and husbands and wives passing. In the spirit I approached the grove, and asked a guard standing at the entrance whether I, too, might go in. He studied me. I asked him, “Why do you look at me so intently?”
“To see,” he said, “whether the delight of peace in your face partakes at all of the delight of marital love. At the end of this avenue is a small garden in the center of which is a house where live two newly wedded partners, on whom friends of both sexes are calling today to wish them happiness. I am not acquainted with those whom I am to admit, but shall know them, I am told, by their faces. If I see the delight of marital love in their faces, I am to admit them, otherwise not.”
All angels can perceive the heart’s delights of others from the face. He saw the delight of marital love in my face because I was meditating on that love, and my meditation shone forth from my eyes and irradiated my face from within. He told me therefore that I might enter.
[2] The avenue by which I entered consisted of fruit-trees which with their interlaced boughs formed a continuous wall of trees on either side. From the avenue I passed into the small garden, the shrubs and flowers in which exhaled a pleasant fragrance. These shrubs and flowers stood in pairs; I heard that gardens of the kind appear around houses where there are or have been weddings and are therefore called nuptial gardens.
I passed into the house and saw the two married partners, holding each other by the hand and talking together in true marital love. I was granted to observe the very likeness of marital love in their faces, and its animation in their conversation.
With others, I offered my congratulations and wished the pair happiness, and then returned into the little nuptial garden. Over to the right I saw a company of young men, toward whom all hastened who came from the house. They hastened thither because the talk was about marital love, and talk on that subject attracts all by a certain hidden power. I listened to a sage who was speaking on the subject, and what I heard was in brief this:
[3] “The Divine Providence* of the Lord over marriage and in marriage in the heavens is most detailed and thence most universal, for all heaven’s joys spring from the delights of marital love, as sweet waters from the sweet current of a fountain. The Lord provides therefore that marital pairs be born. They are educated steadily for marriage, neither the boy nor the girl knowing it. After the completed time, the marriageable maiden and the youth ready for marriage meet and see each other somewhere, as if by fate. Instantly, as by some instinct, they know that they are mates, and from a kind of internal dictate they think within themselves, the young man, `She is mine,’ and the maiden, ‘He is mine.’ When this conviction has had time to grow upon them both, they deliberately address each other and are betrothed. It is said, as if by ‘fate’ and `instinct,’ but the meaning is by the Divine Providence, because Providence, when unknown appears so.”
That marital pairs are born and, unconsciously to both, are educated for marriage, he confirmed by the marital likeness visible in their faces, also by the inmost and eternal union of their natures and minds, which could not be what it is in heaven were it not foreseen and provided by the Lord.
[4] After the wise man had spoken and been applauded by the company, he said further:
“There is what is marital in the very minutest particulars with man, both in the male and in the female. The marital is one thing in the male and another in the female, however; and in the masculine marital there is something conjunctive with the feminine marital, and vice versa, even in the most minute particulars.” This he confirmed by the marriage of the will and the understanding in each human being. “These two,” he said, “act together in the very smallest particulars of the mind and in the very smallest particulars of the body, from which it may be seen that the marital is in every substantial thing, even the least. The fact is manifest in composite substances which are combinations of simple substances. There are two eyes, for example, two ears, two nostrils, two cheeks, two lips, two arms with hands, two loins, two feet; and inside man, two hemispheres of the brain, two ventricles of the heart, two lobes of the lungs, two kidneys, two testicles. And where there are not two, a thing is yet divided in two. There are two because one is of the will and the other of the understanding, and they act upon each other marvelously so as to make a one. The two eyes therefore make one sight, the two ears one hearing, the two nostrils one smell, the two lips one speech, the two hands one labor, the two feet one walking, the two hemispheres of the brain one habitation of the mind, the two chambers of the heart one life of the body by means of the blood, the two lobes of the lungs one respiration, and so on. Similarly, the masculine and feminine united by true marital love make one fully human life.”
sRef Matt@5 @29 S5′ sRef Matt@5 @30 S5′ [5] When he had said this, a red lightning appeared on the right, and on the left a white lightning; both were soft and entered the eyes to illuminate the mind, too. On the lightning followed thunder, like a low murmur rolling down from the angelic heaven and growing louder. At the sight and sound, the wise man said:
“These are a signal and admonition to me that I should go on to add this: The right-hand member of such pairs as I have named signifies the good in them, and the left the truth. This comes of the marriage of good and truth, which is inscribed upon man as a whole and upon his every least part, good relating to the will and truth to the understanding, and both together to a one. Hence it is that in heaven the right eye is the good of vision, and the left is the truth of it; the right ear is the good of hearing, and the left is the truth of it; the right hand is the good of man’s power, and the left is the truth of it; and similarly with other pairs. Because right and left have these significations, the Lord said:

If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out. And if your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off (Matthew v. 29, 30);

by which He meant that if good becomes evil it is to be cast out. So also He bade His disciples

Cast the net on the right side of the ship; and when they did so, they took an immense multitude of fishes (John xxi. 6, 7)

by which He meant that they should teach the good of charity and then would win men.”
[6] After these words the red and white flashes of lightning appeared again, even gentler than before. At the same time it was manifest that the lightning on the left derived its brilliant whiteness from the ruddy fire of the lightning on the right. Seeing this, he said, “It is a sign from heaven confirming what I have said. For in heaven the fiery is good, and shining white is truth. The fact that the lightning on the left visibly took its shining white from the red fire of the lightning on the right demonstrates that the brilliant whiteness of light, or light, is nothing else than fire shining.”
On hearing this, all started for home, kindled with the good and truth of gladness by those lightning-flashes and by the discourse about them.
* See n. 229.

CL (Wunsch) n. 317

317. XIII

REMARRIAGE

It may be asked whether the marital love of one man and one wife is separable from a partner who has died, or can be transferred, or added to; also whether remarriage does not come to have something in common with polygamy, thus whether it is not to be called successive polygamy; besides much else which is wont to multiply scruples with reasoners. In order, therefore, that masters of casuistry who reason in the shade about remarriage may see some light, I have thought it worth while to present to the judgment the following propositions on the subject, namely:
i. Contracting matrimony again after the partner’s death depends on the preceding marital love.
ii. It also depends on the state of marriage in which the two had lived.
iii. With those who were in no true marital love, there is no obstacle or hindrance to contracting matrimony again.
iv. Those who have lived together in true marital love do not want to marry again, except for reasons aside from marital love.
v. The state of marriage of a young man with a virgin is one thing, of a young man with a widow another.
vi. The state of marriage of a widower with a virgin is also one thing, and that of a widower with a widow another.
vii. The variety and diversity of these marriages as to love and its attributes are beyond number.
viii. The state of a widow is more grievous than that of a widower.

Explanation of these propositions follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 318 318. (i) Contracting marriage again after the partner’s death depends on the preceding marital love. True marital love is like scales in which inclinations to remarriage are weighed. In the degree in which the previous marital love approximated true marital love, the inclination to marry again declines; but in the degree in which the previous love fell short of true marital love, inclination is wont to welcome another marriage. The reason is plain. Marital love is in its measure a union of minds. This union persists in a partner’s earthly life after the other’s death, controls the inclinations as though in a pair of scales, and makes a preponderance in the measure in which true love was attained. But approximation to true marital love is rare at the present day, other than by a few steps, and therefore the scales move for the most part only to the point of equilibrium or still tend and incline the other way, that is, toward remarriage. Not so much as this is true of those whose love in the previous marriage fell short of true marital love. [2] For failure of true love is in its measure a disunion of minds. This disunion also persists in a partner’s earthly life after the other’s death, and enters the will, which was disjoined from the other’s will, and causes inclination to a new union. Influenced in favor of another union by the affection of the will, the thought entertains the hope of a closer and hence pleasanter cohabitation. [3] Every one knows that inclinations to remarriage grow out of the state of the earlier love. The reason also sees it, for true marital love is accompanied by fear of losing it and grief over losing it, a grief and fear which are in the very inmosts of the mind. Hence it is that so far as one is in that love, so far the soul inclines both in will and thought, that is, in intention, to remain in the beloved subject with which and in which it was. It follows that the mind is held balanced about another marriage according to the degree of love which it felt in the previous marriage. As a result, after death the same partners are reunited and love each other mutually as they did in the world. But, as we said above, such love is rare today; there are few who even graze it with the finger-tip. Those who do not attain it, and still more those who fall far short of it, desire a union after death with some other in the measure in which they desired separation in their life with the partner, which was a cold life. But of both cases more in what follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 319 319. (ii) Contracting matrimony again after the partner’s death also depends on the state of marriage in which the two had lived. Here we do not mean by the state of marriage the state of love which creates inward inclination toward or away from marriage (of which in the preceding proposition), but a state of marriage which creates outward inclination toward or away from it. This state with its inclinations is manifold. 1. There may, for instance, be little ones in the home for whom a new mother should be found. 2. More children may be desired. 3. The home may be large and provided with servants of both sexes. 4. Exacting activities away from home may take the mind off domestic affairs, and without a new mistress trouble and mishap may be feared. 5. Mutual help and duties may demand it, as in a number of businesses and employments. 6. It depends, moreover, on the character of the remaining partner whether after a first marriage he or she can live alone or without a consort. 7. The foregoing marriage also creates either a fear of married life or a leaning toward it. 8. I have heard that polygamous love and love for the sex, likewise the lust of deflowering and the lust of variety, have moved the minds of some to desire remarriage; as fear of law and regard to reputation have influenced the minds of others, who otherwise might commit adultery; besides many other reasons, which impel the external inclinations toward matrimony.

CL (Wunsch) n. 320 320. (iii) With those who were in no true marital love, there is no obstacle or hindrance to contracting matrimony again. In the case of those who were in no marital love, there is no spiritual or internal bond, but only a natural or external bond. If no internal bond holds the external together in its order and course, the latter is no more enduring than any other band, tugged at or blown upon when its fastening has been removed. The reason is that the natural takes its rise in the spiritual, and in its existence is nothing but a mass compacted of things spiritual. If therefore the natural entity is parted from the spiritual which produced it and as it were gave it birth, it is no longer held together inwardly but only outwardly by the spiritual, which then surrounds and binds it in a general way, but does not assemble or hold it assembled in detail. Hence it is that the natural apart from the spiritual in two partners effects no conjunction of minds and thus none of the wills, but only one of external affections bound up with the bodily senses.
[2] In the case of such partners there is no obstacle or hindrance to contracting marriage again, for the reason that the essentials of marriage did not exist with them, and hence none exist with them after separation by death. They are therefore wholly at liberty, widower or widow, to bind their sensuous affections with any one else as they please and the law allows. They think of marriages only naturally and consider them advantageous for various needs and external utilities which can be supplied again by another partner in the place of the one deceased. If their inward thoughts were seen into, as they are in the other world, probably it would be found that they make no distinction between marital unions and extra-marital copulations. [3] For the reason just given, such people can marry repeatedly. Conjunctions wholly natural dissolve and fall apart of themselves at death: external affections at death follow the body and are buried with it; only those persist which cohere with internal.
But it is to be known that inwardly conjoining marriages can hardly be entered into on earth, because the choice of inward likenesses there cannot be provided by the Lord as in the heavens, being restricted in many ways�to equals in station and condition, for instance, in the same district, city or village, and even there, for the most part, external things and not internal bind the two together. Internal things emerge only after a period of marriage, and become known only as they present themselves in externals.

CL (Wunsch) n. 321 321. (iv) Those who have lived together in true marital love do not want to marry again, except for reasons aside from marital love. The following are reasons why those who have lived in true marital love do not wish to remarry after the partner’s death: 1. They were united in soul and thus in mind; and this union, being spiritual, is an actual adjunction of the soul and mind of the one to those of the other, which can by no means be dissolved; we have already shown many times that there is such spiritual conjunction. [2] 2. They were also united in body by the wife’s reception of the husband’s propagations of soul and thus by the introduction of his life into hers, by which a maiden becomes a wife; and in turn by the husband’s reception of the wife’s marital love, which disposes the mind’s interiors and at the same time the body’s interiors and exteriors into a state receptive of love and of wisdom, a state which makes the man from a young man into a husband (see above, n. 198). [3] 3. The sphere of love from the wife and the sphere of understanding from the man flow out continually and perfect the conjunction, enveloping the two with its pleasant breath and uniting them (also see above, n. 223). [4] 4. Partners so united in marriage think and breathe what is eternal, and their eternal happiness is based on the thought (see n. 216). [5] 5. For these reasons they are no longer two but one human being, that is, one flesh. [6] 6. Such a unity cannot be torn asunder by the death of the partner, as is plain to the ocular vision of the spirit. [7] 7. To these reasons this new information shall be added: two such partners are not so much as separated by the death of one of them. The spirit of the deceased partner dwells constantly with the spirit of the partner still living and does so to the latter’s death, when they meet again, are reunited and love each other more tenderly than they did before, being in the spiritual world. The inevitable consequence is that those who have lived in true marital love do not wish to marry again. If they do contract something like marriage, they do so for reasons aside from marital love, and these reasons are all external; as that there are little ones in the home, for whose care provision must be made; or that the home is large, furnished with servants of both sexes; that occupations outside the home take the mind off domestic affairs; that mutual aid and duties require it; and other like reasons.

CL (Wunsch) n. 322 322. (v) The state of marriage of a young man with, a virgin is one thing, of a young man with a widow another. By states of marriage we mean states of life in husband and wife after the nuptials, thus in the marriage, with respect to their cohabitation, whether it is internal, that is, of the souls and minds (which is cohabitation in the full concept of it), or only external, that is, of the lower minds, senses and body. The state in the marriage of a young man with a virgin is itself introductory to genuine marriage, for with them marital love can progress in its due order from the very first warmth to its first torch, and thus from the first seed with the young husband and from the first flower with the virgin wife, and thus germinate, grow and fructify, and can be making itself known for the first time to them both all along; if not, the young man was not a young man nor the virgin a virgin, except outwardly. Between a young man and a widow, however, there is not the same initiation from the first into marriage, nor a like progress in the marriage, since the widow is more at her own disposal and more independent than a virgin. A young man therefore pays his attentions to a widow-wife differently than to a virgin-wife. But there is much variety and diversity in these things, and we leave the subject with this general statement.

CL (Wunsch) n. 323 323. (vi) The state of marriage of a widower with a virgin is also one thing, and of a widower with a widow another thing. For the widower has already been initiated into the married life, while the virgin is to be initiated; but marital love perceives and feels pleasantness and joy in mutual initiation. The young husband and the virgin wife perceive and feel something new always at each turn, as a result of which they are in a certain continual initiation and lovely progress. The state is different in the marriage of a widower with a virgin. The virgin wife has an inner inclination, which is a thing of the past with the man. But in all this there is much variety and diversity. Similarly in a marriage between a widower and a widow. Beyond the general thought, therefore, nothing specific can be added.

CL (Wunsch) n. 324 324 (vii) The variety and diversity of these marriages as to love and its attributes are beyond number. There is an infinite variety and also an infinite diversity of all things. We speak of variety in things of one class or species, likewise among classes and species; but of diversity in things which are opposite. We may throw some light on our distinction between variety and diversity by this: The angelic heaven, which coheres as one, has infinite variety. No one there is absolutely like another, either in soul and mind, or in affections, perception or thought thence, or in inclinations and intentions thence, or in tone of voice, or in face, body, manner, or gait, or in other respects; and yet, despite the fact that there are myriads of myriads, all have been and are arranged by the Lord in one form, characterized by complete unanimity and accord. This could not be, were not all who are so various led in general and in particular by One Being. This illustrates what we mean by variety.
[2] But by diversity we mean the opposite to this variety, which is found in hell. For there each and all are diametrically opposite to those in heaven, and hell is held together among them as one by the variety among them entirely opposed to the variety in the heavens, thus by perpetual diversity. Hence it is evident what is intended under infinite variety, and what under infinite, diversity. The like is true of marriages: there is infinite variety with those in true marital love, and infinite variety with those in scortatory love; and thence there is infinite diversity between the latter and the former. The conclusion follows that the variety and diversity in marriages of whatever class and species, whether of young man and maiden, or of young man and widow, or of widower and maiden, or of widower and widow, exceed all number. Who can count infinity?

CL (Wunsch) n. 325 325. (viii) The state of a widow is more grievous than that of a widower. The causes of this are external and internal. The external causes any one can see: 1. A widow cannot provide the necessaries of life for herself and her home, or dispose of possessions as the man can, or as she was able to do previously, through and with the man. 2. Neither can she protect herself and her home, as is needful; while she was his wife, the man was her defense and, as it were, her arm; she was her own defense also, nevertheless she relied upon him. 3. By herself she is helpless for counsel in such things as are of interior wisdom and thence of prudence. 4. A widow is without the reception of that love from which she is a woman, thus in a state alien to the state native to her and also induced by marriage. [2] These external reasons, which are natural, also originate in internal causes, which are spiritual, as do all other things in the world and in the body (of which above, n. 220). The natural and external causes are perceived from the internal and spiritual causes, which have to do with the marriage of good and truth, and principally from these: that good can provide and dispose only through truth; that good can be protected only by truth, which is therefore the defense and, as it were, the arm of good; that good without truth is helpless for counsel, wisdom and prudence through truth. [3] Now, as the man by creation is truth and the wife the good of it, or what is the same, the man by creation understanding and the wife the love of it, it is evident that the external or natural causes which aggravate widowhood have internal or spiritual causes. These spiritual causes, conjoined with the natural, are meant by what the Word says in many places about widows (see in Apocalypse Revealed, n. 764).

CL (Wunsch) n. 326 326. I append two Memorabilia.

I

When* the problem of the soul had been discussed and solved in the school, I saw the people filing out, the head teacher leading the way, behind him the elders, with the five youths in the midst of them who had made answer, and behind these, the rest. Once outside, they withdrew to the sides of the house, where were walks lined with shrubs. Arrived there, they broke up into small groups, so many companies of youths talking about the things of wisdom. In each group was one of the wise men from the balcony.
Seeing them from my lodging I came into the spirit, and in the spirit went out to them. I approached the head teacher, who a little while ago had proposed the question about the soul.
When he saw me he said, “Who are you? I have been puzzled, watching you approach, that one moment you came into my sight and the next moment passed out of it. At one moment you were visible to me and the next became invisible. You certainly cannot be in the state of life native to us.”
To this I answered, smiling, “I am not a juggler or tumbler! I am alternately now in your light, now in your shade; thus both an alien and a native.”
[2] At this the head teacher stared at me and said, “You speak strange and amazing things. Tell me, who are you?”
I said, “I am in the world in which you once were and from which you departed, called the natural world; and I am also in the world into which you have come and in which you now are, called the spiritual world. I am therefore in a natural state and in a spiritual state at the same time; in the natural state with men on earth, and in the spiritual state with you. In the natural state I am not visible to you, but in the spiritual state I am. My state is a privilege I enjoy from the Lord. You, O enlightened man, are aware that the man of the natural world does not see the man of the spiritual world, nor the reverse. When therefore I lowered my spirit into the body I was not visible to you, and when I raised it out of the body I became visible. In the instruction you gave in the school you said that you are souls, and that souls see souls, because they are human forms. You know that you did not see yourselves, that is, your souls within your bodies, when you were in the natural world; and this comes from the distinction between spiritual and natural.”
[3] When he heard of a distinction between the spiritual and the natural, he said, “What is the distinction? Is it not one of purer and less pure? Is the spiritual anything but a purer natural?”
I replied, “The distinction is not of that kind, but is like that between prior and posterior, between which there is no finite ratio, for the prior is within the posterior like a cause within its effect; and the posterior is from the prior like an effect from its cause. Hence the one does not appear to the other.”
To this the head teacher responded, “I have thought and pondered upon this distinction, but in vain so far. Would that I could perceive it!”
I said, “You shall not only perceive it, but even look on it.” And I continued, “You are yourself in a spiritual state when with your associates, but in a natural state when with me. For with your associates you speak in the spiritual language which is common to spirits and angels; but with me you speak in my mother tongue. For every angel and spirit talking with a man speaks his language�French, for instance, with a Frenchman, English with an Englishman, Greek with a Greek, Arabic with an Arab, and so on. To realize, then, the distinction between the spiritual and the natural with respect to language, do this: Join your associates and say something to them, keep the words in mind, and come back and say them to me.”
[4] He did so and returned to me with the words on his tongue, and spoke them, but did not himself understand a single one (the words were wholly strange and foreign, occurring in no language of the natural world). This experiment, several times repeated, made it very evident that all in the spiritual world have a spiritual language, which has nothing in common with any language of the natural world, and that every one comes into that language instinctively after death. He also discovered at the same time that the very sound of spiritual language is so different from the sound of natural language that spiritual sound, though loud, cannot be heard at all by the natural man; nor natural sound by the spiritual man.
[5] Then I asked the head teacher and the bystanders to go in among their own and write some sentence on a piece of paper, and to come out and read the paper to me. They did so and returned holding a paper; but when they read it, they could not understand a thing, for the writing consisted merely of certain letters of the alphabet with marks over them, each letter signifying some conception of the subject. (Because every letter of the alphabet has its significance in the spiritual world, it is evident whence it is that the Lord is said to be “the Alpha and the Omega.”**) When repeatedly they had retired, written something, and returned, they appreciated that their writing involved and comprehended things without number which no natural writing can ever express. They were told that this is because the spiritual man thinks thoughts which are incomprehensible and ineffable to the natural man; and that these cannot flow into or be rendered by any other writing or language.
[6] Then, as the bystanders were unwilling to comprehend that spiritual thought so greatly excels natural thought as to be relatively ineffable, I said to them, “Try an experiment. Enter your spiritual society and think something, retain it, and return and utter it before me.” They went in, thought, kept it in mind, came out, but when they tried to utter what they had thought they could not, for they found no idea of natural thought adequate to any idea of spiritual thought, and thus no word to elicit it; for the ideas of thought become the words of speech. [7] Once more they retired and returned, and assured themselves that spiritual ideas are supernatural, inexpressible, ineffable, and incomprehensible to the natural man. They said that spiritual ideas or thoughts, being so super-eminent, are relatively to the natural the ideas of ideas, and the thoughts of thoughts. They therefore express qualities of qualities and affections of affections. Spiritual thoughts are consequently the beginnings and origins of natural thoughts. It is plain thence that spiritual wisdom is the wisdom of wisdom and thus is imperceptible to any wise man in the natural world. They were told then from the third heaven that there is a still more interior or higher wisdom, called celestial, related to spiritual wisdom as this is to natural; and that these inflow in order through each heaven from the Lord’s Divine wisdom, which is infinite.
* These Memorabilia, as far as through n. 328, are repeated in True Christian Religion, n. 280.
** Revelation i. 11, xxii. 13.

CL (Wunsch) n. 327 327. This demonstration ended, I said to the onlookers, “From these three experimental proofs you have seen what the distinction between spiritual and natural is like; and also the reason why the natural man does not appear to the spiritual, nor the spiritual man to the natural, although they are associated in affections and thoughts and hence as to presence. Now you have the reason, O head teacher, why I was seen by you at one moment along the way, and not seen the next.”
Thereupon a voice was heard from the higher heaven saying to the head teacher, “Come up hither.” He ascended and on his return said that like himself the angels had not previously known the differences between the spiritual and the natural, because no opportunity for comparison had presented itself in a man who was at the same time in both worlds, and apart from such comparison the differences cannot be learned.

CL (Wunsch) n. 328 aRef 2Cor@12 @4 S0′ 328. We then drew aside and talked further on the subject. I said, “These differences arise solely from the fact that you, who are in the spiritual world and therefore are spiritual, are in things substantial and not in things material, and things substantial are the beginnings of things material. You are in principles and thus in things single, while we are in things derived from principles, and composite; you are in particulars, we in generals; and as generals cannot enter into particulars, so neither can things natural, which are material, enter into things spiritual which are substantial, any more than a ship’s cable can enter or be drawn through the eye of a sewing needle or a nerve enter or be drawn into one of the fibers of which it consists, or a fiber into one of the fibrils which compose it. The world knows this, and therefore the learned agree that there is no influx of the natural into the spiritual, but only of the spiritual into the natural. For this reason the natural man cannot think the thoughts which the spiritual man thinks, or speak them. Paul says that the things which he heard out of the third heaven were unutterable.* [2] Add to this, that to think spiritually is to think above time and space, and that to think naturally is to think in time and space, for something of time and space adheres to every idea of natural thought, but not to a spiritual idea. The reason is that the spiritual world is not in space and time like the natural world, but in the appearance of the two; the thoughts and perceptions also differ in this respect. Therefore you are able to think of the essence and the omnipresence of God from eternity, that is, of God before the creation of the world, because you think of the essence of God from eternity apart from time, and of His omnipresence apart from space, and so comprehend things which transcend the idea of the natural man.”
[3] I then related how I was thinking once about the essence and omnipresence of God from eternity, that is, about God before the creation of the world, and how troubled I became because I could not yet remove space and time from the ideas of my thought, and the idea of nature entered in place of God. But I was told, “Remove ideas of space and time, and you will see.” I was helped to remove them, and I saw. From that time I could think of God from eternity, and not at all of nature from eternity, because God in all time is above time, and in all space is above space, but nature in all time is in time, and in all space is in space. Nature with its time and space could not but begin and arise, but not God Who is above time and space. Nature is therefore from God, not from eternity but in time, that is, together with its time and at the same time with its space.
* Corinthians xii. 4.

CL (Wunsch) n. 329 329. After the head teacher and the others had left me, some of the boys who had attended the exercises in the school followed me home and stood beside me for a while as I wrote. They saw a moth suddenly dart across my paper, and asked in surprise, “What swift little animal is that?” I said, “It is called a moth. I will tell you some marvellous things about it. In this creature, small as it is, there are as many members and viscera as there are in a camel�brains, heart, air passages, organs of sense, of motion and of generation, a stomach, intestines, and many more. Each one of these is woven together of fibers, nerves, blood-vessels, muscles, tendons and membranes. Each of these in turn is woven together of still purer things which lie deeply hidden from any and every eye.”
[2] They remarked that the little creature nevertheless looked to them like a simple substance.
“And yet there are innumerable things in it,” I replied. “I tell you this that you may know that the same thing is true of every object which looks to you like one simple and least thing, whether in what you do or in your affections and thoughts. I can assure you that every particle of your thought and every drop of your affection is divisible even to infinity. Indeed you are wise in so far as your ideas are divisible! Know that everything divided is more and more manifold and not more and more simple, because being divided over and over it approaches nearer and nearer to the infinite, in which are all things infinitely. I tell you something new and unheard of.”
[3] Upon this, the boys left me to go to the head teacher and requested him to propose sometime as a problem in the school something “new and unheard of.” He asked, “What?”
They said, “That everything divided is more and more manifold and not more and more simple, because it approaches nearer and nearer to the infinite, in which are all things infinitely.”
He promised to do so, and remarked, “I see this, because I have perceived that one natural idea contains innumerable spiritual ideas; indeed, one spiritual idea contains innumerable celestial ideas. Hence the difference between celestial wisdom in which the angels of the third heaven are, and spiritual wisdom in which the angels of the second heaven are; and also between these and natural wisdom in which the angels of the lowest heaven and also men are.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 330

330. II

I once listened to a good-natured discussion which some men were holding about the female sex: whether a woman who is in love with her own beauty, that is, who loves herself for her form, can love her husband. They agreed, first: that women have a twofold beauty, one natural which is of the face and body, and the other spiritual which is of the love and manners. They also agreed that the two kinds of beauty are quite often sundered in the natural world but invariably united in the spiritual world. For beauty in the spiritual world is the form of the love and manners; it very often happens after death, therefore, that ill-shaped women become beauties and beautiful women become deformed.
[2] While the men were discussing the subject, some wives came and said, “Permit us to attend, because knowledge teaches you what you are discussing, but experience teaches us. What you know about the love of wives, moreover, is so little, it is scarcely anything. Do you know that it is the prudence of a wife’s wisdom to hide her love for her husband in her inmost breast and deep in her heart?”
The discussion began and the first conclusion on the part of the men was as follows: “Every woman wishes to appear beautiful in face and in her ways because she is born an affection of love, and beauty is the form of this affection. A woman who does not desire to be beautiful is therefore not a woman who wishes to love and be loved, and hence is not truly a woman.”
To this the wives said, “Woman’s beauty dwells in soft tenderness and therefore in exquisite sensibility. Thence is the love of woman for man and the love of man for woman. You probably do not understand this.”
[3] The second conclusion of the men was this: “Before marriage a woman wishes to be beautiful for men, but after marriage, if she is chaste, only for one man and not for men.”
To this the wives said, “After a husband has enjoyed his wife’s natural beauty he no longer sees it, but sees her spiritual beauty and for this loves her anew; still, he recalls the natural but under a new aspect.”
[4] The third conclusion from their discussion was as follows: “If after marriage a woman desires to appear beautiful in like manner as before, she loves men and not the one man. A woman loving herself for her own beauty is continually desirous that her beauty be enjoyed, and as this no longer appears to the one man, as you have said, she wishes it to be enjoyed by the men to whom it does appear. Obviously she has love for the sex, not love for one of the sex.”
At this the wives fell silent. Still they murmured: “What woman is so free from vanity that she does not wish to seem beautiful to other men as well as to her only one?”
Some wives from heaven, who were beautiful because they were heavenly affections, had overheard, and they endorsed the three conclusions of the men, but added, “Only let women love their beauty and its charm for the sake of their husbands and from them.”

CL (Wunsch) n. 331 331. The three wives, indignant that the three conclusions of the men had been endorsed by the wives from heaven, said to the men, “You have asked whether a woman who loves herself for her beauty loves her husband. Now we for our part will consider whether a man who loves himself for his intelligence can love his wife. Attend and hear.” They came to this first conclusion: “No wife loves her husband for his appearance, but for his intelligence in his affairs and in his general conduct. Know therefore that the wife unites herself with the man’s intelligence and so with the man. If then a man loves himself for his intelligence, he withdraws his love from his wife to himself, whence comes disunion and not union. Moreover, to love his own intelligence is to be wise of himself, and as this is to be insane, it amounts to loving his insanity.”
To this the men replied: “Perhaps a wife unites herself with the man’s ability.” At this the wives laughed, saying, “Ability is not lacking so long as the man loves the wife from intelligence, but it is lacking if he loves from insanity. Intelligence is to love the wife only and this love does not lack ability; but to love, not the wife, but the sex, is insanity, and this love lacks ability. Do you comprehend this?”
[2] The second conclusion was: “We women are born into love of the masculine intelligence. If, then, men themselves love their intelligence, it cannot be united with the genuine love for it which is with the wife. And if the man’s intelligence is not united with its own genuine love which is with the wife, it becomes insanity from pride, and marital love turns cold. What woman can unite her love with cold? And what man can unite the insanity of his pride with the love of intelligence?”
“But,” said the men, “whence has a man honor from his wife if he does not prize his own intelligence?” The wives answered, “From love; for love pays honor. Honor cannot be severed from love; but love can be severed from honor.”
[3] Afterwards they came to this third conclusion: “You seem to love your wives, and do not see that you are loved by your wives and that you love in return, and that your intelligence is the receptacle. If then you yourselves love your own intelligence, that becomes the receptacle of your love; and the love of one’s self, tolerating no equal, never becomes marital love, but as long as it prevails, remains scortatory.”
At this the men were silent, but murmured, “What is marital love?”
Certain husbands in heaven heard all this and from heaven endorsed the three conclusions of the wives.

CL (Wunsch) n. 332 sRef Matt@19 @4 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @8 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @7 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @6 S0′

332. XIV

POLYGAMY

No one who seeks the reason for the utter condemnation of polygamy in the Christian world can see the cause plainly, no matter with what gift of insight into a subject he may be endowed by nature, if he has not first learned that there is a true marital love; that this love is possible only between two; that between two it is possible only from the Lord; and that on this love heaven is inscribed with all its felicities. Unless such information precedes and is, as it were, the foundation stone, the mind will exert itself in vain to elicit from the understanding any reasons for that condemnation, with which it can feel satisfied, and on which it can rest like a house on its foundation stones. It is common knowledge that the institution of monogamy is founded on the Lord’s Word, that
Whoever puts away his wife except for whoredom and marries another, commits adultery, and that from the beginning or from the first establishment of marriage it was intended that

The two should become one flesh: and that man should not put asunder what God has joined together (Matthew xix. 3-11).

[2] These words the Lord indeed dictated from the Divine law inscribed on marriage. Nevertheless, if the understanding cannot support the Divine law with a reason of its own, it will circumvent it by customary twists and sinister interpretations, and render it obscure and ambiguous and at length affirmative-negative-affirmative in that the law is taken to be the civil law, indeed, but negative in that it is not according to their own rational sight. To this the human mind will come if it has not first been instructed in the knowledges just mentioned, which would serve the understanding to reach reasons of its own, the knowledge, namely: that there is a true marital love; that it is possible only between two, and possible between two only from the Lord; and that heaven with all its felicities is inscribed on this love. But we shall demonstrate this and much else about the condemnation of polygamy in Christendom by the following propositions in turn:
i. Except with one wife there can be no true marital love, nor, consequently, any true marital friendship, trust or potency, nor such a conjunction of minds that the two are one flesh.
ii. Except with one wife, therefore, the celestial blessedness, spiritual joy and natural pleasures are impossible which from the beginning have been provided for those who are in true marital love.
iii. None of these joys can exist save from the Lord alone, and they are bestowed only on those who approach the Lord alone and live according to His precepts.
iv. True marital love with its felicities can therefore exist only with those who are of the Christian Church.
v. Hence a Christian may not marry more than one wife.
vi. If a Christian marries more than one wife, he commits not only natural adultery, but spiritual adultery, too.
vii. The people of Israel were permitted to marry several wives, inasmuch as there was no Christian Church with them, and true marital love was not possible.
viii. Mohammedans are permitted today to marry several wives because they do not acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ to be one with Jehovah the Father and thus the God of heaven and earth, and hence cannot receive true marital love.
ix. The Mohammedan heaven is outside the Christian heaven and is divided into two heavens, a lower and a higher. Only those are raised into their higher heaven who give up concubines and live with one wife and acknowledge our Lord, to whom the dominion over heaven and earth is given, as equal with God the Father.
x. Polygamy is lasciviousness.
xi. Marital chastity, purity and holiness are not possible in polygamists.
xii. The polygamist, while he remains a polygamist, cannot become spiritual.
xiii. Polygamy is not a sin in those with whom it is of religion.
xiv. Polygamy is not a sin in those who are ignorant of the Lord.
Among these those are saved, though they are polygamists, who acknowledge God and for religion’s sake live according to the civil laws of justice.
xvi. But none of the latter or of the former can be associated with angels in the Christian heavens.

Explanation of these propositions follows.

CL (Wunsch) n. 333 333. (i) Except with one wife there can be no true marital love, nor, consequently, any true marital friendship, trust or potency, nor such a conjunction of minds that the two are one flesh. It has been said more than once above that true marital love is so rare today that it is practically unknown. Still, there is such a love, as we showed in the chapter on the subject and in ensuing chapters. But, apart from this, who does not know that such a love exists, so surpassing all other loves in excellence and pleasure that they are relatively little accounted? Experience testifies that this love surpasses self-love, love of the world, and even the love of life. Have there not been men�are there not now men�who for the woman whom they crave and court as a bride, throw themselves on their knees, adore her as a goddess and submit themselves as the meanest slaves to her will and pleasure?� evidence that this love surpasses self-love. Have there not been men�are there not now men�who for the woman whom they crave and court as a bride, make nothing of wealth, indeed of treasures if they happen to have any, and who lavish them on her?�evidence that this love surpasses love of the world. Have there not been men�are there not now men�who for the woman whom they crave and court as a bride, deem life itself worthless and invite death if she does not accede to their wishes? There is the further testimony of combats to the death between rivals. All of which is proof that this love outstrips the love of life. Have there not been men�are there not now men�who have gone mad because they were rejected by the woman whom they craved and courted as a bride? [2] Who does not in reason conclude from this inception of that love with many that by its nature it exercises a sway superior to every other love, and that a man’s very soul is in it, promising itself everlasting blessedness with the woman craved and courted? What other cause can one find for this, however one tries, than that the man has devoted soul and heart to the one woman? For if in that state a lover should be given the liberty of choosing the worthiest, richest and most beautiful out of the whole sex, would he not scorn the offer and cling to his chosen one? To her alone does his heart go out. I note these facts that you may grant that marital love of such preeminence does exist and that it arises when only one of the sex is loved. What mind, duly assessing the cumulative force of these reasons, does not conclude that if a lover persisted steadfastly and from the inmost soul in love to the one woman, he would attain the eternal blessednesses he promised himself before consent and promises himself upon consent? He does attain them, too, as we showed above, if he approaches the Lord and from Him lives a life of true religion. Who besides the Lord, entering human life from above, imparts internal heavenly joys and bears them to their outcome; especially, when at the same time He bestows enduring ability? The fact that such love is not to be found with oneself or in some other given person, is no proof that it does not exist at all, or that it cannot exist.

CL (Wunsch) n. 334 334. Conjoining the souls and hearts of the two, true marital love is attended by friendship, too, and through friendship by trust, both of which it makes marital, exalting them so far above other friendship and trust that as that love is the love of loves, that friendship is also the friendship of friendships, and that trust likewise the trust of trusts. That there is potency, too, is due to many causes, some of which are revealed in the second Memorabilia at the end of this chapter. From the potency the persistence of the love follows. That two partners become one flesh was shown in its chapter above (nn. 156r-183).

CL (Wunsch) n. 335 335. (ii) Except with one wife, therefore, the celestial blessedness, spiritual joy and natural pleasures are impossible which from the beginning have been provided for those in true marital love. We say, “celestial blessedness,” “spiritual joy” and “natural pleasures,” because the human mind is distinguished into three regions, the highest of which is called celestial, the second spiritual, and the third natural; and with those in true marital love these three regions stand developed, and influx follows in order according to the developments. Because the pleasantness of that love in the highest region is most eminent, it is perceived as blessedness; being less eminent in the middle region, it is perceived as joy; and finally in the lowest region as pleasure. It is manifest from the Memorabilia in which they are described that there are such blessedness, joy and pleasure, and that they are perceived and felt. All these felicities have been provided from the beginning for those in true marital love for the reason that there is an infinity of blessedness in the Lord. He is Divine Love, and the essence of love is to desire to communicate all its good things to another whom it loves. Therefore together with the human being He created this love and inscribed on it the capacity to receive and perceive these things. Who is so dull and unreasoning of mind as not to see that there must be some love into which the Lord has brought all the blessedness, joy and pleasure there can be?

CL (Wunsch) n. 336 sRef John@14 @8 S0′ sRef John@14 @9 S0′ sRef John@14 @6 S0′ sRef John@14 @7 S0′ sRef John@5 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@28 @18 S0′ sRef John@1 @3 S0′ sRef John@14 @10 S0′ sRef John@14 @11 S0′ sRef John@1 @18 S0′ 336. (iii) None of these joys can exist save from the Lord alone, and they are bestowed only on those who approach Him alone and live according to His precepts. This has been demonstrated above at many places. But let it be stressed that all these blessednesses, joys and pleasures can be had only from the Lord, and that He alone is to be approached. Who else? When

By Him all things were made that were made (John i. 3);
He is God of heaven and earth (Matthew xxviii. 18);
Never was any form of God the Father seen, nor His voice heard, except in Him (John i. 18, v. 37, xiv. 6-11).

It is plain from these and a host of other passages in the Word that the marriage of love and wisdom (or of good and truth), in which marriages have their sole origin, proceeds from Him alone. Hence it follows that this love with its felicities is bestowed only on those who approach Him and live according to His precepts, for with such He is conjoined through love (John xiv. 21-24).

CL (Wunsch) n. 337 337. (iv) True marital love with its felicities can therefore exist only with those who are of the Christian Church. Marital love of the sort described in the chapter (nn. 57-73) on the subject and in some ensuing chapters, or marital love as it is in its essence, is to be found only with those of the Christian Church, for the reason that this love is from the Lord alone, who is not known elsewhere so that He can be approached as God; likewise because this love is according to the state of the Church in a man (n. 130), and a true state of the Church is from no other source than the Lord, thus with no others than those who receive that state from Him. We have already established with such an abundance of reasoned evidences and conclusions that these two things are the primary elements, means and enablements of this love, that it is quite pointless to add more. True marital love is nevertheless rare in Christendom (nn. 58, 59) for the reason that even in Christendom few approach the Lord; and some of these indeed believe the Church but do not live it. (Further reasons are disclosed in Apocalypse Revealed, where the contemporary state of the Christian Church is fully described.) Nevertheless the truth is that true marital love can exist only with those who are of the Christian Church. Therefore polygamy is absolutely condemned. That this is of the Lord’s Divine Providence is very plain to those who think rightly of Providence.

CL (Wunsch) n. 338 338. (v) Hence a Christian may not marry more than one wife. This follows with certainty from the preceding propositions, the truth of which we have established. Let me add: the true marital has been inscribed more deeply on the minds of Christians than on the minds of Gentiles, who embrace polygamy. The minds of Christians are therefore more susceptible to this love than are the minds of polygamists. This marital tendency has been inscribed on the interiors of the Christian mind by acknowledgment of the Lord and His Divine and on the exteriors of the Christian mind by civil laws.

CL (Wunsch) n. 339 sRef Matt@19 @7 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @5 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @8 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @6 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @9 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@19 @4 S0′ sRef John@6 @63 S1′ 339. (vi) If a Christian marries more than one wife, he commits not only natural adultery, but spiritual adultery, too. That a Christian who marries more than one wife commits natural adultery is according to the Lord’s words,

That one may not put away his wife, because from the beginning they are created to be one flesh; and that if one puts her away without just cause and marries another, he commits adultery (Matthew xix. 3-11);

Much more, then, one who does not put his wife away, but keeps her and adds another. The law on marriage thus delivered by the Lord has its internal cause in spiritual marriage. Whatever the Lord spoke was in itself spiritual, which is the point of the saying,

The words that I speak to you are spirit and are life (John vi. 63).

The spiritual content here is this: polygamy in Christendom profanes the marriage of the Lord and the Church and the marriage of good and truth; it also profanes the Word and with the Word the Church; and the profanation of these is spiritual adultery (see it confirmed in Apocalypse Revealed, n.134, that the profanation of the good and truth of the Church from the Word corresponds to adultery, and is spiritual adultery; and that the falsification of good and truth is such adultery, too, but in less degree). Polygamous marriages among Christians profane the marriage of the Lord and the Church for the reason that there is a correspondence between Christian marriages and that Divine marriage (see above nn. 83-102). This correspondence perishes if wife is added to wife, and when it perishes, the partner is no longer a Christian. [2] Again, polygamous marriages among Christians profane the marriage of good and truth because marriages on earth are derived from this spiritual marriage; the marriages of Christians differ from those of other peoples in this, that as good loves truth and truth good and are a one, so are wife and husband. If then a Christian adds wife to wife, he rends this spiritual marriage in himself, hence profanes the origin of his marriage and so commits spiritual adultery. See above (nn. 116-131) that marriages on earth are derived from the marriage of good and truth. A Christian also profanes the Word and the Church by polygamous marriage for the reason that the Word viewed in itself is a marriage of good and truth, and the Church is, too, so far as it is from the Word (see above, nn. 128-131). Now, because a man who is a Christian knows the Lord, has the Word, and the Church is his from the Lord by the Word, obviously he has a power beyond that of the non-Christian of being regenerated and so of becoming spiritual, and also of attaining true marital love, for these are bound together. Inasmuch, then, as those from among Christians who marry more wives than one, commit not only natural adultery but also spiritual, a greater condemnation falls on polygamous Christians after death than on such as commit only natural adultery. To a query about their state after death, I heard the reply that heaven is tightly shut against them. They also appear in hell to be lying in hot water in a bath, so appearing at a distance, though they are standing on their feet or walking about. This befalls them from intestine madness. Some of them are hurled into abysses at worlds-ends.*
* Cf. Arcana Coelestia, n. 9582, Earths in the Universe, n. 128.

CL (Wunsch) n. 340 340. (vii) The people of Israel were permitted to marry several wives inasmuch as there was no Christian Church with them, and true marital love was not possible. There are those today whose thought about the institution of monogamy or of the marriage of one man with one. wife wavers. They are at strife with themselves in their reasoning, thinking that, because polygamy was openly permitted to the Jewish people and to their kings, like David and Solomon, polygamous marriage might in itself be permissible to Christians, also. But they know nothing distinct about the Jewish people and the Christian, or about the external and internal things of the Church, or about the Lord’s having altered the Church from external into internal; hence nothing from any interior judgment about marriages.
In general it must be remembered that the human being is born natural to become spiritual. As long as he remains natural he is as it were in the night or in a sleep about things spiritual, and does not know even the distinction between the external natural man and the internal spiritual. sRef Matt@19 @8 S2′ [2] We know from the Word that there was no Christian Church with the people of Israel. For they awaited a Messiah, as they do still, who was to exalt them above all other peoples and nations in the world. Had they been told, therefore, and were they to be told now, that the kingdom of the Messiah is over the heavens and thence over all peoples, they would make light of it. Not only did they fail to acknowledge the Christ or the Messiah, our Lord, therefore, when He came into the world; they cruelly put Him out of the world. It is evident then that there was no Christian Church with that nation, even as there is none today. Those with whom there is no Christian Church are natural men, both in external and internal, and polygamy is not prejudicial to them, being inscribed on the natural human being. For love in marriage the natural man perceives only what is of lust. This is meant in the Lord’s words,

That Moses on account of the hardness of their hearts had permitted them to put away their wives, but that it was not so from the beginning (Matthew xix. 8).

He said that “Moses permitted it,” in order that it may be known it was not the Lord who did so. [3] The Lord, too, addressed the internal spiritual man, as is known from His precepts and from the abrogation of the ceremonials which had served a purpose only with the natural man. This is plain from His precepts:

About washing, that it is purification of the internal natural man (Matthew xv. 1, 17-20; xxiii. 25, 26; Mark vii. 14-23);
About adultery, that it is lust of the will (Matthew v. 28);
About divorce, that it is not allowed; and about polygamy, that it is not in conformity with the Divine law (Matthew xix. 3-9).

These things and more, which are of the internal spiritual man, the Lord taught, for He alone opens the internals of human minds, renders them spiritual, and plants them in the natural, so that this too may have a spiritual essence. This takes place when He is approached and when a man lives according to His precepts, which in brief are to believe in Him, to shun evils because they are of the devil and from the devil, likewise to do goods, because these are from the Lord and of the Lord, and to do each as of himself and at the same time to believe they are done through him by the Lord. [4] The deep reason why the Lord alone opens the internal spiritual man and sets it in the external natural man, is that every human being thinks and acts naturally, and therefore could not perceive anything spiritual and receive it in his natural, had not God assumed the Human Natural and made it, too, Divine. From these things now the truth is plain that the I sraelitish people were permitted to marry more wives than one because there was no Christian Church with them.

CL (Wunsch) n. 341 341. (viii) Mohammedans are permitted today to marry several wives because they do not acknowledge the Lord Jesus Christ to be one with Jehovah the Father and thus the God of heaven and earth, and hence cannot receive true marital love. Mohammedans, as part of the religion delivered by Mohammed, acknowledge Jesus Christ as the Son of God and as a very great Prophet; they also confess that He was sent into the world by God the Father to teach men, but not that God the Father and He are one, or that His Divine and Human are one Person, united as soul and body are, according to the faith of all Christians from the Athanasian creed. Followers of Mohammed could not acknowledge our Lord, therefore, as God from eternity, but only as a perfect natural man. Because Mohammed was so minded and hence his disciple followers have been so minded, and yet knew that God is one and is the God Who created the universe, they could not do otherwise than pass the Lord by in their worship, all the more because they also declare Mohammed to be the Greatest Prophet. Nor do they know what the Lord taught. The result is that the interiors of their minds, which in themselves are spiritual, could not be opened (see just above, n. 340, that these are opened by the Lord alone). [2] The real reason that the mind’s interiors are opened by the Lord when He is acknowledged and approached as the God of heaven and earth, and are opened in such as live according to His precepts, is that there is no conjunction otherwise, and without conjunction there is no reception. There is a presence of the Lord with man and there is a conjunction of the Lord with man. To approach Him makes presence, but to live according to His precepts makes conjunction. The mere presence of the Lord does not mean reception; presence and at the same time conjunction do. [3] I shall relate this new thing from the spiritual world about presence and conjunction: A person is present there as a result of one’s thinking about him, but no one is conjoined to another except through an affection of love for him, which consists in doing what he bids and wishes. This familiar phenomenon of the spiritual world has its origin from the Lord; He Himself is thus present and thus conjoined.
This has been said so that it may be known why Mohammedans were permitted to marry more wives than one. It was because true marital love, which is between one man and one wife only, was impossible, for they did not from religion recognize the Lord as equal to God the Father and thus as God of heaven and earth. See above, n.130, and many times in what precedes, that marital love exists with a person according to the state of the Church in him.

CL (Wunsch) n. 342 342. (ix) The Mohammedan heaven is outside the Christian heaven and is divided into two heavens, a lower and a higher. Only those are raised into their higher heaven who give up concubines and live with one wife and acknowledge our Lord, to whom the dominion over heaven and earth, is given, as equal with God the Father. Before we take up these several points we must premise some things about the Divine Providence over the rise of the Mohammedan religion. The prevalence of this religion in more nations than accept the Christian religion may be a stumbling-block to those who give thought to Divine Providence and at the same time believe that only those born Christians can be saved. The Mohammedan religion is no stumbling-block, however, to those who believe that all things are of Divine Providence. These ask and also discover in what the Providence consists. The Providence is this: the Mohammedan religion does acknowledge our Lord as the Son of God, as the wisest of men, and as a very great Prophet who came into the world to teach mankind. It is true, Mohammedans think little about our Lord, because they have made the Koran their one book of religion and hence have enthroned Mohammed, who wrote it, in their thought, and follow him with some worship. That it may be still more fully appreciated that Mohammedanism was raised up by the Lord’s Divine Providence, it shall be shown in some order how it was raised up to destroy the idolatries of many peoples.
[2] First, something on the origin of idolatries. Before Mohammedanism there was idol-worship throughout the world. The reason was that the Churches before the Lord’s advent were all representative Churches. The Israelitish Church was such a Church. The tabernacle in it, Aaron’s garments, the sacrifices, all things of the Jerusalemite temple and the statutes, too, were representative. The ancients, moreover, possessed a knowledge of correspondences, which is also a knowledge of representatives; this was the special knowledge of the wise, cultivated by the Egyptians in particular�hence their hieroglyphics. As a result of this knowledge the ancients appreciated what animals of all kinds signified, likewise what trees of every kind meant, as also what mountains did, and hills, rivers, fountains; sun, moon and stars. They were acquainted with spiritual things by way of this knowledge, since the things represented were the origin, and are such things as belong to spiritual wisdom with the angels. [3] And as all their worship was representative, consisting wholly of correspondences, they held it on mountains and hills and also in groves and gardens; they consecrated springs, and faced the rising sun in their adorations; they made images of horses, cows, calves, and lambs, yes, of birds, fish, and snakes, and placed these images in their homes and elsewhere in the order of the spiritual things of the Church, to which they corresponded or which they represented. They also placed similar sculptures in their temples, to put themselves in remembrance of the sacred things of worship, signified by them. In the course of time, when the knowledge of correspondences was obliterated, their posterity began to worship the sculptured images as holy, not knowing that their ancient forbears saw nothing holy in them, but only that they represented and hence signified holy things according to correspondences. So idolatries arose which filled the whole world, both Asia with the adjacent islands, and Africa and Europe.
[4] In order that all these idolatries might be uprooted, it happened under the Lord’s Divine Providence that a new religion began, accommodated to the genius of the orientals, having something from each Testament of the Word, and teaching that the Lord had come into the world and that He was a very great prophet, the wisest of all men and the Son of God. This was effected through Mohammed, from whom that religion was named. Hence it is plain that Mohammedanism was raised up under the Lord’s Divine Providence and, as we said, was accommodated to the genius of the orientals, in order that it might blot out the idolatries of so many peoples and give them some knowledge of the Lord before they should come, as all do on death, into the spiritual world. This religion would not have been accepted by so many kingdoms and could not have rooted out their idolatries, had it not been agreeable to their ideas, in particular had not polygamy been permitted. Furthermore, without that concession, orientals would have burned more than Europeans in filthy adultery and would have perished.

CL (Wunsch) n. 343 343. Mohammedans also have a heaven, because all in the whole world are saved who acknowledge God and for religion’s sake shun evils as sins against Him. They have told me that their heaven is divided into two, a lower and a higher, and that in the lower they live with several wives and concubines as in the world, but that those who give up concubines and live with one wife are raised into the higher heaven. I have also heard that it is impossible for them to think that our Lord is one with God the Father, but that it is possible for them to think of Him as equal with Him, likewise that dominion is given Him over heaven and earth because He is His Son. This faith therefore obtains with those who are enabled by the Lord to mount into the higher heaven.

CL (Wunsch) n. 344 344. It was once given me to perceive what the heat of marital love is like with polygamists. I spoke with one who filled Mohammed’s place. Mohammed himself is never present, but some one is substituted for him in order that those fresh from the world may seem to see him. This vicar, after I had had some speech with him at a distance, ordered an ebony spoon sent to me and other things which were supposed to show he was Mohammed. At the same time communication was opened for the heat of their marital love there. It seemed to me like the fetid heat of a bath; on perceiving it, I turned away, and the channel of communication was closed.

CL (Wunsch) n. 345 345. (x) Polygamy is lasciviousness. For in polygamy love is divided among several; it is sexual love and a love of the external or natural man, and thus is not marital love, which alone occurs chaste. Every one knows that polygamous love is divided among a number; and a divided love is not marital love, for this is inseparable from one of the sex. Hence that love is lascivious, and polygamy is lasciviousness. Polygamous love is love for the sex, differing from it only in being limited to the number which the polygamist can attach to himself and in being conformed to certain laws imposed for the public good; also, in that it permits one to add concubines to wives. Being thus sexual love, it is a love of lasciviousness. Polygamous love is love of the external or natural man for the reason that it is inscribed on that man; and whatever the natural man does of himself is evil, from which he cannot be rescued except by being raised into the internal spiritual man, which is done by the Lord alone. The evil, as concerns sex, which inheres in the natural man, is whoredom; but as this is destructive of society, there was induced in place of it a likeness of it, which is polygamy. All evil into which a human being is born from his parents is implanted in his natural man, but none in his spiritual man, for into this he is born from the Lord. From what has been adduced and for many other reasons, too, it is plain that polygamy is lasciviousness.

CL (Wunsch) n. 346 346. (xi) Marital chastity, purity and holiness are not possible in polygamists. This follows from what has just been established, and patently from what was demonstrated in the chapter on the chaste and the non-chaste, especially from these propositions there: the chaste, pure and holy can be predicated only of monogamous marriages or those of one man with one wife (n.141); true marital love is chastity itself, and hence all the delights of that love, including the ultimate, are chaste (nn. 143, 144). It also follows from what was adduced in the chapter on “True Marital Love,” as from these propositions there: true marital love, of one man for one wife, by virtue of its origin and correspondence is celestial, spiritual, holy and clean above every other love (n.64). As chastity, purity and holiness are to be had only in true marital love, it follows that they are not to be found in polygamous love.

CL (Wunsch) n. 347 347. (xii) The polygamist, as long as he remains a polygamist, cannot become spiritual. To become spiritual is to be elevated from the natural, that is, from the world’s light and heat into those of heaven. Of this elevation no one knows anything except the man so elevated. Still the natural man thinks he is so elevated when he is not. Equally with the spiritual man he can raise the understanding into the light of heaven and, as a natural man, think and speak spiritually. But if the will does not follow the understanding into that height at the same time, the man has not been elevated. For he does not remain at that height, but after a little lets himself down to his will and there takes his station. We say “his will,” but the love is meant together with it, because the will is the receptacle of love, for what a man loves, he wills. It may be plain from these few considerations that as long as a polygamist remains a polygamist, or what is the same, as long as the natural man remains natural, he cannot become spiritual.

CL (Wunsch) n. 348 sRef John@9 @41 S0′ 348. (xiii) Polygamy is not a sin in those with whom it is of religion. All which is contrary to religion is deemed sin, being contrary to God. On the other hand, all that accords with religion is deemed not to be sin, according with God. Because polygamy was countenanced by religion among the children of Israel, as it is today among Mohammedans, it could not be and cannot be imputed to them as a sin. Moreover, that it may not be sin to them, they remain natural and do not become spiritual. The natural man cannot see that there can be anything sinful in what is countenanced by accepted religion; only the spiritual man sees this. For this reason, Mohammedans, although from the Koran they acknowledge the Lord as the Son of God, do not approach Him, but Mohammed; and all the while they remain natural and hence do not know there is anything evil, indeed anything lascivious, in polygamy. The Lord said,

If you were blind, you would not have sin; but now you say that you see; therefore your sin remains (John ix. 41 ).

Since polygamy cannot convict them of sin, they have their own heavens after death (n. 342); and there they enjoy delights in accord with their life.

CL (Wunsch) n. 349 349. (xiv) Polygamy is not a sin in those who are ignorant of the Lord. The reason is that true marital love is from the Lord alone and can be given by Him only to those who know, acknowledge and believe in Him, and live the life which is from Him. Those to whom that love cannot be given do not know but that marital love and sexual love and so, too, polygamy are one. Furthermore, polygamists who know nothing of the Lord remain natural; for the human being is made spiritual by the Lord alone; and nothing is imputed to the natural man as sin which is in accord with the laws of his religion and at the same time of society. He is also acting in accord with his reason. The reason of the natural man is entirely in the dark about true marital love, which in its excellence is spiritual; but still his reason is taught by experience that in the interests of public and private peace, promiscuous lust must be restrained at large and be relegated to a man’s home; hence comes polygamy.

CL (Wunsch) n. 350 350. It is known that the human being is born meaner than the beast. All beasts are born into a knowledge answering to their life’s love. When first they fall from the womb or are hatched from the egg, they see, hear, move, know their food, mother, friends and enemies, and not long after, know sex and how to mate, and also how to rear their offspring. Only the human being knows nothing of the kind at birth; no knowledge is connate with him. He has only faculty and inclination for receiving what belongs to knowledge and love; if he does not receive this from others, he remains meaner than a beast. See the Memorabilia (nn. 132-136) to the effect that the human being is born thus in order that he may ascribe nothing to himself, but to others, and all wisdom and love for wisdom to God alone finally, and thus be capable of being made an image of God. The man, then, who does not know through others that the Lord came into the world and that He is God, but has only acquired some knowledge of the religion and laws of his own part of the world, is not at fault if he does not think more of marital love than of sexual, and if he believes that polygamous love is the only married love. These men the Lord leads in their ignorance, and under the Divine auspices providentially withdraws those from any imputation of guilt who from religion shun evils as sins, to the end that they may be saved. For every human being is born for heaven and no one for hell; and a man comes into heaven from the Lord, and into hell from himself.

CL (Wunsch) n. 351 351. (xv) Among these those are saved, though they are polygamists, who acknowledge God and for religion’s sake live according to the civil laws of justice. All are saved throughout the world who acknowledge God and on account of religion live according to the civil laws of justice. By civil laws of justice are meant such precepts as those of the Decalogue, that adultery is not to be committed, nor murder, nor theft, nor false witness. These precepts are civil laws of justice in all kingdoms of the earth, for no kingdom would survive without them. [2] But some live according to them for fear of the law’s penalties, some out of civic obedience, and some also for religion’s sake. Those who live according to them for religion’s sake, too, are saved. For then God is in the man, and the man in whom God is, is saved. Who does not see that when the children of Israel left Egypt they must already have had such laws as that murder was not to be done, nor adultery, nor theft, nor false witness, since their community or society could not have subsisted without such laws? Yet the very same laws were promulgated from Jehovah God on Mount Sinai with an astonishing miracle. The reason for that promulgation was that the selfsame laws might be made laws of religion, too, and that thus men might do them not only for the good of society, but on God’s account, and that in observing them for religion’s sake on account of God, might be saved.
[3] It can be seen from this that pagans who acknowledge God and live according to the civil laws of justice are saved. It is not their fault that they know nothing of the Lord, consequently nothing of the chastity of marriage with one wife. It is contrary to Divine justice that any should be condemned who acknowledge God and from religion live according to the laws of justice, which are to shun evils because they are against God and to do goods because they are in accord with God.

CL (Wunsch) n. 352 352. (xvi) But none of the latter or of the former can be associated with angels in the Christian heavens. For in the Christian heavens there is a heavenly light which is Divine truth and a heavenly warmth which is Divine love; and the two expose the nature of goods and truths, thus of evils and falsities. Hence all communication has been taken away between Christian and Mohammedan heavens, as also between Christian and gentile heavens. If there were communication, no others could be saved than those in heavenly light and at the same time in heavenly warmth from the Lord. Indeed, if there were a conjunction of the heavens, not even these could be saved. For in conjunction all the heavens would be so shaken that the angels could not survive. For into the Christian heaven there would inflow from the Mohammedans what is unchaste and lascivious, which could not be endured there, and from the Christians the chaste and pure would inflow into the Mohammedan heaven, and this could not be endured there. Then in the communication and conjunction Christian angels would turn natural and thus become adulterers; or, if they remained spiritual, they would constantly feel the lascivious about them, frustrating all that is blessed in their life. Something equivalent would befall the Mohammedan heaven, for the spiritualities of the Christian heaven would constantly surround and torture them and take all enjoyment in life away from them, and moreover would keep intimating that polygamy is sin, so that they would suffer continual rebuke. For this reason the heavens are all quite distinct, so that there is no conjunction of them other than by the influx of light and heat from the Lord out of the sun in the midst of which He is. This influx enlightens and quickens every one according to reception, and reception is according to the religion. Such communication there is, but not of the heavens with one another.

CL (Wunsch) n. 353 aRef Gen@3 @0 S0′ aRef Gen@2 @0 S0′ 353. I append two Memorabilia.

I

I was once* among some angels, listening to their conversation. It was about intelligence and wisdom. “A man does not perceive but that both these are in himself. Thus whatever he thinks from the understanding or intends from the will he thinks is from himself, when yet not the least thereof is from the man, but only the faculty of receiving from God the things which are of the understanding and of the will. Inasmuch as every man is inclined by birth to love himself, therefore lest he perish from love of himself and conceit of his own intelligence, provision was made from creation that this, the man’s love, should be transcribed into the wife, and that in her there should be implanted by birth a love for the intelligence and wisdom of her man and thus for the man. By this means the wife continually takes to herself the man’s pride in his intelligence, extinguishing it with him and vivifying it with herself. She thus turns it into marital love and fills it with pleasures beyond measure. This is provided by the Lord in order that the man’s conceit of his own intelligence may not infatuate him until he believes he is intelligent and wise of himself and not from the Lord. For this is to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and to believe oneself like God and even to be God, as the serpent (which is the love of one’s own intelligence) said and persuaded. After eating of that tree man was therefore cast out of paradise, and the way to the tree of life was guarded by a cherub.”
A paradise, spiritually, is intelligence; to eat of the tree of life, spiritually, is to understand and have wisdom from the Lord; and to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, spiritually, is to understand and be wise of one’s self.
* These Memorabilia with slight changes occur again in True Christian Religion, n. 663.

CL (Wunsch) n. 354 354. The angels left when the conversation was over, and two priests came, accompanied by a man who in the world had been a royal ambassador. I told them what I had heard from the angels. Hearing it, they began to debate with each other whether intelligence and wisdom and the prudence therefrom are from God or man. The debate was warm. At heart the three believed alike that intelligence, wisdom and prudence are from man, because they are in man, and that the perception and sensation that they are, establishes the fact. But the priests, moved by theological zeal, said that intelligence and wisdom and consequently prudence are not at all from man. When the ambassador retorted that then there was nothing of thought from man, they said there was not.
But, as it was perceived in heaven that the three were in similar belief, the ambassador was bidden, “Put on the garments of a priest and believe yourself to be a priest, and then speak.”
He put on the garments and in the belief he was a priest, declared roundly that there is never any intelligence or wisdom or prudence except from God.