[to volume 3 of the original Latin]
How greatly they are deluded who remain in the sense of the letter alone, and do not search out the internal sense from other passages in the Word in which it is explained, is very evident from the many heresies, every one of which proves its dogmas from the literal sense of the Word; especially is this manifest from that great heresy which the insane and infernal love of self and the world has drawn from the Lord’s words to Peter:
I say unto thee that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it; and I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth shall be bound in the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth shall be loosed in the heavens (Matt. 16:15-19).
 They who press the sense of the letter think that these things were said of Peter, and that power so great was given him; although they are fully aware that Peter was a very simple man, and that he by no means exercised such power; and that to exercise it is contrary to the Divine. Nevertheless, as owing to the insane and infernal love of self and the world they desire to arrogate to themselves the highest power on earth and in heaven, and to make themselves gods, they explain this according to the letter, and vehemently defend it; whereas the internal sense of these words is, that Faith itself in the Lord, which exists solely with those who are in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, has that power; and yet not faith, but the Lord from whom faith is. By “Peter” there is meant that faith, as everywhere else in the Word. Upon this is the Church built, and against it the gates of hell do not prevail. This faith has the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and it shuts heaven lest evils and falsities should enter in, and opens heaven for goods and truths. This is the internal sense of these words.
 The twelve apostles, like the twelve tribes of Israel, represented nothing else than all the things of such faith (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130 at the end). Peter represented faith itself, James charity, and John the goods of charity (see the preface to Genesis 18); in like manner as did Reuben, Simeon, and Levi, the firstborn sons of Jacob, in the representative Jewish and Israelitish Church, which is plain from a thousand passages in the Word. And as Peter represented faith, the words in question were said to him. From this it is manifest into what darkness those cast themselves, and others with them, who explain all things according to the letter; as those who so explain these words to Peter, by which they derogate from the Lord and arrogate to themselves the power of saving the human race.
The Word as to its internal sense is thus described by John in Revelation:
I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse, and He who sat upon him was called faithful and true; and in righteousness He doth judge and make war. His eyes were a flame of fire; and upon His head were many diadems; and He had a name written which no one knew but He Himself; and He was clothed in a garment dipped in blood; and His name is called The Word of God. And the armies which are in heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen white and clean. And He hath upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords (Rev. 19:11-14, 16).
What each of these things involves no one can know except from the internal sense. It is manifest that every one of them is something representative and significative, as, that heaven was opened, that the horse was white, that He that sat upon him was faithful and true, and judgeth and maketh war in righteousness; that His eyes were a flame of fire, that upon His head were many diadems, that He had a name written which no one knew but He Himself, that He was clothed in a garment dipped in blood, that the armies which are in heaven followed Him upon white horses, that they were clothed in fine linen white and clean, and that He had upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written. It is said in plain words that it is the Word which is meant, and that it is the Lord who is the Word; for it is said, “His name is called the Word of God,” and then, “He hath upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords.”
 From the interpretation of each of the words it is manifest that the Word is here described as to its internal sense. “Heaven being opened,” represents and signifies that the internal sense of the Word is not seen except in heaven, and by those to whom heaven is opened, that is, who are in love to the Lord and thence in faith in Him. The “horse which was white” represents and signifies the understanding of the Word as to its interiors; that a “white horse” is this will be manifest from what follows. That “He who sat upon him” is the Word, and the Lord who is the Word, is evident. He is called “faithful and judging from righteousness” on account of good, and “true and making war from righteousness” on account of truth. His “having upon His head many diadems,” signifies all things of faith. His “having a name written which no one knew but He Himself,” signifies that no one sees what the Word is in its internal sense but Himself, and he to whom He reveals it. “His being clothed in a garment dipped in blood,” signifies the Word in the letter.
The “armies in the heavens which followed Him upon white horses,” signify those who are in the understanding of the Word as to its interiors. “Clothed in fine linen white and clean,” signifies the same in love and thence in faith. The “name written upon His garment and upon His thigh,” signifies truth and good. From all this, and from what there precedes and follows, it is manifest that toward the last period the internal sense of the Word will be opened; but what will then come to pass is also described there (verses 17-21).
Dan shall be a serpent upon the way, an arrow-snake upon the path, biting the horse’s heels, and his rider shall fall backward. I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah (Gen. 49:17-18).
That a “serpent” is one who reasons concerning Divine arcana from the senses and from memory-knowledges, may be seen above (n. 195); also that a “way” and a “path” are truth (n. 627, 2333); and that the “heel” is the lowest of the natural (n. 259); a “horse” is the understanding of the Word; and a “rider” he that teaches. Hence it is manifest what these prophetic words signify, namely, that one who reasons concerning the truths of faith from the senses and from memory-knowledges, sticks fast in the lowest things of nature only, and thus believes nothing, which is to “fall backward;” wherefore it is added, “I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah.”
sRef Hab@3 @15 S2′ sRef Hab@3 @8 S2′  In Habakkuk:
O God, Thou dost ride upon Thy horses, Thy chariots are salvation, Thou hast made Thy horses to tread in the sea (Hab. 3:8, 15);
where “horses” denote the Divine truths which are in the Word; “chariots,” doctrine from them; the “sea,” knowledges (n. 28, 2120); and because these are of the understanding of the Word from God, it is said, “Thou hast made Thy horses to tread in the sea.” Horses are here attributed to God, as in Revelation, above; to whom they cannot be attributed unless they signify such things.
sRef Ps@68 @4 S3′  In David:
Sing unto God, sing praises to His name, extol Him that rideth upon the clouds, by His name Jah (Ps. 68:4);
to “ride upon the clouds” denotes the understanding of the Word as to its interiors, or in its internal sense. That a “cloud” is the Word in the letter, in which is the internal sense, may be seen in the Preface to Genesis 18, where it is explained what is signified when it is said that the Lord will come in the clouds of heaven with power and glory.
sRef Zech@14 @20 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @9 S4′ sRef Ps@18 @10 S4′  In the same:
Jehovah bowed the heavens, and came down, and thick darkness was under His feet; and He rode upon a cherub (Ps. 18:9-10);
“thick darkness” here denotes clouds; to “ride upon a cherub” represents the Lord’s providence lest man should of himself enter into the mysteries of faith which are in the Word (n. 308).
In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, Holiness unto Jehovah (Zech. 14:20);
the “bells of the horses” denote the understanding of the spiritual things of the Word, which are holy.
sRef Jer@17 @25 S5′ sRef Jer@17 @26 S5′  In Jeremiah:
There shall enter in by the gates of this city kings and princes, sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariot and on horses, they, and their princes, the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and this city shall be inhabited forever (Jer. 17:25-26; 22:4);
the “city Jerusalem” denotes the Lord’s spiritual kingdom and church; “kings,” truths (n. 1672, 2015, 2069); “princes,” the primary precepts of truth (n. 1482, 2089); “David,” the Lord (n. 1888); the “men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem,” those who are in the good of love, of charity, and of faith (n. 2268, 2451, 2712); thus to “ride upon a chariot and upon horses” means to be instructed in the doctrine of truth from the internal understanding of the Word.
sRef Ps@45 @1 S6′ sRef Hos@14 @3 S6′ sRef Isa@58 @14 S6′ sRef Hos@14 @2 S6′  In Isaiah:
Then shalt thou delight thyself in Jehovah, and I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob (Isa. 58:14);
to “ride upon the high places of the earth” denotes intelligence. In David:
A song of loves: Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O mighty one, Thy glory and Thy majesty; and in Thy majesty go forward, ride upon the word of truth, and of the gentleness of righteousness, and Thy right hand shall teach Thee wonderful things (Ps. 45: title, 3-4);
to “ride upon the word of truth” manifestly denotes the understanding of truth; and “upon the word of the gentleness of righteousness,” the wisdom of good.
sRef Zech@12 @4 S7′  In Zechariah:
In that day, saith Jehovah, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness; and I will open Mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the peoples with blindness (Zech. 12:4-5);
where also the “horse” manifestly denotes the understanding, which would be smitten with astonishment and blindness; and the “rider” him that understands, who would be smitten with madness. In Hosea:
Take away all iniquity, and accept that which is good, and we will render the bullocks of our lips. Asshur shall not save us; we will not ride upon horses; and we will no more say to the work of our hands, Thou art our god (Hos. 14:2-3);
“Asshur” denotes reasoning (n. 119, 1186); the “horse” one’s own intelligence. Besides these there are many other passages.
sRef 2Ki@13 @14 S2′ sRef 2Ki@2 @12 S2′ sRef 2Ki@2 @11 S2′  From this I could see what is signified by the chariot of fire and horses of fire seen by Elisha when Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven; as also what is signified by the exclamation of Elisha then: “My Father, my Father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof” (2 Kings 2:11, 12); and by Joash king of Israel saying the same to Elisha when he was dying: “My Father, my Father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof” (2 Kings 13:14). That by Elijah and Elisha was represented the Lord as to the Word, will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told elsewhere; the doctrine of love and charity from the Word being meant by the “chariot of fire,” and the doctrine of faith therefrom by the “horses of fire.” The doctrine of faith is the same as the understanding of the Word as to its interiors, or as to its internal sense.
sRef 2Ki@6 @17 S3′  That chariots and horses are seen in the heavens with spirits and angels, is evident from the fact of their being seen by the prophets, as by Zechariah (chapter 1:8-10; 6:3-7), and by others, and also by Elisha’s servant, as thus described in the book of Kings:
Jehovah opened the eyes of Elisha’s boy, and he saw; and behold the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha (2 Kings 6:17).
Moreover, where the abode of the intelligent and wise is, in the world of spirits, chariots and horses appear continually; for the reason as said that by chariots and horses are represented the things of wisdom and of intelligence. Resuscitated persons after death, who are entering into the other life, see represented to them a young man sitting upon a horse, and then alighting from the horse; and by this is signified that they are to be instructed in the knowledge of good and truth before they can come into heaven (see volume 1, n. 187-188).
 That chariots and horses signified these things, was well known in the Ancient Church, as also is evident from the book of Job, which is a book of that Church, where are these words:
God hath made her to forget wisdom, and hath not imparted to her intelligence; what time she lifteth up herself on high she scorneth the horse and his rider (Job 39:17-19).
From the Ancient Church the signification of the horse, as being the faculty of understanding, was extended to the wise round about, even into Greece. From this it came to pass that when they described the sun (by which was signified love, n. 2441, 2495), they placed in it the god of their wisdom and intelligence, and gave him a chariot and four horses of fire; and that when they described the god of the sea, because by the sea were signified knowledges in general (n. 28, 2120), they gave horses also to him; and that when they described the rise of knowledges from the understanding, they represented a flying horse which with his hoof broke open a fountain, where dwelt the virgins that were the sciences; and by the Trojan horse nothing else was signified than a contrivance of their understanding for destroying city walls.
Even at this day the intellect is often described, according to the custom received from those ancient people, under the figure of a flying horse, or Pegasus; and learning is described as a fountain; but scarcely anyone knows that a horse, in the mystic sense, signifies the understanding, and a fountain truth; still less that these significatives were handed down to the Gentiles from the Ancient Church.
 Besides representatives, there are also correspondences which suggest and also signify something altogether different in the spiritual world from what they do in the natural world; as the heart, the affection of good; the eyes, the understanding; the ears, obedience; the hands, power; besides innumerable other correspondences. These are not represented in this way in the world of spirits; but they correspond, as what is natural to what is spiritual.
Hence it is that every word, even to the smallest iota of all, in the Word, involves spiritual and heavenly things; and that the Word is in this manner inspired, so that when it is read by man, spirits and angels immediately perceive it spiritually according to the representations and correspondences. But this knowledge, which was so much cultivated and esteemed by the ancients after the flood, and by means of which they were able to think with spirits and angels, is at this day altogether obliterated, so much so that scarcely anyone is willing to believe that it exists; and they who believe in it merely call it a kind of mystical thing, of no use; and this for the reason that man has become altogether worldly and corporeal; to such a degree that when what is spiritual and heavenly is mentioned, he feels a repugnance, and sometimes a loathing, or even nausea. What then will he do in the other life, which lasts forever, and where there is nothing worldly and corporeal, but only what is spiritual and heavenly, which makes the life in heaven?
1. And it came to pass after these words, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham; and he said, Here am I.
2. And He said, Take I pray thy son, thine only one, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee to the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.
3. And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his boys with him, and Isaac his son; and he clave the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God told him.
4. On the third day, and Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off.
5. And Abraham said unto his boys, Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the boy will go yonder, and we will bow ourselves down, and will come again to you.
6. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together.
7. And Isaac said unto Abraham his father; and he said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood; and where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?
8. And Abraham said, God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son: and they went both of them together.
9. And they came to the place which God told him of; and Abraham built there the altar, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood.
10. And Abraham put forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son.
11. And the angel of Jehovah called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Here am I.
12. And He said, Put not forth thine hand upon the boy, and do not anything unto him; for now I know that thou fearest God, and thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, from Me.
13. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw, and behold a ram behind, caught in a thicket by his horns; and Abraham went, and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son.
14. And Abraham called the name of that place, Jehovah-will-see, as it is said to this day, In the mountain Jehovah will see.
15. And the angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven.
16. And said, By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only one,
17. That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies.
18. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast harkened to My voice.
19. And Abraham returned unto his boys; and they rose up, and went together to Beersheba; and Abraham dwelt in Beersheba.
20. And it came to pass after these words that it was told Abraham, saying, Behold, Milcah, she also hath borne children unto Nahor thy brother:
21. Uz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram;
22. And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel.
23. And Bethuel begat Rebekah; these eight did Milcah bear to Nahor, Abraham’s brother.
24. And his concubine, whose name was Reumah, she also bare Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah.
In this chapter in the internal sense the Lord’s most grievous and inmost temptations are treated of, by which He united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence; and also the salvation by this union of those who constitute the Lord’s spiritual church.
Verse 1. And it came to pass after these words that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. “It came to pass after these words,” signifies after the things just accomplished; “that God did tempt Abraham,” signifies the Lord’s most grievous and inmost temptations; “and said unto him, Abraham,” signifies the Lord’s perception from Divine truth; “and he said, Here am I,” signifies thought and reflection.
Solomon began to build the house of Jehovah in Jerusalem, on Mount Moriah, which was seen by David his father, in the place which David prepared in the threshing floor of Ornan [Araunah] the Jebusite (2 Chron. 3:1; compare 1 Chron. 21:16-28 with 2 Sam. 24:16-25).
From this it is sufficiently evident that these things which are said respecting the sacrificing of Isaac are representative of the Lord; otherwise this might have been done where Abraham was then tarrying; and he would not have been commanded to proceed from thence a journey of nearly three days.
 It is a common belief at this day that the burnt-offerings and sacrifices signified the Lord’s passion, and that by this the Lord made expiation for the iniquities of all; indeed, that He took them upon Himself, and thus bore them; and that those who believe are in this manner justified and saved, provided they think, even though it were in the last hour before death, that the Lord suffered for them, no matter how they may have lived during the whole course of their life.
But the case is not really so: the passion of the cross was the extremity of the Lord’s temptation, by which He fully united His Human to His Divine and His Divine to His Human, and thus glorified Himself. This very union is the means by which those who have the faith in Him which is the faith of charity, can be saved. For the supreme Divine Itself could no longer reach to the human race, which had removed itself so far from the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith, that men no longer even acknowledged them, and still less perceived them. In order therefore that the supreme Divine might be able to come down to man in such a state, the Lord came into the world and united His Human to the Divine in Himself; which union could not be effected otherwise than by the most grievous combats of temptations and by victories, and at length by the last, which was that of the cross.
 Hence it is that the Lord can from His Divine Human illumine minds, even those far removed from the celestial things of love, provided they are in the faith of charity. For the Lord in the other life appears to the celestial angels as a Sun, and to the spiritual as a Moon (n. 1053, 1521, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495), whence comes all the light of heaven. This light of heaven is of such a nature that when it illumines the sight of spirits and angels, it also illumines their understanding at the same time.
This is inherent in that light, so that in heaven so much as anyone has of external light, so much has he of internal light, that is, so much of understanding; which shows wherein the light of heaven differs from the light of the world. It is the Lord’s Divine Human which illuminates both the sight and the understanding of the spiritual; which would not take place if the Lord had not united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence; and if He had not united them, man in the world would no longer have had any capacity of understanding and perceiving what is good and true, nor indeed would a spiritual angel in heaven have had any; so that they would have had nothing of blessedness and happiness, consequently nothing of salvation. From this we can see that the human race could not have been saved unless the Lord had assumed the Human and glorified it.
 Hence then anyone may infer what truth there is in the idea that men are saved if they only think from a kind of interior emotion that the Lord suffered for them, and took away their sins, however they may have lived; whereas the light of heaven from the Lord’s Divine Human cannot reach to any but those who live in the good of faith, that is, in charity; or what is the same, those who have conscience. The very plane into which that light can operate, or the receptacle of that light, is the good of faith, or charity, and thus conscience. (That the spiritual have salvation from the Lord’s Divine Human, may be seen above, n. 1043, 2661, 2716, 2718.)
Let them bring me to the mountain of Thy holiness, and to Thy tabernacles; and I will go unto the altar of God, unto God, the gladness of my joy (Ps. 43:3-4).
That the temple was so too, is evident in John:
Jesus said, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. He spake of the temple of His body (John 2:19, 21).
sRef Isa@30 @7 S2′ sRef Gen@49 @14 S2′ sRef Isa@30 @6 S2′  There are two things which constitute the natural with man, or what is the same, which constitute the natural man, namely, natural good and natural truth. Natural good is the delight flowing forth from charity and faith; natural truth is the memory-knowledge of them. That natural truth is what is signified by the “ass,” and rational truth by the “mule,” may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:
The prophecy of the beasts of the south. In a land of straightness and distress; the lion and the old lion,* and from them the viper and the flying fire-serpent; they carry their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels, to a people that shall not profit; and the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose (Isa. 30:6-7);
those are called the “beasts of the south” who are in the knowledges of good and truth, but who make them not of the life but of memory; of whom it is said that “they shall bring their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels,” for the reason that “young asses” signify memory-knowledges in particular, and “camels” memory-knowledges in general: that the “Egyptians” are memory-knowledges, may be seen above (n. 1164, 1165, 1186); of whom it is said that “they shall help in vain and to no purpose.” That this prophecy has an internal sense, without which it is understood by nobody, is plain to everyone; for without the internal sense it cannot be known what the prophecy of the beasts of the south is, the lion and the old lion, the viper and the flying fire-serpent; and what is meant by these beasts bringing their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels, and why it immediately follows that the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose. The like is meant by the “ass” in the prophecy of Israel respecting Issachar, in Moses:
Issachar is a bony ass, lying down between the burdens (Gen. 49:14).
sRef Zech@14 @15 S3′ sRef Zech@14 @12 S3′  In Zechariah:
This shall be the plague wherewith Jehovah will smite all the peoples that shall fight against Jerusalem; there shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of every beast (Zech. 14:12, 15);
that by the “horse,” “mule,” “camel,” and “ass,” are signified things of the understanding in man, which will be affected by the plague, is evident from all that precedes and follows there; for the plagues which precede the last judgment or consummation of the age are treated of, a subject also much treated of by John in Revelation, and by the rest of the prophets in many places. By these animals are meant those who will then fight against Jerusalem, that is, against the Lord’s spiritual church and its truths, and who will be affected by such plagues as to the things of their understanding.
sRef Isa@32 @20 S4′  In Isaiah:
Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters, that send forth the foot of the ox and the ass (Isa. 32:20);
“they that sow beside all waters” denote those who suffer themselves to be instructed in spiritual things. (That “waters” are spiritual things, thus intellectual things of truth, may be seen above, n. 680, 739, 2702.) “They that send forth the foot of the ox and the ass” denote natural things which are to do service. The “ox” is the natural as to good (see n. 2180, 2566). The “ass” is the natural as to truth.
 In Moses:
Binding his young ass unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; he hath washed his garments in wine, and his vesture in the blood of grapes (Gen. 49:11);
this is the prophecy of Jacob, at that time Israel, concerning the Lord; the “vine” and the “choice vine” denote the spiritual church external and internal (n. 1069); the “young ass” denotes natural truth; the “ass’s colt” rational truth. The reason an “ass’s colt” denotes rational truth is that a “she-ass” signifies the affection of natural truth (n. 1486), the son of which is rational truth, as may be seen above (n. 1895, 1896, 1902, 1910).
sRef 1Ki@1 @38 S6′ sRef 1Ki@1 @33 S6′ sRef Judg@5 @10 S6′ sRef Judg@5 @9 S6′ sRef 2Sam@13 @29 S6′ sRef Judg@10 @3 S6′ sRef Judg@10 @4 S6′ sRef 1Ki@1 @44 S6′ sRef 1Ki@1 @45 S6′ sRef Judg@12 @14 S6′ sRef Judg@12 @13 S6′  In old times a judge rode upon a she-ass, and his sons upon young asses; for the reason that the judges represented the goods of the church, and their sons the truths thence derived. But a king rode upon a she-mule, and his sons upon mules, by reason that kings and their sons represented the truths of the church (see n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069). That a judge rode upon a she-ass is evident in the book of Judges:
My heart is toward the lawgivers of Israel, that offered themselves willingly among the people; bless ye Jehovah, ye that ride upon white she-asses, ye that sit upon carpets (Judg. 5:9-10).
That the sons of the judges rode upon young asses:
Jair the judge over Israel had thirty sons, that rode on thirty young asses (Judges 10:3-4, and in other places).
Abdon the judge of Israel had forty sons, and thirty sons’ sons, that rode on seventy young asses (Judges 12:14).
That a king rode upon a she-mule:
David said unto them, Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon the she-mule which is mine. And they caused Solomon to ride upon king David’s she-mule, and Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anointed him king in Gihon (1 Kings 1:33, 38, 44-45).
That the sons of a king rode upon he-mules:
All the sons of king David rose up, and rode each one upon his mule, and fled, because of Absalom (2 Sam. 13:29).
sRef Matt@21 @7 S7′ sRef Matt@21 @4 S7′ sRef Matt@21 @2 S7′ sRef Zech@9 @9 S7′ sRef Zech@9 @10 S7′ sRef Matt@21 @1 S7′ sRef Matt@21 @5 S7′  Hence it is manifest that to ride on a she-ass was the badge of a judge, and to ride on a she-mule, the badge of a king; and that to ride on a young ass was the badge of a judge’s sons, and to ride on a mule was the badge of a king’s sons; for the reason as already said that a she-ass represented and signified the affection of natural good and truth, a she-mule the affection of rational truth, an ass or a young ass natural truth itself, and a mule and also the son of a she-ass rational truth. Hence it is plain what is meant by the prophecy concerning the Lord in Zechariah:
Rejoice, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, thy King cometh unto thee. He is just and having salvation, lowly and riding upon an ass, and upon a young ass the son of she-asses. His dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth (Zech. 9:9-10).
That the Lord, when He came to Jerusalem, willed to ride upon these animals, is known from the Evangelists, as in Matthew:
Jesus sent two disciples, saying unto them, Go into the village that is over against you, and straightway ye shall find a she-ass tied, and a colt with her; loose them, and bring them unto Me. This was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Zion, Behold thy King cometh unto thee, meek, sitting upon a she-ass, and upon a colt the son of a beast of burden. And they brought the she-ass and the colt, and put their garments upon them, and set Him thereon (Matt. 21:1-2, 4-5, 7).
sRef Gen@49 @11 S8′ sRef John@12 @13 S8′ sRef John@12 @16 S8′ sRef John@12 @15 S8′ sRef John@12 @12 S8′ sRef John@12 @14 S8′  To “ride upon an ass” was a sign that the natural was made subordinate; and to “ride upon a colt the son of a she-ass” was a sign that the rational was made subordinate. (That the “son of a she-ass” signified the same as a “mule” has been shown above at the passage from Gen. 49:11.) From this their signification, and because it belonged to the highest judge and to a king to ride upon them, and at the same time that the representatives of the church might be fulfilled, it pleased the Lord to do this: as is thus described in John:
On the next day a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees, and went forth to meet Him, and cried, Hosanna, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel. And Jesus, having found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written, Fear not, daughter of Zion; behold thy King cometh sitting on the colt of a she-ass. These things understood not His disciples at the first; but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of Him, and that they had done these things unto Him (John 12:12-16; Mark 11:1-12; Luke 19:28-41).
 From all this it is now evident that all and everything in the church of that period was representative of the Lord, and therefore of the celestial and spiritual things that are in His kingdom-even to the she-ass and the colt of a she-ass, by which the natural man as to good and truth was represented. The reason of the representation was that the natural man ought to serve the rational, and this the spiritual, this the celestial, and this the Lord: such is the order of subordination.
sRef Deut@22 @4 S10′ sRef Deut@22 @11 S10′ sRef Deut@22 @10 S10′ sRef Ex@23 @12 S10′ sRef Ex@23 @5 S10′ sRef Ex@21 @33 S10′ sRef Ex@21 @34 S10′ sRef Ex@23 @4 S10′  Since by an “ox and an ass” the natural man as to good and truth is signified, many laws were therefore given in which oxen and asses are mentioned, which laws at first sight do not appear to be worthy of mention in the Divine Word; but when unfolded as to their internal sense, the spiritual meaning in them appears to be of great moment-as the following in Moses:
If a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall into it, the owner of the pit shall give money to the owner, and the dead shall be his (Exod. 21:33-34).
If thou meet thine enemy’s ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again. If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to remove it, removing thou shalt remove it from him (Exod. 23:4-5; Deut. 22:1, 3).
Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ass or his ox falling down in the way, and hide thyself from them; lifting thou shalt lift them up again (Deut. 22:4).
Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together. Thou shalt not wear a mixed web of wool and linen together (Deut. 22:10-11).
Six days thou shalt do thy works, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest, that thine ox and thine ass may rest also, and the son of thy handmaid, and the sojourner (Exod. 23:12).
Here the “ox and ass” signify nothing else in the spiritual sense than natural good and truth.
* Tigris; but leo vetus, n. 3048. [Rotch ed.]
sRef Hos@6 @2 S2′ sRef Matt@12 @40 S2′ sRef Hos@6 @1 S2′ sRef Jonah@1 @17 S2′  Hence the number “three” was representative, not only in the Ancient Church and in the Jewish, but also among various nations. (See what is said concerning this number above, n. 720, 901, 1825.) That this was the origin of the signification of “three,” is evident in Hosea:
Let us return unto Jehovah, for He hath wounded, and He will heal us; He hath smitten, and He will bind us up; after two days He will revive us, on the third day He will raise us up, that we may live before Him (Hos. 6:1-2);
where the “third day” denotes the Lord’s coming, and His resurrection. And from Jonah, that he “was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights” (Jonah 1:17); concerning which the Lord thus speaks in Matthew:
As Jonah was in the whale’s belly three days and three nights, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth (Matt. 12:40).
sRef John@2 @21 S3′ sRef John@2 @20 S3′ sRef John@2 @19 S3′  Be it known that in the internal sense of the Word “three days” and the “third day” signify the same, as also do “three” and “third” in the passages which now follow. In John:
Jesus said to the Jews, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. He spake of the temple of His body (John 2:19-21; Matt. 26:61; Mark 14:58; 15:29).
sRef Mark@15 @34 S4′ sRef Mark@16 @1 S4′ sRef Luke@23 @44 S4′ sRef Mark@15 @33 S4′ sRef Mark@15 @37 S4′ sRef Ex@19 @15 S4′ sRef Luke@13 @32 S4′ sRef Ex@19 @10 S4′ sRef Ex@10 @23 S4′ sRef Ex@10 @22 S4′ sRef Ex@19 @11 S4′ sRef Ex@19 @16 S4′ sRef Mark@16 @4 S4′ sRef Num@10 @33 S4′ sRef Mark@16 @3 S4′ sRef Mark@16 @2 S4′  That the Lord rose again on the third day is known. For the same reason the Lord distinguished the periods of His life into three, as stated in Luke:
Go ye and tell that fox, Behold I cast out demons, and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I am perfected (Luke 13:32).
His last temptation also, that of the cross, the Lord endured at the “third hour” of the day (Mark 15:25); and after three hours there came darkness over the whole land, or at the “sixth hour” (Luke 23:44); and after three hours, or at the “ninth hour,” the end (Mark 15:33-34, 37). But on the morning of the “third day” He rose again (Mark 16:1-4; Luke 24:7); (see Matt. 16:21; 17:22-23; 20:18-19; Mark 8:31; 9:31; 10:33-34; Luke 18:33; 24:46). From all this, and especially from the Lord’s resurrection on the third day, the number “three” was representative and significative, as may be seen from the following passages in the Word:
When Jehovah came down upon Mount Sinai, He told Moses to sanctify the people today and tomorrow, and that they should wash their garments, and be ready against the third day, for on the third day Jehovah would descend (Exod. 19:10-11, 15-16).
When they set forth from the mount of Jehovah on a journey of three days, the ark of Jehovah went before them a three days’ journey to seek out a resting place for them (Num. 10:33).
There was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days, and they saw not one another for three days, but the sons of Israel had light (Exod. 10:22-23).
sRef Lev@7 @17 S5′ sRef Lev@7 @16 S5′ sRef Lev@7 @18 S5′ sRef Num@19 @19 S5′ sRef Num@31 @19 S5′ sRef Num@19 @12 S5′ sRef Num@19 @13 S5′  The flesh of the sacrifice of a vow, or of a freewill-offering, was to be eaten on the first and second day; nothing was to be left to the third day, but the remainder was to be burnt, because it was an abomination.
So too with the flesh of the peace-offering; and if it should be eaten on the third day it would not propitiate, but the soul should carry its iniquity (Lev. 7:16-18; 19:6-7).
He that touched one dead was to purify himself on the third day, and on the seventh day he should be clean; otherwise that soul should be cut off from Israel and one that was clean should sprinkle water upon him that was unclean on the third day and on the seventh day (Num. 19:12-13, 19).
They who slew a person in battle, or touched one that was slain, were to purify themselves on the third day, and on the seventh day (Num. 31:19).
sRef 1Sam@3 @8 S6′ sRef Ex@23 @14 S6′ sRef Josh@1 @11 S6′ sRef Ex@23 @17 S6′ sRef Deut@14 @29 S6′ sRef Deut@14 @28 S6′ sRef Josh@3 @2 S6′ sRef Lev@19 @23 S6′  When they came into the land of Canaan the fruit was to be uncircumcised three years, and was not to be eaten (Lev. 19:23).
At the end of three years they were to bring all the tithes of their increase in that year and lay it up in their gates, that the Levite, the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow might eat (Deut. 14:28-29; 24:12).
Three times in the year they were to keep a feast to Jehovah, and three times in the year every male was to appear before the face of the Lord Jehovih (Exod. 23:14, 17; Deut. 16:16).
Joshua told the people that in three days they should pass over the Jordan and inherit the land (Josh. 1:11; 3:2).
sRef 1Sam@20 @5 S7′ sRef 2Sam@24 @13 S7′ sRef 1Sam@20 @35 S7′ sRef 1Sam@20 @20 S7′ sRef 1Sam@20 @19 S7′ sRef 1Sam@20 @12 S7′ sRef 2Sam@24 @12 S7′ sRef 1Sam@20 @36 S7′ sRef 1Sam@20 @41 S7′  Jehovah called to Samuel three times, and he answered the third time (1 Sam. 3:8).
When Saul wished to kill David, David hid himself in the field till the third evening. Jonathan said to David that he would sound his father on the third day. Jonathan shot three arrows by the side of the stone, and David then fell upon his face to the earth before Jonathan and bowed himself down three times (1 Sam. 20:5, 12, 19-20, 30, 36, 41).
David was to choose one of three things: seven years of famine in the land; or that he should flee before his enemies three months; or a pestilence in the land three days (2 Sam. 24:12-13).
sRef 1Ki@18 @34 S8′ sRef 1Ki@17 @21 S8′ sRef 2Sam@21 @1 S8′ sRef 1Ki@17 @22 S8′ sRef 2Ki@19 @29 S8′ sRef 2Ki@1 @13 S8′  There was a famine in the days of David three years, year after year (2 Sam. 21:1).
Elijah stretched himself upon the dead child three times and brought him to life (1 Kings 17:21).
When Elijah had built the altar to Jehovah, he told them to pour water upon the burnt offering and upon the wood three times (1 Kings 18:34).
The fire twice consumed the commanders over fifty, sent to Elijah, but not him that was sent the third time (2 Kings 1:13).
It was a sign to king Hezekiah that they should eat that year what sprung up spontaneously, in the second year the aftergrowth, but in the third year they should sow, reap, plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them (2 Kings 19:29).
sRef Ex@28 @20 S9′ sRef Ex@28 @18 S9′ sRef Dan@10 @3 S9′ sRef Isa@20 @3 S9′ sRef Dan@6 @10 S9′ sRef Ex@25 @32 S9′ sRef Dan@10 @2 S9′ sRef Ex@25 @33 S9′ sRef Ex@28 @19 S9′ sRef Dan@6 @13 S9′ sRef Ex@28 @17 S9′  Daniel entered into his house and had the windows open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, and here three times a day he blessed upon his knees and prayed (Dan. 6:11, 14).
Daniel mourned three weeks of days, eating no pleasant bread, nor drinking wine, nor anointing himself, until the three weeks of days were fulfilled (Dan. 10:2-3).
Isaiah went naked and barefoot three years, for a sign and a wonder upon Egypt and upon Cush (Isa. 20:3).
Out of the candlestick went forth three branches on each side, and three almond-shaped cups on each branch (Exod. 25:32-33).
In the Urim and Thummim there were three precious stones in each row (Exod. 28:17-19).
sRef Matt@20 @3 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @11 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @2 S10′ sRef Matt@26 @69 S10′ sRef Ezek@40 @21 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @13 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @8 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @5 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @10 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @9 S10′ sRef Ezek@48 @33 S10′ sRef John@21 @17 S10′ sRef Ezek@48 @32 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @7 S10′ sRef Matt@26 @34 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @4 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @12 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @1 S10′ sRef Luke@13 @7 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @6 S10′ sRef Luke@13 @6 S10′ sRef Ezek@48 @34 S10′ sRef Luke@20 @12 S10′ sRef Ezek@40 @10 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @16 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @15 S10′ sRef Ezek@48 @31 S10′ sRef Matt@20 @14 S10′ sRef Ezek@40 @48 S10′  In the new temple there were to be three chambers of the gate on this side and three on that side, and they three should have one measure; at the porch of the house the breadth of the gate should be three cubits on this side and three cubits on that side (Ezek. 40:10, 21, 48).
In the new Jerusalem there were to be three gates to the north, three to the east, three to the south, and three to the west (Ezek. 48:31-34; Rev. 21:13).
So in the following passages:
Peter denied Jesus thrice (Matt. 26:34, 69 and following verses).
The Lord said to Peter three times, “Lovest thou Me?” (John 21:17).
Also in the parable, the man who planted the vineyard sent servants three times, and at length his son (Luke 20:12; Mark 12:2, 4-6).
They who labored in the vineyard were hired at the third hour, the sixth hour, the ninth hour, and the eleventh hour (Matt. 20:1-17).
Because the fig tree did not bear fruit for three years, it was to be cut down (Luke 13:6, 7).
sRef Zech@13 @9 S11′ sRef Ezek@5 @1 S11′ sRef Ezek@5 @11 S11′ sRef Num@15 @7 S11′ sRef Ezek@5 @2 S11′ sRef Num@15 @6 S11′ sRef Zech@13 @8 S11′  As a trine and a third were representative, so also was a third part; as that in the meat offering of fine flour two tenths were mixed with a third part of a hin of oil and the wine for a libation was a third part of a hin (Num. 15:6, 7; Ezek. 46:14).
The prophet Ezekiel was to pass a razor upon his head, and upon his beard, and then divide the hair and burn a third part in the fire, and smite a third with the sword, about it [the city], and scatter a third to the wind (Ezek. 5:1-2, 11).
In the whole land, two parts were to be cut off and the third was to be left; but the third was to be brought through the fire and proved (Zech. 13:8-9).
sRef Rev@8 @12 S12′ sRef Rev@8 @11 S12′ sRef Rev@8 @10 S12′ sRef Rev@8 @7 S12′ sRef Rev@8 @8 S12′ sRef Rev@8 @9 S12′  When the first angel sounded there came hail and fire mingled with blood, and it fell upon the earth so that a third part of the trees were burnt up. The second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea, and a third part of the sea became blood; because of which a third part of the creatures in the sea having souls, died, and a third part of the ships were destroyed. The third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven burning like a lamp, and it fell upon a third part of the rivers; the name of the star was Wormwood. The fourth angel sounded, and a third part of the sun was smitten, and a third part of the moon, and a third part of the stars, so that a third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night in like manner (Rev. 8:7-12).
sRef Rev@9 @18 S13′ sRef Rev@9 @15 S13′ sRef Rev@12 @4 S13′  The four angels were loosed to kill a third part of men (Rev. 9:15).
By these three were the third part of men killed, by the fire, and the smoke, and the brimstone, which proceeded out of the mouth of the horses (Rev. 9:18).
The dragon drew with his tail a third part of the stars of heaven and cast them to the earth (Rev. 12:4).
A “third part,” however, signifies some, and what is not yet complete; but the “third,” and a “trine,” what is complete; and this, of evil to the evil, and of good to the good.
 Here we will merely say that the Lord could not be tempted at all when He was in the Divine Itself, for the Divine is infinitely above all temptation; but He could be tempted as to His human. This is the reason why when He was to undergo the most grievous and inmost temptations, He adjoined to Himself the prior human, that is, the rational and the natural of it, as described in verse 3; and why He afterwards separated Himself from these, as is said in this verse; but nevertheless retaining something by means of which He could be tempted; which is the reason why it is not here said, “Isaac my son,” but “the boy,” by whom is meant the Divine rational in such a state, namely, in a state of truth, prepared for the most grievous and inmost combats of temptations (see n. 2793). That neither the Divine Itself nor the Divine Human could be tempted, must be evident to everyone simply from the fact that not even the angels can approach the Divine, much less the spirits who induce temptations, and still less the hells. Hence it is manifest why the Lord came into the world, and put on the human state itself with its infirmity; for thus He could be tempted as to the human, and by means of the temptations subjugate the hells, and reduce each and all things to obedience and into order, and save the human race which had removed itself so far away from the supreme Divine.
 The changes of state with man as to what is of the understanding and as to what is of the will, and the order in which they follow on, as also the series through which they pass, and thus how they are bent by the Lord as far as possible to good, it belongs to the angels to know. The wisdom of the angels is such that they perceive all these things most minutely. Hence it is that these things which are revealed in the internal sense concerning the changes of state with the Lord, are clearly and distinctly perceivable by the angels, because they are in the light of heaven from the Lord; and they are also in some degree intelligible to a man who lives in simple good; but they are merely obscure and as nothing to those who are in evil, and also to those who are in the deliriums of wisdom; for these have obscured and extinguished their natural and rational light by many things which have induced darkness, however much they may believe that they are preeminently in light.
 That He was born of the virgin Mary is known, yet as another man; but when He was born again, or became Divine, it was from Jehovah who was in Him, and who was Himself as to the very being of life. The unition of the Divine and the Human Essence was effected mutually and reciprocally, so that He united the Divine Essence to the Human and the Human to the Divine (see n. 1921, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2018, 2025, 2083, 2508, 2523, 2618, 2628, 2632, 2728, 2729). Hence it is evident that the Lord made the Human in Himself Divine by His own power, and thus became righteousness. The merit of righteousness was what was adjoined to the Divine rational when He underwent inmost temptations, and from it He then fought, and against this the evil genii fought, until He glorified this also. These are the things meant in the internal sense by Abraham laying the wood of the burnt-offering upon Isaac his son, and these are what are perceived by the angels when the words are read.
sRef Isa@31 @8 S2′ sRef Ps@149 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@149 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@45 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@49 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@49 @1 S2′  I. That a “sword” signifies the truth of faith combating, may be seen from the following passages. In David:
Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O mighty One, prosper in Thy glow and Thy majesty, ride upon the word of truth, and Thy right hand shall teach Thee wonderful things (Ps. 45:3-4);
where the Lord is treated of, the “sword” denoting truth combating. In the same:
Let the merciful exult in glory, let them sing upon their beds; let the high praises of God be in their throat, and a two-edged sword in their hand (Ps. 149:5-6).
Jehovah hath called Me from the womb; from the bowels of My mother hath He made mention of My name, and He hath made My mouth like a sharp sword, and hath made Me a polished arrow (Isa. 49:1-2);
a “sharp sword” denotes truth combating; and a “polished arrow,” the truth of doctrine (see n. 2686, 2709). In the same:
Asshur shall fall by the sword not of a man; and the sword not of man shall devour him; and he shall flee before the sword, and his young men shall become tributary (Isa. 31:8);
“Asshur” denotes reasoning in Divine things (n. 119, 1186); the “sword not of a man, and not of man,” falsity; the “sword before which he shall flee,” truth combating.
sRef Zech@9 @14 S3′ sRef Rev@2 @12 S3′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S3′ sRef Zech@9 @13 S3′ sRef Rev@1 @16 S3′ sRef Zech@9 @12 S3′ sRef Rev@2 @16 S3′  In Zechariah:
Turn you to the stronghold, ye prisoners of hope; even today do I declare that I will render double unto thee; I who have bent Judah for Me as a bow, I have filled Ephraim, and have stirred up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Javan, and I will make thee as the sword of a mighty man, and Jehovah shall be seen over them, and His arrows shall go forth as the lightning (Zech. 9:12-14);
the “sword of a mighty man” denotes truth combating. In John:
In the midst of the seven candlesticks was one like unto the Son of man; He had in His right hand seven stars; out of His mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword, and His countenance was as the sun shining in his strength (Rev. 1:13, 16).
These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword; I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of My mouth (Rev. 2:12, 16);
the “sharp two-edged sword” manifestly denotes truth combating, which was therefore represented as a “sword going out of the mouth.”
sRef Matt@10 @34 S4′ sRef Rev@19 @21 S4′ sRef Rev@19 @15 S4′ sRef Luke@22 @38 S4′ sRef Luke@22 @37 S4′ sRef Luke@22 @239 S4′ sRef Luke@22 @36 S4′  In the same:
Out of the mouth of Him that sat upon the white horse proceeded a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations; and they were slain by the sword of Him that sat upon the horse, which came forth out of His mouth (Rev. 19:15, 21);
where it is manifest that the “sword out of His mouth” is truth combating. (That He who sat upon the white horse is the Word, and thus the Lord who is the Word, may be seen above, n. 2760-2763.) Hence it is that the Lord says in Matthew:
Think not that I came to send peace on the earth; I came not to send peace, but a sword (Matt. 10:34).
Also in Luke:
Now he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet; and he that hath none, let him sell his garment, and buy a sword; they said, Lord, behold here are two swords; and Jesus said, It is enough (Luke 22:36-38);
where nothing else is meant by a “sword” than the truth from which and for which they would combat.
sRef Josh@5 @14 S5′ sRef Josh@5 @13 S5′ sRef Hos@2 @18 S5′  In Hosea:
In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, and with the fowl of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the ground; and I will break the bow, and the sword, and the war out of the land; and will make them to lie down securely (Hos. 2:18);
where the Lord’s kingdom is treated of; by “breaking the how, the sword, and the war,” is signified that there is no combat there respecting doctrine and truth. In Joshua:
Joshua lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold there stood a man over against him, and his sword drawn in his hand; and he said to Joshua, I am prince of the army of Jehovah; and Joshua fell on his face to the earth (Josh. 5:13-14).
This was when Joshua entered with the sons of Israel into the land of Canaan, by which is meant the entrance of the faithful into the Lord’s kingdom. Truth combating, which is of the church, is the “drawn sword in the hand of the prince of the army of Jehovah.”
sRef Josh@5 @3 S6′ sRef Josh@5 @2 S6′  But that by “little swords” or “knives” is signified the truth of faith, may be seen from the fact that they were used not only in the sacrifices, but also in circumcision. For use in circumcision they were of stone, and were called “little swords of flint,” as is manifest in Joshua:
Jehovah said unto Joshua, Make thee little swords of flint, and circumcise again the sons of Israel the second time. And Joshua made him little swords of flint, and circumcised the sons of Israel at the hill of the foreskins (Josh. 5:2-3).
That circumcision was a representative of purification from the love of self and the world, may be seen above (n. 2039, 2632); and as this purification is effected by the truths of faith, therefore little swords of flint were used (n. 2039 at the end, 2046 at the end).
sRef Isa@51 @19 S7′ sRef Isa@51 @20 S7′ sRef Isa@65 @12 S7′  II. That a “sword” signifies the vastation of truth, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:
These two things are befallen thee; who shall bemoan thee? Desolation and destruction, and the famine and the sword; who will comfort thee? Thy sons have fainted, they lie at the head of all the streets (Isa. 51:19-20);
“famine” denotes the vastation of good; and the “sword” the vastation of truth; to “lie at the head of all the streets,” is to be deprived of all truth. (That a “street” is truth may be seen above, n. 2336; and what vastation is, at n. 301-304, 407-408, 410-411.) In the same:
I will number you to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter; because I called, and ye did not answer; I spake, and ye did not hear (Isa. 65:12).
sRef Isa@66 @16 S8′ sRef Jer@12 @12 S8′ sRef Jer@12 @13 S8′ sRef Jer@5 @13 S8′ sRef Jer@5 @12 S8′  In the same:
By fire and by the sword will Jehovah judge all flesh, and the slain of Jehovah shall be many (Isa. 66:16);
the “slain of Jehovah” denote those who are vastated. In Jeremiah:
Spoilers are come upon all the hillsides in the wilderness, for the sword of Jehovah devoureth from the one end of the land; even to the other end of the land no flesh hath peace; they have sown wheat, and have reaped thorns (Jer. 12:12-13);
the “sword of Jehovah” plainly denotes the vastation of truth. In the same:
They have lied against Jehovah, and said, It is not He, neither shall evil come upon us, neither shall we see sword nor famine; and the prophets shall become wind, and the word is not in them (Jer. 5:12-13).
sRef Jer@32 @24 S9′ sRef Jer@11 @22 S9′ sRef Jer@24 @10 S9′ sRef Jer@14 @12 S9′ sRef Jer@14 @13 S9′ sRef Jer@32 @36 S9′  In the same:
I will visit upon them; the young men shall die by the sword, their sons and their daughters shall die by famine (Jer. 11:22).
In the same:
When they offer burnt-offering and meat-offering I will not accept them; for I will consume them by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence. And I said, Ah, Lord Jehovih, behold the prophets say unto them, Ye shall not see the sword, and ye shall not have famine (Jer. 14:12-13).
In the same:
The city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans that fight against it, because of the sword, and of the famine, and of the pestilence (Jer. 32:24, 36).
In the same:
I will send the sword, the famine, and the pestilence among them, until they be consumed from off the land that I gave unto them and to their fathers (Jer. 24:10).
sRef Ezek@7 @15 S10′ sRef Ezek@5 @12 S10′ sRef Ezek@5 @17 S10′ sRef Ezek@5 @1 S10′ sRef Ezek@5 @2 S10′  In these passages by “the sword, the famine, and the pestilence” vastation is described; by the “sword” the vastation of truth, by the “famine” the vastation of good, and by the “pestilence” a wasting away even to consumption. In Ezekiel:
Son of man, take thee a sharp sword, a barber’s razor shalt thou take it unto thee, and shalt cause it to pass upon thy head, and upon thy beard; and take thee balances to weigh, and divide them. A third part shalt thou burn with fire in the midst of the city; a third part thou shalt smite with the sword round about it; and a third part thou shalt scatter to the wind; and I will draw out a sword after them. A third part shall die with the pestilence, and with famine shall they be consumed in the midst of thee; and a third part shall fall by the sword round about thee; and a third part I will scatter to every wind, and I will draw out a sword after them (Ezek. 5:1-2, 12, 17).
Here the vastation of natural truth is treated of, which is thus described. In the same:
The sword is without, and the pestilence and the famine within; he that is in the field shall die by the sword, and he that is in the city, famine and pestilence shall devour him (Ezek. 7:15).
sRef Ezek@21 @8 S11′ sRef Ezek@21 @4 S11′ sRef Ezek@21 @10 S11′ sRef Ezek@21 @9 S11′ sRef Ezek@21 @5 S11′ sRef Ezek@21 @29 S11′ sRef Ezek@21 @28 S11′ sRef Ezek@21 @3 S11′  In the same:
Say to the land of Israel, Thus said Jehovah, Behold I am against thee, and will draw forth My sword out of its sheath, and will cut off from thee the just and the wicked. Because I will cut off from thee the just and the wicked, therefore shall My sword go forth out of its sheath, it shall not return any more. The word of Jehovah came unto me, saying, Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus said Jehovah, Say a sword, a sword, it Is sharpened and also furbished; it is sharpened to slaughter a slaughter; it Is furbished that it may be as lightning. Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus said the Lord Jehovih to the sons of Ammon, and to their reproach; and say thou, A sword, a sword is drawn for the slaughter, it is furbished to devour because of the lightning, whiles they see vanity unto thee, whiles they divine a lie unto thee (Ezek. 21:3-5, 8-10, 28-29).
Nothing else is here signified by the “sword” than vastation, as is manifest from the particulars in the internal sense.
sRef Ezek@26 @10 S12′ sRef Jer@4 @10 S12′ sRef Ps@7 @12 S12′ sRef Ezek@26 @11 S12′ sRef Ezek@26 @9 S12′  In the same:
The king of Babel shall break down thy towers with his swords; by reason of the abundance of his horses their dust shall cover thee; by reason of the noise of the rider, and of the wheel, and of the chariot, thy walls shall shake; with the hoofs of his horses shall he tread down all thy streets (Ezek. 26:9-11).
What Babel is, may be seen above (n. 1326); and that it vastates (n. 1327). In David:
If he turn not, God will whet His sword, He will bend His bow, and make it ready (Ps. 7:12).
I said, Ah Lord Jehovih surely deceiving Thou hath deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, Ye shall have peace; and the sword hath reached even to the soul (Jer. 4:10).
sRef Jer@46 @14 S13′  In the same:
Declare ye in Egypt, and make it to be heard in Migdol, Stand forth and prepare thee, for the sword shall devour round about thee (Jer. 46:14).
A sword is upon the Chaldeans, and upon the inhabitants of Babel, and upon her princes, and upon her wise men; a sword is upon her boasters, and they shall be foolish; a sword is upon her mighty men, and they shall be dismayed; a sword is upon her horses, and upon her chariots, and upon all the mixed multitude that is in the midst of her, and they shall become as women; a sword is upon her treasures, and they shall be robbed; a drought is upon her waters, and they shall be dried up (Jer. 50:35-38);
a “sword” manifestly denotes the vastation of truth, for it is said, “a sword is upon the wise men, upon the boasters, upon the mighty men, upon the horses and the chariot, and upon the treasures,” and that “drought is upon the waters, and they shall be dried up.”
sRef Hos@11 @5 S14′ sRef Lam@5 @9 S14′ sRef Lam@5 @6 S14′ sRef Amos@4 @10 S14′ sRef Lam@5 @8 S14′ sRef Hos@11 @6 S14′  In the same:
We have given the hand to Egypt, to Asshur, to be satisfied with bread. Servants have ruled over us, there is none to deliver us out of their hand; we got our bread with our lives, because of the sword of the wilderness (Lam. 5:6, 8-9).
He shall not return into the land of Egypt, and Asshur he shall be his king, because they refused to return to Me, and the sword shall hang over his cities, and shall consume his bars, and shall devour them, because of their counsels (Hos. 11:5-6).
I have sent among you the pestilence in the way of Egypt, I have slain your young men with the sword, with the captivity of your horses (Amos 4:10);
“in the way of Egypt” denotes the memory-knowledges which vastate, when they reason from them on Divine things; the “captivity of the horses” denotes the intellectual faculty deprived of its endowment.
sRef Jer@2 @31 S15′ sRef Ps@57 @4 S15′ sRef Isa@14 @19 S15′ sRef Jer@2 @30 S15′ sRef Ps@59 @7 S15′  III That a “sword” in the opposite sense signifies falsity combating, may be seen in David:
My soul lieth in the midst of lions, the sons of men are set on fire; their teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword (Ps. 57:4).
Behold they belch out with their mouth, swords are in their lips, for who doth hear? (Ps. 59:7).
Thou art cast forth out of thy sepulchre as an abominable branch, as the raiment of the slain, that are thrust through with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit, as a carcass trodden under foot (Isa. 14:19);
where Lucifer is treated of. In Jeremiah:
In vain have I smitten your sons, they received no correction; your own sword hath devoured your prophets, like a destroying lion. O generation, see ye the word of Jehovah: have I been a wilderness unto Israel? (Jer. 2:30-31).
sRef Jer@46 @10 S16′ sRef Jer@25 @16 S16′ sRef Jer@25 @15 S16′ sRef Jer@46 @9 S16′ sRef Jer@25 @27 S16′  In the same:
Go not forth into the field, and walk not in the way, for there is the sword of the enemy, terror is on every side (Jer. 6:25-26).
In the same:
Take the cup of the wine of fury, and cause all the nations to whom I send thee to drink it; and they shall drink, and reel, and be mad because of the sword that I will send among you. Drink ye and be drunken, and spew and fall, and rise no more because of the sword (Jer. 25:15-16, 27).
In the same:
Go up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; let the mighty men go forth: Cush and Put that handle the shield, and the Ludim that handle and bend the bow. For that is a day of the Lord Jehovih of Armies, a day of vengeance; and the sword shall devour, and be satisfied, and shall be drunken with their blood (Jer. 46:9, 10).
sRef Ezek@16 @40 S17′ sRef Hos@7 @15 S17′ sRef Zech@11 @17 S17′ sRef Ezek@16 @39 S17′ sRef Hos@7 @16 S17′  In Ezekiel:
They shall strip thee of thy garments, and take the jewels of thy glory, and shall leave thee naked and bare; and they shall bring up an assembly against thee; and they shall stone thee with stones, and thrust thee through with their swords (Ezek. 16:39-40);
where the abominations of Jerusalem are treated of.
Woe to the worthless shepherd that leaveth the flock; the sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye; his arm shall be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened (Zech. 11:17).
Against me have they thought evil; their princes shall fall by the sword, because of the rage of their tongue; this shall be their derision in the land of Egypt (Hos. 7:15-16).
sRef Jer@6 @26 S18′ sRef Luke@21 @24 S18′ sRef Jer@6 @25 S18′ sRef Luke@21 @23 S18′  In Luke:
There shall be great distress upon the land, and wrath unto this people; for they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and be led captive among all the nations; and at length Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the nations (Luke 21:23-24);
where the Lord is speaking of the consummation of the age; and in the sense of the letter, of the dispersion of the Jews and the destruction of Jerusalem; but in the internal sense, of the last state of the church. By “falling by the edge of the sword,” is signified that there is no longer any truth, but mere falsity; by “all nations” are signified evils of every kind, among which they should be led captive; that “nations” are evils may be seen above (n. 1259, 1260, 1849, 1868); also that “Jerusalem” is the church (n. 2117), which is thus “trodden down.”
sRef Isa@27 @1 S19′  IV. That a “sword” also signifies the punishment of falsity, is evident in Isaiah:
In that day Jehovah with His hard, and great, and strong sword, will visit upon leviathan the long serpent, and upon leviathan the crooked serpent, and will slay the whales that are in the sea (Isa. 27:1);
where those are treated of who by reasonings from sensuous things and from memory-knowledges enter into the mysteries of faith; the “hard and great and strong sword” denotes the punishments of the falsity therefrom.
sRef Deut@13 @15 S20′ sRef Deut@13 @16 S20′ sRef Deut@13 @14 S20′ sRef Deut@13 @17 S20′ sRef Deut@13 @13 S20′ sRef Deut@13 @12 S20′  Where we read that they were “given over to the edge of the sword and slain by it,” sometimes both man and woman, boy and old man, ox and herd, and ass, in the internal sense the punishment of the condemnation of falsity is signified (as in Josh. 6:21; 8:24-25; 10:28, 30, 37, 39; 11:10-12, 14; 13:22; 19:47; Judges 1:8, 25; 4:15-16; 18:27; 20:37; 1 Sam. 15:8, 11; 2 Kings 10:25; and other places). Hence it was commanded that a city which should worship other gods should be smitten with the sword, be utterly destroyed, and be burnt up with fire, and be a heap forever (Deut. 13:13, 15-17); the “sword” denoting the punishment of falsity; and “fire” the punishment of evil. The angel of Jehovah standing in the way against Balaam with a drawn sword (Num. 22:31) signified the truth which resisted the falsity in which Balaam was; and for that reason also he was killed with a sword (Num. 31:8).
 That a “sword” in the genuine sense signifies truth combating, and in the opposite sense falsity combating, also the vastation of truth, and the punishment of falsity, has its origin from the representatives in the other life; for when anyone there speaks what he knows to be false, there then immediately come down over his head as it were little swords, and strike terror; and besides, truth combating is represented by things that have a point, like swords; for indeed truth without good is of this nature, but when together with good it has a rounded form and is gentle. From this origin it comes to pass that whenever a “knife,” or “spear,” or “little sword,” or “sword” is mentioned in the Word, to the angels there is suggested truth combating.
 But the reason that a knife is seldom mentioned in the Word, is that there are evil spirits in the other life who are called “knifers,” at whose side there appear knives hanging; for the reason that they have such a brutal nature that they wish to cut everyone’s throat with the knife. Hence it is that “knives” are not mentioned, but “little swords” or “swords;” for as these are used in combats, they suggest the idea of war, and thus of truth combating.
sRef 1Ki@18 @28 S23′  As it was known to the ancients that a little sword, a little lance, and a knife signify truth, the nations to whom this came by tradition were accustomed to pierce and lacerate themselves with little swords, little lances, or knives, at the time of their sacrifices, even to blood; as we read of the priests of Baal:
The priests of Baal cried with a loud voice, and cut themselves after their manner with swords and little lances, even till the blood gushed out (1 Kings 18:28).
That all the weapons of war in the Word signify things which belong to spiritual combat, and each one something specific, may be seen above (n. 2686).
Jesus saith unto Philip, Believest thou not that I am in the Father and the Father in Me ? Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father in me (John 14:10-11).
And again in the same Evangelist:
Jesus said to the Jews, Though ye believe not Me, believe the works; that ye may know and believe that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father (John 10:36, 38).
I pray for them for all Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine; and that they all may be one, as Thou Father art in Me, and I in Thee (John 17:9, 10, 21).
Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him; if God be glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself. Father, glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee (John 13:31-32; 17:1).
sRef John@17 @26 S2′ sRef John@17 @22 S2′ sRef John@14 @20 S2′ sRef John@17 @23 S2′ sRef John@17 @21 S2′ sRef John@17 @20 S2′  From this may be seen the nature of the union of the Divine and the Human in the Lord; namely, that it is mutual and alternate, or reciprocal; which union is that which is called the Divine Marriage, from which descends the heavenly marriage, which is the Lord’s kingdom itself in the heavens -thus spoken of in John:
In that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and ye in Me, and I in you (John 14:20).
I pray for them, that they all may be one, as Thou Father art in Me and I in Thee, that they also may be one in us, I in them and Thou in Me; that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them (John 17:21-23, 26).
That this heavenly marriage is that of good and truth, and of truth and good, may be seen above (n. 2508, 2618, 2728, 2729 and following numbers).
sRef John@17 @5 S3′ sRef John@17 @24 S3′ sRef John@1 @3 S3′ sRef John@1 @2 S3′ sRef John@1 @1 S3′  And because the Divine Good cannot be and come forth without the Divine Truth, nor the Divine Truth without the Divine Good, but the one in the other mutually and reciprocally, it is therefore manifest that the Divine Marriage was from eternity; that is, the Son in the Father, and the Father in the Son, as the Lord Himself teaches in John:
And now O Father, glorify Thou Me with Thyself, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was (John 17:5, 24).
But the Divine Human which was born from eternity was also born in time; and what was born in time, and glorified, is the same. Hence it is that the Lord so often said that He was going to the Father who sent Him; that is, that He was returning to the Father. And in John:
In the beginning was the Word (the “Word” is the Divine Truth itself), and the Word was with God, and the Word was God; the same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, the glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:1-3, 14; see also John 3:13; 6:62).
 It is manifest that all the rites or external kinds of worship that existed in the Ancient Church, and afterwards in the Jewish, represented the Lord, and especially the burnt-offerings and sacrifices, because among the Hebrew nation these were the principal things of worship. And because they represented the Lord, they at the same time also represented those things which are the Lord’s with men, namely, the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith, consequently the men themselves who are celestial or spiritual, or who ought to be. Hence it is that by the “lamb” here are signified the spiritual, that is, they who are of the Lord’s spiritual church. That by “God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son,” is signified that the Divine Human will provide, is evident from the fact that it is not here said that “Jehovah” will see, but that “God” will see. When both are named, as in this chapter, by “Jehovah” is then meant the same as by the “Father,” and by “God” the same as by the “Son,” and thus here the Divine Human; and this because the spiritual man is treated of, who has salvation from the Divine Human, as may be seen above (n. 2661, 2716).
2813. And bound Isaac his son. That this signifies the state of the Divine rational thus about to undergo as to truth the last degrees of temptation, is evident from the signification of “binding,” and also of “Isaac his son.” That to “bind” is to put on the state for undergoing the last degrees of temptation, is evident from the fact that he who is in a state of temptation is no otherwise than as bound or chained. That “Isaac the son” is the Lord’s Divine rational, here as to truth, may be seen above (n. 2802, 2803). All the genuine rational consists of good and truth. The Lord’s Divine rational as to good could not suffer, or undergo temptations; for no genius or spirit inducing temptations can come near to Good Divine, as it is above all attempt at temptation. But Truth Divine bound was what could be tempted; for there are fallacies, and still more falsities, which break in upon and thus tempt it; for concerning Truth Divine some idea can be formed, but not concerning Good Divine except by those who have perception, and are celestial angels. It was Truth Divine which was no longer acknowledged when the Lord came into the world, and therefore it was that from which the Lord underwent and endured temptations. Truth Divine in the Lord is what is called the “Son of man,” but Good Divine is what is called the “Son of God.” Of the “Son of man” the Lord says many times that He was to suffer, but never of the Son of God. That He says this of the Son of man, or of Truth Divine, is evident in Matthew:
Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be delivered, unto the chief priests and scribes, and they shall condemn Him, and shall deliver Him unto the Gentiles to mock and to scourge, and to crucify (Matt. 20:18-19).
Jesus said to His disciples, Behold the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is delivered into the hands of sinners (Matt. 26:45).
Jesus began to teach them that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, and the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again (Mark 8:31).
It is written of the Son of man, that He shall suffer many things, and be set at nought. And the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill Him; but when He is killed He shall rise again on the third day (Mark 9:12, 31).
Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests and the scribes, and they shall condemn Him to death, and shall deliver Him unto the Gentiles, and they shall mock Him, and shall spit upon Him, and shall kill Him, and the third day He shall rise again (Mark 10:33-34).
The hour is come; behold the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners (Mark 14:41).
The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and the third day rise again (Luke 9:22, 44).
We go up to Jerusalem, where all the things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished; He shall be delivered up unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and shamefully entreated, and spit upon, and they shall scourge and kill Him, and the third day He shall rise again (Luke 18:31-33).
The angel said to the women, Remember what He spake unto you when He was yet in Galilee, saying that the Son of man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again (Luke 24:6-7).
 In all these places by the “son of man” is meant the Lord as to Truth Divine, or as to the Word in its internal sense, which was rejected by the chief priests and scribes, was shamefully entreated, scourged, spit upon, and crucified, as may be clearly evident from the fact that the Jews applied and arrogated everything to themselves according to the letter, and were not willing to know anything about the spiritual sense of the Word, and about the heavenly kingdom, believing that the Messiah was to come to raise up their kingdom above all the kingdoms of the earth, as they also believe at this day. Hence it is manifest that it was Truth Divine which was rejected by them, shamefully treated, scourged, and crucified. Whether you say Truth Divine, or the Lord as to Truth Divine, it is the same; for the Lord is the Truth itself, as He is the Word itself (n. 2011, 2016, 2533 at the end).
 The Lord’s rising again on the third day also involves that Truth Divine, or the Word as to the internal sense, as it was understood by the Ancient Church, will be revived in the consummation of the age, which is also the “third day” (n. 1825, 2788); on which account it is said that the Son of man (that is, Truth Divine) will then appear (Matt. 24:30, 37, 39, 44; Mark 13:26; Luke 17:22, 24-26, 30; 21:27, 36).
sRef Matt@13 @38 S4′ sRef Matt@13 @37 S4′ sRef Matt@13 @42 S4′ sRef John@12 @36 S4′ sRef Matt@13 @40 S4′ sRef John@12 @35 S4′ sRef John@12 @34 S4′ sRef Matt@13 @41 S4′  That the “Son of man” is the Lord as to Truth Divine, is evident from the passages adduced, and further from the following. In Matthew:
He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man, the field is the world. In the consummation of the age the Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that offend (Matt. 13:37, 41-42);
where the “good seed” is the truth; the “world” is men; “He that soweth the seed” is the Son of man; and the “things that offend” are falsities. In John:
The multitude said, We have heard out of the Law that the Christ abideth forever; and how sayest Thou that the Son of man must be lifted up? Who is this Son of man ? Jesus answered them, A little while is the Light with you; walk while ye have the Light, that darkness overtake you not; for he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. While ye have the Light, believe in the Light, that ye may become the sons of Light (John 12:34-35);
where, when they asked who the Son of man is, Jesus answered concerning the Light, which is the Truth, and that He is the Light or Truth in which they should believe. (As regards the Light which is from the Lord, and which is the Divine Truth, see above, n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531, 1619-1632.)
sRef Matt@4 @6 S5′ sRef Matt@4 @7 S5′  But that the Son of God, or the Lord as to Good in His Human Divine could not be tempted, as was said above, this is manifest also from the Lord’s answer to the tempter, in the Evangelists:
The tempter said, If Thou art the Son of God cast Thyself down; for it is written, He shall give His angels charge concerning Thee, lest haply Thou dash Thy foot against a stone. Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God (Matt. 4:6-7; Luke 4:9-12).
Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him: if God is glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him (John 13:31, 32).
That a distinct idea may be had of this very deep arcanum, we may call the Truth with the Lord which could be tempted, and which underwent temptations, Truth Divine in the Lord’s Human Divine; but the Truth which could not be tempted, or undergo any temptation, because it was glorified, the Divine Truth in the Lord’s Divine Human; this distinction has also been observed here and there in what goes before.
sRef John@10 @18 S2′ sRef Matt@16 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@16 @23 S2′ sRef Luke@24 @26 S2′ sRef Matt@16 @21 S2′  That the Lord admitted temptations into Himself, even the last, which was that of the cross, may be seen from the words of the Lord Himself, in Matthew:
Jesus began to show the disciples that He must suffer many things, and be killed. Then Peter took Him, and began to rebuke Him, saying, Spare Thyself, Lord; let this not be done unto Thee. But He turned and said unto Peter, Get thee behind Me, Satan; thou art an offense unto Me; for thou savorest not the things that are of God, but those that are of men (Matt. 16:21-23).
And more manifestly in John:
No one taketh My life from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again (John 10:18).
And in Luke:
Behooved it not the Christ to suffer these things, and to enter into His glory? (Luke 24:26).
 That it was known from the most ancient time that the Lord was to come into the world, and was to suffer death, is evident from the fact that the custom prevailed among the Gentiles of sacrificing their sons, believing that they were thus purified, and propitiated to God; in which abominable custom they could not have placed their most important religious observance, unless they had learned from the ancients that the Son of God was to come, who would, as they believed, be made a sacrifice. To this abomination even the sons of Israel were inclined, and Abraham also; for no one is tempted except by that to which he is inclined. That the sons of Jacob were so inclined is evident in the Prophets; but lest they should rush into that abomination, it was permitted to institute burnt-offerings and sacrifices (see n. 922, 1128, 1241, 1343, 2180).
That in temptations man thinks that the Lord is absent, whereas He is then more present (n. 840): That man can by no means sustain the combats of temptations of himself, because they are against all the hells (n. 1692 at the end): That the Lord alone combats in man (n. 1661, 1692): That by means of temptations evil genii and spirits are deprived of the power of doing evil and inspiring falsity in man (n. 1695, 1717): That temptations come with those who have conscience, and more acute ones with those who have perception (n. 1668): That temptations rarely exist at this day, but in their place anxieties, which are of another character and from another source (n. 762): That men spiritually dead cannot sustain the combats of temptations (n. 270): That all temptations are attended with despair respecting the end (n. 1787, 1820): That after temptations there is fluctuation (n. 848, 857): That the good learn by temptations that they are nothing but evil, and that all things are of mercy (n. 2334): That by temptations goods are conjoined more closely with truths (n. 2272): That men are not saved by temptations if they yield in them, nor if they think that they have merited by them (n. 2273): That in every temptation there is freedom, and stronger than out of temptations (n. 1937).
sRef 2Ki@17 @24 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @41 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @28 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @25 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @7 S2′ sRef Luke@18 @2 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @8 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @35 S2′ sRef Isa@29 @13 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @32 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @33 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @37 S2′ sRef 2Ki@17 @36 S2′  I. That the “fear of God” in general signifies worship, is manifest in the book of Kings:
The sons of Israel feared other gods, and walked in the statutes of the nations. The nations sent into Samaria feared not Jehovah in the beginning, therefore Jehovah sent lions among them; and one of the priests whom they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Bethel, and taught them how they should fear Jehovah. Jehovah made a covenant with the sons of Israel and commanded them, Ye shall not fear other gods, nor bow yourselves to them, nor serve them, nor sacrifice to them; but ye shall fear Jehovah, and bow yourselves down unto Him, and sacrifice to Him (2 Kings 17:7-8, 24-25, 28, 32-33, 35-37, 41);
here “fearing” manifestly denotes worshiping. In Isaiah:
Because this people have drawn nigh unto Me with their mouth, and have honored Me with their lips, and their heart hath removed itself far from Me, and their fear of Me is a commandment of men which hath been taught (Isa. 29:13);
where their “fear of Me” denotes worship in general; for it is said that the fear was a commandment of men. In Luke:
There was in a city a judge who feared not God and regarded not man (Luke 18:2);
“fearing not God” means not worshiping Him.
sRef Luke@12 @4 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @59 S3′ sRef Deut@5 @25 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @58 S3′ sRef Deut@5 @29 S3′ sRef Deut@5 @27 S3′ sRef Ex@20 @20 S3′ sRef Luke@12 @5 S3′ sRef Deut@28 @60 S3′ sRef Ex@20 @19 S3′ sRef Jer@2 @19 S3′  II. That the “fear of God” signifies worship from fear when the nonregenerate are treated of, is manifest from the following passages in Moses:
When the Law was promulgated upon Mount Sinai, the people said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die. And Moses said unto the people, God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not (Exod. 20:19-20).
Now why shall we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of Jehovah our God anymore, then we shall die. Go thou near, and hear all that Jehovah our God shall say; and speak thou unto us all that Jehovah our God shall say unto thee; and we will hear it, and do it. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Who will give them to have such a heart as this, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments always (Deut. 5:25, 27-29);
here the “fear of God before you that ye sin not, and a heart to fear Me, and keep all My commandments,” signifies worship from fear, in respect to them, because such was their quality; for they who are in external worship, and not in internal, are driven to the observance of the law and to obedience by fear; but still they do not come into internal worship or into holy fear [timor sanctus] unless they are in the good of life, and know what is internal, and believe it. In the same:
If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, to fear this glorious and fearful name, Jehovah thy God, Jehovah will make thy plagues wonderful, and the plagues of thy seed, plagues great and sure, and sore diseases and sure, and He will bring upon thee again all the sickness of Egypt, which thou wast afraid of, and they shall cleave unto thee (Deut. 28:58-60);
here also to “fear the glorious and fearful name of Jehovah God” is to worship from fear; and that this might exist among those of such a character, all evils even to cursings were attributed to Jehovah (n. 592, 2335, 2395, 2447). In Jeremiah:
Thine own wickedness shall correct thee, and thy backslidings shall reprove thee; know therefore and see that it is an evil thing and a bitter that thou hast forsaken Jehovah thy God, and that My fear is not in thee (Jer. 2:19).
I say unto you, Be not afraid of them that kill the body, but after that have no more that they can do; but I will warn you whom ye shall fear; fear Him who after He hath killed, hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, fear Him (Luke 12:4-5; Matt. 10:28);
here also “fearing God” involves worshiping from some fear, because fear drove them to obedience, as before said.
sRef Deut@17 @19 S4′ sRef 1Sam@12 @14 S4′ sRef 1Sam@12 @13 S4′ sRef Deut@17 @18 S4′  III. That to “fear God” or “Jehovah” signifies worship from the good of faith, where the spiritual regenerate are treated of, is manifest from the following passages. In Moses:
The king shall write for himself a copy of this law in a book before the priests the Levites, and it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear Jehovah his God, to keep all the words of this law, and these statutes, to do them (Deut. 17:18-19).
In the internal sense “king” denotes the truth of faith; for royalty represented the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069). Hence to “fear Jehovah his God,” is to worship Him from the truth of faith; and because this is inseparable from the good of charity, it is described by “keeping the words of the law and the statutes to do them.” In Samuel:
Behold Jehovah hath set a king over you. If ye will fear Jehovah and serve Him, and hearken unto His voice, then shall both ye and the king that reigneth over you be followers of Jehovah your God (1 Sam. 12:13-14);
here also in the internal sense “fearing Jehovah” denotes worshiping from the good and truth of faith, as before, because a king or royalty is treated of.
sRef Jer@32 @40 S5′ sRef Jer@32 @39 S5′ sRef Jer@32 @38 S5′ sRef Josh@24 @14 S5′ sRef Isa@25 @3 S5′  In Joshua:
Now fear Jehovah, and serve Him in integrity and in truth, and put away the gods which your fathers served (Josh. 24:14);
where also to “fear Jehovah” denotes worshiping from good and truth, which is of the spiritual man; for “integrity” is predicated of the good of faith (n. 612), and “truth” of the truth of faith. In Jeremiah:
They shall be My people, and I will be their God; and I will give them one heart, and one way, that they may fear Me forever, for the good of them and of their children after them; and I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away from them, to do them good; and I will put My fear in their heart, that they shall not depart from Me (Jer. 32:38-40);
that “fearing God” here is worshiping from the good and truth of faith, is evident from the series, and from the use of the words “people” and “God.” (That those are called “people” who are in truth, may be seen above, n. 1259, 1260; and that “God” is named where truth is treated of, n. 2586, 2769, 2807 at the end.) In Isaiah:
The strong people shall honor Thee, the city of the mighty nations shall fear Thee (Isa. 25:3);
where “fearing God” also denotes worshiping from spiritual truth, for it is predicated of “people” and “city.” (That a “city” is doctrinal truth may be seen above, n. 402, 2268, 2450, 2451.)
sRef Luke@5 @24 S6′ sRef Luke@5 @26 S6′ sRef Ps@22 @23 S6′ sRef Rev@14 @7 S6′ sRef Rev@14 @6 S6′ sRef Deut@10 @13 S6′ sRef Deut@10 @12 S6′ sRef Ps@25 @12 S6′ sRef Ps@128 @1 S6′  In David:
What man is he that feareth Jehovah? Him shall He teach the way that He shall choose (Ps. 25:12);
where the “man that feareth Jehovah” denotes him who worships Him; and that this is said of the spiritual man is manifest from its being said, “him shall He teach the way.” (That a “way” is truth, may be seen above, n. 627, 2333.) And again with similar meaning:
Blessed is every one that feareth Jehovah, that walketh in His ways (Ps. 128:1).
In the same:
They that fear Jehovah shall glorify Him; all the seed of Jacob shall glorify Him, and all the seed of Israel shall stand in awe of Him (Ps. 22:23);
here to “stand in awe of him” means to worship from the truth of faith; for the “seed of Israel” is the spiritual of the church, or the good and truth of faith (n. 1025, 1447, 1610). In Moses:
Now Israel, what doth Jehovah thy God require of thee, but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve Jehovah thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, to keep the commandments of Jehovah, and His statutes (Deut. 10:12-13).
Here is described what it is to “fear God,” with the spiritual man, that is, “Israel;” namely, that it is to walk in the ways of Jehovah, to love Him, to serve Him, and to keep His precepts and His statutes. In John:
I saw an angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting Gospel, saying with a great voice, Fear God, and give glory to Him, for the hour of His judgment is come (Rev. 14:6-7);
here to “fear God” denotes holy worship from the good and truth of faith. In Luke:
Jesus said to him that was palsied, Arise, take up thy couch, and go unto thy house; and amazement took hold upon them all; and they glorified God, and they were filled with fear (Luke 5:24-26);
where “fear” denotes holy fear, such as is that of those who are being initiated into the good of love by the truth of faith.
sRef Mal@2 @6 S7′ sRef Mal@2 @5 S7′  IV. That to “fear God” or “Jehovah” signifies worship from the good of love, when the celestial regenerate are treated of. In Malachi:
My covenant was with Levi, of lives and peace; and I gave them to him that he might fear, and he feared Me, and for My name was he broken. The law of truth was in his mouth, and unrighteousness was not in his lips; he walked with Me in peace and uprightness (Mal. 2:5-6);
where the Lord is treated of, who here in the internal sense is “Levi;” “Levi” signifies the priesthood, and signifies love; “fear” here denotes the good of Divine love; the “law of truth,” truth; and “peace and uprightness,” both.
sRef Isa@11 @1 S8′ sRef Isa@11 @3 S8′ sRef Isa@11 @2 S8′  In Isaiah:
There shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots; and the spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah, and of His scent in the fear of Jehovah (Isa. 11:1-3);
where also the Lord is treated of. The “spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah” denotes the Divine love of truth; and His “scent in the fear of Jehovah,” the Divine love of good.
sRef Ps@19 @8 S9′ sRef Ps@19 @9 S9′  In David:
The precepts of Jehovah are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of Jehovah is pure, enlightening the eyes; the fear of Jehovah is clean, standing forever; the judgments of Jehovah are truth, made righteous together (Ps. 19:8-9);
where “the fear of Jehovah is clean” denotes love; and “the judgments of Jehovah are truth” denotes faith. (That “righteousness” is predicated of the good of love, and “judgment” of the truth of faith, may be seen above, n. 2235) and these are said to be “made righteous together,” when truth becomes good, or when faith becomes charity.
sRef Ps@147 @10 S10′ sRef Ps@147 @11 S10′ sRef Ps@33 @18 S10′  In the same:
Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear Him, upon them that wait for His mercy (Ps. 33:18).
Jehovah delighteth not in the strength of the horse, He taketh not pleasure in the legs of a man. Jehovah taketh pleasure in them that fear Him, in those that wait for His mercy (Ps. 147:10-11);
the “strength of the horse” denotes one’s own power of thinking truth (that a “horse” denotes the intellectual faculty, may be seen above, 2760-2762); the “legs of a man” denote one’s own power of doing good; “they that fear Jehovah” denote those who worship Him from the love of truth; and “they that wait for His mercy,” those who worship from the love of good. Where good is spoken of in the Prophets, so also is truth; and where truth is spoken of, so also is good, on account of the heavenly marriage of good and truth in everything (see n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712, 2713).
sRef Ps@115 @12 S11′ sRef Ps@115 @13 S11′  In the same:
Jehovah will bless the house of Israel, He will bless the house of Aaron, He will bless them that fear Jehovah, both small and great (Ps. 115:12-13);
here “they that fear Jehovah” denote those who worship from the good of faith, which is the “house of Israel,” and from the good of love, which is the “house of Aaron;” they are both named on account of the heavenly marriage, as said above, in everything in the Word.
sRef Isa@33 @6 S12′ sRef Isa@50 @10 S12′  In Isaiah:
The truth of thy times shall be strength of salvations, wisdom, and knowledge; the fear of Jehovah itself a treasure (Isa. 33:6);
where “wisdom and knowledge” denote the good of faith conjoined with its truth; and the “fear of Jehovah,” the good of love. In the same:
Who is among you that feareth Jehovah, hearkening to the voice of His servant (Isa. 50:10)?
“he that feareth Jehovah” denotes him that worships from love; “he that hearkeneth to the voice of His servant,” him that worships from faith. When the one is of the other, then there is the heavenly marriage.
 From the passages which have been adduced from the Word it is evident that the “fear of God” is worship, either from fear, or from the good of faith, or from the good of love. But the more there is of fear in the worship, the less there is of faith, and the less still of love; and on the other hand, the more of faith there is in the worship, and especially the more there is of love, the less there is of fear. There is indeed a fear within all worship, but under another appearance and another condition, and this is holy fear. But holy fear is not so much the fear of hell and of damnation, as it is of doing or thinking anything against the Lord and against the neighbor, and thus anything against the good of love and the truth of faith. It is an aversion, which is the boundary of the holy of love and the holy of faith on the one side; and as it is not a fear of hell and damnation, as before said, those have it who are in the good of faith; but those have less of it who are in the good of love, that is, who are in the Lord.
sRef Luke@1 @75 S14′ sRef Luke@12 @7 S14′ sRef Mark@4 @40 S14′ sRef Isa@44 @8 S14′ sRef Mark@5 @36 S14′ sRef Luke@1 @73 S14′ sRef Luke@1 @74 S14′ sRef Luke@12 @32 S14′  V. Therefore to “fear” signifies also to distrust, or not to have faith and love, as in Isaiah:
Thus saith thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel, Fear not, for I have redeemed thee I have called thee by thy name, thou art Mine (Isa. 43:1, 5; 44:8).
The oath which He sware to our father Abraham, that He would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies, might serve Him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before Him (Luke 1:73-74).
In the same:
Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom (Luke 12:32).
Jesus said unto the ruler of the synagogue, Fear not, only believe (Mark 5:36; Luke 8:49-50).
In the same:
Jesus said, Why are ye so fearful? How is it that ye have no faith? (Mark 4:40).
The hairs of your head are all numbered; fear not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows (Luke 12:7).
In these passages to “fear” is to distrust, or not to have faith and love.
sRef Ex@29 @8 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @2 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @6 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @5 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @7 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @18 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @3 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @2 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @4 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @20 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @19 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @11 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @10 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @12 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @28 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @29 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @23 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @22 S2′ sRef Lev@16 @4 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @26 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @25 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @13 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @35 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @33 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @14 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @17 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @1 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @27 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @34 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @15 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @32 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @21 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @31 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @16 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @24 S2′ sRef Ex@29 @30 S2′  That a “ram” therefore signifies the Lord’s Divine spiritual, and consequently the spiritual with man, or what is the same, those of the human race who are spiritual, may be seen from the burnt-offerings and sacrifices made from rams; in that when Aaron and his sons were sanctified to perform the ministry, that is, when they were inaugurated, they were to offer one bullock for sin, the blood of which was to be sprinkled upon the horns of the altar, and the rest poured at the bottom of it; also that one ram was to be killed, and his blood sprinkled round the altar, and then the whole ram was to be burnt for a burnt-offering; and that the blood of the other ram that was killed was to be sprinkled upon the tip of Aaron’s ear, and upon the thumb of his hand and the great toe of his foot; and that after it was waved, it was to be burnt upon the burnt-offering (Exod. 29:1-35; Lev. 8:1 to the end; 9:2 to the end). That all these rites were holy is evident; but they were holy from their representing and signifying holy things. Otherwise to slaughter a bullock and to sprinkle his blood upon the horns of the altar and pour the rest at its base, and to slaughter one ram and sprinkle his blood round the altar and then to burn him, and to sprinkle the blood of the other ram upon the tip of Aaron’s ear and the thumb of his hand and the great toe of his foot, also to wave it, and to burn it upon the burnt-offering – all these things would have had no holiness and thus would have effected no worship unless they had represented holy things. But what each particular represented can be evident to no one except from the internal sense. That the bullock which was for sin signified the Lord’s Divine natural, and the ram His Divine spiritual, and that it signified also those who are spiritual of the human race, may be seen from the signification of a “bullock” and a “ram” in the Word. Inaugurations into the priesthood were made by spiritual things, for by spiritual things a man is introduced into celestial things; or what is the same, by the truths of faith into the good of love. In like manner when Aaron entered into the holy place, he was to offer a bullock for sin, and a ram for a burnt-offering (Lev. 16:2, 3).
sRef Num@29 @32 S3′ sRef Num@6 @13 S3′ sRef Num@29 @13 S3′ sRef Num@29 @20 S3′ sRef Num@29 @24 S3′ sRef Num@29 @18 S3′ sRef Num@29 @14 S3′ sRef Num@29 @17 S3′ sRef Num@6 @14 S3′ sRef Num@6 @16 S3′ sRef Num@28 @28 S3′ sRef Num@29 @36 S3′ sRef Num@28 @27 S3′ sRef Num@29 @30 S3′ sRef Num@6 @17 S3′ sRef Num@28 @18 S3′ sRef Num@28 @26 S3′ sRef Num@29 @29 S3′ sRef Num@28 @19 S3′ sRef Num@29 @22 S3′ sRef Num@29 @26 S3′ sRef Num@29 @23 S3′ sRef Num@29 @27 S3′ sRef Num@29 @35 S3′ sRef Num@28 @12 S3′ sRef Num@29 @31 S3′ sRef Num@29 @33 S3′ sRef Num@29 @12 S3′ sRef Num@29 @34 S3′ sRef Num@29 @1 S3′ sRef Num@29 @21 S3′ sRef Num@29 @28 S3′ sRef Num@28 @11 S3′ sRef Num@28 @20 S3′ sRef Num@29 @2 S3′  That the Nazirite, when the days of his Naziriteship were fulfilled, was to offer a whole lamb a son of a year, for a burnt-offering, and one ewe-lamb a daughter of a year, entire, for sin, and one whole ram for peace-offerings (Num. 6:13-17), was because the Nazirite represented the celestial man, who is a likeness of the Lord (n. 51, 52, 1013). The celestial man is such that he is in celestial love, that is, in love to the Lord, and thence in celestial truth (n. 202, 337, 2069, 2715, 2718); he was therefore to sacrifice a lamb and a ewe-lamb, by which the celestial was signified; and also a ram, by which the spiritual was signified. At the festivals, bullocks, rams, and lambs were sacrificed-as on the first day of the feast of the unleavened bread, two bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Num. 28:18-20). On the day of the firstfruits also, two bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Num. 28:26-25). On the new moons, two bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Num. 28:11, 12). In the seventh month, on the first of the month, one bullock, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering. On the fifteenth day of the seventh month, thirteen bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs. (See also Num. 29:1, 2, 12-14, 17, 18, 20-22, 24, 26-36.) The “bullocks” and the “rams” signified spiritual things, but the “lambs” celestial things; for at the feasts they had to be sanctified and introduced by spiritual things.
sRef Ezek@43 @23 S4′ sRef Ezek@43 @24 S4′ sRef Ezek@45 @22 S4′ sRef Ezek@43 @25 S4′ sRef Ezek@45 @23 S4′ sRef Ezek@45 @24 S4′ sRef Ezek@46 @6 S4′ sRef Ezek@46 @4 S4′  As “rams” signified the Divine spiritual of the Lord’s Divine Human, as also the spiritual things with man, therefore where the new temple and New Jerusalem, that is, the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, is spoken of, it is said in Ezekiel, that when they had made an end of cleansing the altar there, they were to offer a bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering, and were to offer the goat of the sin-offering every day for seven days, and a bullock and a ram (Ezek. 43:23-25); and that on this day the prince should prepare the bullock of the sin-offering for all the people, and on the seven days of the feast seven bullocks, and seven rams, with the meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Ezek. 45:22-24); and that on the day of the sabbath he should prepare six lambs and a ram (Ezek. 46:4, 6).
 That by the new temple and the New Jerusalem in the universal sense is signified the Lord’s kingdom, may be seen above (n. 402, 940); in particular the New Church (n. 2117). That there are not burnt-offerings and sacrifices there, may be known to everyone, which shows that by these are signified the celestial things of love, and the spiritual things of faith; for these are of the Lord’s kingdom; and thus such things are here signified by “bullocks,” “rams,” and “lambs.” That “bullocks” and “rams” signify spiritual things, is evident from the several particulars in the internal sense; in general from this, that by the “new temple” and the “New Jerusalem” the Lord’s spiritual kingdom is specifically signified, but by “Zion” the celestial kingdom.
sRef Dan@8 @3 S6′ sRef Dan@8 @4 S6′ sRef 1Sam@15 @22 S6′  That a “ram” signifies that which is spiritual, or what is the same, those who are spiritual, is plain also in Daniel; in that a ram was seen by him standing before the river, which had two horns; afterwards a he-goat of the goats, which smote him, broke his horns, and trampled him down (Dan. 8:3, 4, and the following verses); where nothing else is meant by the “ram” than the spiritual church, and by the “he-goat of the goats” than those who are in faith separated from charity, or in truth separate from good, who by successive steps uplift themselves against good, and at length against the Lord-which is also described. In Samuel:
Samuel said to Saul, Hath Jehovah as great pleasure in burnt-offerings and sacrifices as in hearkening to the voice of Jehovah? Behold to hearken is better than sacrifice, and to obey than the fat of rams (1 Sam. 15:22);
where because obedience is treated of, so is truth, which is spiritual; and these words were said to the king, by whom also is signified truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069). It is not therefore said, “better than the fat of oxen,” or of “lambs,” but “better than the fat of rams.”
sRef Ps@114 @1 S7′ sRef Ps@114 @8 S7′ sRef Ps@114 @2 S7′ sRef Ps@114 @3 S7′ sRef Ps@114 @4 S7′ sRef Ps@114 @5 S7′ sRef Ps@114 @6 S7′ sRef Ps@114 @7 S7′  In David:
When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language, Judah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominion. The sea saw it, and fled, and the Jordan turned back; the mountains leaped like rams, the hills like the sons of the flock. What aileth thee, O thou sea, that thou fleest? thou Jordan, that thou turnest back; ye mountains, that ye skip like rams? ye hills, like the sons of the flock? Thou travailest, O earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob, who turned the rock into a pool of waters, and the flint into a fountain of waters (Ps. 114:1 to the end);
here in the internal sense the subject treated of is spiritual good after regeneration, and it is described in respect to its quality; its celestial spiritual by the “mountains leaping like rams;” and its celestial natural by the “hills like the sons of the flock.” (That “mountains” are the celestial things of love, may be seen above, n. 795, 1430.) Everyone may know that in these, as in the rest of the words of David, there are holy things, but in the internal sense; and that something is signified by the mountains skipping like rams, and the hills like the sons of the flock, and by the earth travailing at the presence of the Lord; which things, without the internal sense, are words of no meaning.
sRef Deut@32 @13 S8′ sRef Ps@66 @15 S8′ sRef Deut@32 @14 S8′  So with these words in Moses:
He maketh him ride on the high places of the earth, and to eat the increase of the earth, and He maketh him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flint of the rock; butter of kine and milk of the flock, with fat of lambs, and of rams the sons of Bashan, and he-goats with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and of the blood of grapes thou shalt drink unmixed wine (Deut. 32:13-14);
“rams the sons of Bashan” denotes celestial spiritual things (what celestial spiritual things are, may be seen above, n. 1824). In David:
I will offer unto Thee burnt-offerings of fatlings with the incense of rams, I will offer bullocks with goats (Ps. 66:15);
“burnt-offerings of fatlings” denotes the celestial things of love; and the “incense of rams,” the spiritual things of faith.
sRef Ezek@27 @21 S9′ sRef Isa@60 @7 S9′  In Ezekiel:
Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were the merchants of thy hand: in lambs, in rams, and he-goats (Ezek. 27:21);
where Tyre is treated of, by which those are signified who are in the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201); “Arabia” denotes their wisdom; the “princes of Kedar,” their intelligence; “lambs,” celestial things; “rams,” spiritual things; and “he-goats,” natural things, which follow in order. In Isaiah:
All the flock of Kedar shall be gathered together unto Thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto Thee; they shall come up with acceptance on Mine altar, and I will adorn the house of My adornment (Isa. 60:7);
here the Lord’s Divine Human is treated of; the “flock of Kedar” denotes Divine celestial things; and the “rams of Nebaioth,” Divine spiritual things. From all this it is now evident that a “ram” in the internal sense signifies the Lord’s Divine spiritual, and hence the spiritual in men, or what is the same, those of the human race who are spiritual.
 As regards perception in general, since few know what perception is, this must be declared. There is perception of what is good and true in celestial and spiritual things; there is perception of what is just and equitable in civil life; and there is perception of what is honorable in moral life. As regards the perception of what is good and true in celestial and spiritual things, the interior angels have this perception from the Lord, the men of the Most Ancient Church had it, and the celestial, who are in love to the Lord, have it. These know at once, from a kind of internal observation, whether a thing is good and whether it is true; for this is insinuated by the Lord, because they are conjoined with Him by love. Spiritual men, however, have no such perception of good and truth in celestial and spiritual things, but instead of it have conscience which dictates; but as before said, this conscience is formed from the knowledges of good and truth which they have imbibed from their parents and masters, and afterwards from their own study in doctrine and in the Word; and in these, even though not entirely good and true, they put their faith. Hence it is that men can have conscience from any doctrine whatever; even the Gentiles have something not unlike conscience from their religion.
 That the spiritual have no perception of the good and truth of faith, but say and believe that to be true which they have learned and apprehended, is sufficiently evident from the fact that everyone says that his own dogma is true, heretics more than others; and that they are not able to see the truth itself, still less to acknowledge it, although thousands of things should declare it. Let everyone explore himself and see if he is able to perceive from any other source whether a thing is true; and if when a thing most true is made manifest to him he still does not fail to acknowledge it. As for example, one who makes faith the essential of salvation, and not love: even if all should be read before him which the Lord spoke concerning love and charity (see n. 2373), and if he should know from the Word that all the Law and the Prophets hang upon love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, he will nevertheless remain in the idea of faith, and will say that this alone saves. It is otherwise with those who are in celestial and spiritual perception.
 As regards the perception of what is just and equitable in civil life, however, those in the world who are rational have this, and also the perception of what is honorable in moral life. These two perceptions distinguish one man from another, but by no means do such men for this reason have the perception of the good and truth of faith, because this perception is higher or more internal, and flows in from the Lord through the inmost of the rational.
 The reason also why the spiritual have no perception of the good and truth of faith, is that good and truth are not implanted in their will part, as with celestial men, but in their intellectual part (see n. 863, 875, 927, 1023, 1043, 1044, 2256). Hence it is that the spiritual cannot arrive at the first degree of the light in which the celestial are (n. 2718), but have what is obscure in comparison (n. 1043, 2708 at the beginning, 2715). That the spiritual are entangled in natural memory-knowledge in respect to the truths of faith, follows from this.
sRef Ezek@31 @3 S6′  That a “thicket” or “tangle” in the internal sense signifies natural memory-knowledge, that is, that knowledge which sticks fast in the exterior memory, may also be seen from other passages in the Word. In Ezekiel:
Behold, Asshur was a cedar in Lebanon, with beautiful foliage, and a shady grove, and lofty in height, and his branch was among the tangled boughs (Ezek. 31:3);
where Egypt, which is memory-knowledge, is treated of (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462); “Asshur” denotes the rational (n. 119, 1186); which is also the “cedar,” and also “Lebanon,” in the Word; “among the tangled boughs” means among memory-knowledges, for the human rational is founded on its memory-knowledges.
sRef Ezek@31 @14 S7′ sRef Ezek@31 @12 S7′ sRef Ezek@31 @10 S7′ sRef Ezek@19 @11 S7′  In the same:
Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Because thou art exalted in stature, and he hath set his branch among the tangled boughs, and his heart is lifted up in its height, strangers, the violent of the nations, shall cut him down, and cast him out (Ezek. 31:10, 12);
concerning Egypt; to “set the branch among the tangled boughs” denotes sticking fast in memory-knowledges, and regarding spiritual, celestial, and Divine things from them. In the same:
To the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves in their stature, neither set their branch among the tangled boughs, nor that all that drink waters stand over them in their height, for they shall all be delivered unto death, to the lower earth in the midst of the sons of man, to them that go down to the pit (Ezek. 31:14);
here those are treated of who by reasonings from memory-knowledges desire to enter into the mysteries of faith (that they are made altogether blind, may be seen above, n. 215, 232, 233, 1072, 1911, 2196, 2203, 2568, 2588). To reason from memory-knowledges is to “set the branch among the tangled boughs.” In the same:
She had plants of strength for the scepters of them that bare rule, and her height was exalted among the tangled boughs (Ezek. 19:11);
this has a similar meaning.
sRef Ezek@6 @13 S8′ sRef Ezek@20 @28 S8′  In the same:
The slain of Israel shall be among their idols, round about their altars, and under every green tree, and under every tangled oak (Ezek. 6:13);
this treats of the worship which those form to themselves who have faith in themselves, and thus in the things which they hatch out from their memory-knowledges; the “tangled oak” denotes the memory-knowledges in such a state. (That “oaks” are apperceptions from memory-knowledges may be seen above, n. 1442, 1443, 2144.) The like is found elsewhere in the same Prophet:
They saw every high hill, and every tangled tree, and there they sacrificed their sacrifices (Ezek. 20:28);
a “tangled tree” denotes the things which are dictated not by the Word, but by one’s own memory-knowledge. (That worship was performed in groves, and was significative according to the qualities of the trees, may be seen above, n. 2722.)
sRef Jer@4 @7 S9′ sRef Isa@10 @34 S9′ sRef Isa@9 @18 S9′ sRef Jer@4 @6 S9′  In Isaiah:
Wickedness burneth as the fire; it devoureth the briars and thorns, and kindleth in the thickets of the forest (Isa. 9:18);
the “briars and thorns” denote falsity and cupidity; the “thickets of the forest,” memory-knowledges. In the same:
Jehovah Zebaoth shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one (Isa. 10:34);
the “thickets of the forest” denote memory-knowledges and “Lebanon,” things rational. In Jeremiah:
Set up a standard toward Zion, for I will bring evil from the north, and a great destruction; a lion is gone up from his thicket, and a destroyer of nations; he is on his way, he is gone forth from his place, to make thy land a waste; thy cities shall be destroyed, without inhabitant (Jer. 4:6-7);
“from his thicket” denotes from memory-knowledge; and that which ascends into Divine arcana from this makes the “land a waste,” that is, lays waste the church.
 The reason why in the Word memory-knowledges are called “thickets,” is that they are comparatively of such a character, especially when the cupidities of the love of self and of the world, and the principles of falsity, seek for them. Celestial and spiritual love is that which disposes into order the knowledges which are of the exterior memory; and the love of self and of the world is that which perverts the order, and disturbs all things in it. These things the man does not take notice of, because he places order in perverted order, good in evil, and truth in falsity. On this account these things are in entanglement; and also on this, that the things of the exterior memory, where these knowledges are, compared with those in the interior memory, where rational things are, are as in a thicket, or as in a dark forest. How shady, opaque, and dark it is there in comparison, a man cannot know so long as he is living in the body; for he then supposes that all wisdom and intelligence are from this source; but he will know in the other life, when he comes into the things of his interior memory. That in the exterior memory, which is proper to man while he is living in the world, nothing is less to be found than the light of intelligence and wisdom; but that all is relatively dark, disorderly, and entangled there, may be seen above (n. 2469-2494).
sRef Ps@89 @18 S2′ sRef Ps@89 @17 S2′ sRef Ps@89 @25 S2′ sRef Ps@89 @24 S2′ sRef 2Sam@22 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @2 S2′ sRef 2Sam@22 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@18 @1 S2′  That a “horn” signifies the power of truth from good, is evident from the following passages. In David:
Thou art the glory of their strength, and in Thy good pleasure wilt Thou exalt our horn; for our shield belongeth unto Jehovah, and our king to the Holy One of Israel. My truth and My mercy shall be with him, and in My name shall his horn be exalted; I will set his hand also in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers (Ps. 89:17-18, 24-25);
where “our horn” and “his horn” manifestly denote the power of truth. The Lord’s spiritual kingdom is there treated of; “our king belongs to the Holy One of Israel” denotes that Divine truth belongs to the Lord. (That a “king” is truth, and that the Lord’s royalty is the Divine Truth, may be seen above, n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069); to “put his hand in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers” denotes that strength is in the memory-knowledges and the knowledges of truth. (That the “hand” and the “right hand” denote strength, see above, n. 878; and also that the “sea” and the “rivers” denote memory-knowledges and knowledges, n. 28, 2702.) In the same:
I will love Thee, O Jehovah, my strength; Jehovah is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer, my God, my strong rock in whom I trust, my shield, and the horn of my salvation (Ps. 18:1-2; 2 Sam. 22:2-3);
the “horn of salvation” denotes truth as to power; in this passage “strength,” “rock,” “fortress,” “God,” “strong rock,” and “shield,” are all significative of the power of truth.
sRef Ps@132 @17 S3′ sRef 1Sam@2 @10 S3′ sRef 1Sam@2 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@132 @18 S3′  In the same:
In Zion will I make a horn to bud unto David, I will prepare a lamp for Mine anointed; His enemies will I clothe with shame (Ps. 132:17-18);
where the Lord is treated of, who is “David” (n. 1888); a “horn” denotes the power of truth; a “lamp,” the light of truth. In Samuel:
My heart hath exulted in Jehovah, my horn is exalted in Jehovah, my mouth is enlarged against mine enemies, because I have been glad in Thy salvation. Jehovah will give strength unto His king, and will exalt the horn of His anointed (1 Sam. 2:1, 10);
this is the prophecy of Hannah; the “horn” denotes the power of truth.
sRef Deut@33 @17 S4′ sRef Ps@22 @21 S4′ sRef Ps@92 @10 S4′  In Moses:
The firstling of his ox, honor is his, and his horns are the horns of the unicorn; with them shall he push the peoples all of them, to the ends of the earth (Deut. 33:17);
this is the prophecy of Moses concerning Joseph, where the “horns of the unicorn” denote the great power of truth, as is manifest also from its being said that he shall “push the peoples with them to the ends of the earth.” So too in David:
My horn shalt Thou exalt like the unicorn’s (Ps. 92:10).
And in the same:
O Jehovah, save me from the mouth of the lion, and answer me from the horns of the unicorn (Ps. 22:21);
Divine truths, from their height, are called the “horns of unicorns;” hence the “horn” is so often said to be “exalted,” for exaltation signifies power from the interior. (That what is internal is represented by what is high, may be seen above, n. 1735, 2148.)
sRef Rev@17 @5 S5′ sRef Lam@2 @3 S5′ sRef Rev@17 @3 S5′ sRef Rev@17 @9 S5′ sRef Rev@17 @7 S5′ sRef Rev@17 @13 S5′ sRef Ezek@29 @21 S5′ sRef Rev@17 @12 S5′  In Jeremiah:
The Lord hath cut off in fierce anger all the horn of Israel, He hath drawn back His right hand from before the enemy (Lam. 2:3);
to “cut off all the horn of Israel” denotes to deprive of truth which has power, which is also to “draw back the right hand from before the enemy.” In Ezekiel:
In that day will I make a horn to grow for the house of Israel, and I will give thee the opening of the mouth in the midst of them (Ezek. 29:21);
to “make the horn to grow for the house of Israel,” denotes to multiply the truths of the spiritual church, which is “Israel;” the “opening of the mouth” denotes the confession of them.
sRef Hab@3 @4 S6′ sRef Hab@3 @3 S6′  In Habakkuk:
God will come from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran; His honor covered the heavens, and the earth was full of His praise and His brightness shall be as the light He; had horns out of His hand, and there was the hiding of His strength (Hab. 3:3-4);
where the Lord is treated of; that “He had horns out of His hand, and there was the hiding of His strength,” plainly denotes the power of truth; that “Mount Paran” is the Divine Spiritual or the Divine Truth of the Lord’s Human, may be seen above (n. 2714), which also is the “brightness” and the “light.”
sRef Rev@5 @6 S7′  The Divine Truth of the Lord’s Human is thus described in John:
I saw and behold in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, a Lamb standing as if slain, having seven horns, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth (Rev. 5:6);
the “seven horns” denote holy or Divine truths. (That “seven” means holy, may be seen above, n. 716, 881.) The “seven spirits sent forth into all the earth,” are the holy preachings of the same truths.
sRef Ex@30 @2 S8′ sRef Ex@27 @2 S8′ sRef Ex@37 @25 S8′  The “horns of the altars” signified nothing else than truth in which is power. Of these it is said in Moses:
Thou shalt make horns upon the four corners of the altar; out of it shall its horns be (Exod. 27:2; 38:2).
So too upon the altar of incense, out of which were to be horns (Exod. 30:2; 37:25). (That the altar was a principal representative of the Lord and of His worship, may be seen above, n. 921.) The altar was a representative of His Divine Good; the horns were the representatives of His Divine Truth; that truth was from good was represented by the horns being out of it, or out of the altar. (That there is no other truth than that which is from good, may be seen above, n. 654, 1162, 1176, 1608, 2063, 2261, 2429.) It is manifest from this that “horns” in the genuine sense signify the power of truth which is from good.
sRef Rev@9 @13 S9′ sRef Lev@16 @18 S9′ sRef Lev@16 @19 S9′  That Aaron and his sons, when initiated in the ministry, took of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with the finger (Exod. 29:12; Lev. 8:15); and that Aaron made expiation upon the horns of the altar once in the year (Exod. 30:10); and that when a priest sinned, he offered a bullock, and put of the blood upon the horns of the altar of incense (Lev. 4:3, 7); also that when a prince sinned, he offered a burnt-offering, and the blood was sprinkled upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering (Lev. 4:. 22, 25); and that it was the same when a soul sinned (verses 27, 30, 34, of the same chapter); as also when the altar was expiated (Lev. 16:18, 19)-all these things signified truths from good; for all sanctifications, inaugurations, and expiations were made by truths, because truths introduce to good (n. 2830). That the “horns of the altar” signified truths which are from good, may also be seen in John:
The sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God (Rev. 9:13);
the “horns of the golden altar” manifestly denote truths from good, for thence came the voice (that “gold” is good may be seen above, n. 113, 1551, 1552; and still more the “golden altar”).
sRef Amos@3 @14 S10′ sRef 1Sam@16 @13 S10′ sRef 1Sam@16 @1 S10′  In Amos:
In the day that I shall visit the transgressions of Israel upon him, I will visit upon the altars of Bethel, and the horns of the altar shall be cut off, and shall fall to the ground (Amos 3:14);
that the “horns of the altar were to be cut off,” was because truth from good was no longer represented there; “Bethel” is the Divine Good, and is therefore called the “king’s sanctuary,” and the “house of the kingdom” (Amos 7:13). The kings being “anointed with oil from a horn” (1 Sam. 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39) represented in like manner truth from good. (The “oil” was good, n. 886; but the “horn,” truth; the “royalty” itself in the internal sense is such truth, n. 1728, 2015, in which is power.)
sRef Amos@6 @13 S11′ sRef Zech@1 @18 S11′ sRef Zech@1 @19 S11′ sRef Zech@1 @21 S11′ sRef Jer@48 @25 S11′ sRef Lam@2 @17 S11′ sRef Zech@1 @20 S11′ sRef 1Ki@1 @39 S11′ sRef Ezek@34 @21 S11′  That a “horn” in the opposite sense signifies the power of falsity which is from evil, is evident from the following passages. In Amos:
Ye who rejoice in a thing of naught, who say, Have we not taken to us horns by our own strength? (Amos 6:13);
“horns” here denote the power of falsity. In Zechariah:
I lifted up mine eyes and saw, and behold four horns; and I said unto the angel that talked with me, What are these? And he said to me, These are the horns which have scattered Judah; Israel, and Jerusalem. And Jehovah showed me four smiths; and I said, What come these to do? And He said, saying, These are the horns which scattered Judah, so that no man doth lift up his head; and these are come to terrify them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted up their horn against the land of Judah, to scatter it (Zech. 1:18-21);
the “horns” denote the power of falsity, which vastates the church. In Ezekiel:
Ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and push all the diseased with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezek. 34:21);
here the shepherds who seduce by falsities are treated of; the “horns” denote the power of falsity; the “shoulder,” all power (n. 1085). In Jeremiah:
Jehovah hath destroyed, and hath not pitied, and He hath caused the enemy to rejoice over thee; He hath exalted the horn of thine adversaries (Lam. 2:17).
In the same:
The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken (Jer. 48:25);
“horn” here denotes powerful falsity.
sRef Ps@75 @10 S12′ sRef Ps@75 @4 S12′ sRef Ps@75 @5 S12′  In David:
I said to them that were glorying, Glory ye not, and to the wicked, Lift not up the horn; lift not up your horn on high, speak not with a stiff neck. All the horns of the wicked will I cut off, the horns of the righteous shall be lifted up (Ps. 75:4-5, 10);
the “horns of the wicked” denote the power of falsity from evil; the “horns of the righteous,” the power of truth from good.
sRef Dan@7 @11 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @21 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @22 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @8 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @7 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @19 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @24 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @26 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @20 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @23 S13′ sRef Dan@7 @25 S13′  In Daniel:
A fourth beast was seen, terrible and powerful and strong exceedingly, and it had iron teeth; it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet, and it had ten horns. I considered the horns, and behold another little horn came up among them, and three of the first horns were rooted up before it; and behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things. I held then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spake; I desired certitude concerning the fourth beast, and concerning the ten horns that were on his head, and concerning the other which came up, and three fell before it; and concerning the same horn that had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things; I held, and the same horn made war with the saints. And he said, As for the fourth beast, it shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. And as for the ten horns, out of this kingdom shall ten kings arise, and another shall arise after them, and he shall be diverse from the former ones, and he shall humble three kings; he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints; afterwards the judgment shall sit (Dan. 7:7-8, 11, 19-26).
Here in the internal sense the perverted state of the church is treated of. The things which were here seen by Daniel, as the beast, the teeth of iron, the horn in which were eyes, and the horns that spoke, and those which made war with the saints, and that which spoke against the Most High, signify the state of falsity and of heresies within the church. That “horns” signify falsity powerful and prevailing, is evident from the mere fact that eyes are attributed to them, that is, understanding (n. 2701); and that they spoke, even against the Most High. By the “kingdoms” and “kings” are not signified kingdoms and kings, but doctrinal things of falsity; as may be seen from their signification in the Word as being doctrinal things of truth, and in the opposite sense of falsity (see n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 2547).
sRef Dan@8 @24 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @3 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @27 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @6 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @5 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @4 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @2 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @18 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @23 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @1 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @25 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @26 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @20 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @19 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @22 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @21 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @15 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @11 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @17 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @12 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @13 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @14 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @9 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @8 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @7 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @10 S14′ sRef Dan@8 @16 S14′  Again in Daniel:
A ram was seen by him standing before the river, which had two horns; and the horns were high, but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. I saw the ram pushing with his horn westward, and northward, and southward, so that no beasts could stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and magnified himself. As I was considering, behold a he-goat of the goats came from the west over the face of the whole earth; this he-goat had a horn between his two eyes; he came to the ram the lord of the horns, and ran upon him in the fury of his power, and smote him, and brake his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him. Afterwards the he-goat of the goats magnified himself exceedingly and when he was strong, his great horn was broken, and there came up four horns in place of it. Soon out of one of them went forth a little horn, and grew exceedingly toward the south, and toward the east, and toward beauty and it grew even to the army of the heavens, and some of the army and of the stars it cast down to the earth, and trampled upon them. The ram with the two horns, they are the kings of Media and Persia; the he-goat is the king of Greece; the four horns in place of one are four Kingdoms out of the nation (Dan. 8:1-27).
Here in the spiritual sense the state of the spiritual church is treated of, which is the “ram” (n. 2830); and the state of that church is described, how it gradually declines and is perverted. The “he-goat of the goats” denotes those who are in faith separate from charity, or in truth separate from good, who begin to uplift themselves against good, and at length against the Lord. The “horns of the ram” are the truths of the spiritual church both internal and external; the “horns of the he-goat of the goats” are truths which have gradually degenerated into falsities; and by the “kingdoms” and “kings” here mentioned are not signified kingdoms and kings, but truths and falsities, as already said; for the Lord’s Word in its essence does not treat of worldly and earthly, but of spiritual and heavenly things.
sRef Rev@12 @3 S15′ sRef Rev@13 @7 S15′ sRef Rev@12 @4 S15′ sRef Rev@13 @1 S15′ sRef Rev@13 @11 S15′ sRef Rev@13 @2 S15′  In John:
And there was seen another sign in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads, and ten horns, and upon his heads seven diadems; his tail drew a third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them to the earth (Rev. 12:3, 4).
I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and on his horns ten diadems, and upon his heads names of blasphemy. It was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them. And then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth, and he had two horns like a lamb (Rev. 13:1-2, 7, 11).
Again in the same:
I saw a woman sitting upon a scarlet-colored beast, full of names of blasphemy; having seven heads and ten horns; it was the great Babylon. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth; and they are seven kings; the ten horns are ten kings (Rev. 17:3, 5, 7, 9, 12-13).
That by the “horns” here in like manner as in Daniel are signified the powers of falsity, is evident.
Jesus said, I am the vine, ye are the branches; he that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:5).
(That a “vine” is the spiritual church may be seen above, n. 1069.)
sRef Jer@1 @5 S2′ sRef Jer@1 @18 S2′ sRef Ps@2 @7 S2′ sRef Jer@1 @10 S2′ sRef Ps@119 @91 S2′ sRef Ps@119 @89 S2′ sRef Ps@119 @90 S2′  That “today” signifies perpetuity and eternity may be seen in David:
I will tell of the decree: Jehovah hath said unto Me, Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee (Ps. 2:7);
where “this day” manifestly denotes what is eternal. In the same:
Forever O Jehovah Thy Word is settled in the heavens, Thy truth is unto generation and generation; Thou hast established the earth, and it abideth; they abide this day according to Thy judgments (Ps. 119:89-91);
where also “this day” manifestly denotes what is eternal. In Jeremiah:
Before I formed Thee in the belly, I knew Thee; and before Thou camest forth out of the womb, I sanctified Thee; I gave Thee for a prophet unto the nations; I have set Thee this day over the nations and over the kingdoms, and I have made Thee this day a defensed city, and an iron pillar, and walls of brass (Jer. 1:5, 10, 18);
here in the sense of the letter Jeremiah is treated of, but in the internal sense the Lord is meant; “I have set Thee this day, or today, over the nations and over the kingdoms, and I have made Thee this day a defensed city” means that it was from eternity. Of the Lord nothing else than what is eternal can be predicated.
sRef Deut@29 @15 S3′ sRef Deut@29 @14 S3′ sRef Deut@29 @13 S3′ sRef Deut@29 @10 S3′ sRef Deut@29 @12 S3′  In Moses:
Ye are standing this day all of you before Jehovah your God, to enter into the covenant of Jehovah thy God, and into His oath, which Jehovah thy God maketh with thee this day, that He may establish thee this day unto Himself for a people; and He will be a God unto thee; and not with you only, but with them who stand here with us this day before Jehovah our God, and with them who are not with us this day (Deut. 29:10, 12-14).
In the sense of the letter here “this day” is the time present when Moses spoke to the people; but that it nevertheless involves the time to come and what is perpetual, is evident; for to make a covenant with anyone, and with those who were there, and not there, involves perpetuity, and the perpetuity itself is what is meant in the internal sense.
sRef Num@28 @3 S4′ sRef Matt@6 @11 S4′ sRef Ex@16 @4 S4′ sRef Ex@16 @19 S4′ sRef Ex@16 @20 S4′ sRef Num@28 @23 S4′ sRef Ex@16 @23 S4′  That “daily” and “this day” signify what is perpetual, is also evident from the sacrifice which was made every day. This, on account of the signification of “day,” “daily,” and “this day,” was called the continual or perpetual sacrifice (Num. 28:3, 23; Deut. 8:13; 11:31; 12:11). This is still more plainly evident from the manna which rained from heaven, of which it is thus said in Moses:
Behold I will rain bread from heaven; and the people shall go out and gather a portion day by day; and let no man leave of it till the morning. What they left till the morning bred worms, and putrefied, except what was kept the day before the Sabbath (Exod. 16:4, 19-20, 23).
This was because the manna signified the Lord’s Divine Human (John 6:31, 32, 49, 50, 58). And because it signified the Lord’s Divine Human, it signified heavenly food, which is nothing else than love and charity together with the goods and truths of faith. This food is given by the Lord in the heavens to the angels every moment, and thus perpetually and to eternity (see n. 2493). This also is what is meant in the Lord’s Prayer by “Give us this day our daily bread” (Matt. 6:11; Luke 11:3); that is, every instant to eternity.
The case herein is as it was with the devouring fire and smoke that appeared upon Mount Sinai before the eyes of the people, when Jehovah or the Lord came down (Exod. 19:18; Deut. 4:11-12; 5:19-21): His glory in heaven, even mercy itself, appeared in this manner before the people there, who were in evil and falsity (see n. 1861); and the case is the same with many things called the sayings and doings of Jehovah that are spoken of in the Word. It may be seen from this that the expression, “by Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah,” is significative of irrevocable confirmation from the Divine.
sRef Ps@105 @9 S2′ sRef Ps@110 @4 S2′ sRef Ps@105 @8 S2′  That to “swear,” when predicated of Jehovah, signifies to confirm with a man who is of such nature, may be seen from many other passages in the Word; as in David:
Jehovah remembered His covenant forever, the word which He commanded to a thousand generations; which He made with Abraham, and His oath unto Isaac (Ps. 105:8-9).
The case is the same with a covenant as with an oath, in that Jehovah or the Lord does not make a covenant with man, but when conjunction by love and charity is treated of, this is set forth in act as a covenant (see n. 1864). In the same:
Jehovah hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a Priest forever, after the manner of Melchizedek* (Ps. 110:4).
This is said concerning the Lord, and “Jehovah hath sworn” denotes irrevocable confirmation from the Divine, that is, that it is eternal truth.
sRef Ps@89 @34 S3′ sRef Ps@89 @35 S3′ sRef Ps@89 @4 S3′ sRef Ps@89 @3 S3′  In the same:
I have made a covenant with My chosen, I have sworn unto David My servant, Thy seed will I establish forever, and build up thy throne to generation and generation (Ps. 89:3-4).
This also is concerning the Lord: to “make a covenant with the chosen,” and to “swear unto David,” denote irrevocable confirmation or eternal truth; “David” denotes the Lord (n. 1888); to “make a covenant” regards the Divine good; to “swear,” the Divine truth. In the same:
My covenant will I not profane nor alter the thing that is gone out of My lips; once have I sworn by My holiness, I will not lie unto David (Ps. 89:34-35);
where also “David” denotes the Lord; the “covenant” here likewise has regard to the Divine good; and the “thing that has gone out of My lips,” to the Divine truth, and this on account of the marriage of good and truth which is in everything in the Word (see n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712).
sRef Ps@132 @12 S4′ sRef Ps@132 @11 S4′  In the same:
Jehovah hath sworn unto David in truth, He will not turn from it. Of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne, if thy sons will keep My covenant, and My testimony that I shall teach them (Ps. 132:11-12);
“Jehovah hath sworn unto David in truth” manifestly denotes the confirmation of eternal truth; and therefore it is said, “He will not turn from it; “that by David is meant the Lord has been stated already; the oath was still “to David,” because he was of such a character that he believed that the confirmation was concerning himself and his posterity; for David was in the love of himself and of his posterity, and hence believed that it was concerning him; that is, as said above, that his seed should be established forever, and his throne to generation and generation; but this was said of the Lord.
sRef Isa@62 @8 S5′ sRef Jer@49 @13 S5′ sRef Amos@8 @7 S5′ sRef Amos@4 @2 S5′ sRef Isa@14 @24 S5′ sRef Isa@54 @9 S5′ sRef Jer@51 @14 S5′ sRef Jer@44 @26 S5′  In Isaiah:
This is as the waters of Noah unto Me; for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee (Isa. 54:9);
where to “swear” denotes making a covenant and confirming it by an oath. That it was a covenant, and not an oath, may be seen in Genesis 9:11. In the same:
Jehovah hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass (Isa. 14:24).
In the same:
Jehovah hath sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength (Isa. 62:8).
Hear ye the word of Jehovah, all Judah, that dwell in the land of Egypt; behold I have sworn by My great name, saith Jehovah, that My name shall no more be named in the mouth of any man of Judah, saying, As the Lord Jehovih liveth, in all the land of Egypt (Jer. 44:26).
By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah, that Bozrah shall become a desolation (Jer. 49:13).
In the same:
Jehovah Zebaoth hath sworn by His soul, Surely I will fill thee with men as with the locust (Jer. 51:14).
The Lord Jehovih hath sworn by His holiness, that behold the days shall come (Amos 4:2).
In the same:
Jehovah hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any of their deeds (Amos 8:7).
 In these passages, “Jehovah swearing by His right hand,” “by His great name,” by “Himself,” by His “soul,” by His “holiness,” by the “excellency of Jacob,” signifies the confirmation there is in Jehovah or the Lord. A confirmation by Jehovah can be given only from Himself. The “right hand of Jehovah,” the “great name of Jehovah,” the “soul of Jehovah,” the “holiness of Jehovah,” the “excellency of Jacob,” signify the Lord’s Divine Human: “swearing” thereby was confirmation.
sRef Deut@11 @9 S7′ sRef Deut@11 @21 S7′ sRef Isa@45 @23 S7′  Jehovah or the Lord “swearing” to give the land to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, or to their posterity, signifies in the internal sense the confirmation that He would give the heavenly kingdom to those who are in love to Him and faith in Him. It is they who are meant in the internal sense of the Word by the sons and the posterity of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, or of the fathers; which was also actually represented by the fact that the land of Canaan was given to their posterity, and that the church at that time with them represented the Lord’s heavenly kingdom, as the land itself also did. (That “land” and the “land of Canaan” in the internal sense is the Lord’s kingdom, may be seen above, n. 1413, 1437, 1607.) It is from this that it is said in Moses:
That ye may prolong your days upon the ground which Jehovah sware unto your fathers, to give unto them, and to their seed, a land flowing with milk and honey; that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the ground which Jehovah sware unto your fathers, to give them, as the days of the heavens upon the earth (Deut. 11:9, 21).
From these passages it must now be evident that Jehovah’s “swearing” was representative of confirmation, and indeed of an irrevocable one. This is still more plainly manifest in Isaiah:
By Myself have I sworn, the word of righteousness is gone forth from My mouth, and shall not return, that to Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear (Isa. 45:23).
sRef Deut@6 @14 S8′ sRef Deut@10 @20 S8′ sRef Jer@12 @16 S8′ sRef Isa@65 @16 S8′ sRef Deut@6 @13 S8′ sRef Jer@4 @1 S8′ sRef Isa@19 @18 S8′ sRef Josh@9 @18 S8′ sRef Isa@48 @1 S8′ sRef Jer@4 @2 S8′ sRef Josh@9 @19 S8′  Moreover it was enjoined upon those who were of the representative Jewish Church, that when they confirmed covenants by an oath, and likewise vows, also promises, and sureties, they should “swear by the name of Jehovah.” The reason why this was enjoined upon them, although it was only permitted, was that the confirmation of the internal man also would thus be represented; so that oaths at that time in the name of Jehovah, were as other things were, namely, representative. That it was enjoined, that is, permitted, is evident in Moses:
Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, and Him shall thou serve, and shalt swear by His name; ye shall not go after other gods (Deut. 6:13-14).
Again in the same:
Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, Him shalt thou serve and to Him shalt thou cleave, and shalt swear by His name (Deut. 10:20).
He who blesseth himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth, and he that sweareth in the earth shall swear by the God of truth (Isa. 65:16).
If thou wilt return, O Israel, saith Jehovah, unto Me shall thou return; and if thou wilt put away thine abominations from before Me, waver not; and thou shalt swear, Jehovah liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness (Jer. 4:1-2).
In the same:
If learning they will learn the ways of My people, to swear by My name, then they shall be built up in the midst of My people (Jer. 12:16).
That they also swore “by the name of Jehovah,” or swore “to Jehovah,” may be seen in Isaiah:
Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, that are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, that swear by the name of Jehovah, and have made mention of the God of Israel, not in truth, and not in righteousness (Isa. 48:1).
In the same:
In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah Zebaoth (Isa 19:18).
The princes of the congregation sware to the Gibeonites by Jehovah the God of Israel (Josh. 9:18-19).
 From this it is evident that they were permitted to swear by the name of Jehovah, or by Jehovah; yet it is evident that this was nothing else than a representative of the confirmation of the internal man. But it is known that internal men, that is, those who have conscience, have no need to confirm anything by an oath; and that they do not thus confirm. To them oaths are a cause of shame. They can indeed say with some asseveration that a thing is so, and can also confirm the truth by reasons; but to swear that it is so, they cannot. They have an internal bond by which they are bound, namely, that of conscience. To superadd to this an external bond, which is an oath, is like imputing to them that they are not upright in heart. The internal man is also of such a character that he loves to speak and act from freedom, but not from compulsion; for with them the internal compels the external, but not the reverse. On this account they who have conscience do not swear; still less do they who have perception of good and truth, that is, celestial men. These do not even confirm themselves or one another by reasons, but merely say that a thing is so, or is not so (n. 202, 337, 2718); wherefore they are still further removed from taking an oath.
sRef Matt@5 @33 S10′ sRef Matt@5 @35 S10′ sRef Matt@5 @34 S10′ sRef Matt@5 @37 S10′ sRef Matt@5 @36 S10′  For these reasons, and because oaths were among the representatives which were to be abrogated, the Lord taught that we are not to swear at all, in these words in Matthew:
Ye have heard that it has been said, Thou shalt not forswear thyself; but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths. But I say unto you, Swear not at all neither by the heaven, for it is God’s throne; nor by the earth, for it is His footstool nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king; neither shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your speech be, Yea, yea; nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil (Matt. 5:33-37).
By these words is meant that we are not to swear at all by Jehovah, nor by anything which is of Jehovah or the Lord.
* Poenituit…juxta verbum meum, Malchizedech; but poenitebit…juxta modum Malchizedechi, n. 6148. [Rotch ed.]
He who soweth the good seed is the Son of man, but the seed are the sons of the kingdom (Matt. 8:37-38).
 As regards the signification of a “gate,” there are in general two gates with every man; the one opens toward hell, and is opened to the evils and falsities therefrom; in this gate are infernal genii and spirits; the other gate opens toward heaven, and is opened to good and the truths therefrom; in this gate are angels. There is thus a gate which leads to hell, and a gate which leads to heaven. The gate of hell is opened to those who are in evil and falsity, and only through chinks round about above does anything of the light from heaven enter, by means of which they are able to think and reason; but the gate of heaven is opened to those who are in good and the truth therefrom.
 For there are two ways which lead into man’s rational mind-a higher or internal one, through which good and truth from the Lord enter, and a lower or external one, through which evil and falsity come up from hell. The rational mind itself is in the middle, and to it these ways tend. That mind, from the goods and truths which are in it, is compared in the Word to a city, and is called a “city.” And because it is compared to a city, and is called a “city,” gates are attributed to it, and it is often described as being besieged and stormed by enemies, that is, by evil genii and spirits; and as being defended by angels from the Lord, that is by the Lord. The infernal genii and spirits, with their evils and falsities, cannot come further than to the lower or outer gate, and in no case into the city. If they could get into the city, or into the rational mind, all would be over with the man. But when they come so far as to seem to themselves to have taken that city by storm, it is then closed, so that good and truth no longer flow into it from heaven except as was said some little through chinks round about. From this it is that such persons no longer have anything of charity or anything of faith, but make good consist in evil, and truth in falsity. From this also it is that they are no longer truly rational, although they seem to themselves to be so (n. 1914, 1944). And it is from this that they are called dead men, although they believe that they are more alive than others (n. 81, 290 at the end). These things are so because the gate of heaven is closed to them. That it is closed to them manifestly appears and is perceived in the other life; as also on the other hand that the gate of heaven is open to those who are in good and truth.
 As regards the “gate of enemies” in particular, which is treated of in this verse, it is with man in his natural mind. When man is wholly natural, or not regenerate, evils and falsities occupy the gate; or what is the same, evil genii and spirits flow into it with cupidities of evil and persuasions of falsity (see n. 687, 697, 1692); but when man becomes spiritual, or is being regenerated, then the evils and falsities, or what is the same, the evil genii and spirits, are driven away from the gate, or from the mind; then goods and truths, or charity and faith, take their place; which things are signified by its being said, “thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies.” This takes place in particular with every man when he is being regenerated; and in like manner in the other life with those who come into the Lord’s kingdom; and it also takes place in the general body, or in the church, which is composed of many.
sRef Gen@24 @60 S5′  This was represented by the sons of Israel expelling the nations from the land of Canaan. The latter is meant in the literal sense where it is said, “thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies;” but in the internal sense are signified the things which have been told. Hence in ancient times it became customary to speak thus when blessing those who were entering into marriage; as is also manifest from the benediction of Laban to his sister Rebekah, when she was going away betrothed to Isaac:
Our sister, be thou thousands of ten thousands, and let thy seed inherit the gate of those that hate thee (Gen. 24:60).
sRef Isa@14 @31 S6′ sRef Isa@14 @30 S6′  That such things are signified in the Word by the “gate of enemies” or of “those that hate,” may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:
I will kill thy root with famine, and I will slay them that remain of thee. Howl, O gate; cry, O city; thou art melted away, O Philistia, all of thee, for there cometh a smoke out of the north (Isa. 14:30-31);
to “kill the root with famine, and to slay them that remain,” denotes to take away the goods and truths which had been stored up interiorly by the Lord. That “they that remain” mean these, may be seen above (n. 468, 530, 560-562, 661, 798, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284). The “gate” denotes access to the interiors, or to the rational mind; the “city,” that mind, or what is the same, the goods and truths in it (n. 402, 2268, 2450, 2451, 2712); “Philistia” denotes the memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith, or what is the same, those who are in the memory-knowledge of them, but not in the goods of faith (n. 1197, 1198); “a smoke out of the north” signifies that there is falsity from hell (that “smoke” is falsity from evil, may be seen above, n. 1861).
sRef Isa@24 @10 S7′ sRef Isa@24 @11 S7′ sRef Isa@24 @13 S7′ sRef Isa@24 @12 S7′  In the same:
The city of emptiness shall be broken down, every house shall be shut up that no one may come in; there is a crying in the streets because of the wine; all gladness shall be desolated, the joy of the land shall be exiled, that which is left in the city shall be desolation, and the gate shall be smitten with devastation, for thus shall it be in the midst of the earth, among the people (Isa. 24:10-13);
the “city of emptiness which shall be broken down” denotes the human mind as being deprived of truth; that “every house shall be shut up,” denotes being without good (that a “house” is good, may be seen above, n. 2233, 2234; the “crying in the streets because of the wine” denotes a state of falsity (that a “cry” is predicated of falsities, may be seen above, n. 2240; also that “wine” is truth, of which the cry is that there is none, n. 1071, 1798; that “streets” are what lead to truths, n. 2336); “gladness which is desolated” is predicated of truth; the “joy of the land which is exiled” is predicated of good; hence it is manifest what is signified by “that which is left in the city shall be desolation,” and by “the gate shall be smitten with devastation;” the gate is said to be “devastated” when nothing but evils and falsities reign.
sRef Lam@1 @5 S8′ sRef Lam@1 @4 S8′  In Jeremiah:
The ways of Zion do mourn, because none come to the appointed feast; all her gates are desolate, her priests do sigh, her virgins are afflicted, and she herself is in bitterness; her adversaries have become the head, her enemies are secure, because Jehovah hath afflicted her for the multitude of her transgressions; her children are gone into captivity before the adversary (Lam. 1:4-5);
“the ways of Zion mourning” denotes there being no longer truths from good (that “ways” are truths, may be seen above, n. 189, 627, 2333); “all the gates being desolated” denotes that all the approaches are occupied by falsities; “the enemies having become the head” denotes that evils reign.
sRef Lam@2 @8 S9′ sRef Lam@2 @16 S9′ sRef Lam@2 @9 S9′  In the same:
Jehovah hath made the rampart and the wall of the daughter of Zion to lament; they languish together; her gates are sunk into the earth; He hath destroyed and broken her bars; her king and her princes are among the nations; the law is not; yea her prophets found no vision from Jehovah; all thine enemies have opened their mouth against thee; they hissed and gnashed the teeth; they said, We have swallowed her up; surely this is the day that we looked for; we have found, we have seen it (Lam. 2:8-9, 16);
“the gates sunk down into the earth” denotes the natural mind occupied by evils and falsities; “her king and her princes being among the nations” denotes that truths are immersed in evils (that a “king” is truth in general, may be seen above, n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069; also that “princes” are primary truths, n. 1482, 1089; and that “nations” are evils, n. 1259, 1260, 1849, 1868, 2588).
sRef Deut@28 @49 S10′ sRef Deut@28 @53 S10′ sRef Deut@28 @52 S10′  In Moses:
A nation from far, from the end of the earth, shall straiten thee in all thy gates, in all thy land; thus shall thine enemy straiten thee (Deut. 28:49, 52, 63).
This is among the curses which Moses foretold to the people if they should not remain in the precepts and statutes: a “nation from far from the end of the earth,” in the internal sense, denotes evils and falsities, or those who are in evil and falsity; to “besiege in all the gates” denotes cutting off all access to good and truth.
sRef Judg@5 @6 S11′ sRef Nahum@3 @14 S11′ sRef Nahum@3 @13 S11′ sRef Judg@5 @7 S11′ sRef Judg@5 @8 S11′  In Nahum:
Behold, thy people in the midst of thee are women, the gates of thy land are set wide open to thine enemies, the fire hath devoured thy bars; draw thee water for the siege; strengthen thy fortresses; go into the clay and tread the mortar, make strong the brickkiln (Nahum 3:13-14);
“the gates of thy land being set wide open to thine enemies” denotes that evils occupy the place where there should be goods. In the book of Judges:
The highways ceased, and they walked through byways, they went through crooked ways, the villages ceased in Israel. He chose new gods; then was war against the gates; was there a shield seen or a spear in forty thousands of Israel? (Judg. 5:6-8);
the prophecy of Deborah and Barak; there being “war against the gates” denotes against goods and truths.
sRef Ezek@8 @15 S12′ sRef Ezek@8 @6 S12′ sRef Ezek@8 @3 S12′ sRef Ezek@8 @14 S12′ sRef Ps@69 @12 S12′  In David:
They that dwell in the gate plot against me, they that drink strong drink sing songs (Ps. 69:12);
“they that dwell in the gate” denotes evils and falsities, and also the infernals. In Ezekiel:
In the visions of God he brought me to the door of the inner gate that looketh toward the north. (He there saw the great abominations of the house of Israel.) He also brought me to the door of the gate of the house of Jehovah that looketh toward the north; he there also saw abominations (Ezek. 8:6, 14-15);
“the door of the inner gate that looketh toward the north” denotes the place where interior falsities are; “the door of the gate of the house of Jehovah toward the north” denotes the place where interior evils are (that the falsities and evils are interior ones, and that it is an interior sphere in which such spirits and genii are, may be seen above, n. 2121-2124).
sRef Jer@14 @2 S13′ sRef Jer@14 @3 S13′ sRef Isa@22 @7 S13′ sRef Isa@29 @21 S13′ sRef Jer@14 @1 S13′ sRef Ps@127 @4 S13′ sRef Ps@127 @3 S13′ sRef Isa@28 @5 S13′ sRef Isa@29 @20 S13′ sRef Isa@28 @6 S13′ sRef Isa@22 @8 S13′ sRef Isa@28 @7 S13′ sRef Isa@22 @6 S13′ sRef Ps@127 @5 S13′ sRef Lam@5 @14 S13′  In David:
Lo, sons are a possession of Jehovah, and the fruit of the womb is His reward; as arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are sons of the youth. Happy is the man that hath filled his quiver with them; they shall not be ashamed, for they shall speak with the enemies in the gate (Ps. 127:3-5);
“to speak with the enemies in the gate” denotes to have no fear of evils and falsities, and thus not of hell. In Isaiah:
In that day shall Jehovah Zebaoth be for a spirit of judgment to Him that sitteth in judgment, and for strength to them that turn back the battle to the gate; and these also are insane through wine, and through strong drink are gone astray (Isa. 28:5-7).
In the same:
They shall be cut off that make men to sin by a word, and lay a snare for him that reproveth in the gate; and make the just to turn aside to a thing of naught (Isa. 29:20-21).
In the same:
Elam bare the quiver in a chariot of a man, and horsemen; Kir uncovered the shield; and the choice of thy valleys was full of chariots and horsemen; placing they placed themselves at the gate, and he looked in that day to the armory of the house of the forest (Isa. 22:6-8).
Judah hath mourned, and the gates thereof languished; they have mourned to the earth, and the cry of Jerusalem is gone up; their nobles have sent their little ones to the waters; they came to the pits, they found no waters (Jer. 14:2-3).
In the same:
The elders have ceased from the gate, the young men from their music (Lam. 5:14).
sRef Isa@62 @12 S14′ sRef Isa@60 @11 S14′ sRef Isa@26 @2 S14′ sRef Isa@62 @10 S14′ sRef Isa@60 @10 S14′ sRef Micah@2 @13 S14′ sRef Isa@45 @1 S14′ sRef Isa@26 @1 S14′ sRef Isa@62 @11 S14′ sRef Isa@45 @2 S14′ sRef Isa@60 @18 S14′ sRef Ps@147 @13 S14′ sRef Ps@24 @7 S14′ sRef Ps@24 @10 S14′ sRef Ps@147 @12 S14′ sRef Ps@24 @9 S14′ sRef Ps@24 @8 S14′  It may be seen from these passages what is signified by the “gate of enemies,” namely, that it is hell, or infernal spirits, who are continually attacking goods and truths. Their seat with man as before said is in his natural mind. But when a man is of such a character as to admit goods and truths, and thus angels, the infernal spirits are then driven away by the Lord from that seat; and on their being driven away, the gate of heaven or heaven itself is opened. This gate is also mentioned in the Word in various places; as in Isaiah:
A song in the land of Judah. We have a strong city, salvation will He appoint for walls and bulwarks; open ye the gates, and the righteous nation that keepeth fidelities shall enter in (Isa. 26:1-2).
In the same:
Thus said Jehovah to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open the doors before him, and the gates shall not be shut; I will go before thee, and will make the crooked places straight, and I will break in pieces the doors of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron (Isa. 45:1-2).
In the same:
The sons of the stranger shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee; they shall open thy gates continually, they shall not be shut day nor night; violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting and destruction within thy borders; and thou shalt call thy walls salvation, and thy gates praise (Isa. 60:10-11, 18).
In the same:
Go through, go through the gates; prepare ye the way for the people, level, make level the highway; say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold thy salvation cometh (Isa. 62:10-12).
They shall pass through the gate, and shall go out thereat, and their King shall pass on before them, and Jehovah in their beginning (Micah 2:13).
Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory? Jehovah strong and mighty, Jehovah mighty in battle. Lift up your heads, O ye gates; lift them up, ye everlasting doors (Ps. 24:7-10).
Praise Jehovah, O Jerusalem; praise thy God, O Zion: for He hath strengthened the bars of thy gates, He hath blessed thy children within thee (Ps. 147:12-13).
sRef Matt@7 @14 S15′ sRef Matt@7 @13 S15′  From these passages it is manifest that the “gate of heaven” is where angels are with man, that is, where there is an influx of good and truth from the Lord; and thus that as before said there are two gates. Concerning these two gates the Lord speaks thus in Matthew:
Enter ye in by the strait gate; for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be that go in thereat; because strait is the gate and narrow is the way that leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it (Matt. 7:12-14; Luke 13:23-24).
Moreover the gates to the New Jerusalem and the gates to the new temple are much treated of in Ezekiel, and also by John in Revelation, by which nothing else is meant than the entrances to heaven (see Ezek. 40:6-49; 43:1-2, 4; 44:1-3; 46:1-9, 12; 48:31-34; Rev. 21:12-13, 21, 25; 22:14; Isa. 54:11-12). Hence Jerusalem is called the “gate of the people” (Micah 1:9; Obad. verse 13).
 Moreover in these words there is contained the following arcanum: that through the church (which is here the “earth,” n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262) those are saved who are out of the church; for as just stated, “thy seed” denotes the faith of charity; and no others are in the faith of charity than those within the church, for the faith of charity is truth of doctrine adjoined to good of life. The case is this: The Lord’s kingdom on earth consists of all those who are in good, who though scattered over the whole earth, are still one, and as members constitute one body. Such is the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, where the whole heaven represents one man, which is therefore also called the Grand Man (n. 684, 1276); and what is wonderful and hitherto unknown, all parts of the human body correspond to societies in heaven. And therefore it is sometimes said that some societies belong to the province of the head, some to the province of the eye, others to that of the chest, and so on, which correspondence will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be spoken of by itself.
 The case is the same with the Lord’s church on earth, where the church is like the heart and lungs; while those outside the church answer to the parts of the body which are supported and live from the heart and lungs. Hence it is manifest that without a church somewhere on the earth the human race could not subsist, as the body could not without the heart and lungs (see n. 468, 637, 931, 2054). From this cause it is that whenever any church is consummated, that is, becomes no church because there is no longer any charity, a new one is of the Lord’s providence always raised up; as when the Most Ancient Church called “Man” perished, a new one was created by the Lord, which was called “Noah,” and was the Ancient Church that was after the flood; and when this degenerated and became none, the Jewish and Israelitish representative Church was instituted; and when this became altogether extinct, the Lord then came into the world, and set up again a new one; and this for the purpose that there might be conjunction of heaven with the human race through the church. This is also what is signified by “in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.”
It is the common opinion that the Father sent the Son to suffer the hardest things even to the death of the cross; and thus that by looking upon the passion and merit of the Son, He has mercy upon the human race. But everyone can know that Jehovah does not have mercy by any looking upon the Son, for He is mercy itself; but that the arcanum of the Lord’s coming into the world is that He united in Himself the Divine to the Human and the Human to the Divine; which could not be done except through the most grievous things of temptations; and thus that by that union it became possible for salvation to reach the human race, in which no celestial and spiritual, or even natural good, any longer remained; and it is this union which saves those who are in the faith of charity. It is the Lord Himself who shows the mercy.
 As those within the church who are saved by the Lord’s Divine Human are treated of in what precedes, in the things which follow to the end of this chapter those out of the church who are saved are treated of, and are signified by those who were born to Nahor, Abraham’s brother, from Milcah his wife and Reumah his concubine: this also follows in the series. He who has not become acquainted with the internal sense of the Word would suppose that these things relate merely to the genealogy of the house of Terah, being given on account of Rebekah who became Isaac’s wife, and also on account of Bethuel, whose two granddaughters, Leah and Rachel, became Jacob’s wives. But as has been very often said and shown, all the names in the Word signify actual things (n. 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888); and unless they signified such things, the Word would not be Divine, but worldly. From this it is also evident that these things which follow relate in series to the Lord’s spiritual church, but to that which is among the Gentiles; and this through Nahor, Abraham’s brother, in order that those who are in brotherhood from good may be signified (as follows, n. 2863).
 That there were truths among the Gentiles is evident from many things, for it is known that formerly there was wisdom and intelligence among the nations, as that they acknowledged one God, and wrote concerning Him in a holy manner; also that they acknowledged the immortality of the soul, and the life after death, and also the happiness of the good and the unhappiness of the evil; and further that they had for their law the precepts of the Decalogue, namely, that God is to be worshiped, that parents are to be honored, that men must not kill, steal, commit adultery, nor covet the property of others; nor were they content to be of this character in externals, but were so in internals.
 It is the same at this day; the better behaved Gentiles from all parts of the earth sometimes speak better on such subjects than Christians do; nor do they merely speak better things, but also live according to them. These and many other truths are among the Gentiles, and conjoin themselves with the good which they have from the Lord, from the conjunction of which they are in a state to receive still more truths, because one truth recognizes another, and truths easily consociate themselves together, for they are connected with and related to each other. Hence it is that they who have been in good in the world easily receive the truths of faith in the other life. The falsities that are with them do not conjoin themselves with their good, but only apply themselves to it in such manner as to be separable from it. The falsities which have been conjoined remain, but those which have been merely applied are separated; and they are separated at the time when the men learn the truths of faith and imbue themselves with them. Every truth of faith removes and separates what is false, so that at length the man is averse to it and shuns it. From all this we can see what kind of persons are signified by the sons whom Milcah bare to Nahor, Abraham’s brother, namely, those out of the church who are in brotherhood from good.
That men should procreate children from maidservants or concubines was tolerated at that time, in order that those who are out of the church might thus be represented, and also those who are in a lower degree within the church. The name of this concubine being said to be “Reumah” involves her quality (n. 1896, 2009); which here is exaltation, this being the meaning of the word “Reumah.” (Concerning the state and lot of the nations and peoples who are out of the church, see above, n. 593, 932, 1032, 1059, 1327, 1328, 1366, 2049, 2051, 2284, 2589-2604.)
Few know what freedom is, and what non-freedom is. All that which is of any love and its delight appears to be freedom, and that which is contrary to these, non-freedom. What is of the love of self and the love of the world, and of their cupidities, appears to man as freedom, but it is infernal freedom; while what is of love to the Lord and of love toward the neighbor, consequently of the love of good and truth, is freedom itself, and is heavenly freedom.
We read in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light appeareth in the darkness, but the darkness comprehended it not. And the Word was made flesh and dwelt within us; and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (1:1-5, 14). Few know what is here meant by the “Word.” That it is the Lord, is evident from the several particulars; but the internal sense teaches that it is the Lord as to His Divine Human that is meant by the “Word,” for it is said: “the Word was made flesh and dwelt within us, and we beheld His glory.” And because the Divine Human is meant by the “Word,” all that Truth also is meant which relates to Him, and is from Him, in His kingdom in the heavens, and in His church on the earth. Hence it is said that “in Him was life, and the life was the light of men, and the light appeareth in the darkness.” And because Truth is meant by the “Word,” all revelation is meant, and thus also the Word itself or Holy Scripture.
Therefore it is said in the Book of the Wars of Jehovah, Vaheb in Suphah, and the rivers of Arnon, and the slope of the rivers that inclineth toward the dwelling of Ar, and leaneth upon the border of Moab (Num. 21:14-15).
 Their prophecies were written like the prophecies of the Old Testament, as is likewise plain from the quotations made from them also in Moses, where are these words:
Wherefore the Enunciations (or the Prophetic Enunciators) say, Come ye to Heshbon, let the city of Sihon be built and established; for a fire is gone out of Heshbon, a flame from the city of Sihon; it hath devoured Ar of Moab, the lords of the high places of Arnon. Woe to thee, Moab; thou hast perished, O people of Chemosh; he hath given his sons as escapers, and his daughters into captivity, unto Sihon king of the Amorite. And we have shot at them; Heshbon is perished even unto Dibon, and we have laid waste even unto Nophah, which reacheth unto Medeba (Num. 21:27-30).
That these prophecies involve heavenly arcana, as do the prophecies of the Old Testament, is clearly manifest not only from their having been transcribed by Moses and applied to the state of things of which he was then writing, but also from the fact that nearly the same words are found in Jeremiah, inserted in the prophecies of that book; in which it is evident, from what has been said about the internal sense of the Word, that there are as many heavenly arcana as there are words. The words in Jeremiah are:
A fire is gone forth out of Heshbon, and a flame from among Sihon, and hath devoured the corner of Moab, and the crown of the head of the sons of tumult. Woe unto thee, O Moab, the people of Chemosh has perished, for thy sons are taken into captivity, and thy daughters into captivity (Jer. 48:45-46).
From this also it is plain that that Word also had an internal sense. (Concerning the Ancient Church which was after the flood, see above, n. 640, 641, 765, 1238, 1327, 2385.)
I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not nigh; there shall come forth a Star out of Jacob, and a Scepter shall rise out of Israel and shall smite through the corners of Moab, and break down all the sons of Sheth (Num. 24:17).
These prophecies, like the former, are called “Parables” [Enuntiata], for the same word is used (Num. 23:7, 18; 24:3, 15, 20).
1. And the lives of Sarah were a hundred years and twenty years and seven years, the years of the lives of Sarah.
2. And Sarah died in Kiriath-arba, the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her.
3. And Abraham rose up from upon the faces of his dead, and spoke unto the sons of Heth, saying,
4. I am a sojourner and a dweller with you; give me a possession of a sepulcher with you, and I will bury my dead from before me.
5. And the sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him,
6. Hear us, my lord, thou art a prince of God in the midst of us; in the choice of our sepulchers bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulcher, from burying thy dead.
7. And Abraham rose up, and bowed himself to the people of the land, to the sons of Heth.
8. And he spoke with them, saying, If it is with your soul that I should bury my dead from before me, hear me, and intercede for me with Ephron the son of Zohar.
9. That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; in full silver let him give it to me, in the midst of you, for a possession of a sepulcher.
10. And Ephron was sitting in the midst of the sons of Heth; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the ears of the sons of Heth, of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying,
11. Nay, my lord, hear me; the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein I give it thee; to the eyes of the sons of my people give I it thee; bury thy dead.
12. And Abraham bowed himself before the people of the land.
13. And he spoke unto Ephron in the ears of the people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me; I will give the silver of the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there.
14. And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him,
15. My lord, hear me; land of four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and thee? Bury therefore thy dead.
16. And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver which he had spoken of in the ears of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver current with the merchant.
17. And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field and the cave which was therein, and every tree that was in the field, that was in all the border thereof round about, were made sure,
18. Unto Abraham for an acquisition to the eyes of the sons of Heth, of all that went in at the gate of his city.
19. And after this Abraham buried Sarah his wife, in the cave of the field of Machpelah, upon the faces of Mamre, the same is Hebron, in the land of Canaan.
20. And the field and the cave that is therein were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a sepulcher from the sons of Heth.
In the internal sense a New Spiritual Church is here treated of, that was raised up by the Lord after the former church had altogether expired; and also the reception of faith with those who were of the church. “Sarah” here, is the truth Divine which expired; “burial,” is raising up again; “Ephron and the sons of Heth,” are those with whom the good and truth of the church were received; “Machpelah which is before Mamre,” is regeneration; “Hebron in the land of Canaan,” is a new church.
Verse 1. And the lives of Sarah were a hundred years and twenty years and seven years, the years of the lives of Sarah. “The lives of Sarah were,” signifies the times and states of the church as to the truths Divine that preceded; “a hundred years and twenty years and seven years,” signifies their fullness; “the years of the lives of Sarah,” signifies while any truth Divine remained on earth.
 That Sarah, while alive as Abraham’s wife, represented the Lord’s Divine Truth conjoined with His Divine Good, may be seen from the places above cited; and because the Lord’s Divine Truth was represented by her, so also the truth Divine of the church is signified; for in the church there is no other truth than that which is the Lord’s. Truth which is not from Him is not truth; as is also evident from the Word and from the doctrine of faith derived from it. It is evident from the Word, in John:
A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven (John 3:27).
Without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:5).
And the same is evident from the doctrine of faith, in that the all of faith, that is, all truth, is from the Lord.
 All and each of the representatives and significatives in the Word, in the highest sense regard the Lord; hence is the very life of the Word; and as they regard the Lord, they regard His kingdom also, for the Lord is the all in His kingdom; the Divine things which are from the Lord in His kingdom make the kingdom. Therefore insofar as an angel, spirit, or man receives good and truth from the Lord, and believes that it is from the Lord, so far he is in His kingdom; but insofar as he does not receive and does not believe that it is from the Lord, so far he is not in His kingdom. Thus the Divine things that are from the Lord make His kingdom, or heaven; and this is what is meant by the Lord being the all in His kingdom.
 Their fullness, that is, the fullness of the states and times of the church, signifies their end; for the case with the church is like that of the ages of man, of which the first is childhood, the second youth, the third adult age, the fourth old age; the last, or old age, being called the fullness or end. It is also like the times and states of the year; of which the first is spring, the second summer, the third autumn, and the fourth winter; and this last is the end of the year. It is also like the times and states of the day, the first of which is dawn, the second noon, the third evening, and the fourth night; and when this has come, there is fullness or the end. To all these are the states of the church compared in the Word, and they are signified by the same; for by times are signified states (see n. 2625, 2788, 2837).
 The good and truth with those who are of the church are wont to decrease in this manner; and when there are no longer any good and truth (or as is said, when there is no longer any faith, that is, no charity) then the church has come to its old age, or its winter, or its night; and its time and state then are called “decision,” “consummation,” and “fulfillment” (see n. 1857). The same is signified when it is said of the Lord that He came into the world in the fullness of times, or when there was fullness; for there was then no longer any good, not even natural good; and consequently there was no truth. These are the things specifically signified by what is said in this verse.
sRef Isa@63 @4 S2′  That a “year” signifies the entire time of a state of the church from beginning to end, or what is the same, an entire period; and consequently that “years” signify times or periods within the general period, may be seen from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:
Jehovah hath anointed Me to preach good tidings unto the afflicted; He hath sent Me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and an opening of every kind to the bound, to proclaim the year of Jehovah’s good pleasure, and the day of vengeance to our God (Isa. 61:1-2);
said of the Lord’s advent; the “year of Jehovah’s good pleasure” denotes the time of a new church. In the same:
The day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed is come (Isa. 63:4);
this too is said of the Lord’s advent; the “year of the redeemed” denotes the time of a new church. In the same:
It is the day of vengeance to Jehovah; the year of retributions for the controversy of Zion (Isa. 34:8);
where the signification is similar.
sRef Jer@11 @23 S3′ sRef Isa@34 @8 S3′ sRef Jer@48 @44 S3′ sRef Isa@21 @16 S3′ sRef Ezek@38 @8 S3′  The same time is also called the “year of visitation” in Jeremiah:
I will bring evil upon the men of Anathoth, in the year of their visitation (Jer. 11:23).
In the same:
I will bring upon Moab the year of their visitation (Jer. 48:44).
Still more plainly in Ezekiel:
After many days thou shalt be visited; in the futurity of years thou shalt come into the land that is brought back from the sword, that is gathered out of many peoples, upon the mountains of Israel, which shall be for a waste continually (Ezek. 38:8);
“the futurity of years” denotes the last time of the church, which then becomes no church, those being rejected who before were of the church, and others received from elsewhere. In Isaiah:
Thus hath the Lord said unto me, Yet within a year, according to the years of a hireling, and all the glory of Kedar shall be consumed (Isa. 21:16);
here also is meant the last time.
sRef Isa@16 @14 S4′ sRef Ezek@22 @4 S4′  In Ezekiel:
Thou art become guilty in thy blood that thou hast shed, and art defiled in thine idols which thou hast made; and thou hast caused thy days to draw near, and art come even unto thy years; therefore have I made thee a reproach unto the nations, and a mocking to all the lands (Ezek. 22:4);
“to come even unto the years” denotes to the end, when the Lord withdraws from the church. In Isaiah:
Now hath Jehovah spoken, saying, “Within three years, as the years of a hireling, and the glory of Moab shall be brought into contempt, with all his great multitude, and the remnant shall be very small (Isa. 16:14);
“within three years” also denotes the end of the former church. That “three” denotes what is complete, and a beginning, may be seen above (n. 1825, 2788).
sRef Jer@25 @12 S5′ sRef Isa@23 @15 S5′ sRef Isa@23 @17 S5′ sRef Jer@25 @11 S5′  Similar is the signification of “seven,” and also of “seventy” (n. 720, 728, 901); and therefore it is said in Isaiah:
And it shall come to pass in that day that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king; after the end of seventy years it shall be to Tyre as in the song of a harlot. And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years that Jehovah will visit Tyre, and she shall return to her harlot hire (Isa. 23:15-17);
“seventy years” denotes the entire period, from the time at which the church began even till it expires; which is also meant by “the days of one king,” for a “king” signifies the truth of the church (see n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069). The “seventy years” of captivity in which the Jews were, also involve something similar, of which likewise it is said in Jeremiah:
These nations shall serve the king of Babel seventy years; and it shall come to pass when seventy years are fulfilled, I will visit their iniquity upon the king of Babel, and upon this nation, saith Jehovah (Jer. 25:11-12; 29:10).
sRef Mal@3 @2 S6′ sRef Ps@77 @5 S6′ sRef Deut@32 @8 S6′ sRef Mal@3 @4 S6′ sRef Mal@3 @1 S6′ sRef Deut@32 @7 S6′  That a “year,” and also “years,” denote the entire period of a church, or the time of its duration, may be seen still further in Malachi:
Behold I send Mine angel, and he shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the angel of the covenant whom ye desire; behold He cometh, said Jehovah Zebaoth; and who may endure the day of His coming? Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto Jehovah, according to the days of an age, and according to the ancient years (Mal. 3:1-2, 4);
where the advent of the Lord is treated of; the “days of an age” denote the Most Ancient Church; “ancient years,” the Ancient Church; the “offering of Judah,” worship from celestial love; and the “offering of Jerusalem,” worship from spiritual love; that Judah is not meant here, nor Jerusalem, is plain. In David:
I have considered the days of old, and the years of the ages (Ps. 77:5);
where the “days of old” and the “years of the ages” denote the same churches. This is still more plain in Moses:
Remember the days of an age, understand the years of generation and generation; ask thy father, and he will show thee; thine elders, and they will tell thee. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of man (Deut. 32:7-8).
sRef Hab@3 @3 S7′ sRef Hab@3 @2 S7′  That a “year” and “years” denote the full time of a church, is also plain in Habakkuk:
O Jehovah, I have heard Thy fame, I was afraid; O Jehovah, revive Thy work in the midst of the years, in the midst of the years make known; in anger remember mercy. God will come from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran (Hab. 3:2-3);
This is said of the Lord’s advent; “in the midst of the years” denotes in the fullness of times; and what is meant by the fullness of times” may be seen just above (n. 2905).
sRef Ps@102 @24 S8′ sRef Ps@102 @28 S8′ sRef Ps@61 @7 S8′ sRef Ps@102 @27 S8′ sRef Ps@61 @6 S8′  As a “year” and “years” signify the full time between its two limits, which are the beginning and the end when predicated of the Lord’s kingdom on earth (that is, the church) so they signify what is eternal when predicated of the Lord’s kingdom in heaven. As in David:
O God, Thy years are to generation and generation; and Thou art He, and Thy years shall not be brought to an end. The sons of Thy servants shall continue, and their seed shall be established before Thee (Ps. 102:24, 27-28).
In the same:
Thou wilt add days to the days of the king, his years shall be as generation and generation; he shall dwell before God forever (Ps. 61:6-7);
where “years” denote what is eternal, for this treats of the Lord and His kingdom.
 The lambs which were offered for burnt-offering and sacrifice being “sons of their year” (see Lev. 12:6; 14:10; Num. 6:12; 7:15, 21, 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 57, 63, 69, 75, 81, and other places), signified the celestial things of innocence in the Lord’s kingdom, which are eternal. And for this reason also the burnt-offering of calves that were “sons of a year” is mentioned as being most grateful (Micah 6:6).
 That in the internal sense a “year” does not signify a year, is also evident from the fact that the angels, who are in the internal sense of the Word, cannot have an idea of any year; but because a year is a full period of time in nature, which belongs to the world, therefore instead of a year they have an idea of what is full in respect to states of the church, and of what is eternal in respect to states of heaven; times with them are states (see n. 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837).
sRef Gen@37 @14 S2′ sRef Gen@13 @18 S2′ sRef Gen@35 @27 S2′  In regard to Kiriath-arba which is Hebron, it was the region where Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob dwelt. That Abraham dwelt there, appears from what was said in a preceding chapter: “Abraham came and dwelt in Mamre, which is in Hebron” (Gen. 13:18). That Isaac dwelt there, appears from what is said in a later chapter: “Jacob came unto Isaac his father, to Mamre, to Kiriath-arba, the same is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac sojourned” (Gen. 35:27). That Jacob dwelt there is evident from Joseph being sent to his brethren by Jacob his father, from the valley of Hebron (Gen. 37:14). From the representation of the three, as spoken of above, it is plain that Kiriath-arba which is Hebron represented the church before Jerusalem did.
sRef Josh@15 @13 S3′ sRef Josh@15 @14 S3′ sRef Josh@11 @21 S3′  That every church in process of time decreases, until it has nothing left of faith and charity, and then is destroyed, was also represented by Kiriath-arba which is Hebron, in its being possessed by the Anakim, by whom were signified dire persuasions of falsity (n. 581, 1673). That it was possessed by the Anakim, may be seen in several places (Num. 13:21, 22; Josh. 11:21; 14:15; 15:13, 14; Judges 1:10); and that it came to its end or consummation and was destroyed, was represented by all things therein being given by Joshua to the curse (Josh. 10:36, 37; 11:21); and the Anakim being smitten by Judah and Caleb (Judges 1:10; Josh. 14:13-15; 15:13, 14). And that there was again a new church, was represented by Hebron being assigned to Caleb for an inheritance, as to field and villages (Josh. 21:12); but the city itself was made a city of refuge (Josh. 20:7; 21:13); and a priestly city for the sons of Aaron (Josh. 21:10, 11); in the inheritance of Judah (Josh. 15:54).
 Hence it is evident that Hebron represented the Lord’s spiritual church in the land of Canaan. And likewise on this account David was required by the command of Jehovah to go to Hebron, and was there anointed to be king over the house of Judah; and after he had reigned there seven years and six months, he went to Jerusalem and took possession of Zion (see 2 Sam. 2:1-11; 5:5; 1 Kings 2:11); and then for the first time the spiritual church of the Lord began to be represented by Jerusalem, and the celestial church by Zion.
 For with churches the case is this: In the beginning charity is fundamental with them; everyone then loves another as a brother, and is affected from good, not for his own sake, but for the sake of the neighbor, the community, the kingdom of the Lord, and above all things for the Lord’s sake. But in process of time charity begins to grow cold and to become naught. Afterwards comes hatred of one another; which, although it does not appear outwardly, because in civic society men are under laws, and are under outward bonds of restraint, still is nourished inwardly. These outward bonds of restraint come from the love of self and of the world; they are the love of honor and eminence, the love of gain and hence also of power, thus the love of reputation. Under these loves hatred against the neighbor conceals itself, which is of such a nature that men desire to have command over all, and to possess all things that are another’s; and when these desires are opposed, they treasure in their hearts contempt for the neighbor, they breathe revenge, they take delight in his ruin, and even practice cruelties so far as they dare. Into things like these does the charity of the church at its end at last decline, and then it is said of it that there is no longer any faith, for where there is no charity there is no faith, as has been shown many times.
 There have been a number of churches, known to us from the Word, that had such an end. The Most Ancient Church thus expired about the time of the flood; in like manner the Ancient Church which was after the flood; also a second Ancient Church, called the Hebrew Church; and at last the Jewish Church, which was by no means a church that commenced from charity, but was only the representative of a church, to the intent that by representatives communication with heaven might survive, until the Lord came into the world. Afterwards a new church was raised up by the Lord, called the Church of the Gentiles, which was internal, for interior truths had been revealed by the Lord; but this church is now at its end, because now there is not only no charity, but there is hatred instead of charity; which hatred, though it does not appear outwardly, yet is within, and breaks out whenever possible with anyone, that is, whenever outward bonds do not restrain.
 Besides these churches there have been very many others that are not so fully described, which in like manner decreased and destroyed themselves. There are many causes for such decrease and self-destruction; one is that parents accumulate evils, and by frequent practice, and at length by habit, they implant them in their nature, and so by inheritance transcribe them upon their offspring; for what parents acquire from actual life by frequent use is rooted in their nature and is transmitted by inheritance to posterity; and unless the posterity is reformed or regenerated, it is continued to successive generations and is all the time increasing; and thus the will becomes more prone to evils and falsities. But when a church is consummated and perishes, then the Lord always raises up a new church somewhere; but rarely, if ever, from the people of the former church; but from nations that have been in ignorance. Concerning these in what follows.
From upon the faces of his dead. That this signifies in that night, is evident from the signification of “dying,” of “death,” and of “dead,” as denoting night in regard to the state of the church (concerning which see above, n. 2908).
 Among the better inhabitants of the land of Canaan were the Hittites, as is evident from the fact that Abraham dwelt among them, and afterwards Isaac and Jacob, and had their burial place there; also from their bearing themselves piously and modestly toward Abraham, as is very plain from what is related of them in this chapter (particularly in verses 5-6, 10-11, 14-15). And thus by the Hittites, as by a well-disposed nation, is represented and signified the spiritual church, or the truth of the church. But with these, as with the rest of the Ancient church, it came to pass that in course of time they declined from charity or the good of faith; and consequently the falsity of the church is afterwards signified by them (as in Ezek. 16:3, 45, and other places). That still the Hittites were among the more honored, is evident from the fact that there were Hittites with David, as Abimelech (1 Sam. 26:6), and Uriah, who was a Hittite (2 Sam. 11:3, 6, 17, 21), whose wife was Bathsheba, of whom Solomon was born to David (2 Sam. 12:24). (That “Heth” signifies the more external knowledges regarding life, which are the external truths of the spiritual church, may be seen above, n. 1203.)
 This verse treats of the new church that the Lord sets up anew when the former church expires; and the verses that follow treat of the reception of faith with them. A church among the sons of Heth is not treated of; but the raising up by the Lord of the spiritual church in general, after the former ceases or is consummated; the sons of Heth are merely those who represent and signify this. See what has been said above concerning churches, namely: That in process of time a church decreases and is contaminated (n. 494, 501, 1327, 2422): That it recedes from charity, and produces evils and falsities (n. 1834, 1835): That then the church is said to be laid waste and desolate (n. 407-411, 2243): That a church is set up anew with the Gentiles, and why (n. 1366). That in the church which is being vastated, there is always preserved something of the church as a nucleus (n. 468, 637, 931, 2422): That unless there were a church on earth, the human race would perish (n. 468, 637, 931, 2422): That the church is as the heart and lungs in the grand body, that is, in the human race (n. 637, 931, 2054, 2853): The quality of the spiritual church (n. 765, 2669): That charity constitutes the church, not faith separate (n. 809, 916): That if all had charity, the church would be one, although they should differ as to doctrinal things and worship (n. 1285, 1316, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844, 2385): That all men on earth who are in the Lord’s church, though scattered through the world, still as it were make a one, as in the heavens (n. 2853): That every church is internal and external, and both together constitute one church (n. 409, 1083, 1098, 1100, 1242): That the external church is nothing, if there is no internal church (n. 1795): That the church is compared to the rising and the setting of the sun, also to the seasons of the year, and the times of the day (n. 1837): That the Last Judgment is the last time of the church (n. 900, 931, 1850, 2117, 2118).
 That in the opposite sense a “sepulcher” signifies death or hell is because the evil do not rise again into life; and therefore when the evil are treated of and a sepulcher is mentioned, no other idea then occurs to the angels than that of hell; this is the reason why hell in the Word is also called a “sepulcher.”
sRef Ezek@37 @14 S3′ sRef Ezek@37 @13 S3′ sRef Ezek@37 @12 S3′  That a “sepulcher” signifies resurrection, and also regeneration is plain in Ezekiel:
Therefore prophesy, and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Behold I will open your sepulchers, and cause you to come up out of your sepulchers, O My people; and I will bring you to the ground of Israel. And ye shall know that I am Jehovah, when I have opened your sepulchers, and caused you to come up out of your sepulchers, O My people; and shall put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I shall place you on your own ground (Ezek. 37:12-14);
where the Prophet treats of the bones that were made to live, and in the internal sense of regeneration. That he treats of regeneration is plainly evident, for it is said, “when I shall put My spirit in you and ye shall live, and I shall place you on your own ground.” “Sepulchers” here denote the former man and his evils and falsities, to “open,” and to “come up out of” which is to be regenerated. Thus the idea of a sepulcher perishes and is as it were put off, when the idea of regeneration or of the new life comes in.
sRef Matt@27 @53 S4′ sRef Matt@27 @52 S4′  That the sepulchers were opened, and many bodies of the saints that were sleeping arose and went forth out of their sepulchers after the Lord’s resurrection, and entered into the holy city, and appeared unto many (Matt. 27:52, 53), involves what is similar, namely resurrection because of the Lord’s resurrection, and in a more interior sense every resurrection. That the Lord raised Lazarus from the dead (John 11:1 and the following verses) also involves the raising up of a new church from the Gentiles; for all the miracles wrought by the Lord, because they were Divine, involved states of His church. The signification also is similar where it is said that the man who was cast into the sepulcher of Elisha, when he touched his bones, revived (2 Kings 13:20, 21); for by Elisha was represented the Lord.
 As “burial” signified resurrection in general, and every resurrection, therefore the ancients were very solicitous about their burials and the places where they should be buried-as Abraham, that he should be buried in Hebron in the land of Canaan; also Isaac and Jacob, with their wives (Gen. 47:29-31; 49:30-32); and Joseph, that his bones should be carried from Egypt into the land of Canaan (Gen. 50:25; Exod. 13:19; Josh. 24:32); David, and the kings who came after him, that they should be buried in Zion (1 Kings 2:10; 11:43; 14:31; 15:8, 24; 22:50; 2 Kings 8:24; 12:21; 14:20; 15:7, 38; 16:20). The reason of this was that the land of Canaan and Zion represented and signified the Lord’s kingdom, and burial represented and signified resurrection; but that the place effects nothing in regard to resurrection must be evident to everyone.
 That “burial” signifies resurrection to life is also plain from other representatives as that there should be no wailing for the wicked, and that they should not be buried but cast out (Jer. 8:2; 14:16; 16:4, 6; 20:6; 22:19; 25:33; 2 Kings 9:10; Rev. 11:9); and that wicked persons who had been buried should be cast forth from their sepulchers (Jer. 8:1, 2; 2 Kings 23:16-18). In the opposite sense however, a “sepulcher” signifies death or hell (see Isa. 14:19-21; Ezek. 32:21-23, 25, 27; Ps. 88:5, 6, 11, 12; Num. 19:16, 18, 19).
sRef Isa@6 @2 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @5 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @7 S2′ sRef Isa@6 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@19 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@9 @8 S2′ sRef Mal@3 @1 S2′  That in the Word of the Old Testament “Jehovah Zebaoth” and “Lord” are of the same sense and signification, is evident in Isaiah:
The zeal of Jehovah Zebaoth shall perform this; the Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath fallen on Israel (Isa. 9:7-8).
And in another place:
A mighty king shall rule over them, saith the Lord, Jehovah Zebaoth (Isa. 19:4).
Behold the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the angel of the covenant whom ye desire; behold He cometh, saith Jehovah Zebaoth (Mal. 3:1).
Still more plainly in Isaiah:
I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up; above Him stood the seraphim; six wings and six wings for each; the one cried to the other, Holy, holy, holy, Jehovah Zebaoth. Woe is me, for I am undone, for mine eyes have seen the King, Jehovah Zebaoth. And I heard the voice of the Lord (Isa. 6:1, 3, 5, 8);
from which it is plain that “Jehovah Zebaoth” and “the Lord” have the same meaning.
 But the name “Lord Jehovih” is used especially when the aid of omnipotence is sought and implored as in Isaiah:
Say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God. Behold the Lord Jehovih will come in a strong one, and His arm shall rule for Him; behold His reward is with Him and His work before Him. He shall feed His flock like a shepherd (Isa. 40:9-11).
That the name “Lord Jehovih” is used when such aid is sought, may be seen further in Isa. 25:8; 40:10; 48:16; 50:4-5, 7, 9; 61:1; Jer. 2:22; Ezek. 8:1; 11:13, 17, 21; 12:10, 19, 28; 13:8, 13, 16, 18, 20; 14:4, 6, 11, 18, 20, 21; Micah 1:2; Ps. 71:5, 16; and frequently elsewhere.
sRef Ps@136 @2 S4′ sRef Deut@10 @17 S4′ sRef Ps@136 @1 S4′ sRef Ps@136 @3 S4′  And besides this in the Word of the Old Testament the name “Lord” involves the like as “Jehovah,” namely, that it is said “Lord” when good is treated of; wherefore also “Lord” is similarly distinguished from “God” as “Jehovah” is distinguished from “God.” As in Moses:
Jehovah your God, He is God of gods and Lord of lords (Deut. 10:17).
Give thanks unto the God of gods, for His mercy is forever; give thanks unto the Lord of lords, for His mercy is forever (Ps. 136:1-3).
sRef Luke@1 @16 S5′ sRef Deut@6 @4 S5′ sRef Luke@1 @11 S5′ sRef Deut@6 @5 S5′ sRef Rev@4 @8 S5′ sRef Isa@6 @8 S5′ sRef Isa@6 @3 S5′ sRef Isa@6 @5 S5′ sRef Isa@6 @2 S5′ sRef Isa@6 @1 S5′ sRef Mark@12 @29 S5′ sRef Mark@12 @30 S5′ sRef Luke@2 @9 S5′ sRef Luke@1 @68 S5′ sRef Luke@1 @32 S5′ sRef Rev@4 @2 S5′ sRef Luke@1 @47 S5′ sRef Luke@1 @46 S5′ sRef Matt@21 @9 S5′ sRef Rev@4 @6 S5′  But in the Word of the New Testament, with the Evangelists and in Revelation, “Jehovah” is nowhere named; but instead of “Jehovah” it is said “Lord,” and this from hidden causes of which we shall speak below. That in the Word of the New Testament it is said “Lord,” instead of “Jehovah” is very plain in Mark:
Jesus answered, The first of all the commandments is, Hear O Israel, The Lord our God is one Lord; therefore thou shalt love the Lord thy God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy thought, and from all thy strength (Mark 12:29-30).
The same is thus written in Moses:
Hear O Israel, Jehovah our God is one Jehovah; and thou shalt love Jehovah thy God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy strength (Deut. 6:4-5);
where it is plain that “the Lord” is said instead of “Jehovah.” So too in John:
I saw and behold there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting upon the throne; and round about the throne four animals full of eyes before and behind; each one of them had six wings round about, and was full of eyes within; and they said, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty (Rev. 4:2, 6, 8).
But in Isaiah we read:
I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up. Above him stood the seraphim; six wings and six wings for each; the one cried to the other, Holy, holy, holy, Jehovah Zebaoth (Isa. 6:1, 3, 5, 8).
Here “the Lord” is said instead of “Jehovah”; or “the Lord God Almighty” instead of “Jehovah Zebaoth” (that the “four animals” are seraphim or cherubim is plain in Ezekiel, 1:5, 13-15, 19; 10:15). That “the Lord” in the New Testament is “Jehovah” is also evident from many other passages as in Luke:
There appeared to Zacharias an angel of the Lord (Luke 1:11);
an “angel of the Lord” meaning an “angel of Jehovah.”
In the same:
The angel said to Zacharias concerning his son, Many of the sons of Israel shall he turn unto the Lord their God (Luke 1:16);
“unto the Lord their God” meaning “unto Jehovah God.” In the same:
The angel said to Mary concerning Jesus, He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of David (Luke 1:32);
“the Lord God” here is instead of “Jehovah God.” In the same:
Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath exalted itself upon God my savior (Luke 1:46-47);
here too “the Lord” is instead of “Jehovah.” In the same:
Zacharias prophesied, saying, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel (Luke 1:68);
“the Lord God” is instead of “Jehovah God.” In the same:
An angel of the Lord stood by the shepherds; and the glory of the Lord shone round about them (Luke 2:9);
an angel of “the Lord,” and the glory of “the Lord,” instead of an angel of “Jehovah,” and the glory of “Jehovah.” In Matthew:
Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord (Matt. 21:9; 23:39; Luke 13:35; John 12:13);
“in the name of the Lord,” instead of “in the name of Jehovah.” Besides many other passages as Luke 1:28; 2:15, 22-24, 29, 38, 39; 5:17; Mark 12:10, 11.
sRef Luke@2 @11 S6′ sRef John@13 @13 S6′ sRef John@13 @14 S6′ sRef John@13 @16 S6′ sRef John@20 @28 S6′  Among the hidden causes of their calling Jehovah “the Lord” were the following. If at that time it had been said that the Lord was the Jehovah so often named in the Old Testament (see n. 1736), men would not have accepted it, for they would not have believed it; and moreover the Lord did not become Jehovah as to the Human also until He had completely united the Divine Essence to the Human Essence, and the Human to the Divine (see n. 1725, 1729, 1733, 1745, 1815, 2156, 2751). The full unition was accomplished after the last temptation, which was that of the cross; and for this reason, after the resurrection the disciples always called Him “the Lord” (John 20:2, 13, 15, 18, 20, 25; 21:7, 12, 15-17, 20; Mark 16:19, 20); and Thomas said, “My Lord and my God” (John 20:28). And because the Lord was the Jehovah so often named in the Old Testament, He therefore also said to the disciples:
Ye call Me Master and Lord, and ye say well, for I am (John 13:13-14, 16);
and these words signify that He was Jehovah God; for He is here called “Lord” as to good, and “Master” as to truth. That the Lord was Jehovah is also meant by the words of the angel to the shepherds:
Unto you is born this day a Saviour who is Christ the Lord (Luke 2:11);
He is called “Christ” as the Messiah, the Anointed, King; and “Lord” as Jehovah; “Christ” in respect to truth, and “Lord” in respect to good. One who does not closely study the Word could not know this, for he would think that our Savior was called Lord, like others, from the common title of reverence; when yet He was so called because He was Jehovah.
sRef Ezek@12 @20 S2′ sRef Ezek@12 @19 S2′  That it is said the “people of the land” when Israel and Jerusalem are treated of (thus where it treats of the spiritual church), is evident from many passages in the Word; as in Ezekiel:
Say unto the people of the land, Thus saith the Lord Jehovih to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to the ground of Israel, They shall eat their bread in sadness, and shall drink their waters in devastation; that her land may be laid waste; the cities that are inhabited shall be laid waste, and the land shall be desolate (Ezek. 12:19-20);
where in the internal sense Jerusalem and the ground of Israel denote the spiritual church; “bread” and “waters,” charity and faith, or good and truth; the “land,” the church itself, which is said to be “wasted” as to good, and “desolate” as to truth.
sRef Ezek@39 @13 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @11 S3′ sRef Ezek@39 @12 S3′  In the same:
Gog and his multitude shall the house of Israel bury, that they may cleanse the land seven months; and all the people of the land shall bury them (Ezek. 39:11-13);
“Gog” denotes external worship separate from internal, which is idolatrous (n. 1151); the “house of Israel,” the spiritual church in respect to good; the “people of the land,” the same in respect to truth; the “land,” the church itself. The “land” denotes the church for the reason that the land of Canaan represented the Lord’s kingdom and thus the church, for the Lord’s kingdom on earth is the church.
sRef Ezek@45 @16 S4′ sRef Ezek@45 @22 S4′  In the same:
All the people of the land shall be for this oblation for the prince in Israel; and upon that day shall the prince prepare for himself and for all the people of the land a bullock for a sin-offering. The people of the land shall bow themselves at the door of the gate in the sabbaths and in the new moons; and the people of the land shall enter, in the appointed feasts (Ezek. 45:16, 22; 46:3, 9);
where the New Jerusalem, that is, the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, is treated of; they who are in it are the “people of the land;” the “prince” is truth Divine which is from the Lord.
 The sons of Heth are so called because by “sons” are signified truths (see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623). Truths are predicated of the spiritual, because the spiritual are initiated into good by means of truths, that is, into charity by means of faith; and because they do good from the affection of truth, not knowing that it is good from anything else than because they are so instructed. Their conscience also is founded in these truths of faith (see n. 1155, 1577, 2046, 2088, 2184, 2507, 2715, 2716, 2718).
sRef 1Ki@2 @4 S2′ sRef Deut@10 @12 S2′ sRef Deut@6 @5 S2′ sRef Matt@22 @37 S2′ sRef Deut@26 @16 S2′  This is what is meant by “heart and soul” in Moses:
Thou shalt love Jehovah thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength (Deut. 6:5).
Now, O Israel, what doth Jehovah thy God require of thee, but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve Jehovah thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul (Deut. 10:12; 11:13).
This day Jehovah thy God commandeth thee to do these statutes and judgments; and thou shalt keep and do them with all thy heart and with all thy soul (Deut. 26:16).
in the book of Kings:
David said to Solomon, Jehovah will establish His word which He spoke concerning me, saying, If thy sons take heed to their way to walk before Me in truth, with all their heart and with all their soul; there shall not be cut off from thee a man from upon the throne of Israel (1 Kings 2:4).
Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul (Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:29, 30).
sRef Jer@32 @41 S3′ sRef 1Sam@2 @35 S3′ sRef Isa@26 @9 S3′  The same is also predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, because thence comes the affection of good which is of the will, and the affection of truth which is of the understanding, with the man of the church. As in Samuel:
I will raise Me up a faithful priest, according to that which is in My heart and in My soul (1 Sam. 2:35).
And in Jeremiah:
I will rejoice over them to do them good, and I will plant them in this land in truth, with all My heart and with all My soul (Jer. 32:41).
And in other passages throughout the Word, “soul” signifies the affection of truth, as in Isaiah:
With my soul have I desired Thee in the night; yea, with my spirit in the midst of me have I sought Thee early; for according to Thy judgments to the earth, the inhabitants of the world learn righteousness (Isa. 26:9);
here “soul” denotes the affection of truth; “spirit,” the affection of good (that “judgments” are predicated of truths, and “righteousness” of good, may be seen above, n. 2235).
sRef Lam@1 @19 S4′ sRef Jer@31 @25 S4′ sRef Lam@1 @11 S4′ sRef Lam@1 @16 S4′ sRef Jer@31 @12 S4′ sRef Isa@32 @6 S4′  In the same:
The fool speaketh folly, to make empty the hungry soul; and to cause the thirsty for drink to fail (Isa. 32:6);
the “hungry soul” denotes the desire for good, which the fool maketh empty; the “soul thirsty for drink” denotes the desire for truth, which the fool causeth to fail. In Jeremiah:
Their soul shall be as a watered garden, and I will water the wearied soul, and every sorrowful soul will I fill (Jer. 31:12, 25);
here “soul” denotes the affection of good and of truth. Again:
All her people sigh, they seek bread, they have given their pleasant things for food to restore the soul. The comforter that restoreth my soul is far from me; my sons are desolate. They sought food for themselves, to restore their soul (Lam. 1:11, 16, 19);
“soul” denotes the life of the affection of good and truth; “food,” wisdom and intelligence.
 It is said that “soul” signifies the affection of truth from the heart, because there are affections of truth which are not from the heart; as those which are from the love of self or of being eminent, from the love of the world or of making gain, also from the love of meriting; from these in like manner there come forth affections of truth, but they are not genuine; being from the will of the flesh, and not from the heart: that which is from the heart is from the Lord. Moreover “soul” in the Word signifies in the universal sense all life (see n. 1000, 1005, 1040, 1742) for in the universal sense the soul is that from which another thing is, and lives; thus the soul of the body is its spirit, for from this the body lives; but the soul of the spirit is its still more internal life, from which it has wisdom and understanding.
 Those who are being regenerated and being made spiritual are in the greatest obscurity as to truth. Good indeed flows in with them from the Lord, but not so much truth; wherefore between the Lord and the good with man there exist parallelism and correspondence, but not with the truth (see n. 1832). The primary cause of this is that those here treated of do not know what good is; and even if they should know, still they do not believe from the heart; and so long as good is in obscurity with them, so long is truth, for all truth is from good. But to make this more clear: They know only very obscurely that the Lord is good itself, and that all is good which is of love to Him and of charity toward the neighbor, and that all is truth which asserts this and confirms it; indeed they even cherish doubts, and admit reasonings against these things; and so long as they are in such a state, the light of truth from the Lord cannot flow in; they even think of the Lord as another man, and not as God; and they think of love to Him from some worldly love; what the genuine affection of charity toward the neighbor is they scarcely know, nor indeed what charity is and what the neighbor, when yet these are essentials. Hence it is evident how far the spiritual are in obscurity; and they are still more so before regeneration, which is the state here treated of.
sRef Zech@8 @16 S2′  And as they had learned from the most ancient people that nations and families represented the heavenly societies, and thus the things of love and charity (n. 655, 1159), so when a “city” is mentioned instead of a family, and “people” instead of nation, truth is signified which is of faith. Hence also the “city of God” and the “holy city,” in the genuine sense signify faith in the Lord; and as a walled town or city signified faith, the “gate” of the city signified doctrinal things, because these introduce to faith. This in the representative Jewish Church was also signified by the judges and the elders sitting in the gate of the city and judging there; as is plain from the historical parts of the Word; and also in Zechariah:
These are the words that ye shall do: Speak ye every man the truth with his companion, judge truth and the judgment of peace in your gates (Zech. 8:16).
Also in Amos:
Hate the evil and love the good, and establish judgment in the gate (Amos 5:15).
(That a “gate” also signifies the way of access to the rational mind, and that this mind is compared to a city, may be seen above, n. 2851.)
 But after they are regenerate, then by degrees the knowledge is insinuated into them that the case is otherwise, and that all good and truth are solely from the Lord; and still further, when they are becoming more perfected, that whatever does not come from the Lord is evil and false. To the regenerate, if not in the life of the body still in the other life, it is given not only to know this, but also to perceive it; for all the angels are in the perception that it is so. (See what was said above on these subjects, namely, that all good and truth are from the Lord, n. 1614, 2016; that all intelligence and wisdom are from the Lord, n. 109, 112, 121, 124; that man of himself can do nothing of good and think nothing of truth, n. 874-876; that nevertheless everyone ought to do good as if from what is his own, and not hang down his hands, n. 1712; and that if a man compels himself to resist evil and to do good, as from himself, he receives from the Lord a heavenly Own, n. 1937, 1947.)
sRef Gen@15 @13 S2′  That “four hundred years” signifies the duration and state of vastation, may also be seen from what was said to Abram:
Jehovah said unto Abram, Knowing thou shalt know that thy seed shall be a sojourner in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years (Gen. 15:13);
where it seems that by “four hundred years” is meant the stay of the sons of Israel in Egypt. But that their stay in Egypt is not what is signified, but something else which is not manifest to anyone except from the internal sense, is evident from the fact that the stay of the sons of Israel in Egypt was but half of that time; as is clearly evident from the generations from Jacob to Moses; for from Jacob came Levi; from Levi, Kohath; from Kohath, Amram; and from Amram, Aaron and Moses (Exod. 6:16-20). Levi and his son Kohath came with Jacob into Egypt (Gen. 46:11); Moses was of the second generation after this, and he was eighty years old when he spoke to Pharaoh (Exod. 7:7); from all which it is evident that from the coming of Jacob into Egypt to the going forth of his sons was about two hundred and fifteen years.
sRef Ex@12 @40 S3′ sRef Ex@12 @41 S3′  It is still further evident that by “four hundred” in the Word something else is signified than what is meant by the number itself in the historic sense, from its being said:
The dwelling of the sons of Israel which they dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years; and it came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, in the selfsame day it came to pass that all the armies of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt (Exod. 12:40-41);
when nevertheless the stay of the sons of Israel there was but half that number of years; but it was four hundred and thirty years counting from Abraham’s entrance into Egypt; and therefore it was so said for the sake of the internal sense that lies concealed in the words. In the internal sense, by the sojourning of the sons of Jacob in Egypt is represented and signified the vastation of the church; the state and duration of which is described by the number “four hundred and thirty years”; by “thirty” the state of vastation of Jacob’s sons, that it was none at all, because they were such that they could not be reformed by any state of vastation (concerning the signification of the number thirty, see n. 2276); and by “four hundred years,” the general state of vastation of those who were of the church.
sRef Deut@15 @15 S4′ sRef 2Sam@7 @23 S4′ sRef Ex@6 @6 S4′ sRef Deut@7 @8 S4′  Therefore they who go forth from this vastation are they who are called the “redeemed” as is also plain from the words spoken to Moses:
Wherefore say unto the sons of Israel, I am Jehovah, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of Egypt, and I will deliver you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments (Exod. 6:6).
Jehovah brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you out of the house of servants, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt (Deut. 7:8; 13:5).
Thou shalt remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, but Jehovah thy God redeemed thee (Deut. 15:15; 24:18).
Thy people whom thou hast redeemed to thee out of Egypt (2 Sam. 7:23).
Because those who emerge from the state of vastation are called the “redeemed,” therefore by “four hundred shekels” is signified the price of redemption.
sRef Lev@27 @25 S5′ sRef Lev@5 @15 S5′  That a “shekel” signifies the price or estimation is evident from the following passages in the Word; in Moses:
And all thy estimation shall be in the shekel of the holiness (Lev. 27:25).
And in another place:
When a soul hath committed a trespass, and sinned in error from the holy things of Jehovah, he shall bring his guilt offering to Jehovah, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy estimation, in silver of shekels, after the shekel of holiness (Lev. 5:15).
From these passages it is plain that by a “shekel” is signified the price or estimation. It is said the “shekel of holiness,” because the price or estimation has regard to truth and good from the Lord; and truth and good from the Lord are the holy itself in the church. For this reason it is called the “shekel of holiness” in other places also (as in Exod. 30:24; Lev. 27:3; Num. 3:47, 50; 7:13, 19, 25, 31, 37, 43, 49, 55, 61, 67, 73; 18:16).
sRef Ezek@45 @12 S6′  That the “shekel” denotes the price of what is holy, is clearly evident in Ezekiel, where the Holy Land and the Holy City are treated of. It is there said of the shekel:
The shekel shall there be twenty gerahs; twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen shekels, shall be your maneh [pound] (Ezek. 45:12);
that here by “shekel,” and by “pound,” and by the numbers, are signified holy things, that is, good and truth, anyone can see; for the Holy Land, and the Holy City in it (or the New Jerusalem there treated of) is no other than the kingdom of the Lord, where neither shekel nor gerah nor pound, nor the counting by them, but the number itself, from its signification in the internal sense, determines the estimation or the price of what is good and what is true.
sRef Ex@30 @12 S7′ sRef Ezek@45 @12 S7′ sRef Ex@30 @13 S7′ sRef Lev@27 @25 S7′  In Moses:
They shall give every man an expiation for his soul lest there should be a plague, half a shekel, after the shekel of holiness: the shekel is twenty gerahs and the half shekel for a therumah [an oblation] to Jehovah (Exod. 30:12-13);
where ten gerahs, which are the “half shekel,” denote the remains which are from the Lord. (Remains are goods and truths stored up with man, and these are signified by “ten,” as may be seen above, n. 576, 1738, 1906, 2284; and also that remains are goods and truths from the Lord stored up with man, n. 1906, 2284). These therefore are called an “oblation to Jehovah,” and it is said that by them there shall be an expiation for the soul. The reason why it is so often said that the shekel was twenty gerahs (as in the passages quoted, and also in Lev. 27:25; Num. 3:47; 18:16, and elsewhere) is that the “shekel which is twenty gerahs” signifies the estimation of the good of remains (that “twenty” signifies the good of remains may be seen above, n. 2280). On this account the shekel was likewise a weight, according to which the value both of gold and of silver was estimated (see Gen. 24:22; Exod. 38:24; Ezek. 4:10; 45:12); the value of gold, because “gold” signifies good (n. 113, 1551, 1552); and of silver, because “silver” signifies truth (n. 1551, 2048). From all this it is now plain that by “land of four hundred shekels of silver” is signified the price of redemption by means of truth. It is called “land” because the subject is the spiritual church, which is reformed and regenerated by means of truth from the Lord (n. 2954). (That by “land” is signified the church, may be seen above, n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118 at the end.)
sRef Matt@27 @10 S2′  That this price is also predicated of the reception with man, with whom it is great in proportion to his reception, is evident from the fact that it is the Lord’s Divine which makes the church with man; for nothing is called the church that is not the Lord’s own; for it is the good which is of love and charity, and it is the truth which is of faith, which make that which is called the church. That all good is from the Lord, and that all truth is from Him, is well known; good and truth that are from man are not good and truth; and from this it is plain that the price of redemption with a man is great in proportion to his reception.
sRef Zech@11 @13 S3′ sRef Zech@11 @12 S3′  As with the Jews the Lord’s redemption was so little esteemed as to be scarcely anything, it is said in Zechariah:
I said unto them, If it be good in your eyes, give me my hire, and if not, forbear. And they weighed my hire, thirty pieces of silver. And Jehovah said unto me, Cast it unto the potter, the goodly price that I was priced at of them (Zech. 11:12-13).
And in Matthew:
They took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of Him that was priced, whom they had bought from the sons of Israel, and gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord appointed me (Matt. 27:9-10).
That “thirty” denotes what is so little as to be scarcely anything, may be seen above (n. 2276); thus this passage denotes that the Jews placed no value on the merit and redemption of the Lord. But with those who believe all good and all truth to be from the Lord, the price of redemption is signified by “forty,” and in a higher degree by “four hundred.”
sRef Matt@25 @15 S2′ sRef Matt@25 @14 S2′ sRef Matt@25 @16 S2′ sRef Matt@25 @17 S2′  Concerning the signification of “merchant” and of “merchandise,” something will be said presently; but as regards the thing itself the case is this. All who are being reformed and regenerated are gifted with charity and faith by the Lord, but each according to his capacity and his state; for there are evils and falsities with which man has imbued himself from infancy, which stand in the way of one person’s receiving a like gift with another; these evils and falsities must be vastated before the man can be regenerated; and insofar as there is a residue of heavenly and spiritual life after vastation, this can be enlightened with truth and enriched with good. It is the remains, which are goods and truths from the Lord stored up with man, that then receive life. These goods and truths are acquired from infancy even to the time of reformation, with one person more, with another fewer. These are reserved in his internal man; nor can they be brought forward until his external man has been reduced to correspondence, which is effected chiefly by temptations, and by many kinds of vastation; for until corporeal things, which are contrary to them, become quiescent (such as the things of the love of self and of the world), celestial and spiritual things, which are of the affection of good and truth, cannot flow in; this is the reason why everyone is reformed according to his state and capacity. This also the Lord teaches in the parable concerning the man who went abroad:
Who called his own servants and delivered unto them his goods; and unto one he gave five talents, to another two, to another one; to each according to his several ability. He that received the five talents traded with them, and made other five talents; in like manner he also that received the two, he also gained other two (Matt. 25:14-17, etc.).
So too concerning the ten servants, to whom were given ten pounds, that they might trade with them (Luke 19:12-13, etc.).
sRef Ezek@27 @19 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @3 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @21 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @23 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @20 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @12 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @22 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @15 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @16 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @24 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @17 S3′ sRef Ezek@27 @13 S3′  That a “merchant” signifies those who have the knowledges of good and truth; and that “merchandise” signifies the knowledges themselves is evident from the passages that have just been quoted from Matthew and Luke, and also from those which now follow. In Ezekiel:
Say unto Tyre, O thou that dwellest at the entrances of the sea, that art the trader of the peoples unto many isles, Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches; in silver, iron, tin, and lead, they furnished thy fairs. Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, these were thy traders; in the soul of man and vessels of brass they furnished thy commerce. The sons of Dedan were thy traders; many isles were the mart of thy hand. Syria was thy merchant in the multitude of thy handiworks. Judah and the land of Israel, they were thy traders; in wheat, minnith and pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm, they furnished thy commerce. Damascus was thy merchant in the multitude of thy handiworks, by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches, in the wine of Helbon* and wool of Zahar. Dan also and Javan furnished yarn in thy fairs. Dedan was thy trader in flowing garments for riding. The Arabian and all the princes of Kedar, they were the merchants of thy hand, in lambs, in rams, and goats, in these were they thy merchants. The traders of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy traders in the chief of all spices. Haran and Canneh, and Eden, the traders of Sheba; Asshur, Chilmad, were thy traders. These were thy traders in perfect things (Ezek. 27:3, 12-13, 15-24).
These things are said concerning Tyre; and by “Tyre” are signified the knowledges of good and truth (see n. 1201), as is plain from the several particulars. The “traffickings,” and “merchandise,” and the “wares” that are here mentioned, are nothing else than these knowledges; and for this reason Tyre is called the “dweller at the entrances of the sea” (that “waters” are knowledges; and that the “sea” is a collection of these, may be seen above, n. 28); and is also called the “trader of the peoples unto many isles,” that is, even to those who are more remotely in worship (that “islands” are the more remote kinds of worship, may be seen above, n. 1158; also what is signified by “Tarshish,” n. 1156). The “silver, iron, tin, and lead,” which are from thence, are truths in their order, even to the last which are sensuous. (What “silver” signifies, may be seen above, n. 1551, 2048; also what “iron” signifies, n. 425, 426,; also what “Javan, Tubal, and Meshech,” n. 1151-1153, 1155.) The “soul of man,” and the “vessels of brass,” therefrom, are the things which are of natural life (that “soul” signifies all life that is from the Lord, may be seen above, n. 1000, 1040, 1436, 1742; also that “vessels of brass” are the natural goods which receive that life, n. 425, 1551). (What “Dedan” signifies has been stated, see n. 1172; and what “Syria,” n. 1232, 1234.) That “Judah and the land of Israel” are “traders in wheat, minnith and pannag, honey, oil, balm” signifies celestial and spiritual things from the Word. The other nations and their merchandise which are mentioned, are the various genera and species of truth and good, thus the knowledges which are with those who are signified by “Tyre.”
sRef Isa@23 @8 S4′ sRef Isa@23 @2 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @2 S4′ sRef Isa@23 @1 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @4 S4′ sRef Isa@23 @3 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @5 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @7 S4′ sRef Ezek@28 @6 S4′  That they are knowledges from which come wisdom and intelligence is plainly evident in the same prophet, where it is thus said:
Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyre, By thy wisdom, and by thine intelligence thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures; by the multitude of thy wisdom, by thy trading, thou hast multiplied thy riches, and thy heart is lifted up because of thy riches; therefore behold I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations (Ezek. 28:2, 4-7);
where it is manifestly evident that the wares with which they traded are the knowledges of good and truth; for from these, and from no other source, come wisdom and intelligence; and it is therefore said, “by thy wisdom and by thine intelligence thou hast gotten thee riches, and thou hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures.” But when knowledges are for the sake of self, for gaining eminence and reputation, or wealth, then they have no life, and those who acquire them are altogether deprived of them; they are deprived of them in the life of the body by embracing falsities for truths and evils for goods; and in the other life they are wholly deprived even of those which are true; and from this it is said, “because thy heart is lifted up because of thy riches, therefore behold I will bring strangers upon thee” (that is, falsities); and “the terrible of the nations” (that is, evils).
sRef Ezek@27 @32 S5′ sRef Ezek@27 @34 S5′ sRef Ezek@27 @36 S5′ sRef Rev@18 @12 S5′ sRef Rev@18 @11 S5′ sRef Ezek@27 @33 S5′ sRef Rev@18 @3 S5′ sRef Rev@18 @15 S5′  Also in another place in the same prophet:
Tyre is like one that is cut off from the midst of the sea; when thy traffickings went forth out of the seas, thou didst satiate many peoples; thou didst enrich the kings of the earth with the multitude of thy riches and of thy merchandise. Now thou art broken by the seas, in the depths of the waters; thy commerce and all thy company are fallen in the midst of thee; the merchants among the peoples hiss at thee (Ezek. 27:32-34, 36).
Also in Isaiah:
The prophecy concerning Tyre. Let the inhabitants of the isle be silent; the merchants of Zidon that pass over the sea have replenished thee; and in [great] waters [the seed] of Shihor, the harvest of the river, was her revenue, and thou wast** the mart of the nations. Who hath purposed this against Tyre that crowneth herself, whose merchants are princes? (Isa. 23:2-3, 8);
where the vastation of Tyre is treated of.
sRef Matt@13 @45 S6′ sRef Matt@13 @46 S6′  Of Babylon in like manner are predicated “trading” and “merchandise,” which are the knowledges of good adulterated, and the knowledges of truth falsified. As in the Revelation:
Babylon hath made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her whoredom, and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her, and the merchants of the earth were made rich by the abundance of her delicacies. The merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her, for no man buyeth their merchandise any more; the merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and pearl, and fine linen, and crimson, and silk, and scarlet. The merchants of these things who were made rich by her shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and mourning (Rev. 18:3, 11, 15).
That “Babylon” is worship the externals of which appear holy while the interiors are profane, may be seen above (n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306, 1326); and from this it is plain what its “tradings” and “merchandise” are.
sRef Isa@45 @14 S7′  That a “merchant” is one who procures for himself knowledges of truth and good, and thence intelligence and wisdom, is evident from the Lord’s words in Matthew:
The kingdom of the heavens is like unto a merchant man seeking goodly pearls; who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had and bought it (Matt. 13:45-46);
the “goodly pearl” is charity, or the good of faith.
sRef Isa@55 @1 S8′ sRef Isa@55 @2 S8′  That all the knowledges of good and truth are from the Lord, is taught in Isaiah:
Thus said Jehovah, The labor of Egypt, and the merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall pass over upon thee, and they shall be thine; they shall go after thee, in chains they shall pass over, and they shall bow themselves down to thee, they shall pray unto thee. Surely God is in thee, and there is no God else (Isa. 45:14);
treating of the Divine Human of the Lord.
 From all this it may now be seen what is meant by “trading,” that is, buying and selling; namely, that it is procuring for one’s self the knowledges of good and truth, and by means of them good itself. That this is from the Lord alone is taught in the same Prophet:
Ho everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver; come ye, buy and eat; yea come, buy wine and milk without silver and without price (Isa. 55:1-2);
where “buying” denotes procuring for one’s self; “wine” denotes spiritual truth (n. 1071, 1798); “milk,” spiritual good (n. 2184). Anyone may see that “coming to the waters” here is not coming to the waters, that “buying” is not buying, that “silver” is not silver, and that “wine and milk” are not wine and milk, but are that which is said to correspond to them in the internal sense; for the Word is Divine, and to its several expressions which are from the natural world and man’s sensuous things correspond Divine spiritual and celestial things. In this way and in no other is the Word Divinely inspired.
* The Latin has Heshbon.
** Eras; but fuit, n. 1201. [Rotch ed.]
 Moreover in various places in the Word mention is made of the “midst” and of that which is “round about;” as when speaking of the land of Canaan, that was called the “midst” where were Zion and Jerusalem, but the country “round about” was where the surrounding nations were. By the “land of Canaan” was represented the kingdom of the Lord; its celestial by “Zion,” and its spiritual by “Jerusalem,” where was the dwelling place of Jehovah or the Lord. The country “round about,” even to the borders, represented the celestial and spiritual things flowing forth in their order and derived therefrom; and in the furthest boundaries the representatives of celestial and spiritual things ceased. These representatives had their origin from those in the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens; there the Lord as a Sun is in the midst; from this is all celestial flame and spiritual light; they who are nearest are in the highest light, but they who are more remote are in less light, and they who are most remote are in the least; and there are the boundaries, and hell begins, which is outside of heaven.
 With celestial flame and spiritual light the case is this: The celestial things of innocence and love, and the spiritual things of charity and faith, are in the like ratio as are the heat and light the angels have; for all the heat and light in the heavens are therefrom. It is from this therefore that the “midst” signifies the inmost, and the circumference signifies the outermost, and the things which proceed in order from the inmost to the outermost are in such degrees of innocence, love, and charity as is their distance from the center. And so it is in every heavenly society; they who are in the midst are the best of that kind, and the love and charity of that kind decreases with them according to their remoteness from the center; that is, it decreases with those who are at a distance from the center, in proportion to the distance.
 The case is the like with man; his inmost is where the Lord dwells with him, and from this inmost governs the things which are round about. When man suffers the Lord to dispose the things round about to correspondence with the inmost ones, then man is in such a state that he can be received into heaven; and then the inmost, the interior, and the external things act as one; but when man does not suffer the Lord to dispose the things round about to correspondence, then he recedes from heaven in the measure in which he does not suffer it. That the soul of man is in the midst, or in his inmost, and that the body is round about or in the outmosts, is well known; for it is the body that encompasses and invests his soul or his spirit.
sRef Matt@6 @22 S5′ sRef Matt@6 @23 S5′  With those who are in celestial and spiritual love, good from the Lord flows in through the soul into the body, and thence the body becomes full of light; but with those who are in bodily and worldly love, good from the Lord cannot flow in through the soul into the body, but their interiors are in darkness; whence also the body becomes full of darkness, according to what the Lord teaches in Matthew:
The lamp of the body is the eye; if the eye be single, the whole body is full of light; but if the eye be evil, the whole body is full of darkness. If therefore the light be darkness, how great is the darkness (Matt. 6:22-23);
by the “eye” is signified the intellectual which belongs to the soul (n. 2701).
sRef Jer@50 @14 S6′ sRef Jer@50 @15 S6′  But the case is worse still with those whose interiors are darkness, and whose exteriors appear as full of light. These are such as outwardly counterfeit angels of light, but are devils inwardly, and they are called “Babel;” and when with such persons the things that are “round about” are destroyed, they are carried headlong into hell. These things were represented by the city Jericho, in that its walls fell and the city was given to the curse when the priests had gone about it seven times, and had sounded the trumpets (Joshua 6:1-17). They are meant also in Jeremiah:
Set yourselves in array against Babel round about, all ye that bend the bow; sound the trumpet against her round about; she hath given her hand; her foundations are fallen; her walls are thrown down (Jer. 50:14-15).
It is now plain what “round about” means. Moreover in the Word mention is sometimes made of that which is “round about” (as Jer. 21:14; 46:14; 49:5; Ezek. 36:3-4, 7; 37:21; Amos 3:11; and elsewhere), and by the things “round about” are signified those which are exterior; concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy more elsewhere.
 With the regeneration of the spiritual man the case is this. He is first instructed in the truths of faith, and then he is held by the Lord in the affection of truth. The good of faith, which is charity toward the neighbor, is at the same time insinuated into him, but in such a way that he is scarcely aware of it; for it lies hidden in the affection of truth, and this to the end that the truth which is of faith may be conjoined with the good which is of charity. As time goes on, the affection of truth which is of faith increases, and truth is regarded for the sake of its end, that is, for the sake of good, or what is the same, for the sake of the life, and this more and more. Thus is truth insinuated into good, and when this takes place the man imbues himself with the good of life according to the truth that has been insinuated; and so he acts or seems to himself to act from good. Previous to this time, the truth of faith was principal, but afterwards the good of life becomes so.
 When this is the case the man is regenerate; but he is regenerate according to the quality and the amount of the truth that has been insinuated in good; and when truth and good act as one, he is regenerate according to the quality and the amount of the good: such is the case with all regeneration. Regeneration is effected to the end that man may be received into heaven. Heaven is nothing else than the marriage of truth and good, and of good and truth (see n. 2508, 2618, 2728, 2729); and if the marriage of truth and good be not formed with a man, he cannot be in the heavenly marriage, that is, in heaven.
 But the case is wholly different with churches that call faith the essential of the church; supposing that if they know this and think this they are saved, no matter what their life may be. In this case the several churches do not make one church, nor indeed are they churches. The good of faith, that is, the very life of love and of charity according to the things of faith, is that which makes the church. Doctrinal matters are for the sake of life. Everyone may know this: what are doctrinal matters except for the sake of all end? and what is the end but life? or that a man may become such as those doctrinal things teach?
It is indeed said that the very faith itself which saves is confidence; but this confidence is quite impossible except in the good of life. Without the good of life there is no reception, and where there is no reception there is no confidence, except at times a certain apparent confidence, in suffering conditions of mind or body, when the cupidities of the love of self and of the world are at rest. But with those who are in evil of life, when this crisis passes or the condition is changed, such fallacious confidence altogether vanishes; for a confidence is found even with the wicked. But whoever desires to know the quality of his confidence, let him examine in himself the affections and ends, as well as the practices of his life.
 Be it known, further, that when any church becomes no church, that is, when charity perishes and a new church is being set up again by the Lord, this is effected rarely if ever with those with whom the old church has been; but with those with whom there was no church before, that is, with the Gentiles. So was it done when the Most Ancient Church perished; for then the new church called “Noah,” that is, the Ancient Church which was after the flood, was set up among the Gentiles, that is, among those where there was no church before. So too when this church perished; then a semblance of a church was instituted among the posterity of Abraham from Jacob, thus likewise among the Gentiles; for Abraham when called was a Gentile (see n. 1356, 1992, 2559); and Jacob’s posterity in Egypt became still more Gentile, even to such an extent that they were absolutely ignorant of Jehovah, and consequently of all Divine worship. After this church had been consummated, the Primitive Church was set up from the Gentiles, the Jews being rejected; so too will it be with this church, which is called Christian.
 The reason why a new church will be set up by the Lord among the Gentiles, is that they have no principles of falsity contrary to the truths of faith, for they are ignorant of these truths. Principles of falsity imbued from infancy, and afterwards confirmed, must be shaken off before the man can be regenerated and become a church. In fact the Gentiles cannot by evils of life profane holy things, for no one can profane what is holy who knows not what it is (n. 593, 1008, 1010, 1059). As the Gentiles are in ignorance, and are free from stumbling-blocks [or difficulties], they are in a better state for the reception of truths than those who are of the church; and all those among them who are in the good of life receive truths easily. (Concerning these things see n. 932, 1032, 1059, 1327, 1328, 1366, 2049, 2051, 2589-2604.)
Few know what representations and correspondences are, nor can anyone know this unless he knows that there is a spiritual world, and this distinct from the natural world; for there exists a correspondence between spiritual things and natural things, and the things that come forth from spiritual things in natural ones are representations. They are called correspondences because they correspond, and representations because they represent.
This may be illustrated by many things; as by the organs of motion and of sense in the body, into which the life flows through the soul; according to the qualities of these, such are their actions and sensations. The same may be illustrated also by the objects into which light flows from the sun; the light producing colorings according to the quality of the recipient forms. But in the spiritual world all the modifications that come into existence from the influx of life are spiritual, whence come such differences of intelligence and wisdom.
That the deepest arcana lie concealed in the internal sense of the Word, which have heretofore come to no one’s knowledge, may appear from what has been already said and shown, and also from what of the Lord’s Divine mercy will be shown in the following pages. The same can be very plainly seen from the internal sense of the two names of our Lord, Jesus Christ. When these names are used, few have any other idea than that they are proper names and almost like the names of any other man, but more holy. The more learned indeed are aware that Jesus signifies Savior, and that Christ means Anointed; and from this they conceive some interior idea; but still these are not the things the angels in heaven perceive from the names in question. The things they perceive are still more Divine. By the name “Jesus,” when named by a man who is reading the Word, the angels perceive Divine good; and by “Christ,” Divine truth; and by the two names, the Divine marriage of good and truth, and of truth and good; thus the whole Divine in the heavenly marriage, which is heaven. (What the heavenly marriage is, may be seen above, n. 2173, 2803.)
Whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that will I do (John 14:13).
In the same:
These things are written that ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye may have life in His name (John 20:31);
and in other places. That the “name” is all in one complex by which the Lord is worshiped, and thus denotes the quality of all worship and doctrine, may be seen above (n. 2724); and therefore here it denotes the good of love and of charity conjoined with the truth of faith, which is the complex of all doctrine and of all worship.
Andrew findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messiah, which is being interpreted the Christ (John 1:41).
In the same:
Many of the multitude when they heard the word said, This is of a truth the Prophet; others said, This is the Christ; but others said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee? Doth not the Scripture say that the Christ cometh of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the town where David was? (John 7:40-42);
“the Christ” here plainly means the Messiah whom they expected. In the same:
Have the rulers then indeed known that this is truly the Christ? Howbeit we know this man whence he is; but when the Christ cometh no one knoweth whence He is (John 7:26-27);
“the Christ” denotes the Messiah; that no one would know whence He is, was because He would not be acknowledged. In the same:
The Jews came round about Jesus, and said unto Him, How long dost thou hold our soul in suspense? If thou art the Christ, tell us plainly. Jesus answered them, I told you, but ye believe not (John 10:24-25).
Here also “the Christ” denotes the Messiah whom they expected. In the same:
The multitude answered, We have heard out of the Law that the Christ abideth forever (John 12:34);
“the Christ” meaning the Messiah. In the same:
Martha said, I have believed that Thou art the Christ, the Son of God, who was to come into the world (John 11:27);
that is, that He was the Messiah.
There was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon and to him was the answer made by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Christ (Luke 2:25-26);
meaning that he should see the Messiah, or the Anointed of Jehovah. In the same:
Jesus said to the disciples, But who say ye that I am? Peter answering said, The Christ of God (9:20; Mark 8:29. See also other passages; as Matt. 26:63-64; John 6:68-69; Mark 14:61-62).
sRef 1Sam@2 @10 S2′ sRef Matt@27 @11 S2′ sRef Luke@23 @3 S2′ sRef Ps@28 @8 S2′ sRef John@1 @49 S2′ sRef John@12 @13 S2′ sRef Ps@20 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@2 @2 S2′  Now as “Christ” and “Messiah” are the same, and as “Christ” in the Greek and “Messiah” in the Hebrew signify the “Anointed,” it is evident that “Christ” is the same as the “Anointed;” and likewise the same as “King,” for kings in general were called the “anointed,” as is evident from the historic and prophetic parts of the Word in many passages. As in David:
The kings of the earth set themselves, and [the rulers] took counsel together, against Jehovah and against His Anointed (Ps. 2:2).
Now know I that Jehovah saveth His Anointed; He will answer Him from the heavens of His holiness, in the powers of the salvation of His right hand (Ps. 20:6).
Jehovah is their strength, and a stronghold of salvations to His Anointed (Ps. 28:8).
Jehovah will give strength unto His King, and exalt the horn of His Anointed (1 Sam. 2:10).
In these and many other passages the “Anointed” denotes the “King.” In the original language the reading is “Messiah.” In these prophetic utterances the Lord is treated of in the internal sense; and that He is the “King” is also plain from passages in the New Testament. As in Matthew:
The governor asked Jesus, Art Thou the King of the Jews? Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest (Matt. 27:11).
And in Luke:
Pilate asked Jesus, saying, Art Thou the King of the Jews? And He answering him said, Thou sayest (Luke 23:3; Mark 15:2).
And in John:
They cried out, Hosanna, blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel (John 12:13).
Nathaniel said, Rabbi, Thou art the Son of God, Thou art the King of Israel (John 1:49).
Pilate said unto Jesus, Art Thou not a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a King; for this was I born, and for this am come into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth; everyone who is of the truth heareth My voice (John 18:37).
It is evident from this that it is the Divine truth itself from which the Lord was called “King.” That kings were anointed, and were therefore called the anointed, was because the oil with which they were anointed signified good (n. 886, 2832), denoting that the truth signified by a “king” was from good, consequently was the truth of good; and thus that the royal office with kings might represent the Lord as to the Divine truth which is from Divine good, and thus the Divine marriage of good in truth; while the priestly office represented the Divine marriage of truth in good. The latter is signified by “Jesus;” the former by “Christ.”
See that no man seduce you; for many shall come in My name, saying, I am the Christ; and shall seduce many. Then if anyone shall say unto you, Lo here is the Christ, or there, believe it not; for there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets (Matt. 24:4-5, 23-24; Mark 13:21-22).
Here by “false Christs” are signified truths not Divine, or falsities; and by “false prophets,” those who teach them (n. 2534). And again:
Be not ye called masters, for one is your Master, even Christ (Matt. 23:10);
“Christ” denotes truth Divine. Hence it is evident what a Christian is, namely, one who is in truth from good.
1. And Abraham being old was come into days; and Jehovah blessed Abraham in all things.
2. And Abraham said unto his servant, the elder of his house, who administered all that he had, Put I pray thy hand under my thigh.
3. And I will make thee swear by Jehovah the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a woman for my son of the daughters of the Canaanite, in the midst of whom I dwell;
4. But thou shalt go unto my land, and to my nativity; and take a woman for my son for Isaac.
5. And the servant said unto him, Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land; bringing shall I bring back thy son unto the land whence thou camest out?
6. And Abraham said unto him, Beware that thou bring not back my son thither.
7. Jehovah the God of heaven, that took me from my father’s house, and from the land of my nativity, and that spoke unto me, and that swear unto me, saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land, He shall send His angel before thee, and thou shalt take a woman for my son from thence.
8. And if the woman be not willing to follow thee, then thou shalt be clear from this mine oath; only thou shalt not bring back my son thither.
9. And the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his lord, and sware to him concerning this word.
10. And the servant took ten camels, of the camels of his lord, and departed, and every good of his lord was in his hand; and he arose and went to Aram-naharaim, unto the city of Nahor.
11. And he made the camels kneel down, without the city, by the well of waters, about the time of evening, about the time the drawers go out.
12. And he said, O Jehovah God of my lord Abraham, cause to meet I pray before me this day; and do mercy with my lord Abraham.
13. Behold, I stand by the fountain of waters; and the daughters of the men of the city come out to draw waters.
14. And let it come to pass, that the damsel to whom I shall say, Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I may drink, and she shall say, Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also, her hast Thou appointed for Thy servant Isaac; and thereby shall I know that Thou hast done mercy with my lord.
15. And it came to pass that scarcely had he done speaking, when behold Rebekah came out, who was born to Bethuel the son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham’s brother, with her pitcher upon her shoulder.
16. And the damsel was exceeding good to look upon, a virgin, neither had any man known her; and she went down to the fountain, and filled her pitcher, and came up.
17. And the servant ran to meet her, and said, Let me I pray sip a little water from thy pitcher.
18. And she said, Drink, my lord; and she hasted, and let down her pitcher upon her hand, and made him drink.
19. And she finished making him drink, and she said, I will draw for thy camels also, until they have done drinking.
20. And she hasted, and emptied her pitcher into the trough, and ran again unto the well to draw, and drew for all his camels.
21. And the man marveling at her, withheld himself, to know whether Jehovah had prospered his way or not.
22. And it came to pass when the camels had done drinking, that the man took a jewel of gold, of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her hands, ten of gold their weight.
23. And he said, Whose daughter art thou? Tell me I pray is there room in thy father’s house for us to pass the night?
24. And she said unto him, I am the daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, whom she bare unto Nahor.
25. And she said unto him, We have both straw and much provender, also room to pass the night.
26. And the man bent himself, and bowed himself down to Jehovah.
27. And he said, Blessed be Jehovah the God of my lord Abraham, who hath not forsaken His mercy and His truth from my lord. I being in the way, Jehovah hath led me to the house of my lord’s brethren.
28. And the damsel ran, and told her mother’s house according to these words.
29. And Rebekah had a brother, and his name was Laban; and Laban ran out of doors unto the man, unto the fountain.
30. And it came to pass when he saw the jewel, and the bracelets upon his sister’s hands, and when he heard the words of Rebekah his sister, saying, Thus spoke the man unto me, that he came unto the man; and behold he stood by the camels at the fountain.
31. And he said, Come thou blessed of Jehovah, wherefore standest thou without? For I have swept the house, and there is room for the camels.
32. And the man came into the house, and loosed the camels, and gave straw and provender for the camels, and water to wash his feet, and the feet of the men that were with him.
33. And there was set before him to eat; and he said, I will not eat until I have spoken my words. And he said, Speak.
34. And he said, I am Abraham’s servant.
35. And Jehovah hath blessed my lord exceedingly, and hath made him great, and hath given him flock and herd, and silver and gold, and menservants and maidservants, and camels and asses.
36. And Sarah, my lord’s wife, bare a son to my lord after she was old; and he hath given unto him all that he hath.
37. And my lord made me swear, saying, Thou shalt not take a woman for my son of the daughters of the Canaanite, in whose land I dwell.
38. But thou shalt go unto my father’s house, and to my family, and take a woman for my son.
39. And I said unto my lord, Peradventure the woman will not follow me.
40. And he said unto me, Jehovah, before whom I have walked, will send His angel with thee, and prosper thy way; and thou shalt take a woman for my son from my family, and from my father’s house.
41. Then shalt thou be clear from my oath, when thou comest to my family; and if they give not to thee, thou shalt be clear from my oath.
42. And I came this day unto the fountain, and said, O Jehovah God of my lord Abraham, if now Thou do prosper my way wherein I do walk;
43. Behold I stand by the fountain of waters; and let it come to pass that the maiden which cometh forth to draw, and to whom I shall say, Let me drink I pray a little water from thy pitcher;
44. And she shall say to me, Both drink thou, and I will also draw for thy camels, let her be the woman whom Jehovah hath appointed for my lord’s son.
45. I scarcely had done speaking in mine heart, when behold Rebekah came forth; and her pitcher on her shoulder; and she went down unto the fountain and drew; and I said unto her, Let me drink, I pray.
46. And she made haste, and let down her pitcher from upon her, and said, Drink, and I will give thy camels drink also; and I drank, and she gave drink to the camels also.
47. And I asked her, and said, Whose daughter art thou? And she said, The daughter of Bethuel, the son of Nahor, whom Milcah bare unto him. And I put the jewel upon her nose, and the bracelets upon her hands.
48. And I bent and bowed myself down to Jehovah, and blessed Jehovah God of my lord Abraham, who led me into the way of truth, to take the daughter of my lord’s brother for his son.
49. And now if ye will do mercy and truth with my lord, tell me; and if not, tell me; and I will look to the right hand, or to the left.
50. And Laban and Bethuel answered and said, The word hath gone forth from Jehovah; we cannot speak unto thee evil or good.
51. Behold Rebekah is before thee; take her, and go, and let her be the woman of thy lord’s son, as Jehovah hath spoken.
52. And it came to pass that when Abraham’s servant heard their words, he bowed himself down to the earth unto Jehovah.
53. And the servant brought forth vessels of silver and vessels of gold, and garments, and gave to Rebekah; he gave also precious things to her brother and to her mother.
54. And they did eat and drink, he and the men that were with him; and they passed the night; and they rose up in the morning, and he said, Send me away unto my lord.
55. And her brother and her mother said, Let the damsel abide with us days, at least ten; afterwards thou shalt go.
56. And he said unto them, Do not delay me, and Jehovah hath prospered my way; send me away, and I will go to my lord.
57. And they said, Let us call the damsel, and inquire at her mouth.
58. And they called Rebekah, and said unto her, Wilt thou go with this man? And she said, I will go.
59. And they sent away Rebekah their sister, and her nurse, and Abraham’s servant, and his men.
60. And they blessed Rebekah, and said unto her, Our sister, be thou for thousands of ten thousands; and may thy seed inherit the gate of those that hate thee.
61. And Rebekah arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man; and the servant took Rebekah, and went away.
62. And Isaac came from coming from Beer-lahai-roi; and he dwelt in the land of the south.
63. And Isaac went out to meditate in the field toward evening; and he lifted up his eyes and saw, and behold there were camels coming.
64. And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and saw Isaac, and she alighted from off the camel.
65. And she said unto the servant, What man is this that walketh in the field to meet us? And the servant said, It is my lord. And she took a veil and covered herself.
66. And the servant told Isaac all the words that he had done.
67. And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah’s tent; and he took Rebekah, and she was to him for a woman, and he loved her; and Isaac was comforted after his mother.
In the internal sense there is described the whole process of the conjunction of truth with good in the Lord’s Divine rational; in this chapter, the process of initiation which precedes conjunction. “Isaac” is the good of the rational; “Rebekah” here is truth to be initiated into good; “Laban” is the affection of good in the natural man.
Verse 1. And Abraham being old was come into days; and Jehovah blessed Abraham in all things. “Abraham being old was come into days” signifies when the state was at hand that the Lord’s Human should be made Divine; “and Jehovah blessed Abraham in all things,” signifies when all things were disposed by the Lord into Divine order.
 As the natural mind is distinct from the rational mind and is in a degree below it, and as it also acts as if from what is its own, it is called relatively a “servant the elder of the house,” and it is said to administer all the things in itself that belong to it. That the natural mind is distinct from the rational, and is in a lower degree, and is as if in what is its own, may be seen from the things within it, and from its offices. The things which are therein are all memory-knowledges, thus also all knowledges of every kind whatever; in a word, they are all things in both general and particular that belong to the outer or corporeal memory (concerning which see n. 2471, 2480). To this mind also belongs all the imaginative faculty, which is the interior sensuous with man, and which is in the greatest vigor with children; and in the first age of adolescence; to the same mind belong also all natural affections that man has in common with brute animals; all of which shows what its offices are.
 But the rational mind is more internal. The knowledges in it are not open before man, but while he lives in the body are imperceptible; for they are all things in both general and particular that belong to the interior memory (concerning which see n. 2470-2474, 2489, 2490). To this mind also belongs all the thinking faculty that is perceptive of what is equitable and just, and of what is true and good; also all spiritual affections, which are properly human, and by which man is distinguished from the brute animals. From these things this mind flows into the natural mind, and excites the things that are therein, and views them with a kind of sight, and in this manner judges and forms conclusions. That these two minds are distinct is clearly evident from the fact that with many persons the natural mind bears rule over the rational mind; or what is the same, the external man over the internal man; and that it does not bear rule but serves with those only who are in the good of charity, that is, who suffer themselves to be led by the Lord.
These things were well known to the men of the most ancient times; and therefore they had a number of rites based on this correspondence, of which one was that they placed the hands under the thigh when they were pledged to any good of conjugial love. The knowledge of such things, which was in highest esteem among the ancients, and was one of the chief things of their knowledge and intelligence, is at this day wholly lost; so completely that it is not even known that there is any correspondence; and some may therefore wonder that such things are signified by the rite here described. The rite is mentioned in the present case because the betrothing of Isaac to some one of the family of Abraham is treated of, and the discharge of the duty was intrusted to the elder servant.
sRef Judg@8 @30 S2′ sRef Num@5 @21 S2′ sRef Gen@35 @11 S2′ sRef Gen@46 @26 S2′ sRef Num@5 @27 S2′  That as before said the “thigh” from correspondence signifies conjugial love, may also be seen from other passages in the Word; as from the process enjoined when a woman was accused by her husband of adultery. In Moses:
The priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing; and the priest shall say unto the woman, Jehovah make thee a curse and an oath in the midst of thy people, when Jehovah doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell. And when he hath given her the water to drink, then it shall come to pass, if she be defiled, and hath trespassed a trespass against her husband, that the waters that are accursed shall enter into her and become bitterness, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away, and the woman shall be a curse among her people (Num. 5:21, 27).
That the “thigh should fall away,” signified evil relating to conjugial love, that is, it signified adultery. The other particulars mentioned in the same process signify each of them some special thing belonging to the subject, so that there is not the least thing that does not involve something, however surprising this may seem to a man who reads the Word without any idea of its sanctity. Because of the signification of the “thigh” as being the good of conjugial love, mention is sometimes made of “coming forth from the thigh”-as is said of Jacob:
Be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come forth from thy thighs (Gen. 35:11).
And in another place:
Every soul that came with Jacob into Egypt, that came forth from his thigh (Gen. 46:26; Exod. 1:5).
And of Gideon:
Gideon had seventy sons that came forth from his thigh (Judges 8:30).
sRef Rev@19 @16 S3′ sRef Rev@19 @11 S3′  And as the “thighs” and the “loins” signify the things belonging to conjugial love, they also signify the things of love and charity, for the reason that conjugial love is the fundamental love of all loves (see n. 686, 2733, 2737-2739); for all loves are from the same origin, that is, from the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth (see n. 2727-2759). That the “thigh” signifies the good of celestial love and the good of spiritual love, is evident from the following passages. In John:
He that sat on the white horse had upon His vesture and upon His thigh a name written: King of kings, and Lord of lords (Rev. 19:16).
That He who sat on the white horse is the Word, thus the Lord who is the Word, may be seen above (n. 2760-2762); also that “vesture” is the Divine truth (n. 2576); therefore He is called “King of kings” (n. 3009). Hence it is plain what the “thigh” is, namely, the Divine good which is of His love; from which He is also called “Lord of lords” (n. 3004-3011). And because this is the Lord’s quality, it is said that He “had thereon a name written;” for “name” signifies quality (n. 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006).
sRef Ps@45 @3 S4′ sRef Isa@11 @5 S4′  In David:
Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O Mighty One, in Thy glory and honor (Ps. 45:3);
speaking of the Lord; where “sword” denotes truth combating (n. 2799); and “thigh” the good of love; to “gird the sword upon the thigh” signifies that the truth from which He would fight would be from the good of love. In Isaiah:
Righteousness shall be the girdle of His loins, and truth the girdle of His thighs (Isa. 11:5);
speaking here too of the Lord; and because “righteousness” is predicated of the good of love (n. 2235), it is called the girdle of the loins;” and because truth is from good, it is called the “girdle of the thighs;” thus “loins” are predicated of the love of good, and “thighs” of the love of truth.
sRef Jer@13 @3 S5′ sRef Isa@5 @27 S5′ sRef Jer@13 @1 S5′ sRef Jer@13 @2 S5′ sRef Jer@13 @6 S5′ sRef Jer@13 @7 S5′ sRef Jer@13 @4 S5′ sRef Jer@13 @5 S5′  In the same:
None shall be weary nor stumble in Him, He shall not slumber nor sleep, neither is the girdle of His thighs loosed, nor the latchet of His shoes broken off (Isa. 5:27).
This again is said of the Lord, and the “girdle of His thighs” denotes the love of truth, as before. In Jeremiah:
Jehovah said unto Jeremiah that he should buy a linen girdle and put it on his loins, but should not pass it through water; and that he should go to the Euphrates and hide it in a hole of the rock; and having done this, when he went and took it from the place, it was marred (Jer. 13:1-6).
The “linen girdle” denotes truth, and “putting it on the loins” was a representative that truth was from good. Everyone can see that these are representatives, and their signification cannot be known except from correspondences, concerning which of the Lord’s Divine mercy something will be said at the end of certain chapters.
sRef Ezek@1 @26 S6′ sRef Ezek@1 @27 S6′ sRef Ezek@1 @28 S6′  So too with the signification of the things seen by Ezekiel, by Daniel, and by Nebuchadnezzar. As in Ezekiel:
Above the expanse that was over the heads of the cherubim was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it. And I saw as the appearance of a burning coal, as the appearance of fire within it round about; from the appearance of his loins and upward, and from the appearance of his loins and downward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about Him; as the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about, so was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of Jehovah (Ezek. 1:26-28).
That this was representative of the Lord and of His kingdom is evident; and that the appearance of the loins upward and the appearance of the loins downward has reference to His love, is evident from the signification of “fire,” as being love (n. 934); and from the signification of “brightness” and a “rainbow” as being the derivative wisdom and intelligence (n. 1042, 1043, 1053).
sRef Dan@10 @6 S7′ sRef Dan@10 @5 S7′  Concerning Daniel it is said:
A man appeared to him clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with pure gold of Uphaz; his body also was like the tharshish stone, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and feet like the shining of burnished brass (Dan. 10:5-6).
What is signified by these particulars-by “loins,” “body,” “face,” “eyes,” “arms,” and “feet”-can appear to no one except from representations and their correspondences. From these it is evident that the Lord’s celestial kingdom is thus represented, in which the “loins” are Divine love; and the “gold of Uphaz” with which these were girded, is the good of wisdom which is from love (n. 113, 1551, 1552).
sRef Dan@2 @33 S8′ sRef Dan@2 @32 S8′  Concerning what was seen by Nebuchadnezzar we read in Daniel:
The head of the statue was good gold; its breast and its arms were silver; its belly and thighs were brass; the feet were part iron and part clay (Dan. 2:32-33).
By that statue were represented the successive states of the church; by the “head which was gold,” the first state, which was celestial, because it was a state of love to the Lord; by the “breast and arms which were silver,” the second state, which was spiritual, as it was a state of charity toward the neighbor; by the “belly and thighs which were brass,” the third state, which was a state of natural good (for this is “brass,” n. 425, 1551). Natural good is of love or charity toward the neighbor in a degree below spiritual good. By the “feet which were iron and clay” is meant the fourth state, which was one of natural truth (which is “iron,” n. 425, 426); and also of no coherence with good (which is “clay”). From all these things it may be seen what is signified by the “thighs” and the “loins,” namely, in the chief place conjugial love, and from this all genuine love, as is evident from the passages quoted, and likewise from others (Gen. 32:25, 32; Isa. 20:2-4; Nahum 2:1; Ps. 69:23; Exod. 12:11; Luke 12:35, 36). In the opposite sense also are signified the opposite loves, which are the loves of self and of the world (see 1 Kings 2:5; Isa. 32:10, 11; Jer. 30:6; 48:37; Ezek. 29:7; Amos 8:10).
 That the “daughters of the Canaanite” signify affections which disagree with truth, that is, affections of what is false, is evident from the signification of “daughters;” for daughters are mentioned in many passages of the Word, and everyone can see that daughters are not there meant, as where it is said, the “daughter of Zion,” the “daughter of Jerusalem,” the “daughter of Tarshish,” the “daughter of My people.” That by these are signified affections of good and of truth, has been shown in passages quoted above. And because they are affections of good and of truth, they are also churches, for churches are churches from these affections. Thus by the “daughter of Zion” is signified the celestial church, and this from the affection of good; but by the “daughter of Jerusalem” is signified the spiritual church, from the affection of truth (n. 2362); this is also signified by the “daughter of My people” (Isa. 22:4; Jer. 6:14, 26; 8:19, 21-22; 14:17; Lam. 2:11; 4:6; Ezek. 13:17).
sRef Ezek@32 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @27 S3′ sRef Ezek@32 @16 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @57 S3′ sRef Ezek@16 @26 S3′ sRef 2Sam@1 @20 S3′  From this it is evident what is signified by the “daughters” of the nations; as by the “daughters of the Philistines,” the “daughters of Egypt,” the “daughters of Tyre and of Zidon,” the “daughters of Edom,” the “daughters of Moab,” the “daughters of the Chaldeans” and “of Babel,” and the “daughters of Sodom,” namely, the affections of evil and falsity from which were their religious systems, and thus the religious systems themselves. That such is the signification of “daughters,” may be seen from the passages that follow. In Ezekiel:
The daughters of the nations shall lament for Egypt. Wail for the multitude of Egypt, and cause her to go down, her and the daughters of the famous nations, unto the earth of the regions below, with them that go down into the pit (Ezek. 32:16, 18).
The “daughters of the famous nations” denote the affections of evil. In Samuel:
Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Ashkelon; lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph (2 Sam. 1:20).
Thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Egypt; I have delivered thee unto the will of them that hate thee, the daughters of the Philistines, before thy wickedness was discovered, as at the time of the reproach of the daughters of Syria, and of all that are round about her, the daughters of the Philistines which do despite unto thee round about (Ezek. 16:26-27, 57).
That daughters are not meant here, anyone can see; but the religiosities of such as are signified by the Philistines, which are of such a kind that they talk much about faith and lead no life of faith (see n. 1197, 1198); for this reason they are also called the “uncircumcised,” that is, those who are devoid of charity.
sRef Zech@2 @7 S4′ sRef Isa@23 @12 S4′ sRef Isa@47 @1 S4′ sRef Isa@16 @2 S4′ sRef Ezek@16 @55 S4′ sRef Jer@46 @24 S4′ sRef Ps@45 @12 S4′ sRef Jer@50 @41 S4′ sRef Jer@50 @42 S4′ sRef Jer@46 @19 S4′ sRef Jer@46 @11 S4′ sRef Isa@47 @5 S4′  In Jeremiah:
Go up into Gilead, and take balm, O virgin daughter of Egypt. O thou daughter that dwellest in Egypt, make thee vessels of exile. The daughter of Egypt shall be put to shame, she is delivered into the hand of the people of the north (Jer. 46:11, 19, 24).
The “daughter of Egypt” denotes the affection of reasoning from memory-knowledges concerning the truths of faith, as to whether they be so; thus she denotes the kind of religion that arises from this, which is such that nothing is believed except that which is comprehended by the senses, and thus nothing of the truth of faith (see n. 215, 232, 233, 1164, 1165, 1186, 1385, 2196, 2203, 2209, 2568, 2588).
sRef Ps@137 @8 S5′ sRef Lam@4 @21 S5′ sRef Lam@4 @22 S5′ sRef Jer@51 @33 S5′  In Isaiah:
He said, Thou shalt no more exult, O thou oppressed daughter of Zidon (Isa. 23:12).
And in David:
The daughter of Tyre with a gift, the rich among the people shall entreat thy faces (Ps. 45:12).
What is meant by the “daughter of Zidon” and the “daughter of Tyre,” is evident from the signification of Zidon and of Tyre (see n. 1201). In Jeremiah:
Rejoice and be glad O daughter of Edom. Thine iniquity is consummated, O daughter of Zion. He will no more cause thee to migrate; thine iniquity shall be visited, O daughter of Edom (Lam. 4:21-22).
As a wandering bird, a nest sent forth, shall the daughters of Moab be (Isa. 16:2).
Come down and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babel; sit on the earth, without a throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans. Sit thou silent, and enter into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans, for thou shalt no more be called the lady of kingdoms (Isa. 47:1, 5).
A people cometh from the north set in array as a man to the battle, against thee, O daughter of Babel (Jer. 50:41-42).
The daughter of Babel is like a threshing-floor, it is time to thresh her (Jer. 51:33).
Alas O Zion, escape, thou that dwellest with the daughter of Babel (Zech. 2:7).
The daughter of Babel is laid waste (Ps. 137:8).
Thy sisters, Sodom and her daughters, shall return to their ancient estate, and Samaria and her daughters shall return to their ancient estate (Ezek. 16:55).
sRef Mal@2 @11 S6′  Anyone can see that in these passages by “daughters” are not meant daughters, but affections that disagree with truth, and thus religiosities that come from this source; but what these religiosities are, is evident from the signification of the peoples named-as Edom, Moab, the Chaldeans, Babel, Sodom, and Samaria, which have been treated of in many places in the explications of the foregoing chapters of Genesis. Hence now it is evident what is here meant by the “daughters of the Canaanite.”
 That the Israelites were not to contract marriages with the daughters of the Canaanites, also had regard to the spiritual laws that good and falsity, and evil and truth are not to be joined together; for thence comes profanation. The prohibition was also representative of the matter concerning which we read in Deuteronomy 7:3; and in Malachi:
Judah hath profaned the holiness of Jehovah, in that he hath loved and hath married the daughter of a strange god (Mal. 2:11).
 From what has been said above, it is evident what is involved in these words, and in what follows to verse 8, and further; and in order that these things may be better understood, we may say a few words more. The genuine rational is from good, but comes forth [existit] from truth. Good flows in by an internal way; but truth by an external way. Good thus conjoins itself with truth in the rational, and they cause the rational to be. Unless the good therein is conjoined with truth, there is no rational; although there appears to be, because the man can reason (n. 1944). This is the common way in which the rational is formed with man.
sRef Gen@24 @1 S3′  As the Lord was born like another man, and as it was His will to be instructed like another man, so did He will to make His rational Divine in a similar way, namely, as to good by influx from His Divine by the internal way, and as to truth by influx through the external way. When therefore the rational as to good had been so far formed as to be in a state for receiving truth (which is meant by the words in the beginning of this chapter, “Abraham being old was come into days, and Jehovah blessed Abraham in all things,” by which is signified when the state was at hand that the Lord’s Human should be made Divine, and when all things should be disposed into Divine order, as may be seen above, n. 3016, 3017), there next follows that truth is to be conjoined with the good of the rational, and this, as before said, by the common way, that is, by means of memory-knowledges and knowledges from the natural man.
 The good itself of the rational, which is formed by the internal way, is the very ground; but truth is the seed which is to be sown in this ground. The genuine rational is never born in any other way. In order that it might come forth with the Lord in the same way, and be made Divine by His own power, the Lord came into the world, and it was His will to be born as are other men. Otherwise He might have assumed a human without birth, as was frequently done in ancient times when He appeared to men.
 These are the things contained in this chapter, namely, how truth, called forth from the natural man, was to be conjoined with the good of the rational; and as the good there was Divine, how the truth there should also be made Divine. To man these things (especially to one who does not know that the rational is something distinct from the natural, and who therefore does not know that the rational is formed successively, and this by knowledges) are very obscure, so that they are not understood; but still they are among things easily understood by those who have any knowledge concerning the rational and the natural man, and who are in enlightenment. The angels see them all as in clear day.
 Some idea of them may be obtained from what has been said and shown above, namely: That the rational as to truth is formed by influx into memory-knowledges and knowledges (n. 1495, 1563, 1900, 1964): That it is not born from these two kinds of knowledges, but from the affection of them (n. 1895, 1900): That these two kinds of knowledges are only vessels for good (n. 1469, 1496): That empty memory-knowledges must be destroyed (n. 1489, 1492, 1499, 1500): That in the rational, the affection of good is as a soul in the affection of truth (n. 2072): What is the affection of rational truth, and of the truth of mere memory (n. 2503): That by knowledges the external man is conjoined with the internal, that is, the rational man with the natural, when knowledges are being implanted in things celestial, which are those of love and charity (n. 1450, 1451, 1453, 1616).
 That there can be no conjunction of falsity with good, or of truth with evil, but only of falsity with evil, and of truth with good, it has been given me to perceive to the life; and I have perceived that the case is as follows: When a man has the affection of good, that is, when he wills good from the heart, then whenever anything is to be thought of that is to be willed and done, his good willing flows into his thinking, and there it applies itself to the knowledges which are there, and joins itself with them as its recipient vessels, and by this conjunction impels him so to think, to will, and to act. It is as it were an ingrafting of good in truths or in the knowledges of truth. But when a man has not the affection of good, but the affection of evil, that is, then he wills evil (as when he believes all to be good that is for himself, so that he may become great and may be rich, thus possess honor and wealth, and this is his end), then when anything is to be thought of that is to be willed and done, his willing equally flows into his thinking, and there excites knowledges which appear in the semblance of truth; and so it impels the man to think, to will, and to do; and this by a wrong application of knowledges, and by looking upon certain general truths which he has drawn from the sense of the letter of the Word or from other knowledge as being applicable in every sense: it is in this way that evil is coupled with falsity, for in this case the truth which is therein is deprived of all the essence of truth.
 In the other life such persons (however much in this life they may have seemed to be more highly instructed than others) are more stupid than others and so far as they are in the persuasion that they are in truth, they induce thick darkness on others. Such have at times been with me; but they were not susceptible of any affection of good from truth, howsoever the truths were recalled to their mind which they had known in the life of the body; for evil was with them, with which truths could not be conjoined. Neither can such persons be in the company of the good; but if there is anything of natural good with them, they are vastated even till they know nothing of truth; and then there is insinuated into the remaining good something of truth, as much as the little remaining good can receive. But they who have been in the affection of good from the heart, are able to receive all truth in accordance with the amount and the quality of the good that has been with them.
All things are delivered unto Me of My Father; and no one knoweth the Son but the Father, neither knoweth anyone the Father but the Son, and he to whom the Son willeth to reveal Him (Matt. 11:27).
And in John:
No man hath seen God at any time; the Only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath declared Him (John 1:18). The “Son” is the Lord’s Divine Human. He who believes that any other Father than the Lord is adored in heaven is much mistaken.
 Concerning man’s freedom, see what was said and shown above (n. 892, 905, 1937, 1947, 2744, 2870-2893) from which it is evident how the case is with freedom. Freedom is predicated of the natural man, but not in the same way of the rational; for good flows through the rational into the natural in heavenly freedom from the Lord. The natural man is that which is to receive this good; and in order that it may receive it, and may thus be conjoined with the heavenly freedom which flows in through the rational, the natural is left in freedom. For freedom is of love or affection; and unless the natural man receives the affection of truth from the inflowing affection of good, it cannot possibly be conjoined with the rational. Such is the case with man; and that he is reformed of the Lord through freedom may be seen (n. 1937, 1947, 2876-2878, 2881).
 In regard to the Lord, He likewise left the natural in freedom when He made His rational Divine as to truth; that is, when He adjoined Divine truth to the Divine good of the rational; for it was His will to make His Human Divine in the usual manner, that is, in the way in which man is reformed and regenerated. The reformation and regeneration of man is therefore itself a kind of image; by reformation and regeneration also a man is made new, and hence is said to be born anew and created new; and insofar as he is reformed, insofar he has as it were what is Divine in him. But there is this difference, that the Lord made Himself Divine from His own power, while man cannot do the least thing from his own power, but only from the Lord. It is said “as it were what is Divine,” because man is but a recipient of life; whereas the Lord as to each essence is life itself (see n. 1954, 2021, 2658, 2706, 3001).
sRef Isa@30 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@30 @7 S2′  The subject here is the process of the conjunction of truth with good in the Lord’s Divine rational; first, the process of initiation (n. 3012-3013), the nature of which is described in a series; here, that the Lord separated in the natural man the things which were from Himself, that is, which were Divine, from those which were of the maternal. The things which were from Himself, or which were Divine, are the things by which the initiation was effected; and they are here the “ten camels, of the camels of his lord.” And hence it is that in the following verses much mention is made of “camels” as that he made the camels fall on their knees without the city (verse 11); that Rebekah also gave drink to the camels (verses 14, 19-20); that they were brought into the house, and that straw and provender were given them (verses 31-32); and further, that Rebekah and her girls rode upon the camels (verse 61); and that Isaac saw the camels coming; and when Rebekah saw Isaac, that she alighted off her camel (verses 63-64). Camels are mentioned so often because of the internal sense, in which they signify the general memory-knowledges in the natural man, from which comes the affection of truth which is to be initiated into the affection of good in the rational, and this in the usual way, as shown above; for the rational as to truth cannot possibly be born and perfected without memory-knowledges and knowledges.
sRef Isa@21 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@21 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@21 @7 S3′ sRef Isa@21 @9 S3′ sRef Isa@21 @8 S3′  That “camels” signify general memory-knowledges is evident from other passages in the Word where they are mentioned, as in Isaiah:
The prophecy of the beasts of the south: In the land of straitness and distress; from whence come the young lion and the old lion, the viper and the flying fire serpent; they carry their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels, to a people that shall not profit; for Egypt shall help in vain and to no purpose (Isa. 30:6-7).
The “beasts of the south” denote those who are in the light of knowledges, or in knowledges, but in a life of evil; “carrying their riches upon the shoulder of young asses” denotes the knowledges pertaining to their rational (that a “young ass” is rational truth may be seen above, n. 2781); “their treasures upon the hump of camels,” denotes the knowledges pertaining to their natural; the camels’ “hump” is what is natural; the “camels” themselves signify the general memory-knowledges which are there; the “treasures” are the knowledges which they hold as precious; that “Egypt shall help in vain and to no purpose” denotes that memory-knowledges are of no use to them; that “Egypt” is memory-knowledge may be seen above (n. 1164-1165, 1186, 1462, 2588 at the end). That “camels” here are not camels is plain; for it is said “the young lion and the old lion carry their treasures upon the hump of camels”; and anyone can see that some arcanum of the church is hereby signified.
sRef Isa@60 @5 S4′ sRef 1Ki@10 @2 S4′ sRef 1Ki@10 @1 S4′ sRef Isa@60 @6 S4′  Again:
The prophecy of the wilderness of the sea: Thus hath the Lord said, Go, set a watchman; let him declare what he seeth: and he saw a chariot, a pair of horsemen, a chariot of an ass, a chariot of a camel, and he hearkened diligently. And he answered and said, Babel is fallen, is fallen (Isa. 21:1, 6-7, 9).
The “wilderness of the sea” here denotes the emptiness of memory-knowledges that are not for use; a “chariot of an ass,” a collection of particular memory-knowledges; a “chariot of a camel,” a collection of general memory-knowledges in the natural man. It is the empty reasonings with those signified by “Babel” which are thus described.
sRef Jer@49 @28 S5′ sRef Jer@49 @29 S5′ sRef Jer@49 @32 S5′  Again:
Thy heart shall be enlarged because the multitude of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the wealth of the nations shall come unto thee. The abundance of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come; they shall bring gold and incense, and they shall proclaim the praises of Jehovah (Isa. 60:5-6).
This is concerning the Lord, and concerning the Divine celestial and spiritual things in His natural: the “multitude of the sea” denotes the immense supply of natural truth; the “wealth of the nations,” the immense supply of natural good; the “abundance of camels,” the abundant supply of general memory-knowledges; “gold and frankincense,” goods and truths, which are the “praises of Jehovah;” “from Sheba” is from the celestial things of love and faith (see n. 113, 117, 1171). That:
The queen of Sheba came to Solomon to Jerusalem with exceeding great riches, with camels that bare spices, and very much gold, and precious stones (1 Kings 10:1-2)
represented the wisdom and intelligence which came to the Lord, who in the internal sense here is “Solomon.” The “camels bearing spices, gold, and precious stones” are the things of wisdom and intelligence in the natural man.
 In Jeremiah:
To Arabia, and to the kingdoms of Hazor, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babel smote: Arise ye, go up to Arabia, and lay waste the sons of the East. Their tents shall they take, and they shall carry away for themselves their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels. And their camels shall be a booty, and I will scatter them to every wind (Jer. 49:28-29, 32).
Here “Arabia and the kingdoms of Hazor,” in the opposite sense, denote those who are in knowledges of celestial and spiritual things, but for the end of no other use than that they may be esteemed wise and intelligent by themselves and the world; the “camels which should be taken away from them, and should be for a booty, and should be scattered to every wind,” are in general the memory-knowledges and the knowledges of good and truth which are also taken away from them in the life of the body by their believing contrary things, and in the other life wholly.
sRef Zech@14 @15 S7′ sRef Zech@14 @12 S7′  In Zechariah:
And this shall be the plague wherewith Jehovah will smite all the peoples that shall fight against Jerusalem; thus shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of every beast (Zech. 14:12, 15).
Here the “plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass,” denotes the privation of intellectual things, which thus succeed in order from rational things to natural things (what is meant by the “horse,” may be seen above, n. 2761, 2762; what by the “mule” n. 2781; and what by the “ass,” n. 2781); “camels” denote the general memory-knowledges in the natural man. The like was signified by the murrain in Egypt, which was “Upon the cattle in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon herd and upon flock” (Exod. 9:2-3).
 From these passages it is evident that by “camels” in the internal sense of the Word are signified the general memory-knowledges of the natural man. General memory-knowledges are those which include in themselves many particulars, and these singulars; and they form in general the natural man as to the intellectual part of it.
 The things in the rational are not apparent to man while he lives in the body; for those in the natural are what come to perception, and seldom those in the rational, except by a certain kind of light illuminating the things in the natural, or as an inflowing capacity by which the ideas of thought are disposed into order; and also as a faculty of perceiving that which the mind is considering. Unless these and other things be known, what is contained in this verse can with difficulty be explained to the apprehension, as that there is a holy disposing of the general memory-knowledges, and then a removal from doctrinal things for receiving the truths of faith; and that when this is taking place there is an obscure state, and that such is the state of instruction. Nevertheless we may briefly state as much as can be apprehended, and here, how the case is with a man then he is being reformed by the Lord; for the reformation of a man is a kind of image of what took place with the Lord then He was in the world (as was said above, n. 3043).
 When a man is being reformed, the general things in his natural man are disposed by the Lord to correspondence with those which are in heaven. (What correspondence is, and that it is between spiritual things and natural things, may be seen above, n. 2987, 2989-2991, 3002.) General things are first disposed, in order that particulars may be successively insinuated into them by the Lord, and singulars into the particulars; for if the general things are not in order, there cannot come forth order in the particulars, because the particulars enter into the generals, and confirm them; still less can there be order in the singulars, because these enter into the particulars as into their generals, and illustrate them. These are the things that are meant by a holy disposing of general memory-knowledges; and this is meant in the internal sense by “making the camels kneel down;” for so they submit themselves for the reception of influx.
 When the general memory-knowledges are being disposed in this way, doctrinal things are removed, as they are conclusions from these knowledges; for there flows in through the rational as it were a dictate that this is true, and this not true; but in this way-that it is true because it agrees with the orderly disposition of the general memory-knowledges; and that it is not true because it disagrees; there is no other influx as to truths. Doctrinal things are indeed there before, but they are not doctrinal things until they are believed, but are merely memory-knowledges; and therefore when the man thinks about them, no conclusion is drawn from them, but only concerning them, from other things. This is what is meant by removal from doctrinal things, and it is what is here signified in the internal sense by “without the city.” But this is the state that is called an obscure state, and is signified by the “time of evening;” whereas when doctrinal things have been confirmed, so that they are believed, then comes the “morning,” or a state of light. The other things contained in this verse are evident from what has been already stated.
With joy shall ye draw waters out of the fountains of salvation. In that day shall ye confess unto Jehovah (Isa. 12:3-4).
To “draw waters” is to be instructed, to understand, and to be wise. Again:
Bring ye waters to meet him that is thirsty, ye inhabitants of the land of Tema (Isa. 21:14).
To “bring waters to meet him that is thirsty” means to instruct. Again:
The afflicted and the needy seek waters, and there are none, and their tongue faileth for thirst (Isa. 41:17).
“They that seek waters,” are they who desire to be instructed in truths. That “there are none,” signifies that no one has truths. Moreover by the “drawers of water” were represented in the Jewish Church those who continually desire to know truths, but for no other end than to know them, while caring nothing for the use. Such were accounted among the lowest, and were represented by the Gibeonites (concerning whom see Joshua 9:21, 23, 27).
 That the Lord was from eternity, is plainly evident from the Word (see n. 2803), although He was afterwards born in time; for He spoke by Moses and the Prophets; He likewise had appeared to many, and it is there said that He was Jehovah. But this deepest of arcana could be revealed to none but those who are in Divine perception, thus to scarcely any but the men of the Most Ancient Church, who were celestial and in this perception. From these I have heard that Jehovah Himself was the Lord as to the Divine Human when He descended into heaven and flowed in through heaven; for heaven represents one man as to all his members, and is therefore also called the Grand Man (n. 684, 1276, 2996, 2998, 3021). The Divine Itself in heaven, that is, in the Grand Man, was the Divine Human, and was Jehovah Himself thus clothed with the Human.
 But when mankind became such that the Divine Itself, clothed as the Divine Human, could no longer affect them (that is, when Jehovah could no longer come to man, because man had so far removed himself), then Jehovah, who is the Lord as to the Divine Essence, descended and took upon Himself a Human, by conception Divine, and by birth from a virgin such as is that of another man; but this He expelled, and by Divine means made Divine the Human that was born, from which proceeds all the Holy. Thus the Divine Human became an essence by itself which fills the universal heaven, and which also makes it possible for those to be saved who could not be saved before. This then is the Lord, who as to the Divine Human is alone Man, and from whom man has it that he is man (n. 49, 288, 477, 565, 1894).
(See what has been said before concerning the Lord’s love, namely: That His life was love toward the universal human race, n. 2253: That from this love He fought, n. 1690, 1789, 1812, 1813, 1820: That it transcends all understanding, n. 1799, 2077: That the Lord is Divine love itself, n. 2077, 2500, 2572: That “Jehovah” is love, n. 1735: That nothing lives but love, n. 1589: That whoever has mutual love has the Lord’s life, n. 1799, 1802, 1803: That love and charity are the celestial itself, n. 1419, 1824.)
The new wine shall mourn, the vine languisheth, all the glad of heart shall sigh; they shall not drink wine with a song, strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it (Isa. 24:7, 9);
“not drinking wine with a song,” denotes not being instructed from the affection of truth and not being delighted thereby; that “strong drink shall be bitter to them that drink it,” denotes aversion. In the same:
It shall be as when a thirsty one dreameth, and behold he drinketh; but he awaketh, and behold he is weary, and his soul hath appetite (Isa. 29:8);
a “thirsty one” denotes one who desires to be instructed; “drinking,” being instructed, but in things that are vain.
sRef John@7 @37 S2′ sRef John@7 @38 S2′ sRef Isa@55 @1 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @26 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @27 S2′ sRef Lam@5 @4 S2′  In Jeremiah:
We have drunk our water for silver; our wood cometh for a price (Lam. 5:4);
“drinking waters for silver” denotes being instructed not without cost, and also attributing truth to one’s self. That it is given free of cost, and thus that it is not from one’s self, but from the Lord, is thus taught in Isaiah:
Ho everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver; come ye, buy (Isa. 55:1).
Also in John:
Jesus said, If anyone thirst, let him come unto Me and drink; whosoever believeth in Me, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water (John 7:37-38);
where by “drinking” is signified being instructed, and receiving. In Luke:
They shall say, We did eat and drink in Thy presence, and Thou didst teach in our streets; but the Lord says, I know you not whence ye are; depart from Me, all ye workers of iniquity (Luke 13:26-27);
where “eating and drinking in the Lord’s presence,” denotes instructing and preaching the good and truth of faith from knowledges that are from the Word, which is meant by the words, “Thou didst teach in our streets.” But as they did this from themselves, for the sake of their own honor and gain, and thus from no affection of good and truth, and were thus in knowledges of truth but in a life of evil, it is said, “I know you not whence ye are; depart from Me all ye workers of iniquity.”
sRef Matt@26 @29 S3′ sRef John@4 @7 S3′ sRef John@4 @8 S3′ sRef John@4 @9 S3′ sRef John@4 @14 S3′ sRef Matt@6 @31 S3′ sRef John@4 @13 S3′ sRef Matt@6 @25 S3′ sRef John@4 @12 S3′ sRef Luke@22 @30 S3′ sRef John@4 @11 S3′ sRef John@4 @10 S3′  In the same:
Jesus, speaking to the disciples, said, That ye may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom (Luke 22:30).
That they do not eat and drink in the kingdom of the Lord, and that there is no table there, is plain to everyone; so that by “eating and drinking at the Lord’s table in His kingdom,” something else is signified, namely, enjoying the perception of good and truth. So too with what the Lord says in Matthew:
I say unto you, that I will not drink henceforth of this product of the vine, until that day when I shall drink it with you in My Father’s kingdom (Matt. 26:29);
where “drinking” signifies instructing to the life concerning truths, and giving perception of good and truth. These words of the Lord:
Be not anxious for your life [anima], what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink, nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on (Matt. 6:25, 31; Luke 12:29);
are significative of spiritual things, namely, that the all of faith as to good and truth is given by the Lord. In John:
Jesus said to the woman of Samaria, Everyone that drinketh of this water shall thirst again; but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall become in him a fountain of water springing up unto eternal life (John 4:7-14);
where “drinking” manifestly denotes being instructed in good and truth, and receiving them.
 Every affection, although it appears simple and as one thing, nevertheless contains within it things so innumerable that it cannot be comprehended by any idea, still less be described; for in every affection there is the man’s whole life that has been acquired from his infancy even to the time of life when he is in the affection; nay, there are other things besides, namely, those which he has inherited from father and mother, grandparents and great-grandparents; for the affection is the whole man such as he is. In the other life, by a manifestation of the affection there is sometimes presented to view how much there is in anyone of the love of self, and how much of the love of the world; and how much of the love of principles, and for what end and use; also how much of the love of good and truth, and what is the quality of that good and truth, and also how the good and truth are disposed, that is, how far conjoined, approximating, or separate; thus how much they agree or disagree with heavenly order. As just stated, all these things are presented to view by a manifestation of the affection, because the affection is the whole man. That such is the case appears incredible to man, and yet it is true.
sRef Matt@25 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@66 @20 S2′ sRef Jer@14 @3 S2′ sRef Jer@14 @2 S2′ sRef Num@24 @6 S2′ sRef Num@24 @7 S2′  And when Belshazzar, with his great men and his wives, was drinking wine out of the vessels of gold and of silver that Nebuchadnezzar his father had brought from the temple of Jerusalem, and they were praising the gods of gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone, it was because of such signification of the vessels that the writing then appeared on the wall of his palace (Dan. 5:2, etc.). The “vessels of gold and of silver” denote the knowledges of good and truth, which were profaned; for the Chaldeans denote those who are in knowledges, but such as have been profaned by the falsities that are in them (n. 1368); so that the knowledges serve them to worship gods of gold and silver; for Belshazzar is called king of the Chaldeans in this same chapter (verse 30).
 That “vessels” signify the externals of spiritual things, is also plain from other passages in the Word, as in Isaiah:
As the sons of Israel bring their offering in a clean vessel into the house of Jehovah (Isa. 66:20);
where the Lord’s kingdom is treated of. The “offering in a clean vessel” is representative of the external man relatively to the internal; that which brings the gift is the internal man; the “clean vessel” is the external man that is in agreement, thus it denotes the things in the external man, which are memory-knowledges, knowledges, and doctrinal things.
sRef Jer@51 @34 S4′  In Jeremiah:
The cry of Jerusalem is gone up, and their nobles have sent their little ones to the waters; they came to the pits, they found no waters, they returned with their vessels empty, they are ashamed (Jer. 14:2-3);
“empty vessels” denote knowledges wherein there is no truth, and also truths wherein there is no good. Again:
Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babel, hath devoured me, he hath troubled me, he hath made me an empty vessel (Jer. 51:34);
where an “empty vessel” has a similar meaning. That it is Babel that lays waste, may be seen above (n. 1327, at the end). In Moses:
As the valleys are they planted, as gardens by the river’s side; waters shall flow from his buckets, and his seed shall be at many waters (Num. 24:6-7).
This is Balaam’s parable concerning Jacob and Israel; “waters flowing from his buckets,” signify that truths flow from knowledges.
 In the parable of the ten virgins, five of whom took oil in their vessels with their lamps, while the foolish did not (Matt. 25:4), by the “virgins” are signified affections. That the wise “took oil in their vessels,” denotes that there was good in truths, and thus charity in faith. That “oil” denotes good, may be seen above (n. 886); “lamps” denote love.
sRef Rev@14 @5 S2′ sRef Rev@14 @4 S2′  That by a “virgin” in the Word are signified those who are in the kingdom of the Lord, or what is the same, those in whom the kingdom of the Lord is, is evident in John:
These are they who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins; these are they who follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth, for they are without spot before the throne of God (Rev. 14:4-5).
Here those are plainly called “virgins” who follow the Lamb, that is, who are in the Lord’s kingdom; and they are also said to be “without spot.”
sRef Isa@37 @22 S3′  In the proper sense, those are “virgins” who are in love to the Lord, that is, the celestial, and thus those who are in the affection of good. Those also are called “virgins” who are in charity toward the neighbor, that is, the spiritual, and thus who are in the affection of truth; as may be seen from passages in the Word. Thus in Isaiah:
The virgin daughter of Zion hath despised thee, and hath mocked thee; the daughter of Jerusalem hath shaken her head after thee (Isa. 37:22).
This is said to the king of Asshur; the “virgin daughter of Zion” denotes the celestial church; the “daughter of Jerusalem,” the spiritual church.
sRef Lam@1 @4 S4′ sRef Lam@1 @18 S4′ sRef Lam@1 @15 S4′ sRef Jer@31 @4 S4′ sRef Jer@31 @12 S4′ sRef Jer@31 @13 S4′ sRef Lam@5 @11 S4′  In Jeremiah:
Again will I build thee, and thou shalt be built, O virgin of Israel; again shalt thou deck thy timbrels, and shalt go forth in the dance of them that make merry. Their soul shall be as a watered garden; and they shall not sorrow any more at all. Then shall the virgin be glad in the dance, and the young men and the old together (Jer. 31:4, 12-13).
The “virgin of Israel” denotes the spiritual church; the affection of truth from good in this church is described here, as in other places, by “timbrels and dances.” In the same:
The ways of Zion do mourn, her priests do sigh, her virgins are sad. The Lord hath trodden the winepress, for the virgin daughter of Judah. Behold my sorrow; my virgins and my young men are gone into captivity (Lam. 1:4, 15, 18).
“Virgins” denote the affections of good and of truth. And again in the same:
The women in Zion were ravished, the virgins in the cities of Judah (Lam. 5:11).
Here the “virgins” denote the affections of good.
sRef Amos@8 @13 S5′ sRef Amos@8 @12 S5′  In Amos:
They shall run to and fro to seek the word of Jehovah, and shall not find it. In that day shall the fair virgins and the young men faint for thirst (Amos 8:12-13).
The “fair virgins” denote the affections of truth; the “young men,” truths, or what is the same, those who are in them; concerning these it is said that “they shall run to and fro to seek the word of Jehovah, and shall not find it,” and consequently “they shall faint for thirst.”
sRef Zech@9 @16 S6′ sRef Zech@9 @17 S6′ sRef Ps@45 @14 S6′ sRef Ps@45 @13 S6′  In Zechariah:
Jehovah their God shall preserve them in that day, as the flock of His people; for how great is His goodness and how great is His beauty: corn shall make the young men grow [germinare], and new wine the virgins (Zech. 9:16-17);
“young men” denoting truths, and “virgins,” affections. In David:
The King’s daughter is all glorious within; her clothing is of inweavings of gold. She is led unto the King in broidered work; the virgins, her companions, that follow her, are brought unto Thee (Ps. 45:13-14).
The “King’s daughter” denotes the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; the “virgins, her companions, that follow her,” denote the affections of truth.
sRef Ps@68 @24 S7′ sRef Ps@68 @25 S7′  In the same:
They have seen Thy goings, O God, the goings of my God in, the sanctuary. The singers went before, the players on the harp followed after, in the midst of the damsels playing the timbrels (Ps. 68:24-25).
The “damsels playing the timbrels” also denote the affections of truth, the term “virgin” being used in distinction from to express innocence. “Virgins” are so called from conjugial love, and thus denote those who are in innocence; for conjugial love is innocence itself (see n. 2736). In John therefore in the passage quoted from Revelation, they are said to “follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth;” for by the “Lamb” is meant the Lord as to innocence; and all who are in heaven are called “virgins” from the innocence which is in their good. According to the amount and quality of the innocence in good, they “follow the Lamb.”
 But as before said, these things are not only beyond ordinary apprehension, but are also beyond that of more cultivated men-that is to say, such things as are contained in the internal sense in this chapter and in some that follow. The reason of this is that it scarcely enters the mind of anyone that there is a continual Divine influx through the internal man into the external; that is, an influx of celestial and spiritual things through the rational man into the natural, or what is the same, into the natural things of the external man; and that by this influx truths are continually called forth from the natural man, are elevated, and are implanted in the good which is in the rational. As it is not known that this takes place, how should all the process be known, and in what manner it is effected; a process of wisdom so great (because from the Divine) that it can never be explored as to a ten-thousandth part; the things that can be seen being only the most general?
 And as such is the case, let no one wonder that the things here contained in the internal sense cannot be described to the apprehension, and that what are described transcend the apprehension; for they treat of this process and describe it. And besides, the internal sense is principally for the angels; and this in order that through the Word there may be communication between heaven and man; and by the angels such things as are referred to above are accounted as things most delightful, because heavenly food is nothing else than all that which is of intelligence and wisdom; and to them the blessedness of wisdom and intelligence is whatever treats of the Lord.
 But I know that these are arcana too deep to fall within apprehension; and this as before said for the reason that they are things unknown; but as the internal sense describes them, and this as to all their circumstances, they must needs be set forth, no matter how much they may appear to be above the apprehension. At the very least it may in this way be seen what great arcana there are in the internal sense of the Word; also that the arcana are such as scarcely to be seen in the light of the world, in which man is during his life in the body, but that they always appear more distinctly and clearly in proportion as man comes from the light of the world into the light of heaven, into which he comes after death; thus into the light in which blessed and happy souls are, that is, the angels.
There is a chain of subordination, thus of application, and consequently of submission, from the First of life, or the Lord. As the things which are in a lower place ought to serve the higher, they must be in submission; for without their submission there is no conjunction. The “power” here spoken of is from truth; this causes the things which are below to submit. In the Word power is especially attributed to truth; and therefore the “hands,” “arms,” and “shoulders” (by which in the internal sense powers are signified) are predicated of truth (see n. 878, 1085); and the power which appears to be from truth is itself from good, through truth.
* That is, with all their might. [Reviser.]
The enlightenment that is here treated of is on the part of truth, although it is from good through truth. As regards the enlightenment of memory-knowledges in the natural man the case is this: All enlightenment is from good; for the good which is of love is comparatively as the sun’s flame, from which are heat and light; but truth is as the object through which the flame shines, by which there is enlightenment from light; and such as is the light therefrom, such is the enlightenment.
 There is nothing else that receives good but truth, and such as is the truth, such is the reception, and such is the consequent enlightenment. When therefore there is enlightenment by means of truth, the enlightenment appears to be from the truth, as if it were its own; although it is of good, which thus gives light through the truth. Moreover the enlightenment of good by means of truth penetrates still further, and affects more deeply, and produces a lower affection of truth, which will be spoken of presently. The light of heaven is from the Divine good of the Lord through His Divine truth; and because it is through the Divine truth in His Human, it penetrates not only to those who are celestial, but also to the spiritual, and enlightens with wisdom and intelligence all who are in heaven. And because this is the source of wisdom and intelligence, therefore the Divine good and the Divine truth in the Lord’s Human are so much treated of in the internal sense of the Word; and in the present passage, this sense treats of the first enlightenment of truth from good, and of good through truth.
 The case is really this: Every truth that is elevated out of the natural man, that is, out of memory-knowledges (or out of knowledges and doctrinal things, for these are of the natural man) into the rational, and there received, must first be acknowledged for what it is, and whether it is in agreement with the good that is in the rational or not; if it is in agreement, it is received; and if not, it is rejected. There are many apparent truths in a single company; but only those are conjoined which acknowledge the good there, and thus which mutually love each other. In order, however, that they may be acknowledged to be such, there must be enlightenment in the natural man, by which all things there both in general and in particular may be seen at one view, and that thus there may be choice. This enlightenment in the natural man is from good, but still is by means of truth (see n. 3094). It is this enlightenment that is signified by Rebekah’s drawing for the camels, and making them drink, or giving them to drink.
sRef Ezek@16 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@16 @12 S2′ sRef Isa@3 @17 S2′ sRef Isa@3 @21 S2′ sRef Isa@3 @22 S2′ sRef Isa@3 @16 S2′  That the “jewel” was the badge of marriage as to good, is evident also from other passages of the Word as in Ezekiel:
I decked thee with ornaments, and I put bracelets upon thy hands, and a chain upon thy throat; and I put a jewel upon thy nose (Ezek. 16:11-12);
concerning the Ancient Church, here called “Jerusalem,” which is described as a bride, to whom were given bracelets, a chain, and a jewel. “Bracelets upon the hands” were a badge representative of truth; and a “jewel upon the nose” was a badge representative of good.
 In Isaiah:
Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, the Lord will make bald the crown of their head, and will take away the rings, and the nose jewels, the changes of garments, and the mantles (Isa. 3:16-18, 21-22).
The “daughters of Zion who are haughty,” denote the affections of evil within the church (n. 2362, 3024); the “rings and the nose jewels which will be removed,” denote good and its badges; the “changes of garments and the mantles,” truth and its badges.
sRef Hos@2 @13 S4′  In Hosea:
I will visit upon her the days of the Baalim to which she burned incense; and she put on her nose jewel and her ornaments, and went after her lovers (Hos. 2:13);
treating of the perverted church, and the new church after it. The “nose jewel” here also denotes a badge of the good of the church. When these jewels were fitted to the ears, they also signified good, but good in act; and in the opposite sense evil in act (as in Gen. 35:4; Exod. 32:2, 3).
sRef Ezek@4 @17 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @11 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @10 S2′ sRef Ezek@4 @16 S2′  That “weight” is the state of a thing as to good, is evident from the following passages of the Word. In Ezekiel:
The prophet was to eat food by weight, twenty shekels a day; and was to drink water by measure, the sixth part of a hin; for behold, I will break the staff of bread in Jerusalem, and they shall eat bread by weight and with anxiety, and they shall drink water by measure and with astonishment, that they may want bread and water (Ezek. 4:10-11, 16-17).
Here the vastation of good and of truth is treated of, a representation of which was made by the prophet. The state of vastated good is signified by their “eating food and bread by weight;” and the state of vastated truth by their “drinking water by measure” (that “bread” is the celestial, and thus is good, may be seen above, n. 276, 680, 1165, 2177; also that “water” is the spiritual, and thus is truth, n. 739, 2702, 3058); hence it is evident that “weight” is predicated of good, and “measure” of truth.
sRef Isa@40 @12 S3′ sRef Ezek@45 @10 S3′  Again:
There shall be balances of justice, and an ephah of justice, and a bath of justice (Ezek. 45:10, etc.).
This is said of the holy land, by which is signified the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, as may be known from the several particulars there mentioned by the prophet; where there will be no balances, ephah, and bath, but goods and truths which are signified by these weights and measures. In Isaiah:
Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and hath made ready the heavens with the palm of his hand, and hath comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance? (Isa. 40:12).
To “weigh the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance,” denotes that from the Lord are the celestial things of love and charity, and that He alone disposes their states. (That “mountains and hills,” concerning which such weights are predicated, are the celestial things of love, may be seen above, n. 795, 796, 1430, 2722.)
sRef Dan@5 @27 S4′ sRef Dan@5 @28 S4′ sRef Dan@5 @25 S4′ sRef Dan@5 @26 S4′  In Daniel:
The writing upon the wall of the palace of Belshazzar was, Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin. This is the interpretation: Mene, God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it; Tekel, thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting; Peres, thy kingdom is divided and given to the Mede and the Persian (Dan. 5:25-28);
where mene or “hath numbered,” is predicated of truth; while tekel or “weighed in the balances” is predicated of good; in the internal sense consummation is treated of.
 As regards the thing itself here treated of, namely, that truth was explored as to what innocence it had, and then also as to what charity, before it was initiated into good and conjoined with it, this cannot but appear wonderful to those who have no knowledge of the subject; but still let them know that in regard to the initiation and conjunction of truth with good in every man there is the most exquisite exploration, and such as surpasses all belief. To the veriest good there is never admitted anything but the veriest truth; for when anything not so true approaches, it does not conjoin itself with good itself, but with some good that in itself is not good, but appears as good; if falsity approaches, the good withdraws itself inward, and the falsity conjoins itself outwardly with some evil which it believes to be good.
 This Divine disposal is effected by the Lord, spirits and angels being the mediums; and in this world it is very secret, but it is perfectly well known in the other. Moreover everyone who is of sound reason is able to know it, or at least to have some apprehension of it; for evil and falsity together are hell, and flow in from hell; whereas good and truth together are heaven, and also flow in through heaven from the Lord; and since this is so, evil and truth can no more be joined together than can hell and heaven; wherefore there is a more exquisite balance applied in these things than it is possible for anyone to believe; and this is what is meant by exploration.
 That there is in the internal sense a description of the exploration concerning the origin of the affection of truth as to innocence and the good of charity, is for the reason that the truth which is to be initiated and conjoined with good derives its first origin from no other source, as may be seen from all those with whom truth is received and wedded to good. Within the church, they who have not some measure of innocence and of charity toward the neighbor, howsoever they may be acquainted with truth and profess it with the lips, yet in no wise do they acknowledge it at heart. Outside of the church, among the Gentiles who are called to the truth of faith, or are instructed concerning it in the other life, no others receive it than those who are in innocence, and who live together in mutual charity; for innocence and charity produce the ground in which the seeds of faith can take root and grow.
 But it is otherwise with the spiritual; these think concerning the things of faith; and when being reformed and regenerated they are introduced by means of the things of faith into charity toward the neighbor. And therefore when the spiritual are treated of, by “mercy from the Lord” is meant an influx of charity toward the neighbor; and by “truth” is meant an influx of faith. But still this faith, when the spiritual man has been regenerated, becomes charity; for he then acts from charity; insomuch that one who does not act from charity is not regenerate, but he who acts from charity is regenerate; and in this case he is not solicitous about the things of faith or truth, for he lives from the good of faith, and no longer from its truth; for truth has so conjoined itself with good that it no longer appears, except merely as the form of charity.
sRef Ps@85 @10 S3′ sRef Ps@115 @1 S3′ sRef Hos@4 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@98 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@61 @7 S3′ sRef Ps@86 @15 S3′ sRef Ps@89 @24 S3′ sRef Micah@7 @20 S3′  From what has been said we can see what the most ancient people, and what the ancients, understood by “mercy and truth,” so frequently mentioned in the Word. As in David:
The king shall dwell before God forever; O prepare mercy and truth, that they may preserve him (Ps. 61:7).
Mercy and truth shall meet together, righteousness and peace shall kiss each other (Ps. 85:10).
Thou O Lord art a God great in mercy and truth (Ps. 86:15).
My truth and My mercy shall be with Him (Ps. 89:24).
Jehovah hath remembered His mercy and His truth toward the house of Israel (Ps. 98:3).
O Jehovah, not unto us, but unto Thy name give glory, for Thy mercy and for Thy truth’s sake (Ps. 115:1).
Jehovah God will give the truth to Jacob, the mercy to Abraham, which Thou hast sworn unto our fathers from the days of old (Micah 7:20);
where “Jacob” denotes the Lord’s external man, and “Abraham” the internal, as to the Human. In Hosea:
Jehovah hath a controversy with the inhabitants of the land, because there is no truth, and no mercy, and no knowledge of God (Hos. 4:1).
“No truth” denotes no reception of the influx of charity; “no mercy,” no reception of the influx of love; “no knowledge of God,” no reception of the influx of the truth of faith.
At the present day he does not even know that he is regenerated by truth and good, still less that truth is initiated and conjoined with good, and that this is effected as by exploration, that is, most exactly. These two verses treat of perception in regard to the quality of truth, and whence it was; and at the same time of joy because of it. Therefore in what now follows the initiation is treated of.
 As this verse treats of the origin of the truth which is to be conjoined with good in the rational, it is therefore said that Rebekah (by whom this truth is represented) ran to the house of her mother, for that was the origin of this truth. For as before said and shown, all good flows in by an internal way (that is, by the way of the soul) into man’s rational, and through this into his faculty of knowing, even into that which is of the senses; and by enlightenment there it causes truths to be seen. Truths are called forth thence, and are divested of their natural form, and are conjoined with good in the midway, that is, in the rational, and at the same time they make the man rational, and at last spiritual. But how these things are accomplished is utterly unknown to man; because at this day it is scarcely known what good is, and that it is distinct from truth; still less that man is reformed by means of the influx of good into truth, and by the conjunction of the two; neither is it known that the rational is distinct from the natural. And when these things, which are most general, are not known, it cannot possibly be known how the initiation of truth into good, and the conjunction of the two, is effected-which are the subjects treated of in this chapter in its internal sense. But whereas these arcana have been revealed, and are manifest to those who are in good, that is, who are angelic minds, therefore however obscure they may appear to others, they nevertheless are to be set forth, because they are in the internal sense.
 Concerning the enlightenment from good through truth in the natural man, which is here called the “mother’s house,” the case is this: Divine good with man inflows into his rational, and through the rational into his natural, and indeed into its memory-knowledges, that is, into the knowledges and doctrinal things therein, as before said; and there by a fitting of itself in, it forms truths for itself, through which it then enlightens all things that are in the natural man. But if the life of the natural man is such that it does not receive the Divine good, but either repels it, or perverts it, or suffocates it, then the Divine good cannot be fitted in, thus it cannot form for itself truths; and consequently the natural can no longer be enlightened; for enlightenment in the natural man is effected from good through truths; and when there is no longer enlightenment, there can be no reformation. This is the reason why in the internal sense the natural man also is much treated of in regard to its quality; thus whence truth is, namely, that it is from good there.
 From these and from the other things here treated of, we can see what is the quality of the internal sense, and what arcana there are in it. Who could know, except from an interior searching of the Word, and at the same time from revelation, that these words, “Laban ran out of doors unto the man, unto the fountain,” signify the desire of the affection of good toward the truth that was to be initiated into truth Divine? And yet this is what the angels perceive when these words are read by man; for such are the correspondences between a man’s ideas and an angel’s that while the man takes these words according to the sense of the letter, and has the idea of Laban as running out of doors to the man unto the fountain, the angel perceives the desire of the affection of good toward the truth which was to be initiated into truth Divine. For the angels have no idea of Laban, nor of running, nor of a fountain, but they have spiritual ideas corresponding to these. That there is such a correspondence of actual things, and thence of ideas, natural and spiritual, may be seen from what was said above concerning correspondences (see n. 1563, 1568, 2763, 2987-3003, 3021).
 As regards the actual thing itself, namely, that truth was to be initiated into truth Divine, the case is this: The first truth in the natural man was not truth Divine, but was truth that appeared as if Divine; for in its first infancy no truth is truth, but is apparent truth; but in process of time it puts off the appearance, and puts on the essence of truth. In order that this may be comprehended, it may be illustrated by examples, but for the present merely by the following. It is a truth Divine that the Lord is never angry, never punishes anyone, still less does evil to anyone, and that from the Lord there never comes anything but good; nevertheless in its first infancy this truth takes the form that the Lord is angry when anyone sins, and that therefore the Lord punishes; nay, with some that evil is from the Lord; but as a man advances from childhood, and grows up and matures in judgment, he puts off that which was as truth to him from its appearing to be so, and gradually puts on the real truth, namely that the Lord is never angry, that He does not punish, that still less does He do what is evil; and thus by the former truth he is initiated into this. For that which first enters is the general truth, which in itself is obscure, and in which scarcely anything appears until it has been enlightened by particulars, and these by singulars; and when it has been enlightened the interior things are clear. Thus fallacies and appearances, which in time of ignorance are truths, are dissipated and shaken off.
 The case herein is this: The conjunction of Divine good and Divine truth in the Lord is the very Divine marriage from which is the heavenly marriage, which is likewise a marriage of good and truth; from this also comes conjugial love (see n. 2727-2759). Hence it is that where marriage is treated of in the Word, in the internal sense there is signified the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth; and in the supreme sense the Divine marriage, which is in the Lord; wherefore nothing else is here meant by the marriage between Isaac and Rebekah. The conjunction of good and truth is the marriage itself, but the initiation is the betrothal, or the state preceding marriage. But the state that precedes betrothal is what is here described. As in this state it is within the power of the damsel to be betrothed, and afterwards as a wife to be conjoined with a husband, so it is within the power of the affection of truth to be initiated into Divine truth, and in this manner to be conjoined with Divine good. And further: in the first affection and afterwards in every affection of truth with the Lord, there was inmostly the Divine good itself and the Divine truth itself, because there was Jehovah Himself; from this came the power that is here treated of.
I see, and there is no man; even among them, and there is no counselor (Isa. 41:28);
“no man” denotes no one intelligent, thus no truth. Again:
I came, and there was no man; I called, and there was none to answer (Isa. 50:2);
the meaning here being the same.
sRef Isa@59 @16 S2′ sRef Isa@59 @15 S2′ sRef Zeph@3 @6 S2′ sRef Jer@5 @1 S2′ sRef Isa@59 @14 S2′  Again:
Truth hath stumbled in the street, and uprightness cannot enter; and truth hath been taken away; and he that departeth from evil is mad. And Jehovah saw, and it was evil in His eyes that there was no judgment, and no man, and He was amazed (Isa. 59:14-16).
“No man” plainly means no one intelligent, and thus in the universal sense no truth. It here treats of the last time of the church, when there is no longer any truth; and it is therefore said, “truth hath stumbled in the street, uprightness cannot enter, truth hath been taken away.” (That “street” also is predicated of truth, may be seen above, n. 2336; and “judgment” also, n. 2235.) In Jeremiah:
Run ye to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now, and know, and seek in the broad places thereof, if ye can find a man, if there be any that doeth judgment, that seeketh truth (Jer. 5:1).
Here a “man” evidently denotes one who is intelligent; and also truth. In Zephaniah:
I will make their streets desolate, that none passeth by; their cities shall be devastated, so that there shall be no man; that there shall be no inhabitant (Zeph. 3:6).
“No man” denotes no truth; “no inhabitant,” no good (see above, n. 2268, 2451, 2712, and many other places).
 In the verses which next follow, the preparation is further described-namely, that the light of heaven which is the Lord’s Divine light inflowed into the things that were of the light of the world in His natural man, in order that He might bring out thence the truth which was to be conjoined with good in the rational; thus by the ordinary way. And therefore in order that the Lord might make the human Divine by the ordinary way, He came into the world; that is, it was His will to be born as a man, and to be instructed as a man, and to be reborn as a man; but with the difference that man is reborn of the Lord, whereas the Lord not only regenerated Himself, but also glorified Himself, that is, made Himself Divine; and further, that a man is made new by an influx of charity and faith, but the Lord, by the Divine love which was in Him and which was His. Hence it may be seen that the regeneration of man is an image of the glorification of the Lord; or what is the same, that in the process of the regeneration of man may be seen as in an image, although remotely, the process of the Lord’s glorification.
 This Divine good through Divine truth in the rational, was that which was flowing into the natural man, and was enlightening all things there. The process itself is here described, namely, that at first it flowed in somewhat more remotely, which is meant here by there being “somewhat therefrom,” and that it was not willing to flow in with fuller presence before instruction. For the ordinary way is that instruction must precede, and that influx takes place according to the degrees of instruction; and that truth continually comes into existence thence, which is initiated, and is afterwards conjoined with the good of the rational. From all this it may be seen what is the nature of the arcana that are contained in the internal sense of the Word; and that these arcana are such as to be scarcely apprehended by man even as to their most general things; and yet that they are evident to the angels, together with innumerable particulars which can never be uttered in words.
The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Sweep [prepare] ye the way of Jehovah; make straight in the desert a highway for our God (Isa. 40:3).
In the same:
Cast up, cast up, sweep [prepare] the way, take away the stumbling-block out of the way of My people (Isa. 57:14).
Go through, go through the gates, sweep [prepare] the way of the people; cast up, cast up the highway, gather out the stones (Isa. 62:10).
Behold I send Mine angel, and He shall sweep [prepare] the way before Me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple (Mal. 3:1).
In these passages, to “sweep the way” signifies to make themselves ready and prepare to receive truth. The subject treated of therein is the advent of the Lord, for which they were to prepare themselves for receiving the truth of faith, and thereby the good of charity, and by this eternal salvation.
sRef Luke@11 @24 S3′ sRef Ps@80 @8 S3′ sRef Ps@80 @9 S3′ sRef Luke@11 @25 S3′ sRef Luke@11 @26 S3′  In David:
Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt, Thou didst drive out the nations and plantedst it; Thou didst sweep before it, and didst cause its root to be rooted, and it filled the land (Ps. 80:8-9);
where in the supreme sense the Lord is treated of; the “vine out of Egypt” is truth from memory-knowledges; “driving out the nations” is purifying from evils; “sweeping before it,” is making ready so that goods may fill. In the opposite sense “to sweep the house” is said also of the man who deprives himself of all goods and truths, and thus is filled with evils and falsities; as in Luke:
The unclean spirit, finding no rest, says, I will return into my house whence I came out; and when he is come he findeth it swept and garnished; then goeth he and taketh to him seven other spirits worse than himself, and they enter in and dwell there (Luke 11:24-26; Matt. 12:43-45).
 For good is continually flowing in from the Lord, but when it comes through the internal or spiritual man to his external or natural man, it is there either perverted, turned back, or suffocated. But when the things which are of the love of self and of the love of the world are removed, then good is received there and is made fruitful; for then man practices the works of charity. This is evident from many considerations; as when in misfortune, distress, and sickness, the things that belong to the external or natural man are merely lulled, the man forthwith begins to think piously and to will what is good, and also to practice works of piety insofar as he is able; but when the state is changed, there is a change also in all this.
 These things were signified by the washings in the Ancient Church, and the same were represented in the Jewish Church, The reason why they were signified in the Ancient Church, but represented in the Jewish church, was that the man of the Ancient Church regarded the rite as a something external in worship, and did not believe that he was purified by that washing, but by the washing away of the impurities of the natural man, which as before said are the things which are of the love of self and of the world. But the man of the Jewish Church believed that he was purified by that washing; neither knowing nor desiring to know that the purification of the interiors was signified.
sRef Isa@1 @16 S4′ sRef Jer@4 @14 S4′ sRef Isa@4 @4 S4′  That by “washing” is signified a cleansing from the impurities referred to, is evident in Isaiah:
Wash you, make you clean, put away the evil of your doings from before Mine eyes, cease to do evil (Isa. 1:16);
where it is evident that to “wash themselves” means to make themselves pure and to put away evils. Again:
When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, in the spirit of judgment and in the spirit of expurgation (Isa. 4:4);
where “washing away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and purging the blood of Jerusalem,” denotes purifying from evils and falsities. In Jeremiah:
O Jerusalem, wash thy heart from wickedness, that thou mayest be saved. How long shall the thoughts of thine iniquity lodge within thee? (Jer. 4:14).
sRef Ezek@16 @9 S5′ sRef Ps@51 @7 S5′ sRef Ps@51 @2 S5′  In Ezekiel:
I washed thee with water, and I washed away thy bloods from upon thee, and anointed thee with oil (Jer. 16:9);
concerning Jerusalem, by which is there meant the Ancient Church; “washing with waters” denotes purifying from falsities; “washing away bloods” denotes purging from evils; “anointing with oil” denotes filling then with good. In David:
Wash me from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin. Thou shalt purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; Thou shalt wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow (Ps. 51:2, 7).
Here “being washed” plainly denotes being purified from evils and their falsities.
 These are the things that were signified by “washing” in the representative church; and it was commanded for the sake of the representation that when they had become unclean they should wash the skin, the hands, the feet, and also the garments, and should be cleansed; by all which things were signified those which are of the natural man. Lavers also, of brass, were placed outside the temple, namely, the brazen sea and the ten brazen lavers (1 Kings 7:23-39); and a laver of brass at which Aaron and his sons were to wash was placed between the tent of meeting and the altar; and thus outside the tent (Exod. 30:18, 19, 21); by which also was signified that only external or natural things were to be purified; for unless these have been purified, that is, unless the things that are of the love of self and of the world have been removed, the internal things which are of love to the Lord and toward the neighbor cannot possibly flow in, as before said.
 For the better understanding of how these things are circumstanced, namely, that external things are to be purified, take as an example and illustration good works, or what is the same, the goods of charity which at this day are called the fruits of faith; these are external things, because they are the exercises of charity. Good works are evil works unless those things are removed which are of the love of self and of the world; for when works are done before these have been removed, they indeed appear good outwardly, but are inwardly evil; for they are done either for the sake of reputation, or for gain, or for the sake of one’s honor, or for recompense, thus they are either self-meritorious* or hypocritical; for that which is of the love of self and the world causes the works to be such. But when these evils are removed, the works then become good; and they are goods of charity; that is, in them there is not regard to self, to the world, to reputation, to recompense; thus they are neither self-meritorious nor hypocritical; for then celestial love and spiritual love flow in from the Lord into the works and cause them to be love and charity in act; and then the Lord through these loves also purifies the natural or external man, and disposes it into order, so as to receive correspondently the celestial and spiritual things that flow in.
sRef John@13 @4 S8′ sRef John@13 @7 S8′ sRef John@13 @8 S8′ sRef John@13 @9 S8′ sRef John@13 @5 S8′ sRef John@13 @6 S8′ sRef John@13 @15 S8′ sRef John@13 @17 S8′ sRef John@13 @14 S8′ sRef John@13 @12 S8′ sRef John@13 @13 S8′ sRef John@13 @10 S8′ sRef John@13 @16 S8′ sRef John@13 @11 S8′  This is clearly evident from what the Lord taught when He washed the feet of the disciples, as we read in John:
Then cometh He to Simon Peter; and Peter saith unto Him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet? Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter. Peter saith unto Him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me. Simon Peter saith unto Him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. Jesus saith to him, He that hath been washed, needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit; ye are clean already, but not all (John 13:4-17).
“He that hath been washed, needeth not save to wash his feet” signifies that he who has been reformed, has need only to be cleansed as to natural things, that is, has need that evils and falsities should be removed from them; and then all things are disposed into order by the influx of spiritual things from the Lord. Moreover to wash the feet was an office of charity, as meaning not to reflect on the evils of another; and it was also an office of humility, as meaning to cleanse another from evils as from impurities; as also is evident from the Lord’s words in the passage just quoted (verses 12-17; also Luke 7:37, 38, 44, 46; John 11:2; 1 Sam. 25:41).
 Everybody can see that washing himself does not purify anyone from evils and falsities, but only from the impurities that cling to him; nevertheless, as washing was among the rites commanded in the church, it follows that it involves something special, namely, spiritual washing, that is, purification from the uncleannesses which inwardly adhere to man. Therefore they who knew these things in that church, and thought about the purification of the heart, or the removal of the evils of the love of self and of the love of the world from the natural man, and who endeavored to effect this with all diligence, observed the rite of washing as external worship according to commandment; but those who did not know this and did not desire to know it, but thought that the mere rite of washing their garments, skin, hands, and feet, would purify them, and that provided they did these things they might be allowed to live in avarice, hatreds, revenge, unmercifulness, and cruelties, which are spiritual impurity, practiced this rite as an idolatrous one. Nevertheless they could represent by it, and by representation exhibit something of the church, whereby there might be some conjunction of heaven with man before the Lord’s advent; yet such conjunction as affected the man of the church little or not at all.
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