6777 – 8239

AC (Potts) n. 6777 sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ 6777. And they filled the troughs. That this signifies that from this they enriched the doctrine of charity, is evident from the signification of “filling from a well,” as being to enrich from this, or from the Word; and from the signification of a “trough,” as being the doctrine of charity. That a “trough” or “basin” is the doctrine of charity, is because it is a trough of wood into which water is drawn from a well to give drink to flocks; for what is of “wood” in the internal sense signifies the good of charity (n. 3720); “to draw” signifies to be instructed (n. 3058, 3071); the “water” which is drawn, signifies the truth of faith (n. 2702, 3058, 4976, 5668); the “well” from which it is drawn signifies the Word (n. 2702, 3424, 6774); and “to give drink to the flocks” signifies to instruct in good from the Word (n. 3772). From all this it is evident that a “trough” is the doctrine of charity.

AC (Potts) n. 6778 sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ 6778. To give drink to their father’s flock. That this signifies that thereby they who were in good were instructed, is evident from the signification of “to give to drink,” as being to instruct (n. 3772); from the signification of “flock,” as being those who learn and are led to the good of charity (n. 343, 3772, 5913, 6048); and from the representation of Reuel, who is here the “father,” and who was a “priest,” as being the good of that church where are they who are in the truth of simple good (of which above, n. 6773, 6775).

AC (Potts) n. 6779 sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ 6779. And the shepherds came, and drove them away. That this signifies that the teachers who were in evils set themselves in opposition, is evident from the signification of “shepherds,” as being those who teach and lead to the good of charity (see n. 343, 3795, 6044), here those who teach, but as they are in evils do not lead to the good of charity (of which hereafter); from the signification of “driving away,” as being to set themselves against; and from the signification of “daughters,” who are those whom they drove away, as being the things of the church (of which above, n. 6775). By “shepherds” are here indeed signified those who teach, but who do not lead to the good of charity, because they are in evils. For those who are in evils never acknowledge that charity and its works contribute to salvation, because they cannot acknowledge what is contrary to their life, as this would be contrary to themselves. And because they are in evils, they do not even know what charity is, nor therefore what the works of charity are. They teach faith; by this they justify; and by it they promise heaven. These are they who set themselves against the doctrine of charity which is from the Word, consequently against those who are in the truth of simple good, who are signified by the “daughters of the priest of Midian,” whom the shepherds drove away from the well, after they had drawn and filled the troughs to give drink to the flock.

AC (Potts) n. 6780 sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ 6780. And Moses stood up and helped them. That this signifies aid from the truths which are of the law from the Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth which is of the law from the Divine (of which above n. 6771); and from the signification of “helping,” as being to bring aid.

AC (Potts) n. 6781 sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ 6781. And he gave drink to their flock. That this signifies that from this they who were in good were instructed, is evident from the signification of “to give to drink,” as being to instruct (see n. 3069, 3092, 3772); and from the signification of a “flock,” as being those who learn and are led to the good of charity (n. 343, 3772, 5913, 6048); thus those who are in good.

AC (Potts) n. 6782 sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ 6782. And they came to Reuel their father. That this signifies conjunction with the good itself of that church, is evident from the signification of “coming to” anyone as being to be conjoined; and from the representation of Reuel, as being good, because he was a priest. (That a “priest” is the good of love, see n. 1728, 3670, 6148.) The conjunction which is here signified, is that of the truths of the church with its good.

AC (Potts) n. 6783 sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ 6783. And he said, Wherefore hasted ye to come today? That this signifies perception that now conjunction was sure, is evident from the signification of “saying,” in the historicals of the Word, as being perception (of which often above); and from the signification of “hasting to come,” as being sure conjunction. (That “to hasten” denotes what is sure, see n. 5284; and that “to come” is conjunction, n. 6782.) Here sure conjunction is not meant by the daughters hasting to come to their father, but by the truth which is of the law from the Divine, which is represented by Moses: this is what was perceived.

AC (Potts) n. 6784 sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ 6784. And they said, An Egyptian man delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds. That this signifies because true memory-knowledge, which was adjoined to the church, prevailed over the power of the doctrine of falsity from evil, is evident from the signification of “an Egyptian man,” as being true memory-knowledge; for by a “man” is signified truth (n. 3134), and by an “Egyptian” memory-knowledge (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 4749, 4964, 4966, 4967, 5700, 6004, 6692). That Moses is here called “an Egyptian man,” is because by Moses is here represented truth such as they have who are in truth of simple good, which is signified by the “daughters of the priest of Midian.” They are in such truth because they are men of the external church (n. 6775); therefore also it is said, “true memory-knowledge which was adjoined to the church.” And from the signification of “delivering from the hand of the shepherds,” as being that true memory-knowledge prevailed over the power of falsity from evil; for “to deliver” is to prevail, because he who delivers out of the hand of others, prevails over them. (The “hand” is power, n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 5544; and “shepherds” are teachers, here teachers of falsity from evil, n. 6779; and because they are teachers, they are also such doctrine.)
[2] That true memory-knowledge prevails over the power of the doctrine of falsity from evil, is because the Divine is in all truth from good, whereas in falsity from evil there is the contrary, and what is contrary to the Divine does not prevail at all. Therefore in the other life a thousand who are in falsity from evil prevail not at all against one who is in truth from good; but at the presence of this one the thousand flee, and if they do not flee they are tortured and tormented. It is said falsity from evil, because this is truly falsity, whereas falsity not from evil, but from ignorance of the truth, is not so. Evil is that which is opposite to heaven, but not falsity from ignorance; nay, if in the ignorance there is anything of innocence, then this falsity is accepted by the Lord as truth; for they who are in such falsity receive truth.

AC (Potts) n. 6785 sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ 6785. And also drawing he drew for us. That this signifies that he instructed from the Word, is evident from the signification of “drawing,” as being to instruct in the truths of faith, and to be enlightened (see n. 3058, 3071). That it was from the Word, is signified by the “well” from which they drew (that a “well” is the Word, see n. 6774).

AC (Potts) n. 6786 sRef Ex@2 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @18 S0′ 6786. And gave drink to the flock. That this signifies those who are of the church there, is evident from the signification of “flock,” as being those who are in good, and who suffer themselves to be instructed (see n. 343, 3772, 5913, 6048); here those who are of the church there, who, as was shown above, are they who are in the truth of simple good, and are signified by “Midian.” “Flock” signifies both good, and the church, that is, those who are in good and are of the church, because the two are so conjoined that one cannot be separated from the other; for he who is in the good of faith is a church, and he who is a church is in the good of faith.

AC (Potts) n. 6787 sRef Ex@2 @22 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @21 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @20 S0′ 6787. Verses 20-22. And he said unto his daughters, And where is he? Why is this that ye have left the man? Call him, that he may eat bread. And Moses was willing to dwell with the man; and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter. And she bare a son, and he called his name Gershom; for he said, I have been a sojourner in a strange land. “And he said unto his daughters,” signifies thought concerning the holy things of the church; “and where is he? Why is this that ye have left the man?” signifies how without that truth could they be conjoined with the good of the church; “call him,” signifies that it must be conjoined; “that he may eat bread,” signifies confirmation in good; “and Moses was willing to dwell with the man,” signifies that they were in agreement; “and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter,” signifies that he adjoined to it the good of his church; “and she bare a son,” signifies truths thence; “and he called his name Gershom,” signifies their quality; “for he said, I have been a sojourner in a strange land,” signifies that he was instructed in truths in a church not his own.

AC (Potts) n. 6788 sRef John@14 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@2 @20 S0′ sRef John@16 @15 S0′ sRef John@14 @26 S0′ sRef John@16 @13 S0′ sRef John@16 @14 S0′ sRef John@15 @26 S0′ sRef John@14 @16 S0′ 6788. And he said unto his daughters. That this signifies thought concerning the holy things of the church, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being thought (see n. 3395); and from the signification of “daughters,” as being the holy things of the church (n. 6775). The holy things which are here signified by “daughters” are truths. In the Word these are called “holy,” by reason that the truths which with man become truths of faith, are from good; and because that which proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human is Divine truth from Divine good. Hence it is that the “Holy Spirit” is the holy which proceeds from the Lord; for the Spirit itself does not proceed, but the holy which the Spirit speaks, as everyone can understand who considers the matter. That the Holy Spirit, which is also called the “Paraclete,” is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Human, and that the holy is predicated of the Divine truth, is evident from the Lord’s words in John:
I will ask the Father that He shall give you another Paraclete, that He may abide with you forever; even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him. The Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He shall teach you all things, and shall remind you of all things which I have said unto you (John 14:16-17, 26).
When the Paraclete is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, who goeth out from the Father, He shall testify of Me (John 15:26).
When He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He shall lead you into all truth; He shall not speak from Himself, but what things soever He shall hear, He shall speak. He shall glorify Me; for He shall take of Mine, and shall declare it unto you. All things whatsoever the Father hath are Mine; therefore said I, that He shall take of Mine, and shall declare it unto you (John 16:13-15).
If these passages are collated with many others, it can be understood that the Holy Spirit is the holy which proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human; for the Lord says, “Whom the Father shall send in My name;” also, “Whom I will send unto you from the Father;” and further, “He shall take of Mine and declare it unto you; all things that the Father hath are Mine, therefore said I, that He shall take of Mine, and shall declare it unto you.” It is also evident that the holy is predicated of truth, for the Paraclete is called the “Spirit of truth.”

AC (Potts) n. 6789 sRef Ex@2 @20 S0′ 6789. And where is he? Why is this that ye have left the man? That this signifies how without that truth could they be conjoined with the good of the church, is evident from the signification of an “Egyptian,” who is here “the man whom they had left,” as being true memory-knowledge (see n. 6784); and from the signification of “why is this that ye have left the man?” as being how without that truth could they be conjoined with good, for “to leave the man” here denotes not to be able to be conjoined.
[2] How the case herein is, shall be told. True memory-knowledge, which is here represented by Moses, is the truth of the external church; this truth arises from the truth which is of the law from the Divine, which truth also is “Moses” (n. 6771, 6780), and the truth which is of the law from the Divine is the truth of the internal church. Unless external truth is from internal truth, it cannot be conjoined with good. Take the Word as an illustration. Unless the internal of the Word flows in with those who read the Word and abide in the literal sense, no conjunction is effected of truth from the Word with good; and the internal of the Word flows in and is conjoined with good when the man esteems the Word holy; and he esteems it holy when he is in good.
[3] Take as another illustration the Holy Supper. Scarcely any know that the “bread” therein signifies the Lord’s love toward the universal human race, and the reciprocity of man; and that the “wine” signifies charity. Nevertheless, with those who receive the bread and wine holily, conjunction is effected with heaven and with the Lord through these; and the goods of love and charity flow in through the angels, who then do not think of bread and wine, but of love and charity (n. 3464, 3735, 5915). Hence it is evident that external truth is conjoined with internal truth when the man is in good, without his knowing it.

AC (Potts) n. 6790 sRef Ex@2 @20 S0′ 6790. Call him. That this signifies that it should be conjoined, is evident from the signification of “calling,” as being to be conjoined (see n. 6047).

AC (Potts) n. 6791 sRef Ex@2 @20 S0′ 6791. That he may eat bread. That this signifies confirmation in good, is evident from the signification of “bread,” as being the good of love (see n. 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735). That “to eat bread” denotes confirmation in good, is because by “eating” is here meant an eating together, which in the Word is called a “feast.” Eating together or feasts took place among the ancients within the church for the sake of conjunction, and of confirmation in good (see n. 3596, 3832, 5161).

AC (Potts) n. 6792 sRef Ex@2 @21 S0′ 6792. And Moses was willing to dwell with the man. That this signifies that they were in agreement, is evident from the representation of Moses, as here being true memory-knowledge (of which above, n. 6784); from the signification of “dwelling,” as being to live (n. 1293, 3384, 3613), and of “dwelling with” anyone as being to live together (n. 4451), consequently to be in agreement; and from the signification of a “man,” as being the truth of the good of that church. (That a “man” is truth, see n. 3134.)

AC (Potts) n. 6793 sRef Ex@2 @21 S0′ 6793. And he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter. That this signifies that he adjoined to it the good of his church, is evident from the signification of “giving,” namely, to wife, as being to adjoin; from the signification of “daughter,” as being good (see n. 489-491), and also the church (n. 2362, 3963, 6729), “Zipporah” signifying the quality of the good of that church; and from the representation of Moses, as being true memory-knowledge (n. 6784).

AC (Potts) n. 6794 sRef Ex@2 @22 S0′ 6794. And she bare a son. That this signifies truths thence derived, is evident from the signification of “bearing,” as being said of the things of the church, which are faith and charity, these births springing from the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth, which marriage is represented by marriages on earth; and from the signification of a “son,” as being truth (see n. 489, 491, 533, 2623, 3373).

AC (Potts) n. 6795 sRef Ex@2 @22 S0′ 6795. And he called his name Gershom. That this signifies the quality thereof, namely, of truths, is evident from the signification of a “name,” and of “calling by name,” as being the quality (see n. 144, 145, 1754, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421, 6674). The name “Gershom” involves the quality of these truths, namely, that they are those in which he was instructed in a church not his own, as now follows.

AC (Potts) n. 6796 sRef Ex@2 @22 S0′ 6796. For he said, I have been a sojourner in a strange land. That this signifies that he was instructed in truths in a church not his own, is evident from the signification of “to be a sojourner,” as being one who is instructed in the things of the church; and from the signification of “land,” as being the church (see n. 662, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577); hence “a strange land” is a church not one’s own.

AC (Potts) n. 6797 sRef Ex@2 @22 S0′ 6797. Verses 23-25. And it came to pass in these many days that the king of Egypt died, and the sons of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried, and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered His covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. And God saw the sons of Israel, and God took knowledge. “And it came to pass in these many days,” signifies after many changes of state; “that the king of Egypt died,” signifies the end of the former falsity; “and the sons of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage,” signified sorrow on account of the attempt to subjugate the truth of the church; “and they cried,” signifies entreaty; “and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage,” signifies that they were heard; “and God heard their groaning,” signifies aid; “and God remembered His covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob,” signifies by reason of conjunction with the church through the Lord’s Divine Human; “and God saw the sons of Israel,” signifies that He endowed the church with faith; “and God took knowledge,” signifies that He endowed with charity.

AC (Potts) n. 6798 sRef Ex@2 @23 S0′ 6798. And it came to pass in these many days. That this signifies after many changes of state, is evident from the signification of “days,” as being states (see n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850); thus “came to pass in many days” denotes after many states, that is, after many changes of state.

AC (Potts) n. 6799 sRef Ex@2 @23 S0′ 6799. That the king of Egypt died. That this signifies the end of the former falsity, is evident from the signification of “dying,” as being to cease to be (see n. 494, 6587, 6593), thus the end; and from the representation of Pharaoh, or the king of Egypt, as being false memory-knowledge (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692).

AC (Potts) n. 6800 sRef Ex@2 @23 S0′ 6800. And the sons of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage. That this signifies sorrow by reason of the attempt to subjugate the truth of the church, is evident from the signification of “sighing,” as being sorrow; from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being the truths of the church (see n. 5414, 5879, 5951); and from the signification of “bondage,” as being an attempt to subjugate (n. 6666, 6670, 6671).

AC (Potts) n. 6801 sRef Ex@2 @23 S0′ 6801. And they cried. That this signifies entreaty, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 6802 sRef Ex@2 @23 S0′ 6802. And their cry came up unto God by reason of their bondage. That this signifies that they were heard, is also evident without explication, for the statement follows that “God heard their groaning, and remembered His covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.”

AC (Potts) n. 6803 sRef Ex@2 @24 S0′ 6803. And God heard their groaning. That this signifies aid, is evident from the signification of “to hear,” as being to obey (see n. 2542, 3869, 4652-4660, 5017), but when said of the Lord it denotes to provide and bring aid, for the Lord hears him to whom He brings aid; and from the signification of “groaning,” as being sorrow by reason of the attempt to subjugate by falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 6804 sRef Ex@2 @24 S0′ 6804. And God remembered His covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. That this signifies by reason of conjunction with the church through the Lord’s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of “covenant,” as being conjunction (of which in what follows); and from the representation of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, with whom a covenant was made, as being the Lord’s Divine Human. (That Abraham represents the Lord as to the Divine Itself, Isaac as to the Divine rational, and Jacob as to the Divine natural, see n. 1893, 2011, 2066, 2072, 2083, 2630, 3194, 3210, 3245, 3251, 3305, 3439, 3576, 3599, 3704, 4180, 4286, 4538, 4570, 4615, 6098, 6185, 6276, 6425.) That where mention is made of “Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” in the Word, in the spiritual sense these men are not meant, can be seen from the fact that names never penetrate into heaven, but only what is signified by those who are named, thus the things themselves, their quality and their states, which are of the church and of the Lord’s kingdom, and which are of the Lord Himself.
sRef Luke@16 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@8 @11 S2′ [2] And moreover the angels in heaven never determine their thoughts to the individual persons, for this would be to limit the thoughts, and to withdraw them from the universal perception of the things, from which is angelic speech. Hence what the angels speak in heaven is unutterable to man, and far above his thought, which is not extended to universals, but confined to particulars. When therefore we read this:
Many shall come from the east and the west, and shall recline with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of the heavens (Matt. 8:11);
the angels perceive the Lord’s presence and the appropriation of the truth and good which proceed from His Divine Human. Also when we read that
Lazarus was taken up into Abraham’s bosom (Luke 16:22);
the angels perceive that he was taken up into heaven where the Lord is present. Hence also it can be seen that by the “covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” in the internal sense is meant conjunction through the Lord’s Divine Human.
sRef Isa@42 @6 S3′ sRef 2Sam@23 @5 S3′ sRef Mal@3 @1 S3′ sRef Isa@55 @4 S3′ sRef Isa@55 @3 S3′ sRef Isa@49 @8 S3′ [3] That the Divine Human is a “covenant,” that is, conjunction itself, can be seen from many passages in the Word, as:
I will give Thee for a covenant to the people, for a light of the nations (Isa. 42:6).
I gave Thee for a covenant of the people, to restore the land, to divide the wasted heritages (Isa. 49:8).
Incline your ear, and come unto Me; hear and your soul shall live; so will I make a covenant of eternity with you, even the sure mercies of David. Behold I have given Him for a witness to the peoples, a prince and a lawgiver to the nations (Isa. 55:3, 4).
The Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple; and the Angel of the covenant whom ye desire, behold He cometh (Mal. 3:1).
He hath put for Me a covenant of eternity, to be disposed for all and to be kept (2 Sam. 23:5).
aRef Hebr@9 @15 S4′ aRef 1Tim@2 @5 S4′ aRef Gala@3 @19 S4′ aRef Hebr@8 @6 S4′ aRef Hebr@12 @24 S4′ aRef Gala@3 @20 S4′ [4] In these passages the Lord is plainly treated of, and the conjunction of the human race with the Divine Itself of the Lord through His Divine Human. It is known in the church that the Lord as to the Divine Human is the Mediator, and that no one can come to the Divine Itself, which is in the Lord and is called the Father, except through the Son, that is, through the Divine Human. Thus the Lord as to the Divine Human is the conjunction. Who can comprehend the Divine Itself by any thought? And if he cannot comprehend it in thought, who can be conjoined with it in love? But everyone can comprehend the Divine Human in thought, and be conjoined with it in love.
[5] That a “covenant” denotes conjunction can be seen from the covenants made between kingdoms, and that by these they are joined together; and that there are stipulations on each side, which are to be kept, in order that the conjunction may be inviolate. These stipulations or compacts are also called a “covenant.” The stipulations or compacts which in the Word are called a “covenant” are on the part of man, in a close sense, the ten commandments, or Decalogue; in a wider sense they are all the statutes, commandments, laws, testimonies, precepts, which the Lord enjoined from Mount Sinai through Moses; and in a sense still more wide they are the books of Moses, the contents of which were to be observed on the part of the sons of Israel. On the part of the Lord the “covenant” is mercy and election.
sRef Deut@4 @23 S6′ sRef Rev@11 @19 S6′ sRef Deut@4 @13 S6′ sRef 1Ki@8 @21 S6′ [6] That the ten commandments or Decalogue are a “covenant” is evident from the following passages:
Jehovah hath told you His covenant, which He commanded you to do, the ten words which He wrote on two tables of stone (Deut. 4:13, 23).
And because the two tables of stone, on which the ten commandments were written, were stored up in the ark (Exod. 25:16, 21, 22; 31:18; 32:15, 16, 19; 40:20), therefore the ark was called the “ark of the covenant” (Deut. 31:9, 24-26; Josh. 3:3, 6, 14; 4:7; Judg. 20:27; 2 Sam. 15:24; 1 Kings 8:21). In the last passage cited, Solomon thus speaks:
There I have set a place for the ark, wherein is the covenant of Jehovah which He made with our fathers (1 Kings 8:21).
And in John:
The temple of God was opened in heaven; and there was seen in His temple the ark of His covenant (Rev. 11:19).
sRef Ps@132 @12 S7′ [7] That all the judgments and statutes which the Lord commanded through Moses to the people of Israel, were called the “covenant,” as were also the books of Moses themselves, is evident from the following passages:
After the mouth of these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel (Exod. 34:27);
the things which are here called a “covenant” were the many in regard to sacrifices, feasts, and unleavened bread.
Moses took the book of the covenant, and read in the ears of the people, who said, All that Jehovah hath spoken we will do and hear (Exod. 24:7-8).
Josiah, king of Judah, in the house of Jehovah in the presence of them all read the words of the book of the covenant that was found in the house of Jehovah. And he made a covenant before Jehovah, to establish the words of the covenant written in that book; and all the people stood to the covenant. The king commanded all the people that they should perform the passover to Jehovah God, as it is written in this book of the covenant (2 Kings 23:2-3, 21).
If thy sons will keep My covenant and My testimony that I have taught them, their sons also shall sit on thy throne forevermore (Ps. 132:12).
sRef Jer@32 @40 S8′ sRef Jer@31 @31 S8′ sRef Jer@31 @32 S8′ sRef Jer@31 @33 S8′ [8] That a “covenant” denotes conjunction through love and faith is evident from these passages:
Behold the days come, said Jehovah, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah; not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers, because they rendered My covenant vain; but this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days: I will put My law in the midst of them, and I will write it on their heart; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people (Jer. 31:31-33);
“to put a law in the midst of them, and to write it on their heart” is to endow with faith and charity; through faith and charity the conjunction is made which is described by the words, “I will be their God, and they shall be My people.”
I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will no more turn away from them; and I will do well to them; and I will put My fear in their heart, that they shall not depart from Me (Jer. 32:40);
conjunction through love, which is the “covenant,” is signified by, “I will put My fear in their heart, that they shall not depart from Me.”
sRef Ezek@37 @27 S9′ sRef Ezek@16 @8 S9′ sRef Ps@89 @3 S9′ sRef Ezek@37 @26 S9′ [9] In Ezekiel:
I will make a covenant of peace with them, a covenant of eternity it shall be with them; and I will give them, and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them; and My habitation shall be with them, and I will be their God, and they shall be My people (Ezek. 37:26-27);
here conjunction through love and faith, which are a “covenant,” is described by “a sanctuary in the midst of them,” and by “a habitation with them,” and by the words, “I will be their God, and they shall be My people.”
When I passed by thee, and saw thee, that behold it was thy time, the time of loves, and I entered into a covenant with thee, that thou shouldest be Mine (Ezek. 16:8);
speaking of Jerusalem, whereby is signified the Ancient Church; that “to enter into a covenant that thou shouldest be Mine” is marriage, or spiritual conjunction, is plain. As a “covenant” signifies conjunction, a wife is also called “a wife of the covenant” (Mal. 2:14); and conjunction among brethren is called “the covenant of brethren” (Amos 1:9). By “covenant” is also signified conjunction in David:
I have made a covenant with My chosen, I have sworn to David My servant (Ps. 89:3).
sRef Deut@7 @12 S10′ sRef Ps@25 @10 S10′ sRef Lev@24 @9 S10′ sRef Lev@24 @8 S10′ sRef Ex@19 @5 S10′ sRef Deut@7 @9 S10′ sRef Isa@54 @10 S10′ sRef Lev@26 @9 S10′ [10] That the compact of a covenant on the part of the Lord is mercy and election, is evident in these passages:
All the ways of Jehovah are mercy and truth to such as keep His covenant and His testimonies (Ps. 25:10).
The mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed; but My mercy shall not depart, and the covenant of My peace shall not be removed, saith thy compassionate One, Jehovah (Isa. 54:10).
Jehovah thy God, He is God, the faithful God, keeping covenant and mercy with them that love Him, and that keep His commandments, to the thousandth generation (Deut. 7:9, 12).
If ye will keep My covenant, ye shall be unto Me for a peculiar treasure from all peoples (Exod. 19:5),
I will have respect unto you, and make you fruitful, and multiply you, and will establish My covenant with you (Lev. 26:9);
“to have respect unto them” is of mercy; “to make them fruitful and multiply them” is to endow them with charity and faith; they who are endowed with these gifts are called the “elect;” so that these are words of election; and also the words “they shall be for a peculiar treasure.”
sRef Zech@9 @11 S11′ [11] Signs of a covenant existed also in the representative church, and were such as reminded of conjunction. Circumcision was such a sign (Gen. 17:11); for “circumcision” signified purification from filthy loves, on the removal of which, heavenly love is instilled, through which is conjunction. The Sabbath is also called “an eternal covenant” (Exod. 31:16). It is said also that “the show-bread should be to the sons of Israel for an eternal covenant” (Lev. 24:8) and especially the “blood”, as is evident from these passages:
Moses took the book of the covenant, and read in the ears of the people, who said, All that Jehovah hath spoken we will do and hear; then Moses took the blood of the peace sacrifice, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant which Jehovah hath made with you over all these words (Exod. 24:7-8),
By the blood of Thy covenant I will send forth the bound out of the pit wherein is no water (Zech. 9:11 ).
Blood was a covenant, or the token of a covenant, because it signified conjunction through spiritual love, that is, through charity toward the neighbor; therefore when the Lord instituted the Holy Supper, He called His blood the “blood of the new covenant” (Matt. 26:28). From all this it can now be seen what is meant by a “covenant” in the Word in the internal sense.

AC (Potts) n. 6805 sRef Ex@2 @25 S0′ 6805. And God saw the sons of Israel. That this signifies that He endowed the church with faith, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to have faith (see n. 897, 2325, 2807, 3863, 3869, 4403-4421, 5400); hence “God saw” denotes to endow with faith, for faith is from God; and from the signification of the “sons of Israel,” as being the church (n. 6637).

AC (Potts) n. 6806 sRef Ex@2 @25 S0′ 6806. And God took knowledge. That this signifies that He endowed with charity, is evident from the signification of “knowing,” when predicated of God, that is, of the Lord, as being to endow with charity; for it is charity which conjoins the Lord with man, and causes the Lord to be present with him, consequently to know him. The Lord indeed knows all in the universe, but not as a father his sons except those who are in the good of love and charity.
sRef Matt@25 @12 S2′ sRef Matt@25 @11 S2′ sRef Matt@7 @23 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @27 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @26 S2′ sRef John@10 @27 S2′ sRef John@10 @14 S2′ sRef Matt@7 @22 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @25 S2′ [2] Therefore the Lord says of those who are in good, whom He calls His “sheep”:
I am the good shepherd, and I know Mine own, and I am known of Mine. My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me (John 10:14, 27).
But of those who are in evil, the Lord says that He “does not know them,” in these passages:
Many will say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied through Thy name, and through Thy name have cast out demons, and in Thy name done many mighty deeds? But then will I confess to them, I know you not: depart from Me, ye workers of iniquity (Matt. 7:22-23).
At last came also the other virgins saying. Lord, Lord, open to us. But He answering said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not (Matt. 25:11-12).
When once the master of the house hath risen up, and hath shut to the door, then will ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us; but He shall answer and say to you, I know you not whence ye are; then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in Thy presence, and Thou hast taught in our streets; but He shall say, I say to you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from Me, all ye workers of iniquity (Luke 13:25-27).
Hence it is plain that “to be known,” when said of the Lord, is to be in the good of charity, that is, to be endowed with that good, because all the good of charity comes from the Lord; and that “not to be known” is to be in evil.
[3] “To know” involves conjunction, and man is said to be “known” by the Lord insofar as he is conjoined with Him. The Lord also knows those who are not conjoined, nay, the very smallest particulars in every such man (John 2:24, 25); but these men, being in evil, are in a different kind of presence, which is as it were absence; although the Lord is not absent, but the man and the spirit who is in evil is he who is absent; and then it is said that the Lord “does not know” them. An image of this condition appears among angels and spirits; they who are alike as to states of life appear near each other, and thus mutually know each other; but they who are unlike as to states of life, appear to each other to be far away, nor do they know each other in the same way. In a word, in the other life likeness of state causes people to appear present, and to be known; and unlikeness of state causes them to appear absent, and not to be known.

AC (Potts) n. 6807 6807. On the spirits of the planet Mercury.
That the universal heaven bears relation to a man, which has been called the Grand Man, and that each and all things in man, both his exteriors and his interiors, correspond to that man, or to heaven, has been shown at the close of many chapters. But they who come into the other life from this earth, being relatively few, are not sufficient to constitute this Grand Man: there must be others from many other earths; and it is provided by the Lord that as soon as the nature or the amount of the correspondence is lacking anywhere, there shall be straight-way summoned from some earth those who will make up the deficiency, in order that the proportion may be maintained, and that in this way heaven may stand firm.

AC (Potts) n. 6808 6808. What the spirits of the planet Mercury bear relation to in the Grand Man, has also been disclosed to me from heaven, namely, the memory, but the memory of things that are abstracted from what is earthly and merely material. But as it has been given me to speak with them, and this for many weeks, and to learn their quality, and to explore the condition of those who are in that earth, I would present the actual experiences.

AC (Potts) n. 6809 6809. They once came to me and searched the things in my memory. (Spirits can do this with the utmost skill; for when they come to a man, they see in his memory everything he knows.) When therefore the spirits of Mercury searched out various things, and among others the cities and places where I had been, I observed that they did not wish to know about the churches, palaces, houses, and streets; but only what I knew to have been done in these places, and also matters relating to the government there, and to the genius and manners of the inhabitants, with other things like these; for such things cling to the places that are in man’s memory, and therefore when the places are excited, these other things also come up. I wondered at this character of the spirits of Mercury, and I therefore asked why they passed by the magnificent features of the places, and only searched out the facts and doings there? They said they have no delight in looking at material, bodily, and earthly things, but only at real ones. From this it at once appeared that the spirits of that earth relate in the Grand Man to the memory of real things when abstracted from things material and earthly.

AC (Potts) n. 6810 6810. I have been told that their life in their own earth is of the same character, namely, that they care nothing for earthly and bodily things; but only for the statutes, laws, and governments of the nations there, and also for the things of heaven, which are innumerable. And I was further told that many of the men of that earth speak with spirits, and from this have knowledges of spiritual realities, and of the states of life after death, and from this also they have contempt for bodily and earthly things. For they who know with certainty and believe in a life after death, care for heavenly things, as being eternal and happy, and not for worldly things except insofar as the necessities of life require.

AC (Potts) n. 6811 6811. With what eagerness they search out and learn knowledges, such as are in the memory that is raised above the sensuous things of the body, was made evident to me from the fact that when they looked into what I knew about heavenly things, they ran over them all, continually saying, “That is so-and-so, that is so-and-so.” For when spirits come to a man, they enter into all his memory, and excite from it all that is suited to themselves; nay, as I have often observed, they read its contents as from a book. The spirits of Mercury did this with greater skill and quickness, because they looked at the real things themselves, and did not delay over such things as are slow, and which confine and consequently retard the internal sight, as do all earthly and bodily things when regarded as an end, that is, when loved in an extraordinary degree. For realities to which earthly things do not adhere bear the mind upward, thus into a wide field; whereas merely material things bear the mind downward, thus into a narrow one. Their eagerness to acquire knowledges also became evident in the following manner. Once when I was writing something about the future, and they were at a distance, so that they could not look at it from my memory, they were very indignant because I would not read it in their presence, and contrary to their usual behavior they desired to upbraid me, calling me the worst of men, and so forth; and in order to show their anger they induced a kind of contraction on the right side of my head as far as the ear, that was attended with pain. But such things did me no harm. But as the spirits had done evil they went still further off, and yet they waited; because they wanted to know what I had written about the future. Such is their desire for knowledges.

AC (Potts) n. 6812 6812. Above all other spirits the spirits of Mercury possess knowledges of real things, both of those within this solar system, and also of those which are beyond it in the starry heaven; and what they have once acquired they retain, and also recall, as often as like things occur. This shows very plainly that the memory of spirits is much more perfect than that of men, and also that what spirits hear, see, and perceive, they retain, especially such things as delight them, as the knowledges of real things delight these spirits. For all things that cause delight and love, flow in as it were spontaneously, and remain; other things do not enter, but only touch the surface and pass by.

AC (Potts) n. 6813 6813. When the spirits of Mercury come to other societies, they search out from them what they know, and as soon as they have done this they depart. There is such a communication among spirits that when they are in a society, if they are accepted and loved, all things which they know are communicated, and this not by any speech, but by influx. By reason of their knowledges the spirits of Mercury are more conceited than others, and they were therefore told that although they know innumerable things, still there are infinite things which they do not know; and that if their knowledges should increase to eternity, they would not attain even to a knowledge of generals. They were told also of their conceit and elation of mind, and how unbecoming this is; but they answered that it is not conceit, but only a glorying in their faculty of memory. In this way they can excuse their faults.

AC (Potts) n. 6814 6814. They are averse to verbal speech because it is material, and therefore I could talk with them no otherwise than by a kind of active thought. Their memory, being of real things, and not of purely material images, supplies the thought with its objects more closely; for the thought which is above the imagination requires for its objects things abstracted from what is material. But in spite of this, the spirits of Mercury excel but little in the faculty of judgment. They are not delighted with matters that belong to judgment and to conclusions from thoughts; for bare knowledges are their delight.

AC (Potts) n. 6815 6815. I was allowed to insinuate the question whether they did not desire to perform some use by virtue of their knowledges; because it is not sufficient to be delighted with knowledges, seeing that knowledges look to uses, and uses must be the ends. From knowledges alone, I told them, there is no use to them, but only to others to whom they may desire to communicate their knowledges; and it is by no means proper for a man who desires to be wise, to halt in knowledges alone, because these are only instrumental causes, intended to serve in the search for uses, which must be of the life. But they answered that they are delighted with knowledges, and that to them knowledges are uses.

AC (Potts) n. 6816 6816. The spirits of Mercury are quite different from the spirits of our earth, for the spirits of our earth care not so much for real things as for material, worldly, bodily, and earthly things. Therefore the spirits of Mercury cannot be together with the spirits of our earth, and so whenever they meet them they flee away; for the spiritual spheres which exhale from the two are almost opposite. The spirits of Mercury have a saying, that they love what is drawn out from things material, and that they do not desire to look at the sheath, but at things stripped of their sheath, thus at interior things.

AC (Potts) n. 6817 6817. The subject of the spirits of the planet Mercury will be continued at the end of the following chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 6818 6818. Exodus 3

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

With respect to the Neighbor, more must be said, because without knowing who the neighbor is, no one can know in what way charity must be practiced.
In the preface to the preceding chapter it was said that every man is the neighbor, but not one in like manner as another; and that he who is in good is more the neighbor than others, thus that it is the good in a man which is to be loved; for when good is loved, the Lord is loved, because it is the Lord from whom is good, who is in good, and who is good itself.

AC (Potts) n. 6819 6819. But not only is man in the singular the neighbor, but also man in the plural. For a society, smaller or greater, is the neighbor; our country is the neighbor; the church is the neighbor; the Lord’s kingdom is the neighbor; and so above all is the Lord. All these are the neighbor who is to be benefited from charity. These also are ascending degrees of the neighbor; for a society of many is the neighbor in a higher degree than is an individual man; our country in a higher degree than a society; in a still higher degree the church; and in a still higher degree the Lord’s kingdom; but in the highest degree the Lord is the neighbor. These ascending degrees are like the steps of a ladder, at the top of which is the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 6820 6820. A society is more a neighbor than an individual man, because it consists of many. Charity is to be practiced toward it in like manner as toward an individual man, namely, according to the quality of good in it; thus quite differently toward a society of the upright, from the way in which it is to be practiced toward a society of those who are not upright.

AC (Potts) n. 6821 6821. Our country is more the neighbor than a society, because it is like a parent; for there the man has been born; it nourishes him, and protects him from harm. Our country is to be benefited from love, according to its necessities, which chiefly regard its sustenance, its civil life, and its spiritual life. He who loves his country, and from good will benefits it, in the other life loves the Lord’s kingdom; for there the Lord’s kingdom is his country. And he who loves the Lord’s kingdom, loves the Lord, because the Lord is the all in all of His kingdom; for what is properly called “the Lord’s kingdom” is the good and truth from the Lord in those who are in it.

AC (Potts) n. 6822 6822. The church is more the neighbor than our country, because he who has regard for the church, has regard also for the souls and eternal life of the men who are in the country. And the church is cared for when man is led to good, and he who does this from charity, loves the neighbor, for he desires and wills for another, heaven and happiness of life to eternity. Good can be instilled into another by anyone in his country, but not truth, except by those who are teaching ministers; if others do this, heresies arise, and the church is disturbed and rent asunder. Charity is practiced, if through the truth which is of the church, the neighbor is led to good. If in the church anything is called truth which leads away from good, this is not worthy of mention, for it is not truth. Everyone must first obtain for himself truth from the doctrine of the church, and afterward from the Word of the Lord; this must be the truth of his faith.

AC (Potts) n. 6823 6823. The Lord’s kingdom is the neighbor in a higher degree than the church in which one is born; for the Lord’s kingdom consists of all who are in good, both on earth and in the heavens; thus the Lord’s kingdom is good with every quality of it in the complex; and when this good is loved, everyone who is in good is loved. Thus the whole, which is all good in the complex, is the neighbor in the first degree, and is that Grand Man which has been treated of at the end of many chapters, which Man is a representative image of the Lord Himself. This Man, that is, the Lord’s kingdom, is loved, when from inmost affection those are benefited who are men through that man from the Lord, thus with whom is the Lord’s kingdom.

AC (Potts) n. 6824 6824. These are the degrees of the neighbor, and according to these degrees charity ascends; but these are degrees in successive order, in which a prior or higher degree is always preferred to a posterior or lower one; and as the Lord is in the highest, and He is to be regarded in every degree as the end to which each tends, therefore He is above all, and is to be loved above all things.

EXODUS 3

1. And Moses was feeding the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock behind the wilderness, and came unto the mountain of God, to Horeb.
2. And the angel of Jehovah was seen by him in a flame of fire out of the midst of the bramble; and he saw, and behold the bramble burned with fire, and the bramble was in no wise consumed.
3. And Moses said, I will therefore go aside, and see this great vision, why the bramble is not burnt.
4. And Jehovah saw that he went aside to see, and God called unto him out of the midst of the bramble, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Behold me!
5. And He said, Draw not nigh hither; pull off thy shoes from upon thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest a ground of holiness is this.
6. And He said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses covered his faces, because he was afraid to look upon God.
7. And Jehovah said, Seeing I have seen the affliction of My people, which is in Egypt, and I have heard their cry from before their taskmasters; for I have known their sorrows;
8. And I am come down to liberate them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to make them come up out of that land unto a land good and broad, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
9. And now behold the cry of the sons of Israel is come unto Me, and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them.
10. And now go, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, and do thou bring forth My people the sons of Israel out of Egypt.
11. And Moses said unto God, Who am I that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the sons of Israel out of Egypt?
12. And He said, Because I will be with thee; and this shall be the sign to thee that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall worship God near this mountain.
13. And Moses said unto God, Behold I come unto the sons of Israel, and say to them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is His name? What shall I say unto them?
14. And God said unto Moses, I AM WHO I AM; and He said, Thus shalt thou say to the sons of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.
15. And God said further unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel, Jehovah, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name forever, and this is My memorial unto generation and generation.
16. Go and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, Jehovah the God of your fathers hath been seen of me, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, saying, Visiting I have visited you, and that which is done to you in Egypt.
17. And I say, I will make you come up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, unto a land flowing with milk and honey.
18. And they shall hear thy voice, and thou shalt go in, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt; and ye shall say unto him, Jehovah God of the Hebrews hath met us; and now let us go we pray a way of three days into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to Jehovah our God.
19. And I know that the king of Egypt will not allow you to go, and not by a strong hand.
20. And I will put forth My hand, and smite Egypt with all My wonders which I will do in the midst thereof, and afterward he will send you away.
21. And I will give this people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians; and it shall be that when ye go, ye shall not go empty.
22. And every woman shall ask of her neighbor, and of her that sojourneth in her house, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments; and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters, and ye shall spoil the Egyptians.

AC (Potts) n. 6825 sRef Ex@3 @0 S0′ 6825. The Contents.
In the first chapter, in the internal sense, the subject treated of was the infestation by falsities and evils of those who are of the church; in the second chapter it was the beginnings and successive states of truth Divine with them; in this chapter in the internal sense the subject treated of is their liberation; and then for the first time they are instructed who the God is who has liberated them, that it is the Lord; and that He introduces them into heaven after they have been endowed with manifold truth and good.

AC (Potts) n. 6826 sRef Ex@3 @2 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @3 S0′ 6826. The Internal Sense.
Verses 1-3. And Moses was feeding the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian; and he led the flock behind the wilderness, and came into the mountain of God, to Horeb. And the angel of Jehovah was seen by him in a flame of fire out of the midst of the bramble; and he saw, and behold the bramble burned with fire, and the bramble was in no wise consumed. And Moses said, I will therefore go aside, and see this great vision, why the bramble is not burnt. “And Moses was feeding the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian,” signifies that the law from the Divine was instructing those who were in the truth of simple good; “priest,” is the good of the church where such are; “and he led the flock behind the wilderness,” signifies after they had undergone temptations; “and came unto the mountain of God,” signifies that the good of love Divine appeared to him; “to Horeb,” signifies its quality; “and the angel of Jehovah was seen by him,” signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human; “in a flame of fire out of the midst of the bramble,” signifies love Divine in the truth of memory-knowledge; “and he saw, and behold the bramble burned with fire,” signifies a noticing that the truth of memory-knowledge was full of the good of love Divine; “and the bramble was in no wise consumed,” signifies Divine truth united to Divine good in the natural; “and Moses said,” signifies perception from the law from the Divine; “I will therefore go aside, and see this great vision,” signifies reflection upon this revelation; “why the bramble is not burnt,” signifies that such is the union.

AC (Potts) n. 6827 sRef Ex@3 @1 S0′ 6827. And Moses was feeding the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian. That this signifies that the law from the Divine was instructing those who were in the truth of simple good; and that “the priest of Midian” is the good of the church where such are, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to the law Divine (see n. 6752); and in the beginning as to the truth which is of the law from the Divine (n. 6771); but here as to the law from the Divine. So may we name the degrees of progression in the Lord, before, as to the Human, He was made the very law Divine. In the whole Word, in its inmost or supreme sense, the Lord alone and the glorification of His Human are treated of; but as the inmost or supreme sense transcends human understanding, it is allowable to unfold the Word as to its internal sense, in which are treated of the Lord’s kingdom and the church, and the setting up of the latter, and also the regeneration of the man of the church by the Lord. That these subjects are treated of in the internal sense, is because the regeneration of man is a representative image of the glorification of the Lord (n. 3138, 3212, 3245, 3246, 3296, 3490, 4402, 5688).
[2] From the signification of “to feed,” as being to instruct (n. 3795, 5201); from the signification of a “flock,” as being one who learns and is led by means of truth to the good of charity (n. 343), thus the “flock” in the general sense is the church (n. 3767, 3768), here the church where are those who are in the truth of simple good, who are signified by “Midian” (n. 3242, 4756); from the signification of “father-in-law,” as being the good from which, as from a father, comes forth that good which has been conjoined with truth, here with the truth which is of the law from the Divine, which is represented by Moses (see n. 6793), the quality of this good is “Jethro;” and from the signification of the “priest of Midian,” as being the good of the church where are they who are in the truth of simple good (n. 6775). From all this it is evident that by “Moses was feeding the flock of his father-in-law, the priest of Midian,” is signified that the law from the Divine was instructing those who were in the truth of simple good; and that the “priest of Midian” is the good of the church where such are.

AC (Potts) n. 6828 sRef Ex@3 @1 S0′ 6828. And he led the flock behind the wilderness. That this signifies after they had undergone temptations, namely, they who were in the truth of simple good, is evident from the signification of a “flock,” as being the church where they are who are in the truth of simple good (of which just above, n. 6827); and from the signification of “wilderness,” as being a state of temptation. For a “wilderness” signifies what is but little inhabited and cultivated, and also what is not inhabited and cultivated at all, thus in the spiritual sense a man vastated as to good and desolated as to truth, consequently a man who is in temptation; for he who is in temptation is in vastation and in desolation, because the falsity and evil in him come out and darken and almost take away the influx of truth and good from the Lord; and the truth which flows in does not appear to him to have sufficient life to disperse the falsities and evils. Moreover, evil spirits are then present, who inject grief, and despair of salvation. That a “wilderness” signifies such a state, is evident from very many passages in the Word (see n. 2708); and as a “wilderness” signified a state of temptation, and the number “forty” its duration, however long or short (n. 730, 862, 2272, 2273), therefore the sons of Israel were in the wilderness forty years; and therefore the Lord was in the wilderness forty days when He was tempted (Matt. 4:2; Mark 1:13).

AC (Potts) n. 6829 sRef Ex@3 @1 S0′ 6829. And came to the mountain of God. That this signifies that the good of love Divine then appeared, is evident from the signification of the “mountain of God,” as being the good of love Divine. (That a “mountain” is the good of love, see n. 795, 796, 2722, 4210, 6435.) That this good appeared after they had undergone temptations, is signified by his coming to that mountain behind the wilderness. The case herein is this. When a man is in temptation, he is beset round by falsities and evils which impede the influx of light from the Divine, that is, the influx of truth and good, and then the man is as it were in darkness. Darkness in the other life is nothing else than this besetment by falsities, for these take away the light from the man who is in temptation, and thus the perception of consolation by truths. But when the man emerges from temptation, then the light appears with its spiritual heat, that is, truth with its good, and from this he has gladness after anxiety. This is the morning which in the other life follows the night. The reason why good is then perceived, and truth appears, is that after temptation truth and good penetrate toward the interiors, and there take root. For when a man is in temptation, he is as it were in hunger for good, and in thirst for truth; and therefore when he emerges he draws in good as a hungry man devours food, and receives truth as a thirsty man imbibes drink. Moreover, when light from the Divine appears, falsities and evils are removed, and when these are removed, the way is opened for truth and good to penetrate more interiorly. These are the reasons why after temptations the good of love appears with its light from the Lord. That after the obscurity and anxiety of temptations, brightness and gladness appear, is known to all in the other life, because it is there a common occurrence.

AC (Potts) n. 6830 sRef Ex@3 @1 S0′ 6830. Unto Horeb. That this signifies the quality, namely, of the good of love Divine which appeared, is evident from the fact that when names are added they involve the quality of the thing treated of. The quality involved by “Horeb” is plain from the things there seen, namely, from the flame of fire out of the midst of the bramble; thus it is the Divine good of love shining forth through the truth which is of the law Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 6831 sRef Ex@3 @2 S0′ 6831. And the angel of Jehovah was seen of him. That this signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human, is evident from the signification of “the angel of Jehovah,” as being the Divine Human of the Lord (see n. 6280). The reason why the Divine Human is called the “angel of Jehovah,” is that before the coming of the Lord, when Jehovah passed through heaven, He appeared in a human form as an angel. For the whole angelic heaven bears relation to a man, which is called the Grand Man, and which has been treated of at the end of many chapters. Therefore when the Divine Itself passed through the angelic heaven, it appeared in human form as an angel before those with whom He spoke: this was the Divine Human of Jehovah before the coming of the Lord. The Lord’s Human when made Divine is the same, for the Lord is Jehovah Himself in the Divine Human. That the Lord as to the Divine Human is called an “angel,” may be seen above (n. 6280); and it is also evident from many passages in the New Testament where the Lord says that He was “sent by the Father;” to be “sent” signifies to proceed, the word “sent” in the Hebrew tongue being the same as “angel.” (That the Lord speaks of Himself as “sent” see Matt. 10:40; 15:24; Mark 9:37; Luke 4:43; 9:48; 10:16; John 3:17, 34; 4:34; 5:23, 24, 36-38; 6:29, 39, 40, 44, 57; 7:16, 18, 28, 29; 8:16, 18, 29, 42; 9:4; 10:36; 11:41, 42; 12:44, 45, 49; 13:20; 14:24; 16:5, 7; 17:3, 8, 18, 21, 23, 25.)

AC (Potts) n. 6832 sRef Ex@3 @2 S0′ 6832. In a flame of fire out of the midst of the bramble. That this signifies love Divine in the truth of memory-knowledge, is evident from the signification of a “flame of fire,” as being love Divine (of which below); and from the signification of a “bramble,” as being the truth of memory-knowledge. That a “bramble” denotes the truth of memory-knowledge, is because all small shrubs of every kind signify memory-knowledges, but the greater shrubs signify real knowledges and perceptions. As a “bramble” produces flowers and berries, it signifies the truth of memory-knowledge. The truth of memory-knowledge of the church is nothing else than the Word in the sense of the letter, and also every representative and significative of the church which existed among the descendants of Jacob. In their external form these truths are called truths of memory-knowledge, but in the internal form they are spiritual truths. But as truths in the internal form, that is, in their spiritual form, could not appear to the posterity of Jacob, because they were in mere externals, and were quite unwilling to learn anything internal, therefore the Lord appeared in the bramble; for when the Lord appears, He appears according to the quality of the man, because a man receives the Divine no otherwise than according to his own quality. Therefore when the Lord appeared on Mount Sinai, He appeared to the people as fire burning even to the heart of heaven, and as darkness, clouds, and thick darkness (Deut. 4:11; 5:22-25 also Exod. 19:18). He would have appeared altogether otherwise if the people who were looking on beneath the mountain had not been of such a quality; and because that people was in mere externals, therefore when Moses entered unto the Lord on Mount Sinai, it is said that he “entered into a cloud” (Exod. 24:2, 18; 34:5). That a “cloud” denotes the external of the Word, see the preface to the eighteenth chapter of Genesis, and n. 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343; consequently also it was representative of the church as looked at in its outward form.
[2] That the Lord appears to everyone according to his quality, is evident from the fact that the Lord appears to those who are in the inmost or third heaven as a sun, from which proceeds ineffable light, because those who are there are in the good of love to the Lord; and that He appears to those who are in the middle or second heaven as a moon, because those who are there are more remotely and obscurely in love to the Lord, being in love toward the neighbor; but in the lowest or first heaven, the Lord does not appear as a sun nor yet as a moon, but only as a light which far surpasses the light of the world. And as the Lord appears to everyone according to his quality, therefore also He cannot appear to those who are in hell except as a dusky cloud and thick darkness; for as soon as the light of heaven which is from the Lord sinks down into any hell, shades and darkness are produced there. From all this it can now be seen that the Lord appears to everyone according to his quality, because according to his reception; and as the descendants of Jacob were in externals only, therefore the Lord appeared unto Moses in the bramble, and also in a cloud, when he entered in unto the Lord upon Mount Sinai.
sRef Ezek@1 @26 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @13 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @27 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @28 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @21 S3′ [3] That “flame” denotes love Divine is because love in its first origin is nothing else than fire and flame from the Lord as a sun. It is the fire or flame of this sun which gives the being of life to every man; and it is the vital fire itself which fills the interiors of man with heat, as can be seen from love, for in proportion as love increases with man, he grows warm, and in proportion as love decreases, he grows cold.
[4] Hence it is that when the Lord appeared in vision, He appeared as fire and flame, as in Ezekiel:
The appearance of the four animals (which were cherubs) was like burning coals of fire, like the appearance of torches; it was going along among the animals, as the brightness of fire, and out of the fire went forth lightning. Above the expanse that was over their head was as it were the appearance of a sapphire stone, the likeness of a throne; and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above. And I saw the appearance of a burning coal as the appearance of fire within it round about, from the appearance of his loins and upward; but from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, which had a brightness round about (Ezek. 1:13, 26-27).
That the details of this vision are significative and representative of something Divine, no one can deny; but unless it is known what is signified by “cherubs,” by “burning coals of fire like the appearance of torches,” by a “throne,” by the “appearance of a man upon it,” by the “loins from which was the appearance of fire upward and downward, and brightness from the fire,” it is impossible to know the holy secret contained within it. That “cherubs” denote the providence of the Lord, see n. 308; that a “throne” denotes heaven, properly the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, which forms heaven, n. 5313. That “the appearance of a man upon the throne above” denotes the Lord as to the Divine Human, is plain; that “loins” denote conjugial love and from this all heavenly love, n. 3021, 4277, 4280, 4575, 5050-5062; which love was represented by the appearance of burning coal as the appearance of fire, which had a brightness round about.
sRef Dan@7 @10 S5′ sRef Rev@1 @13 S5′ sRef Rev@1 @14 S5′ sRef Dan@7 @9 S5′ sRef Rev@19 @12 S5′ [5] In Daniel:
I held even until the thrones were cast forth, and the Ancient of days did sit; His garment was like white snow, and the hair of His head was like clean wool; His throne was a flame of fire; His wheels were burning fire, a stream of fire issued and went forth from before Him (Dan. 7:9-10);
the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love was here also seen as a flame of fire. In John:
He that sat upon the white horse had eyes as a flame of fire (Rev. 19:12);
that “He that sat upon the white horse” is the Lord as to the Word, is there openly said (verses 13, 16); thus the “flame of fire” is the Divine truth which is in the Word, which is from the Lord’s Divine good. Again:
In the midst of the seven candlesticks was one like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot. His head and hairs were white as white wool, as snow; and His eyes were as a flame of fire (Rev. 1:13-14);
here also “eyes as a flame of fire” denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine good.
sRef Ps@29 @7 S6′ [6] That a “flame of fire” denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, is evident also in David:
The voice of Jehovah falleth down like a flame of fire (Ps. 29:7);
“the voice of Jehovah” denotes the Divine truth. That the Divine truth might be represented as proceeding from the Lord’s Divine good, the command was given that they should make a lampstand of pure gold with seven lamps, and that it should be set in the tent of the congregation by the table on which were the loaves of setting forth, and that the lamps should burn continually before Jehovah (Exod. 25:31 to the end; 37:17-24; 40:24, 25; Lev. 24:4; Num. 8:2; Zech. 4:2). By the lampstand with the seven lamps was represented the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine good.
sRef Lev@6 @13 S7′ sRef Lev@6 @12 S7′ [7] That the Divine good itself might also be represented, it was commanded that there should be a perpetual fire on the altar:
The fire shall burn upon the altar, and shall not go out; the priest shall kindle pieces of wood upon it every morning. The fire shall burn continually upon the altar, and shall not go out (Lev. 6:12-13).
That fire was very well known to the ancients to be representative of the Divine love is very evident from the fact that this representative spread from the Ancient Church even to remote nations which were in idolatrous worship, and who are known to have instituted a sacred perpetual fire, and to have appointed to it virgins, called the vestals.
sRef Isa@47 @14 S8′ sRef Ezek@20 @47 S8′ [8] That in the opposite sense “fire and flame” signify filthy loves, such as the loves of revenge, of cruelty, of hatred, of adultery, and in general the lusts which are from the loves of self and of the world is evident also from many passages in the Word, of which it is enough to cite only the following:
Behold they are become as stubble, the fire hath burned them; they rescue not their soul from the hand of the flame; no coal to warm at, or a fire to sit before (Isa. 47:14).
Behold I will kindle a fire in thee, which shall devour in thee every green tree, and every dry tree; the flame of a grievous flame shall not be quenched, whence all faces shall be burned up from the south to the north (Ezek. 20:47);
by “fire” and “flame” are signified the cupidities of evil and falsity, which extinguish all the good and truth of the church, whence comes its vastation.
sRef Luke@16 @24 S9′ [9] In Luke:
The rich man said to Abraham, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame (Luke 16:24);
they who do not know that the fire of life in man is from a different origin than is elementary fire cannot possibly know otherwise than that by the “fire of hell” is meant such fire as is in the world; when yet in the Word no such fire is meant, but the fire which is of love, thus which is of man’s life, proceeding from the Lord as a sun; which fire, when it enters into those who are in things contrary is turned into the fire of cupidities, which, as before said, are those of revenge, hatred, and cruelty, springing forth from the love of self and of the world. This is the fire which torments those who are in the hells, for when the rein is given to their cupidities, they rush one upon another, and torture one another in direful and unspeakable ways, because everyone desires to be preeminent, and by secret or open artifices to take from another what belongs to him. This being the case on both sides, deadly hatreds come forth from it, and from these the perpetration of savage deeds, especially by means of magical arts and also by means of phantasies, which arts are innumerable and are quite unknown in the world.
[10] They who do not believe in spiritual things, especially the worshipers of nature, can never be brought to believe that the heat in living beings, which makes the internal life itself, is from any other origin than the heat of this world; for they cannot know, still less acknowledge, that there is a heavenly fire proceeding from the Lord as a sun, and that this fire is pure love. Consequently they cannot know innumerable things that exist in the Word, where no other fire is meant; neither can they know innumerable things in man, who is an organ receptive of this fire.

AC (Potts) n. 6833 sRef Ex@3 @2 S0′ 6833. And he saw, and behold the bramble burned with fire. That this signifies a noticing that the truth of memory-knowledges was full of the good of love Divine, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to notice (see n. 2150, 3764, 4567, 4723, 5400); from the signification of a “bramble,” as being the truth of memory-knowledge (of which just above, n. 6832); and from the signification of “fire,” as being love Divine (n. 934, 4906, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832). Hence “to burn with fire” denotes to be full of the good of love Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 6834 sRef Ex@3 @2 S0′ 6834. And the bramble was in no wise consumed. That this signifies Divine truth united to Divine good in the natural, is evident from the signification of a “bramble,” as being the truth of memory-knowledge (of which above, n. 6832, 6833); here being said of the Lord, it denotes Divine truth in the natural, and the natural is signified because the truth of memory-knowledge is there; and from the signification of “not being consumed by fire,” as being not to be dissipated by the good of Divine love (that “fire” is the good of Divine love, see just above, n. 6832), thus that it is united, namely, Divine truth with Divine good in the natural. This is the signification of these words in the supreme sense, in which the Lord is treated of. The case herein is this. The Divine good of the Divine love is the very solar fire in the other life, which fire is so ardent that if it were to light on anyone without an intermediate tempering, even on an angel of the inmost heaven, he would be deprived of all sense, and would perish. Such is the ardor of the Lord’s Divine love. But when the Lord was in the world, and united the human essence to the Divine essence, He received the fire of this love in His Human, and united it to the truth there when He made Himself the law Divine. This then is what is meant by the Divine truth being united to the Divine good in the natural.

AC (Potts) n. 6835 sRef Ex@3 @3 S0′ 6835. And Moses said. That this signifies perception from the law from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “saying,” in the historicals of the Word, as being perception (of which frequently above); and from the representation of Moses, as being the law from the Divine (of which also above, n. 6827).

AC (Potts) n. 6836 sRef Ex@3 @3 S0′ 6836. I will therefore go aside, and see this great vision. That this signifies reflection on this revelation, is evident from the signification of “going aside and seeing,” as being to reflect, for in the spiritual sense “to go aside” denotes to turn aside from the present thought; and “to see” denotes to perceive, thus both expressions together denote to reflect; and from the signification of a “vision,” as being revelation (see n. 6000). It is called a “great vision,” because in the supreme sense by the “flame in the bramble” is signified the Divine truth united to the Divine good in the Lord’s Human (n. 6834).

AC (Potts) n. 6837 sRef Ex@3 @3 S0′ 6837. Why the bramble is not burnt. That this signifies that such is the union, is evident from what was said above (n. 6834).

AC (Potts) n. 6838 sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ 6838. Verses 4-6. And Jehovah saw that he went aside to see, and God called unto him out of the midst of the bramble, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Behold me! And He said, Draw not nigh hither; pull off thy shoes from upon thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest a ground of holiness is this. And He said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses covered his faces, because he was afraid to look upon God. “And Jehovah saw that he went aside to see,” signifies reflection from the Lord; “and God called unto him,” signifies influx from the Divine; “out of the midst of the bramble,” signifies from the truths of memory-knowledge; “and said, Moses, Moses; and he said, behold me!” signifies internal exhortation, and hearing; “and He said, Draw not nigh hither,” signifies that he must not still think of the Divine from sensuous things; “pull off thy shoes from upon thy feet,” signifies that sensuous things, which are the externals of the natural, must be removed; “for the place whereon thou standest a ground of holiness is this,” signifies that otherwise the Divine cannot enter; “and He said, I am the God of thy father,” signifies the Divine which was of the Ancient Church; “the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob,” signifies the Divine Itself, and the Divine Human, thus the Lord; “and Moses covered his faces,” signifies that the interiors were guarded; “because he was afraid to look upon God,” signifies lest they should be injured by the presence of the Divine Itself.

AC (Potts) n. 6839 sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ 6839. And Jehovah saw that he went aside to see. That this signifies reflection from the Lord, is evident from the signification of “going aside to see,” as being reflection (of which above, n. 6836; as also that “Jehovah” denotes the Lord, n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6303). The nature of the sense of the letter of the Word is evident here also. It is said that Jehovah saw that he went aside to see, as if He had not known before, and as if He had not enabled him and moved him to go aside to see. Nevertheless it is so said because this is according to the appearance. But the internal sense teaches how this is to be understood, namely, that the Lord flowed into his thought, in order that he might reflect upon it. This shows how the case is with the sense of the letter of the Word relatively to the internal sense; and that the contents of the sense of the letter are of such a nature as to accommodate themselves to the apprehension of the simple, who believe only as it appears; what does not appear they do not believe, because they cannot enter into the interiors of things; and therefore unless the Word had been of this nature in the letter, it would not have been received. He who is in sensuous things, and is engrossed by worldly ones, in no wise apprehends interior things. He desires to see the things he must believe; those which he does not see are as it were foreign, and when he is thinking from himself about them, he rejects them as matters worthy of denial, or at any rate as worthy of doubt.

AC (Potts) n. 6840 sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ 6840. And God called unto him. That this signifies influx from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “calling,” as being influx; for in the internal sense there is not meant a calling by means of speech, as in the external historic sense, but a calling by influx into the will; and this calling is internal, for Jehovah, or the Lord, flows into the will and moves it to do what pleases Him. When this internal thing falls into what is historic, in which there are nothing but external things, it falls either into a command, or a call, or an address, or into other like terms.

AC (Potts) n. 6841 sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ 6841. Out of the midst of the bramble. That this signifies from the truths of memory-knowledge, is evident from the signification of a “bramble,” as being the truth of memory-knowledge (see n. 6832, 6833).

AC (Potts) n. 6842 sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ 6842. And said, Moses, Moses; and he said, Behold me! That this signifies internal exhortation and hearing is evident from the signification of being “called by God,” in the historicals of the Word, as being influx from the Divine (see n. 6840). The call itself is in these words: “and Jehovah said, Moses, Moses;” and because these words involve all things that follow, and first that he should not draw nigh hither, but that he should pull off his shoes from upon his feet, they signify exhortation; and the reply of Moses, “behold me,” signifies hearing.

AC (Potts) n. 6843 sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ 6843. And He said, Draw not nigh hither. That this signifies that he must not still think of the Divine from sensuous things, is evident from the signification of “drawing nigh to Jehovah,” as being to think of the Divine. That “to draw nigh,” when said of a man’s approach to the Lord, denotes thought about the Divine, is because man cannot approach the Divine with the body, as a man approaches a man, but with the mind, thus with the thought and the will. There is no other access to the Divine, because the Divine is above the things of place and time, being in those things with man which are called “states,” namely, states of love and states of faith, thus states of both faculties of the mind, that is, of the will and of the thought; by these man can approach the Divine. Hence it is that here, by “Draw not nigh hither,” is signified that he must not think of the Divine, that is, from the external sensuous things which are signified by the “shoes that he was first to pull off.” It is said still, because the external sensuous things of the natural are the last to be regenerated, and thus last receive influx from the Divine; and the state here treated of was not yet such that sensuous things could receive the influx. As regards sensuous things, see what now follows.

AC (Potts) n. 6844 sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ 6844. Pull off thy shoes from upon thy feet. That this signifies that sensuous things, which are the externals of the natural, must be removed, is evident from the signification of “shoes,” as being the sensuous things which are the externals of the natural (see n. 1748); and from the signification of “feet,” as being the natural (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952). That “to pull off” denotes to remove is evident, because it is said of sensuous things; for terms must be applied to their subject that is being treated of; thus “to pull off,” to the shoes; and “to be removed,” to sensuous things. How the case herein is, must be told. Everyone can see that shoes here represent something that was not in agreement with the holy Divine, and thus that to pull off the shoes was representative of the removal of such things; otherwise what would it matter to the Divine whether man approached in shoes or with the soles of his feet bare, provided that he was interiorly of such a character as to be able to approach the Divine in faith and love? Therefore by “shoes” are signified sensuous things, and these being the externals of the natural are of such a nature that they cannot be present when the Divine is the object of holy thought; therefore, as at that time representatives were to be observed, Moses was not allowed to approach with shoes on his feet.
[2] That sensuous things, which are the externals of the natural, are of such a nature that they cannot receive the Divine, is because they are in things worldly, bodily, and even earthly, for they proximately receive these things; hence the things that are in the memory from sensuous things derive from the light and heat of the world all that belongs to them, and but little from the light and heat of heaven, and therefore they are the last things that can be regenerated, that is, receive anything of the light of heaven. Hence it is that when a man is in these sensuous things, and is thinking from them, he thinks no otherwise of the Divine than as he thinks about earthly things, and if he is in evil he thinks from these sensuous things quite against the Divine. Therefore if when a man is thinking about such things as are of faith and love to God he is in good, he is elevated from the sensuous things which are the externals of the natural, toward interior things, consequently from earthly and worldly things nearer to heavenly and spiritual things.
[3] This a man knows not, because he does not know that the interiors in him are distinct from the exteriors, and that thought is more and more interior and also more and more exterior; and as he does not know these things, he cannot reflect upon them. But see what has been before said about thought from sensuous things, namely, that they who think from them, have very little wisdom (n. 5089, 5094, 6201, 6310, 6312, 6314, 6316, 6318, 6598, 6612, 6614, 6622, 6624); that man is elevated from sensuous things, and that when thus elevated he comes into a milder light; and that this is especially the case with those who are being regenerated (n. 6183, 6313, 6315). From all this is now plain what is meant by “putting off the shoes from upon the feet.” That the natural with man is external, middle, and internal, see n. 4570, 5118, 5126, 5497, 5649. The internal natural is signified by the “feet,” the middle natural by the “soles of the feet,” and the external by the “shoes.”

AC (Potts) n. 6845 sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ 6845. For the place whereon thou standest a ground of holiness is this. That this signifies that otherwise the Divine cannot enter, is evident from the signification of “place,” as being state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5605), whence “the place whereon thou standest” denotes the state in which he as yet is; and from the signification of “ground of holiness,” as being the holy which proceeds from the Lord. Thus it is a state of the holy proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Human which is meant by these words. That it signifies that otherwise the Divine cannot enter, follows from what goes before, namely, that if man were not removed from sensuous things, which are the externals of the natural, that is, if he were not elevated from these to things interior, the Divine could not flow in. The reason why the Divine cannot flow in with man so long as he is in these sensuous things, is that the influx from the Divine passes on even to those things which are last in order, thus down to the sensuous things which are the externals of the natural with man; and if the things therein be merely bodily and earthly, the Divine things which flow in are there dissipated, because they are not in agreement. Therefore when man is about to receive the Divine, that is, the things which are of faith and love, he is elevated from sensuous things; and when he has been elevated from them, the Divine no longer flows in thither, namely, into the external sensuous, but into the interior plane into which the man has been elevated. That this is the case it has been given me to know from much experience.

AC (Potts) n. 6846 sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ 6846. And He said, I am the God of thy father. That this signifies the Divine which was of the Ancient Church, is evident from the signification of “father,” as being the Ancient Church (see n. 6075). The Ancient Church is called “father” because from it were born the churches which came after it, namely, the Hebrew Church, and afterward the church that was among the posterity of Jacob. For the rites and statutes which were commanded to the posterity of Jacob through Moses, were not new, but had previously existed in the ancient churches, and were only restored among the sons of Jacob. They were restored because with other nations they had become idolatrous, and in Egypt and in Babel had been turned into magic. That these rites and statutes existed in the ancient churches, can be seen from many passages in the Word. Hence then it is that the Ancient Church is meant by “father,” and is also called “father” in the Word where the church is treated of. The God who was worshiped in the Ancient Church was the Lord as to the Divine Human, and it was known to them that it was the Lord who was represented in every rite of their church; and many of them also knew that the Lord was to come into the world, and was to make the Human in Himself Divine. Nor in that church was any other meant by Jehovah, for He had appeared to them as a Divine Man, and was called “Jehovah” (n. 1343, 5663), as also afterward to Abraham (Gen. 18:2), to Joshua (Josh. 5:13-15), to Gideon (Judges 6:11), and to Manoah and his wife (Judges 13:3). And He was acknowledged as the God of the universe, and the Only One whom they should adore. Hence then it is that by “the God of thy father,” is meant in the internal sense the Divine which was of the Ancient Church, that is, the Lord; but in the external historic sense there is meant Abraham, and also Isaac and Jacob.

AC (Potts) n. 6847 sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ 6847. The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. That this signifies the Divine Itself, and the Divine Human, thus the Lord, is evident from the representation of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, as being the Divine Itself, and the Divine Human of the Lord. (That Abraham represents the Lord as to the Divine Itself, Isaac as to the Divine rational, and Jacob as to the Divine natural, see n. 1893, 2011, 2066, 2072, 2083, 2630, 3194, 3210, 3245, 3251, 3305, 3439, 3704, 4180, 4286, 4538, 4570, 4615, 6098, 6185, 6276, 6425, 6804.) By “God” is signified the Divine, and by these names the representative; hence these things in the Lord are what are meant by “the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.”

AC (Potts) n. 6848 sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ 6848. And Moses covered his faces. That this signifies that the interiors were guarded, is evident from the signification of the “faces,” as being the interiors (see n. 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796, 4797, 5102). That “to cover” denotes to guard, follows from the connection in the internal sense, for it is said that “he covered his faces because he was afraid to look upon God,” and by this is signified lest the interiors should be injured by the presence of the Divine Itself. How this is will be told in what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 6849 sRef Ex@3 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ 6849. Because he was afraid to look upon God. That this signifies lest they should be injured by the presence of the Divine itself is evident from the signification of “being afraid” as being fear lest they should be injured, namely, the interiors, for this was the cause of the fear; and from the signification of “looking upon God” as being the presence of the Divine Itself; for the Lord is presented before man in no other way than by an internal looking, which is effected through the faith that is from charity. If the Lord appears to anyone in an outward form, still it is the interiors which are affected, for the Divine penetrates to the inmosts. In regard to the interiors not being injured by the presence of the Divine Itself, and that on this account they were protected, the case is this. The Divine Itself is pure love, and pure love is like a fire which is more ardent than the fire of the sun of this world; and therefore if the Divine love in its purity were to flow into any angel, spirit, or man, he would utterly perish. Hence it is that Jehovah or the Lord is in the Word so often called a “consuming fire.” Lest therefore the angels in heaven should be injured by the influx of heat from the Lord as a sun, they are each of them veiled over by a certain thin and suitable cloud, whereby the heat flowing in from that sun is tempered.
sRef Judg@6 @22 S2′ sRef Judg@6 @23 S2′ sRef Ex@33 @22 S2′ sRef Judg@13 @22 S2′ sRef Ex@33 @20 S2′ [2] That without this preservation everyone would perish at the presence of the Divine was known to the ancients; and therefore they were afraid to see God, as is evident in the book of Judges:
Gideon saw that he was an angel of Jehovah; and therefore Gideon said, Ah Lord Jehovih, forasmuch as I have seen an angel of Jehovah face to face. And Jehovah said to him, Peace be to thee; fear not, for thou shalt not die (Judg. 6:22-23).
Manoah said unto his wife, Dying we shall die, because we have seen God (Judg. 13:22).
And in the book of Exodus:
Jehovah said unto Moses, Thou canst not see My faces, for no man shall see Me and live (Exod. 33:20).
When therefore it was given Moses to see God, he was put into a hole of the rock (verse 22); by which was represented the obscurity of faith, and also the cloudiness which covered him over, and by which he was protected.
[3] How dangerous it would be for the angels if they were looked upon by the Divine, without being veiled with a cloud, can be plainly seen from the fact that when the angels look at any spirit who is in evil, he appears to be turned into something inanimate, as has been frequently given me to see. The reason is, that through the angelic sight the light and heat of heaven fall there, and with these the truth of faith and the good of love, and when these penetrate, the wicked are almost deprived of life by them.
sRef Rev@6 @16 S4′ [4] This being the effect of a look from the angels, how much more would be the effect of a look from the Lord! This is the reason why the hells are quite removed from heaven, and why they who are there desire to be removed, for unless this is done they are direfully tormented. From this it is plain what is meant by these words:
They shall say to the mountains and to the rocks, Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne (Rev. 6:16; Luke 23:30; Hos. 10:8).
sRef John@1 @18 S5′ sRef John@5 @37 S5′ [5] From the fact that the presence of the Divine Itself is of such a nature that no angel can endure it unless he is protected by a cloud, which tempers and moderates the rays and heat from that sun, it is very evident that the Lord’s Human is Divine; for unless it were Divine, it could never be so united to the Divine Itself which is called the “Father,” that they may be one, according to the Lord’s words in John 14:10, and elsewhere. For what so receives the Divine must needs be altogether Divine; what is not Divine would be utterly dissipated by such a union. To speak by comparison, what can be put into the solar fire, and not perish, unless it is of a solar nature? And in the same way, who can be introduced into the ardor of infinite love except him who is in the ardor of the like love? Consequently, who but the Lord alone? That the Father is in Him, and that the Father does not appear except in His Divine Human, is evident from the Lord’s words in John:
No one hath ever seen God; the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth (John 1:18).
Ye have neither ever heard His voice, nor seen His shape (John 5:37).

AC (Potts) n. 6850 sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @6 S0′ 6850. Verses 7, 8. And Jehovah said, Seeing I have seen the affliction of My people, which is in Egypt, and I have heard their cry from before their taskmasters; for I have known their sorrows; and I am come down to liberate them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to make them come up out of that land unto a land good and broad, unto a land flowing with milk and honey, unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite. “And Jehovah said, Seeing I have seen the affliction of My people” signifies mercy toward those who are of the spiritual church after infestations by falsities; “and I have heard their cry from before their taskmasters” signifies the aid of mercy against those who desired to compel them to serve; “for I have known their sorrows” signifies foresight in regard to how much they would be immersed in falsities; “and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians” signifies that He would let Himself down to them to set them free from the power of false memory-knowledges, which endeavor to destroy the truths of the church; “and to make them come up out of that land” signifies that they should be elevated; “unto a land good and broad” signifies to heaven, where are the good of charity and the truth of faith; “flowing with milk and honey” signifies the pleasantness and delight thence; “unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite” signifies the region occupied by evils from falsities; “and the Amorite, and the Perizzite” signifies by evils and the derivative falsities; “and the Hivite, and the Jebusite” signifies by idolatry in which there is somewhat of good and truth.

AC (Potts) n. 6851 sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ 6851. And Jehovah said, Seeing I have seen the affliction of My people. That this signifies mercy toward those who are of the spiritual church after infestations by falsities is evident from the signification of “saying” in the historicals of the Word, as being perception (of which frequently above); but when it is said of Jehovah, or the Lord, it does not denote perception, but omniscience, because the Lord perceives and knows each and all things from eternity; and from the signification of “Seeing I have seen” when said of Jehovah or the Lord, as being mercy, for when the Lord sees anyone in misery, or in affliction, He is merciful to him (the Lord indeed sees all, and thus is merciful to all, but it is not said that He is merciful with respect to any but those who receive His mercy, that is, who are in good); and from the signification of “affliction” as being infestation (see n. 6663), here by falsities, because by the Egyptians, by whom are signified false memory-knowledges (n. 6651, 6679, 6683); and from the signification of “a people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church n. 2928). They who are of the celestial church are in the Word called “a nation.”

AC (Potts) n. 6852 sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Isa@14 @2 S0′ sRef Isa@14 @3 S0′ sRef Isa@14 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ sRef Zech@9 @8 S0′ 6852. And I have heard their cry from before their taskmasters. That this signifies the aid of mercy against those who desired to compel them to serve, is evident from the signification of a “cry,” as being entreaty (see n. 6801); and from the signification of “to hear,” as being to obey and notice (n. 5017); but when it is said of Jehovah or the Lord, it denotes to bring the aid of mercy to him who implores it. It is with hearing as it is above (n. 6851) with seeing, namely, that the Lord hears all, and thus brings aid to all, but according to the necessities. They who cry, and implore Him for themselves alone, and thus against others, as the wicked are wont to do; these also the Lord hears, but He does not bring them aid, and when He does not bring aid, it is said that He “does not hear”-and from the signification of “taskmasters,” as being those who desire to compel to serve. That a “taskmaster” or “exactor” denotes one who compels to serve, is evident from these passages:
The peoples shall take them, and bring them to their place, and they shall rule over their exactors. It shall come to pass in the day that Jehovah shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy trouble, and from the hard service wherein thou wast made to serve, that thou shalt utter this parable concerning the king of Babylon. How hath the exactor ceased! (Isa. 14:2-4).
I will encamp about My house because of the army, because of him that goeth and of him that returneth, that the exactor may not pass through upon them anymore (Zech. 9:8).
They were called “exactors” who exacted tribute (2 Kings 23:35; Deut. 15:3), and also they who compelled them to work according to the imposition of the tributes. They are also called “princes of tributes” (Exod. 1:11); that these are they who compelled them to serve may be seen above (n. 6659).

AC (Potts) n. 6853 sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ 6853. For I have known their sorrows. That this signifies foresight in regard to how much they would be immersed in falsities, is evident from the signification of “knowing,” when said of the Lord, as being foresight (that “to know” denotes foresight is because the Lord knows each and all things from eternity); and from the signification of “sorrows,” as being immersion in falsities; for when they who are in good are immersed in falsities, they come into anguish and anxieties, and are tormented; for they love truths and abhor falsities, and constantly think about salvation, and about their unhappiness if falsities should rule with them. But they who are not in good, care not whether they are in falsities or in truths, for they do not think at all about salvation, or about unhappiness, because they do not believe in these things. The delights of the loves of self and of the world take away all belief about the life after death. These persons are perpetually immersed in falsities. Immersion in falsities appears in the other life like one who is immersed in waves, which according to the abundance of falsities rise higher and higher, until at last they rise over his head; the waves appearing thinner or denser according to the quality of the falsities. With the wicked the immersion appears as a mistiness and as a cloudiness more or less dusky, which compasses them about, and quite separates them from the serenity of the light of heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 6854 sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ 6854. And I am come down to liberate them out of the hand of the Egyptians. That this signifies that He would let Himself down to them, to set them free from the power of the false memory-knowledges which endeavor to destroy the truths of the church, is evident from the signification of “coming down,” as being to let Himself down (of which below); from the signification of “to liberate,” as being to set free, for he who sets free from falsities, liberates; from the signification of “hand,” as being power (n. 878, 3387, 3563, 4931-4937, 5544); and from the signification of the “Egyptians,” as being false memory-knowledges which are contrary to the truths of the church (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683), thus which endeavor to destroy them. As regards the fact that the Lord comes down, the case is this. The Lord is said to “come down,” or to “let Himself down,” when He comes to Judgment (n. 1311); and also when He comes to lower regions, here to those who are of the spiritual church, who are signified by the “sons of Israel;” for these are treated of in the internal sense, how they are infested by falsities, and then endure temptations, and afterward are liberated, that they may be introduced into heaven.
[2] But in the contents of this and the following verses, in the internal sense, there is a still greater mystery, which is not yet known in the church, and therefore is to be made known. They who are called “the spiritual” (who are such as can be regenerated only as to the intellectual part, but not as to the will part, and in whose intellectual part therefore a new will is implanted by the Lord, which will is according to the doctrinal things of faith pertaining to their church); these, namely such spiritual men, were saved only by the Lord’s coming into the world. The reason is that the Divine passing through heaven, which was the Divine Human before the Lord’s coming, could not reach them, because the doctrinal things of their church were for the most part not true, and consequently the good which is of the will was not good (see n. 6427). As these could be saved only by the coming of the Lord, and thus could not before be raised into heaven, therefore they were meanwhile kept in the lower earth, in places there which in the Word are called “pits;” which earth was beset about by the hells where are falsities, by which they were then much infested, and yet were guarded by the Lord. But after the Lord came into the world, and made the Human in Himself Divine, then He delivered those who were there in “pits,” and raised them to heaven; and out of them He also formed the spiritual heaven, which is the second heaven. This is meant by the descent of the Lord to the lower regions, and by the deliverance of those who were bound.
[3] This is the mystery which in the internal sense is also described in this and the following verses. See what was shown above about these spiritual men, namely: That the spiritual are in obscurity as to the truth and good of faith (n. 2708, 2715, 2718, 2831, 2849, 2935, 2937, 3241, 3833, 6289): That their obscurity is illumined by the Lord’s Divine Human (n. 2716, 4402): That as they are in obscurity as to the truth and good of faith, they are very much assaulted by the hells, but that the Lord continually protects them (n. 6419): That the spiritual cannot be regenerated as to the will part, but only as to the intellectual part, and a new will is there formed by the Lord (n. 863, 875, 895, 927, 928, 1023, 1043, 1044, 2256, 4328, 4493, 5113): That the spiritual were saved by the coming of the Lord into the world (n. 2833, 2834, 3969).
sRef Isa@42 @6 S4′ sRef Isa@49 @8 S4′ sRef Isa@42 @7 S4′ sRef Isa@49 @9 S4′ [4] In the prophetic Word occasional mention is made of the “bound,” and of the “bound in the pit,” and that they were delivered by the Lord; by whom are specifically meant those who are here spoken of, as in these passages:
I Jehovah have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thy hand, because I will keep Thee, and give Thee for a covenant to the people, for a light of the nations, to open the blind eyes, to bring out the bound from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house (Isa. 42:6-7).
I kept Thee, and gave Thee for a covenant of the people, to restore the land, to divide the wasted heritages; to say to the bound, Go forth, to them that are in darkness, Be ye revealed. They shall feed upon the ways, and on all hillsides is their pasture (Isa. 49:8-9);
this is manifestly said of the Lord. Specifically “the bound” denote those who were detained in the lower earth until the Lord’s coming, and who were then raised into heaven; and in general all those who are in good, and are kept by falsities as it were bound, from which they nevertheless desire to work their way out.
sRef Isa@61 @2 S5′ sRef Isa@61 @1 S5′ sRef Zech@9 @11 S5′ sRef Isa@24 @22 S5′ sRef Isa@9 @2 S5′ [5] Again:
By the blood of Thy covenant I will send forth Thy bound out of the pit (Zech. 9:11).
Gathering they shall be gathered together, the bound in the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison; after a multitude of days they shall be visited (Isa. 24:22);
“the bound in the pit” denote the same.
Jehovah hath anointed Me to preach good tidings to the poor; He hath sent Me to bind up the brokenhearted, to preach liberty to the captives, to the bound, to the blind,* to proclaim the year of Jehovah’s good pleasure (Isa. 61:1).
The people walking in darkness have seen a great light; they that dwelt the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined (Isa. 9:2).
* Oculis capto, literally, “to him that is taken as to his eyes.” See n. 2906. [Reviser.]

AC (Potts) n. 6855 sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ 6855. And to make them come out of that land. That this signifies that they should be raised, namely, from the place and state where they are being infested by falsities, is evident from the signification of “to make to come up,” as being to be raised; and from the signification of “land,” here the land of Egypt, as being the place and state where they are infested by falsities. That “Egypt” is the false memory-knowledge which infests has been already shown; the like is also signified by the “land of Egypt.”

AC (Potts) n. 6856 sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ 6856. Unto a land good and broad. That this signifies to heaven, where are the good of charity and the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of “land,” here the land of Canaan, as being the Lord’s kingdom, thus heaven (see n. 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705, 4447); from the signification of a “good land,” as being the good of charity there; and from the signification of a “broad land,” as being the truth of faith there. (That “breadth” denotes the truth which is of faith, see n. 3433, 3434, 4482.)

AC (Potts) n. 6857 sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ 6857. Flowing with milk and honey. That this signifies the pleasantness and delight thence, is evident from the signification of “milk,” as being the celestial spiritual, or the truth of good (see n. 2184); and as it denotes the truth of good, it denotes also the pleasantness thereof, for these are conjoined; and from the signification of “honey,” as being delight (n. 5620). From what was shown above (n. 6854) it can be seen what is meant by “making to come up out of that land to a land good and broad, flowing with milk and honey,” namely, that they who had been detained in the lower earth in pits there until the Lord’s coming, should then be raised to heaven where are the good of charity and the truth of faith and the derivative pleasantness and delight. These things are specifically signified by these words; but in general are signified all of the spiritual church who are in temptation and are liberated from it.

AC (Potts) n. 6858 sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ 6858. Unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite. That this signifies the region occupied by evils from falsities, is evident from the representation of the Canaanites, as being evils from the falsities of evil (see n. 4818); and from the representation of the Hittites, as being falsities from which are evils (n. 2913). (By the nations in the land of Canaan which are enumerated here and also in other places, as Gen. 15:18, 19; Exod. 23:23, 28; 33:2; 34:11; Deut. 7:1; 20:17; Josh. 3:10; 24:11; Judges 3:5, are signified all kinds of evil and falsity.) What is meant by the region occupied by evils from falsities, and also by the other kinds of evil and falsity, must be told. Before the coming of the Lord into the world, evil genii and spirits occupied all that region of heaven to which the spiritual were afterward taken up; for before the coming of the Lord many such roamed at large and infested the good, especially the spiritual who were in the lower earth; but after the coming of the Lord they were all thrust down into their hells, and that region was set free, and was given for an inheritance to those who were of the spiritual church. It has been frequently observed that as soon as any place is left by good spirits it is occupied by evil ones; and that the evil are driven out of it, and as soon as this is done it again passes to those who are in good. The reason is that the infernals continually burn to destroy the things of heaven, especially those to which they are in opposition; and therefore when any place is left, being then without protection, it is immediately occupied by the evil. As before said, this is especially meant by the region occupied by evils and falsities, which is signified by the place where the nations were that were to be driven out. This, together with what was said above (n. 6854) is a great mystery, which cannot be known without being revealed.

AC (Potts) n. 6859 sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ 6859. And the Amorite, and the Perizzite. That this signifies by evils and the derivative falsities, is evident from the representation of the Amorite, as being evil (see n. 1857, 6306); and from the representation of the Perizzite, as being falsity (n. 1573, 1574). There are two origins of evil, and also two origins of falsity. One origin of evil is from falsity of doctrine or of religiosity; the other is from the cupidities of the love of self and of the world. As just said, the falsity of the first origin is from falsity of doctrine or of religiosity; and the falsity of the other origin is from the evil of the cupidities of the said loves. These evils are what is signified by the “Canaanite” and the “Amorite,” and these falsities by the “Hittite” and the “Perizzite.”

AC (Potts) n. 6860 sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @8 S0′ 6860. And the Hivite, and the Jebusite. That this signifies by idolatry in which there is somewhat of good and truth, is evident from the representation of the Hivite, as being idolatry in which there is somewhat of good; and from the representation of the Jebusite, as being idolatry in which there is somewhat of truth. That such things are signified by these nations, can be seen from the fact that it was permitted that a covenant should be made with the Gibeonites by Joshua and the elders (Josh. 9:3 seq.); and that they were made hewers of wood and drawers of water for the house of God (verses 23, 27); that these were Hivites see verse 7, and 11:19. That by the Jebusites are represented those who were in idolatry, but in which there was somewhat of truth, can be seen from the fact that the Jebusites were long tolerated in Jerusalem, and were not driven out of it (Josh. 15:63; 18:28; 2 Sam. 5:6-10).

AC (Potts) n. 6861 sRef Ex@3 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @9 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @12 S0′ 6861. Verses 9-12. And now behold the cry of the sons of Israel is come unto Me, and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them. And now go, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, and do thou bring forth My people the sons of Israel out of Egypt. And Moses said unto God, Who am I that I should go unto Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the sons of Israel out of Egypt? And he said, Because I will be with thee; and this shall be the sign to thee that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall worship God near this mountain. “And now behold the cry of the sons of Israel is come unto Me,” signifies pity for those who are of the spiritual church; “and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them,” signifies by reason of the endeavor of subjugation by those who were in falsities; “and now go, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh,” signifies the holy proceeding from the Lord’s Human, by which the infesting falsities would be dispersed; “and do thou bring forth My people the sons of Israel out of Egypt,” signifies the consequent liberation of those who were of the spiritual church from infesting falsities; “and Moses said unto God,” signifies perception from the Divine and humiliation; “who am I that I should go unto Pharaoh?” signifies not being yet in such a state as to seem to himself to be able to go to and remove the infesting falsities; “and that I should bring forth the sons of Israel?” signifies and thus to liberate those of the spiritual church; “and He said, Because I will be with thee,” signifies that the Divine will be in the Human; “and this shall be the sign to thee that I have sent thee,” signifies the knowledge that the Divine proceeded from Himself; “when thou has brought forth the people out of Egypt,” signifies when the spiritual are liberated from infestation by falsities; “ye shall worship God near this mountain,” signifies then perception and acknowledgment of the Divine from love.

AC (Potts) n. 6862 sRef Ex@3 @9 S0′ 6862. And now, behold the cry of the sons of Israel is come unto Me. That this signifies pity for those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of a “cry,” as being entreaty for aid (see n. 6801), and therefore when it is said that “a cry comes unto Jehovah,” or the Lord, it involves the same as “hearing,” and “hearing” denotes to bring the aid of mercy, or compassion (n. 6852); and from the signification of the “sons of Israel,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 6637).

AC (Potts) n. 6863 sRef Ex@3 @9 S0′ 6863. And I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them. That this signifies by reason of the endeavor to subjugate by those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of “the oppression wherewith they oppress,” as being an endeavor to subjugate (that it denotes an endeavor to subjugate, and not subjugation itself, is because they who are of the Lord’s spiritual church cannot be subjugated by those who are in falsities, because the Lord protects them); and from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being falsities (see n. 6692).

AC (Potts) n. 6864 sRef Ex@3 @10 S0′ 6864. And now go, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh. That this signifies the holy proceeding from the Lord’s Human, by which infesting falsities would be dispersed, is evident from the representation of Moses, who was to go, and who was sent, as being the Lord as to the law Divine (see n. 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827), thus as to the Human; for when the Lord was in the world, He first made His Human Divine truth, which is the same as the law Divine; and afterward He completely glorified His Human, and made it Divine good (between Divine truth and Divine good there is a difference such as there is between the light from the sun and the fire in the sun); and from the signification of “to be sent” as being to proceed (n. 2397, 4710, 6831), here holy truth (that holy is predicated of truth see n. 6788); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being falsity (n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692). It is added that infesting falsities would be dispersed, namely, by the holy proceeding from the Lord’s Human, because in what follows the subject treated of is the liberation of the sons of Israel, that is, of those who were of the Lord’s spiritual church, from falsities; from which they can in no wise be liberated except by the holy which proceeds from the Lord. For the holy proceeding from the Lord not only disperses infesting falsities, but also reduces all things into Divine order, both those which are in the heavens, and those which are in the hells; and causes the heavens to be most distinct according to goods and the derivative truths, and the hells also to be most distinct according to evils and the derivative falsities; and likewise causes evils to be opposite to goods, and falsities to truths, in order that a spiritual equilibrium may exist, and everything be in a free state.

AC (Potts) n. 6865 sRef Ex@3 @10 S0′ 6865. And do thou bring forth My people the sons of Israel out of Egypt. That this signifies the consequent liberation of those who are of the spiritual church from infesting falsities is evident from the signification of “bringing forth” as being liberation; from the signification of the “sons of Israel” as being those of the spiritual church (see n. 6637); and from the signification of “Egypt” as being the false memory-knowledge which is against the truths of the church; thus infesting falsity (see n. 6692).
[2] It is false memory-knowledge which chiefly infests those of the spiritual church; because they have no perception of truth from good, but only the memory-knowledge of truth from doctrine; they who are such are very much infested by memory-knowledges. For memory-knowledges are the most general vessels, which sometimes appear contrary to truths, until truths being let into them make them transparent, and thus not to be noticed. Moreover, memory-knowledges are full of the fallacies of the senses, which cannot be dispelled by those who are in mere knowledges from doctrine, and not in the perception of truth from good; mainly because the light of the world predominates with them, which light appears clear so long as the light of heaven does not flow into it, but as soon as the light of heaven flows in, instead of light it becomes obscurity. Hence it is that these persons are enlightened and clever in the things of the world, but obscured and dull in the things of heaven.
[3] These believe themselves enlightened when they have confirmed in themselves the doctrinal things of the church, but it is a sensuous light from the light of the world which then deceives them; for doctrinal things of every kind can be confirmed, as Jewish doctrinal things by the Jews, enthusiastic ones by enthusiasts, Socinian ones by the Socinians, and heresies by heretics of every sort; and when they have been confirmed, they appear to them in the sensuous light as very truths. But they who are in the light of heaven are in enlightenment from the Lord; and before confirmations, by looking into the memory-knowledges which are beneath and are there arranged in order, they discern whether it is a truth that may be confirmed or not. Hence it is evident that these latter have an interior view, which is above the memory-knowledges, and thus is distinct; whereas the former have a lower view, which is within the memory-knowledges, and thus is an entangled one (see n. 2831).

AC (Potts) n. 6866 sRef Ex@3 @11 S0′ 6866. And Moses said unto God. That this signifies perception from the Divine and humiliation, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being perception (of which frequently above); and from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to the law Divine (see n. 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827). The Divine is signified by “God.” That these words also involve humiliation is plain from what follows, for Moses says, “Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh, and bring forth the sons of Israel?” As by Moses is represented the Lord, and mention is here made of humiliation, something must be said about the state of the Lord’s humiliation when He was in the world. So far as the Lord was in the human not yet made Divine, so far He was in humiliation; but so far as He was in the Human made Divine, so far He could not be in humiliation, for so far He was God and Jehovah. The reason why He was in humiliation when in the human not yet made Divine, was that the human which He took from the mother was by heredity evil, and this could not come near to the Divine without humiliation; for in genuine humiliation a man divests himself of all ability to think and do anything from himself, and wholly leaves himself to the Divine, and thus draws near to the Divine. The Divine was indeed in the Lord, because He was conceived of Jehovah, but this appeared remote insofar as His human was in the heredity from the mother; for in spiritual and heavenly things it is unlikeness of state that causes removal and absence, and it is likeness of state that causes approach and presence; and it is love that makes likeness and unlikeness. All this shows whence came the state of humiliation with the Lord when He was in the world; but afterward, when He put off all the human which He took from the mother, insomuch that He was no longer her son, and put on the Divine, then the state of humiliation ceased, for then He was one with Jehovah.

AC (Potts) n. 6867 sRef Ex@3 @11 S0′ 6867. Who am I that I should go unto Pharaoh? That this signifies not being yet in such a state as to seem to himself to be able to go and remove the infesting falsities, is evident from the signification of “Who am I?” as being that he was not yet in such a state; and from the signification of “going to Pharaoh,” as being to go to the infesting falsities, for by “Pharaoh” is signified falsity which infests (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683). That it also denotes to remove, is because the holy proceeding from the Lord’s Human (of which above, n. 6864) removes falsities and evils, because these are quite unable to endure its presence. As these things were said from humiliation, it is said that he did not yet seem to himself able to do this.

AC (Potts) n. 6868 sRef Ex@3 @11 S0′ aRef Ecc@11 @3 S0′ 6868. And that I should bring forth the sons of Israel. That this signifies and thus to liberate those of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “bringing forth,” as being to liberate (see n. 6865); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those of the spiritual church (n. 6637, 6862, 6865).

AC (Potts) n. 6869 sRef Ex@3 @12 S0′ 6869. And He said, Because I will be with thee. That this signifies that the Divine will be in the Human, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to the law Divine (see n. 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827), thus as to the Human, for as shown above, the Lord made His Human the law Divine, that is, Divine truth, when He was in the world; and from the signification of “I will be with thee,” as being the Divine, for it is Jehovah who speaks.

AC (Potts) n. 6870 sRef Ex@3 @12 S0′ 6870. And this shall be the sign to thee that I have sent thee. That this signifies the knowledge that the Divine proceeded from Himself, is evident from the signification of a “sign,” as being the confirmation of truth, and hence the knowledge that it is so; and from the signification of “being sent,” as being to proceed (n. 2379, 4710, 6831); thus “to be sent of God” denotes to proceed from the Divine; and it also denotes that the Divine proceeds from Himself, for he who proceeds from the Divine, receives the Divine and advances it further.

AC (Potts) n. 6871 sRef Ex@3 @12 S0′ 6871. When thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt. That this signifies when the spiritual have been liberated from infestation by falsities, is evident from the signification of “bringing forth,” as being to liberate (of which above, n. 6865, 6868); from the signification of the “sons of Israel,” who in this case are “the people,” as being the spiritual, that is, those of the spiritual church (see n. 6637, 6862, 6865); and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being false memory-knowledge infesting (n. 6692).

AC (Potts) n. 6872 sRef Ex@3 @12 S0′ 6872. Ye shall worship God upon this mountain. That this signifies then perception and acknowledgment of the Divine from love, is evident from the signification of “worshiping God,” as being adoration of the Divine, but when said of the Lord, it denotes the perception and acknowledgment of the Divine in the Human; and from the signification of “mountain,” as being the good of the Divine love (see n. 795, 796, 2722, 4210, 6435, 6829). Hence it is evident that by “worshiping God upon this mountain,” when said of the Lord, is signified the perception and acknowledgment of the Divine from love.
[2] What the perception and acknowledgment of the Divine from love are, must be told. Every man’s quality is known from his love; for love is the being of the life of everyone, from it springing the veriest life itself; such therefore as the love is with a man, such is the man. If there is the love of self and of the world, consequently the love of revenge, of hatred, of cruelty, of adultery, and the like, the man is a devil as to his spirit, or as to the interior man which lives after death, however he may appear in the outward form. But if there is with a man the love of God and the love of the neighbor, and consequently the love of good and truth, also of what is just and honorable, then however he may appear in the outward form, he is an angel as to his spirit which lives after death. But He with whom there is Divine love, which was with the Lord alone, is God; thus His Human was made Divine when He received in the Human the love of His Father, which was the being of His life. From all this it can be seen what is meant by the perception and acknowledgment of the Divine from love.
[3] That man is altogether as is his love, is a constant truth, as is plain from the angels in the other life, who when seen appear as forms of love, the love itself not only shining forth, but also exhaling from them, so that you would say that they are wholly nothing but loves. The reason is, that all the interiors of an angel, as also of a man, are nothing but forms recipient of life, and because they are forms recipient of life, they are forms recipient of loves, for loves make the life of man. When therefore the inflowing love and the recipient form are in agreement, it follows that the angel or man is such as his love is; and this not only in his organic beginnings, which are in the brain, but also in the whole body, for the body is nothing but an organ derived from its beginnings.
[4] From all this it can be seen that man is made altogether new when he is being regenerated, for then each and all things with him are so disposed as to receive heavenly loves. Nevertheless with man the prior forms are not destroyed, but only removed; but with the Lord the prior forms, which were from the maternal, were completely destroyed and extirpated, and Divine forms were received in their place. For the Divine love does not agree with any but a Divine form; all other forms it absolutely casts out; hence it is that the Lord when glorified was no longer the son of Mary.

AC (Potts) n. 6873 sRef Ex@3 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @14 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @13 S0′ 6873. Verses 13-15. And Moses said unto God, Behold I come unto the sons of Israel, and say to them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they say to me, What is His name? What shall I say unto them? And God said unto Moses, I AM WHO I AM; and He said, Thus shalt thou say to the sons of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. And God said further unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel, Jehovah the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name forever, and this is My memorial unto generation and generation. “And Moses said unto God,” signifies perception from the Divine; “Behold I come unto the sons of Israel,” signifies about those who are of the spiritual church; “and say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you,” signifies that the Divine of the Ancient Church will be with those who are of the spiritual church; “and they say to me, What is His name?” signifies His quality; “what shall I say unto them?” signifies what answer; “and God said unto Moses,” signifies the first instruction; “I AM WHO I AM,” signifies the Being and Coming-forth of all things in the universe; “and He said, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel,” signifies the second instruction; “I AM hath sent me unto you,” signifies that the Divine Coming-forth shall be in that church; “and God said further unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel,” signifies the third instruction; “Jehovah the God of your fathers,” signifies the Divine of the Ancient Church; “the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob,” signifies the Divine Itself, and the Divine Human, thus the Lord; “hath sent me unto you,” signifies that He will be in their church; “this is My name forever,” signifies that the Divine Human is the quality of the Divine Itself; “and this is My memorial unto generation and generation,” signifies that He must be worshiped perpetually.

AC (Potts) n. 6874 sRef Ex@3 @13 S0′ 6874. And Moses said unto God. That this signifies perception from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “saying,” in the historicals of the Word, as being perception. That “God” denotes the Divine is plain. It is said perception from the Divine, because all perception is thence.

AC (Potts) n. 6875 sRef Ex@3 @13 S0′ 6875. Behold I come unto the sons of Israel. That this signifies about those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those of the spiritual church (see n. 6637, 6862, 6865).

AC (Potts) n. 6876 sRef Ex@3 @13 S0′ 6876. And say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you. That this signifies that the Divine of the Ancient Church will be with those of the spiritual church is evident from the signification of the “God of their fathers” as being the Divine of the Ancient Church (that “fathers” denote those who are of the Ancient Church, see n. 6050, 6075, 6846); from the representation of the sons of Israel, here meant by “you” as being those of the spiritual church (see n. 6875); and from the signification of “being sent” as being to proceed (n. 2397, 4710, 6831); here that he will be with them, for it is said of the Divine of the Ancient Church that this shall be in the spiritual church, which is represented by the sons of Israel.
[2] The Divine which was of the Ancient Church was the Lord as to the Divine Human; the Ancient Church had this from the Most Ancient, and also from the fact that Jehovah was seen by them in a human form. When therefore they thought of Jehovah, they did not think of a universal entity, of which they could have had no idea, but of the Human Divine, into which they could determine their thought; for in this way they could both think of Jehovah and be conjoined with Him by love. Those who were of the Ancient Church, and especially those of the Most Ancient, were much wiser than the men of our times, and yet they could not think otherwise of Jehovah than as of a Man, whose Human was Divine; nor did there then flow into their thought any unbecoming idea taken from the natural man, and his infirmity and evil, but that which flowed in concerning Him was all holy. The angels themselves, who so far excel men in wisdom, cannot think otherwise of the Divine, for they see the Lord in the Divine Human; they know that an angel, with whom all things are finite, can have no idea whatever of the Infinite, except by what is like the finite.
[3] That in ancient times they adored Jehovah under a human Divine is very evident from the angels seen by Abraham in human form, also afterward by Lot, and likewise by Joshua, by Gideon, and by Manoah, which angels were called “Jehovah,” and were adored as the God of the universe. At this day if Jehovah were to appear in the church as a man, men would take offence, and would think that He could not possibly be the Creator and Lord of the universe, because he was seen as a man; and moreover they would not have any other idea of Him than as of a common man. In this they believe themselves wiser than the ancients, not knowing that in this they are altogether removed from wisdom; for when the idea of the thought is directed to a universal entity altogether incomprehensible, the idea falls into nothing, and is totally dissipated; and then in its place comes the idea of nature, to which each and all things are attributed. Hence the worship of nature is at this day so common, especially in the Christian world.

AC (Potts) n. 6877 sRef Ex@3 @13 S0′ 6877. And they say to me, What is His name? That this signifies His quality, is evident from the signification of “name,” as being quality (see n. 1754, 1896, 2009, 2628, 2724, 3006, 6674). From this question of Moses appears the quality of the posterity of Jacob, namely, that they had not only forgotten the name “Jehovah,” but also that they acknowledged a number of gods, one of which was greater than another; hence it was that they would desire to know His name; they believed also that it was sufficient to acknowledge God as to name. That the posterity of Jacob were such was because they were only in externals without internals; and they who are without internals cannot think otherwise about God, because they cannot receive anything of light from heaven to enlighten their interiors. In order therefore that they might acknowledge Jehovah, it was said to them that the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, had been seen, and that He sent; thus they were induced to acknowledge Jehovah from a blind veneration for their fathers, but not from any internal perception. It was also sufficient for that people to worship Jehovah merely as to name, because they could not receive anything but the external of a church, thus that which only represented its internal; the external was instituted among them also in order that what was represented thereby might be presented in heaven in the internal form, and thus that there might still be some conjunction of heaven with man.

AC (Potts) n. 6878 sRef Ex@3 @13 S0′ 6878. What shall I say unto them? That this signifies what answer, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 6879 sRef Ex@3 @14 S0′ 6879. And God said unto Moses. That this signifies the first instruction, is evident from the signification of “God said” (here to Moses, by whom is represented the Lord as to the Divine truth, and from Moses to the people, thus from the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Human, to those of the spiritual church), as being instruction, here the first instruction, because it is in regard to God Himself who is to be worshiped. For the first of the church is the knowledge that there is a God, and that He is to be worshiped. His first quality to be known is that He created the universe, and that the created universe subsists from Him.

AC (Potts) n. 6880 sRef Ex@3 @14 S0′ sRef John@1 @3 S0′ 6880. I AM WHO I AM. That this signifies the Being and Coming-forth of all things in the universe, is evident from the fact that “I AM” is Being, and because He alone is Being, it is said in the nominative case. That it is twice said “I AM,” that is, “I AM WHO I AM,” is because the one signifies Being and the other Coming-forth; thus the one signifies the Divine Itself, which is called the “Father,” and the other the Divine Human, which is called the “Son;” for the Divine Human comes-forth from the Divine Itself. But when the Lord as to the Human also was made the Divine Being [Esse] or Jehovah, then the Divine truth, which proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human, is the Divine Coming-forth from the Divine Being. From this it can be seen that the Divine Being cannot communicate Itself to anyone except through the Divine Coming-forth; that is, the Divine Itself cannot communicate Itself except through the Divine Human, and the Divine Human can not communicate itself except through the Divine truth, which is the Holy of the Spirit: this is meant by its being said that all things were made by the Word (John 1:3). It appears to man as if the Divine truth were not such that anything can come forth by means of it; for it is believed that it is like a voice, which being uttered with the lips, is dissipated. But it is altogether otherwise; the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord is the veriest reality, and such a reality that all things have come forth from it, and all things subsist from it; for whatever proceeds from the Lord is the veriest reality in the universe; and such is the Divine truth, which is called the “Word,” through which all things were made.

AC (Potts) n. 6881 sRef Ex@3 @14 S0′ 6881. And He said, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel. That this signifies the second instruction, is evident from the signification of “God said,” when said a second time, as being something new of perception (see n. 2061, 2238, 2260); here the something new of perception is the second instruction; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those of the spiritual church, for whom that instruction was.

AC (Potts) n. 6882 sRef Ex@3 @14 S0′ 6882. I AM hath sent me unto you. That this signifies that the Divine Coming-forth shall be in that church, is evident from the signification of “I AM,” as being the Divine Itself and the Divine Human (see just above, n. 6880); and from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to the Divine law, that is, as to the Divine truth (that the Divine truth is the Coming-forth from the Divine Human, because it is what proceeds from Him, see also n. 6880); and from the signification of “being sent to them,” as being that it will be in the spiritual church (n. 6876). This is the second instruction. The first was that God, from whom all things are, must be acknowledged; the second is, that the Divine truth, which is from Him, must be received.

AC (Potts) n. 6883 sRef Ex@3 @15 S0′ 6883. And God said further unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel. That this signifies the third instruction is evident from what has been unfolded just above (n. 6881).

AC (Potts) n. 6884 sRef Ex@3 @15 S0′ 6884. Jehovah, the God of your fathers. That this signifies the Divine of the Ancient Church, is evident from what was said above (n. 6876), where are like words. In the external historic sense, by “the God of their fathers” is meant the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; but in the internal sense is meant the Divine of the Ancient Church. That the latter, and not the former, is meant in the internal sense, can be seen from the fact that the historicals of the Word cannot enter into heaven; for the historical of the Word is natural and worldly, and those who are in heaven are in no ideas but what are spiritual, so that they understand the Word spiritually; and what is worldly, which is of the sense of the letter of the Word, is at the very threshold of heaven turned into the spiritual sense. That this is so, can in some measure be seen from the fact that man also frequently turns those things which are said into such as engage his whole thought; thus he who is in unclean things, into what is unclean; and he who is in clean things, into what is clean. Hence then it is that they who are in heaven, by “the God of your fathers” do not perceive the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob (for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are not known in heaven), but the Lord who is represented by them; and therefore it is the Divine of the Ancient Church which is signified by these words.

AC (Potts) n. 6885 sRef Ex@3 @15 S0′ 6885. The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. That this signifies the Divine Itself and the Divine Human, thus the Lord, is evident from what was shown above (n. 6847), where are the same words.

AC (Potts) n. 6886 sRef Ex@3 @15 S0′ 6886. Hath sent me unto you. That this signifies that He will be in their church, is evident from the signification of “being sent to you,” as being that He will be in the spiritual church (seen. 6876, 6882).

AC (Potts) n. 6887 sRef Ex@3 @15 S0′ sRef John@1 @18 S1′ sRef John@5 @37 S1′ 6887. This is My name forever. That this signifies that the Divine Human is the quality of the Divine Itself is evident from the signification of the name “God” as being all in one complex whereby God is worshiped, thus His quality (see n. 2724, 3006, 6674); and as the Divine Itself cannot be worshiped, because it cannot be approached either by faith or by love, being above every idea, according to the Lord’s words in John, “No man hath seen God at any time; the Only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth” (John 1:18), and again, “Ye have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His shape” (John 5:37), therefore it is the Divine Human, because the quality of the Divine Itself, which can be approached and worshiped.
sRef Isa@42 @7 S2′ sRef John@12 @28 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @6 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @8 S2′ [2] That the Divine Human is the “name of Jehovah” is plain in John:
Jesus said, Father, glorify Thy name; then came there a voice from heaven, I have both glorified, and will glorify again (John 12:28);
here the Lord as to the Divine Human calls Himself the “name of the Father.” In Isaiah:
I Jehovah have called Thee in righteousness, and I will take hold of Thy hand, because I will keep thee, and give Thee for a covenant to the people, for a light of the Gentiles; to open the blind eyes, to bring out the bound from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house. I am Jehovah; this is My name; and My glory will I not give to another (Isa. 42:6-8);
here and in the preceding verses of the chapter, the Lord is openly treated of; that He it is who is meant by the “name of Jehovah” is plain from the fact that it is said, “My glory will I not give to another”; which words when spoken of the Lord mean giving glory to Himself, because they are one.
sRef Matt@6 @9 S3′ sRef Ex@23 @21 S3′ sRef Ex@23 @20 S3′ [3] And in Moses:
Behold I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Take heed of his faces and hear his voice, for he will not endure your transgression; for My name is in the midst of him (Exod. 23:20-21);
that by the “angel of Jehovah” is here meant the Lord as to the Divine Human, see n. 6831; and as the Divine Human is the quality of the Divine Itself, therefore it is said that “the name of Jehovah is in the midst of him.” In the Lord’s Prayer also, by
Our Father in the heavens; hallowed be Thy name (Matt. 6:9)
is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human; and also all in one complex whereby He is to be worshiped.

AC (Potts) n. 6888 sRef Ex@3 @15 S0′ sRef Hos@12 @6 S0′ sRef Hos@12 @5 S0′ sRef Ps@30 @4 S0′ 6888. And this is My memorial unto generation and generation. That this signifies that it must be worshiped perpetually is evident from the signification of “memorial” as being what must be remembered, and when said of the Divine, it denotes the quality in the worship; and from the signification of “generation and generation” as being perpetually. In the Word, “forever” and also “to generation of generations” is said, and this sometimes in one verse; and for the reason that “forever” is predicated of the Divine good, and “generation of generations” of the Divine truth. So it is with the signification of “memorial” and of name; “memorial” being predicated of the quality of the Divine in worship as to truth, but “name” of the quality of the Divine in worship as to both truth and good, and specifically as to good. That “memorial” denotes the quality of the Divine in the worship is plain in Hosea:
Jehovah, God Zebaoth, Jehovah is His memorial. Therefore turn thou to God; keep piety and judgement (Hos. 12:5-6);
where the quality of worship as to truth is treated of, and therefore it is said “Jehovah is His memorial.” In David:
Sing ye to Jehovah, O ye saints of His, and confess ye to the memorial of His holiness (Psalm 30:4; 97:12);
that “holy” is said of truth may be seen above (n. 6788); the derivative worship is signified by “the memorial of His holiness.”

AC (Potts) n. 6889 sRef Ex@3 @20 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@3 @18 S0′ 6889. Verses 16-20. Go and gather the elders of Israel together, and say unto them, Jehovah the God of your fathers hath been seen of me, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, saying, Visiting I have visited you, and that which is done to you in Egypt; and I say, I will make you come up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, unto a land flowing with milk and honey. And they shall hear thy voice, and thou shalt go in, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto him, Jehovah God of the Hebrews hath met with us; and now let us go we pray a way of three days into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to Jehovah our God. And I know that the king of Egypt will not allow you to go, and not by a strong hand. And I will put forth My hand, and smite Egypt with all My wonders which I will do in the midst thereof and afterward he will send you away. “Go and gather the elders of Israel together,” signifies the intelligent in the spiritual church; “and say unto them,” signifies instruction; “Jehovah the God of your fathers,” signifies the Divine of the Ancient Church; “hath been seen of me,” signifies His presence; “the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob,” signifies the Divine Itself, and the Divine Human of the Lord; “saying, Visiting I have visited you,” signifies His coming to those who are of the church; “and that which is done to you in Egypt,” signifies the endeavor to subjugate; “and I say, I will make you come up out of the affliction of Egypt,” signifies a raising and liberation from false memory-knowledges; “unto the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite,” signifies the region of heaven occupied by those who are in evils and falsities; “unto a land flowing with milk and honey,” signifies where are pleasantness and delight; “and they shall hear thy voice,” signifies obedience; “and thou shalt go in, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt,” signifies communication with those who are in falsities and who have infested; “and ye shall say unto him” signifies influx; “Jehovah God of the Hebrews hath met with us,” signifies the Divine of the Lord in the church, and His command; “and now let us go we pray a way of three days into the wilderness,” signifies the life of truth in a state altogether removed from falsities, although in obscurity; “that we may sacrifice to Jehovah our God,” signifies thus the worship of the Lord; “and I know,” signifies foresight; “that the king of Egypt will not allow you to go,” signifies that falsity would oppose itself; “and not by a strong hand,” signifies that the power of those who are of the spiritual church will not prevail against them; “and I will put forth My hand,” signifies power from the Divine; “and smite Egypt with all My wonders,” signifies the means of Divine power against falsities; “which I will do in the midst thereof,” signifies which shall touch them directly; “and afterward he will send you away,” signifies their being driven away, and liberation.

AC (Potts) n. 6890 sRef Ex@3 @16 S0′ 6890. Go and gather the elders of Israel together. That this signifies the intelligent in the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “elders,” as being the chief things of wisdom and intelligence (see n. 6524, 6525), thus the intelligent; and from the representation of Israel, as being the spiritual church (n. 4286, 6426).

AC (Potts) n. 6891 sRef Ex@3 @16 S0′ 6891. And say unto them. That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of “saying unto them,” when this is done by Moses, by whom is represented the law from the Divine, as being instruction (as above, n. 6879, 6881, 6883).

AC (Potts) n. 6892 sRef Ex@3 @16 S0′ 6892. Jehovah the God of your fathers. That this signifies the Divine of the Ancient Church, is evident from what has been unfolded above (n. 6884), where are the same words.

AC (Potts) n. 6893 sRef Ex@3 @16 S0′ 6893. Hath been seen of me. That this signifies presence, is evident from the signification of “being seen of” anyone as being presence; for by “being seen,” in the internal sense, is not signified being seen by the eyes, but by the thought. Thought itself also causes presence, for the person thought of appears as if present before the internal sight. In the other life this is actually the case, for when anyone is there thought of intently, he becomes present; hence it is that in the other life friends meet together, and also foes, and from the latter they suffer severely.

AC (Potts) n. 6894 sRef Ex@3 @16 S0′ 6894. The God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob. That this signifies the Divine Itself, and the Divine Human of the Lord, is evident from what was shown above (n. 6847).

AC (Potts) n. 6895 sRef Ex@3 @16 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @3 S0′ sRef Matt@24 @30 S0′ 6895. Saying, Visiting I have visited you. That this signifies His coming to those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “visiting,” as being the coming of the Lord, which precedes the last time of the church, which time in the Word is called the “Last Judgment.” (That this is meant by “visitation,” see n. 2242, 6588.) That this is called “the Lord’s coming,” is plain from these words in Matthew:
The disciples said unto Jesus, Tell us when shall these things shall be? and what is the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age? (Matt. 24:3);
and then the Lord instructed the disciples about the last time of the church, as can be seen from what has been unfolded above (n. 3353-3356, 3486-3489, 3897-3901, 4056-4060, 4229-4231, 4422-4424); and He said that when all these things should come to pass, “then shall appear the sign of the Son of man, and then shall all the tribes of the earth wail, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory” (Matt. 24:30).
sRef Gen@50 @24 S2′ [2] That by the “coming of the Lord” is not meant His appearing with angels in the clouds, but acknowledgment in hearts by love and faith (see n. 3353, 3900); also His appearing from the Word, the inmost or supreme sense of which treats of the Lord alone (n. 4060). This coming is meant by the coming of the Lord which takes place when an old church is rejected, and a new church is set up again by the Lord. And as newness of the church was now to be restored with the posterity of Jacob, it is said, “Visiting I have visited you,” as was also said by Joseph when he died:
Joseph said unto his brethren, I die; and visiting God will visit you, and will make you come up out of this land unto the land which He sware to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob (Gen. 50:24);
by “visiting to visit you,” in the sense of the letter, is here signified liberation from slavery in Egypt, and introduction into the land of Canaan; but this is not the spiritual content of the Word, but the natural. The spiritual of the Word treats of the Lord, of His kingdom and church, and of love and faith; and therefore by “visiting to visit” in the spiritual sense is meant liberation from falsities, and thus initiation into what is of the Lord’s church and kingdom, thus the coming of the Lord in love and faith with those who will be of the new church.

AC (Potts) n. 6896 sRef Ex@3 @16 S0′ 6896. And that which is done to you in Egypt. That this signifies the endeavor to subjugate, is evident from what goes before, in regard to the affliction and oppression of the sons of Israel, that is, of those who are of the spiritual church; this is what is meant by “that which was done to you in Egypt.” (That those afflictions and oppression signify infestations and endeavors to subjugate, see n. 6633, 6666, 6668, 6670, 6671, 6851, 6852, 6863.)

AC (Potts) n. 6897 sRef Ex@3 @17 S0′ 6897. And I say, I will make you come up out of the affliction of Egypt. That this signifies a raising and liberation from infestation by false memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of “making to come up,” as being a raising toward interior things (see n. 3084, 4539, 5406, 5817, 6007), a raising toward interior things is a raising from infestation by falsities to the truths and goods of faith, hence also “to make to come up” denotes liberation; from the signification of “affliction,” as being infestation (n. 6663, 6851); and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being false memory-knowledge (n. 6651, 6679, 6683).

AC (Potts) n. 6898 sRef Ex@3 @17 S0′ 6898. Unto the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite. That this signifies the region of heaven occupied by those who are in evils and falsities, is evident from what was shown above (n. 6854, 6858). (That the “Canaanites” and the “Hittites” denote those who are in evils from falsities, see n. 6858; that the “Amorites” and the “Perizzites” denote those who are in evils and the derivative falsities, n. 6859; and that the “Hivites” and the “Jebusites” denote those who are in idolatry in which there is somewhat of good and truth, n. 6860.)

AC (Potts) n. 6899 sRef Ex@3 @17 S0′ 6899. Unto a land flowing with milk and honey. That this signifies where are pleasantness and delight, is evident from the signification of “milk and honey,” as being pleasantness and delight (of which above, n. 6857).

AC (Potts) n. 6900 sRef Ex@3 @18 S0′ 6900. And they shall hear thy voice. That this signifies obedience, is evident from the signification of “hearing,” as being obedience (see n. 2542, 3869, 4652-4660).

AC (Potts) n. 6901 sRef Ex@3 @18 S0′ 6901. And thou shalt go in, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt. That this signifies communication with those who are in falsities and who have infested, is evident from the signification of “going in,” as being communication, for “to go in,” in the spiritual sense, is to communicate to another one’s thought; from the representation of Moses, as being the law from the Divine (see n. 6827); from the signification of “elders,” as being the intelligent (n. 6523, 6525, 6890); and from the representation of Pharaoh, or the king of Egypt, as being falsity infesting the truths of the church (n. 6651, 6679, 6683). From all this it is evident that by “go in, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt” is signified the communication of such things as are of the law from the Divine, and of the intelligence thence derived, to those who are in falsities and who infested.

AC (Potts) n. 6902 sRef Ex@3 @18 S0′ 6902. And ye shall say unto him. That this signifies influx, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being influx (see n. 5743, 6152, 6291). That “to say” here denotes influx, is because the communication of such things as are of the law from the Divine, and of the intelligence thence derived (n. 6901), is effected by influx.

AC (Potts) n. 6903 sRef Ex@3 @18 S0′ 6903. Jehovah God of the Hebrews hath met with us. That this signifies the Divine of the Lord in the church, and His command, is evident from the signification of “the Hebrews,” as being the church (see n. 5136, 6675, 6684); that “Jehovah God” denotes the Divine of the Lord, is because by “Jehovah” no other is meant in the Word than the Lord (n. 1736, 2921; 3023, 3035, 5041, 5663, 6303); and from the signification of “meeting,” as here being a command; for by “meeting” is here meant that He spoke with them, and gave orders. That this is involved in “meeting,” is evident from the fact that it is not further said what He spoke, but His command immediately follows.

AC (Potts) n. 6904 sRef Ex@3 @18 S0′ 6904. And now let us go we pray a way of three days into the wilderness. That this signifies the life of truth in a state altogether removed from falsities, although in obscurity, is evident from the signification of “going,” as being life (see n. 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605); from the signification of “a way,” as being truth (n. 627, 2333); from the signification of “three days,” as being a full state (n. 2788, 4495), thus when removal from falsities is treated of, it denotes a state altogether removed from them (that “to put a way of three days” denotes to completely separate, see n. 4010); and from the signification of a “wilderness,” as being what is uninhabited and uncultivated (n. 2708, 3900), which in the spiritual sense denotes obscurity of faith. For the subject here treated of is the setting up of a spiritual church, signified by the “sons of Israel;” and they who are of that church are relatively in obscurity in respect to the good and truth of faith (n. 2708, 2715, 2716, 2718, 2831, 2849, 2935, 2937, 3241, 3246, 3833, 4402, 6289, 6500, 6865). The life of truth is the life which they live who are of the spiritual church; for the truth which they know from the Word, or from the doctrine of their church, when it is made of the life, is called good, but it is truth in act.

AC (Potts) n. 6905 sRef Ex@3 @18 S0′ 6905. That we may sacrifice to Jehovah our God. That this signifies thus the worship of the Lord, is evident from the signification of “sacrificing,” as being worship in general (see n. 923); for in the Hebrew church, and afterward with the posterity of Jacob, all worship had reference to sacrifices, as can be seen from the fact that they were offered daily, and many at every festival; also at inaugurations, at purifications, for sins, for guilt, besides in consequence of vows, and of free-will. Hence it is that by “sacrifices” is signified worship in general. That it is the worship of the Lord which is signified by “sacrificing to Jehovah God,” is very evident from the fact that sacrifices represented none other than the Lord, and the Divine celestial and spiritual things which are from Him (see n. 1823, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519); and also from the fact that by “Jehovah God” in the Word none other than the Lord is meant (see n. 6903); by “Jehovah” His Divine Being, and by “God” the Divine Coming-forth thence derived; thus by “Jehovah” the Divine good of His Divine love, and by “God” the Divine truth proceeding from His Divine good.

AC (Potts) n. 6906 sRef Ex@3 @19 S0′ 6906. And I know. That this signifies foresight, is evident from the signification of “knowing,” when predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, as being foresight (see above, n. 6853).

AC (Potts) n. 6907 sRef Ex@3 @19 S0′ 6907. That the king of Egypt will not allow you to go. That this signifies that falsity will oppose itself, is evident from the signification of “not allowing you to go,” as being to oppose itself, for he who does not allow, when it is said that there is a Divine command (n. 6903), and who denies leave to anyone to worship God, sets himself in opposition, as all are wont to do who are in falsity that is confirmed in themselves; from the representation of Pharaoh or the king of Egypt, as being falsity (n. 6651, 6679, 6683); and from the signification of “to go,” namely “a way of three days into the wilderness to sacrifice to Jehovah God,” as being to live according to truth in a state altogether removed from falsities, and to worship the Lord in this way (n. 6904).
[2] How the case is with those who are in falsity, and who are represented by the king of Egypt, in that they set themselves in opposition to those who are in truths, must be told. In the world they who are in falsity do not openly oppose themselves to those who are in truth, for external bonds restrain them, which are fears lest they should appear to be against the laws of the realm and of the church, so that they could not seem to be good citizens; for in this world everyone wishes to seem just and true in outward form, and the wicked more so than the well-disposed, in order that they may captivate the minds of others, and deceive for the sake of gain and honors. Nevertheless inwardly they set themselves in opposition, for whenever they hear anyone professing the truths of the church, not from his office but from zeal, they ridicule inwardly, and they would openly deride if external bonds did not then restrain them. When such come into the other life, external bonds no longer restrain them, for these are then taken away from them in order that everyone may appear in his true character; and then they openly set themselves in opposition to those who are in truths, and infest them in every possible way. This is then the very delight of their life; and when they are warned not to do such things, because if they do not desist, they will at last be removed altogether and thrust down into hell, still they pay no attention to this, but constantly persist in the infestation as before, so greatly are they in the delight of life from falsity, and this taking such possession of them that they do not admit anything which is of intelligence. These are the things signified by the words “the king of Egypt will not allow you to go,” and which are represented by Pharaoh, in that he so often set himself in opposition. The removal of such spirits, and the thrusting of them down into hell, is represented by the destruction of Pharaoh and the Egyptians in the sea Suph.
[3] They who are in evil of life, and from this in falsity, are in the light of the world, for this is the light by which intellectual objects are seen; this light, with those who are in falsity from evil, has a ruddy glow, and the more so in proportion as they are more in falsity from evil. The glory of the world, which is from the love of self, kindles this light, and causes its glow; and because this is so, truths appear therein wholly as falsities, and falsities wholly as truths. The reason is that heavenly light cannot flow into a beam of that light, but becomes thick darkness when with it; hence it is that such are in a strong persuasion in favor of falsities against truths; because in that light they see them in this way. But with those who are in truths from good, the light of the world does not glow, but is obscure; while the light of heaven with them is clear and bright, and because this light is so clear, truths appear in it as truths, and falsities as falsities. For when this light falls upon falsities, which in the light of the world separate from the light of heaven appear as truths, it not only obscures but altogether extinguishes them. This light, namely, the light of heaven, becomes successively brighter and brighter with them, and at last so much so that the light of the world cannot be compared to it. From all this appears the reason why they who are in falsities from evil, from so strong a persuasion oppose themselves to those who are in truths, which opposition has been treated of above.

AC (Potts) n. 6908 sRef Ex@3 @19 S0′ 6908. And not by a strong hand. That this signifies that the power of those who are of the spiritual church will not prevail against them, is evident from the signification of “hand,” as being power (see n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937); hence “not by a strong hand” denotes power which will not prevail. That the power of those who are of the spiritual church is here meant, is plain from the words which presently follow, “and I will put forth My hand, and smite Egypt with all My wonders,” whereby is signified that they would be overcome by power from the Divine, and by the means of this power.

AC (Potts) n. 6909 sRef Ex@3 @20 S0′ 6909. And I will put forth My hand. That this signifies power from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “hand,” as being power (see n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937); and as Jehovah or the Lord says this of Himself, it denotes power from the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 6910 sRef Ex@3 @20 S0′ 6910. And smite Egypt with all My wonders. That this signifies the means of Divine power against falsities, is evident from the signification of “Egypt,” as being falsity (of which frequently above); and from the signification of “wonders,” as being the means of Divine power, whereby they are subjugated who are in evils and infest. That “wonders” denote the means of Divine power, by which they are subjugated who are in falsities, is evident from the wonders or miracles done in Egypt, whereby the Egyptians were at last driven to send away the sons of Israel; every such wonder or miracle there signifies a means of Divine power.

AC (Potts) n. 6911 sRef Ex@3 @20 S0′ 6911. Which I will do in the midst thereof. That this signifies which shall touch them directly, is evident from the signification of “the midst,” as being what is within (see n. 1074, 2940, 2973), thus what directly touches; for that which directly touches anyone is within him; but that which does not touch directly, is also without, for it strikes obliquely, and in part passes by.

AC (Potts) n. 6912 sRef Ex@3 @20 S0′ 6912. And afterward he will send you away. That this signifies the driving away of those who are in falsities, and the liberation of those who are in truths, is evident from the signification of “sending,” or “letting go,” as here being to be driven away; for they who are in falsities never let go, even though it were to eternity, unless they are driven away; therefore by “sending,” in the internal sense, is here signified driving away, and the consequent liberation.

AC (Potts) n. 6913 6913. Verses 21, 22. And I will give this people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians; and it shall be that when ye go, ye shall not go empty; and every woman shall ask of her neighbor, and of her that sojourneth in her house, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters, and ye shall spoil the Egyptians. “And I will give this people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians,” signifies the fear of those who are in falsities before those who are of the spiritual church, by reason of the plagues; “and it shall be that when ye go, ye shall not go empty,” signifies life no longer in need in respect to the things of the natural mind; “but every woman shall ask of her neighbor, and of her that sojourneth in her house,” signifies that everyone’s good shall be enriched with such things as are helpful; “vessels of silver,” signifies memory-knowledges of truth; “and vessels of gold,” signifies memory-knowledges of good; “and garments,” signifies lower memory-knowledges corresponding thereto; “and ye shall put them upon your sons,” signifies applying them to their truths; “and upon your daughters,” signifies applying them to goods; “and ye shall spoil the Egyptians,” signifies that such things are to be taken away from those who are in falsities and the derivative evils.

AC (Potts) n. 6914 6914. And I will give this people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians. That this signifies the fear of those who are in falsities before those who are of the spiritual church, by reason of the plagues, is evident from the signification of “giving favor,” as being fear by reason of plagues (of which below); from the representation of the sons of Israel, who are here “the people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (see n. 6637); and from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who are in falsities (of which frequently above). That “to give favor in the eyes of the Egyptians” signifies fear by reason of plagues with those who are in falsities, is evident from the meaning of the things in the internal sense, for those who are in falsities are treated of, who are signified by the “Egyptians,” in that truths and goods were to be taken away from them, and to be transferred to those who are of the spiritual church; and as those who are in falsities are treated of, by “favor” is not meant favor, for they who are in falsities and evils never have any favor for anyone; but if they benefit anyone, or do not injure him, it is from fear of plagues; this is the source of their favor, and this is the “favor” which is here meant in the internal sense. The internal sense sets forth things such as they are, not such as they are presented in the letter; and applies each to the subject. That this is so, is plain also from what follows concerning the Egyptians, in that they did not let the sons of Israel go from any favor, but from fear on account of further plagues (Exod. 11:1; 12:33).
[2] As the spoiling of the Egyptians is treated of in these two verses by the women of Israel asking from the Egyptian women silver, gold, and garments, and as it cannot possibly be known how this is, except from revelation about the things that take place in the other life, for the internal sense involves such things as take place among angels and spirits, therefore it shall be told. That before the Lord’s coming the lower part of heaven was occupied by evil genii and spirits, and that they were afterward expelled thence and that region given to those of the spiritual church, may be seen above (n. 6858). So long as the evil genii and spirits were there, they were under the continual view of the angels of the higher heaven, and by this they were restrained from doing evils openly. At this day also some who are more deceitful than others, because they deceive by a pretence of innocence and charity, are under the view of the celestials, and so long as this is the case they are withheld from their wicked arts. They are directly above the head, and the celestial angels, under whose view they are, are still higher. From this it has been given me to know what was the state of the evil genii and spirits who before the coming of the Lord occupied the lower region of heaven, namely, that at that time they were withheld by the angels of the higher heaven from doing evils openly.
[3] But in what manner they were withheld from doing evils openly, it has also been given me to know. They were kept in external bonds, namely, in fear of the loss of honor and reputation, and in fear of the deprivation of possessions in that region of heaven, and of being thrust down into hell; and then there were joined to them simple good spirits; as is the case with men in the world, who, though inwardly devils, are nevertheless kept by such external bonds in the pretence of what is honorable and just, and in well-doing; and in order that they may be so kept, there are joined to them spirits who are in simple good. This was the case with the evil who were in the lower region of heaven before the coming of the Lord; and then they also could be driven to speak truth and to do good by means of their own loves; no otherwise than evil priests, even the worst, who are devils inwardly, who can preach the doctrinal things of their own church with such ardor and pretended zeal as to move the hearts of their hearers to piety, and yet at the same time they are in the love of self and of the world. For thought about honor and gain is what universally reigns within them, and from this fire they are stirred up so to preach. It is the evil spirits with whom they are, and who are in similar love, and thence in similar thought, who lead them; and to these are joined simple good spirits. From all this it can be seen what the state of heaven was before the Lord’s coming.
[4] But after His coming the states of heaven and of hell were quite changed, for then the evil genii and spirits who occupied the lower region of heaven were cast down, and in their stead they who were of the spiritual church were taken up thither. The evil who were cast down were then deprived of the external bonds which as before said were fears of the loss of honor and reputation, and of the losing of possessions in that region; and in this way they were left to their interiors, which were no other than diabolical and infernal, and so they were consigned to the hells. The taking away of external bonds is effected in the other life by the removal of the good spirits who had been joined to the evil ones. When these are removed, the infernals can no longer be in any pretence of what is good, just, and honorable, but are such as they had been inwardly in the world, that is, such as they had been in thought and will, which they had there concealed from others; and then they desire nothing else than to do evil. These simple good spirits who were taken away from them, were given or joined to those who were of the spiritual church, to whom that region of heaven was given for a possession; and it was from this that these latter were enriched with the truths and goods which were before in the possession of the evil genii and spirits; for enrichment in truths and goods in the other life is effected by the adjoining of spirits who are in truth and good, because through these is effected communication.
[5] This is what is signified by the sons of Israel not going empty from Egypt, and by a woman asking of her neighbor, and of her that sojourned in her house, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, and thus spoiling the Egyptians. Everyone can see that unless such things had been represented, the Divine would never have commanded that the sons of Israel should use such guile against the Egyptians; for every such thing is very far from the Divine. But as the Israelitish people was altogether representative, it was permitted them by the Divine to do so, because it was so done with the evil in the other life. Be it known that very many things which were commanded by Jehovah or the Lord, in the internal sense do not signify that they were commanded, but that they were permitted.

AC (Potts) n. 6915 6915. And it shall be that when ye go, ye shall not go empty. That this signifies life no longer in need in respect to the things of the natural mind, is evident from the signification of “going,” as being life (see n. 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605, 6904); and from the signification of “not going empty,” as being life no longer in need. That “emptiness” denotes where there is no truth may be seen above (n. 4744), thus it denotes where there is spiritual need. That it denotes need in respect to the things of the natural mind is plain from what precedes, namely, that they who are of the spiritual church, who are represented by the sons of Israel, were infested by those who were in false memory-knowledges, who are signified by the “Egyptians,” consequently as to the things of the natural mind, for the things of this mind are called memory-knowledges. These also especially infest the spiritual, for their thought is within such knowledges, and but little above them (see n. 6865).

AC (Potts) n. 6916 6916. But every woman shall ask of her neighbor, and of her that sojourneth in her house. That this signifies that the good of everyone will be enriched with such things as are helpful, is evident from the signification of “woman,” as being the affection of the good of charity (see n. 6014); from the signification of “her neighbor,” as being the affection of truth with those who are in memory-knowledges; and from the signification of “her that sojourneth in her house,” as being the affection of good, which is also with them. As she was to ask of her neighbor and of her that sojourned in the house, there are signified the truths and goods which are nearest, thus which are helpful. How the case herein is, is plain from what was adduced just above (n. 6914); a “woman” was to ask because by “woman” is signified the good of charity, and this must be what is to be enriched; for in order that good may become good, there must be truths to qualify it. The reason is that when anyone lives according to truths, the truths themselves then become goods; and therefore such as is the quality of the truth, such becomes the good. This good afterward associates and adjoins to itself no other truths than such as are in accord with its own quality, consequently no other than such as are helpful, thus which are in the neighborhood and in the house.

AC (Potts) n. 6917 6917. Vessels of silver, and vessels of gold. That “vessels of silver” signify the memory-knowledges of truth, and “vessels of gold” the memory-knowledges of good, is evident from the signification of “vessels,” as being memory-knowledges (see n. 3068, 3079); memory-knowledges are called “vessels” because they are generals, and can contain within them innumerable truths and manifold goods; from the signification of “silver” as being truth, and of “gold” as being good (n. 1551, 1552, 2954, 5658). (That the “silver” of Egypt denotes true and suitable memory-knowledge may be seen above, n. 6112.) As to the “vessels of silver and gold” with the Egyptians being the memory-knowledges of truth and the memory-knowledges of good, when yet by the “Egyptians” both here and in what precedes, and also in what follows, are signified false memory-knowledges, be it known that in themselves these knowledges are not truths, neither are they falsities, but that they become truths with those who are in truths, and falsities with those who are in falsities, this being the effect of their application and use. It is with man’s memory-knowledges as with his riches and wealth. Riches and wealth are hurtful to those who are in evil, because they apply them to evil uses; but they are useful to those who are in good, because they apply them to good uses. If therefore the riches and wealth which pertain to the evil are transferred to the good, they become good.
[2] The same is true of memory-knowledges. For example: with the Egyptians there remained many things from the representatives of the Ancient Church, as is manifest from their hieroglyphics, but as they applied those things to magic, and hence made an evil use of them, therefore to them they were not true memory-knowledges, but false memory-knowledges; yet the same in the Ancient Church were true memory-knowledges, because they applied them rightly to Divine worship.
To take also as an example, altars and sacrifices; these with the Hebrew nation, and afterward with the Jewish and Israelitish nation, were true rituals, because they applied them to the worship of Jehovah; but with the nations in the land of Canaan they were false rituals, because they applied them to the worship of their idols, and therefore also it was commanded that the altars of these nations should everywhere be destroyed. It is the same with numberless other things. Therefore by those who are in evils and falsities many memory-knowledges can be acquired which are capable of being applied to good uses, and thus of becoming good.
sRef 2Sam@8 @10 S3′ sRef 2Sam@8 @11 S3′ sRef Isa@23 @18 S3′ sRef 2Sam@8 @12 S3′ [3] Such are also signified by the spoiling of the nations in the land of Canaan and by the wealth, the herds, the cattle, the houses, the vineyards, which the sons of Israel there took for spoil. This is still plainer from the gold and silver taken from the nations for spoil being also applied to a holy use, as is evident from these passages:
There were in his hand vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of brass: these also did King David sanctify unto Jehovah, with the silver and gold which he had sanctified of all the nations which he subdued; of the Syrians, of Moab, and of the sons of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer son of Rehob, king of Zobah (2 Sam. 8:10-12).
And the merchandise of Tyre and her harlot hire shall be holiness to Jehovah; it shall not be stored up, nor kept back; but her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before Jehovah, to eat till they are sated, and for the ancient to cover himself (Isa. 23:18).
These things also which the women of the sons of Israel borrowed from the Egyptians, and thus took for spoil, were afterward applied to the use of constructing the ark and many other of the holy things of their worship.

AC (Potts) n. 6918 6918. And garments. That this signifies lower memory-knowledges corresponding thereto, is evident from the signification of “garments,” as being lower memory-knowledges (see n. 2576, 5248). “Garments” have this signification because they clothe interior things.

AC (Potts) n. 6919 6919. And ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters. That this signifies application to their truths and to their goods, is evident from the signification of “sons,” as being truths (see n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373); from the signification of “daughters,” as being goods (n. 489-491, 2362, 2363); and from the signification of “to put upon them,” as being to apply, for that which is put upon anyone is applied.

AC (Potts) n. 6920 6920. And ye shall spoil the Egyptians. That this signifies that such things were to be taken from those who were in falsities and the derivative evils, is evident from the signification of “spoiling” as being to take away; and from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who are in falsities (of which frequently above). How the case herein is, is evident from what has been adduced above (n. 6914, 6917).

AC (Potts) n. 6921 6921. CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE SPIRITS OF THE PLANET MERCURY.
At the end of the preceding chapter it was shown that the spirits of the planet Mercury constitute in the Grand Man the memory of things not material; and as they therefore love to know things abstracted from what is material, they are more prompt and quick than other spirits in discerning, thinking, and speaking; for material things are like weights which induce slowness and retard, because they bear the mind downward and immerse it in earthly things, and thus remove it from the spiritual world, whence all clear discernment comes. How prompt these spirits are, can be seen from what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 6922 6922. There appeared a white flame of some brightness burning briskly, and this for some time. This flame signified the approach of spirits of Mercury more prompt than the rest. When they came, they instantly ran through the contents of my memory. (This all spirits are able to do, and being with a man they are in possession of all things of his memory, see n. 5853, 5857, 5859, 5860.) But on account of their quickness I could not perceive what these spirits observed. From time to time I heard them saying, “That’s so-and-so.” As regards what I have seen in the heavens and in the world of spirits, they said that they knew it before. I perceived that a multitude of spirits in association with them was at the back, a little to the left, in the plane of the back of the head.

AC (Potts) n. 6923 6923. At another time I saw a multitude of such spirits, but at some distance from me, in front, a little to the right, and they talked with me from there, but through intermediate spirits; for their speech is as quick as thought, which can fall into human speech only through intermediate spirits. And what surprised me, they spoke all together, and yet just as promptly and quickly. Their speech was perceived as an undulation, because it was of many together; and what is remarkable, it fell toward my left eye, though they were to the right. The reason was that the left eye corresponds to knowledges of things abstracted from things material, thus to such as are of intelligence; but the right eye corresponds to those which are of wisdom. They likewise perceived and judged what was heard with the same promptness as that with which they spoke, saying that this was so, and this not so. Their judgment was as it were instantaneous.

AC (Potts) n. 6924 6924. There was a spirit from another earth who, being a prompt and ready speaker, could speak with them skillfully. They judged in a moment of what he spoke, saying that this was too elegantly expressed, and that too artfully, so that they merely attended to whether they heard anything from him which was unknown to them before, thus rejecting such things as obscure the discourse, which are chiefly all affectations of elegance and erudition; for these hide the real things, and present instead thereof words, which are their material forms.

AC (Potts) n. 6925 6925. The spirits of the earth Mercury do not stay in one place, or within the sphere of the spirits of one world, but wander through the universe. The reason of this is that they relate in the Grand Man to the memory of real things, which memory must be continually enriched. Hence it is given them to wander about, and everywhere to acquire for themselves knowledges. If while thus journeying they meet with spirits who love material, that is, bodily and earthly things, they shun them, and betake themselves where they do not hear such things. From this it can be seen that their mind is uplifted above sensuous things, and thus that they are in interior light. This it was also given actually to perceive when they were near me, and were speaking with me. I then observed that I was withdrawn from sensuous things, insomuch that the light of my eyes began to grow dull and obscure.

AC (Potts) n. 6926 6926. The spirits of that earth go in companies and bands, and when assembled together, form as it were a globe; they are joined together by the Lord in this way in order that they may act as a one, and that the knowledges of each may be communicated to all, and the knowledges of all to each. That these spirits wander through the universe to acquire knowledges of things was made evident to me also from the fact that once, when they appeared very remote from me, they spoke with me from thence, and said that now they were gathered together, and that now they were going outside the sphere of this solar world into the starry heaven, where they know that there are such as do not care for earthly and bodily things; but for things abstracted therefrom, with whom they desire to be. It was said that they themselves do not know whither they are going; but that they are carried by the Divine guidance where they can be instructed about such things as they do not yet know, and which agree with the knowledges they already have. It was said further that they do not know how they meet the companions with whom they are conjoined, and that this also is done under the Divine guidance.

AC (Potts) n. 6927 6927. Because of their thus journeying through the universe, and so being able to know more than others about the worlds and earths outside the sphere of our solar system, I have also talked with them on this subject. They said that in the universe there are very many earths inhabited by men, and they wondered that it should be supposed by any, whom they called men of little judgment, that the heaven of the omnipotent God consists only of the spirits and angels who come from one earth, when yet these are so few that relatively to the omnipotence of God they are scarcely anything, even if there be myriads of worlds and myriads of earths. They said further that they know of there being earths in the universe numbering more than hundreds of thousands; and yet what is this to the Divine, which is infinite?

AC (Potts) n. 6928 6928. The spirits of the earth Mercury are quite different from those of our earth, for the spirits of our earth, especially when newly in the other life, love bodily and earthly, that is, material things, and desire to know such things in the other life. In order therefore that they may be able to be with good spirits who do not care for such things, they are kept in places which are beneath the soles of the feet, and are called in the Word the “lower earth,”‘ and this even till they are averse to bodily and earthly things, and so put them off. When this is effected, they are taken up into heaven, initiated into things interior, and become angels.

AC (Potts) n. 6929 6929. When spirits of Mercury were with me while I was writing and unfolding the Word as to the internal sense, and perceived what I was writing, they said that the things I was writing were very gross, and that almost all the expressions appeared as it were material; but it was given to answer that to the men of our earth the things that have been written seem subtle and elevated, and many of them incomprehensible. I added that very many on this earth do not know that it is the internal man which acts upon the external, and causes this to live; and that they persuade themselves from fallacies of the senses that the body lives of itself, consequently that the whole man is to die when he dies as to the body, and in this way they cherish inward doubts as to the life after death; also that that part of man which is to live after the death of the body, they do not call the spirit, but the soul; and they dispute what the soul is, and where is its seat, and believe that it must be joined again to the material body, in order that the man may live, besides many like things. When the spirits of Mercury heard this, they asked whether such can become angels? to which it was given me to reply that those become angels who have lived in the good of faith, and in charity; and that then they are no longer in external and material things, but in internal and spiritual things, and that when they come to this state, they are in a light above that in which the spirits from Mercury are. To convince them that it is so, an angel was allowed to converse with them who was in heaven from our earth, and who had been such when he lived in the world, of which in what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 6930 6930. There was afterward sent to me from the spirits of Mercury a long irregular paper consisting of a number of papers stuck together, which appeared as if printed with type such as there is on this earth. I asked whether they have such things among them? but they said that they have not; but that they know there are such papers on our earth. They were unwilling to say more, but it was given to perceive that they were thinking that in this earth the knowledges of things are of this nature, thus separate from the man himself, except when the man keeps his eye and thus his mind on such papers. In this way they were ridiculing among themselves the men of this earth, as if they knew nothing except from papers; but they were instructed how the case herein is. After some time they returned, and sent to me another paper, also as it were printed like the former, yet not so stuck together and rude, but becoming and neat. They said that they had been further informed that on our earth there are such papers, and books made of them.

AC (Potts) n. 6931 6931. From what has thus far been said about the spirits of the earth Mercury, it is very manifest that spirits retain what they see and hear in the other life, and can be instructed equally as when they were men, thus in the things that belong to faith, and in this way can be perfected. The purer spirits and angels are, the more readily and fully do they take in, and the more perfectly retain in the memory, what they hear. And as this goes on to eternity, it is evident that they are continually increasing in wisdom. But the spirits of Mercury are continually increasing in the memory-knowledge of things, yet not in wisdom from it, because they love knowledges, which are means, but not uses which are ends, as was related of them above (n. 6814, 6815).

AC (Potts) n. 6932 6932. The subject of the spirits of the earth Mercury will be continued at the end of the following chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 6933 6933. Exodus 4

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

It is a common saying that everyone is neighbor to himself, that is, that one should take care of himself first of all. The doctrine of charity teaches how the case herein is. Everyone is neighbor to himself, not in the first, but in the last place. In a prior place are others who are in good; in a still prior place is a society of many; in a place still prior is our country; in a place still prior is the church; in a place still prior is the Lord’s kingdom; and above all men and all things is the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 6934 6934. The saying that everyone is neighbor to himself, and that he must take care of himself first of all, is to be understood in this way. Everyone must make provision for himself so as to have the necessities of life, as food, clothing, a place to dwell in, and other things which are necessarily required in the civil life where he is; and this not only for himself, but also for his family; and not only for the present time, but also for the future. Unless each person procures for himself the necessities of life, he cannot be in a state to exercise charity toward the neighbor, for he is in need of all things.

AC (Potts) n. 6935 6935. The end in view declares in what way each person must be neighbor to himself, and must first of all take care of himself. If the end is that he may become richer than others merely for the sake of riches, pleasure, eminence, and the like, the end is evil; and therefore he who from such an end believes he is neighbor to himself, injures himself to eternity. But if the end is that he may acquire wealth for the sake of the necessities of life, for himself and for his family, so as to be in a state to do what is good according to the commandments of the doctrine of charity, he takes care of himself for eternity. The end itself makes the man, for the end is his love, because everyone has as the end that which he loves.

AC (Potts) n. 6936 6936. How the case herein is can be further seen from this similar example. Everyone ought to take care of his body in respect to its food and clothing. This must come first, but to the end that there may be a sound mind in a sound body. And everyone ought to take care of his mind in respect to its food, namely, in respect to such things as belong to intelligence and wisdom, to the end that his mind may thus be in a state to serve the Lord; he who does this, takes good care of himself for eternity. But he who takes care of his body merely for the sake of the body, and does not think of soundness of mind, and who does not take care of his mind in respect to such things as are of intelligence and wisdom, but in respect to such things as are contrary thereto, takes bad care of himself for eternity. From all this it is evident in what way everyone ought to be neighbor to himself, namely, not in the first place but in the last; for the end must not be for himself, but for others; and where the end is, there is the first.

AC (Potts) n. 6937 6937. Moreover, the case herein is like that of a man who is building a house. He must first lay the foundation; but the foundation must be for the house, and the house for a place to dwell in. And so everyone must first take care of himself, yet not for himself, but in order that he may be in a state to be of service to the neighbor, thus to his country, to the church, and above all to the Lord. He who believes that he is neighbor to himself in the first place, is like one who regards the foundation as the end, and not the house and dwelling in it; when yet the dwelling is the very first and last end, and the house together with its foundation is only a means to the end.

AC (Potts) n. 6938 6938. As is the case with possessions, so also is it with honors in the world; everyone is at liberty to provide himself with these also, yet not for the sake of himself, but for the sake of the neighbor; he who provides them for the sake of himself, provides ill for himself; but he who provides them for the sake of the neighbor, provides well for himself. For he who turns his ends to himself turns himself toward hell; but he who turns his ends from himself to the neighbor, turns himself toward heaven.

EXODUS 4

1. And Moses answered, and said, And behold they will not believe me, and will not hear my voice; for they will say, Jehovah hath not been seen of thee.
2. And Jehovah said unto him, What is that in thy hand? And he said, A rod.
3. And He said, Cast it to the earth. And he cast it to the earth, and it became a serpent; and Moses fled from before it.
4. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Put forth thy hand, and take hold of its tail; and he put forth his hand, and took hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand.
5. In order that they may believe that Jehovah hath been seen of thee, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.
6. And Jehovah said further to him, Bring now thy hand into thy bosom. And he brought his hand into his bosom, and brought it out, and behold his hand was leprous as snow.
7. And He said, Bring back thine hand unto thy bosom; and he brought back his hand unto his bosom; and brought it forth out of his bosom, and behold it was turned again as his flesh.
8. And it shall be, if they do not believe thee, and hear the voice of the former sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign.
9. And it shall be, if they do not believe also these two signs, and do not hear thy voice, that thou shalt take of the waters of the river, and pour out on the dry land, and the waters which thou hast taken out of the river, they shall become blood in the dry land.
10. And Moses said unto Jehovah, In me, my Lord, I am not a man of words, even from yesterday, even from the day before yesterday, even from now in Thy speaking unto Thy servant, because heavy of mouth, and heavy of tongue am I.
11. And Jehovah said unto him, Who maketh man’s mouth? Or who hath made him dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind? Is it not I Jehovah?
12. And now go, and I will be with thy mouth, and I will teach thee what thou shalt speak.
13. And he said, In me, my Lord, send I pray by the hand Thou wilt send.
14. And the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Moses, and He said, Is there not Aaron, thy brother, the Levite? I know that speaking he will speak. And also behold he goeth forth to meet thee; and he will see thee, and he will be glad in his heart.
15. And thou shalt speak unto him, and shalt put the words in his mouth; and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do.
16. And he shall speak for thee unto the people; and it shall be that he shall be to thee for a mouth, and thou shalt be to him for God.
17. And thou shalt take in thy hand this rod, wherewith thou shalt do the signs.
18. And Moses went, and returned to Jethro his father-in-law, and said to him, Let me go, I pray, and return unto my brethren who are in Egypt, and I shall see whether they yet live. And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace.
19. And Jehovah said unto Moses in Midian, Go, return into Egypt; because all the men seeking thy soul are dead.
20. And Moses took his wife and his sons, and made them ride upon the ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt; and Moses took the rod of God in his hand.
21. And Jehovah said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see all the wonders which I have put in thy hand, and thou shalt do them before Pharaoh; and I will harden his heart, and he will not send away the people.
22. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus said Jehovah, My son, My firstborn, is Israel.
23. And I say unto thee, Send My son away, that he may serve Me; and if thou refuse to send him away, behold I will slay thy son, thy firstborn.
24. And it came to pass in the way, in the inn, that Jehovah met him, and sought to kill him.
25. And Zipporah took a stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and made it touch his feet; and she said, Because a bridegroom of bloods art thou to me.
26. And He ceased from him. Then she said, A bridegroom of bloods as to circumcisions.
27. And Jehovah said unto Aaron, Go to meet Moses, into the wilderness. And he went, and met him in the mountain of God, and kissed him.
28. And Moses told Aaron all the words of Jehovah, wherewith He had sent him, and all the signs which He had commanded him.
29. And Moses went, and Aaron, and gathered together all the elders of the sons of Israel.
30. And Aaron spoke all the words which Jehovah had spoken unto Moses, and did the signs before the eyes of the people.
31. And the people believed; and they heard that Jehovah had visited the sons of Israel, and that He had seen their affliction, and they bent themselves, and bowed themselves down.

AC (Potts) n. 6939 sRef Ex@4 @0 S0′ 6939. THE CONTENTS.
There is a continuation in this chapter in the internal sense with respect to the liberation of those who are of the spiritual church. First, their state is described, namely, that if they had not hope and faith, falsities and evils, and also things profane would drag them down; these are the things signified by the three signs.

AC (Potts) n. 6940 sRef Ex@4 @0 S0′ 6940. Afterward the law Divine is treated of, that truth was adjoined to its good; and that thus good had the power to liberate, and to instill hope and faith. Moses represents the law Divine as to good, and Aaron as to truth.

AC (Potts) n. 6941 sRef Ex@4 @0 S0′ 6941. Lastly that people is treated of, in that they only represented the spiritual church; and not that this church could be instituted among them, because they were in externals without internals. This is signified by Zipporah’s circumcision of her son, and by the blood wherewith his feet were stained.

AC (Potts) n. 6942 sRef Ex@4 @2 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @4 S0′ 6942. THE INTERNAL SENSE.
Verses 1-4. And Moses answered, and said, And behold they will not believe me, and will not hear my voice; for they will say, Jehovah hath not been seen of thee. And Jehovah said unto him, What is that in thy hand? And he said, A rod. And He said, Cast it to the earth. And he cast it to the earth, and it became a serpent, and Moses fled from before it. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Put forth thy hand, and take hold of its tail; and he put forth his hand, and took hold of it, and it became a rod in his hand. “And Moses answered and said,” signifies thought from the law Divine; “And behold they will not believe me, and will not hear my voice,” signifies that those who are of the spiritual church would not have faith, thus would not receive; “for they will say, Jehovah hath not been seen of thee,” signifies the Divine of the Lord in His Human; “and Jehovah said unto him,” signifies foresight as to what they would be if they had not faith; “What is that in thy hand? And he said, A rod,” signifies the power of the Lord’s Divine Human; “and He said, Cast it to the earth,” signifies the influx of the power of the Lord’s Divine natural into the sensuous; “and it became a serpent,” signifies the sensuous and corporeal man thereby separated from the internal; “and Moses fled from before it,” signifies horror at the sensuous separated; “and Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies providence from the Divine; “Put forth thy hand, and take hold of its tail,” signifies the power of uplifting from the ultimate sensuous; “and he put forth his hand, and took hold of it,” signifies an uplifting toward the interiors “and it became a rod in his hand,” signifies that then power was communicated from the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 6943 sRef Ex@4 @1 S0′ 6943. And Moses answered and said. That this signifies thought from the law Divine, is evident from the signification of “answering and saying,” as being thought. For that which in the historical sense of the letter is expressed by external things, in the internal sense signifies internal things; because in no other way can the spiritual things of heaven be presented to men. For man does not apprehend bare spiritual things, neither can they be expressed in the words of human speech; and therefore spiritual things have been described by corresponding natural things, and in this way have been given to man. Thus the Word is helpful to man in the natural world, and also to man in the spiritual world, and hence there is communication of heaven with man, and communion. And from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to the law Divine (see n. 6752). Hence it is evident that by “Moses answered and said” is signified thought from the law Divine. Thought from the law Divine is from truth from the Divine; here that the sons of Israel will not believe unless they see signs and wonders.

AC (Potts) n. 6944 sRef Ex@4 @1 S0′ 6944. And behold they will not believe me, and will not hear my voice. That this signifies that those of the spiritual church would not have faith, thus would not receive, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, of whom these things are said, as being those who are of the spiritual church (see n. 6426, 6637); from the signification of “not believing,” as being not to have faith; and from the signification of “not hearing the voice,” as being not to receive (n. 5471, 5475).

AC (Potts) n. 6945 sRef Ex@4 @1 S0′ 6945. For they will say, Jehovah hath not been seen of thee. That this signifies the Divine which is in the Lord’s Human, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being perception (of which frequently above), here the perception of those who are of the spiritual church; and from the signification of “Jehovah seen,” as being the appearing of the Lord’s Divine in His Human. That “to be seen” denotes to appear is evident, and that “Jehovah” is the Lord as to the Divine Itself and as to the Divine Human, may be seen above (n. 1736, 2004, 2005, 2018, 2025, 2156, 2329, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5041, 5663, 6281, 6303, 6905). That “Jehovah seen” denotes the appearing of the Lord’s Divine in His Human, is evident also from the fact that His Divine cannot appear to any man, nor even to any angel, except through the Divine Human; nor the Divine Human except through the Divine truth which proceeds from Him. Here in the internal sense the subject treated of is the liberation of those who are of the spiritual church. (That these were liberated by the Lord’s coming into the world, see n. 2661, 2716, 3969, 6854, 6914; and that these specifically were saved by means of the Lord’s Divine Human, n. 2716, 2833, 2834.)
[2] As regards this statement, that the people of that church would not have faith, and would not receive what the law Divine represented by Moses (that is, what the Word) says, unless they saw signs, the case is this. These people, being of the spiritual church, have no perception of truth from good, as the celestial have, but acknowledge as truth every doctrinal matter of their church which they have confirmed in themselves, and are therefore relatively in obscurity (n. 2718, 2831, 2849, 2935, 2937, 3833, 6427, 6500, 6865), as can also be seen from the fact that they do not at all comprehend how the Lord’s Human can be Divine; nor that the Divine love in the Human can effect this; for they keep their thought in a human such as exists with man, and they do not recede from this thought when they think of the Lord, in such an entanglement are they. The same can also be seen from the fact that neither do they comprehend how man can live after death, and at the same time have senses, such as sight, hearing, touch, and smell, and be in a human form there. That such is man when he has cast away his body and its senses and members, appears to them foreign to the truth, so enwrapped are they in things of sense, and in the memory-knowledges and fallacies thence derived; and therefore unless they believed that the body will again be conjoined with the soul, they would have no belief whatever in any resurrection.
[3] From all this it is sufficiently evident in how much obscurity they are as regards the things of heaven; and hence it is that no faith can ever be implanted in them unless they are withheld by the Lord from falsities by a mighty force. And as there was no such force before the Lord’s coming, but only after His coming, when He had made the Human in Himself Divine, therefore they could not be taken out of the lower earth, where they were being infested by falsities, and be taken up into heaven, until after the Lord’s resurrection (n. 6914). From this then it is that it is said that they would not believe, thus neither would receive what the law Divine, that is, the truth Divine says, unless they saw that it is so, thus unless they saw signs (of which below).

AC (Potts) n. 6946 sRef Ex@4 @2 S0′ 6946. And Jehovah said unto him. That this signifies foresight as to what they would be if they had not faith, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, as being foresight (see n. 5361). That it denotes foresight as to what they would be if they had not faith, is plain from the three signs treated of below; for in the internal sense these signs represent their state if they did not believe.

AC (Potts) n. 6947 sRef Ex@4 @2 S0′ 6947. What is that in thy hand? And he said, A rod. That this signifies the power of the Lord’s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of “hand,” as being power (see n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 5544); and from the signification of a “rod,” as also being power (n. 4013, 4876, 4936). That it is the power of the Lord’s Divine Human, is because by Moses is represented the Lord as to the law Divine, or the Word, which is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Human (n. 6752). The power which is signified by “hand” is the power proceeding from the Lord’s Divine rational; but the power which is signified by “rod” is the power proceeding from the Lord’s Divine natural. That the “rod” denotes the power proceeding from the Lord’s Divine natural, is because a rod supports the body, like a foot, and by a “foot” is signified the natural (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952). That “to lift up the hand” denotes power in the spiritual, and “to lift up the foot” denotes power in the natural, may be seen above (n. 5327, 5328); and for this reason, in accordance with the kind of elevation treated of in the internal sense, it was sometimes said to Moses when he was to do miracles, that he should “lift up the hand,” sometimes that he should “lift up the rod.”

AC (Potts) n. 6948 sRef Ex@4 @3 S0′ 6948. And He said, Cast it to the earth. That this signifies the influx of the power of the Lord’s Divine natural into the sensuous, is evident from the signification of a “rod,” as being power in the natural, and when it is said of the Lord, as being the power proceeding from his Divine natural (of which just above, n. 6947) from the signification of “casting,” or “sending forth,” as being proceeding, thus influx; and from the signification of “the earth” as being man’s external (n. 82, 913, 1411, 1733), here his sensuous and corporeal, which are the outermosts, because the rod became a serpent, and by a “serpent” is signified the sensuous and corporeal man.
[2] By the Divine power of the Lord is here meant the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, for there is power in Divine truth, insomuch that it is power itself (n. 3091, 4931, 6344, 6423). The Divine truth proceeding from the Lord flows into every man, through his interiors into the exteriors, even into the external sensuous and into the corporeal, and calls forth everywhere things correspondent in their order; in the sensuous, things correspondent such as appear in the world and upon the earth. But as the things which are in the world and upon the earth appear otherwise than as they are, they are therefore full of fallacies; and therefore when the sensuous is in these evils only, it must needs think against the goods and truths of faith, because it thinks from fallacies; and when Divine truth flows in, it must needs turn it into falsity.
[3] That a man who is not elevated from the sensuous, but is in it and thinks from it, thinks from fallacies, may be illustrated by examples: The fallacies in respect to the life of man-that it is of the body, when yet it is of the spirit in the body; in respect to the sight-that it is of the eye; in respect to the hearing that it is of the ear; in respect to the speech-that it is of the tongue and mouth; when yet it is the spirit which sees, hears, and speaks, through these organs of the body. The fallacies in respect to life-that it is permanent in man, when yet it flows in. The fallacies in respect to the soul-that it cannot be in a human form, and in human senses and affections. The fallacies in respect to heaven and hell-that the former is above man, and the latter beneath him, when yet they are in him. The fallacies that objects flow into the exteriors, when yet what is external does not flow into what is internal, but what is internal into what is external. The fallacies in respect to the life after death-that it is impossible except together with the body. Besides the fallacies in natural things, which give rise to the self-contradictory conjectures of so many persons.
[4] Who cannot see that fallacies and the falsities thence derived have dominion instead of truths, merely from the dispute which long existed in respect to the circulation of the blood, which though supported by so many experimental proofs, nevertheless long remained in doubt; and also from the dispute about the sun-that it revolved once a day around this earth, and not only the sun, but also the moon, all the planets, and the whole starry heaven; and also from the dispute which still continues in respect to the soul, its conjunction with the body, and its seat therein. Seeing that the fallacies of the senses have dominion in such things, although their true character is plain from so many phenomena and effects, why should they not do so in such things as belong to heaven, which being spiritual are not plain except through correspondences?
[5] From all this it can now be seen what is the quality of man’s sensuous, viewed in itself, and left to itself; namely, that it is in fallacies, and thence in falsities, thus is against the truths and goods of faith. Hence it is that when man is in the sensuous and in its light, he is in thick darkness in respect to the things of the spiritual world, that is, in respect to those which are in light from the Divine; and that the sensuous light is turned into mere thick darkness when the light from heaven falls into it. The reason is, that the truths which are of the Divine light cannot be together with fallacies and the falsities thence derived; but [the falsities] extinguish [the truths] and thereby induce thick darkness.

AC (Potts) n. 6949 sRef Ex@4 @3 S0′ 6949. And it became a serpent. That this signifies the sensuous and corporeal man separate from the internal, is evident from the signification of a “serpent,” as being a man who reasons from things sensuous (see n. 195-197, 6398, 6399), thus the sensuous of man; and as by “serpent” is signified the sensuous, it signifies also the corporeal, for what the sensuous has, it has from the senses of the body. And because, regarded in itself, the sensuous is such as has been described just above (n. 6948), the “serpent” also (which is the sensuous), signifies all evil in general (n. 251, 254, 257). That by the “serpent” is here meant the sensuous and corporeal man separated from the internal or rational, is evident from the fact that Moses fled from before it, whereby is signified horror of it; and also from the fact that by this sign is described the state of those of the spiritual church, if they did not have faith; for then their internal would be closed, nor would more of the light of heaven flow in, than to enable them to think, and from this to speak, from the sensuous separated. All those think from the sensuous separated who defend falsities against truths, and evils against goods; in a word, all who are in evil of life, and thence in no faith, for he who lives evilly, believes nothing. Such persons excel others in the gift of reasoning, and also of persuading, especially the simple, for the reason that they speak from the fallacies of the senses, and from appearances in the world. They also know how to extinguish or veil truths by fallacies, whence also by “serpents” are signified cunning and craftiness. But when the sensuous has been conjoined with the internal, or rightly subordinated to the rational, then by a “serpent” is signified prudence and circumspection (see n. 197, 4211, 6398).

AC (Potts) n. 6950 sRef Ex@4 @3 S0′ 6950. And Moses fled from before it. That this signifies horror at the sensuous separated, is evident from the signification of “fleeing,” as being horror, for he who feels horror at anything, flees from it; and from the signification of the “serpent,” which is that from before which he fled, as being the sensuous separated (of which just above, n. 6949).

AC (Potts) n. 6951 sRef Ex@4 @4 S0′ 6951. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies providence from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, as being foresight (of which above, n. 6946); and because it denotes foresight, it also denotes providence, for these two are conjoined together, because the Lord provides what He foresees. He foresees evil and provides good. Here therefore by “Jehovah said,” is signified providence, because the serpent is now turned into a rod, that is, evil into good. And from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord in respect to Divine truth; thus providence from the Divine is predicated of the Lord as to the Human when He was in the world.

AC (Potts) n. 6952 sRef Ex@4 @4 S0′ 6952. Put forth thy hand and take hold of its tail. That this signifies the power of uplifting from the ultimate sensuous, is evident from the signification of “hand,” as being power (of which above, n. 6947); and from the signification of the “tail of the serpent,” as being the ultimate of the sensuous. That a “serpent” denotes the sensuous may be seen above (n. 6949), thus its “tail” is the ultimate or lowest of the sensuous. Uplifting is signified by “putting forth and taking hold of,” for he who puts forth the hand and takes hold of any creeping thing of the earth, lifts it up. As by the “serpent” is signified the sensuous separated, and hence reasoning from the fallacies of the senses about the truths of faith, by the “tail of the serpent” is signified falsity itself, for this is the ultimate or lowest, and he who is in falsity, thus in the ultimate and lowest, looks wholly downward, or outward, that is, into the world and to the earth; but not upward or inward, that is, into heaven and to the Lord.
sRef Rev@9 @10 S2′ [2] That such things are signified by the “tail of the serpent,” is evident in John:
The locusts had tails like unto scorpions, and stings were in their tails; and their power was to do harm to men (Rev. 9:10);
where “tails like unto scorpions, and stings in the tails,” denote cunning reasonings from falsities, by which they persuade, and thus do harm, wherefore it is said that “their power is to do harm to men.”
sRef Rev@9 @19 S3′ [3] Again:
The tails of the horses were like unto serpents, having heads, and by them they do harm (Rev. 9:19);
where in like manner “tails like serpents” denote reasonings from falsities, by which harm is done; and especially because it is said that “such were the tails of the horses, and that they had heads;” for by “horses” is signified the intellectual, and also by “head.” Hence by “tails” are here signified more cunning reasonings from fallacies and the derivative falsities against truths, which reasonings are lowest, for the more cunning any reasonings are against truths, the lower they are.
sRef Rev@12 @9 S4′ sRef Rev@12 @4 S4′ [4] Again:
The tail of the dragon drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them into the earth (Rev. 12:4);
where the “tail of the dragon” in like manner denotes reasonings from falsities; the “stars of heaven,” the knowledges of good and truth; “to cast them to the earth” denotes to destroy them. That the “dragon” is the “serpent,” which seduces by reasonings from falsities, and which seduced the mother of the living, or Eve, in paradise, by means of the tree of knowledge, that is, by means of memory-knowledges from the sensuous, thus from fallacies, is clear also in John:
The great dragon was cast down, the old serpent, which is called the Devil and Satan, which seduceth the whole world (Rev. 12:9).
sRef Isa@9 @14 S5′ sRef Isa@9 @15 S5′ sRef Deut@28 @13 S5′ sRef Isa@19 @15 S5′ [5] That the “tail” in general denotes the sensuous separated, which looks not up but down, thus not to heaven, but to earth, and consequently denotes falsity, is evident in these passages:
Jehovah will cut off from Israel head and tail, branch and rush; the old man and the honorable, he is the head; and the prophet, the teacher of a lie, he is the tail (Isa. 9:14-15);
where the “tail” manifestly denotes falsity, which in the Word is called a “lie.”
Again:
There shall not be for Egypt any work, which shall make head and tail, branch and rush (Isa. 19:15);
where “rush” denotes what is lowest. In Moses:
Thus Jehovah shall make thee the head, and not the tail; that thou mayest be upward only, and not downward, when thou shalt obey the commandments of thy God (Deut. 28:13).
sRef Isa@7 @4 S6′ sRef Deut@28 @44 S6′ sRef Deut@28 @43 S6′ [6] The “tail” denotes the lowest, which looks downward or outward, that is, into the world and to the earth, but not to heaven and to the Lord. For the interiors of man together with his sensuous things are lifted upward by the Lord when the man is in the good of faith and of charity; but if he is in evil and falsity, then his interiors together with his sensuous things look downward, thus only to the things that are in the world, whereby he puts off the human nature, and puts on the bestial; for wild beasts look downward, or only to those things which are on the earth. He who looks downward, wills what is evil and thinks what is false, but he who is lifted upward by the Lord, wills what is good and thinks what is true; the uplifting by the Lord takes place actually, and from this a removal from evils and falsities, which the angels perceive by the very sense. This is like the tendency to the center of gravity; the center is where the Lord is in His sun. Toward this the heads of the angels are lifted up; but the feet of the infernals. Thus the former look upward, and the latter downward (see n. 3641, 3643).
[7] Again:
The stranger that is in the midst of thee shall ascend above thee upward more and more; but thou shalt descend downward more and more; he shall be for the head, and thou shalt be for the tail (Deut. 28:43-44);
where the sense is similar. In Isaiah:
Say unto him, Take heed, and be quiet; fear not, neither let thy heart soften, because of the two tails of these smoking firebrands, on account of the wrath of Rezin and Syria, and the son of Remaliah (Isa. 7:4);
“Rezin king of Syria” denotes knowledges of evil. That “Syria” denotes knowledges of good, may be seen above, (n. 1232, 1234, 3680); thus in the opposite sense, knowledges of evil. The “son of Remaliah the king of Samaria” denotes knowledges of falsity. Knowledges of evil and knowledges of falsity are “tails,” because they are lowest things. “Smoking firebrands” denote wrath.

AC (Potts) n. 6953 sRef Ex@4 @4 S0′ 6953. And he put forth his hand, and took hold of it. That this signifies an uplifting toward the interiors, is evident from the signification of “putting forth the hand and taking hold,” when said of what lies beneath, as being to be uplifted toward higher things, or what is the same, toward the interiors (see above, n. 6952); from the signification of “hand,” as being interior power (see also n. 6952); and from the signification of a “serpent,” which is what he took hold of, as being the sensuous and reasoning thence (of which above, n. 6949); that when the sensuous is uplifted toward the interiors, power is communicated from the Divine, will be seen in what now follows.

AC (Potts) n. 6954 sRef Ex@4 @4 S0′ 6954. And it became a rod in his hand. That this signifies that then was communicated power from the Divine, is evident from the signification of the “serpent which became a rod,” as being the sensuous (of which above, n. 6949); from the signification of a “rod,” as being power in the natural; and from the signification of the “hand,” as being interior power; both powers being from the Divine (n. 6952). The case herein is this. From himself man looks downward only, that is, into the world, and to the earth, because from himself he is in evil and falsity; and when he looks thither, then the sensuous has dominion, and interior things makes no opposition, because they follow the force of the stream, and yield to it. Nevertheless not from himself but from the Lord, man looks upward, that is, to heaven and to the Lord, which is effected by means of an uplifting and when the interiors are uplifted, the sensuous also is uplifted, but its light is then obscured, because the light of heaven has dominion. When this takes place, good and truth from the Lord flow in, and are also received; and this is meant by power communicated from the Divine. Yet no others can be uplifted in this way than those who have lived in the good of faith and of charity. That the upliftings are toward the interiors, has been given me to know from living experience, for they have been observed a thousand times.

AC (Potts) n. 6955 sRef Ex@4 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @6 S0′ 6955. Verses 5-7. In order that they may believe that Jehovah hath been seen of thee, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Jehovah said further to him, Bring now thy hand into thy bosom. And he brought his hand into his bosom, and brought it out, and behold his hand was leprous, as snow. And He said, Bring back thine hand into thy bosom; and he brought back his hand into his bosom, and brought it forth out of his bosom, And behold it was turned again as his flesh. “In order that they may believe that Jehovah hath been seen of thee,” signifies that they may have faith in respect to the Lord’s Divine Human; “the God of their fathers,” signifies that it was the Divine of the Ancient Church; “the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob,” signifies the Lord as to the Divine Itself and the Divine Human; “and Jehovah said further to him,” signifies foresight as to what would be the quality of those of the spiritual church, if they did not have faith; “Bring thy hand into thy bosom,” signifies the appropriation of truth; “and he brought his hand into his bosom,” signifies the accomplishment; “and he brought it out,” signifies that it was thence; “and behold his hand was leprous, as snow,” signifies the profanation of truth; “and He said,” signifies providence in respect to what would be the quality of those of the spiritual church if they did have faith; “Bring back thine hand into thy bosom” signifies the appropriation of truth; “and he brought back his hand into his bosom” signifies the accomplishment; “and he brought it forth out of his bosom,” signifies that it was thence; “and behold it was turned again as his flesh,” signifies that then it was good.

AC (Potts) n. 6956 sRef Ex@4 @5 S0′ 6956. In order that they may believe that Jehovah hath been seen of thee. That this signifies that they may have faith in respect to the Lord’s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of “believing,” as being to have faith – not faith that Jehovah or the Lord was seen with the eyes, but faith in the Lord in the spiritual sense of the term; and from the signification of “Jehovah seen,” as being the appearing of the Lord in His Divine Human (see n. 6945). Thus by “they may believe that Jehovah hath been seen of thee” is signified that they may have faith in respect to the Lord’s Divine Human.

AC (Potts) n. 6957 sRef Ex@4 @5 S0′ 6957. The God of their fathers. That this signifies that it was the Divine of the Ancient Church, is evident from the signification of “the God of their fathers,” as being the Divine of the Ancient Church (of which n. 6876, 6884, where also it may be seen that this was the Lord in respect to the Divine Human).

AC (Potts) n. 6958 sRef Ex@4 @5 S0′ 6958. The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. That this signifies the Lord as to the Divine Itself and the Divine Human, is evident from what was shown above (n. 6847), where the same words occur.

AC (Potts) n. 6959 sRef Ex@4 @6 S0′ 6959. And Jehovah said further to him. That this signifies foresight as to what would be the quality of those of the spiritual church if they did not have faith, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah said,” as being foresight (as above, n. 6946). The reason why these words denote what would be the quality of those of the spiritual church if they did not have faith, is that in what follows the subject treated of is what would be the further quality of those who are of the spiritual church (who are represented by the sons of Israel), if they did not have faith, namely, that they would be profaners of truth. For the first miracle of the rod becoming a serpent signifies their state, that they would become altogether sensuous and corporeal. This miracle of the hand becoming leprous signifies profanation, for this succeeds if the church persists in faithlessness.
[2] In their childhood, and afterward in their youth, they of the spiritual church have faith in the doctrinal things of their church, but at that time they have faith from parents and masters, and not from themselves, and therefore if they afterward recede from faith, they profane the truth only slightly, which profanation can be removed by Divine means, and thus the man be freed from the guilt of it. But if a man has faith in the doctrine of the church, and in the Word, from himself, that is, by confirmations in himself, and if he then afterward recedes, and denies in himself what he had before believed, especially if he lives contrary to the truth which he had confirmed in himself, and either explains it in his own favor, or altogether rejects it, he profanes the truth; and this because he commingles and conjoins together within himself truth and falsity. As such persons have scarcely any remains of truth and good, in the other life they finally become like skeletons; and have as little life remaining as have the bones relatively to the organic life of the flesh. But still harder is the lot of those who profane good than that of those who profane truth, they who are of the Lord’s spiritual church can profane truth but not so much good.
[3] As “leprosy” signifies the profanation of truth, and as this is the subject treated of in what follows, see first of all what has been before said and shown about profanation, namely: That they who are within the church can profane holy things, but not they who are without it (n. 2051, 3399): That holy things cannot be profaned, except by those who have previously acknowledged them (n. 1008, 1010, 1059, 3398, 3898, 4289): That it is also profanation to acknowledge and believe truths and goods, and yet to live contrary to them (n. 4601): That man is withheld from profanation as much as possible (n. 301-303, 1327-1328, 3398, 3402); that the lot of profaners is the worst of all in the other life (n. 6348).

AC (Potts) n. 6960 sRef Ex@4 @6 S0′ 6960. Bring now thy hand into thy bosom. That this signifies the appropriation of truth, is evident from the signification of “hand,” as being power (of which above, n. 6947); and from the signification of “bosom,” as being love; for that which is of the breast corresponds to love, because therein is the heart, which corresponds to celestial love, and the lungs, which correspond to spiritual love (see n. 3635, 3883-3896, 4112-4113, 4133). And as from this the bosom corresponds to love, by it is also signified man’s own, for that is man’s own which is of his love. Therefore here by “bringing the hand into the bosom” is signified appropriation; that it is the appropriation of truth, is plain from what follows, and also from the fact that spiritual power consists in truth (see n. 6948).
sRef Deut@28 @56 S2′ sRef Isa@40 @11 S2′ sRef Deut@28 @54 S2′ sRef Micah@7 @5 S2′ sRef Ps@89 @50 S2′ sRef Ps@35 @13 S2′ [2] That the “bosom” denotes that very thing which belongs to man, thus his own, and from this, appropriation and conjunction by love, is evident from the following passages:
Confide ye not in a companion, put not trust in a guide; keep the doors of thy mouth from her that lieth in thy bosom (Micah 7:5);
where “she that lieth in the bosom” denotes one who has been conjoined with him by means of love. For this also a wife is called “the wife of her husband’s bosom” (Deut. 28:54; 2 Sam. 12:8); and a husband is called “the husband of his wife’s bosom” (Deut. 28:56); and this because one belongs to the other. And in David:
My prayer shall fall back upon my bosom (Ps. 35:13);
meaning that it would return to himself.
Remember, Lord, the reproach of Thy servants, how I do bear in my bosom all the great peoples (Ps. 89:50);
meaning with himself, as his own. In Isaiah:
He feedeth his flock like a shepherd, He gathereth the lambs in His arm, and carrieth them in His bosom (Isa. 40:11);
where the sense is the same.
sRef Luke@6 @38 S3′ sRef Luke@16 @22 S3′ [3] In Luke:
Give, and it shall be given to you; good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, shall be given into your bosom (Luke 6:38);
“to be given into the bosom” denotes for themselves as their own. In the same:
And it came to pass that Lazarus died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham’s bosom (Luke 16:22);
“to be carried into Abraham’s bosom” denotes to the Lord (who is meant by “Abraham”), from conjunction through love.
sRef John@13 @23 S4′ sRef John@13 @25 S4′ sRef John@1 @18 S4′ [4] And in John:
There was lying in Jesus’ bosom one of His disciples, whom Jesus loved; he, leaning on Jesus’ breast, saith unto Him, Lord who is it? (John 13:23, 25);
“to lie in the bosom” manifestly denotes to be loved, and to be conjoined through love. Again:
No one hath ever seen God; the only-begotten son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth (John 1:18);
“in the bosom of the Father” denotes to be one.
sRef Isa@65 @7 S5′ sRef Isa@65 @6 S5′ sRef Ps@79 @12 S5′ sRef Jer@32 @18 S5′ [5] The “bosom” denotes that very thing which belongs to man, and also appropriation not by love, in the following passages:
I will recompense, I will recompense upon their bosom your iniquities, and the iniquities of your fathers together; I will measure the price of their work upon their bosom (Isa. 14:6-7).
Jehovah doing mercy to thousands, and recompensing the iniquity of the fathers into the bosom of their sons after them (Jer. 32:18).
Recompense to our neighbors sevenfold into their bosom their reproach wherewith they have reproached Thee, O Lord (Ps. 79:12);
“to recompense into their bosom” denotes into themselves.

AC (Potts) n. 6961 sRef Ex@4 @6 S0′ 6961. And he brought his hand into his bosom. That this signifies the accomplishment, namely, of the appropriation of truth, is evident from what has already been said.

AC (Potts) n. 6962 sRef Ex@4 @6 S0′ 6962. And he brought it out. That this signifies that it was thence, is evident from the signification of “bringing the hand out of the bosom and seeing” as being to observe what was its quality, thus that it was thence.

AC (Potts) n. 6963 sRef Ex@4 @6 S0′ 6963. And behold his hand was leprous, as snow. That this signifies the profanation of truth, is evident from the signification of “hand,” as being power (n. 6947), and as being truth, because spiritual power consists in truth (n. 6948, 6960); and from the signification of “leprosy,” as being profanation, specifically, the profanation of truth (of which below). In the historic Word much is said about leprosy, and about its various appearances in the skin, and about the judgment thence to be formed of its quality – whether the leper was to be shut in, or to go out of the camp, or to be set at liberty; and also about leprosy in garments, in vessels, and in the very houses. Leprosy is so much treated of, not on account of leprosy as a disease, but because it signified the profanation of truth, thus for the sake of the spiritual sense; and because the Jews and the Israelites were capable of profaning truth more than other people.
[2] For if they had known the internal things of the Word, and the truths themselves which were represented by the rites of the church among them, and had faith in them, and yet had lived according to their inclination, namely in the love of self and the love of the world, in hatred and revenge among themselves, and in cruelty toward the Gentiles, they must needs have profaned the truths in which they once had faith; for to believe in truths and to live contrary to them, is to profane them. And therefore they were withheld as far as possible from the knowledges of internal truth (see n. 3398, 3489); insomuch that they did not even know that they would live after death; neither did they believe that the Messiah would come to save souls eternally, but to exalt that nation above all others in the universe. And because that nation was such, and also is such at this day, therefore they are still withheld from faith, even though they live in the midst of Christendom. Hence then it is that the nature of leprosy was so particularly described.
[3] That “leprosy” signifies the profanation of truth, is plain from the statutes concerning leprosy that are recorded by Moses in Leviticus 13. In this description there is contained in the internal sense the whole nature of the profanation of truth – as what the nature of this profanation is if recent, what if old, what if inward in man, what if also outward, what if curable, what if incurable, what are the means of cure, and other particulars, which cannot be at all known to anyone, except by means of the internal sense of the Word.
sRef Lev@13 @12 S4′ sRef Lev@13 @13 S4′ sRef Lev@13 @14 S4′ [4] But as it is profanations which are described by “leprosy,” it is not allowable to explain in detail what is contained in the description of it. Moreover, heaven is horrified at the bare mention of what is profane. I may quote this passage only:
If the leprosy effloresce fully in the skin, and the leprosy cover the whole skin of him that hath the plague, from his head even to his heel, under every look of the priest’s eyes; and the priest see, and behold the leprosy hath covered all his flesh, then he shall pronounce the plague clean; it is all turned white, he is clean. But in the day that there shall appear in him living flesh, he shall be unclean (Lev. 13:12-14);
unless it is known from the internal sense how the case herein is, namely, that he is clean who is all leprous from his head even unto his heel, it must appear like a paradox; but by “one leprous from his head to his heel” is meant one who knows internal truths, but does not acknowledge or believe them. Such a one is not inwardly in profanation, but outwardly, which profanation is removed, and therefore he is clean. But if he knows the truths of faith, and believes them, and yet lives contrary to them, he is in profanation inwardly, as is the case also with one who has once believed, and afterward denies. Therefore it is said, “in the day that there shall appear in him living flesh, he shall be unclean;” by “living flesh” is meant acknowledgment and faith (see what has been adduced above, n. 6959).

AC (Potts) n. 6964 sRef Ex@4 @7 S0′ 6964. And he said. That this signifies providence in respect to what would be the quality of those of the spiritual church if they did have faith, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah said,” as being providence (as above, n. 6951); that it denotes what their quality would be if they did have faith, is plain from what follows. For by “his hand turned again as his flesh” is signified that then they would have spiritual good; the opposite of which is that the hand became leprous by being brought into his bosom, by which is signified that they who are of the spiritual church would be in the profanation of truth, if they did not have faith (see above, n. 6959, 6963).

AC (Potts) n. 6965 sRef Ex@4 @7 S0′ 6965. Bring back thy hand unto thy bosom. That this signifies the appropriation of truth, is evident from the signification of “bringing the hand into the bosom,” as being the appropriation of truth (see n. 6960).

AC (Potts) n. 6966 sRef Ex@4 @7 S0′ 6966. And he brought back his hand unto his bosom. That this signifies the accomplishment, may be seen above (n. 6961).

AC (Potts) n. 6967 sRef Ex@4 @7 S0′ 6967. And he brought it forth out of his bosom. That this signifies that it was thence, may also be seen above (n. 6962).

AC (Potts) n. 6968 sRef Ex@4 @7 S0′ 6968. And behold it was turned again as his flesh. That this signifies that then it was the good of truth, is evident from the signification of “flesh,” as being what is man’s own of his will, made alive by what is the Lord’s own of His Divine Human, that is, what is one’s own that is heavenly (see n. 3813); and because this is signified by “flesh,” it is the good of love to the Lord and toward the neighbor which is signified. But with those who are of the spiritual church, it is the good of truth, because their good is from truth, and is according to the truth of the doctrine of their church. When this truth becomes of the life it is called good.

AC (Potts) n. 6969 sRef Ex@4 @7 S0′ 6969. Verses 8, 9. And it shall be, if they do not believe thee, and hear not the voice of the former sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign. And it shall be, if they do not believe also these two signs, and do not hear thy voice, that thou shalt take of the waters of the river, and pour out on the dry [land], and the waters which thou hast taken out of the river, they shall become blood in the dry [land]. “And it shall be, if they do not believe thee,” signifies if they have not faith; “and hear not the voice of the former sign,” signifies if they do not obey what is announced from the Word, that instead of spiritual and rational men they would become not spiritual and not rational; “that they will believe the voice of the latter sign,” signifies that they would have faith in what had been foretold from the Word, namely, that they would become profaners of truth; “and it shall be, if they do not believe also these two signs,” signifies if they should have no faith whatever that such things would come to pass; “and do not hear thy voice,” signifies if they do not yield any obedience; “that thou shalt take of the waters of the river,” signifies false memory-knowledges; “and pour out on the dry [land],” signifies insertion into the natural; “and the waters which thou hast taken out of the river,” signifies inversion of the state; “they shall become blood in the dry [land],” signifies the falsification of all truth, and the consequent privation of it in the natural.

AC (Potts) n. 6970 sRef Ex@4 @8 S0′ 6970. And it shall be, if they do not believe thee. That this signifies if they have not faith, is evident from the signification of “believing,” as being to have faith (see n. 6956). To have faith here does not signify faith from the signs, that they were to be liberated from Egypt, for this faith relates to worldly things; but it signifies faith that if they did not remain in truths they would become merely sensuous and corporeal, and at last profaners of truth; for these are what the two signs signify. The internal sense does not treat of worldly things, as does the external historic sense; but of spiritual things. Faith in worldly things is quite different from faith in spiritual things, as for example: to believe that men will do as they speak; that a man is true or not true; that to insure success, a man should do so and so, and not otherwise; that what is said or written is worthy of credit, or not, besides numberless like things; such are matters of faith in worldly things, as also here that the sons of Israel were to be liberated from bondage in Egypt. But to believe that there is a heaven and a hell; that men will live after death, the good in happiness to eternity, the evil in unhappiness; that the life remains with everyone; that faith and charity make spiritual life, and that this is the life which the angels have in heaven; that the Lord has all power in the heavens and on earth, as He Himself says (Matt. 28:18); that from Him we live; that the Word is the doctrine of heavenly and Divine truths; and the like – such are matters of faith in spiritual things, and are here signified by “believing.”

AC (Potts) n. 6971 sRef Ex@4 @8 S0′ 6971. And hear not the voice of the former sign. That this signifies if they do not obey what is announced from the Word, that instead of spiritual and rational men they would become not spiritual and not rational, is evident from the signification of “hearing,” as being to obey (see n. 2542, 3869, 5017); from the signification of a “voice,” as being what is announced from the Word, of which below; and from the signification of “the former sign,” as being that instead of spiritual and rational men they would become not spiritual and not rational. That this is so, is plain from the signification of the serpent which was made from the rod of Moses cast on the earth (which is here “the former sign”), as being the sensuous and corporeal man (n. 6949); thus the non-spiritual and non-rational man. For the man who is sensuous and corporeal is not rational, thus neither is he spiritual, for he thinks falsities and wills evils. He who does this is not rational, still less is he spiritual, for the acknowledgment and faith of truth, and the life of good, are the veriest spiritual in the rational, because these things are from the Divine; whereas the acknowledgment and faith of falsity and the life of evil are the contrary. (That merely sensuous and corporeal men are such, see n. 6844, 6845, 6948, 6949.)
[2] Those become merely sensuous and corporeal who have first known the things of the spiritual world and have afterward rejected them, and have imbued themselves with principles of falsity contrary to truths, and as to life have looked solely to worldly, bodily, and earthly things, and from this have believed that life ought to be enjoyed with every pleasure, saying, “What has man more while he lives? When we die we die; and who has ever come from another life to tell us about it? We know not what it is to live when life goes out of a man.” If anyone by rational arguments sets them thinking at all about eternal life, they think that they shall not fare worse than others, and immediately relapse to the state of their former life. With such there is a closing of the passage for the light of heaven and its influx, and the light of heaven in their natural becomes like thick darkness, but the light of the world therein becomes brightness (see n. 6907), and the brightness is so much the more brilliant, as the light of heaven is more darkened; hence it is that such see no otherwise than that the evils of their life are goods, and that consequently the falsities are truths. It is from this then that a man becomes sensuous and corporeal. In a word, when a passage for the influx of the light of heaven has once been opened, and afterward is closed, the man is then driven to look downward, and not upward; and this from Divine order, lest the truths which he has once acknowledged, and which remain in his interior man, should be contaminated with falsities, and thus profaned.
sRef Ps@93 @3 S3′ sRef Ps@93 @4 S3′ sRef Nahum@3 @2 S3′ [3] The case is the same with the Gentiles who recede from their religiosity; but their lot is better than the lot of those who are within the church, because they have no truths from the Word, consequently no genuine truths; but truths joined with many fallacies, which cannot be so much profaned. With regard to the signification of a “voice,” as being what is announced from the Word, be it known that a “voice” is often spoken of, and is also joined to such things as have no relation to a voice, as here it is also joined to a sign; “if they do not hear the voice of the former sign, they will believe the voice of the latter sign;” and also in other passages:
The voice of the whip, and the voice of the sound of a wheel (Nah. 3:2).
The floods have lifted up their voice above the voices of many magnificent waters (Ps. 93:3-4).
sRef Ps@29 @4 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @9 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @3 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @8 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @7 S4′ sRef Ps@68 @33 S4′ sRef Ps@29 @5 S4′ [4] That a “voice” signifies annunciation, and in a good sense annunciation from the Word, which voice is called the “voice of Jehovah,” is evident in David:
The voice of Jehovah is in power; the voice of Jehovah is in glory; the voice of Jehovah breaketh the cedars; the voice of Jehovah cutteth off the flames of fire; the voice of Jehovah maketh the wilderness to tremble; the voice of Jehovah maketh the hinds to calve; and strippeth the forests (Ps. 29:4-5, 7-9);
To Him that rideth upon the heaven of the heaven of old; lo He shall utter with His voice, a voice of strength (Ps. 68:33).
In these passages a “voice” denotes Divine truth, thus the Word, and annunciation from it. What a “voice” further signifies, see n. 219; and that “voice” is predicated of truth, n. 3563.)

AC (Potts) n. 6972 sRef Ex@4 @8 S0′ 6972. That they will believe the voice of the latter sign. That this signifies that they would have faith in what had been foretold from the Word, namely, that they would become profaners of truth, is evident from the signification of “believing,” as being to have faith (of which just above, n. 6970); from the signification of a “voice,” as being what is announced (n. 6971), thus also what is foretold; and from the signification of “leprosy,” which is here the “latter sign,” as being the profanation of truth (of which above, n. 6963). What profanation is, see also above (n. 6959), and in the passages there cited.

AC (Potts) n. 6973 sRef Ex@4 @9 S0′ 6973. And it shall be, if they do not believe also these two signs. That this signifies if they should have no faith whatever that such things would come to pass, is evident from the signification of “believing,” as being to have faith (that is, in the spiritual sense, of which above, n. 6970); and from the signification of “the two signs,” as being that they would become sensuous and corporeal, and afterward profaners of truth, which is signified by the serpent that was made by the casting of the rod of Moses upon the earth (n. 6971), and by the hand which being put into the bosom became leprous (n. 6963). Thus by “not believing these two signs” is signified to have no faith whatever that such things would come to pass.

AC (Potts) n. 6974 sRef Ex@4 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @9 S0′ 6974. And do not hear thy voice. That this signifies if they do not yield any obedience, is evident from the signification of “hearing,” as being obedience (see n. 2542, 3869, 5017); from the signification of “voice,” as being what is announced and foretold (n. 6971, 6972); and from the representation of Moses, whose voice they were to hear, as being the Lord as to the Divine law, that is, as to the Divine truth, thus as to the Word, for therein is Divine truth. Hence it is plain that by the expression, “if they do not hear thy voice,” is signified, if they do not yield any obedience. In this passage and before (verses 1 and 8), it is said “if they do not believe,” and “if they do not hear,” and yet the two expressions appear alike, for he who does not believe, does not hear. Yet they are distinct, for “believing,” by which is signified faith, is said of the truth of faith, and thus relates to the intellectual; but “hearing,” by which is signified obeying, is said of the good of charity, and thus relates to the will. For in the Word, especially the prophetic, where truth is expressed in its own words; good is also expressed in its own words, on account of the heavenly marriage, which is the marriage of good and of truth, in every detail of the Word (see n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 4138, 6343).

AC (Potts) n. 6975 sRef Ex@4 @9 S0′ 6975. Thou shall take of the waters of the river. That this signifies false memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of “the waters of the river,” namely, of Egypt, or the Nile, as being false memory-knowledges. (That “waters” denote truths may be seen above, n. 2702, 3424, 4976; and in the opposite sense falsities, n. 790; also that the “river of Egypt” denotes false memory-knowledges, n. 6693.)

AC (Potts) n. 6976 sRef Ex@4 @9 S0′ 6976. And pour out on the dry [land]. That this signifies insertion into the natural, is evident from the signification of “pouring out,” as being insertion; and from the signification of “the dry [land],” as being the natural. A dry place is called “dry,” and the land is also so called, and by the “land of Egypt” is signified the natural mind, which is in falsity, thus the natural (see n. 5276, 5278, 5280, 5288, 5301), and still more by the “dry [land].”

AC (Potts) n. 6977 sRef Ex@4 @9 S0′ 6977. And the waters which thou hast taken out of the river. That this signifies inversion of state, is evident from what presently follows, for it is said that “they shall become blood in the dry [land],” whereby is signified the falsification of all truth, and the privation of it in the natural. When this takes place the state is completely inverted; and hence these words, as they involve an inversion of state, are also said to signify it. There is also a total inversion of state in the natural when it is entirely occupied by falsities. This rarely happens with man while he lives in the world, but in the other life it takes place with all who are cast into hell. That it rarely happens with man while he lives in the world is because he is then continually kept in a state capable of being reformed, provided that he desists from evils in freedom. But after death his life follows him, and he remains in the state which he had acquired by the whole course of his life in the world.
[2] Then he who is in evil is no longer capable of being reformed; and lest he should have communication with any society of heaven, all truth and good are taken away from him; so that he remains in evil and falsity, which grow there in accordance with the capacity to receive them that he has acquired in the world. Nevertheless he is not allowed to pass beyond the acquired bounds. This inversion of state is what is here meant, which is such that he can no longer be amended as to the interiors, but only as to the exteriors, namely, by fear of punishments. After enduring these many times, he at last abstains from evil, not in freedom, but by compulsion, the cupidity of doing evil still remaining. This cupidity, as before said, is kept in check by fears, which are external and compulsory means of amendment. This is the state of the evil in the other life.

AC (Potts) n. 6978 sRef Ex@4 @9 S0′ sRef Nahum@3 @4 S0′ sRef Nahum@3 @1 S0′ sRef Nahum@3 @2 S0′ sRef Nahum@3 @3 S0′ 6978. They shall become blood in the dry [land]. That this signifies the falsification of all truth, and the consequent privation of it in the natural, is evident from the signification of “blood,” as being holy truth proceeding from the Lord, and in the opposite sense truth falsified and profaned (see n. 4735, how the case herein is was shown just above); and from the signification of “the dry [land],” as being the natural (of which also just above, n. 6976). That “blood” signifies the falsification of truth and its profanation, is especially evident in Nahum:
Woe to the city of bloods! It is all full of lying and rapine; the prey departeth not. The voice of a whip, and the voice of the sound of a wheel; and a neighing horse, and a jumping chariot; the horseman mounting, and the shining of a sword, and the flash of a spear; and a multitude of pierced, and a heap of carcass and no end of body; they stumble on their body. Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the well-favored harlot, the mistress of witchcrafts, that selleth nations through her whoredoms, and families through her witchcrafts (Nah. 3:1-4);
that by the “city of bloods” is signified the doctrine of falsity, thus by “blood,” falsified and profaned truth is plain from all the words of its description in the internal sense, and not only in these verses which have been cited, but also in those which follow, the description of it being continued in the whole chapter; for the “city” is doctrine; its being “all full of lying and rapine” denotes being full of falsity, and of evil from falsity; “the voice of a whip and the voice of the sound of a wheel” denotes the defence of falsity by fallacies; “a neighing horse and a jumping chariot” denotes from a perverted intellectual and the like doctrine; “the horseman mounting, the shining of a sword, the flashing of a spear” denotes combat against truth; “the multitude of pierced” denotes innumerable falsities thence, and those who are in falsities; “a heap of carcass, and no end of body” denotes innumerable evils thence, and those who are in evils; “the whoredoms of a harlot” denote the falsifications themselves, and in like manner “witchcrafts.”

AC (Potts) n. 6979 sRef Ex@4 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @12 S0′ 6979. Verses 10-12. And Moses said unto Jehovah, In me, my Lord, I am not a man of words, even from yesterday, even from the day before yesterday, even from now in Thy speaking unto Thy servant; because heavy of mouth and heavy of tongue am I. And Jehovah said unto him, Who maketh man’s mouth? Or who hath made him dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind? Is it not I Jehovah? And now go, and I will be with thy mouth, and I will teach thee what thou shalt speak. “And Moses said unto Jehovah” signifies perception from the Divine; “In me, my Lord” signifies what is certain; “I am not a man of words” signifies that he has no speech; “even from yesterday, even from the day before yesterday” signifies not from eternity; “even from now in Thy speaking unto Thy servant” signifies thus neither to eternity with the Divine flowing into the Human; “because heavy of mouth and heavy of tongue am I” signifies that the voice and speech from the Divine are not heard or perceived; “and Jehovah said unto him” signifies Divine influx; “who maketh man’s mouth?” signifies utterance; “or who hath made him dumb?” signifies no utterance; “or deaf?” signifies no perception, and consequently no obedience; “or seeing, or blind?” signifies faith by means of knowledges, and no faith through lack of them; “is it not I Jehovah?” signifies that these things are by virtue of the influx of life from the Divine; “and now go” signifies life from the Divine; “and I will be with thy mouth, and will teach thee what thou shalt speak” signifies the Divine in each and all things which proceed from the Divine Human.

AC (Potts) n. 6980 sRef Ex@4 @10 S0′ 6980. And Moses said unto Jehovah. That this signifies perception from the Divine is evident from the signification of “saying,” in the historicals of the Word, as being to perceive (as frequently above); and from the representation of Moses as being the Lord in respect to the Divine law in the Human when He was in the world (see n. 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827). The Divine which is the source, is signified by “Jehovah.” Hence, it is plain that by “Moses said unto Jehovah” is signified that the Lord from His Divine had perception in His Human.

AC (Potts) n. 6981 sRef Ex@4 @10 S0′ 6981. In me, my Lord. That this signifies what is certain, is evident from the fact that “in me” is a form of assertion that a thing is so, consequently that it is certain.

AC (Potts) n. 6982 sRef Ex@4 @10 S0′ 6982. I am not a man of words. That this signifies that he has no speech, is evident from the signification of “not a man of words,” as being not to have the faculty of speaking, thus to have no speech. How this is shall be told. Here in the supreme sense the subject treated of is the Lord, for Moses represents the Lord as to the law Divine, thus as to truth Divine. The truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine cannot be heard by anyone, not even by any angel; for in order to be heard the Divine must first become human; and it becomes human when it passes through the heavens; and when it has passed through the heavens it is presented in human form, and becomes speech, which speech is uttered by spirits, who when they are in this state, are called the “Holy Spirit,” and this is said to proceed from the Divine, because the holy of the spirit, or the holy truth which the spirit then speaks, proceeds from the Lord. From this it can be seen that the truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine cannot be presented to anyone as discourse or speech, except through the Holy Spirit. This is meant in the supreme sense by the statement that Moses, who represents the Lord as to truth Divine, says that “he is not a man of words;” and by the fact that Aaron his brother was adjoined to him, who was to him “for a mouth,” and he to Aaron “for God.”

AC (Potts) n. 6983 sRef Ex@4 @10 S0′ 6983. Even from yesterday, even from the day before yesterday. That this signifies not from eternity, namely, having speech, is evident from the signification of “yesterday and the day before yesterday,” as being from eternity. That “yesterday and the day before yesterday” denotes from eternity, is because it signifies time, and indeed time past; and when spoken of the Lord, or of the Divine, time does not signify time, but eternity. There are two things which are proper to nature, and which do not exist in heaven, still less in the Divine, namely space and time. That these are not in heaven, but that instead of them there are states, instead of space state as to being, and instead of time state as to coming-forth, may be seen above (n. 2625, 3938); and also that spaces and times in heaven are states (n. 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3387, 3404, 3827, 4321, 4814, 4882, 4901, 4916, 5605, 6110). But in the Divine which is above the heavens, still less are there space and time, and not even state, but instead of space there is infinity, and instead of time eternity; to these two correspond the times and spaces in the world; and also states as to being and as to coming-forth in the heavens.
sRef 2Sam@5 @2 S2′ sRef Ps@90 @4 S2′ sRef 1Sam@10 @11 S2′ sRef Josh@4 @18 S2′ [2] That by “yesterday and the day before yesterday,” in the Word, is not signified yesterday and the day before yesterday, but in general time past, is evident from the passages where they are mentioned:
The waters of the Jordan returned into their place, and went over all its banks, as yesterday and the day before yesterday (Josh. 4:18).
It came to pass, everyone who had known Saul yesterday and the day before yesterday, when they saw that behold he prophesied with the prophets (1 Sam. 10:11).
The tribes of Israel said unto David, Both yesterday and the day before yesterday, when Saul was king over us, thou wast he that leddest out and broughtest in Israel (2 Sam. 5:2).
In these passages and elsewhere “yesterday and the day before yesterday” denotes formerly, or time past. Now as by “yesterday and the day before yesterday” is signified time past, and the subject here treated of in the supreme sense is the Lord, who as to the Divine law or Divine truth is represented by Moses, it is evident that by “yesterday and the day before yesterday” is signified from eternity. The eternity which is signified by “yesterday” is thus expressed in David:
A thousand years in Thine eyes are as yesterday when it is past (Ps. 90:4).

AC (Potts) n. 6984 sRef Ex@4 @10 S0′ 6984. Even from now in Thy speaking unto Thy servant. That this signifies thus neither to eternity with the Divine flowing into the human, is evident from the signification of “from now,” or “from today,” as being eternity (see n. 2838, 3998, 4304, 6165), thus to eternity, because it involves time following; from the signification of “speaking,” as being influx (n. 2951, 5481, 5743, 5797), that it denotes influx from the Divine, is signified by “in Thy (that is Jehovah) speaking;” and from the signification of “servant,” as being the Lord’s Human when as yet it was not made Divine (n. 2159); but when it was made Divine, because one with Jehovah, it was the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 6985 sRef Ex@4 @10 S0′ 6985. Because heavy of mouth and heavy of tongue am I. That this signifies that the voice and speech from the Divine are not heard or perceived, is evident from the signification of “mouth,” as being voice; and from the signification of “tongue,” as being speech. By “mouth,” is signified voice, because it is the organ of the voice; and by “tongue” is signified speech, because it is the organ of speech. The difference between voice and speech is plain to everyone, also that “to be heard” is said of the voice, and “to be perceived” of speech. This cannot be expressed in the historic sense of the letter, where Moses is spoken of as a man, and who could speak, but with difficulty, otherwise than by being “heavy of mouth and heavy of tongue.” But when this passes into the internal sense, it is perceived by the angels as being said in respect to the subject treated of; and when it is said of the Divine, it is perceived that the voice proceeding thence cannot be heard nor the speech be perceived immediately, but mediately through spirits, according to what was said above (n. 6982).

AC (Potts) n. 6986 sRef Ex@4 @11 S0′ 6986. And Jehovah said unto him. That this signifies Divine influx, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being influx (see n. 5743, 5797, 6152, 6291); that it denotes from the Divine, is because “Jehovah said.”

AC (Potts) n. 6987 sRef Ex@4 @11 S0′ 6987. Who maketh man’s mouth? That this signifies utterance, is evident from the signification of “mouth,” as being the voice (of which above, n. 6985); and as it denotes the voice, it denotes utterance. What the “mouth” specifically signifies cannot be seen except from correspondence. The mouth together with the lips corresponds to the interior speech which is of the thought. The thought of man is active and passive; man has active thought when he speaks, and this may be called speaking thought; but his thought is passive when he does not speak; and the difference between the two can be seen by him who reflects. By the “mouth” of man is thus signified active or speaking thought, thus utterance.
[2] As regards active thought, which is signified by the “mouth,” be it known that this thought also is speaking thought in its own way, and that by the activity of this speech it excites the organs of the body corresponding thereto. It appears as if the words of the speech were in the thought, but this is a fallacy; it is only the sense of the speech which is there, the nature of which man can scarcely know, for it is the speech of his spirit, which speech is universal speech, such as is the speech of spirits in the other life. When this speech flows into the correspondent organs of the body, it presents the speech of words, which is vastly different from the thought that produces it, as is very evident from the fact that a man can think in one minute what takes him a long space of time to speak or write; and this would not be the case if this thought were composed of words, as is the speech of the mouth. It is from the correspondence of the speech of the thought and the speech of the mouth, that when a man comes after death among spirits, he knows how to speak in the universal language, thus with spirits, no matter what had been their language in the world; and that he then scarcely knows otherwise than that he speaks there as in the world, when yet the words of their speech are not words such as man uses in the body, but are the ideas which had been of his thought, one idea containing very many things. For this reason spirits can utter in a moment what a man can scarcely utter in half an hour, and even then there are many things within the same idea which cannot possibly be expressed by bodily speech.
[3] Yet the angels in heaven speak in a different way from spirits; for the angels who are in heaven have their speech from intellectual ideas, which by the philosophers are called immaterial ideas; whereas spirits have their speech from ideas of the imagination, which are called material ideas; hence in one idea of the thought of the angels there are contained very many things which spirits cannot utter by many series of their ideas, besides many things which they cannot express at all. But when a spirit becomes an angel, he is in angelic speech, just as a man when after death he becomes a spirit, is in the speech of spirits, and for a similar reason. From all this it can be seen what active thought is, namely, that it is the speech of man’s spirit.

AC (Potts) n. 6988 sRef Ex@4 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@35 @6 S1′ sRef Isa@35 @5 S1′ 6988. Or who hath made him dumb. That this signifies no utterance, is evident from the significance of “dumb,” as being no utterance; for it is opposed to “mouth,” by which is signified utterance (of which just above, n. 6987). By “utterance” is not here meant that of the voice, or speech, for this utterance is natural; but by “utterance” is meant confession of the Lord, and the profession of faith in Him; for this utterance is spiritual. Hence it is evident what is signified in the internal sense by the “dumb,” namely, they who cannot confess the Lord, thus cannot profess faith in Him, by reason of ignorance, in which state are the nations outside the church, and also the simple within the church. That such are signified by the “dumb,” is plain in Isaiah:
Then shall the lame leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing; because in the wilderness waters shall break out, and streams in the plain of the desert (Isa. 35:5-6);
“the tongue of the dumb shall sing” denotes that they shall confess the Lord and what is of faith in Him; “in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the plain of the desert,” denotes that they have the knowledges of truth and good; the “wilderness” is a state of no knowledges of faith from ignorance.
sRef Matt@9 @32 S2′ sRef Matt@12 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@9 @33 S2′ [2] By the dumb who were restored by the Lord are also signified the nations that by His coming into the world were delivered from falsities and the evils thence derived; as by the dumb person in Matthew:
Behold they brought to Him a dumb man, obsessed by a demon; but when the demon was cast out, the dumb spoke (Matt. 9:32-33).
And by the dumb person in the same:
There was brought unto Jesus one obsessed by a demon, blind and dumb; and He healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb both spoke and saw (Matt. 12:22).
In like manner by the dumb person also obsessed by a demon, in Mark 9:17-30.
[3] Be it known that the miracles wrought by the Lord all signify the state of the church, and of the human race saved by His coming into the world, namely, that those were liberated from hell who had received the faith of charity. Such things are involved in the Lord’s miracles. In general all the miracles recorded in the Old Testament signify the state of the Lord’s church and kingdom. In this way Divine miracles are distinguished from diabolical or magical miracles, however much they may appear alike in the external form, as was the case with the miracles of the magicians in Egypt.

AC (Potts) n. 6989 sRef Isa@35 @5 S0′ sRef Isa@43 @9 S0′ sRef Isa@43 @8 S0′ sRef Lev@19 @14 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @11 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @20 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @19 S0′ sRef Isa@29 @18 S0′ 6989. Or deaf. That this signifies no perception of truth, and consequently no obedience, is evident from the signification of the “deaf,” as being those who do not perceive what truth is, and consequently do not obey; thus abstractedly, no perception of truth, and consequently no obedience. That the “deaf” have this signification is because hearing corresponds both to perception and to obedience – to perception because what is heard is inwardly perceived, and to obedience because it is thence known what ought to be done. (That this is the correspondence of hearing, and also of the ear, see n. 3869, 4652-4660, 5017.) Hence it is evident what is signified by the “deaf.” In the Word by the “deaf” are also signified the nations which do not know the truths of faith, because they have not the Word, and therefore they cannot live according to these truths; nevertheless when they have been instructed, they receive them and live according to them. These are meant in Isaiah:
Then shall the eyes of the blind be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be opened (Isa. 35:5).
Hear ye deaf, and look ye blind, seeing (Isa. 42:18).
In that day the deaf shall hear the words of the book; and out of thick darkness, and out of darkness, the eyes of the blind shall see (Isa. 29:18).
Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears (Isa. 43:8);
by the “deaf” are here meant those who by the coming of the Lord came into a state of receiving the truths of faith, that is, of perceiving them and obeying them. The same are signified by the “deaf” whom the Lord healed (Mark 7:31 seq.; 9:25). Because the “deaf” signified such, it was forbidden those with whom the representative church was instituted “to curse the deaf and to put a stumbling-block before the blind” (Lev. 19:14).

AC (Potts) n. 6990 sRef Ex@4 @11 S0′ 6990. Or seeing, or blind. That this signifies faith by means of knowledges, and no faith through the lack of them, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to understand and have faith (see n. 897, 2325, 2807, 3863, 3869, 4403-4421), thus faith from knowledges, for in the original tongue this is a word which means one who is open, namely, with his eyes, thus one who sees from knowledges, for knowledges open; and from the signification of the “blind,” as being no faith from no knowledges, because one who is blind is one who does not see. That by the “blind” in the Word are also signified the nations that live in ignorance of the truth of faith, because outside the church, but who when instructed receive faith, may be seen above (n. 2383); the same are also signified by the blind whom the Lord healed (see Matt. 9:27-31; 12:22; 20:29 seq.; 21:14; Mark 8:22-26; 10:46 seq.; Luke 18:35 seq.; John 9).

AC (Potts) n. 6991 sRef Ex@4 @11 S0′ 6991. Is it not I Jehovah? That this signifies that these things are from the influx of life from the Divine, is evident from the fact that such things as are signified by the “dumb,” by the “deaf,” and by the “blind,” as also by the “mouth” and by “seeing,” arise with man from the influx of life from Jehovah or the Lord. For thence arise both evils and goods with everyone; but evils from man, and goods from the Lord. That evils arise from man, is because the life which flows in from the Lord, that is, good and truth, is turned by man into evil and falsity, thus into what is contrary to life, which is called spiritual death. The case herein is like that of light from the sun, which becomes of a color in accordance with its reception by objects, some being lively and bright, and some being as it were dead and dusky. But as it appears as if the Lord brings in evil also, because He gives life, therefore from the appearance evil is attributed in the Word to Jehovah, or the Lord, as can be seen from many passages. So also in this passage it is said that “Jehovah makes what is dumb, deaf, and blind,” of which, because they arise from the influx of life from the Divine, it is said that “Jehovah makes” them; but the internal sense sets forth and teaches the thing as it is in itself, and not as it appears.

AC (Potts) n. 6992 sRef Ex@4 @12 S0′ 6992. And now go. That this signifies life from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “going,” as being life (see n. 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605); that it is from the Divine is because by Moses is represented the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 6993 sRef Ex@4 @12 S0′ sRef John@7 @39 S1′ 6993. And I will be with thy mouth, and will teach thee what thou shalt speak. That this signifies the Divine in each and all things which proceed from the Divine Human is evident from the signification of “being with the mouth,” when said by Jehovah, as being to be with what he utters (that by the “mouth” is signified utterance, see n. 6987, 6988), and as these things are said to Moses, by whom is represented the Lord as to the law Divine in the Divine Human, therefore by “I will be with thy mouth” is signified the Divine in the things which proceed from the Divine Human; and from the signification of “teaching thee what thou shalt say” as being to proceed; for by “teaching” and by “speaking” is signified to flow in, and when said of the Divine of the Lord, it signifies to proceed. For from the Lord’s Divine Human itself proceeds Divine truth, which is called the “Holy Spirit”; and because when the Lord was in the world He was Himself the Divine truth, He Himself taught the things that were of love and faith, and at that time not by the Holy Spirit, as He Himself teaches in John:
The Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified (John 7:39).
But after the Lord even as to the Human was made Jehovah, that is, Divine good, which was after the resurrection, then He was no longer Divine truth, but this proceeded from His Divine good. That the “Holy Spirit” is the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human, and not any spirit or spirits from eternity, is very evident from the Lord’s words in the passage above cited, namely, that “the Holy Spirit was not yet”; also that a spirit cannot himself proceed, but the holy of the spirit, that is, the holy which proceeds from the Lord, and which a spirit utters (see also n. 6788).
sRef John@16 @14 S2′ sRef John@16 @13 S2′ [2] From all this then it follows that the whole trinity, namely, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, is perfect in the Lord, and thus that there is one God, and not three, who being distinct as to persons are said to constitute one Divine. That in the Word mention has been made of “Father, Son, and Holy Spirit” was that men might acknowledge the Lord and also the Divine in Him. For man was in such thick darkness, as he also is at this day, that otherwise he would not have acknowledged any Divine in the Lord’s Human; for this, being wholly incomprehensible, would have been to him above all belief. And moreover it is a truth that there is a Trine, but in one, namely, in the Lord; and it is also acknowledged in Christian churches that the Trine dwells perfectly in Him. Moreover, the Lord openly taught that He was one with the Father (John 14:9-12); and that the holy, which the Holy Spirit speaks, is not of the Spirit but of the Lord; in John:
The Paraclete, the Spirit of truth, will not speak from Himself, but whatever He hears, He will speak. He will glorify Me, for He will take of what is Mine, and announce it to you (John 16:13-14).
That the “Paraclete” is the Holy Spirit is said in John 14:26.

AC (Potts) n. 6994 sRef Ex@4 @13 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @14 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @17 S0′ 6994. Verses 13-17. And he said, In me, my Lord, send I pray by the hand of him whom Thou wilt send. And the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Moses, and He said, Is there not Aaron, thy brother, the Levite? I know that speaking he will speak. And also behold he goeth forth to meet thee; and he will see thee, and he will be glad in his heart. And thou shalt speak unto him, and shalt put the words in his mouth; and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do. And he shall speak for thee unto the people; and it shall be that he shall be to thee for a mouth, and thou shalt be to him for God. And thou shalt take in thy hand this rod, wherewith thou shalt do the signs. “And he said, In me, my Lord,” signifies asseveration; “send I pray by the hand of him whom Thou wilt send,” signifies that the Divine truth proceeding from the Divine Human will be mediately uttered; “and the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Moses,” signifies clemency; “and He said, Is there not Aaron thy brother the Levite?” signifies the doctrine of good and truth; “I know that he will speak,” signifies preaching; “and also behold he goeth forth to meet thee,” signifies reception; “and he will see thee,” signifies perception; “and he will be glad in his heart,” signifies the affection of love; “and thou shalt speak unto him,” signifies influx; “and shalt put the words in his mouth,” signifies that what he utters will proceed from the Divine Human; “and I will be with thy mouth,” signifies that truth Divine will proceed through the Divine Human from the Divine Itself; “and with his mouth,” signifies thus with the things thence derived; “and will teach you what ye shall do,” signifies thus the Divine in each and all things which shall be done; “and he shall speak for thee unto the people,” signifies that he will be doctrine to the spiritual church; “and it shall be that he shall be to thee for a mouth,” signifies truth Divine, which also proceeds mediately from the Lord; “and thou shalt be to him for God,” signifies the Divine truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord; “and thou shalt take in thy hand this rod,” signifies Divine power therein; “wherewith thou shalt do the signs,” signifies the consequent enlightenment and confirmation of truths.

AC (Potts) n. 6995 sRef Ex@4 @13 S0′ 6995. And he said, In me, my Lord. That this signifies asseveration, is evident from the fact that “in me” is a form of asseveration (as above, n. 6981).

AC (Potts) n. 6996 sRef Ex@4 @13 S0′ 6996. Send I pray by the hand of him whom Thou wilt send. That this signifies that the Divine truth proceeding from the Divine Human will be mediately uttered, is evident from the representation of Moses, who says this, as being the Lord as to the Word, that is, as to Divine truth (see n. 6752); from the signification of “sending,” when said of the Lord, as being to proceed (n. 2397, 4710); and from the signification of “sending by the hand,” as being by another to whom power will be given, namely, the power of uttering the Divine truth proceeding from the Divine Human of the Lord; and as it denotes by another to whom power is given, it denotes mediately. It was shown above (n. 6982, 6985), that the Divine truth proceeding immediately from the Lord’s Divine Human cannot be heard and perceived by any man, nor even by an angel. Therefore in order that it may be heard and perceived, there must be mediation, which mediation is effected through heaven, and afterward through the angels and spirits with the man.
[2] This can be plainly known from the fact that man cannot even hear the spirits who are with him speaking with one another; and if he heard he could not perceive, because the speech of spirits is without human words, and is the universal speech of all languages. Moreover spirits cannot hear angels; and if they heard they could not perceive, because the angelic speech is still more universal. Nay, the angels of the inmost heaven can be still less heard and perceived, because their speech is not a speech of ideas, but of affections which are of celestial love. Seeing that since these kinds of speech are so far away from man, that they cannot possibly be heard and perceived by him, what then, so to speak, must be the Divine speech, which is infinitely above all the kinds of speech in the heavens! It is said “the Divine speech,” but the Divine truth proceeding from the Divine Human of the Lord is meant. This being so, it can be seen that the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, in order to be heard and perceived, must pass to man through mediations. The last mediation is through the spirit who is with the man, who inflows either into his thought, or by means of a living voice.
[3] That the Divine truth proceeding immediately from the Lord cannot be heard or perceived, is also evident from the correspondences and derivative representatives; namely, that the things a man speaks are presented quite differently with spirits; and the things spirits speak, quite differently with the angels. This can be seen from the spiritual sense of the Word and its literal sense, in that the literal sense, which is adapted to man, is significative and representative of the things which are in the spiritual sense; while this latter sense is not perceptible to man except insofar as it can be presented and expressed by such things as are of the world and of nature; and still less the angelic sense. What then must be the case with the Divine truth proceeding immediately from the Divine of the Lord, which is infinitely above the angelic understanding, and which is not perceptible in heaven except insofar as it passes through heaven, and so puts on a form adapted and suited to the perception of those who are there, which is effected by means of a wonderful influx, not at all comprehensible to anyone! These things have been said in order that it may be known that the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord cannot be heard or perceived by anyone, except through mediations.

AC (Potts) n. 6997 sRef Ex@4 @14 S0′ 6997. And the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Moses. That this signifies clemency, is evident from the signification of “the anger of Jehovah,” as not being anger, but the opposite of anger, thus mercy, and here clemency. That Jehovah has not any anger is evident from the fact that He is love itself, good itself, and mercy itself; and anger is the opposite, and also is a weakness, which cannot be applicable to God; and therefore when in the Word “anger” is predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, the angels do not perceive anger, but either mercy or the removal of the evil from heaven; here clemency, because it is said to Moses, by whom is represented the Lord as to Divine truth when He was in the world.
[2] That in the Word “anger” is attributed to Jehovah or the Lord is because it is a most general truth that all things come from God, thus evil things as well as good. But this most general truth, which must be taught to children, youths, and the simple, should afterward be illustrated, that is, by showing that evils are from man, though they appear as if from God, and that it is so said in order that they may learn to fear God, lest they should perish by the evils which they themselves do; and afterward may love Him; for fear must precede love in order that in love there may be holy fear. For when fear is instilled in love, it becomes holy from the holy of love; and then it is not fear of the Lord’s being angry and punishing, but lest they should act against good itself, because this will torment the conscience.
sRef Isa@59 @2 S3′ [3] Moreover, the Israelites and Jews were driven by punishments to observe the statutes and precepts in outward form; and from this they believed that Jehovah was angry and punished, when yet it was themselves who by idolatries brought such things upon them, and separated themselves from heaven; whence came punishments; as is also said in Isaiah:
It is your iniquities that have separated between you and your God; and your sins do hide His faces from you (Isa. 59:2).
And as the Israelites and Jews were solely in externals without an internal, they were therefore held in the opinion that Jehovah was angry and punished; for they who are in externals without an internal do all things from fear, and nothing from love.
sRef Isa@30 @27 S4′ sRef Jer@33 @5 S4′ sRef Isa@54 @8 S4′ sRef Ps@78 @49 S4′ sRef Zeph@3 @8 S4′ sRef Jer@21 @5 S4′ sRef Jer@21 @12 S4′ [4] From all this it can now be seen what is meant in the Word by the “anger and wrath of Jehovah,” namely, punishments; as in these passages:
Behold the name of Jehovah cometh from far, burning with His anger, and the heaviness of a burden; His lips are full of indignation, and His tongue is as a burning fire (Isa. 30:27);
where “anger” denotes reproof and warning lest they should perish through evils. Again:
In an inundation of anger I hid My faces from thee for a moment (Isa. 54:8);
“an inundation of anger” denotes temptation, in which evils vex and torment. In Jeremiah:
I Myself will fight against you with an outstretched hand, and with a strong arm, and in anger, and in fury, and in great indignation; lest My fury go forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the wickedness of your works (Jer. 21:5, 12).
Again:
To fill with the carcasses of the men whom I have smitten in Mine anger, and in My wrath (Jer. 33:5).
Also:
I will pour out upon them Mine indignation, all the wrath of Mine anger; for all the earth shall be devoured with the fire of My zeal (Zeph. 3:8).
He sent on them the wrath of His anger, indignation, and fury, and distress, and a sending of evil angels (Ps. 78:49).
[5] Besides many other passages, in which, as in the above, by “anger,” “wrath,” “fury,” “fire,” are meant punishments and damnations, into which man casts himself when into evils; for it is of Divine order that goods are attended with rewards; and hence it is that evils are attended with punishments, because they are conjoined together. Punishment and damnation are also meant by “the day of the anger of Jehovah” (Isa. 13:9, 13; Lam. 2:1; Zeph. 2:3; Rev. 6:17; 11:18); also by “the wine of the anger of God,” and by “the cup of the anger of God” (Jer. 25:15, 28; Rev. 14:10; 16:19); and likewise by “the winepress of the anger and fury of God” (Rev. 14:19; 19:15).
sRef John@3 @36 S6′ sRef Matt@3 @7 S6′ sRef Luke@21 @23 S6′ [6] That punishment and damnation are signified by “anger,” is also evident in these passages:
Offspring of vipers! Who hath warned you to flee from the anger to come? (Matt. 3:7).
He that believeth not the Son shall not see life, but the anger of God abideth on him (John 3:36).
In the last time there shall be great distress upon the land, and anger on this people (Luke 21:23).
From these passages it is plain that by the “anger of Jehovah” are signified punishments and damnations. That by “anger” is meant clemency and mercy, is because all the punishments of the evil arise from the mercy of the Lord toward the good, lest these should be harmed by the evil; yet the Lord does not impose the punishments on them, but they do so upon themselves, for in the other life evils and punishments are conjoined together. Especially do the evil impose punishments on themselves when the Lord does mercy to the good, for then evils increase upon them, and consequently punishments. It is from this that instead of the “anger of Jehovah,” by which are signified the punishments of the evil, the angels understand mercy.
[7] From all this it can be seen what is the nature of the Word in the sense of the letter, and also what Divine truth is in its most general form, namely, that it is according to appearances; and this for the reason that man is such that what he sees and apprehends from his sensuous, he believes; and what he does not see nor apprehend from his sensuous, he does not believe; thus does not receive. Hence it is that the Word in the sense of the letter is according to things that so appear; and yet it has genuine truths stored up in its inward bosom; and in its inmost bosom, the truth Divine itself which proceeds immediately from the Lord; thus also Divine good, that is, the Lord Himself.

AC (Potts) n. 6998 sRef Ex@4 @14 S0′ 6998. And He said, Is there not Aaron thy brother the Levite? That this signifies the doctrine of good and truth, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord as to Divine good or the priesthood; but here, before he was initiated into the priesthood, the doctrine of good and truth: and therefore also it is said that “he should be to Moses for a mouth, and Moses to him for God;” for by Moses is represented the Lord as to the Divine truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord; consequently by Aaron, the Divine truth which proceeds mediately from the Lord, and which is the doctrine of good and truth. That truth which Moses here represents is truth which cannot be heard or perceived by man (n. 6982); but the truth which Aaron represents is truth which can be both heard and perceived by man; hence Aaron is called the “mouth,” and Moses his “God;” and hence Aaron is called a “Levite,” for by a “Levite” is signified the doctrine of good and truth of the church, which ministers to and serves the priesthood.

AC (Potts) n. 6999 sRef Ex@4 @14 S0′ 6999. I know that he will speak. That this signifies preaching, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” when said of doctrine, which is represented by Aaron, as being preaching; for this is of doctrine, that is, of him who represents doctrine, and who is called the “mouth,” which denotes utterance (see n. 6987).

AC (Potts) n. 7000 sRef Ex@4 @14 S0′ 7000. And also behold he goeth forth to meet thee. That this signifies reception, is evident from the signification of “going forth to meet,” as being to be made ready for receiving, that is, the Divine truth which is represented by Moses, thus denoting its reception. The angels and spirits who receive the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and advance it further, are said “to go forth to meet” when they are made ready by the Lord to receive.

AC (Potts) n. 7001 sRef Ex@4 @14 S0′ 7001. And he will see thee. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to understand and perceive (see n. 2150, 2807, 3764, 3863, 4567, 4723).

AC (Potts) n. 7002 sRef Ex@4 @14 S0′ 7002. And he will be glad in his heart. That this signifies the affection of love, is evident from the signification of “being glad in heart,” as being the pleasantness and delight from the affection which is of love; for all gladness proceeds from the affection of love. That the affection of love is said of the doctrine of good and truth, and not of those who are in the doctrine, is from angelic speech, for so the angels speak, because they are unwilling to speak of persons, because speech about persons would avert the ideas from a universal view of things, thus from the comprehension of innumerable things together. For this reason they attribute to doctrine what is pleasant and enjoyable, also affection and the like. These things also are in doctrine when the man applies it to himself, because in doctrine there is truth Divine proceeding from the Lord, and in truth Divine proceeding from the Lord there is love, thus what is pleasant and enjoyable.

AC (Potts) n. 7003 sRef Ex@4 @15 S0′ 7003. And thou shalt speak unto him. That this signifies influx, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” as being influx (see n. 2951, 5481, 5743, 5797).

AC (Potts) n. 7004 sRef Ex@4 @15 S0′ 7004. And shalt put the words in his mouth. That this signifies that what he utters will proceed from the Divine Human, is evident from the representation of Moses, who was to put words in Aaron’s mouth, as being the Lord as to the Divine truth which proceeds from His Divine Human (of which above); and from the signification of “mouth,” as being voice and utterance (see n. 6987). Thus “to put in the mouth” denotes to give to utter; but when said of the Lord, it denotes to proceed, because the Word which is uttered by a spirit or angel, proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human. Aaron, moreover, represents the doctrine of good and truth, which is uttered. The case herein is this.
sRef John@1 @1 S2′ sRef John@1 @3 S2′ [2] From the Lord proceeds Divine truth immediately and mediately; that which proceeds immediately is above all the understanding of angels; but that which proceeds mediately is adapted to the angels in the heavens and also to men, for it passes through heaven and thereby puts on the angelic and the human quality; but into this truth also the Lord flows immediately, and thus leads angels and men both mediately and immediately (n. 6058). For each and all things are from the First being, and the order has been so instituted that the First being may be present in the derivatives both mediately and immediately, thus alike in the ultimate of order and in its first; for the Divine truth itself is the one only substantial, the derivatives being nothing but successive forms thence derived. From this also it is plain that the Divine flows immediately also into each and all things, because all things have been created from the Divine truth, the Divine truth being the one only essential (n. 6880), thus that from which all things are. The Divine truth is what is called “the Word” in John:
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word; all things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made (John 1:1-2).
By such influx the Lord leads man not only by providence in the universal, but also in every singular, nay, in the veriest singulars of all. For these reasons it is said that the things which are uttered proceed from the Divine Human.
[3] That there is an immediate influx of the Lord where there is also a mediate, thus in the last of order equally as in the first of order, has been told me from heaven, and a living perception of it has been given; also that what is effected by mediate influx, that is, through heaven and the angels there, is relatively very little; and further, that the Lord leads heaven by means of immediate influx, and at the same time by means of it keeps all things there in their connection and order.

AC (Potts) n. 7005 sRef Ex@4 @15 S0′ 7005. And I will be with thy mouth. That this signifies that truth Divine will proceed through the Divine Human from the Divine Itself, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to truth Divine (of which above); and from the signification of “being with his mouth,” as being to be in the truth Divine which proceeds from the Divine Human. The Divine Itself, which is called the “Father,” is meant by “I,” or Jehovah. Hence it is evident that by “I will be with thy mouth” is signified that truth Divine proceeds through the Divine Human from the Divine Itself; which is the same as that the holy of the spirit proceeds from the Son, and the Son from the Father, according to the doctrine of the church; which however is to be understood in this way: that this Trine is in the Lord and is one in Him.

AC (Potts) n. 7006 sRef Ex@4 @15 S0′ 7006. And with his mouth. That this signifies thus with the things thence derived, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the doctrine of good and truth (see n. 6998); and from the signification of “being with his mouth,” as being the Divine with this doctrine, and in it; and as this doctrine is from the Divine truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine Human (of which just above, n. 7005), therefore by “being with his mouth” is signified with the things thence derived. (That the doctrine of good and of truth proceeds mediately and immediately from the Divine Human of the Lord, see above, n. 7004.)

AC (Potts) n. 7007 sRef Ex@4 @15 S0′ 7007. And will teach you what ye shall do. That this signifies thus the Divine in each and all things which shall be done, is evident from the signification of “teaching,” as being to flow in, and when as here said of the Divine, as being to proceed (see above, n. 6993); and from the signification of “what ye shall do,” as being what shall be done. That it denotes in each and all things, is because it is said of the Divine. Something shall here be said about the Divine being in each and all things that take place with man. That such is the case appears to man to be far from the truth, because he thinks, “If the Divine were in each and all things that take place, evils would not happen, neither would anyone suffer damnation;” also that the justice of a cause would always triumph; that the upright would be happier in the world than the wicked; with many like things; and as they see the contrary, they do not believe that the Divine is in each and all things. Hence it is that they attribute to themselves and their own sagacity the singulars, and to the Divine only the universal government; and all other things they call fortune and chance, which they conceive to be blind things of nature.
[2] But man so thinks because he does not know the secrets of heaven, which are that the Lord leaves to everyone his own freedom; for unless man is in freedom, he can never be reformed. Compulsion does not reform, because it inroots nothing, for that which is compulsory is not of man’s will; but that which is free is of his will. Nevertheless good and truth, in order to be man’s as his own, must be inrooted in his will, for that which is outside the will is not the man’s. And as for this reason everyone is left to his freedom, man is allowed to think evil, and to do evil, insofar as external fears do not restrain. And also for the same reason, in this world the wicked man is apparently glad and in his glory more than the upright; but the glorying and gladness of the wicked are external, or of the body, which in the other life are turned into infernal unhappiness; whereas the glorying and gladness of the upright are internal, or of the spirit, and remain and become heavenly happiness.
[3] Moreover, in eminence and opulence there is worldly, but not eternal happiness; and therefore both the wicked and the upright have it, or if the latter do not have it, it is that they may not be turned away from good by such things; and as men make the Divine blessing to consist in worldly goods and happinesses, when they see the contrary their weakness drives them into errors with respect to the Divine Providence. They also come to conclusions from the present things which they see, without considering that the Divine Providence looks to what is eternal, especially that all things may be in order in heaven, and also in hell; thus that heaven may constantly bear relation to a Man, and that hell may be in the opposite, whence comes equilibrium; and that this cannot possibly exist except by means of the Divine Providence in the veriest singulars of all, thus unless the Divine continually guides and bends man’s freedom.
[4] In regard to the other points, see what has been already said and shown about the Divine Providence, namely: That the providence of the Lord cannot be universal unless it is in the veriest singulars (n. 1919, 4329, 5122, 5894, 6481-6486, 6490): That the providence of the Lord has regard to what is eternal (n. 5264, 6491): That evil is foreseen by the Lord, and good is provided (n. 5155, 5195, 6489): That the Lord turns into good the evil which He foresees (n. 6574): That contingent things are of providence (n. 5508, 6493, 6494): That man’s own prudence is like a few specks of dust in the atmosphere, and Providence like the whole atmosphere (n. 6485): That many fallacies attack the Divine Providence in singulars (n. 6481).

AC (Potts) n. 7008 sRef Ex@4 @16 S0′ 7008. And he shall speak for thee unto the people. That this signifies that he will be doctrine to the spiritual church, is evident from the representation of Aaron, of whom it is said that “he shall speak for Moses to the people,” as being the doctrine of good and truth (see n. 6998); from the signification of “speaking,” as being confession and preaching (n. 6999); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, who are here the “people,” as being the spiritual church (n. 6426).

AC (Potts) n. 7009 sRef Ex@4 @16 S0′ 7009. And it shall be that he shall be to thee for a mouth. That this signifies the truth of doctrine, which also proceeds mediately from the Lord, is evident from the representation of Aaron, who was to be “to Moses for a mouth,” as being doctrine (see n. 6998); and from the signification of “being to Moses for a mouth,” as being his utterance or preaching (n. 6987). It is said the truth of doctrine which also proceeds mediately from the Lord, because the truth of doctrine, which is represented by Aaron, is such as is heard and perceived by angels and men. This truth is what proceeds mediately from the Lord; but the truth which is represented by Moses, is that which proceeds from the Lord immediately, and is not heard or perceived by men, nor even by angels (n. 6982, 6985, 6996, 7004).

AC (Potts) n. 7010 sRef Ex@4 @16 S0′ 7010. And thou shalt be to him for God. That this signifies the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord immediately, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to Divine truth (see n. 6752). That it denotes the Divine truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord, is signified by that he was “to Aaron for God;” for by “God” in the Word is meant the Lord as to Divine truth, and by “Jehovah,” the Lord as to Divine good. That in the Word the Lord is called “God” where truth is treated of, but “Jehovah” where good is treated of, see n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4402: That the angels are called “gods” from the truths in which they are from the Lord (n. 4402): And that in the opposite sense the “gods of the nations” denote falsities (n. 4402, 4544).

AC (Potts) n. 7011 sRef Ex@4 @17 S0′ 7011. And thou shalt take in thy hand this rod. That this signifies Divine power herein, is evident from the signification of “rod,” as being power (see n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936), and in fact when it is in the hand; for by “hand” is signified spiritual power, and by “rod” natural power. As the natural has no power except from the spiritual, so a rod has no power unless it is in the hand; and therefore it is said that “he should take it in his hand.” (That the “hand,” when predicated of the Lord denotes the power proceeding from His Divine rational, and a “rod” the power proceeding from His Divine natural, may be seen above, n. 6947.) It is said “the Divine power therein,” namely, in truths (of which above), because power is predicated of truth (n. 3091, 6344, 6423, 6948).

AC (Potts) n. 7012 sRef Ex@4 @17 S0′ 7012. Wherewith thou shalt do the signs. That this signifies the consequent enlightenment and confirmation of truths, is evident from the signification of a “sign,” as being the confirmation of truths (see n. 6870); that it also denotes enlightenment, is because the confirmation of truths is effected by means of enlightenment from the Lord when a man studies the Word with the end of knowing truths. As regards enlightenment and the consequent confirmation of truths, be it known that they who are in externals without an internal (as were the Jews and the Israelites) cannot be enlightened; thus neither can they be confirmed in truths, whereas when they who are in externals and at the same time in internals read the Word, they are enlightened, and in their enlightenment see truths, in which they are afterward more and more confirmed; and, wonderful to say, everyone has such enlightenment as is his affection of truth; and such affection of truth as is his good of life. Hence also it is that they who are in no affection of truth for the sake of truth, but for the sake of their own advantage, are not at all enlightened when they read the Word, but are only confirmed in doctrinal things, no matter of what kind, whether false, as heresies are, or entirely contrary to truths, as are the Jewish ones; for they do not seek the kingdom of the Lord, but the world; not faith, but fame; thus not heavenly riches, but only earthly; and if perchance they are seized with a desire of knowing truths from the Word, falsities present themselves instead of truths, and at last there is denial of all things. These things have been said in order that it may be known what enlightenment is, and the consequent confirmation of truth.

AC (Potts) n. 7013 sRef Ex@4 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @20 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @19 S0′ 7013. Verses 18-20. And Moses went, and returned to Jethro his father-in-law, and said to him, Let me go, I pray, and return into my brethren who are in Egypt, and I shall see whether they yet live. And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace. And Jehovah said unto Moses in Midian, Go, return into Egypt; because all the men seeking thy soul are dead. And Moses took his wife and his sons, and made them ride upon the ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt; and Moses took the rod of God in his hand. “And Moses went, and returned,” signifies continuation of the former life; “to Jethro his father-in-law,” signifies in simple good; “and said to him, Let me go I pray, and return unto my brethren who are in Egypt,” signifies elevation to more interior and more spiritual life in the natural; “and I shall see whether they yet live,” signifies the perception of that life; “and Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace,” signifies assent and a devout wish; “and Jehovah said unto Moses in Midian,” signifies enlightenment and confirmation from the Divine in this state; “Go, return into Egypt,” signifies spiritual life in the natural; “because all the men seeking thy soul are dead,” signifies the removal of the falsities that are endeavoring to destroy the life of truth and good; “and Moses took his wife,” signifies good adjoined; “and his sons,” signifies truths thence derived; “and made them ride upon the ass,” signifies which would be of service to new intelligence; “and he returned into the land of Egypt,” signifies in the natural mind; “and Moses took the rod of God in his hand,” signifies that these things were from Divine power.

AC (Potts) n. 7014 sRef Ex@4 @18 S0′ 7014. And Moses went, and returned. That this signifies continuation of the former life, is evident from the signification of “going,” as being life (see n. 4882, 5493, 5605); from the signification of “returning,” or “going back,” as being to live where he lived before; and from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to the law or truth from the Divine (n. 6771, 6827). When Moses was in Mount Horeb with Jehovah seen in a flame, he then represented the Lord as to Divine truth; but now with Jethro his father-in-law, who is the good of the church which is in the truth of simple good, he represents the Lord as to truth from the Divine. Here and elsewhere in the Word, in the internal sense, are described all the states of the Lord’s life in the world, how He then made His Human Divine. That the states were successive, can be seen from the fact that the Lord when an infant was like an infant, and that He afterward grew in intelligence and wisdom, and continually instilled into these the Divine love, even until He became the Divine love, that is, the Divine being or Jehovah, as to His Human also. And as the Lord in this way successively put on the Divine, He therefore first made Himself truth from the Divine, afterward Divine truth, and at last the Divine good. These were the steps of the glorification of the Lord which are described here and elsewhere in the internal sense of the Word.

AC (Potts) n. 7015 sRef Ex@4 @18 S0′ 7015. Unto Jethro his father-in-law. That this signifies in simple good, namely, continuation of life, is evident from the representation of Jethro, who being the priest of Midian denotes the good of the church which is in the truth of simple good (see n. 6827); this good is meant by “simple good;” and from the signification of “father-in-law,” as being that from which comes the conjunction of good and truth (n. 6827).

AC (Potts) n. 7016 sRef Ex@4 @18 S0′ 7016. And said to him, Let me go, I pray, and return unto my brethren who are in Egypt. That this signifies elevation to more interior and more spiritual life in the natural, is evident from the signification of “going and returning,” as being what is successive of life, and here the successive of life is elevation to interior and more spiritual life, thus nearer to the Divine, for when “going and returning” are said of the Lord, who is represented by Moses, there is meant elevation to the Divine being or Jehovah who is in Him, and from whom He is; from the representation of the sons of Israel, who are here the “brethren,” as being the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, and thence the spiritual church (see n. 6426, 6637); and from the signification of “Egypt” as being the natural (n. 6147, 6252). Hence it is plain that by “let me go and return unto my brethren who are in Egypt,” is signified elevation to more interior and more spiritual life in the natural. For as the dwelling of Moses in Midian signified life with those who are in the truth of simple good, thus in simple good (see n. 7015), so now dwelling with the sons of Israel signifies life with those who are in the truth and good of the spiritual church, which life is more interior and spiritual than the former. (That the good and truth of this church are in the natural, see n. 4286, 4402.)

AC (Potts) n. 7017 sRef Ex@4 @18 S0′ 7017. And I shall see whether they yet live. That this signifies the perception of that life, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to understand and perceive (see n. 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863, 4403-4421, 4567, 4723, 5400); and from the signification of “living,” as being spiritual life (n. 5407). By the perception of that life is meant the perception which precedes; for when anyone proposes anything to himself, he perceives it as present, because he puts his mind into the state of that thing; and from this there are longings and consequent delight as if the thing were present. Thus the mediate ends conjoin themselves with the ultimate end, and make as it were one end.

AC (Potts) n. 7018 sRef Ex@4 @18 S0′ 7018. And Jethro said to Moses, Go in peace. That this signifies assent and a devout wish, is evident from the signification of “Jethro said to Moses,” as being the answer; that it denotes assent, and also a devout wish, is signified by “Go in peace.”

AC (Potts) n. 7019 sRef Ex@4 @19 S0′ 7019. And Jehovah said unto Moses in Midian. That this signifies enlightenment and confirmation from the Divine in this state, is evident from the fact that Jehovah said to Moses that he should return to Egypt, when yet this had previously been commanded Moses by Jehovah (chapter 3:10, and above in this chapter, verse 12), and when, in consequence of this command, Moses had already prepared himself for the way. From this it can be seen that by this command are signified enlightenment and confirmation from the Divine. That the enlightenment and confirmation were in this state, namely, in a state of the truth of simple good, is signified by its being said by Jehovah to Moses in Midian. (That “Midian” denotes the truth of simple good, see n. 3242, 4756, 4788, 6773.)

AC (Potts) n. 7020 sRef Ex@4 @19 S0′ 7020. Go, return into Egypt. That this signifies spiritual life in the natural, is evident from the signification of “going and returning,” as being more interior and spiritual life (of which above, n. 7016); and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being the natural (n. 6147, 6252).

AC (Potts) n. 7021 sRef Ex@4 @19 S0′ 7021. Because all the men seeking thy soul are dead. That this signifies the removal of the falsities that are endeavoring to destroy the life of truth and good, is evident from the signification of “being dead,” as being that they are removed, for they who are dead have also been removed; from the signification of the “Egyptians,” who here are “the men,” as being those who are in falsities (see n. 6692); and from the signification of “those seeking the soul,” as being those who are endeavoring to destroy the life. And as spiritual life is the life of the truth that is of faith, and of the good that is of charity, it is therefore said “the life of truth and good.” From this it is evident that by “all the men seeking thy soul are dead” is signified the removal of the falsities that are endeavoring to destroy the life of truth and good. By “soul” in the Word is meant every living thing, and it is attributed also to animals, but “soul” is properly predicated of man, and when of man, the term is used in various senses. Man himself is called a “soul,” because his life in general is so called, also specifically his intellectual life, or understanding, and likewise his voluntary life, or will.
sRef Matt@10 @28 S2′ sRef Matt@16 @26 S2′ sRef Ezek@13 @19 S2′ sRef Luke@9 @56 S2′ [2] But in the spiritual sense by “soul” is meant the life of the truth which is of faith, and of the good which is of charity, and in general the man himself as to his spirit which lives after death, in which sense it is used in these passages:
Be not afraid of those who are able to kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul (Matt. 10:28).
What doth it profit a man, if he gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? Or what price shall a man give sufficient for the redemption of his soul? (Matt. 16:26).
The Son of man is not come to destroy men’s souls, but to save them (Luke 9:56).
Ye have profaned Me among My people, to slay the souls that ought not to die, and to make the souls to live that ought not to live (Ezek. 13:19).
In these passages the “soul” denotes the spiritual life of man, which life is that of his spirit after death. “To kill the soul,” “to lose the soul,” “to destroy the soul,” denote to die spiritually, that is, to be damned.

AC (Potts) n. 7022 sRef Ex@4 @20 S0′ 7022. And Moses took his wife. That this signifies good adjoined, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to the law, or truth, from the Divine (of which above); and from the signification of “wife,” as being good adjoined (see n. 4510, 4823). In the internal sense, and also in the supreme sense in which the Lord is treated of, by the wife of Moses is represented good conjoined with truth, because in each and all things in the spiritual world and in the natural, there is a likeness of a marriage. There is a likeness of a marriage where there is what is active and what is passive; and there must be the active and at the same time the passive where anything has to come into existence; for without the conjunction of these two nothing can possibly be produced. That there is in all things a likeness of a marriage, is because all things bear relation to good and truth, thus to the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth; and the heavenly marriage bears relation to the Divine marriage, which is that of Divine good and Divine truth. And because as before said nothing can come into existence and be produced unless there is an active and a passive, thus unless there is a likeness of a marriage, it is very evident that the truth which is of faith without the good which is of charity cannot produce anything, nor the good which is of charity without the truth which is of faith; but that there must be a conjunction of both to produce fruits, and to make the life of heaven in man. That in all things there is a likeness of a marriage, see n. 1432, 2173, 2176, 5194; and that in every detail of the Word there is the marriage of good and truth, see n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712, 4138, 5138, 6343; consequently in every detail of the Word there is heaven, for heaven is this marriage itself; and as in every detail of the Word there is heaven, in every detail of the Word there is the Lord, because the Lord is the all in all things of heaven. From all this it can be seen why the wife of Moses represents good conjoined with truth, even in the supreme sense, in which the Lord is treated of; in like manner as does Sarah the wife of Abraham (n. 2063, 2065, 2172, 2173, 2198); and also Rebecca the wife of Isaac (n. 3012, 3013, 3077).

AC (Potts) n. 7023 sRef Ex@4 @20 S0′ 7023. And his sons. That this signifies the truths thence derived, is evident from the signification of “sons,” as being truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373); it is said “thence derived,” because from the marriage just spoken of.

AC (Potts) n. 7024 sRef Ex@4 @20 S0′ 7024. And he made them ride upon the ass. That this signifies the things that would be of service to new intelligence, is evident from the signification of “riding,” as being the things of the intellect, here of new intelligence, which must be of life among those who are in the spiritual church (see n. 7016); that these things are signified by “riding” is because a “horse” signifies the intellectual (of which see n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321, 6534); and from the signification of an “ass,” as being the truth that is of service, here to new intelligence (n. 2781, 5741), and also as being memory-knowledge (n. 5492).

AC (Potts) n. 7025 sRef Ex@4 @20 S0′ 7025. And he returned unto the land of Egypt. That this signifies in the natural mind, is evident from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being the natural mind (see n. 5276, 5278, 5280, 5288, 5301).

AC (Potts) n. 7026 sRef Ex@4 @20 S0′ 7026. And Moses took the rod of God in his hand. That this signifies that these things were from Divine power, is evident from the signification of “rod,” as being power (n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936) thus “the rod of God” denotes Divine power. (That “rod” denotes the power of the natural, and “hand” the power of the spiritual, and that the natural has power from the spiritual, thus that by “rod” is signified power when it is in the hand, see n. 7011.) That a “rod” denotes power, originates from the representatives in the other life, for in that life they who practice magical arts appear with rods, which also serve them for powers. Hence also the Egyptian magicians had rods, whereby they performed what appeared like miracles; and from this the ancients in their writings everywhere assign rods to magicians. From all this it can be seen that a rod is a representative of power, and that it is also a real correspondence, for power is actually exercised by means of rods; but with magicians this is an abuse of correspondence, neither is it of avail except within the hells where they are, and it avails there because illusions and phantasies reign there. And because there is a real correspondence of a rod with power, Moses was commanded to take a rod in his hand, and by it to do signs; and for the same reason also kings have a scepter, which is a short rod, and by it is signified royal power. The correspondence of a rod and of power, is from the fact that a rod or staff supports the hand and arm, thus at the same time the body, and in the Grand Man the hand and arm correspond to power (n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 5544, 6947, 7011).

AC (Potts) n. 7027 sRef Ex@4 @22 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @23 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @21 S0′ 7027. Verses 21-23. And Jehovah said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see all the wonders which I have put in thy hand, and thou shalt do them before Pharaoh; and I will harden his heart, and he will not send away the people. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith Jehovah, My son, My firstborn, is Israel, and I say unto thee, Send My son away, that he may serve Me; and if thou refuse to send him away, behold I will slay thy son, thy firstborn. “And Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies perception from the Divine; “When thou goest to return into Egypt,” signifies spiritual life in the natural; “see all the wonders which I have put in thy hand,” signifies means of power from the spiritual then; “and thou shalt do them before Pharaoh,” signifies against infesting falsities; “and I will harden his heart, and he will not send away the people,” signifies obstinacy, and thus not yet liberation; “and thou shalt say unto Pharaoh,” signifies exhortation; “Thus said Jehovah,” signifies from the Divine; “My son, My firstborn, is Israel,” signifies that they who are in spiritual truth and good have been adopted; “and I say unto thee,” signifies command; “Send My son away,” signifies that they should abstain from infesting the truths of the church; “that he may serve Me,” signifies elevation into heaven in order to perform uses therefrom; “and if thou refuse to send him away,” signifies obstinacy even to the last; “behold I will slay thy son, thy firstborn,” signifies the extinction of faith without charity, and the consequent devastation of truth with them.

AC (Potts) n. 7028 sRef Ex@4 @21 S0′ 7028. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies perception from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “saying,” in the historicals of the Word, as being perception (of which frequently above); that it denotes from the Divine, is signified by “Jehovah said.” The reason why it is again said, “Jehovah said unto Moses,” is that a new perception is signified (see n. 2061, 2238, 2260, 2506, 2515, 2552).

AC (Potts) n. 7029 sRef Ex@4 @21 S0′ 7029. When thou goest to return into Egypt. That this signifies spiritual life in the natural, is evident from the signification of “going and returning,” as being elevation to a more interior and spiritual life; and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being the natural (of which above, n. 7016).

AC (Potts) n. 7030 sRef Ex@4 @21 S0′ 7030. See all the wonders which I have put in thy hand. That this signifies means of power from the spiritual then, is evident from the signification of “wonders” or “miracles,” as being means of Divine power (see n. 6910); and from the signification of “hand,” as being spiritual power (n. 7011). From this it is evident that by “see all the wonders which I have put in thy hand” are signified means of power from the spiritual.

AC (Potts) n. 7031 sRef Ex@4 @21 S0′ 7031. And thou shalt do them before Pharaoh. That this signifies against the infesting falsities, is evident from the representation of Pharaoh as being falsity infesting the truths of the church (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692). That “thou shalt do them before Pharaoh” denotes against these falsities, is because it follows in a series from the things that precede; for there by “See all the wonders which I have put in thy hand” is signified the means of power from the spiritual, thus against the infesting falsities; and in the internal sense those things follow in a series to which the words of the sense of the letter are applied.

AC (Potts) n. 7032 sRef Ex@4 @21 S0′ 7032. And I will harden his heart, and he will not send away the people. That this signifies obstinacy, and thus not yet liberation, is evident from the signification of “hardening,” as being obstinacy, and from the signification of the “heart,” as being the will (see n. 2930, 3888), thus by these words is signified obstinacy from the will, consequently from the delight of doing evil, because that which is of the will is delightful, and this is from the love; and from the signification of “not sending away the people,” as being from obstinacy not to be willing to set at liberty, thus not yet liberation. It is said here and in what follows that “Jehovah hardened the heart of Pharaoh.” This is so said from the appearance, and from the common notion of the Divine as doing all things; but this is to be understood in the same way as when evil, anger, fury, devastation, and other like things are attributed to Jehovah or the Lord (see n. 2447, 6071, 6991, 6997).
[2] As regards the obstinacy of those who are in falsities and the derivative evils, and in evils and the derivative falsities, be it known that the obstinacy is such as cannot be described; for they never desist except through grievous punishments and the consequent fears; exhortations and threats are of no avail whatever, because the delight of their life is to do evil. They contracted this delight during their life in the world, especially from the fact that they loved themselves only and not the neighbor, thus being in no Christian charity. As people of this kind do not suffer themselves to be led by the Lord, they act from their own proper will, which is evil by heredity, and also by actual life; and they who act from their own will, do evil from love; for that which is of the will is of the love; and from this they have the delight of doing evil, and so far as they are in this delight, so far they are in obstinacy.
[3] That this is so does not appear in the world, because in the world they are withheld by the love of self and the love of the world, for they fear the loss of reputation, and of the consequent gain and honor, if they were to do evil openly. Moreover, the laws and the fear of the loss of life restrain them; but if these did not stand in the way, they would rush to destroy all who do not favor them, and would plunder them of all their property, and would mercilessly kill anyone. Such is man interiorly, that is, such is man as to his spirit, however much in this world he may appear different. This can be very plainly seen from them in the other life, for then the externals are taken away from those who have been such in the world, and they are left to their will, thus to their loves; and when they are left to these, they perceive nothing more delightful than to do evil, which also they do with such obstinacy that, as before said, they never desist except through punishments, and afterward by repeated sinkings down into hell. From all this it can be seen what a man is who is in no charity toward the neighbor; and also that everyone’s life awaits him; not the civil life which was external and apparent in the world, but the spiritual life which was internal and did not appear in the world.

AC (Potts) n. 7033 sRef Ex@4 @22 S0′ 7033. And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh. That this signifies exhortation, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when done by Divine command, as being exhortation; and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being falsity infesting the truths of the church, thus those who are in falsity and who infest (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692).

AC (Potts) n. 7034 sRef Ex@4 @22 S0′ 7034. Thus saith Jehovah. That this signifies from the Divine, that is, exhortation, is evident from what has been already said, and also from what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 7035 sRef Ex@4 @22 S0′ sRef John@10 @16 S0′ 7035. My son, My firstborn, is Israel. That this signifies that they who are in spiritual truth and good have been adopted, is evident from the signification of “son,” when said by Jehovah, or the Lord, of those who are of the spiritual church, as being to be adopted (of which presently); from the signification of “firstborn,” as being the faith of charity, which is of the spiritual church (see n. 367, 2435, 3325, 4925, 4926, 4928, 4930); and from the representation of Israel, as being the spiritual church (n. 6637). That ” My son, My firstborn, Israel,” or those who are in spiritual truth and good, that is, who are of the spiritual church, have been adopted, and thus acknowledged as sons, is because the Lord by His coming into the world saved them (n. 6854, 6914); hence also, and likewise by virtue of faith in the Lord, they are called the “firstborn son.” These are also meant by the Lord in John:
And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice, and there shall be one flock, and one Shepherd (John 10:16).

AC (Potts) n. 7036 sRef Ex@4 @23 S0′ 7036. And I say unto thee. That this signifies command, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by Jehovah, as being command.

AC (Potts) n. 7037 sRef Ex@4 @23 S0′ 7037. Send My son away. That this signifies that they should abstain from infesting the truths of the church, is evident from the representation of Pharaoh, as being the falsity infesting the truths of the church (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692); from the signification of “sending away,” as being a command to abstain; and from the signification of “son,” as being those who are in spiritual truth and good, and have been adopted (of which just above, n. 7035). Hence it is plain that by “Send My son away” is signified that they should abstain from infesting those who are in the truths of the church.

AC (Potts) n. 7038 sRef Ex@4 @23 S0′ 7038. That they may serve Me. That this signifies elevation into heaven in order to perform uses therefrom, is evident from the signification of “serving Jehovah,” or the Lord, as being to perform uses; and as this is said of those of the spiritual church who have been saved by the coming of the Lord, and who before His coming were in the lower earth, and were afterward elevated into heaven (n. 6854, 6914), and thereby came into a state of performing uses, therefore by “that they may serve Me” is signified elevation into heaven in order to perform uses therefrom. That “to serve the Lord” denotes to perform uses, is because true worship consists in the performance of uses, thus in the exercises of charity. He who believes that serving the Lord consists solely in frequenting a place of worship, in hearing preaching there, and in praying, and that this is sufficient, is much mistaken. The very worship of the Lord consists in performing uses; and during man’s life in the world uses consist in everyone’s discharging aright his duty in his station, thus from the heart being of service to his country, to societies, and to the neighbor, in dealing sincerely with his fellow, and in performing kind offices with prudence in accordance with each person’s character. These uses are chiefly the works of charity, and are those whereby the Lord is chiefly worshiped. Frequenting a place of worship, hearing sermons, and saying prayers, are also necessary; but without the above uses they avail nothing, because they are not of the life, but teach what the life must be. The angels in heaven have all happiness from uses, and according to uses, so that to them uses are heaven.
[2] That happiness is from Divine order according to uses, can be seen from the things in man which correspond to those which are in the Grand Man; as those from the external senses, namely, from sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch, which as has been shown at the end of many chapters, are correspondent. These senses therefore have delights exactly in accordance with the uses which they perform; the most delightful is the sense of conjugial love, on account of its greatest use, because from this comes the propagation of the human race, and from the human race, heaven; the delight of taste follows next, because it serves for the nourishment and thereby for the health of the body, in accordance with which is the sound action of the mind; the delight of smell is less, because it merely serves for recreation: and thus also for health; the delight of hearing and that of sight are in the last place, because they merely take up those things which will be of service to uses, and wait upon the intellectual part, and not so much the will part.
[3] From these and other like facts it becomes plain that it is uses according to which happiness is given in heaven by the Lord; and that it is uses through which the Lord is mainly worshiped. From this it is that John lay on the Lord’s breast at table, and that the Lord loved him more than the rest; but this was not for his own sake, but because he represented the exercises of charity, that is, uses. (That John represented these, see the preface to Gen. 18 and 22, and n. 3934.)

7038a. And if thou refuse to send him away. That this signifies obstinacy even to the last, is evident from the signification of “refusing to send him away,” as being not to liberate in consequence of obstinacy (as above, n. 7032).

AC (Potts) n. 7039 sRef Ex@4 @23 S0′ 7039. Behold I will slay thy son, thy firstborn. That this signifies the extinction of faith without charity, and the consequent devastation of truth with them, is evident from the signification of “slaying,” as being extinction; and from the signification of “son, the firstborn,” namely, of Pharaoh and the Egyptians, as being faith without charity (see n. 3325). For by Pharaoh and the Egyptians are represented the memory-knowledges which are of the church (n. 4749, 4964, 4966, 6004), thus which are of faith, for these are of the church. But because they turned these memory-knowledges into magic (n. 6692), and from this their works were evil, and devoid of any charity, therefore by their “firstborn” are signified such things as are of the memory-knowledge of faith, thus faith without charity. That these are signified by the “firstborn of Egypt,” is evident from the signification of the “firstborn of Israel,” as being the faith of charity (of which above n. 7035).
[2] It is said “faith without charity,” but by “faith” is here meant the memory-knowledge of such things as are of faith, for there is no faith where there is no charity. With those who are not in charity the things of faith are merely things of memory, and are in the memory under no other form than is any other memory-knowledge; and there is not there even the memory-knowledge of truth which is of faith, because it is defiled with ideas of falsity, and also serves as a means to defend falsities. As this is the case with faith without charity, it is therefore extinguished with the evil in the other life, and they are completely devastated as to truth, in order to prevent truths from being made into means for their evils, and thus lest hell should in some way have dominion in them over such things as are of heaven, and lest they should thereby hang between heaven and hell. This extinction and this devastation of truth are what is signified by the firstborn in Egypt being slain. That the Egyptians afterward perished in the sea Suph represented the subsequent state of damnation or the spiritual death of such persons, for as soon as the things of faith or of truth are taken away from them (which had been like wings that lifted them up), they soon sink down like weights into hell.

AC (Potts) n. 7040 sRef Ex@4 @23 S0′ 7040. Verses 24-26. And it came to pass in the way, in the inn, that Jehovah met him, and sought to kill him. And Zipporah took a stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and made it touch his feet; and she said, Because a bridegroom of bloods art thou to me. And He ceased from him. Then she said, A bridegroom of bloods as to circumcisions. “And it came to pass in the way, in the inn,” signifies that the posterity of Jacob were in externals without an internal; “that Jehovah met him,” signifies opposition; “and sought to kill him,” signifies that a representative church could not be instituted with that posterity; “and Zipporah took a stone,” signifies the quality shown by the representative church by means of truth; “and cut off the foreskin of her son,” signifies the removal of filthy loves, and thereby the laying bare of the internal; “and made it touch his feet,” signifies that the quality of the natural was then shown; “and she said, Because a bridegroom of bloods art thou to me,” signifies that it was full of all violence and hostility against truth and good; “and He ceased from him,” signifies that it was permitted that they should represent; “then she said, A bridegroom of bloods as to circumcisions,” signifies that although the internal was full of violence and hostility against truth and good, still circumcision was to be received as a sign representative of purification from filthy loves.

AC (Potts) n. 7041 sRef Ex@4 @24 S0′ 7041. And it came to pass in the way, in the inn. That this signifies that the posterity of Jacob were in externals without an internal, is evident from the representation of Moses here. In what precedes, and in what follows, the subject treated of in the internal sense is the spiritual church, which is meant by the “sons of Israel;” but in these three verses it is that this church was to have been instituted among the posterity of Jacob, but that it could not be instituted among them because they were in externals without an internal. For this reason Moses here does not represent the law or the Word, but that nation or posterity from Jacob of which he was to be the leader; thus he also represents the worship of that nation, for everywhere in the Word a leader or judge, and also a king, represents the nation and people of which he is the leader, judge, or king, because he is its head (see n. 4789). This is the reason why Moses is not here named, and yet by its coming to pass in the way, in the inn, he is meant, and that Jehovah then met him, and sought to kill him, when yet He had before so expressly commanded that he should go and return to Egypt. By “being in the way” is signified what is instituted; and by the “inn” is signified the external natural or sensuous (n. 5495). And because as before said the subject treated of is the church to be instituted among that posterity, therefore that is signified which belonged to that nation, namely, an external without an internal, thus also an external natural or sensuous, but separated. (That the sensuous separated from the internal is full of fallacies and the consequent falsities, and that it is against the truths and goods of faith, see n. 6948, 6949.)
[2] Before the things which follow are unfolded, see what has been already shown concerning that posterity, namely, that with them there was the representative of a church, but not a church (see n. 4281, 4288, 6304); that Divine worship among them was merely external separate from internal, and that to this worship they were driven by external means (n. 4281, 4433, 4844, 4847, 4865, 4899, 4903); that they were not chosen, but that they obstinately insisted upon being a church (n. 4290, 4293); that they were of such a nature that they could represent holy things, although they were in bodily and worldly loves (n. 4293, 4307); that that nation was such from its first origins (n. 4314, 4316, 4317); and many other things which have been shown concerning that nation (see n. 4444, 4459, 4503, 4750, 4815, 4818, 4820, 4825, 4832, 4837, 4868, 4874, 4911, 4913, 5057, 6877).

AC (Potts) n. 7042 sRef Ex@4 @24 S0′ 7042. That Jehovah met him. That this signifies opposition, is evident from the signification of “meeting,” as being opposition, namely, to the possibility of any church being instituted with that nation. That it denotes opposition against the Divine, is signified by “Jehovah met him.” From the sense of the letter it appears as if Jehovah or the Divine set Himself in opposition, because it is said that “Jehovah met him;” but the internal sense is that the opposition was against the Divine. For the Divine never opposes itself to anyone, but it is the man, or the nation, which opposes itself to the Divine; and when it opposes itself, as it cannot endure the Divine, it appears as if there were resistance by the Divine. How the case herein is can be seen from those who come into the other life, and desire to come into heaven, and yet are not such as to be capable of being there. When they are permitted to attempt what they desire, even when they are in the way and near to the entrance into heaven, they appear to themselves as monsters, and begin to be in anguish and torment, because they cannot endure the truth and good which are there; and they believe that heaven and the Divine have opposed themselves to them; when yet it is they who bring this upon themselves, because they are in what is the opposite. From this also it can be seen that the Divine does not oppose itself to anyone, but that it is the man who opposes himself to the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 7043 sRef Ex@4 @24 S0′ 7043. And sought to kill him. That this signifies that a representative church could not be instituted with that posterity, is evident from the signification of “seeking to kill,” as being not to receive (see n. 3387, 3395); here therefore not to receive or choose that nation, in order that a representative church might be instituted with it. That in these three verses that nation is constantly meant by “Moses,” who was about to be its leader and head, may be seen above (n. 7041); and that that nation was not chosen, but that it obstinately insisted upon being a church (n. 4290, 4293); and also that no church, but only the representative of a church, was instituted with it (n. 4281, 4288, 6304); and that those things which are of the church, and are holy, can be represented even by the evil, because representation does not regard the person but the thing (n. 3670, 4208, 4281). The same is meant in the internal sense by its being said that Jehovah willed wholly to destroy that nation, and in its stead to raise up another nation from Moses (Num. 14:12); and also that Jehovah repented of bringing in that nation, and of having brought them into the land of Canaan.

AC (Potts) n. 7044 sRef Ex@4 @24 S0′ 7044. And Zipporah took a stone. That this signifies the quality shown by the representative church by means of truth, is here evident from the representation of Zipporah, as being the representative church; and from the signification of a “stone,” as being the truth of faith. That circumcision was performed with knives of stone, signified that purification from filthy loves was effected by means of the truths of faith (n. 2039, 2046, 2799); for circumcision was representative of purification from these loves (n. 2799). The reason why purification is effected by means of the truths of faith, is that these teach what is good, and also what is evil, and thus what ought to be done, and what ought not to be done; and when man knows these truths, and wills to act according to them, he is then led by the Lord, and is purified by His Divine means. As the truths of faith teach what is evil and what is good, it is evident that by “Zipporah took a stone” is signified the quality shown by means of truth. That Zipporah represents the representative church is evident from what follows in these verses.

AC (Potts) n. 7045 sRef Ex@4 @25 S0′ 7045. And cut off the foreskin of her son. That this signifies the removal of filthy loves, and thereby the laying bare of the internal, is evident from the signification of “cutting off,” as being to remove; from the signification of “the foreskin,” as being earthly and bodily love, which defiles spiritual and celestial love (see n. 3412, 4462); and from the signification of “son,” as being the truth of the representative church. That a “son” denotes truth may be seen above (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373); and that it denotes the truth of that church, is because Zipporah represents that church, and calls him her “son,” and by him shows the quality of that nation, and hence the quality of its worship. That by the “foreskin” are signified filthy loves, is because the loins with the genitals correspond to conjugial love (n. 5050-5062); and because they correspond to conjugial love, they correspond to all celestial and spiritual love (n. 686, 4277, 4280, 5054); and therefore the foreskin corresponds to the most external loves, which are called bodily and earthly. If these loves are devoid of internal loves, which are called spiritual and celestial, they are filthy, as was the case with that nation, which was in externals without an internal. It is said “without an internal,” and by this is meant no acknowledgment of truth, and no affection of good, thus no faith, and no charity, for these are of the internal man, and from them proceed the activities of charity, which are external goods. This internal, which is devoid of faith and charity, and yet is full of evils and falsities, is called by the Lord “empty” (Matt. 12:43-45); hence it is said, “an external without an internal.” Now as by the “foreskin” are signified loves the most external, therefore when they are removed, as is signified by Zipporah’s cutting off the foreskin, the quality of these loves appears, thus the laying bare of the internal.

AC (Potts) n. 7046 sRef Ex@4 @25 S0′ 7046. And made it touch his feet. That this signifies that the quality of the natural was then shown, is evident from the signification of “making it touch,” as being to show, for a thing is shown by the touch; and from the signification of the “feet,” as being the natural (see n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952). By the quality of the natural being shown, is meant the quality of that nation interiorly, which appears when the exterior is removed. The interior with man in the world cannot appear until the exterior has been removed; because with the evil the exterior acts quite differently from what the interior wills and thinks; for the man feigns what is honorable, what is just, and also Christian good or charity; and this in order that it may be believed that he is such inwardly. He is compelled so to act by fears of the loss of gain, of reputation, and of honor, and fears of the penalties of the law and of the loss of life. But when these fears have been removed, and he acts from his interior, then like a madman he plunders another’s property, and breathes the destruction and death even of his fellow-citizens, as is the case in civil wars. That the interiors are such is still more manifest from the evil in the other life, for the externals are then taken away from them, and the internals are laid bare (see n. 7039), and then it is discovered that many who in the world have appeared as angels, are devils.
sRef Matt@23 @27 S2′ sRef Matt@23 @26 S2′ sRef Matt@23 @25 S2′ sRef Matt@23 @28 S2′ [2] This great disagreement between the interiors and exteriors is an indication that the state of man has been utterly perverted; for such a disagreement has no existence with a man who is in what is sincere, just, and good; he speaks as he thinks, and thinks as he speaks. But it is far otherwise with those who are not in what is sincere, not in what is just, and not in what is good; with these the interiors disagree with the exteriors. That the Jewish nation was of this character is described by the Lord in Matthew in these words:
Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of robbery and intemperance. Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first the inside of the cup and of the platter, that the outside may be clean also. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For ye make yourselves like unto whited sepulchers, which outwardly indeed appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men’s bones, and of all uncleanness. Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but inwardly ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity (Matt. 23:25-28).

AC (Potts) n. 7047 sRef Ex@4 @25 S0′ 7047. And she said, For a bridegroom of bloods art thou to me. That this signifies that it was full of all violence and hostility against truth and good, is evident from the signification of “bridegroom,” as here being a representative of the church, or its external, when the representative church itself is the “bride” (that in these three verses Moses represents that nation, and the representative of a church among them, see n. 7041; and that Zipporah represents the representative church, n. 7044). As Zipporah represents this church, and Moses its external, therefore Zipporah does not call him her “husband,” or “man,” but her “bridegroom,” for a bride and a bridegroom can represent what is diverse, but not a man, or husband, and a wife, because the conjugial makes a one. And from the signification of “blood,” as being violence done to charity, (n. 374, 1005), and as being truth falsified and profaned (n. 4735, 6978), thus hostility against truth and good.

AC (Potts) n. 7048 sRef Ex@4 @26 S0′ 7048. And He ceased from him. That this signifies that it was permitted that they should represent, is evident from the signification of “ceasing from him,” namely, from killing him, as being permission that they should represent; for that “Jehovah sought to kill him,” signified that a representative church could not be instituted with that nation (see n. 7043); and therefore when it is now said that “He ceased from him,” it signifies that it was permitted that they should represent, that is, that there should be instituted with that nation the representative of a church, but not a church. That it is one thing to represent a church, and another to be a church, is evident from the fact that even the evil can represent a church, but none except the good can be a church; for to represent a church is merely external (n. 3670, 4208, 4281).

AC (Potts) n. 7049 sRef Ex@4 @26 S0′ 7049. Then she said, A bridegroom of bloods as to circumcisions. That this signifies that although the internal was full of violence and hostility against truth and good, still circumcision was to be received as a sign representative of purification from filthy loves, is evident from the signification of a “bridegroom of blood,” as being what is full of all violence and hostility against truth and good (of which above, n. 7047); and from the signification of “circumcision,” as being a sign representative of purification from filthy loves (see n. 2039, 2632, 3412, 3413, 4462, 4486, 4493). This is said by Zipporah, because it was now permitted that nation to represent the church, which is signified by “ceasing from killing him” (n. 7048). Circumcision was made a sign representative of purification, because by “cutting off the foreskin” was signified the removal of filthy loves, and thereby the laying bare of the internal (n. 7045); and therefore when the internal is not at all attended to, as was the case with that nation, which was in externals without an internal, there then remains the signification of circumcision or the cutting off of the foreskin, namely, the removal of filthy loves, thus purification, for which reason it could serve as a representative sign.

AC (Potts) n. 7050 sRef Ex@4 @26 S0′ 7050. That in these three verses there are secrets which cannot possibly be known without the internal sense, is evident from the details in them; for who would know what is signified by Jehovah, after He had commanded Moses to go to Egypt, presently, when he was in the way, meeting him, and seeking to kill him? Who would know what is signified by Zipporah, when she had cut off the foreskin of her son, making it touch his feet, and saying to Moses that he was a bridegroom of bloods to her, and also afterward by her saying that he was a bridegroom of bloods as to circumcisions? Who does not see that secrets have been stored up in these things, and that these secrets cannot possibly be disclosed except from the internal sense?

AC (Potts) n. 7051 sRef Ex@4 @26 S0′ 7051. They who know nothing of the internal sense of the Word cannot believe otherwise than that the Israelitish and Jewish nation was chosen above every other nation, and hence was more excellent than all the rest, as also they themselves believed. And wonderful to say, this is believed not only by that nation itself, but also by Christians, in spite of the fact that the latter know that that nation is in filthy loves, in sordid avarice, in hatred, and in conceit; and that they also make light of, and even hold in aversion, the internal things which are of charity and faith, and which are of the Lord. The reason why Christians also believe that that nation was chosen above others, is that they believe that the election and salvation of man is from mercy, no matter how he lives, and thus that the wicked can be received into heaven equally with the pious and the upright; not considering that election is universal, namely, of all who live in good, and that the mercy of the Lord is toward every man who abstains from evil and is willing to live in good, and thus who suffers himself to be led of the Lord and to be regenerated, which is effected by the unbroken course of his life.
sRef Isa@62 @0 S2′ sRef Isa@11 @12 S2′ sRef Isa@11 @11 S2′ [2] Hence also it is that most persons in the Christian world also believe that that nation will again be chosen, and will then be brought back into the land of Canaan, and this also according to the sense of the letter, as in many passages (Isa. 10:20-22; 11:11, 12; 29 at the end; 43:5, 6; 49:6-26; 46:8; 60:4; 61:3-10; 62; Jer. 3:14-19; 15:4, 14; 16:13, 15; 23:7, 8; 24:9, 10; 25:29; 29:14, 18; 30:3, 8-11; 31:8-10, 17; 33:16, 20, 26; Ezek. 5:10, 12, 15; 16:60; 20:41; 22:15, 16; 34:12, 13; 37:21, 22; 38:12; 39:23, 27, 28; Dan. 7:27; 12:7; Hosea 3:4, 5; Joel 2:32; 3; Amos 9:8, 9; and in Micah 5:7, 8). From these and also from other passages, even Christians believe that that nation will again be chosen and will be brought into the land of Canaan, although they know that that nation is waiting for a Messiah who will bring them in, and although they know that this expectation is vain, and that the kingdom of the Messiah or Christ is not of this world, and thus that the land of Canaan, into which the Messiah will bring men, is heaven.
sRef Deut@32 @34 S3′ sRef John@8 @44 S3′ sRef Deut@32 @35 S3′ sRef Deut@32 @20 S3′ sRef Deut@32 @32 S3′ sRef Deut@32 @28 S3′ sRef Deut@32 @26 S3′ sRef Deut@32 @33 S3′ sRef Deut@32 @27 S3′ [3] Neither do they consider that in the Word there is a spiritual sense, and that in this sense by “Israel” is not meant Israel, nor by “Jacob” Jacob, nor by “Judah” Judah; but that by these men are meant what they represent. Neither do they consider the history of that nation, showing what its quality was in the wilderness, and afterward in the land of Canaan, that at heart it was idolatrous; and what the prophets say of it, and of its spiritual whoredom and abominations. This quality is described in the song in Moses, in these words:
I will hide My faces from them, I will see what their posterity will be; for they are a generation of perversions, sons in whom is no faithfulness. I said, I will cast them out into the furthest corners; I will make the memory of men to cease from man; unless their foes should say, Our hand is high, and Jehovah hath not done all this. For they are a nation lost in counsels, and there is no intelligence in them. Their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah; their grapes are grapes of gall, clusters of bitterness are theirs. Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel gall of asps. Is not this hidden with Me, sealed up in My treasuries? Vengeance is Mine, and recompense, in time their foot shall slide; for the day of their destruction is near, and the things that are to come upon them make haste (Deut. 32:20, 26-28, 32-35).
That Jehovah dictated this song to Moses may be seen in the previous chapter (Deut. 31:19, 21). Of that nation the Lord also says in John:
Ye are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father ye will to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth (John 8:44);
besides in many other passages.
[4] That although they know these things, Christians nevertheless believe that that nation will at last be converted to the Lord, and will then be brought into the land where they were before, is because, as already said, they do not know the internal sense of the Word; and because they suppose that the life of man effects nothing, and that evil, even when rooted in by repeated acts, is no hindrance to a man’s becoming spiritual, and being regenerated, and thus accepted by the Lord, through faith, even that of one short hour; also that admission into heaven is of mercy alone, and that this mercy is toward a single nation, and not so toward all in the universe who receive the mercy of the Lord. They who think thus do not know that it is quite contrary to the Divine that some should be born as the elect to salvation and heaven, and some as the nonelect to damnation and hell. To think so about the Divine would be horrible, because such conduct would be the height of unmercifulness, when yet the Divine is mercy itself. From all this it can now be seen that the Israelitish and Jewish nation was not chosen, and still less that it will be chosen; and also that there was not anything of the church with it, nor could be, but only the representative of a church; and that the reason why it has been preserved even to this day, has been for the sake of the Word of the Old Testament (n. 3479).

AC (Potts) n. 7052 sRef Ex@4 @29 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @31 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @27 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @28 S0′ sRef Ex@4 @30 S0′ 7052. Verses 27-31. And Jehovah said unto Aaron, Go to meet Moses, into the wilderness. And he went and met him in the mountain of God, and kissed him. And Moses told Aaron all the words of Jehovah, wherewith He had sent him, and all the signs which He had commanded him. And Moses went, and Aaron, and gathered together all the elders of the sons of Israel; and Aaron spoke all the words which Jehovah had spoken unto Moses, and did the signs before the eyes of the people. And the people believed; and they heard that Jehovah had visited the sons of Israel, and that He had seen their affliction, and they bent themselves, and bowed themselves down. “And Jehovah said unto Aaron,” signifies the truth of doctrine, and perception therein from the Divine; “Go to meet Moses,” signifies that it should be conjoined with the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine; “into the wilderness,” signifies where previously it is not so; “and he went, and met him in the mountain of God,” signifies conjunction in the good of love therein; “and kissed him,” signifies the affection of conjunction; “and Moses told Aaron all the words of Jehovah,” signifies the influx of the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine of the Lord into the truth which proceeds mediately, and instruction in the details of doctrine; “wherewith He had sent him,” signifies which proceed; “and all the signs which He had commanded him,” signifies enlightenment and from this at the same time confirmation; “and Moses went, and Aaron,” signifies the life of the conjunction of both; “and gathered together all the elders of the sons of Israel,” signifies the chief things of wisdom pertaining to the spiritual church; “and Aaron spoke all the words which Jehovah had spoken unto Moses,” signifies doctrine thence from the Divine; “and did the signs before the eyes of the people,” signifies confirmation to apprehension; “and the people believed, and they heard,” signifies faith and hope; “that Jehovah had visited the sons of Israel,” signifies that those who are of the spiritual church would be liberated and saved by the coming of the Lord; “and that He had seen their affliction,” signifies after temptations so great; “and they bent themselves and bowed themselves down,” signifies humiliation.

AC (Potts) n. 7053 sRef Ex@4 @27 S0′ 7053. And Jehovah said unto Aaron. That this signifies the truth of doctrine, and perception therein from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being perception (of which frequently above), hence “Jehovah said,” denotes perception from the Divine and from the representation of Aaron, as being the doctrine of truth and good (see n. 6998, 7009), thus its truth. For all doctrine is of truth, because doctrine treats of truth and the good thence derived, which is called the doctrine of faith; and of good and the truth thence derived, which is called the doctrine of charity; but both are of truth.

AC (Potts) n. 7054 sRef Ex@4 @27 S0′ 7054. Go to meet Moses. That this signifies that it should be conjoined with the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “going to meet,” as being to be conjoined; and from the representation of Moses, as being the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine (see above, n. 7010).

AC (Potts) n. 7055 sRef Ex@4 @27 S0′ 7055. Into the wilderness. That this signifies where previously it is not so, namely, conjunction, is evident from the signification of “wilderness,” as being where as yet there is little vitality (see n. 1927), thus where there is no good and the derivative truth (n. 4736), for thence is vitality; here, where there is no conjunction of the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine with the truth proceeding immediately. That conjunction was to be effected there, is signified by “Aaron went to meet Moses in the wilderness.” As to this conjunction, be it known that there may be with a man truth proceeding mediately from the Divine, and yet it may not be conjoined with the truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine.
[2] But as this matter is secret, it shall be illustrated by examples. With those who think and teach according to the doctrine of their church confirmed in themselves, and do not know whether they are truths from any other ground than the fact that they are from the doctrine of the church, and that they have been delivered by learned and enlightened men, there can be truth proceeding mediately from the Divine; but still it is not conjoined with the truth that proceeds immediately from the Divine; for if it were conjoined, they would then have the affection of knowing truth for the sake of truth, and especially for the sake of life, whence they would also be endowed with a perception whether the doctrinal things of their church are truths before they confirm them in themselves; and would see in each whether the things confirming are in agreement with the truth itself.
[3] Take as another example the prophets, through whom the Word was written. They wrote as the spirit from the Divine dictated, for the very words which they wrote were uttered in their ears. With them there was truth proceeding mediately from the Divine, that is, through heaven, but not for this reason the truth which proceeded immediately from the Divine; because they had no perception of what all the details signified in the internal sense. For when these two kinds of truth have been conjoined, then, as already said, there is perception. Such conjunction rarely exists with man, but it does so with all who are in heaven, especially with those who are in the inmost or third heaven; nor does it exist with a man unless he has been so far regenerated as to be capable of being elevated from the sensuous even toward his rational, and thus of being set in the light of heaven, where angels are. There is indeed with every man Divine influx both immediate and mediate (see n. 6063, 7004), but not conjunction, except with those who have perception of truth from good; for they with whom immediate Divine influx has been conjoined with mediate suffer themselves to be led by the Lord; but they with whom these influxes have not been conjoined, lead themselves, and this they love. From all this it can now be seen what is here meant by the “wilderness”-that it denotes where there is no conjunction.

AC (Potts) n. 7056 sRef Ex@4 @27 S0′ 7056. And he went, and met him in the mountain of God. That this signifies conjunction in the good of love there, is evident from the signification of “meeting,” or “coming to meet,” as being conjunction (of which just above, n. 7054); and from the signification of “the mountain of God,” as being the good of Divine love (see n. 6829). The case herein is this. The conjunction of the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine with the truth which proceeds mediately, is not possible except in good, for good is the very soil. Truths are seeds, which do not grow elsewhere than in good as in their soil. Moreover, good is the very soul of truth; from this, truth comes forth, in order to be truth, and from this it lives.
[2] The truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine is called truth, but in itself it is good, because it proceeds from the Divine good; but it is the good to which all truth Divine has been united. It is called truth because in heaven it appears as light, but it is a light like that in spring, to which has been united the warmth that vivifies all things of the earth. From all this it can also be seen that the conjunction of the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine with the truth which proceeds immediately, is not possible except in good, consequently not unless the man is affected with truth for the sake of truth, especially for the sake of good, thus for the sake of life, for then the man is in good.
[3] From the following considerations it may be further known how the case is with the conjunction in question. The truth proceeding immediately from the Divine enters into the will of man, this is its way; but the truth which proceeds mediately from the Divine enters into the understanding of man; and therefore conjunction cannot be effected unless the will and the understanding act as a one, that is, unless the will wills good, and the understanding confirms it by truth. When therefore there is conjunction, then the Lord appears as present, and His presence is perceived; but when there is no conjunction, then the Lord is as it were absent; yet His absence is not perceived, unless it is known from some perception what His presence is.

AC (Potts) n. 7057 sRef Ex@4 @27 S0′ 7057. And kissed him. That this signifies the affection of conjunction, is evident from the signification of “kissing,” as being conjunction from affection (see n. 3573, 3574, 4353, 5929, 6260).

AC (Potts) n. 7058 sRef Ex@4 @28 S0′ 7058. And Moses told Aaron all the words of Jehovah. That this signifies the influx of the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine of the Lord into the truth which proceeds mediately, and instruction in the details of doctrine, is evident from the signification of “telling,” as being influx (see n. 5966); from the representation of Moses, as being the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine of the Lord (see n. 7010, 7054); from the representation of Aaron, as being the truth proceeding mediately from the Divine of the Lord (see n. 7009); and from the signification of “all the words of Jehovah,” as being the details of doctrine. Instruction is signified by “Moses told the words to Aaron,” for instruction from the Divine is effected by means of influx, which influx is signified by “telling.” From all this it is evident that by “Moses told Aaron all the words of Jehovah” is signified the influx of the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine of the Lord into the truth which proceeds mediately, and instruction in the details of doctrine.
[2] There is instruction in the details of doctrine, when the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine of the Lord is conjoined with the truth which proceeds mediately, for then there is perception (of which above, n. 7055). There is this conjunction especially among the angels who are in the third or inmost heaven, and are called celestial. These angels have an exquisite perception of the truth of both kinds, and from this of the Lord’s presence. The reason is that they are in good more than others, for they have the good of innocence; consequently they are nearest to the Lord, and in an intensely bright and as it were flaming light, for they see the Lord as a sun, the rays of whose light are such from the nearness.
[3] It is said truth proceeding immediately from the Divine of the Lord, although in the internal sense the subject here treated of is the Lord when He was in the world, and when He called upon His Father as separate from Himself. But how the case herein is, has been occasionally told before, namely, that the Divine Itself, or Jehovah, was in Him, for He was conceived of Jehovah; and therefore He also calls Him His “Father,” and Himself His “Son.” But the Lord was then in the human that was infirm by heredity from the mother, and insofar as He was in this, so far Jehovah or the Divine Itself which was in Him appeared to be absent; but insofar as the Lord was in the Human glorified, or made Divine, so far Jehovah or the Divine Itself was present, and in the very Human. From this then it can be known how it is to be understood that the truth which had proceeded immediately from the Divine was from the Divine of the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 7059 sRef Ex@4 @28 S0′ 7059. Wherewith he had sent him. That this signifies which proceed, namely, the details of doctrine, is evident from the signification of “being sent,” as being to proceed (n. 2397, 4710).

AC (Potts) n. 7060 sRef Ex@4 @28 S0′ 7060. And all the signs which He had commanded him. That this signifies enlightenment, and from this at the same time confirmation, is evident from the signification of “signs,” as being enlightenment and the confirmation of truths (see n. 7012).

AC (Potts) n. 7061 sRef Ex@4 @29 S0′ 7061. And Moses went, and Aaron. That this signifies the life of the conjunction of both, namely, of the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine of the Lord, and the truth which proceeds mediately, is evident from the signification of “going,” as being life (see n. 3335, 3690, 4882, 5493); from the representation of Moses, as being the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine (n. 7010, 7054); and from the representation of Aaron, as being the truth proceeding mediately from the Lord (n. 7009). From this then, because they went together, there is signified the life of the conjunction of both.

AC (Potts) n. 7062 sRef Ex@4 @29 S0′ 7062. And gathered together all the elders of the sons of Israel. That this signifies the chief things of wisdom pertaining to the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “elders,” as being the chief things of wisdom, thus those which agree with good (see n. 6524); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being the spiritual church (see n. 6426, 6637).

AC (Potts) n. 7063 sRef Ex@4 @30 S0′ 7063. And Aaron spoke all the words which Jehovah had spoken unto Moses. That this signifies doctrine thence from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” when said of the doctrine which is represented by Aaron, as being utterance and preaching (see n. 6987, 6999); from the representation of Aaron, as being the truth proceeding mediately from the Divine of the Lord, thus the doctrine of truth and good (n. 6998, 7009); and from the signification of “the words which Jehovah spoke to Moses,” as being from the Divine, that is, through the truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine of the Lord, which truth is represented by Moses (n. 7010, 7054).

AC (Potts) n. 7064 sRef Ex@4 @30 S0′ 7064. And did the signs before the eyes of the people. That this signifies confirmation to apprehension, is evident from the signification of “signs,” as being the confirmation of truths, and thus knowledge (see n. 6870); and from the signification of “eyes,” as being the things that are of the internal sight or understanding (n. 2701, 3820, 4403-4421, 4523-4534); thus “before the eyes” denotes to the understanding or apprehension.

AC (Potts) n. 7065 sRef Ex@4 @31 S0′ 7065. And the people believed; and they heard. That this signifies faith and hope, is evident from the signification of “believing,” as being to believe in the spiritual sense, thus faith (see n. 6956, 6970); and from the signification of “hearing,” as being to obey, and also to perceive (n. 5017), here to have hope; for when he who is in faith and obedience perceives confirmations, he has hope, for hope is thence derived.

AC (Potts) n. 7066 sRef Ex@4 @31 S0′ 7066. That Jehovah had visited the sons of Israel. That this signifies that those of the spiritual church would be liberated and saved by the coming of the Lord, is evident from the signification of visiting,” as being liberation by the coming of the Lord into the world (see n. 6895), thus also salvation (that they who were of the spiritual church were adopted and saved by the coming of the Lord into the world, see n. 6854, 6914, 7035); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being the spiritual church (n. 6426, 6637). (That “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, see n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6281, 6303, 6905.)

AC (Potts) n. 7067 sRef Ex@4 @31 S0′ 7067. And that He had seen their affliction. That this signifies after temptations so great, is evident from the signification of “affliction,” as being temptation (see n. 5356); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 6426, 6637). As to the “affliction,” or infestation by falsities, thus the temptations of those who were of the spiritual church before the Lord’s coming, see n. 6854, 6914, 7037.

AC (Potts) n. 7068 sRef Ex@4 @31 S0′ 7068. And they bent themselves and bowed themselves down. That this signifies humiliation, is evident from the signification of “bending themselves and bowing themselves down,” as being the effect of humiliation (see n. 2153, 6266); but that “bending themselves” denotes exterior humiliation, and is that of those who are in truth; and that “bowing themselves down” denotes interior humiliation, and is that of those who are in good, may be seen above (n. 5682). That this is so, has often been made plain from those who are in truth and those who are in good; they who are in truth are as it were rigid, and stand erect as if they were hard; and when they ought to humble themselves before the Divine, they only bend the body a little; but those who are in good are as it were soft, and when they humble themselves before the Divine, they bow themselves down to the earth. For truth without good is quite rigid, and when it looks to good as the end, this rigidity begins to soften; but good is in itself soft, and the truth which is being instilled, as it becomes good there, also grows soft. The reason is that truth cannot be ordered in the heavenly form except by good; hence it is in itself hard; for the heavenly form is most free and makes no resistance; and from this the good with which truth has been rightly ordered is like it; and as above said is soft.

AC (Potts) n. 7069 7069. CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE SPIRITS OF THE PLANET MERCURY.
The nature of the genius of the spirits from the planet Mercury may still further appear from what follows. Be it known that all spirits whatever have been men, for the human race is the seminary of heaven; also that the spirits themselves are exactly such as they had been during their life in the world, for everyone’s life follows him. This being so, the genius of the men of every earth can be known from the genius of the spirits who are from it.

AC (Potts) n. 7070 7070. As the spirits from Mercury bear relation in the Grand Man to the memory of things abstracted from what is material (see n. 6808), therefore when anyone speaks with them about earthly, bodily, and merely worldly things, they are quite unwilling to hear; and when forced to hear about them they at once change them into other things, and for the most part into contrary ones, in order to escape from them.

AC (Potts) n. 7071 7071. In order that I might know for certain that such is their genius, I was allowed to represent to them meadows, fallow grounds, gardens, woods, and rivers; but they at once changed them, darkening the meadows and fallow grounds, and by representations filling them with snakes; the rivers they made black, so that the water no longer appeared limpid. Then I asked them why they did so, they said that they are unwilling to think about such things, but only about real ones, which are the knowledges of such things as are abstracted from what is earthly, especially about such as arise in the heavens.

AC (Potts) n. 7072 7072. Afterward I represented to them birds of different sizes, large and small, such as exist on our earth; for in the other life such may be represented as it were to the life, the very speech of spirits and angels being full of representations. When they saw those represented birds, they at first desired to change them, but afterward were delighted with them, and acquiesced. The reason was that birds signify the knowledges of things, of which fact the perception then flowed in; and therefore they abstained from changing them, and so turning them from the ideas of their memory. Afterward I was allowed to represent before them a most pleasing garden full of lights and oil-lamps. This arrested their attention, because lights together with oil-lamps signify truths which shine from good. From this it was evident that their attention could be fixed on material things, provided there was at the same time instilled the signification of them in the spiritual sense; for the things of the spiritual sense are abstracted from material things, but are represented in them.

AC (Potts) n. 7073 7073. I also spoke with them about sheep and lambs; but they would not hear about such things, because these were perceived by them as earthly. The reason of this was that they did not understand what innocence is, which lambs signify, which I observed from the fact that when I said that lambs do not appear represented in heaven as lambs, but that when they are mentioned, innocence is perceived in place of them, they then said that they do not know what innocence is, but that they know it by name only. The reason is that they are affected solely by knowledges, and not by uses, which are the ends of knowledges (see n. 6815); thus not being affected by the ends of knowledges, they cannot know from internal perception what innocence is.

AC (Potts) n. 7074 7074. Some of the spirits of the earth Mercury were sent by others to me in order to hear what was going on with me; to whom one of the spirits of our earth said that they might tell their companions not to speak anything but the truth, and not in their usual way to present to those questioning them things opposite; for if anyone of the spirits of our earth were to do so, he would be punished. But the company from which those spirits had been sent out, which was at a distance, then answered that if they were to be punished on that account, all would be punished, because, from constant use, they cannot do otherwise. They said that when they speak with the men of their own earth, they act in the same way, and this with no intention to deceive them, but in order to inspire a longing for knowledge; for when they present things opposite, and in a certain way hide the real things, the desire of knowing is excited, and in this way the memory is enriched by the study devoted to the exploration of the things in question.

AC (Potts) n. 7075 7075. At another time I also spoke with them about the same thing, and because I knew that they spoke with the men of their earth, I asked how they instruct its inhabitants. They said that they do not instruct them how the matter stands, but still they instill some perception of it, in order that the desire to know may thereby be fed, and may increase, which desire would perish if they answered all questions. They added that they present opposites for the additional reason that the truth may afterward the better appear; for all truth appears relatively to its opposites.

AC (Potts) n. 7076 7076. It is their custom not to tell another what they know, yet still to desire to know from all whatever they know; but they communicate all things to their own society, insomuch that what one knows, all know, and what all know, each one therein knows.

AC (Potts) n. 7077 7077. As the spirits of Mercury are of this character, and moreover abound in knowledges, they are in a kind of conceit (see n. 6813), supposing that they know so many things that it is scarcely possible to know more. But they have been told by the spirits of our earth that they do not know many things, but only a few, and that the things which they do not know are relatively infinite; and that the things which they do not know relatively to those which they do know are like the waters of the greatest ocean as compared with those of a tiny spring. In order that they might know that such is the case it was granted that a certain angelic spirit should speak with them, and should tell them in general what they do know and what they do not know; and that there are infinite things which they do not know; and also that to eternity they cannot know even the generals of things. He spoke by means of angelic ideas much more readily than they, and as he disclosed what they know, and what they do not know, they were struck with amazement. I afterward saw another angel speaking with them, who appeared at some elevation to the right; he enumerated very many things which they do not know; and afterward spoke with them by means of changes of state, which they said they do not understand. He then told them that every change of state contains infinite things, and so also does every least thing of it.
[2] When they heard this, as they had been in conceit on account of knowledges, they began to humble themselves. The humiliation was represented by the sinking of their roll downward, for that company then appeared like a roll, in front toward the left at a distance, in the plane of the region below the navel; but the roll appeared as it were hollowed out in the middle, and elevated at the sides; a reciprocal movement was also observed therein. They were also told what this signified, namely, what they were thinking in their humiliation, and that they who appeared elevated at the sides were not as yet in any humiliation. And I saw that the roll was separated, and that they who were not in humiliation were relegated toward their own globe; the rest remaining. As the spirits of the planet Mercury shun the spirits of our earth, on account of the material things in which the latter are, and as they had asked whether such can become angels (n. 6929), they now received the reply, that the angel who had spoken with them was from this earth.

AC (Potts) n. 7078 7078. Be it known that the spirits of other earths do not appear within the sphere where the spirits of our earth are, but outside of it, some at greater, some at less distance, and also in different quarters. The reason is that the spirits of one earth are not of the same genius and life as those of another; also that they constitute different provinces in the Grand Man. The unlikeness of the state of life causes this appearance. But in the inmost heaven they do not appear separated from one another. The spirits of Mercury, however, do not appear in a fixed quarter, nor at a fixed distance, but appear now in front, now to the left, and now a little to the back. The reason is that they are allowed to wander through the universe to acquire knowledges, and thereby to enrich the memory. Their planet is presented to spirits at the back, as is also the sun of the world, when they are thinking about it, for nothing whatever of it appears. The reason why it is presented at the back is that to those who are in the other life the sun of the world is in complete obscurity, and is thick darkness; but the sun of heaven, or the Lord, appears in front before the right eye, because from this sun they have all their light; for the right eye not only corresponds to the intellectual sight insofar as it is illumined by truth, but also insofar as it is illumined by good (n. 4410). In this way does the Lord look at man from good, and illumine him through good.

AC (Potts) n. 7079 7079. A continuation concerning the spirits of the planet Mercury will be found at the end of the following chapter.

AC (Potts) n. 7080 7080. Exodus 5

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

In what precedes it has been told what the neighbor is: it is now to be told what the charity or love is which there must be toward the neighbor.

AC (Potts) n. 7081 7081. The very life of man is his love; and such as his love is, such is his life; nay, such is the whole man. But it is the ruling or reigning love, that is, the love of that which he has as the end, which makes the man. This love has subordinate to itself many particular and singular loves, which are derivations, and appear under a different shape; but still the ruling love is in each one of them, and directs them, and through them, as through mediate ends, looks to and aims at its end, which is the first and last of them all; and this both directly and indirectly.

AC (Potts) n. 7082 7082. There are two things in the natural world which make the life there, namely, heat and light; and there are two things in the spiritual world which make the life there, namely, love and faith. Heat in the natural world corresponds to love in the spiritual world, and light in the natural world corresponds to faith in the spiritual world. Hence it is that when spiritual heat or fire is mentioned, love is meant; and when spiritual light is mentioned, faith is meant. Moreover, love is actually the vital heat of man, for it is known that man grows warm from love; and faith is actually the light of man, for it can be known that man is illumined from faith.

AC (Potts) n. 7083 sRef Matt@17 @2 S0′ sRef John@8 @12 S0′ 7083. The heat and light in the natural world arise from the sun of the world; but spiritual heat and light, or love and faith, arise from the sun of heaven. The sun of heaven is the Lord; the heat which comes from Him as a sun is love, and the light which comes from Him as a sun is faith. That the Lord is light is evident from these words in John:
Jesus said, I am the light of the world, he that followeth Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life (John 8:12);
and that the Lord is a sun is evident in Matthew:
When Jesus was transfigured, His face shone as the sun, and His garments became white as the light (Matt. 17:2).

AC (Potts) n. 7084 7084. From this correspondence it can also be known how the case is with faith and with love. Faith without love is like light without heat, as is the light of winter; and faith with love is like light with heat, as is the light of spring. That in the light of spring each and all things grow and flower, is known; and also that in the light of winter all things become torpid and die. It is similar with faith and love.

AC (Potts) n. 7085 7085. Now as love is the source of man’s life, and as the whole man is such as is his love, and also as love is spiritual conjunction, it follows that all in the other life are consociated according to the loves; for everyone’s life, that is, his love, follows him. They who are in love toward the neighbor, and in love to God, are consociate in heaven; but they who are in the love of self and the love of the world are consociate in hell; for the love of self is opposite to love to God, and the love of the world is opposite to love toward the neighbor.

AC (Potts) n. 7086 sRef Matt@28 @18 S0′ 7086. It is said “love to God,” and there is meant love to the Lord, because in Him is the Trinity, and He is the Lord of heaven, for He has “all power in heaven and on earth” (Matt. 28:18).

EXODUS 5

1. And afterward Moses and Aaron came, and said unto Pharaoh, Thus said Jehovah the God of Israel, Let My people go, that they may hold a feast to Me in the wilderness.
2. And Pharaoh said, Who is Jehovah, whose voice I should hear, to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, and also I will not let Israel go.
3. And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us; let us go, we pray, a way of three days into the wilderness, and let us sacrifice to Jehovah our God; lest He fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword.
4. And the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, draw away the people from their works? Go ye unto your burdens.
5. And Pharaoh said, Behold the people of the land are now many, and ye have made them cease from their burdens.
6. And Pharaoh commanded in that day the taskmasters in the people, and their officers, saying,
7. Ye shall no more give the people straw to make bricks, as yesterday, and the day before yesterday; let them go and gather straw for themselves.
8. And the tale of the bricks which they made yesterday and the day before yesterday, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not take away from it; for they are idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God.
9. Let the service be made heavier upon the men, and let them do it; and let them not regard the words of a lie.
10. And the taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and they spoke to the people, saying, Thus said Pharaoh, I will by no means give you straw.
11. Go ye yourselves, get you straw where ye can find it; for nothing whatever shall be taken away from your service.
12. And the people scattered into all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw.
13. And the taskmasters were urgent, saying, Complete ye your works, the work of a day in its day, as when there was straw.
14. And the officers of the sons of Israel were beaten, whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over them, saying, Wherefore do ye not complete your task in making brick, as yesterday and the day before yesterday, also yesterday, also today?
15. And the officers of the sons of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh, saying, Wherefore doest thou so to thy servants?
16. There is no straw given to thy servants, and they say to us, Make ye bricks; and behold thy servants are beaten; and thy people have sinned.
17. And he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle; therefore ye say, Let us go and sacrifice to Jehovah.
18. And now go ye, serve ye, and straw shall not be given you, and the tale of bricks shall ye give.
19. And the officers of the sons of Israel saw that they were in evil when it was said, Ye shall not take away from your bricks on a day in its day.
20. And they met Moses and Aaron standing to meet them as they went forth from Pharaoh.
21. And they said unto them, Jehovah look upon you, and judge, because ye have made our odor to stink in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword into their hand to slay us.
22. And Moses returned unto Jehovah, and said, Lord, wherefore hast Thou done evilly to this people? Why is this that Thou hast sent me?
23. For since I came unto Pharaoh to speak in Thy name, he hath done evilly to this people; and liberating Thou hast not liberated Thy people.

AC (Potts) n. 7087 sRef Ex@5 @0 S0′ 7087. THE CONTENTS.
In this chapter in the internal sense the subject of the infestation by falsities of those who are of the spiritual church is continued. First those who were infesting are treated of-that they paid no attention whatever to the Divine exhortation; and next that afterward they infested still more, by injecting fallacies and fictitious falsities, which those who belonged to the spiritual church could not shake off; and as in this condition they could not remove from themselves those who were infesting, they lamented before the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 7088 sRef Ex@5 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @2 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @3 S0′ 7088. THE INTERNAL SENSE.
Verses 1-4. And afterward Moses and Aaron came, and said unto Pharaoh, Thus said Jehovah the God of Israel, Let My people go, that they may hold a feast to Me in the wilderness. And Pharaoh said, Who is Jehovah whose voice I should hear, to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, and also I will not let Israel go. And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us; let us go we pray, a way of three days into the wilderness, and let us sacrifice to Jehovah our God; lest He fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword. And the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, draw away the people from their works? Go ye unto your burdens. “And afterward Moses and Aaron came,” signifies the Divine law and doctrine thence derived; “and said unto Pharaoh,” signifies exhortation thence to those who are against the truths of the church; “Thus said Jehovah the God of Israel,” signifies that it was from the Divine Human of the Lord; “Let My people go,” signifies that they should desist from infesting them; “that they may hold a feast to Me in the wilderness,” signifies that from a glad mind they may worship the Lord in the obscurity of faith in which they are; “and Pharaoh said,” signifies contrary thought; “who is Jehovah, whose voice I should hear?” signifies concerning the Lord, to whose exhortation they should hearken; “to let Israel go,” signifies that they should desist; “I know not Jehovah,” signifies that they care not for the Lord; “and also I will not let Israel go,” signifies that neither will they desist from infesting; “and they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us,” signifies that the God Himself of the church has commanded; “let us go we pray a way of three days into the wilderness,” signifies that they must be in a state quite removed from falsities, although in the obscurity of faith; “and let us sacrifice to Jehovah our God,” signifies that they may worship the Lord; “lest He fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword,” signifies to avoid damnation of evil and falsity; “and the king of Egypt said unto them,” signifies the answer from those who are in falsities; “wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, draw away the people from their works?” signifies that their Divine law and doctrine will not release them from sufferings; “go ye unto your burdens,” signifies that they must live in combats.

AC (Potts) n. 7089 sRef Ex@5 @1 S0′ 7089. And afterward Moses and Aaron came. That this signifies the Divine law and the doctrine thence derived, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to the Divine law (see n. 6752); and from the representation of Aaron, as being the doctrine of good and truth (n. 6998). By the Divine law which Moses represents is meant the Word such as it is in its internal sense, thus such as it is in the heavens; but by doctrine is meant the Word such as it is in its literal sense, thus as it is on the earth; how much these differ, can be seen from what has been thus far unfolded in respect to the internal sense of the Word. Take as an illustration the ten commandments, which specifically are called the “Law.” The literal sense of these is that parents are to be honored, that murder is not to be committed, nor adultery, nor theft, and so on; but the internal sense is that the Lord is to be worshiped; that hatred must not be felt; that truth must not be falsified; and that we must not claim for ourselves that which belongs to the Lord. So are these four commandments of the Decalogue understood in heaven, and the rest also in their own way. For in the heavens they know no other Father than the Lord; therefore by that parents are to be honored, they understand that the Lord is to be worshiped: neither do they know in the heavens what killing is, for they live to eternity; but instead of killing they understand feeling hatred, and injuring the spiritual life of anyone; neither do they know in the heavens what it is to commit adultery, and therefore instead thereof they perceive that which corresponds, namely, not to falsify truth; and instead of stealing they perceive not to take anything away from the Lord, and claim it to themselves, as for instance good and truth.
[2] Such is this law, and the whole Word too, in the heavens; thus such it is in the internal sense; nay, it is still deeper, for most things that are thought and said in the heavens do not fall into words of human speech, because in the heavens is a spiritual world and not a natural; and the things of the spiritual world transcend those of the natural world, as immaterial things transcend those which are material. Yet as material things correspond to immaterial, the latter can be set forth by means of material things, thus by natural speech, but not by spiritual speech. For spiritual speech is not a speech of material words, but of spiritual words, which are ideas modified into words in the spiritual aura, and represented by variegations of heavenly light, which light in itself is nothing but Divine intelligence and wisdom proceeding from the Lord. From all this it can be seen what is meant in its genuine sense by the Divine law which Moses represents, and what by the doctrine thence derived, which Aaron represents.

AC (Potts) n. 7090 sRef Ex@5 @1 S0′ 7090. And they said unto Pharaoh. That this signifies exhortation to those who are against the truths of the church, is evident from the signification of “saying,” because it was by Moses and Aaron from Divine command, as being exhortation (see n. 7033); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being memory-knowledge that is against the truths of the church (n. 6651, 6673, 6683), thus those who are of such a character. Here and in what follows are treated of those of the spiritual church who were saved by the coming of the Lord into the world, and who before His coming were detained in the lower earth, and there agitated by falsities, that is, by the infernals who are in falsities from evil. That earth is beneath the soles of the feet, surrounded by the hells; in front by those who have falsified truths and adulterated goods; on the right by those who pervert Divine order, and from this study to acquire to themselves power; at the back by evil genii, who from the love of self have secretly plotted evil against the neighbor; deep under these are they who have utterly spurned the Divine, and have worshiped nature, and consequently have put away from them everything spiritual. With such are they surrounded who are in the lower earth, where before the coming of the Lord they who were of the spiritual church were reserved, and were there infested; nevertheless they were protected by the Lord, and were carried up into heaven with the Lord when He rose again (about this see what has been said and shown above, n. 6854, 6855, 6914, 6945, 7035).
sRef Ezek@26 @20 S2′ sRef Ezek@31 @14 S2′ sRef Isa@44 @23 S2′ sRef Ezek@31 @16 S2′ [2] The lower earth, where were reserved those who were of the spiritual church till the Lord’s coming, is sometimes mentioned in the Word, as in Isaiah:
Sing, ye heavens, for Jehovah hath done it; shout ye lower parts of the earth; resound with singing, ye mountains, O forest, and every tree therein; because Jehovah hath redeemed Jacob, and hath rendered Himself glorious in Israel (Isa. 44:23);
speaking of those who are in the lower earth, that they were saved by the Lord; “Jacob” and “Israel” are the spiritual church, “Jacob” the external church, “Israel” the internal (see n. 3305, 4286, 6426). In Ezekiel:
I will make thee come down with them that descend into the pit, to the people of eternity, and I will make thee dwell in the earth of lower things, in the desolations (Ezek. 26:20).
Again:
To the earth of lower things, in the midst of the sons of man, to them that go down to the pit; whence all the trees of Eden shall be comforted in the lower earth, the choice and the chief of Lebanon, all that drink water (Ezek. 31:14, 16);
here the “lower earth” is where were those who had been of the spiritual church.
[3] At this day also, they who are of the church and have filled their ideas with worldly and also with earthly things, and have caused the truths of faith to be joined to such things, are let down to the lower earth, and are also in combats there; and this until these worldly and earthly things have been separated from the truths of faith, and such things have been implanted as will prevent their being further joined together. When this is over, they are lifted up from thence into heaven; for until such things have been removed, they cannot possibly be with the angels, because these worldly and earthly things are darkness and defilements, which do not accord with the light and purity of heaven. These worldly and earthly things cannot be separated and removed except by means of combats against falsities. These combats take place in this way: they who are in the lower earth are infested by the fallacies and derivative falsities which are sent forth from the infernals round about, but are refuted by the Lord through heaven; and at the same time truths are instilled, and these truths appear as if they were in those who are in the combats.
[4] Hence it is that the spiritual church is to be called “militant.” But at this day it is rarely a militant church with anyone in the world, for while the man of the church lives in the world he cannot endure combat, because of the crowd of evil ones in the midst of whom he is; and because of the flesh in which he is, which is weak. In the other life a man can be kept firmly in the bonds of conscience, but not so in the world; for if in the world he is brought into anything of despair, as those are wont to be who are in combats, he forthwith bursts these bonds; and if he bursts them, he then yields; and if he so yields, it is all over with his salvation. Hence it is that few within the church at this day are admitted by the Lord into combats for truths against falsities. These combats are spiritual temptations. (See also what has been before shown concerning the lower earth and vastations there, n. 4728, 4940-4951, 6854.)

AC (Potts) n. 7091 sRef Ex@5 @1 S0′ 7091. Thus said Jehovah the God of Israel. That this signifies from the Divine Human of the Lord, namely, exhortation to those who are against the truths of the church, is evident from the fact that by “Jehovah the God of Israel” is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human. (That in the Word the Lord is “Jehovah,” see n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5041, 5663, 6281, 6303, 6905.) He is called “the God of Israel,” because by “Israel” is signified the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 6426, 6637), and because the Lord by His coming into the world saved those who were of that kingdom or church (n. 6854, 6914, 7035). The reason why “the God of Israel” is the Lord as to the Divine Human, is that they who are of that church have natural ideas about everything spiritual and heavenly, and also about the Divine; and therefore unless they thought of the Divine as of a natural man, they could not be conjoined with the Divine by anything of affection; for if they thought of the Divine not as of a natural man, they would either have no ideas, or extravagant ones, about the Divine, and would thereby defile the Divine.
Hence it is that by “the God of Israel” is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human, and indeed as to the Divine natural. (That by “Israel” and “Jacob” in the supreme sense is meant the Lord as to the Divine natural; by “Israel,” as to the internal Divine natural; and by “Jacob,” as to the external Divine natural, see n. 4570; also that they who are of the spiritual church were and are saved by the Divine Human of the Lord, n. 2833, 2834; and also that the man of the spiritual church, who is “Israel,” is interior natural, n. 4286, 4402.)
sRef Ex@24 @9 S2′ sRef Ex@24 @10 S2′ [2] From all this then it is evident why the Lord in the Word is called “Jehovah the God of Israel,” and “Jehovah the Holy One of Israel.” Everyone can know that the Divine must be so named in agreement with something holy not apparent in the sense of the letter. That the Lord as to the Divine natural is meant by “the God of Israel” is plain from many passages in the Word; manifestly from the following:
That Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy elders of Israel saw the God of Israel, under whose feet was as it were a work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the substance of heaven for cleanness (Exod. 24:9-10).
sRef Isa@24 @15 S3′ sRef John@1 @18 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @28 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @27 S3′ sRef Ezek@1 @26 S3′ sRef John@5 @37 S3′ sRef Isa@17 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@45 @3 S3′ [3] That it was the Lord and not Jehovah who is called the “Father” is evident from the Lord’s words in John:
No one hath ever seen God (John 1:18). Ye have neither ever heard His voice, nor seen His shape (John 5:37).
In Isaiah:
I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I am Jehovah, who have called thee by thy name, the God of Israel (Isa. 45:3).
In Ezekiel:
Over the head of the cherubs was as it were the appearance of a sapphire stone, the likeness of a throne; and over the likeness of a throne a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above; and he had the appearance of fire and a rainbow, and of brightness round about (Ezek. 1:26-28).
These are called “the glory of Jehovah,” and “of the God of Israel,” in the same (Ezek. 1:28; 8:4; 9:3; 10:19, 20), and also where the new temple is described (Ezek. 43:2; 44:2); as also in many other passages (Isa. 17:6; 21:10, 17; 24:15; 41:17; Ps. 41:13; 59:5; 68:8, 35; 69:6; 72:18, and elsewhere). So also He is called “the Holy One of Israel” (Isa. 1:4; 5:19; 10:20; 17:7; 30:11, 12, 15; 49:7; 60:9, 14; Ezek. 39:7).
sRef Isa@47 @4 S4′ sRef Isa@49 @26 S4′ sRef Isa@60 @16 S4′ [4] That the “God of Israel” and the “Holy One of Israel” are the Lord as to the Divine Human is also evident from the fact that He is called the “REDEEMER,” the “SAVIOR,” the “MAKER”-the Redeemer, in Isaiah:
Our Redeemer, Jehovah Zebaoth; His name the Holy One of Israel (Isa. 47:4; also Isa. 41:14; 43:14; 48:17; 54:5); also the SAVIOR (Isa. 43:3); and the MAKER (Isa. 45:11).
From all this it is also evident that by “Jehovah” in the Word of the Old Testament, no other is meant than the Lord, for He is called JEHOVAH GOD and the HOLY ONE of Israel, the REDEEMER, the SAVIOR, the MAKER-“Jehovah the Redeemer and Savior” in Isaiah:
That all flesh may know that I Jehovah am thy Savior, and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob (Isa. 49:26).
That thou mayest know that I Jehovah am thy Savior and thy Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob (Isa. 60:16; as also Isa. 43:14; 44:6, 24; 54:8; 63:16; Ps. 19:14).
sRef Isa@63 @8 S5′ sRef Isa@63 @7 S5′ sRef Isa@63 @9 S5′ [5] That the Lord saved Israel, that is, those who are of the spiritual church, is said in Isaiah:
I will make mention of the mercies of Jehovah, the praises of Jehovah, according to all that Jehovah hath recompensed to us; abundant in goodness to the house of Israel. He said, Surely they are My people; sons who do not lie; and therefore He became their Savior; in all their distress He had distress; and the angel of His faces liberated them; because of His love, and His indulgence, He redeemed them; and He took them up, and carried them all the days of eternity (Isa. 63:7-9).

AC (Potts) n. 7092 sRef Ex@5 @1 S0′ 7092. Let My people go. That this signifies that they should desist from infesting them is evident from the signification of “letting go,” when said to Pharaoh, by whom is represented the falsity which infests the truths of the church, as being to desist from infestation; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, who are here “My people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (see n. 6426, 6637).

AC (Potts) n. 7093 sRef Ex@5 @1 S0′ 7093. That they may hold a feast to Me in the wilderness. That this signifies that from a glad mind they may worship the Lord in the obscurity of faith in which they are, is evident from the signification of “holding a feast,” as being worship from a glad mind (of which presently), that it is the Lord to whom they were to hold the feast, and who is here meant by “Me,” or by “Jehovah,” may be seen above, n. 7091; and from the signification of a “wilderness,” as being the obscurity of faith (n. 2708, 7055). (That they who are of the spiritual church are relatively in obscurity of faith, see n. 2708, 2715, 2716, 2718, 2831, 2849, 2935, 2937, 3241, 3246, 3833, 6289, 6500, 6945.)
sRef Lev@23 @40 S2′ [2] The reason why “holding a feast” signifies worship from a glad mind, is that the feast was to be held at a way of three days from Egypt, thus in a state of no infestation by falsities, that is, in a state of liberty; for he who is being liberated from falsities and from the distress in which he then is, from a glad mind gives thanks to God; thus “holds a feast.” Moreover, the feasts which were instituted with that people, and which were three every year, are likewise said to have been instituted in memory of their liberation from slavery in Egypt; that is, in the spiritual sense, in memory of liberation from infestation by falsities, through the Lord’s coming into the world. Therefore it was also commanded that on those occasions they should be glad, as is manifest in Moses in regard to the feast of tabernacles:
In the feast of tabernacles, they shall take on the first day the fruit of the tree of honor, spathes* of palm-trees, and a branch of a dense tree, and willows of the torrent; and ye shall be glad before Jehovah your God seven days (Lev. 23:40);
[3] by “the fruit of the tree of honor, spathes* of palm-trees, a branch of a dense tree, and willows of the torrent,” is signified joy from good and truth from man’s inmost to his external. The good of love, which is inmost, is signified by the “fruit of the tree of honor;” the good of faith by the “spathes* of palm trees;” the truth of memory-knowledge, by the “branch of a dense tree;” and sensuous truth, which is most external, by the “willows of the torrent.” These things could not have been ordered to be taken without a reason from the spiritual world, which reason cannot possibly appear to anyone except from the internal sense.
sRef Deut@16 @11 S4′ sRef Deut@16 @10 S4′ [4] That they were to be glad in the feast of weeks is also evident in Moses:
Thou shalt make the feast of weeks to Jehovah thy God, and thou shalt be glad before Jehovah thy God, thou and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and the Levite who is in thy gates (Deut. 16:10-11);
by these words also, in the internal sense, is signified gladness from good and truth from the inmost to the external.
sRef Isa@30 @29 S5′ sRef Nahum@1 @15 S5′ sRef Hos@2 @11 S5′ sRef Zech@8 @19 S5′ sRef Amos@8 @10 S5′ [5] That there was to be gladness in the feasts, and thus that “to hold a feast” is to worship from a glad mind, is also plain from the following passages. In Isaiah:
Ye shall have a song as in the nights when a feast is hallowed (Isa. 30:29).
In Nahum:
Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace! Keep thy feasts, O Judah, render thy vows; for Belial shall no longer pass through thee; he is wholly cut off (Nah. 1:15).
In Zechariah:
The fasts shall be to the house of Judah for joy and for gladness, and for good feasts; only love ye truth and peace (Zech. 8:19).
In Hosea:
I will cause all her joy to cease, her feast, her new moon (Hos. 2:11).
And in Amos:
I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into a lament (Amos 8:10).
sRef John@12 @32 S6′ sRef John@12 @31 S6′ [6] That “to hold a feast” denotes worship from a glad mind, because they had been liberated from servitude in Egypt, that is, in the spiritual sense, because they had been liberated from infestation by falsities, is manifest from the feast of the passover. This was commanded to be celebrated yearly on the day when they went forth out of Egypt, and this on account of the liberation of the sons of Israel from servitude, that is, on account of the liberation of those who are of the spiritual church from falsities, thus from damnation; and as the Lord liberated them by His coming, and lifted them up with Him into heaven when He rose again, therefore this was also done at the passover. This is likewise signified by the Lord’s words in John:
Now is the judgment of this world, now shall the prince of this world be cast out. And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all unto Me (John 12:31-32).
* fronds

AC (Potts) n. 7094 sRef Ex@5 @2 S0′ 7094. And Pharaoh said. That this signifies contrary thought, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being to think (see n. 3395); that it denotes contrary thought by those who infest, who are represented by Pharaoh, is plain from what now follows, for Pharaoh did not at all desist, but still more oppressed the sons of Israel.

AC (Potts) n. 7095 sRef Ex@5 @2 S0′ 7095. Who is Jehovah, whose voice I should hear? That this signifies concerning the Lord, to whose exhortation they should hearken (that is, that the contrary thought should do so), is evident from the signification of “voice,” as here being exhortation, because meaning what Moses and Aaron said to Pharaoh (see n. 7090); and from the signification of “to hear,” as being to obey (n. 2542, 3869, 5017); thus “to hear a voice” denotes to obey or hearken to exhortation. That it is the Lord to whose exhortation he was unwilling to hearken, is because by “Jehovah” in the Word no other than the Lord is meant, as may be seen above (n. 7091).

AC (Potts) n. 7096 sRef Ex@5 @2 S0′ 7096. To let Israel go. That this signifies that they should desist, is evident from the signification of “letting go,” as being to desist (see n. 7092), namely, from infesting those of the spiritual church, who here are “Israel.” (That the “sons of Israel” denote those who are of the spiritual church, see n. 6426.)

AC (Potts) n. 7097 sRef Ex@5 @2 S0′ 7097. I know not Jehovah. That this signifies that they do not care for the Lord, is evident from the signification of “not knowing,” as being not to care, for he who does not care, says that he does not know. (That by “Jehovah” is meant the Lord, see n. 7091.) As to Pharaoh’s saying that “he did not know Jehovah,” the case is this. The Egyptians from ancient time knew Jehovah, because in Egypt also there had been the Ancient Church, as can be plainly seen from the fact that they had among them the representatives and significatives of that church. The hieroglyphics of the Egyptians are nothing else; for by these were signified spiritual things, and they also knew that they actually corresponded; and as they began to employ such things in their sacred worship, and to worship them, and at last also to turn them into magic, and in this way to be associated with the devilish crew in hell, they therefore utterly destroyed the Ancient Church among them. Hence it is that by the “Egyptians” in the Word are signified the memory-knowledges of the church perverted, and also falsities contrary to the truths of the church.
[2] When Divine worship had been thus perverted in Egypt, then also they were no longer allowed to worship Jehovah, and finally not even to know that Jehovah was the God of the Ancient Church, and this in order that they might not profane the name of Jehovah. That the name of Jehovah was known at that time also, and this before it was again told to the posterity of Abraham through Moses in Mount Horeb, is very plain from the fact that Balaam, who was of Syria, not only knew Jehovah, but also adored Him, and likewise sacrificed to Him (Num. 22, 23, 24). From all this it can be known why Pharaoh said “Who is Jehovah, whose voice I should hear to let the people go? I know not Jehovah.”
[3] But as by Pharaoh are represented those in the hells who are in falsities, and who infest those of the spiritual church, therefore it must be told how the case is with these. They who are in the hells, and infest those who are of the spiritual church, are for the most part from such as have said that faith alone saves, and yet have lived a life contrary to faith; and as after the death of the body the life remains, thus the evil which they have thought, plotted, and done, therefore they either apply those things which they have said to be of faith to defend the evils of their life, or they altogether reject them. But lest they should abuse the truths of faith, they are deprived of them, and when they are deprived of them, they seize upon falsities, which are quite contrary to the truths of faith, and afterward by means of falsities infest those who are in truths. This is then the delight of their life. Moreover, some of them, in order to acquire power, learn magical arts. This is done by those who by various arts which they devised in the world have deceived the neighbor, and in consequence of their success have afterward attributed all things to their own prudence.
[4] They who have become such, acknowledge the Father the Creator of the universe, but not the Lord. Of the Lord they say as Pharaoh here says of Jehovah, “Who is Jehovah? I know not Jehovah.” Nay, as the universal sphere of heaven is full of the acknowledgment and love of the Lord, so is the universal sphere of the hells full of the denial of the Lord and of hatred against Him; neither can they endure that He should be named. The infernals are such that they do not desist on account of exhortations and threats, so great is the delight of their life in infesting the upright, and turning them from the acknowledgment of the Lord, and from faith in Him. This very delight of their life is increased by exhortations to desist, for this leads them to believe that it will shortly be all over with those whom they are infesting. These then are they who are specifically meant by “Pharaoh and the Egyptians.”

AC (Potts) n. 7098 sRef Ex@5 @2 S0′ 7098. And also I will not let Israel go. That this signifies that neither will they desist from infesting, is evident from what has been said above (n. 7092, 7096).

AC (Potts) n. 7099 sRef Ex@5 @3 S0′ 7099. And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us. That this signifies that the God Himself of the church has commanded, is evident from the signification of “the Hebrews,” as being those who are of the church (see n. 6675, 6684, 6738); and from the signification of “meeting,” as being to command (n. 6903).

AC (Potts) n. 7100 sRef Ex@5 @3 S0′ 7100. Let us go we pray a way of three days into the wilderness. That this signifies that they must be in a state quite removed from falsity, although in the obscurity of faith, see n. 6904, where are the like words.

AC (Potts) n. 7101 sRef Ex@5 @3 S0′ 7101. And let us sacrifice to Jehovah our God. That this signifies that they may worship the Lord, see n. 6905, where also are the like words.

AC (Potts) n. 7102 sRef Ex@5 @3 S0′ sRef Ps@78 @50 S0′ 7102. Lest He fall upon us with pestilence, or with the sword. That this signifies to avoid the damnation of evil and falsity, is evident from the signification of “lest He fall upon us,” as being lest they should incur damnation; from the signification of “pestilence,” as being the damnation of evil (of which below); and from the signification of “the sword,” as being the vastation of truth, and also the punishment of falsity (see n. 2799), thus also damnation, for the punishment of falsity when truth is devastated, is damnation. sRef Ezek@14 @21 S2′ sRef Ezek@5 @17 S2′ [2] Mention is made in the Word of four kinds of vastations and punishments; namely, the Sword, Famine, the Evil Beast, and Pestilence; and by the “sword” is signified the vastation of truth and the punishment of falsity; by “famine,” the vastation of good and the punishment of evil; by the “evil beast,” the punishment of the evil from falsity; by “pestilence,” the punishment of the evil not from falsity but from evil. And as punishment is signified, damnation is also signified, for this is the punishment of those who persevere in evil. Of these four kinds of punishments it is thus written in Ezekiel:
When I send upon Jerusalem My four evil judgments, the sword, and the famine, and the evil beast, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast (Ezek. 14:21).
Again:
I will send upon you famine, and the evil beast, and will make thee bereaved; and pestilence and blood shall pass through thee; especially will I bring the sword upon thee (Ezek. 5:17).
sRef Ezek@33 @27 S3′ [3] That by “pestilence” is signified the punishment of evil, and its damnation, is evident from the following passages. In Ezekiel:
They who are in the waste places shall die by the sword, and he who is upon the faces of the field I will give to the wild beast to devour him, and they who are in the strongholds and caverns shall die with the pestilence (Ezek. 33:27);
“to die by the sword in waste places” denotes to be in the vastation of truth, and thence in the damnation of falsity; “he who is upon the faces of the field being given to the wild beast to devour” denotes the damnation of those who are in evil from falsity; “they who are in strongholds and caverns dying with the pestilence” denotes the damnation of evil which fortifies itself by falsity.
sRef Ezek@7 @15 S4′ [4] Again:
The sword is without, and the pestilence and famine within; he that is in the field shall die by the sword; and he that is in the city, famine and pestilence shall devour him (Ezek. 7:15);
the “sword” here denotes the vastation of truth and the damnation of falsity; “famine and pestilence,” the vastation of good and the damnation of evil. The sword is said to be “without,” and famine and pestilence “within,” because the vastation of truth is without, but the vastation of good within; but when a man lives in accordance with falsity, damnation is signified by “him who is in the field dying by the sword;” and when he lives in evil which is defended by falsity, damnation is signified by “famine and pestilence devouring him who is in the city.”
sRef Lev@26 @26 S5′ sRef Lev@26 @25 S5′ [5] In Leviticus:
I will bring upon you a sword avenging the vengeance of the covenant; where, if ye shall be gathered together into your cities, I will send the pestilence into the midst of you, and I will deliver you into the hand of the enemy, when I shall break the staff of your bread (Lev. 26:25-26);
where in like manner the “sword” denotes the vastation of truth and the damnation of falsity; the “pestilence” the damnation of evil; the vastation of good, which is signified by “famine,” is described by “breaking the staff of their bread;” by “the cities into which they were to be gathered together,” in like manner as above, are signified the falsities by which they defend evils (that “cities” are truths, thus in the opposite sense falsities, see n. 402, 2268, 2712, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493).
sRef Ezek@5 @12 S6′ sRef Ezek@5 @11 S6′ [6] In Ezekiel:
In that thou hast defiled My sanctuary with all thine abominations, a third part of thee shall die with the pestilence, and with famine shall they be consumed in the midst of thee; a third part shall fall by the sword round about thee; and a third part I will scatter to every wind, and will draw out a sword after them (Ezek. 5:11-12);
where “famine” denotes the damnation of evil; “sword,” the damnation of falsity; “to scatter to every wind, and to draw out the sword after them” denotes to dissipate truths and seize on falsities.
sRef Jer@14 @12 S7′ sRef Jer@24 @10 S7′ sRef Jer@38 @2 S7′ sRef Jer@21 @6 S7′ sRef Jer@21 @9 S7′ sRef Jer@21 @7 S7′ [7] In Jeremiah:
If they shall offer burnt-offering or meat-offering, I will not approve them; but I will consume them with sword, and with famine, and with pestilence (Jer. 14:12).
Again:
I will smite the inhabitants of this city, both man and beast; they shall die of a great pestilence; afterward I will give Zedekiah king of Judah, and his servants, and the people, and those who are left in this city from the pestilence, and from the sword, and from the famine, into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar. He that abideth in this city shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence; but he that goeth out and falleth away to the Chaldeans that besiege you, he shall live, and his soul shall be unto him for a spoil (Jer. 21:6-7, 9).
Again:
I will send upon them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, till they be consumed from upon the earth (Jer. 24:10);
where also by the “sword” is signified the vastation of truth, by the “famine” the vastation of good, by the “pestilence” damnation. The like is signified by “the sword, the famine, and the pestilence” in the following passages, Jer. 27:8; 29:17, 18; 32:24, 36; 34:17; 38:2; 42:17, 22; 44:13; Ezek. 12:16.
sRef 2Sam@24 @13 S8′ sRef Amos@4 @10 S8′ [8] As these three follow in their order, therefore these three were proposed to David by the prophet Gad, namely, whether there should come seven years of famine; or he should flee three months before his enemies; or whether there should be three days’ pestilence in the land (2 Sam. 24:13); “to flee before his enemies” stands for “the sword.” In Amos:
I have sent among you the pestilence in the way of Egypt; I have slain your young men with the sword, with the captivity of your horses (Amos 4:10);
“the pestilence in the way of Egypt” denotes the vastation of good by means of falsities, which are “the way of Egypt;” “I have slain your young men with the sword, with the captivity of the horses,” denotes the vastation of truth. (By “young men” are signified truths, and by “horses” things of the intellect, see n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321, 6534.)
sRef Ezek@28 @23 S9′ sRef Ezek@5 @17 S9′ [9] In Ezekiel:
Pestilence and blood shall pass through thee (Ezek. 5:17).
Again:
I will send unto her pestilence and blood in her streets (Ezek. 28:23);
where “pestilence” denotes adulterated good; and “blood,” falsified truth. (That “blood” denotes falsified truth, see n. 4735, 6978).
sRef Ps@91 @6 S10′ sRef Ps@91 @5 S10′ [10] In David:
Thou shalt not be afraid for the dread of night, nor for the arrow that flieth by day; for the pestilence that creepeth in thick darkness, nor for the death that wasteth at noonday (Ps. 91:5-6).
Here the “dread of night” denotes the falsity which is in secret; the “arrow that flieth by day,” the falsity which is in the open; the “pestilence that creepeth in thick darkness,” the evil which is in secret; the “death that wasteth at noonday,” the evil which is in the open. That “pestilence” denotes evil and the damnation of evil, is plain from death’s being spoken of also, which is here distinguished from the pestilence merely by its being said of death that “it wasteth at noonday,” and of the pestilence that “it creepeth in thick darkness.” Again:
He directed the way of His anger; He forbade not their soul from death, and closed their life with the pestilence (Ps. 78:50);
speaking of the Egyptians; the “pestilence” denotes every kind of evil and its damnation.

AC (Potts) n. 7103 sRef Ex@5 @4 S0′ 7103. And the king of Egypt said unto them. That this signifies the answer from those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by Pharaoh to Moses and Aaron, as being contrary thought (as above, n. 7094); thus the thought which is for the answer; and from the representation of Pharaoh, or the king of Egypt, as being false memory-knowledge (n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692), thus those who are in falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 7104 sRef Ex@5 @4 S0′ 7104. Wherefore do ye, Moses and Aaron, draw away the people from their works? That this signifies that their Divine law and doctrine will not release them from sufferings, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to the Divine law (see n. 6723, 6752); from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord as to the doctrine thence derived (n. 6998, 7009); from the signification of “drawing away,” as being to release; and from the signification of “works,” as being sufferings; for the works were labors, and also burdens (as follows), thus sufferings from combats, which are signified by “works” and “burdens” in the internal sense.

AC (Potts) n. 7105 sRef Ex@5 @4 S0′ 7105. Go ye unto your burdens. That this signifies that they must live in combats, is evident from the signification of “going,” as being to live (see n. 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605); and from the signification of “burdens,” as being infestations by falsities (n. 6757), thus combats against them.

AC (Potts) n. 7106 sRef Ex@5 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @9 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @5 S0′ 7106. Verses 5-9. And Pharaoh said, Behold the people of the land are now many, and ye have made them cease from their burdens. And Pharaoh commanded in that day the taskmasters in the people, and their officers, saying, Ye shall no more give the people straw to make bricks, as yesterday and the day before yesterday; let them go and gather straw for themselves. And the tale of the bricks which they made yesterday and the day before yesterday, ye shall lay upon, them; ye shall not take away from it; for they are idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God. Let the service be made heavier upon the men, and let them do it; and let them not regard the words of a lie. “And Pharaoh said,” signifies the will of those who infest the truths of the church; “Behold the people of the land are now many,” signifies the multitude of those who are of the spiritual church; “and ye have made them cease from their burdens,” signifies that they have not infested enough; “and Pharaoh commanded in that day,” signifies the cupidity of infesting the truths of the church while in that state; “the taskmasters in the people, and their officers, saying,” signifies those who most closely infest and most closely receive; “Ye shall no more give the people straw,” signifies the lowest memory-knowledges which are the most general of all; “to make bricks,” signifies for the things fictitious and false that will be injected; “as yesterday and the day before yesterday,” signifies not as in the former state “let them go and gather straw for themselves,” signifies that they should procure for themselves these lowest memory-knowledges; “and the tale of bricks, which they made yesterday and the day before yesterday, ye shall lay upon them,” signifies that the things fictitious and false must be injected in abundance as before; “ye shall not take away from it,” signifies without diminution; “for they are idle,” signifies that they are not assaulted enough; “therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God,” signifies that consequently they have so much thought about such worship; “let the service be made heavier upon the men,” signifies that the assault should be increased; “and let them do it,” signifies to obtain the effect; “and let them not regard the words of a lie,” signifies lest they turn to truths.

AC (Potts) n. 7107 sRef Ex@5 @5 S0′ 7107. And Pharaoh said. That this signifies the will of those who infest the truths of the church, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being will (of which in what follows); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest the truths of the church (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683), thus who infest those who are of the spiritual church, for these are said to be in the truths of the church. That “saying” signifies to will, or the will, is because it involves the things which follow it; for when anyone wills anything, he utters it. As “he saith” involves the things which follow, it consequently signifies various things, as command (n. 7036); exhortation (n. 5012, 7033, 7090); communication (n. 3060, 4131, 6228); thought (n. 7094); properly, perception (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2862, 3509, 5687).

AC (Potts) n. 7108 sRef Ex@5 @5 S0′ 7108. Behold the people of the land are now many. That this signifies the multitude of those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “the people of the land,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (see n. 2928) for by “people” are signified those who are in the truths of faith (n. 1259, 1260, 3581), and by “land” is signified the church (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4447, 4535, 4577).

AC (Potts) n. 7109 sRef Ex@5 @5 S0′ 7109. And ye have made them cease from their burdens. That this signifies that they have not infested enough, is evident from the signification of “burdens,” as being infestations by falsities and the consequent combats (see n. 6757, 7104, 7105); hence “to make them cease from their burdens” denotes that they have not infested enough.

AC (Potts) n. 7110 sRef Ex@5 @6 S0′ 7110. And Pharaoh commanded in that day. That this signifies the cupidity of infesting the truths of the church while in that state, is evident from the signification of “commanding,” as being a mandate, and as in a mandate of the evil there is the cupidity of doing evil (for this is the source of the mandate that comes from them), therefore here by “he commanded” is also signified cupidity from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest the truths of the church (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683); and from the signification of “day,” as being state (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850).

AC (Potts) n. 7111 sRef Ex@5 @6 S0′ 7111. The taskmasters in the people, and their officers, saying. That this signifies those who most closely infest, and those who most closely receive, is evident from the signification of “taskmasters,” as being those who compel to serve (see n. 6852), and as this is effected by means of infestations, by “taskmasters” are also signified those who infest, but who most closely infest (of whom below); and from the signification of “officers,” as being those who most closely receive; for the officers were of the sons of Israel, and the taskmasters were of the Egyptians, as is evident from what follows. Thus in the internal sense the “officers” are they who most closely receive, and the “taskmasters” those who most closely infest.
[2] Who these are can be known from those in the other life who infest and inject falsities and evils, and from those who receive and communicate them. They who infest and inject falsities and evils are the hells, but in order that they may effect their purpose, they send forth from themselves emissaries, through whom they act. These appear not far from those who are being infested; and this is done in order that the thoughts and intentions of many may be concentrated, for otherwise they would be dispersed. These emissaries appear in certain fixed places of their own in the world of spirits, and from the very places where they appear it can be known from what hell they are; some appear above the head at various altitudes and in various directions; some near the head to the right or to the left, and also behind it; some below the head in various situations relatively to the body, in planes from the head down to the soles of the feet. They flow in with such things as are ejected from hell, and the spirit or the man does not perceive or know otherwise than that the things which flow in are in himself; that is, that he himself thinks and intends them. These emissaries are called “subjects” (of whom see what was shown above, from experience, n. 4403, 5856, 5983-5989). As these infest the most closely, they are signified by the “taskmasters;” but they who receive from them and communicate are the “officers,” and are intermediate spirits; for as before said the officers were of the sons of Israel, but the taskmasters were of the Egyptians.
sRef Deut@20 @2 S3′ sRef Josh@1 @10 S3′ sRef Deut@20 @8 S3′ sRef Deut@20 @5 S3′ sRef Deut@20 @3 S3′ sRef Deut@16 @18 S3′ sRef Josh@1 @11 S3′ sRef Josh@3 @3 S3′ sRef Josh@3 @2 S3′ [3] Those were called “officers” among the Israelitish and Jewish people, who said what was to be done, and who gave commandment; wherefore they also sat in the gates with the judges and elders, and spoke to the people the sentences of judgment, and also the things commanded by the leader, as can be seen from the following passages in Moses:
Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, according to thy tribes, who shall judge the people with the judgment of justice (Deut. 16:18).
When they shall go forth to war, the priest shall speak to the people, and shall admonish them not to be afraid; afterward the officers shall say that he who has built a house shall return, and also the fearful (Deut. 20:3, 5, 8).
In Joshua:
Joshua commanded the officers to say to the people that they should prepare provision for the journey, before they passed over Jordan (Josh. 1:10-11).
At the end of three days it came to pass, when the officers passed through the midst of the camp, they gave commandment that when they saw the ark of the covenant of Jehovah, they should also go forward (Josh. 3:2-3).
That the officers were governors of the people, distinct from their princes, see Deut. 1:15; also that they were distinct from the elders, Deut. 31:28; and from the judges, Joshua 8:33.

AC (Potts) n. 7112 sRef Ex@5 @7 S0′ 7112. Ye shall no more give the people straw. That this signifies the lowest memory-knowledges and the most general of all, is evident from the signification of “chaff” or “straw,” as being truths of memory-knowledge (see n. 3114), and indeed memory-knowledges the lowest and most general of all, for the lowest food in a spiritual sense is straw or chaff, because it is the food of beasts. Those knowledges are called lowest which are full of fallacies of the senses, which the evil abuse to pervert goods and truths, and thus to defend evils and falsities; for on account of fallacies these knowledges can be turned in favor of principles of falsity and of cupidities of evil. Moreover such knowledges are the most general of all, and unless they are filled with truths less general and more particular, they may be of service to falsities and evils, but in proportion as they are filled with truths, they are of less service to them. Such are the knowledges whereby they who in the world have professed faith alone, and yet have lived a life of evil, infest the upright in the other life; but as these knowledges are dispelled by the angels, it is now said that they should not give straw to make brick, that is, that they did not add these to the fictitious and false things that would be injected. Such is the internal sense of these words, which indeed appears remote from the sense of the letter; but be it known that there is nothing in the natural world which does not correspond to something in the spiritual world; and the angels with a man understand all things spiritually which the man understands naturally; they do not know what straw is, nor bricks; such things were known to them when they were in the world, but were forgotten when they came into heaven, because there they put on spiritual things. Hence it is that when the angels perceive the ideas of such things with a man, they turn them into corresponding spiritual things. That “straw” or “grass” denotes the lowest memory-knowledge, and that “bricks” denote things fictitious and false, can be seen from many considerations; for all herbage and straw have no other signification; but seeds, barley, wheat, and the like denote interior truths and goods; and stones not artificial denote truths.

AC (Potts) n. 7113 sRef Ex@5 @7 S0′ 7113. To make bricks. That this signifies to make things fictitious and false that will be injected, is evident from the signification of “making bricks,” as being to invent falsities (see n. 1296, 6669). In the historic sense of the letter it is said that the sons of Israel made bricks, and thus as it were that they invented falsities; but in the internal sense it is signified that the infernals who are in falsities injected them And since – as before said – such things appear to pertain to those who receive them, the sense of the letter is according to the appearance, which, however, is explained by the internal sense. (That there are very many such things in the sense of the letter, see n. 5094, 6400, 6948.)

AC (Potts) n. 7114 sRef Ex@5 @7 S0′ 7114. As yesterday and the day before yesterday. That this signifies not as in the former state, is evident from the signification of “yesterday and the day before yesterday,” as being what is past (see n. 6983); and as all times signify states (n. 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 4814, 4882, 4901, 4916), therefore “yesterday and the day before yesterday” signifies the former state.

AC (Potts) n. 7115 sRef Ex@5 @7 S0′ 7115. Let them go and gather straw for themselves. That this signifies that they should procure for themselves these lowest memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of “gathering” as being to procure; and from the signification of “straw,” as being the lowest memory-knowledges (of which just above, n. 7112).

AC (Potts) n. 7116 sRef Ex@5 @8 S0′ 7116. And the tale of the bricks which they made yesterday and the day before yesterday, ye shall lay upon them. That this signifies that things fictitious and false must be injected in abundance as in the former state, is clear from the signification of “the tale,” as being abundance, here the same abundance; from the signification of “bricks,” as being things fictitious and false (of which just above, n. 7113); from the signification of “yesterday and the day before yesterday,” as being the former state (of which also just above, n. 7114); and from the signification of “laying upon them,” as being to inject, because it is said of things fictitious and false. From all this it is evident that by “laying upon them the tale of the bricks which they made yesterday and the day before yesterday” is signified that things fictitious and false were to be injected in the same abundance as in the former state.

AC (Potts) n. 7117 sRef Ex@5 @8 S0′ 7117. Ye shall not take away from it. That this signifies without diminution, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 7118 sRef Ex@5 @8 S0′ 7118. For they are idle. That this signifies that they are not assaulted enough, is evident from the signification of “being idle,” as being not to be sufficiently infested by falsities, thus not to be assaulted enough. How the case herein is can also be known from those who are being infested by falsities in the other life. They who infest, as far as possible hinder the upright whom they infest from thinking about the Lord; as soon as any thought of the Lord openly occurs, they at once take it away, which they know how to do in a skillful manner. But as with those who are being infested, thought about the Lord is nevertheless universal, thus too interior to be in plain view (for it flows in through heaven), therefore as soon as they cease to be infested, they come into thought about the Lord, for that which flows in from heaven and reigns universally, reveals itself in every free state. From all this it is evident what is the internal sense of the words “for they are idle, therefore they cry, saying Let us go and sacrifice to our God.”

AC (Potts) n. 7119 sRef Ex@5 @8 S0′ 7119. Therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice unto our God. That this signifies that consequently they have so much thought about such worship, is evident from the signification of “crying,” as here being thought; for by “saying” and “speaking” is signified thought (see n. 2271, 2287, 7094), and therefore also by “crying,” but by “crying” is signified strong thought and with full intention of doing, hence it is said “so much thought;” and from the signification of “sacrificing to their God,” as being the worship of the Lord (n. 6905, 7101). But because Pharaoh said that he did not know Jehovah (n. 7095, 7097), and because the Egyptians were averse to sacrifices (n. 1343), and because Moses said that they would go a way of three days into the wilderness (n. 6904, 7100), therefore it is said, “such worship.”

AC (Potts) n. 7120 sRef Ex@5 @9 S0′ 7120. Let the service be made heavier upon the men. That this signifies that the assault should be increased, is evident from the signification of “making heavier,” as being to be increased; from the signification of “service,” when said by those who infest by means of falsities, as being the intention to subjugate (n. 6666, 6670, 6671), thus assault, for they intend to subjugate by means of this assault; and from the signification of “the men,” as being those who are of the spiritual church. There are two words in the original language which signify man; the one is “Adam,” and the other “Enosh.” By the man called “Adam” is meant the man of the celestial church; but by the man called “Enosh” is meant the man of the spiritual church. Here “the men” are expressed by “Enosh,” because the subject treated of is those who are of the spiritual church.

AC (Potts) n. 7121 sRef Ex@5 @9 S0′ 7121. And let them do it. That this signifies to obtain the effect, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 7122 sRef Ex@5 @9 S0′ 7122. And let them not regard the words of a lie. That this signifies lest they turn to truths, is evident from the signification of “regarding,” as being to turn one’s self; and from the signification of “the words of a lie,” when said by those who are in falsities, as being truths; for they who are in falsities call truths falsities, thus “the words of a lie;” and falsities they call truths, for they are in what is opposite.
In these verses, in the internal sense, there has now been described the infestation by falsities of the upright in the other life; and there has also been set forth the way in which they are infested. Such infestation is permitted to the end that falsities may be removed, and truths be instilled, which cannot possibly be done without infestation; for after death there clings to a man, and there is in his memories, everything of his thought in the world, of his intention, of his will, of his speech, and of his action, for nothing is obliterated. That these things have been impressed on his memories, especially on the interior memory, which is properly the memory of his spirit, see n. 2469, 2470, 2474, 2475. And this being so, it must needs be that there cling to him things foul and filthy, and also evil and false, from his life in the world; and which cause the truths which the man has also learned, and the goods which he has imbued, to be hidden. For truths and goods cannot come forth among such things; and therefore before truths and goods can appear, and the man be thus associated with those who are in heaven, it is necessary that these evils and falsities be uncovered, so that he may see them and know them, and thus learn what is true and what is good. This cannot possibly be done without combat with the evils and falsities in himself; which combat takes place actually, the evil spirits exciting falsities and evils, and the angels excusing if the end has been good, and instilling truths. This is perceived as if it were in himself, as is the case with temptation in man, which is felt no otherwise than as being in him, when yet it is the combat of angels with evil spirits outside of him (see n. 3927, 4249, 4307, 5036, 6657). That this is so has been granted me to know with certainty from much experience. These things have been said in order that it may be known why infestation by falsities takes place with those who are of the spiritual church, which infestation has been treated of in the above verses, and is treated of also in those which follow.

AC (Potts) n. 7123 sRef Ex@5 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @12 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @13 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @11 S0′ 7123. Verses 10-13. And the taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and they spoke to the people, saying, Thus said Pharaoh, I will by no means give you straw. Go ye yourselves, get you straw where ye can find it; for nothing whatever shall be taken away from your service. And the people scattered into all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw. And the taskmasters were urgent, saying, Complete ye your works, the work of a day in its day, as when there was straw. “And the taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers,” signifies the sending forth and presence of those who most closely infest, and of those who most closely receive; “and they spoke to the people, saying,” signifies perception; “Thus said Pharaoh,” signifies about the infestations; “I will by no means give you straw,” signifies no longer thence the most general memory-knowledges; “Go ye yourselves, get you straw where ye can find it,” signifies that they should procure these for themselves elsewhere, wherever they could; “for nothing whatever shall be taken away from your service,” signifies injections of falsities without diminution; “and the people scattered into all the land of Egypt,” signifies that they overspread the natural mind on every side; “to gather stubble for straw,” signifies to find some truth of memory-knowledge; “and the taskmasters were urgent,” signifies that they who most closely infested were insistent; “saying, Complete ye your works, the work of a day in its day,” signifies that they should serve falsities so called in every state; “as when there was straw,” signifies just as they served their truths so called.

AC (Potts) n. 7124 sRef Ex@5 @10 S0′ 7124. And the taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers. That this signifies the sending forth and presence of those who most closely infest, and of those who most closely receive, is evident from the signification of “going out,” as being a sending forth, because they who are signified by “taskmasters” are sent forth in order to serve as a means of communication, as can be seen from what was said above (n. 7111); moreover, that “to go out” denotes to present oneself before another in a form accommodated to him, see n. 5337; therefore it also denotes presence; from the signification of “taskmasters,” as being those who most closely infest; and from the signification of “officers,” as being those who most closely receive and communicate the infestations (n. 7111).

AC (Potts) n. 7125 sRef Ex@5 @10 S0′ 7125. And they spoke to the people, saying. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification of “saying,” in the historicals of the Word, as being perception (see n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2862, 3509, 5687).

AC (Potts) n. 7126 sRef Ex@5 @10 S0′ 7126. Thus said Pharaoh. That this signifies about the infestations, is evident from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest such as are of the spiritual church (see what has been said above), thus it denotes infestation.

AC (Potts) n. 7127 sRef Ex@5 @10 S0′ 7127. I will by no means give you straw. That this signifies no longer thence the most general memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of “by no means giving,” as being no longer to furnish; and from the signification of “straw,” as being the most general memory-knowledges of all (see n. 7112). How the case herein is has already been told. But it must be told further, that in the other life those who have been of the church, and have persuaded themselves that faith alone saves, yet have not lived the life of faith, but a life of evil, especially put straw (that is, the most general memory-knowledges of all) before the upright whom they are infesting. These men are of the same character there as they had been in the world; they are acquainted with confirming arguments in favor of faith alone, by which they say that man is saved no matter how he had lived; but these confirming arguments are nothing but reasonings that agree with the given proposition; for everything, even what is most false, can be confirmed by reasonings, and can also be presented to the simple as true, by means of the arts of eloquence and of inference.
[2] For this purpose they especially employ such things from the Word as are the most general of all, and which without the internal sense of the word can be drawn to favor any opinion whatever. Such are the things which they put before those who are of the spiritual church; and by means of which they infest them; although they are nothing but chaff or straw for making bricks, for they exclude the most essential thing of all, namely, charity.
They indeed say that works of charity are the fruits of faith, but still they make these works of no account, and persuade their hearers that man is saved by faith alone no matter what his life has been, even in life’s last moments; thus by faith without its fruits, consequently without the life of faith and charity.
[3] So long as such things are put before the upright in the other life, these wield fighting arguments, and are able to defend themselves, for they see that reasonings are fallacious when the essential, which is charity, is thus excluded, and also when they see that no regard is paid to the life. From everything in the other life, both in general and in particular, they see these things as in clear day. Such then is what is meant by the memory-knowledges the lowest and most general of all, which are signified by “straw.” They who have persuaded themselves that faith alone saves, and yet have lived a life of evil, are in hell at a considerable depth toward the right, a little in front; and I have heard them from thence infesting the upright with reasonings; but these, being led of the Lord by the angels, rejected the reasonings as being empty, and they also exposed the fallacies which were in the confirmations and arguments from the general things of the Word.

AC (Potts) n. 7128 sRef Ex@5 @11 S0′ 7128. Go ye yourselves, get you straw where ye can find it. That this signifies that they should procure these for themselves elsewhere, wherever they could, is evident from the signification of “getting wherever they could find,” as being to procure for themselves elsewhere, wherever they could; and from the signification of “straw,” as being memory-knowledges, the lowest and most general of all (n. 7112, 7127).

AC (Potts) n. 7129 sRef Ex@5 @11 S0′ 7129. For nothing whatever shall be taken away from your service. That this signifies injections of falsities without diminution, is evident from the signification of “nothing whatever being taken away,” as being without diminution; and from the signification of “service,” as being an assault by falsities (see above, n. 7120), thus also infestation.

AC (Potts) n. 7130 sRef Ex@5 @12 S0′ 7130. And the people scattered into all the land of Egypt. That this signifies that they overspread the natural mind on every side, is evident from the signification of “scattering themselves,” as being to overspread; and from the signification of the “land of Egypt,” as being the natural mind (n. 5276, 5278, 5280, 5288, 5301). There are two minds in man; one is the natural, and the other the rational mind; the natural mind is the mind of the external man, but the rational mind is the mind of the internal man. The things of the natural mind are called memory-knowledges, but those of the rational mind are called intellectual reasons; they are also distinguished from each other by the fact that the things of the natural mind are for the most part in the light of the world, which is called the light of nature; whereas the things of the rational mind are in the light of heaven, which light is spiritual light.

AC (Potts) n. 7131 sRef Ex@5 @12 S0′ 7131. To gather stubble for straw. That this signifies to find some truth of memory-knowledge,* is evident from the signification of “stubble for straw,” as being the truth of memory-knowledge, for “stubble” denotes such truth as is accommodated to the memory-knowledge that is signified by “straw.” That “stubble” denotes such truth is because it is the stalk in the top of which is the seed, and by “seeds” in the word are signified truths and goods; thus by the stalk which is beneath them is signified the general vessel of truth, consequently the truth of memory-knowledge; for the memory-knowledges of faith and charity are indeed truths, but general truths, thus are the recipient vessels of particular and singular truths, as can also be seen by everyone. For example: it is a truth of memory-knowledge that charity toward the neighbor is the essential of the church; also that faith cannot be except where charity is; and likewise that truth and good can be conjoined, but not truth and evil, nor good and falsity; besides many similar truths, which are truths of memory-knowledge. That these can be enriched with innumerable things, can be seen from the fact that volumes can be written about them, and yet the singular truths, which are the interior things of faith, can never be described, for these can only be seen in the light of heaven, and do not fall into natural words. These truths are like charity, which is spiritual affection, and which for the most part cannot be expressed by words, except its most general things, namely, those which put on a natural dress, and which can be compared with such things as are in the world. These things have been said in order that it may be known what general memory-knowledges are.
* Latin verum scientificum. This, as here defined, is such truth as is accommodated to, or is fitted into memory- knowledge, and which is “a general vessel of truth.” Such is the verum scientificum, or truth of memory-knowledge.–Reviser.

AC (Potts) n. 7132 sRef Ex@5 @13 S0′ 7132. And the taskmasters were urgent. That this signifies that they who most closely infest were insistent, is evident from the signification of “taskmasters,” as being those who most closely infest (see n. 7111); and from the signification of “urging,” as being to insist.

AC (Potts) n. 7133 sRef Ex@5 @13 S0′ 7133. Saying, Complete ye your works, the work of a day in its day. That this signifies that they should serve falsities so called in every state, is evident from the signification of “completing your works,” as being to serve falsities; for by “making bricks” are signified things fictitious and false that are injected (see n. 7113), and as these are the works which they were to complete, it signifies that they should serve these; it is said “falsities so called,” because the evil do not acknowledge the falsities which they speak as being falsities, but as being truths; and from the signification of “the work of a day in its day,” as being in every state (that a “day” denotes state, see n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850).

AC (Potts) n. 7134 sRef Ex@5 @13 S0′ 7134. As when there was straw. That this signifies just as they served their truths so called, is evident from the signification of “straw;” as being general memory-knowledge, which is the vessel of truth (see n. 7112, 7131). It is said “truths so called,” because these words are spoken by the evil, who do not acknowledge truths to be truths.

AC (Potts) n. 7135 sRef Ex@5 @14 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @17 S0′ 7135. Verses 14-18. And the officers of the sons of Israel were beaten, whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over them, saying, Wherefore do ye not complete your task in making brick, as yesterday and the day before yesterday, also yesterday, also today? And the officers of the sons of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh, saying, Wherefore doest thou so to thy servants? There is no straw given to thy servants, and they say to us, Make ye bricks; and behold thy servants are beaten; and thy people have sinned. And he said, Ye are idle, ye are idle; therefore ye say, Let us go, let us sacrifice to Jehovah. And now go, serve ye, and straw shall not be given you, and the tale of bricks shall ye give. “And the officers of the sons of Israel were beaten,” signifies that they who most closely received and communicated the infestations were injured by the injected falsities; “whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over them,” signifies those who were injected by the infesters; “saying, Wherefore do ye not complete your task in making bricks?” signifies that they do not receive and communicate the injections of falsities as had been enjoined; “as yesterday and the day before yesterday,” signifies as in the former state; “also yesterday also today,” signifies the state that will be therefrom; “and the officers of the sons of Israel came,” signifies those who most closely received and communicated; “and cried unto Pharaoh,” signifies indignation testified before those who were infesting; “saying, wherefore doest thou thus to thy servants?” signifies that thus they could not perform the duty enjoined; “there is no straw given to thy servants,” signifies that memory-knowledges containing truth are no longer furnished; “and they say to us, Make ye bricks,” signifies that they must nevertheless endure the injected falsities; “and behold thy servants are beaten,” signifies that in this way the falsities inflict injury; “and thy people have sinned,” signifies that thus they are guilty in having done evil; “and he said,” signifies the answer; “Ye are idle, ye are idle,” signifies that they have not been sufficiently assaulted; “therefore ye say, Let us go, let us sacrifice to Jehovah,” signifies that from this comes the thought about such worship; “and now go, serve ye,” signifies continuation of the infestation; “and straw shall not be given you,” signifies without such memory-knowledges; “and the tale of bricks ye shall give,” signifies the falsities which were to be injected in abundance.

AC (Potts) n. 7136 sRef Ex@5 @14 S0′ 7136. And the officers of the sons of Israel were beaten. That this signifies that they who most closely received and communicated the infestations were injured by the injected falsities, is evident from the signification of “being beaten,” as being to be injured by falsities, because by the taskmasters, by whom are signified the infesters, for in the spiritual sense “to be beaten” is not to be beaten, but to be injured in respect to truth and good, that is, in respect to the things of spiritual life; just as “to die” in the spiritual sense is not to die, but to be deprived of truth and good, and to be in falsity and evil, and therefore damned; from the signification of “the officers,” as being those who most closely receive and communicate the infestations (see n. 7111); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 6426, 6637), with whom they who are signified by the “officers” were in communication.

AC (Potts) n. 7137 sRef Ex@5 @14 S0′ 7137. Whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over them. That this signifies those who were injected by the infesters, is evident from the signification of “being set over them,” as being to be injected, because done by injection (of which in what follows); and from the signification of “taskmasters,” as being those who infest (see n. 7111). How this is cannot be known except from experience with such in the other life. It was said above that by “taskmasters” are signified those who most closely infest, and by “officers” those who most closely receive and communicate (n. 7111); they who thus receive and communicate are simple, upright spirits, who are of especial service for such a use; these spirits, by means of arts known only in the other life, are injected by the infesters toward the society with which they thus procure for themselves communication; and this is effected by those who infest and are signified by the “taskmasters;” thus the hells have communication on their side, and they who are being infested on theirs. That this is the case, I have seen a hundred times, if not a thousand, and have also experienced. From all this it is evident that what is signified by these words in the internal sense cannot be known except from experience concerning such things in the other life.

AC (Potts) n. 7138 sRef Ex@5 @14 S0′ 7138. Saying, Wherefore do ye not complete your task in making bricks? That this signifies that they do not receive and communicate the injections of falsities as had been enjoined, is evident from the signification of the “officers” to whom these things are said, as being those who most closely receive and communicate (see n. 7111); from the signification of “completing the task,” as being to do as had been enjoined; and from the signification of “making bricks,” as being to receive things fictitious and false (n. 7113).

AC (Potts) n. 7139 sRef Ex@5 @14 S0′ 7139. As yesterday and the day before yesterday. That this signifies as in the former state, is evident from the signification of “yesterday and the day before” as being a former state (see n. 6983, 7114).

AC (Potts) n. 7140 sRef Ex@5 @14 S0′ 7140. Also yesterday, also today. That this signifies the state that will be therefrom, is evident from the signification of “yesterday,” as being the former state (as just above); and from the signification of “today,” as being what is perpetual (see n. 2838, 3998, 4304, 6165), consequently what is everlasting, and thus that will be as before.

AC (Potts) n. 7141 sRef Ex@5 @15 S0′ 7141. And the officers of the sons of Israel came. That this signifies those who most closely received and communicated, is evident from the signification of “the officers of the sons of Israel,” as being those who most closely receive and communicate the infestations (of which just above, n. 7136).

AC (Potts) n. 7142 sRef Ex@5 @15 S0′ 7142. And cried unto Pharaoh. That this signifies indignation testified before those who were infesting, is evident from the signification of “crying,” as here being to attest indignation, namely, because they had been beaten, that is, injured by the injected falsities; and because straw was not given to make brick, that is, that they were receiving and injecting only things fictitious and false; and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 7126).

AC (Potts) n. 7143 sRef Ex@5 @15 S0′ 7143. Saying, Wherefore doest thou this to thy servants? That this signifies that thus they could not perform the duty enjoined, is evident from the signification of a “servant,” as being one who ministers, and performs a duty; he is called a “servant” because he is of service, as occasionally occurs in the Word. That he is called a “servant” who obeys, see n. 1713; and that to “serve” denotes study, n. 3824, 3846; and as what now follows involves that they could not endure that service, it is plain that by “wherefore doest thou thus to thy servants?” is signified that thus they could not perform the duty enjoined.

AC (Potts) n. 7144 sRef Ex@5 @16 S0′ 7144. There is no straw given to thy servants. That this signifies that memory-knowledges containing truth are no longer furnished, is evident from the signification of ” straw,” as being memory-knowledges the most general of all (see n. 7112), which, being like vessels that can be filled with truths (n. 4345, 4383, 5208, 7131), are called memory-knowledges, the containers of truth; from the signification of “not being given,” as being not to be furnished; and from the signification of “servants,” as being those who minister and perform a duty (of which just above, n. 7143).

AC (Potts) n. 7145 sRef Ex@5 @16 S0′ 7145. And they say to us, Make ye bricks. That this signifies that they must nevertheless endure the injected falsities, is evident from the signification of “making bricks,” as being to receive things fictitious and false which are injected by the evil (n. 7113), here to endure them.

AC (Potts) n. 7146 sRef Ex@5 @16 S0′ 7146. And behold thy servants are beaten. That this signifies that in this way the falsities inflict injury, is evident from the signification of “being beaten,” as being to be injured by falsities (see n. 7136).

AC (Potts) n. 7147 sRef Ex@5 @16 S0′ 7147. And thy people have sinned. That this signifies that thus they are guilty in that they have done evil, is evident from the signification of “sinning,” as being to become guilty of evil, and in this case that they would deserve to be punished. How the case is in general with what is contained in this and the preceding verse must be told. They who are in the lower earth are infested by falsities and evils injected from the hells round about, in order that evils and falsities may be removed, and truths and goods be instilled, and that in this way they may be brought into a state in which they can be raised up into heaven (see n. 7090, 7122). But near the end they are more severely infested than before; for then truths are taken from them, and mere falsities are permitted to infest them, and this even to despair; for it is of Divine order that the last of infestation and of temptation should be despair (see n. 1787, 2694, 5279, 5280). This was done by Pharaoh in order that this state of those who are of the spiritual church might be represented by the sons of Israel, and this when the infestations were near to the end, that is, when the people were to be liberated and conducted into the land of Canaan. Be it known that infestations are effected in this manner, namely, that falsities and evils from the hells are injected into the thoughts, and also truths and goods from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord; this is done because a man and a spirit do not think from themselves, but all things flow in, which although it is quite foreign to our feeling, and therefore seems to be incredible, is nevertheless most true (on this matter see what has already been adduced and shown from experience, n. 2886, 4151, 4249, 5846, 5854, 6189-6215, 6307-6327, 6466-6495, 6598-6626). From all this it can be known how it is to be understood that infestations are effected by means of the injection of falsities, and that this is increased even to despair.

AC (Potts) n. 7148 sRef Ex@5 @16 S0′ 7148. And he said. That this signifies the answer, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being answer (n. 7103).

AC (Potts) n. 7149 sRef Ex@5 @17 S0′ 7149. Ye are idle, ye are idle. That this signifies that they have not been sufficiently assaulted, is evident from the signification of “being idle,” as being not to be sufficiently assaulted, namely, by falsities (see n. 7118).

AC (Potts) n. 7150 sRef Ex@5 @17 S0′ 7150. Therefore ye say, Let us go, let us sacrifice to Jehovah. That this signifies that from this comes the thought about such worship, is evident from what was said above (n. 7119), where are the like words.

AC (Potts) n. 7151 sRef Ex@5 @18 S0′ 7151. And now go, serve ye. That this signifies the continuation of infestation, is evident from the signification of “serving,” as being to be infested by falsities (see n. 7120, 7129); hence, “go, serve ye” denotes the continuation of the infestation; for they had complained of the service, but the answer was that it should be continued.

AC (Potts) n. 7152 sRef Ex@5 @18 S0′ 7152. And straw shall not be given you. That this signifies without such memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of “straw,” as being the most general memory-knowledges, and consequently the containants of truth (see n. 7112, 7144). That they must be without them is signified by “it shall not be given.”

AC (Potts) n. 7153 sRef Ex@5 @18 S0′

7153. And the tale of bricks ye shall give. That this signifies the falsities which were to be injected in abundance, is evident from what was said above (n. 7116), where are the like words. These then are the things contained in these verses in the internal sense, and which to men may perhaps appear as of but little moment, and also disconnected; nevertheless they are each of them essential to the subject treated of, and cohere most beautifully. That this is so is perceived by the angels, for they see the series and connection of things in the light of heaven, together with countless secret things that are shaped from interior truths, giving rise to a form that is most beautiful and pleasing; which cannot possibly be done by man, because interior truths have been hidden from him, and consequently he cannot connect them together; but they appear to him disconnected, and therefore, as just said, of little moment.

AC (Potts) n. 7154 sRef Ex@5 @20 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @21 S0′ 7154. Verses 19-21. And the officers of the sons of Israel saw that they were in evil when it was said, Ye shall not take anything away from your bricks on a day in its day. And they met Moses and Aaron standing to meet them as they went forth from Pharaoh; and they said unto them, Jehovah look upon you, and judge, because ye have made our odor to stink in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword into their hand to slay us. “And the officers of the sons of Israel saw that they were in evil,” signifies that they saw themselves near damnation; “when it was said, Ye shall not take anything away from your bricks,” signifies because nothing of the injection of falsities was diminished; “on a day in its day,” signifies in every state whatever; “and they met Moses and Aaron,” signifies thought about the law Divine and the doctrine thence derived; “standing to meet them as they went forth from Pharaoh,” signifies manifestation at a time when falsities did not so much infest; “and they said unto them,” signifies perception; “Jehovah look upon you, and judge,” signifies the Divine disposal; “because ye have made our odor to stink in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants,” signifies that by reason of these things all who are in falsities have so great an aversion to our compliance; “to put a sword into their hand to slay us,” signifies that hence they have so great an ardor to destroy the truths of the church by means of falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 7155 sRef Ex@5 @19 S0′ 7155. And the officers of the sons of Israel saw that they were in evil. That this signifies that they saw themselves near damnation, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to perceive (n. 2150, 3764, 4567, 4723, 5400); from the signification of the “officers,” as being those who most closely receive and communicate the infestations (n. 7111, 7136); and from the signification of “evil,” as being damnation for regarded in itself evil is hell (n. 6279), thus damnation. That “to be in evil” denotes to be near damnation, is because those who most closely received and communicated the infestations were injured, which is signified by their being beaten by the taskmasters (n. 7136), and because through the falsities that were continually injected they were infested even to despair (n. 7147). Hence it is that by “they saw that they were in evil” is signified that they perceived themselves to be near damnation. For as those who are in despair suppose that they can no longer endure the assaults, they think that they must needs deliver themselves up as captives to falsities, such being the state of despair; but then they begin to be relieved, and to be led as it were out of thick darkness into light.

AC (Potts) n. 7156 sRef Ex@5 @19 S0′ 7156. When it was said, Ye shall not take anything away from your bricks. That this signifies because nothing of the injection of falsities was diminished, is evident from the signification of “not taking anything away,” as being that nothing was to be diminished (as also above, n. 7129); and from the signification of “making bricks,” as being to endure the injected falsities (n. 7113, 7145).

AC (Potts) n. 7157 sRef Ex@5 @19 S0′ 7157. On a day in its day. That this signifies in every state whatever, is evident from the signification of “day by day,” as being in every state whatever (as above, see n. 7133).

AC (Potts) n. 7158 sRef Ex@5 @20 S0′ 7158. And they met Moses and Aaron. That this signifies thought about the Divine law and the doctrine thence derived, is evident from the signification of “meeting,” as being thought, for by their meeting is here meant that they encountered them and spoke with them, which in the internal sense denotes to think about the things which they represent (that “to speak” denotes to think, see n. 2271, 2287, 2619); from the representation of Moses, as being the Divine law (n. 6752); and from the representation of Aaron, as being the doctrine of good and truth (n. 6998, 7009, 7089).

AC (Potts) n. 7159 sRef Ex@5 @20 S0′ 7159. Standing to meet them as they went forth from Pharaoh. That this signifies manifestation at a time when falsities did not so much infest, is evident from the signification of “standing to meet,” when said of the Divine law and doctrine thence derived, as being manifestation; and from the signification of “going forth from Pharaoh,” as being when falsities did not so much infest. (That “Pharaoh” denotes the infesting falsity, see n. 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142.)

7159a. And they said unto them. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification of “saying,” in the historicals of the Word, as being to perceive (of which frequently above).

AC (Potts) n. 7160 sRef Ex@5 @21 S0′ 7160. Jehovah look upon you, and judge. That this signifies the Divine disposal, is evident from the signification of “let Jehovah look and judge,” as being the Divine disposal, for that which Jehovah sees and judges, He disposes. By “looking” is signified the Divine perception, properly foresight; and by “judging” is signified the Divine ordering, properly providence. Because these things are signified by these words in the internal sense, it was customary to say, when evil happened by anyone’s fault, “Let Jehovah look and judge.”

AC (Potts) n. 7161 sRef Ex@5 @21 S0′ 7161. Because ye have made odor to stink in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants. That this signifies that by reason of these things all they who are in falsities have so great an aversion to our compliance, is evident from the signification of “making to stink,” as being aversion, of which in what follows; and from the signification of “odor,” as being the perceptivity of what is grateful (see n. 925, 1514, 1517-1519, 3577, 4626, 4628, 4748); and as “odor” denotes the perceptivity of what is grateful, it denotes the perceptivity of faith and charity, for these are grateful (see n. 1519, 4628, 4748); and because these are grateful, compliance is most grateful, for compliance is the very good itself of faith and charity; hence it is that by “odor” is here signified compliance.
sRef 2Sam@10 @6 S2′ sRef 1Sam@13 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@34 @3 S2′ sRef 2Sam@16 @21 S2′ sRef 1Sam@27 @12 S2′ [2] As “odor” denotes all that which is grateful to the Lord, so “stink” denotes that which is ungrateful to the Lord, consequently “stink” denotes aversion, and also abomination. Moreover, “stink” actually corresponds to the aversion and abomination which are of falsity and evil. As “stink” denotes that which belongs to aversion, it is used in the Word to denote aversion, as in Samuel:
Israel had become stinking with the Philistines (1 Sam. 13:4).
Achish says of David, that he had made himself utterly stinking in his people, in Israel (1 Sam. 27:12).
When the sons of Ammon saw that they had become stinking with David (2 Sam. 10:6).
Ahithophel said unto Absalom, That all Israel may hear that thou hast become stinking with thy father (2 Sam. 16:21).
In these passages “stinking” denotes aversion. In Isaiah:
Let the pierced of the nations be cast out, and the stink of their carcasses go up, and the mountains melt with blood (Isa.34:3);
where “stink” denotes evil that is abominable. In like manner in Amos 4:10, and in David, Ps. 38:5-6.
[3] That “in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of his servants” denotes in the perception of all those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of “eyes,” as being perception (n. 4339); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities (n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142). That their odor is said “to stink in their eyes” is because all who are in falsities and evils feel aversion for goods, and truths stink to them.
[4] That they who are in evils and thence in falsities have a stink, is very evident from the hells which are called the cadaverous hells, where are assassins and those who are most tenacious of revenge; and from the hells which are called excremental, where are adulterers and those who have filthy pleasures as the end. When these hells are opened, intolerable stenches exhale from them (n. 4631); but these stenches are not so perceived except by those who have the interiors, which are of the spirit, open. Nevertheless those who are in these hells perceive these stinks as grateful, and therefore love to live in them (n. 4628); for they are like those animals which live in dead bodies and excrements, and find there the delight of their life. When they come out of the sphere of these stenches, sweet and grateful odors are foul and most ungrateful to them. From all this it can be seen how it is to be understood that they who are in falsities feel such an aversion for the things of the law Divine and of the doctrine thence derived, which are represented by Moses and Aaron, of whom it is said that “they had made their odor to stink in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants.”

AC (Potts) n. 7162 sRef Ex@5 @21 S0′ 7162. To put a sword into their hand to slay us. That this signifies that hence they have so great an ardor to destroy the truths of the church by means of falsities, is evident from the signification of a “sword,” as being falsity combating and vastating (see n. 2799, 6353, 7102); and from the signification of “slaying,” as being to destroy the things of faith and charity n. 6767). The things of faith and charity are signified by the “sons of Israel,” of whom it is said that they should be “slain;” for the essentials of the spiritual church, which is signified by the “sons of Israel” (n. 6637), are charity and faith.

AC (Potts) n. 7163 sRef Ex@5 @22 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @23 S0′ 7163. Verses 22, 23. And Moses returned unto Jehovah, and said, Lord, wherefore hast Thou done evilly to this people? Why is this that Thou hast sent me? For since I came unto Pharaoh to speak in Thy name, he hath done evilly to this people; and liberating Thou hast not liberated Thy people. “And Moses returned unto Jehovah, and said,” signifies complaint from the law Divine; “Lord, wherefore hast Thou done evilly to this people?” signifies that they who are in truths and goods are too much infested by falsities; “why is this that Thou hast sent me?” signifies when yet the law proceeding from the Divine seems to say otherwise; “for since I came unto Pharaoh to speak in Thy name, “thy name” signifies when the command from the things of the law Divine appeared to those who are in falsities; “he hath done evilly to this people,” signifies that then through the injected falsities those who are in the truths and goods of the church seemed to be injured; “and liberating Thou hast not liberated Thy people,” signifies that they were not released from a state of infestations by falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 7164 sRef Ex@5 @22 S0′ 7164. And Moses returned unto Jehovah, and said. That this signifies complaint from the law Divine, is evident from the signification of “returning unto Jehovah,” as being to prefer a complaint to the Divine about the infestation of those who are in truths and goods by those who are in falsities and evils; that “to return to Jehovah” denotes a complaint, is plain from what follows; and from the representation of Moses, as being the law Divine (see n. 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827, 7014); hence the complaint is from the truth which is of the law Divine, that they who are in falsities have such dominion over those who are in truths.

AC (Potts) n. 7165 sRef Ex@5 @22 S0′ 7165. Lord, wherefore hast Thou done evilly to this people? That this signifies that they who are in truths and goods are too much infested by falsities, is evident from the signification of “doing evilly,” as being to permit them to be too much infested by falsities, for in the spiritual sense this is “to do evilly” when said of those who are in truths and goods; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, who are here the “people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church, thus who are in the truths of the church and in its goods (as just above, n. 7162).

AC (Potts) n. 7166 sRef Matt@10 @38 S0′ sRef Matt@16 @24 S0′ sRef Ex@5 @22 S0′ 7166. Why is this that Thou hast sent me? That this signifies when yet the law proceeding from the Divine seems to say otherwise, is evident from the signification of “why is this?” as being why is it so when it is said otherwise; from the representation of Moses, who says these things of himself, as being the law from the Divine (of which just above, see n. 7164); and from the signification of “being sent,” as being to proceed (n. 4710, 6831). Hence by “Why is this that Thou hast sent me?” is signified that the law proceeding from the Divine seems to say otherwise. As this is said by him who complains of infestation by falsities, it appears as if the law from the Divine said otherwise, and therefore it is said that it seems to say otherwise, when yet it does not say otherwise. For the law from the Divine is the law of order, and the law of order concerning those who are in a state of infestations from falsities is that they must be infested even to despair, and unless they are infested to despair, the uttermost of the use of the infestation is lacking. That temptation is increased even to despair is very evident from the Lord’s temptation in Gethsemane (Matt. 26:38, 39; Mark 14:33-36; Luke 22:44), and also afterward upon the cross (Matt. 27:46), in that it was carried even to a state of despair; and the temptation of the Lord is a pattern of the temptation of the faithful; wherefore the Lord says that whosoever would follow Him must take up his cross (Matt. 10:38; 16:24); for the glorification of the Lord is a pattern of the regeneration of man (n. 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490, 4402, 5688), and regeneration is effected chiefly by means of temptation.

AC (Potts) n. 7167 sRef Ex@5 @23 S0′ 7167. For since I came unto Pharaoh to speak in Thy name. That this signifies when the command from the things which are of the law Divine appeared to those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of “coming to speak,” as being to convey a command, here to appear; for a command from the Divine is not conveyed openly to those who are in the hells, but exhortation is made to them through spirits, and hence it appears to them as a command from the Divine; from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities and infest (see n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142); and from the signification of the “name of Jehovah,” as being everything of faith and charity by which the Lord is worshiped (n. 2724, 3006, 6674), thus everything that is of the law Divine, for the law Divine is nothing else than that which is of charity and faith. For the law Divine is truth Divine proceeding from the Lord, and that which proceeds from the Lord is Divine good and truth; and Divine good is love and charity, and Divine truth is faith.

AC (Potts) n. 7168 sRef Ex@5 @23 S0′ aRef Ecc@11 @3 S0′ 7168. He hath done evilly to this people. That this signifies that then through the injected falsities those who are in the truths and goods of the church seemed to be injured, is evident from the signification of “doing evil,” as being to injure by means of the injected falsities, here to seem to be injured; for they who are in infestation and in temptation cannot be injured by injected falsities, because the Lord protects them; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, who are here “the people,” as being those who are in the truths of the church and its goods (as above, n. 7162).

AC (Potts) n. 7169 sRef Ex@5 @23 S0′ 7169. And liberating thou hast not liberated Thy people. That this signifies that they were not released from a state of infestations by falsities, is evident from the signification of “to be liberated,” as being to be released from a state of infestation by falsities; for in what goes before, the subject treated of is infestations by falsities; hence “to be liberated” here denotes to be released from them. (That “Thy people” denotes those who are in the truths and goods of the church, and are being infested see n. 7165, 7168.)

AC (Potts) n. 7170 7170. CONTINUATION ABOUT THE SPIRITS AND INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH MERCURY.
The spirits of Mercury appeared at the left in a ball, and afterward in a roll stretching a long way, and next in a mass extending in length; and I wondered whither they desired to go, whether to this earth or elsewhere, and presently I observed that they bent themselves back to the right, and by unrolling themselves approached the earth Venus, on the side that is turned away from the sun. But when they came there, they said that they did not desire to be there, because the inhabitants were evil; therefore they bent themselves round to the other side of that earth, which looks to the sun, and then said that they desired to stay there, because the inhabitants were good. When this had taken place, I felt in the brain a remarkable change, and a strong operation from there. From this it was given to conclude that the spirits of Venus who are on that side of the planet were in accord with the spirits of the planet Mercury, and that they have relation to the memory of material things, which agrees with the memory of immaterial things, which the spirits of Mercury constitute; and therefore a stronger operation was felt from them when they were there.

AC (Potts) n. 7171 7171. Be it known that the sun of this world does not at all appear to any spirit, nor anything of its light; for to spirits the light of our sun is like thick darkness. This sun remains in perception with spirits solely from having been seen while they were in the world, and it is presented to them in idea as something that is intensely dark, and this behind them, at a considerable distance, in altitude a little above the plane of the head. The planets within our solar system appear in a fixed position relative to the sun: Mercury behind and a little toward the right; the planet Venus to the left, a little behind; the planet Mars to the left in front; the planet Jupiter in like manner to the left in front, but at a greater distance; the planet Saturn wholly in front at a considerable distance; the Moon to the left rather high up; the satellites also to the left, each relatively to its own planet. Such is the situation of these planets in the ideas of spirits and angels; and the spirits also appear near their own planet, but outside of it.

AC (Potts) n. 7172 7172. I once saw that spirits of our earth were with spirits of the earth Mercury, and I heard them talking together; and then among other things the spirits of our earth asked them in whom they believed. They answered that they believed in God; but when further questioned about the God in whom they believed, they were unwilling to say, because it is their custom not to answer questions directly. But then in their turn the spirits from the earth Mercury asked the spirits from our earth in whom they believed. They said that they believed in the Lord God. The spirits of Mercury then said that they perceived that they believed in no God, and that they have the custom of saying with the mouth that they believe, and yet they do not believe. (The spirits of Mercury have an exquisite perception from the fact that by means of perception they are continually exploring what others know.) The spirits of our earth were among those who, in the world, had made a confession of faith from the doctrine of the church, but yet had not lived the life of faith. When the spirits from our earth heard these things, they were silent, because from a perception then given them they acknowledged that it was so.

AC (Potts) n. 7173 7173. Certain spirits knew from heaven that a promise had once been made to the spirits of the earth Mercury that they should see the Lord, and therefore they were asked by the spirits about me whether they remembered this promise. They said that they remembered it, but that they did not know whether the promise was of such a nature that they should have no doubt about it. While they were thus talking together, the sun of heaven appeared to them. (The sun of heaven, which is the Lord, is seen only by those who are in the inmost or third heaven; all others see the light from it, and also the moon, n. 1529-1531, 4060.) When the sun was seen, they said that this was not the Lord God, because they saw no face. Meanwhile the spirits were talking together, but I do not know what they said. Then suddenly the sun appeared again, and in the midst of it the Lord encompassed with a solar circle. On seeing this, the spirits of Mercury humbled themselves profoundly, and settled down. Then also the Lord from the sun was seen by spirits of this earth who when they were men had seen Him in the world; and they all one after another, and thus many in order, confessed that it was the Lord Himself; and this they confessed before all the company. Then also the Lord from the sun was seen by the spirits of the planet Jupiter, who said in a plain voice, that it was He Himself whom they had seen on their earth when the God of the universe appeared to them.

AC (Potts) n. 7174 7174. After the Lord had been seen, certain ones were brought toward the front to the right, and as they advanced they said that they saw a light much clearer and purer than they had ever seen before, and that no greater light was possible; and it was then eventide here. Those who said this were many.

AC (Potts) n. 7175 7175. After some time there was shown me a woman of the inhabitants of the earth Mercury; she had a beautiful face, but it was smaller than that of a woman of our earth; she was also more slender, but of equal height. She wore linen on her head, put on without art, yet becomingly. I also saw a man from that earth, who likewise was more slender in body than the men of our earth; he who appeared was clad in a garment of dark blue, closely fitted to his body, without folds or prominences on either side. But that the inhabitants of that earth think little about their bodies, was evident to me from the fact that when they come into the other life, and become spirits, they do not wish to appear as men, like the spirits of our earth, but as crystal balls. The reason they desire so to appear is that they may remove from themselves material ideas; moreover the knowledges of things immaterial are represented in the other life by crystals.

AC (Potts) n. 7176 7176. There were also shown me their species of oxen and cows, which did not indeed differ much from those on our earth, but were smaller and in some respects resembled a kind of deer.

AC (Potts) n. 7177 7177. Being asked also about the sun of the world, how it appears from their earth, they said that it appears large, and that it appears larger there than from other earths: they said that they can know this from the idea of other spirits about the sun. They said further that they have a medium temperature, neither too hot nor too cold. I was then allowed to tell them that it has been so provided of the Lord in order that they may not be exposed to too much heat, by reason of their earth being nearer the sun than other earths; for heat does not come from nearness to the sun, but from the height and consequent density of the aerial atmosphere, as is evident from the cold on high mountains, even in hot climates. Moreover, heat varies according to the direct or oblique incidence of the sun’s rays, as is evident from the seasons of winter and summer in every region.
These are the things that have been granted me to know about the spirits and inhabitants of the earth Mercury. At the end of the following chapter I will speak of the spirits of the planet Venus.

AC (Potts) n. 7178 7178. Exodus 6

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

No one can know what good is, as understood in the spiritual sense, unless he knows what love toward the neighbor and love to God are; and no one can know what evil is, unless he knows what the love of self and the love of the world are. Nor can anyone know from inward acknowledgment what the truth is which is of faith, unless he knows what good is, and unless he is in good; nor can anyone know what falsity is, unless he knows what evil is. Consequently no one can examine himself unless he knows what good from its two loves is, and what truth from good is; and unless he knows what evil from its two loves is, and what falsity from evil is.

AC (Potts) n. 7179 7179. There are two faculties in man, one is called the understanding, and the other the will; the will has been given man for the sake of the good which is of love, and the understanding for the sake of the truth which is of faith; for the good which is of love has relation to the will, and the truth which is of faith has relation to the understanding; the one faculty communicates in a wonderful way with the other. They join themselves together in those who are in good and thence in truth; and they also join themselves together in those who are in evil and thence in falsity; with both classes these two faculties make one mind. But it is otherwise with those who are in truth as to faith, and in evil as to life; and also with those who are in falsity as to faith, and in apparent good as to life.

AC (Potts) n. 7180 7180. Man is not allowed to divide his mind, and to sunder these two faculties from each other; that is, to understand and speak truth, and to will and do evil; for then one faculty would look upward or toward heaven, and the other downward or toward hell, and thus the man would hang between the two. But let him know that the will carries him away, and the understanding favors. From all this it is evident how the case is with faith and with love, and how with the state of man if they are separated.

AC (Potts) n. 7181 7181. Nothing is more necessary to man than to know whether heaven be in him, or hell; for in one or the other he must live to eternity. In order that he may know this, it is necessary that he should know what good is, and what evil, for good makes heaven, and evil makes hell; the doctrine of charity teaches about both.

AC (Potts) n. 7182 7182. Love to God is said, and by this is meant love to the Lord, for there is no other God; the Father is in Him (John 14:9-11), and the Holy of the Spirit is from Him (John 16:13-15).

EXODUS 6

1. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh; for by a strong hand shall he let them go, and by a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land.
2. And God spoke unto Moses, and said unto him, I am Jehovah.
3. And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, in God Shaddai; and by my name Jehovah I was not known to them.
4. And I also set up My covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their sojournings, wherein they sojourned.
5. And moreover I have heard the groaning of the sons of Israel, in that the Egyptians make them to serve; and I have remembered My covenant.
6. Wherefore say to the sons of Israel, I am Jehovah, and I will lead you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will liberate you from their service; and I will redeem you with a stretched-out arm, and with great judgments.
7. And I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be to you for God, and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God, who leadeth you out from under the burdens of Egypt.
8. And I will bring you unto the land where I lifted up my hand to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, and I will give it you for a heritage: I am Jehovah.
9. And Moses spoke thus unto the sons of Israel; and they heard not Moses for distress of spirit, and for hard service.
10. And Jehovah spoke unto Moses, saying,
11. Come, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and let him send the sons of Israel out of his land.
12. And Moses spoke before Jehovah, saying, Behold the sons of Israel have not heard me; and how shall Pharaoh hear me, and I am uncircumcised in lips?
13. And Jehovah spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a command unto the sons of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to lead forth the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt.
14. These are the heads of their fathers’ houses: the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel; Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi; these are the families of Reuben.
15. And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman; these are the families of Simeon.
16. And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their births; Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari; and the years of the life of Levi were a hundred and thirty and seven years.
17. The sons of Gershon; Libni and Shimei, according to their families.
18. And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel; and the years of the life of Kohath were a hundred and thirty and three years.
19. And the sons of Merari; Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of Levi according to their births.
20. And Amram took Jochebed his father’s sister for a woman; and she bare him Aaron and Moses; and the years of the life of Amram were a hundred and thirty and seven years.
21. And the sons of Izhar; Korah and Nepheg, and Zichri.
22. And the sons of Uzziel; Mishael and Elzaphan, and Sithri.
23. And Aaron took him Elisheba, the daughter of Aminadab, the sister of Nahshon, for a woman; and she bare him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.
24. And the sons of Korah; Assir and Elkanah, and Abiasaph; these are the families of the Korahites.
25. And Eleazar Aaron’s son took him one of the daughters of Putiel for a woman; and she bare him Phinehas. These are the heads of the fathers of the Levites according to their families.
26. This is the Aaron and Moses to whom Jehovah said, Lead forth the sons of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies.
27. These are those who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to lead forth the sons of Israel from Egypt. This is the Moses and Aaron.
28. And it was in the day that Jehovah spoke unto Moses in the land of Egypt,
29. And Jehovah spoke unto Moses, saying, I am Jehovah; speak thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I speak unto thee.
30. And Moses said before Jehovah, Behold I am uncircumcised in lips, and how shall Pharaoh hear me?

AC (Potts) n. 7183 sRef Ex@6 @0 S0′ 7183. THE CONTENTS.
The subject treated of in the preceding chapter was that those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom were infested by falsities, and at last because of these infestations were near despair. Now they are encouraged with hope, and with the promise that they are certainly to be liberated; this is the subject treated of in the internal sense in the present chapter; and this is signified by the words which Jehovah spoke unto Moses.

AC (Potts) n. 7184 sRef Ex@6 @0 S0′ 7184. Afterward is described the Lord’s spiritual kingdom as to faith and as to charity, and next as to doctrine, also as to the reception of the law Divine. Reuben and Simeon and their families represent the things of faith; Levi and his families those of charity; Aaron and his families the things of doctrine; and Moses those of the law Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 7185 sRef Ex@6 @1 S0′ 7185. THE INTERNAL SENSE.
Verse 1. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh; for by a strong hand shall he let them go, and by a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land. “And Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies instruction about the law Divine; “Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh,” signifies manifest perception as to what shall befall those who infest; “for by a strong hand shall he let them go,” signifies that with all force and power they shall flee from them; “and by a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land,” signifies that with all force and power they shall make them flee from their neighborhood.

AC (Potts) n. 7186 sRef Ex@6 @1 S0′ 7186. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies instruction about the law Divine, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah said,” as being instruction from the Divine (of which below); and from the representation of Moses, as being the law Divine (see n. 6723, 6752, 7014). That “Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies instruction about the law Divine, is because at the end of the preceding chapter it was believed from the law Divine, that it would come to pass that those who are of the spiritual church would be immediately liberated from infestations; when yet it is according to order that the evil who infest should be removed by degrees, and that they who are of the spiritual church should be liberated by degrees; for such is the Divine order; and therefore such is the law Divine; for all law Divine is of order, insomuch that whether we say the law Divine, or the law of Divine order, it is the same.
[2] Concerning this law they who are of the spiritual church are now instructed, and that it is from this law that they are certain to be liberated when the time and state according to order arrives. That Moses (by whom is here represented the law Divine, such as it is with those of the spiritual church when they are in a state of infestations) believed from the law Divine that it would come to pass that they would be immediately liberated from infestations, is plain from what he said at the close of the preceding chapter, namely, “Wherefore hast Thou done evil unto this people? Why is this that Thou hast sent me? And liberating Thou hast not liberated Thy people;” by which words is signified that they were too much infested by falsities, when yet the law proceeding from the Divine seems to say otherwise, and that in this way they have not been released from a state of infestations (n. 7165, 7166, 7169).
[3] That those who are of the spiritual church, and who are in the lower earth, would be gradually liberated from infestations, and not immediately, is because the evils and falsities that cling to them cannot otherwise be removed, and goods and truths be instilled in their place; for this is effected by many changes of state, thus successively by degrees. They who believe that man can be immediately introduced into heaven, and that this is solely of the Lord’s mercy, are very much mistaken. If this were possible, all whatsoever who are in hell would be raised into heaven, for the Lord’s mercy extends to all. But it is according to order that everyone carries with him his life which he had lived in the world, and his state in the other life is according to this, and that the mercy of the Lord flows in with all, but is diversely received, and by those who are in evil, is rejected; and as in the world they have imbued themselves with evil, they also retain it in the other life, nor is amendment possible in the other life, for the tree lies where it has fallen. From all this it is evident that it is according to order that those who have lived in good, and with whom there are also gross and impure things which pertain to the love of the world and the love of self, cannot be associated with those who are in the heavens until these things have been removed. From all this it is evident that liberation from infestations is effected successively by degrees.

AC (Potts) n. 7187 sRef Ex@6 @1 S0′ 7187. Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh. That this signifies manifest perception as to what shall befall those who infest, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being perception (see n. 2150, 3764, 4567, 4723, 5400), here manifest perception, because it is said of instruction from the Divine; from the signification of “what I will do,” as being what shall befall; and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest by means of injected falsities (n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142).

AC (Potts) n. 7188 sRef Ex@6 @1 S0′ 7188. For by a strong hand shall he let them go. That this signifies that with all force and power they shall flee from them, is evident from the signification of a “strong hand,” as being all force and power (that “hand” denotes power, see n. 878, 3387, 4931, 5327, 5328, 6947, 7011); and from the signification of “letting them go,” as being to flee from them. The case herein is this. When the infernals are deterred by punishments from doing evils, they at last abstain from infestation, and desire to leave those who are being infested, and to flee away; but as it is the sole delight of their life to do evil and to infest, they therefore cannot abstain unless they employ all force and power to remove themselves; for as the delight of anyone’s life is of his love, it is of his life, and carries him away, nor can it be resisted unless the undelight of punishment prevails over the delight of doing evil; hence come the punishments of the evil in the other life.

AC (Potts) n. 7189 sRef Ex@6 @1 S0′ 7189. And by a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land. That this signifies that with all force and power they shall make them flee from their neighborhood, is evident from the signification, of a “strong hand,” as being with all force and power (of which just above, n. 7188); from the signification of “driving them out,” as being to put to flight; and from the signification of “their land,” as being their neighborhood. (That the land where they of the spiritual church are infested by falsities is near the hells which infest, and is called the “lower earth,” see n. 7090.) Hence “from their land” denotes from their neighborhood.

AC (Potts) n. 7190 sRef Ex@6 @2 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @4 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @6 S0′ 7190. Verses 2-8. And God spoke unto Moses, and said unto him, I am Jehovah; and I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, in God Shaddai; and by My name Jehovah I was not known to them. And I also set up My covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their sojournings, wherein they sojourned. And moreover I have heard the groaning of the sons of Israel, in that the Egyptians make them to serve; and I have remembered My covenant. Wherefore say to the sons of Israel, I am Jehovah, and I will lead you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will liberate you from their service; and I will redeem you with a stretched-out arm, and with great judgments; and I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be to you for God, and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God, who leadeth you out from under the burdens of Egypt. And I will bring you unto the land where I lifted up My hand to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, and I will give it you for a heritage: I am Jehovah.
“And God spoke unto Moses” signifies what is new but continuous with what was before; “and said unto him, I am Jehovah” signifies confirmation from the Divine which is irrevocable; and “I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, in God Shaddai” signifies the temptations of the Lord as to the Human, and the temptations of the faithful, and afterward consolations; “and by My name Jehovah I was not known to them” signifies that they of the spiritual church in a state of temptations did not think of the Divine things of the church; “and I also set up My covenant with them” signifies even then conjunction through the Divine Human of the Lord; “to give them the land of Canaan” signifies by means of which conjunction they would be uplifted into heaven; “the land of their sojournings, wherein they sojourned” signifies where the things of faith and charity are, concerning which they have been instructed, and according to which they have lived; “and moreover I have heard the groaning of the sons of Israel” signifies their grief from the combat; “in that the Egyptians make them to serve” signifies with those who are in falsities, who are endeavoring to subjugate; “and I have remembered My covenant” signifies release from them because of conjunction; “wherefore say to the sons of Israel” signifies that the law Divine shall give to those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom to notice; “I am Jehovah” signifies confirmation from the Divine; “and I will lead you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians” signifies that the Lord will release them from the infestations of those who are in falsities; “and I will liberate you from their service” signifies fully from the endeavor to subjugate them; “and I will redeem you with a stretched-out arm” signifies leading forth from hell by virtue of Divine power; “and with great judgments” signifies according to the laws of order from the Divine Human of the Lord; “and I will take you to Me for a people” signifies that they shall be added to those in heaven who serve the Lord there; “and I will be to you for God” signifies that they shall also receive the Divine; “and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God” signifies a noticing then that the Lord alone is God; “who leadeth you out from under the burdens of Egypt” signifies who has liberated from infestations by falsities; “and I will bring you unto the land where I lifted up My hand to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob” signifies an uplifting by the Divine power to heaven, where the Divine Human of the Lord is all; “and I will give it you for a heritage” signifies the Lord’s life there to eternity; “I am Jehovah” signifies confirmation from the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 7191 sRef Ex@6 @2 S0′ 7191. And God spoke unto Moses. That this signifies what is new but continuous with what was before, is evident from the fact that we often read in continuation of the text, “Jehovah said,” and “Jehovah spoke,” as also in this chapter, verse 1, “Jehovah said unto Moses,” in this verse, “God spoke unto Moses,” and similarly in verses 10, 13, 28, 29, and also in other places, which repetition signifies nothing else than something new that begins there, which, however, is to be connected with what goes before. (That “Jehovah said” denotes newness of perception, see n. 2061, 2238, 2260.) Be it known that the Word in its original tongue is devoid of stops, and therefore instead of them there were such phrases; and instead of the lesser stops or distinctions there was “and,” which is the reason why this occurs so frequently. Angelic speech also is continuous, with stops indeed, but such that what precedes is wonderfully connected with what follows; for angelic ideas are very full of realities, and of countless things that are unutterable, and to man, while in the world, incomprehensible; and therefore the endings of the preceding periods can be fully connected with the beginnings of the following ones; and in this way one series can be formed out of many. Astonishing and incredible to say, the form of heaven is represented in the angelic discourse, and therefore in all angelic discourse there is a harmony like that of songs, which at every stop closes in a word of one syllable, thus in a unity; and I have been told that the reason of this is that each and all things in heaven have relation to the one God as to their end. From all this also it was evident that everything of thought and of the consequent discourse flows in through heaven from the Lord, and that from this there is such a harmony in discourse closing in a unity.

AC (Potts) n. 7192 sRef Ex@12 @12 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @2 S0′ sRef Isa@62 @8 S0′ 7192. And said unto him, I am Jehovah. That this signifies confirmation from the Divine which is irrevocable, can be seen without explication; for nothing can be confirmed by Jehovah, that is, by the Lord, except by Himself: it cannot be confirmed by heaven, because this is far beneath Him, still less by anything in the world; but in order that there may be Divine confirmation which is eternal and irrevocable, it must be by the Divine Itself. Such confirmation, namely, “I am Jehovah,” occurs frequently in Moses (as in Exod. 12:12; Lev. 18:5, 6; 19:12, 14, 18, 28, 30, 32, 37; 20:8; 21:12; 22:2-3, 8, 30-33; 26:2, 45; Num. 3:13, 41, 45). And in the prophets we read, “said Jehovah,” by which likewise is meant confirmation by the Divine (as in Isa. 3:15; 14:22, 23; 17:6; 22:14, 25; 43:12; 52:5; Jer. 2:22; 3:1, 10, 13, 20; 8:12; 12:17; 13:25; 25:7, 29; 16:16; 23:7, 24, 29, 31; and many other places). Confirmation by the Divine is also made by the Divine Human, thus also by Himself, in Isaiah:
God sware by His right hand and by the arm of His strength (Isa. 42:8).

AC (Potts) n. 7193 sRef Ex@6 @3 S0′ 7193. And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, in God Shaddai. That this signifies the temptations of the Lord as to the Human, and the temptations of the faithful, and afterward consolations, is evident from the signification of “appearing,” or “being seen,” when said of Jehovah, as being perception from the Divine (see n. 2150, 3764, 4567, 5400); and from the representation of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, as being the Lord as to the Divine Itself, and as to the Divine Human (n. 6804, 6847); but here, as Jehovah speaks and says that “He appeared to them,” the Lord is signified as to the human, that is, the human before it was made Divine. By “Abraham” is signified the celestial in this human; by “Isaac,” the spiritual; and by “Jacob,” the natural.
[2] That the Lord as to the human is here meant by these, not as to the Divine Itself, nor as to the Divine Human, is because the subject is temptations, and the Lord as to the human before it was made Divine could be tempted, but not as to the Divine Human, and still less as to the Divine Itself; for the Divine is beyond all temptations. The infernals who tempt cannot approach even the celestial angels, for when they approach them, they are seized with horror and anguish, and become as if half dead; and as they cannot approach the celestial angels, and this by reason of the Divine with them, much less can they approach the Divine which is infinitely above the angelic. From all this it can be seen that the Lord assumed an infirm human from the mother in order that He might be tempted, and by temptations reduce into order all things in heaven and in hell, and then at the same time glorify His Human, that is, make it Divine.
[3] (That by “God Shaddai” are signified temptations, and afterward consolations, see n. 1992, 3667, 4572, 5628.) It is said “afterward consolations,” because it is from Divine order that comfortings follow the pains of temptations, just as morning and dawn follow evening and night. There is also a correspondence between them, for there are alternations of states in the other life, as there are of the seasons in the world. States of temptations and of infestations, and also states of desolations, are in the other life evening and night; and states of consolations and festivities are morning and dawn. That by the same words, namely, “I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, in God Shaddai,” are also signified the temptations of the faithful, and afterward consolations, is because the regeneration of man, which is effected by means of temptations, is an image of the glorification of the Lord (n. 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490, 4402, 5688); therefore the things in the Word which are understood of the Lord in the supreme sense, are understood of the faithful in the relative internal sense.

AC (Potts) n. 7194 sRef Ex@6 @3 S0′ 7194. And by My name Jehovah I was not known to them. That this signifies that they of the spiritual church in a state of temptations did not think of the Divine things of the church, is evident from the signification of the “name Jehovah,” as being everything in one complex by which God is worshiped (see n. 2724, 3006, 6674), thus everything Divine in the church. By the “name Jehovah” is properly meant the Divine Human of the Lord (see n. 2628, 6887), and because by this and from it proceeds everything of faith and everything of love, which are the Divine things in the church, this is, in one complex, everything of Divine worship. And from the signification of “not being known,” as being not to be known, or not to be thought of, that is to say, the Divine things of the church in the state of temptations which are signified by “God Shaddai”‘ and therefore it is said that He was known to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but not by His name Jehovah. This is the internal sense of these words; but the external or historic sense is different, and from this latter sense it is evident that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob did not worship Jehovah, but God Shaddai (n. 1992, 3667, 5628), and that Abraham knew not Jehovah (see n. 1356, 2559). But that “Jehovah” is named in the historicals concerning Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, is because that Word was written by Moses, to whom the name “Jehovah” was made known, and in these historicals “Jehovah” is named for the sake of the internal sense; for everywhere in the Word “Jehovah” is named when the subject treated of is the good of love, whereas “God” is named when it is the truth of faith (n. 709, 732, 1096, 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4402).

AC (Potts) n. 7195 sRef Ex@6 @4 S0′ 7195. And I have also set up My covenant with them. That this signifies even then conjunction through the Divine Human, is evident from the signification of “covenant,” as being conjunction (see n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804); and from the representation of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who here are those with whom is the covenant, as being the Divine Human of the Lord (n. 6804, 6847). From all this it is evident what is the internal sense of these words; the proximate, that the union of the Divine Itself is with the Divine Human; and from this the sense which follows that there is a conjunction through the Divine Human of the Divine Itself with those who are of the spiritual church. For, as sometimes previously shown, they who were of the spiritual church were saved through the Divine Human of the Lord (n. 6854, 6914, 7035, 7091). It is said “even then,” in order that this may be joined with what immediately precedes, namely, that there was conjunction then, when in a state of temptations they did not think about the Divine things in the church; for the Lord is more present in a state of temptations than out of this state, although it appears otherwise (n. 840).

AC (Potts) n. 7196 sRef Ex@6 @4 S0′ 7196. To give them the land of Canaan. That this signifies by means of which conjunction they would be uplifted into heaven, is evident from the signification of “the land of Canaan,” as being the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, and as being the church (see n. 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705, 4447, 6516). That to be uplifted into heaven is signified by “giving that land,” is plain, for they to whom heaven is given are lifted up.

AC (Potts) n. 7197 sRef Ex@6 @4 S0′ 7197. The land of their sojournings, wherein they sojourned. That this signifies where the things of faith and charity are, about which they have been instructed, and according to which they have lived, is evident from the signification of “land,” as being the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens and on earth (of which just above, n. 7196), thus also the things of the Lord’s kingdom, which, it is known, are faith and charity, and therefore these also are signified by the “land of Canaan” where the subject treated of is the instruction and life which are signified by “sojourning;” and from the signification of “sojourning,” as being instruction and life (n. 1463, 2025, 3672). From this it is evident that by “the land of their sojournings wherein they sojourned” is signified where the things of faith and charity are, about which they have been instructed and according to which they have lived. The case herein is this. In the other life heaven is given to everyone in accordance with the things of faith and charity in him, for charity and faith make heaven with everyone; but when it is said that charity and faith make heaven, there is meant the life of charity and faith. But note well that the life which has heaven in it, is a life according to the truths and goods of faith about which the man has been instructed. Unless these are the rules and principles of his life, in vain does he look for heaven, no matter how he has lived; for without these truths and goods a man is like a reed which is shaken by every wind; for he is bent by evils equally as by goods, because he has nothing of truth and good made firm within him, whereby he may be kept by the angels in truths and goods, and be withdrawn from the falsities and evils which the infernals are continually injecting. In a word, the life of Christian good is what makes heaven; not a life of natural good.

AC (Potts) n. 7198 sRef Ex@6 @5 S0′ 7198. And moreover I have heard the groaning of the sons of Israel. That this signifies their grief from the combat, is evident from the signification of “groaning,” as being grief from combat; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those of the spiritual church who are infested by falsities and are thence in combat.

AC (Potts) n. 7199 sRef Ex@6 @5 S0′ 7199. Because the Egyptians make them to serve. That this signifies with those who are in falsities, who are endeavoring to subjugate, is evident from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who are in falsities (see n. 6692, 7097, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142); and from the signification of “making to serve,” as being to endeavor to subjugate (n. 6666, 6670, 6671).

AC (Potts) n. 7200 sRef Ex@6 @5 S0′ 7200. And I have remembered my covenant. That this signifies that there was release from them because of conjunction, is evident from the signification of “remembering the covenant,” namely, with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give them the land of Canaan, as being liberation or release from the infestations signified by the servitudes in Egypt, and an uplifting to heaven; and from the signification of “covenant,” as being conjunction (see n. 7195). It is said that because of the conjunction they were to be liberated and uplifted into heaven; for conjunction with the Lord is effected through faith and love, because the truths of faith and the goods of love proceed from the Lord, and the things which proceed from Him are His, insomuch that they are Himself; and therefore they who receive these things are conjoined with Him; and they who are conjoined with Him cannot but be uplifted to Him, that is, into heaven.

AC (Potts) n. 7201 sRef Ex@6 @6 S0′ 7201. Wherefore say to the sons of Israel. That this signifies that the law Divine shall give to those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom to notice, is evident from the representation of Moses, to whom it is said that he “should say to the sons of Israel,” as being the law Divine (see n. 6723, 6752); from the signification of “saying” as being to notice (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2506, 2515, 2619, 2862, 3509, 5877), here to give to notice, because it is said of the law Divine that it should “say;” and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 6426, 6637).

AC (Potts) n. 7202 sRef Ex@6 @6 S0′ 7202. I am Jehovah. That this signifies confirmation from the Divine, is evident from what was said above (n. 7192).

AC (Potts) n. 7203 sRef Ex@6 @6 S0′ 7203. And I will lead you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. That this signifies that the Lord will release them from the infestations of those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of “leading out,” as being to release; from the signification of “burdens,” as being infestations by falsities, thus combats (see n. 6757, 7104, 7105); and from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who infest by means of injected falsities (of which just above, n. 7199).

AC (Potts) n. 7204 sRef Ex@6 @6 S0′ 7204. And I will liberate you from their service. That this signifies fully from the endeavor to subjugate, is evident from the signification of “service,” as being an endeavor to subjugate (see n. 6666, 6670, 6671).

AC (Potts) n. 7205 sRef Ps@136 @12 S0′ sRef Jer@32 @21 S0′ sRef Ezek@20 @34 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @6 S0′ sRef Jer@32 @17 S0′ sRef Ps@136 @11 S0′ sRef Jer@27 @5 S0′ 7205. And I will redeem you with a stretched out arm. That this signifies leading forth from hell by virtue of Divine power, is evident from the signification of “redeeming,” as being to bring forth from hell (that “redemption” is said of bondage, of evil, and of death – that men are released from these – thus that it is said of hell, and that the Lord as to the Divine Human is called the “Redeemer,” see n. 6281) and from the signification of a “stretched out arm,” as being Divine power. That “arm” denotes power, see n. 478, 4931, 4932, 4934, 4935; but that a “stretched out arm” denotes omnipotence or Divine power, is because when an arm appears stretched out in the heavens, there is represented power from the Divine; and when not stretched out, but bent, there is represented power in a general sense. Hence then it is, that in the Word, Divine power is very often expressed by a “stretched out arm,” and by a “strong hand,” as in these passages:
I have made the earth, the man, and the beast, that are upon the faces of the earth, by My great power and by My stretched-out arm (Jer. 27:5)
Ah, Lord Jehovih! Behold Thou hast made the heaven and the earth by Thy great power, and by Thy stretched-out arm; no word is too wonderful for Thee; and Thou hast led forth Thy people Israel out of the land of Egypt by signs and miracles, and by a strong hand, and by a stretched-out arm (Jer. 32:17, 21).
I will lead you out from the peoples, and will gather you out of the lands wherein ye are scattered, by a strong hand and by a stretched-out arm (Ezek. 20:34).
He led forth Israel from the midst of the Egyptians by a strong hand, and a stretched-out arm (Ps. 136:11, 12; see also Deut. 4:34; 5:15; 7:19; 9:29; 11:2; 26:8; 1 Kings 8:42; 2 Kings 17:36).

AC (Potts) n. 7206 sRef Ex@6 @6 S0′ 7206. And with great judgments. That this signifies according to the laws of order from the Divine Human of the Lord, is evident from the signification of “judgments,” as being truths (see n. 2235, 6397), and in the supreme sense, where it is said of the Lord, as being truths Divine; which truths are nothing but the laws of order from the Divine Human of the Lord, for all order is from Him, thus all the laws of order. The whole heaven, consequently also the universe, is in accordance with these laws. The laws of order, or the truths which proceed from the Lord, in accordance with which is the whole heaven, and the universe, are what are called “the Word by which all things were made” (John 1:1-3); for the “Word” denotes Divine truth proceeding from the Divine good of the Divine Human of the Lord; and hence it is that all things in the spiritual world and also in the natural world have relation to truth, as can be seen by him who reflects.
[2] By “great judgments,” in the proximate sense, are here meant the truths according to which they shall be judged who have infested by means of injected falsities, and who are signified by the “Egyptians” and by “Pharaoh;” and there are also meant the truths according to which they shall be judged who will be released from the infestations, and who are signified by the “sons of Israel.” By these judgments they are condemned who are in falsities from evil, and by these judgments they are saved who are in truths from good. Not that the truths which proceed from the Lord condemn anyone, for all the truths which proceed from the Lord are from His Divine good, thus are nothing but mercies. But as men do not receive the mercy of the Lord, they expose themselves to condemnation, because they are then in evils, and evils condemn. Neither do the truths which proceed from the Lord save, if the man believes that he is saved by virtue of the truths of faith with him, and not by virtue of mercy; for man is in evils, and from himself is in hell, but by virtue of the mercy of the Lord he is withheld from evil and kept in good, and this by a strong force. That by “judgments” both are signified, namely, the condemnation of the evil and the salvation of the good, is plain from those passages in the Word where the Last Judgment is treated of, as in Matt. 25:31-45, and elsewhere.

AC (Potts) n. 7207 7207. And I will take you to Me for a people. That this signifies that they shall be added to those in heaven who serve the Lord there, is evident from the signification of “taking for a people,” when said by Jehovah or the Lord, as being to receive among those who are in heaven; for they who are in heaven are called the “people of the Lord,” and the same also when they are in the world, because as to their souls they are then also in heaven (see n. 687, 697, 3255, 4067, 4073, 4077). That by these words is signified that they who are of the spiritual church shall be added to those in heaven who there serve the Lord, is because before the Lord’s coming they had been detained in the lower earth, and were uplifted into heaven when the Lord rose again, and were then added to those who serve the Lord (n. 6854, 6914, 7090).

AC (Potts) n. 7208 7208. And I will be to you for God. That this signifies that they shall also receive the Divine, is evident from the signification of “being to them for God,” when this is said by Jehovah or the Lord, as being to receive the Divine; for to all those who are in heaven it is given to receive the Divine, that is, Divine good and truth, thus wisdom and intelligence, consequently the happiness of a life from uses, which are the exercises of charity. These things are signified by “I will be to you for God.”

AC (Potts) n. 7209 sRef Matt@28 @18 S0′ sRef John@16 @14 S0′ sRef John@16 @13 S0′ sRef John@14 @11 S0′ sRef John@14 @10 S0′ sRef Isa@42 @8 S0′ sRef John@14 @9 S0′ sRef John@16 @15 S0′ 7209. And ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God. That this signifies a noticing then that the Lord alone is God, is evident from the signification of “knowing,” as being to notice. That “I am Jehovah your God” denotes that the Lord alone is God, is because by “Jehovah” in the Word no other is meant than the Lord (see n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6281, 6303, 6905); and also because in heaven they know and perceive that the Lord is the Lord of heaven, and thus is the Lord of the universe, as He Himself says in Matthew that He “has all power in the heavens and on earth” (Matt. 28:18); and that Jehovah “does not give His glory to any other than Himself” (Isa. 42:8); also that He is “one with the Father” (John 14:9-11); and that the “Holy Spirit” is the holy which proceeds from Him (John 16:13-15); thus that the Lord is the only God.

AC (Potts) n. 7210 7210. Who bringeth you out from under the burdens of Egypt. That this signifies who has liberated from infestations by falsities, is evident from what was said above (n. 7203), where are the like words.

AC (Potts) n. 7211 sRef John@1 @18 S0′ sRef John@5 @37 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @8 S0′ 7211. And I will bring you unto the land where I lifted up My hand to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. That this signifies an uplifting by the Divine power to heaven, where the Divine Human of the Lord is all, is evident from the signification of “bringing to the land,” namely, to Canaan, as being to uplift to heaven (that the “land of Canaan” denotes the Lord’s kingdom or heaven, see n. 7196); from the signification of “lifting up the hand,” when said of Jehovah or the Lord, as being by Divine power (that “hand” denotes power, see n. 878, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 6947, 7011); and from the representation of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as being the Lord as to the Divine Itself and as to the Divine Human (n. 6804, 6847); here the Lord as to the Divine Human, because this is the all in heaven. The reason why the Divine Human is the all in heaven, is that no one there, not even an angel of the inmost or third heaven, can have any idea about the Divine Itself, according to the Lord’s words in John: “No one hath ever seen God” (John 1:18); “Ye have neither heard the voice of the Father at any time, nor seen His shape” (John 5:37). For the angels are finite, and what is finite cannot have an idea of the Infinite; and therefore unless in heaven they had in respect to God the idea of a human shape, they would have no idea, or an unbecoming one; and thus they could not be conjoined with the Divine either by faith or by love; and this being the case, in heaven they perceive the Divine in a human form; whence it is that the Divine Human in the heavens is the all in their regards, and hence is the all in their faith and love; whence comes the conjunction through which is salvation (n. 6700).

AC (Potts) n. 7212 sRef Ex@6 @8 S0′ 7212. And I will give it you for an inheritance. That this signifies the Lord’s life there to eternity, is evident from the signification of “inheritance,” when predicated of heaven, as being the Lord’s life (see n. 2658); and because everything given as an inheritance is the perpetual, and in heaven the eternal, possession of him to whom it is given, because there they live to eternity, the Lord’s life there to eternity is signified. That the Lord’s life is in heaven, consequently that those who are there are in His life, is because they are in the truth and good which proceed from the Lord, and the good which is in the truth is the Lord Himself, and the truth in which is the good is the life from the Lord from which all live. From all this it is evident that they who are in good and thence in truth, as are all in the heavens, are in the Lord’s life.

AC (Potts) n. 7213 sRef Ex@6 @8 S0′ 7213. I am Jehovah. That this signifies confirmation from the Divine, is evident from what was said above (see n. 7192, 7202).

AC (Potts) n. 7214 sRef Ex@6 @12 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @13 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @9 S0′ 7214. Verses 9-13. And Moses spoke thus unto the sons of Israel; and they heard not Moses for distress of spirit, and for hard service. And Jehovah spoke unto Moses, saying, Come, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, and let him send the sons of Israel out of his land. And Moses spoke before Jehovah, saying, Behold the sons of Israel have not heard me; and how shall Pharaoh hear me, and I uncircumcised in lips? And Jehovah spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a command unto the sons of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt. “And Moses spoke thus unto the sons of Israel,” signifies exhortation from the law Divine to those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; “and they heard not Moses,” signifies that they did not receive from faith and obedience; “for distress of spirit,” signifies by reason of a state near to despair; “and for hard service,” signifies by infestations from mere falsities; “and Jehovah spoke unto Moses, saying,” signifies a continuation; “Come, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt,” signifies a warning to those who infest by mere falsities; “and let him send the sons of Israel out of his land,” signifies that they may go away and leave them; “and Moses spoke before Jehovah, saying,” signifies the law from the Divine, and the thought thence derived; “Behold the sons of Israel have not heard me,” signifies that the spiritual have not received the things announced to them; “and how shall Pharaoh hear me?” signifies that they who are in falsities will not receive; “and I uncircumcised in lips,” signifies that to these I am impure; “and Jehovah spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron,” signifies instruction anew from the law Divine, and at the same time from doctrine; “and gave them a command unto the sons of Israel,” signifies concerning the mandate to those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; “and unto Pharaoh king of Egypt,” signifies a warning to those who infest by mere falsities; “to bring the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt,” signifies that they are to be liberated.

AC (Potts) n. 7215 sRef Ex@6 @9 S0′ 7215. And Moses spoke thus unto the sons of Israel. That this signifies exhortation from the law Divine to those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” as being exhortation, for he spoke to them what was commanded him by Jehovah; from the representation of Moses, as being the law Divine (see n. 6723, 6752); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 6426, 6637).

AC (Potts) n. 7216 sRef Ex@6 @9 S0′ 7216. And they heard not Moses. That this signifies that they did not receive from faith and obedience, is evident from the signification of “hearing,” as being to receive from faith and obedience. (That “to hear” denotes faith in the will and act, and obedience, see n. 2542, 3869, 4652-4660, 5017.)

AC (Potts) n. 7217 sRef Ex@6 @9 S0′ 7217. For distress of spirit.* That this signifies by reason of a state near to despair, is evident from the signification of “distress of spirit,” as being a state near to despair, for they who are in this state, are in distress of spirit. That this state is signified by the burden laid on the sons of Israel by Pharaoh, that they should search for themselves straw to make brick, was shown at the end of the preceding chapter. That distress of spirit denotes a state near to despair, can be seen from the fact that they who are in a state near to despair are in internal anxiety, and are then actually in shortness of breath. In the external sense this condition is a compression of the breast, and from this as it were a difficulty of breathing; but in the internal sense it is anxiety on account of the deprivation of the truth which is of faith, and of the good which is of charity, and from this is a state near to despair. (That a state of compression in respect to the breathing, and anxiety on account of the deprivation of the truth of faith and the good of charity, correspond to each other, as a natural effect in the body from a spiritual cause in the mind, can be seen from what has been shown above, n. 97, 1119, 3886, 3887, 3889, 3892, 3893.) That the deprivation of spiritual truth and good gives birth to such anxiety, and consequently to such distress, cannot be believed by those who are not in faith and charity; for these suppose that to be in distress on this account is weakness and sickliness of mind. The reason is that they do not place anything real in faith and charity, nor therefore in those things which belong to their souls and to heaven, but only in wealth and eminence, thus in the things of the body and the world. They also think, “What are faith and charity but mere words? What is conscience even? To feel distressed by these things is the same as being distressed by such things as a man sees within him from the silly creations of his fancy, and which he imagines to have some existence, although they have not any. Wealth and high position we can see with our eyes, and we know that they exist by the pleasure they afford, for they excite in our whole bodies an expansion and a fullness of joy.” So think merely natural men, and so do they speak among themselves. But spiritual men think differently, for these have their chief life in their spirit, thus in the things that belong to their spirit, that is, in faith and charity; and therefore when they believe themselves deprived of the truths and goods of faith and charity, they are affected with anguish, as are they who are in the anguish of death, for they see before them spiritual death, that is, damnation. As before said, to the merely natural these persons appear weak and sickly in spirit, but they are strong and healthy; whereas they who are merely natural appear to themselves strong and healthy, and also are so as to the body, but as to the spirit they are quite weakly, because spiritually dead. If they could see what kind of a spirit they have, they would acknowledge it to be so; but they do not see the spirit until the body has died.
* Or “shortness of breath.”

AC (Potts) n. 7218 sRef Ex@6 @9 S0′ 7218. And for hard service. That this signifies by infestations from mere falsities, is evident from the signification of “service,” as being infestation by falsities (see n. 7120, 7129); thus “hard service” denotes infestation by mere falsities; for they who are infested by mere falsities, and are not revived by truths whereby the falsities may be shaken off (and yet their life is the life of the truth which is of faith and of the good which is of charity), are in the greatest anguish, and so long as they are in this state, they are as it were in hard service. Hence it is that such infestations are signified by “hard service.” Be it known that everything of thought flows in, but when spirits are in a state of evening and night, their thought is then in a forced state, they being then compelled to think of the falsities which are being injected, and not being able to at all loose themselves from this compulsion. But when it is the state of morning and midday with them, their thought is in a free state, for then they are allowed to think of things which they love, thus of the truths and goods of faith and charity, for these belong to their love. (That this freedom is that which belongs to the love, see n. 2870-2893.)

AC (Potts) n. 7219 sRef Ex@6 @10 S0′ 7219. And Jehovah spoke unto Moses, saying. That this signifies a continuation, is evident from what was said above (n. 7191).

AC (Potts) n. 7220 sRef Ex@6 @11 S0′ 7220. Come, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt. That this signifies a warning to those who infest by mere falsities, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” when from Divine command, as being a warning; and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest by falsities (see n. 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142); and because by mere falsities, it is said, “Pharaoh king of Egypt,” for by “king” is signified in the genuine sense truth, and in the opposite sense, falsity (n. 2015, 2069).

AC (Potts) n. 7221 sRef Ex@6 @11 S0′ 7221. And let him send the sons of Israel out of his land. That this signifies that they may go away and leave them, is evident from the signification of “sending,” as being to go away and leave; from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those of the spiritual church (of which frequently above); and from the signification of the “land of Egypt,” as being a state of infestations: from all which it is evident that by “sending the sons of Israel out of his land” is signified that they should leave those who are of the spiritual church, and not infest them.

AC (Potts) n. 7222 sRef Ex@6 @12 S0′ 7222. And Moses spoke before Jehovah, saying. That this signifies the law from the Divine, and the thought thence derived, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” as being thought (see n. 2271, 2287, 2619); and from the representation of Moses, as being the law from the Divine (n. 6771, 6827).

AC (Potts) n. 7223 sRef Ex@6 @12 S0′ 7223. Behold the sons of Israel have not heard me. That this signifies that the spiritual did not receive the things announced to them, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being the spiritual, that is, those who are of the Lord’s spiritual church (see n. 6426, 6637); and from the signification of “not hearing,” as being not to receive from faith and obedience (of which above, n. 7216); that it denotes the things announced to them, that is, about liberation, is evident.

AC (Potts) n. 7224 sRef Ex@6 @12 S0′ 7224. And how shall Pharaoh hear me? That this signifies that they who are in falsities will not receive, is evident from the signification of “not hearing,” as being not to receive, (see just above, n. 7223); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities (n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142). That by Pharaoh are represented those who are in falsities and infest, thus many, is because the king is the head of the people, and therefore by the king is signified the same as by the people (n. 4789).

AC (Potts) n. 7225 sRef Ezek@44 @9 S0′ sRef Ezek@44 @7 S0′ sRef Jer@9 @26 S0′ sRef Jer@6 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @12 S0′ sRef Lev@26 @41 S1′ 7225. And I uncircumcised in lips. That this signifies that to these I am impure, is evident from the consideration of “being uncircumcised,” as being to be impure, for by circumcision was represented purification from filthy loves, that is, from the loves of self and of the world (n. 2039, 2632, 2799, 4462, 7045), and hence they who were not circumcised and were called “uncircumcised,” represented those not purified from these loves, thus the impure (n. 3412, 3413, 4462, 7045); and from the signification of “lips,” as being things of doctrine (n. 1286, 1288). Thus by “uncircumcised in lips” is signified to be impure in respect to the things which belong to doctrine, for “uncircumcised” is said both of doctrine and of life. Hence the ear is called “uncircumcised” in Jeremiah:
Upon whom shall I speak and testify, and they will hear? Behold their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken; behold the Word of Jehovah is become a reproach, they do not want it (Jer. 6:10).
And the heart is called “uncircumcised” in the following passages:
All the house of Israel are uncircumcised in heart (Jer. 9:26).
Ye bring in the sons of the stranger, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, that they may be in My sanctuary (Ezek. 44:7).
Then their uncircumcised heart shall be humbled (Lev. 26:41).
[2] From these passages it is evident that “to be uncircumcised” denotes to be impure; and as everything impure is from impure loves, which are the love of the world and the love of self, therefore by “uncircumcised” is signified that which impedes the influx of good and truth. Where these loves are, the inflowing good and truth are extinguished, for they are contraries, like heaven and hell. Hence by the “uncircumcised ear” is signified disobedience, and by the “uncircumcised heart” the rejection of good and truth, which is especially the case when these loves have fortified themselves with falsity as with a wall.
[3] That Moses, because he stammered, calls himself “uncircumcised in lips,” is for the sake of the internal sense, that thereby might be signified that they who are in falsities, who are represented by Pharaoh, would not hearken to the things that would be said to them from the law Divine, because they who are in falsities call the truths which are of the law Divine, falsities; and the falsities which are contrary to the truths of the law Divine they call truths, for they are wholly in the opposite. Hence by them the truths of doctrine are not perceived otherwise than as impure; even heavenly loves appear to them impure. Moreover, when they approach any heavenly society, they have an offensive smell, and when they are sensible of it, they suppose that it emanates from the heavenly society, although it is from themselves; for an offensive smell is not perceived except near its opposite.

AC (Potts) n. 7226 sRef Ex@6 @13 S0′ 7226. And Jehovah spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron. That this signifies instruction anew from the law Divine, and at the same time from doctrine, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” as being instruction anew, for in what now follows they are instructed what they shall do; from the representation of Moses, as being the law Divine (n. 6723, 6752); and from the representation of Aaron, as being the doctrine of good and truth (n. 6998). The distinction between the law Divine and doctrine may be seen above (n. 7009, 7010, 7089).

AC (Potts) n. 7227 sRef Ex@6 @13 S0′ 7227. And gave then a command unto the sons of Israel. That this signifies concerning the mandate to those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of “to command,” as being a mandate; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (of which frequently above).

AC (Potts) n. 7228 sRef Ex@6 @13 S0′ 7228. And unto Pharaoh king of Egypt. That this signifies a warning to those who infest by mere falsities, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” when from Divine command to those who are in falsities, as being a warning (see n. 7220); and from the representation of Pharaoh, when he is also called “king of Egypt,” as being those who infest by mere falsities (of which above, n. 7220).

AC (Potts) n. 7229 sRef Ex@6 @13 S0′ 7229. To bring the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt. That this signifies that they are to be liberated, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 7230 sRef Ex@6 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @25 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @23 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @24 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @21 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @14 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @22 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @20 S0′ 7230. Verses 14-25. These are the heads of their fathers’ houses; the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel; Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi; these are the families of Reuben. And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel and Jamin, and Ohad and Jachin, and Zohar, and Saul the son of a Canaanitish woman; these are the families of Simeon. And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their births; Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari; and the years of the life of Levi were a hundred thirty and seven years. The sons of Gershon; Libni and Shimei, according to their families. And the sons of Kohath; Amram and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel; and the years of the life of Kohath were a hundred thirty and three years. And the sons of Merari; Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of Levi according to their births. And Amram took him Jochebed his father’s sister for a woman; and she bare him Aaron and Moses; and the years of the life of Amram were a hundred and thirty and seven years. And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri. And the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Sithri. And Aaron took him Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, for a woman; and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, and Eleazar, and Ithamar. And the sons of Korah; Assir and Elkanah, and Abiasaph; these are the families of the Korahites. And Eleazar Aaron’s son took him one of the daughters of Putiel for a woman; and she bare him Phinehas. These are the heads of the fathers of the Levites according to their families.
[2] “These are the heads of their father’s houses” signifies the chief things of the church; “the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel; Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi” signifies the things that are of faith in the understanding; “these are the families of Reuben” signifies the truths thereof; “and the sons of Simeon; Jemuel and Jamin, and Ohad and Jachin, and Zohar” signifies the things that are of faith in act; “and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman” signifies the things that are of truth in act outside the church; “these are the families of Simeon” signifies the truths and goods thereof; “and these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their births; Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari” signifies the things that are of charity; “and the years of the life of Levi were a hundred thirty and seven years” signifies the quality and state.
[3] “The sons of Gershon; Libni and Shimei, according to their families” signifies the first class of the derivations of good and of the derivative truth; “and the sons of Kohath; Amram and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel” signifies the second class of the derivations of good and of the derivative truth; “and the years of the life of Kohath were a hundred thirty and three years” signifies the quality and state; “and the sons of Merari; Mahli and Mushi” signifies the third class of the derivations of good and of truth; “these are the families of Levi according to their births” signifies that these are goods and truths from charity; “and Amram took him Jochebed his father’s sister for a woman” signifies the conjunction of derived good with kindred truth; “and she bare him Aaron and Moses” signifies that hence they had the doctrine of the church and the law from the Divine; “and the years of the life of Amram were a hundred and thirty and seven years” signifies the quality and state.
[4] “And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri” signifies a successive derivation from the second class, in respect to good and the derivative truth; “and the sons of Uzziel; Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Sithri” signifies the second successive derivation from the same class in respect to good in truth; “and Aaron took him Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, for a woman” signifies the doctrine of the church, and how good and truth were there conjoined; “and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, and Eleazar, and Ithamar” signifies the derivations of faith and charity, and their quality.
[5] “And the sons of Korah; Assir and Elkanah, and Abiasaph” signifies a repeated derivation from the second class; “these are the families of the Korahites” signifies the quality of the goods and truths, “and Eleazar Aaron’s son” signifies doctrinal things derived from the very doctrine of charity; “took him one of the daughters of Putiel for a woman” signifies the conjunction of good and truth in these doctrinal things; “and she bare him Phinehas” signifies the derivation thence; “these are the heads of the fathers of the Levites according to their families” signifies the chief things of the church in respect to charity, and the faith thence derived.

AC (Potts) n. 7231 sRef Ex@6 @21 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @22 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @25 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @24 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @23 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @20 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @14 S0′ 7231. As these are mere names it is needless to unfold them in detail; and besides it has been already shown what is represented by Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Aaron, and Moses; their sons and grandsons, who are here named, being merely the derivations therefrom. (That Reuben represents faith in the understanding, see n. 3861, 3866, 4731, 4734, 4761; that Simeon represents faith in the will and in act, n. 3769-3872, 4497, 4502, 4503, 5482, 5626, 5630; Levi, charity, n. 3875, 3877, 4497, 4502, 4503; Aaron, the doctrine of the church, n. 6998, 7009, 7089; and Moses, the law from the Divine, n. 6771, 6827.) The reason why mention is here made of Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and their sons, and not the rest of the fathers of the tribes with their sons in order, cannot be known except from the internal sense. That this enumeration was made in this chapter to make known the nativity of Aaron and Moses is evident; but for this the genealogy of Levi would have sufficed, for the genealogy of Reuben, Simeon, and their sons contributes nothing thereto. But the reason (which is seen from the internal sense alone) is that the subject treated of is the spiritual church, which is represented by the sons of Israel, which church begins with man by means of faith in knowledge and next in understanding, which faith is represented by Reuben and his sons afterward, when the church grows with man, this faith passes into the will, and from the will into act, and then the man wills the truth which is of faith and does it because it has been so commanded in the Word; this stage of faith is represented by Simeon; lastly, in his will, which is new, there is perceived the affection of charity, so that he wills to do what is good, not as before from faith, but from charity toward the neighbor; for when the man is being regenerated thus far, he is then a man of the spiritual church, for the church is then in him; this charity with its affection is what is represented by Levi. Hence then it is that the families of Reuben and also of Simeon are enumerated, and lastly the family of Levi, by whom as before said is represented charity, which is the very spiritual of the church. Aaron represents the external of this church, and Moses the internal; the internal of the church is called the law from the Divine, and the external is called the derivative doctrine. The law from the divine, which is the internal of the church, is also the Word in the internal sense; and the derivative doctrine is the Word in the external sense. (That these are represented by Moses and Aaron, see n. 7089.)

AC (Potts) n. 7232 sRef Ex@6 @29 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @30 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @28 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @27 S0′ sRef Ex@6 @26 S0′ 7232. Verses 26-30. This is the Aaron and Moses to whom Jehovah said, Lead forth the sons of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies. These are they who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to lead forth the sons of Israel from Egypt. This is the Moses and Aaron. And it was in the day that Jehovah spoke unto Moses in the land of Egypt. And Jehovah spoke unto Moses, saying, I am Jehovah; speak thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I speak unto thee. And Moses said before Jehovah, Behold I am uncircumcised in lips, and how shall Pharaoh hear me? “This is the Aaron and Moses,” signifies that from them was doctrine and the law Divine with that church; “to whom Jehovah said,” signifies from whom was the command; “Lead forth the sons of Israel from the land of Egypt,” signifies that those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom should be liberated; “according to their armies,” signifies according to the genera and species of good in truths; “these are they who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt,” signifies a warning from them to those who infest by mere falsities; “to lead forth the sons of Israel from Egypt,” signifies that they should leave, and not infest them; “this is the Moses and Aaron,” signifies that this was from the law from the Divine, and from the doctrine thence derived; “and it was in the day that Jehovah spoke unto Moses in the land of Egypt,” signifies the state of the church then when command was given through the law from the Divine to those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, when as yet they were in proximity to those who are in the hells; “and Jehovah spoke unto Moses, saying,” signifies instruction from the Divine; “I am Jehovah,” signifies Divine confirmation; “speak thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I speak unto thee,” signifies warnings to those who infest by mere falsities given by the things that flow in from the Divine; “and Moses said before Jehovah,” signifies thought about the law Divine among those who are in falsities; “Behold I am uncircumcised in lips,” signifies that it is impure; “and how shall Pharaoh hear me?” signifies that thus they who are in falsities will not receive.

AC (Potts) n. 7233 sRef Ex@6 @26 S0′ 7233. This is the Aaron and Moses. That this signifies that from them is doctrine and the law Divine with that church, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the doctrine of the church (see n. 6998, 7009, 7089); and from the representation of Moses, as being the law Divine (see n. 6723, 6752). These, namely, the law Divine and doctrine, with those of the spiritual church, arise chiefly from the Word, but still with reference to the faith and charity that had existed with its founders. It is said “from them,” but it is not meant from Aaron and Moses, but from the charity and faith which are represented by Levi, Simeon, and Reuben (of whom just above).
[2] In respect to this matter, be it known further that the doctrine of the spiritual church is not that of truth Divine itself, because those who are of the spiritual church have no perception of truth Divine, as have those who are of the celestial church; but instead of this perception they have conscience, which is formed from the truth and good which they have acknowledged within their own church, of whatever kind these may be. (That those who are of the spiritual church are relatively in obscurity in respect to the truths of faith, see n. 86, 2708, 2715, 2716, 2718, 2831, 2935, 2937, 3241, 3246, 3833, 6289, 6500, 6865, 6945.) Hence it is that everyone within the spiritual church acknowledges as the truth of faith that which its founders have dictated, nor do they search further from the Word whether it be the very truth; and moreover if they did search they would not find it unless they had been regenerated and at the same time enlightened in an especial manner; and this for the reason that their intellectual can indeed be enlightened, but the new will cannot be affected with any other good than that which has been formed by means of conjunction with the truth received within the church. For their own will has been destroyed, and a new will has been formed in the intellectual part (see n. 863, 875, 1023, 1043, 1044, 1555, 2256, 4328, 5113); and when their own will has been separated from the new will which is in the intellectual part, the light in this is feeble, such as is the nocturnal light from the moon and stars compared with the diurnal light from the sun. Hence also it is that by the “moon” in the Word, in the internal sense, is meant the good of spiritual love, and by the “sun” the good of celestial love (n. 30-38, 1529-1531, 2495, 4060).
[3] The case being so with the spiritual church, it is not to be wondered at that with most persons faith is the essential of the church, and not charity, and also that they have no doctrine of charity. Their doctrinal things being from the Word does not make them Divine truths, for from the sense of the letter of the Word any doctrinal thing whatever can be hatched, and that which favors the concupiscences can be readily learned; thus also what is false can be taken for what is true, as is the case with the doctrinal things of the Jews, of the Socinians, and of many others; but not so if doctrine is formed from the internal sense. The internal sense is not only that sense which lies concealed in the external sense, as has heretofore been shown, but is also that which results from a number of passages of the sense of the letter rightly collated, and which is discerned by those who are enlightened by the Lord in respect to their intellectual. For the enlightened intellectual discriminates between apparent truths and real truths, especially between falsities and truths, although it does not judge about real truths in themselves. But the intellectual cannot be enlightened unless it is believed that love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor are the principal and essential things of the church. He who proceeds from the acknowledgment of these, provided he himself is in them, sees innumerable truths; nay, he sees very many secrets disclosed to him, and this from interior acknowledgment, according to the degree of the enlightenment from the Lord.

AC (Potts) n. 7234 sRef Ex@6 @26 S0′ 7234. To whom Jehovah said. That this signifies a command, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah said,” as being a command (see n. 7036).

AC (Potts) n. 7235 sRef Ex@6 @26 S0′ 7235. Lead forth the sons of Israel from the land of Egypt. That this signifies that those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom should be liberated, namely, from the proximity of those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of “leading forth,” as being to liberate; from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (see n. 6426, 6637, and also n. 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223); and from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being where the falsities are from which come the infestations.

AC (Potts) n. 7236 sRef Ex@6 @26 S0′ 7236. According to their armies. That this signifies according to the genera and species of good in truths, is evident from the signification of “armies,” as being the truths which are of faith (see n. 3448). But the goods of the spiritual church are in their essence nothing else than truths, for these are called goods when the life is according to them. Hence by “armies,” when said of the regenerate within the spiritual church, are signified the goods of truth, or goods in truths. The reason why it is said that the sons of Israel were to be “led forth according to their armies,” is that it is said of them when going out of Egypt; in the internal sense when they come out of combats with falsities, thus after they have waged spiritual warfare. By their being “led forth according to their armies” is properly meant that they were to be classified as to goods in truths, thus into classes according to the qualities of good, and this in order that they might represent the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, where all have been classified and allotted a place in the Grand Man according to the quality of the good, both generically and specifically.
[2] From the heavens (as all there have been classified according to goods) it can be seen how manifold and various good is, for it is so various that one is never in the like good with another; nay, if myriads of myriads were multiplied to eternity, the good of one would not be like that of another; just as one person has not the like face as another; moreover, in the heavens good forms the faces of the angels. That there is perpetual variety is because every form consists of various distinct things, for if two things were exactly alike, they could not be two things, but one. Hence also it is that in nature there is never one thing in every respect like another.
[3] That which makes good so various is truth; for when truth is conjoined with good it qualifies it. The reason why truth is so manifold and various that it can so greatly vary good, is that truths are countless, and interior truths are in a different form from exterior truths, and because the fallacies which are of the external senses adjoin themselves, and also falsities which are of concupiscences. Seeing then that truths are so countless, it can be seen that by means of the conjunctions so many varieties arise that one thing can never be the same as another. This is clear to him who knows that from only twenty-three letters, put together in different ways, there can arise the words of all languages, and even with a perpetual variety if there were thousands of languages. What then may not arise from thousands and myriads of various things such us truths. And this is confirmed by the common maxim, “many men, many minds,” that is, there are as many diversities of ideas as there are men.

AC (Potts) n. 7237 sRef Ex@6 @27 S0′ 7237. These are they who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt. That this signifies a warning from them to those who infest by mere falsities, is evident from what was said above (n. 7228), where are the like words.

AC (Potts) n. 7238 sRef Ex@6 @27 S0′ 7238. To lead forth the sons of Israel from Egypt. That this signifies that they should leave and not infest them, is evident from the signification of “to be led forth,” as being to be liberated (as above, n. 7235), thus that they should leave and not infest; from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those of the spiritual church (of which just above, n. 7235); and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being falsity from which comes infestation (of which also above).

AC (Potts) n. 7239 sRef Ex@6 @27 S0′ 7239. This is the Moses and Aaron. That this signifies that this was from the law from the Divine, and from the doctrine thence derived, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the law from the Divine (see n. 6771, 6827); and from the representation of Aaron, as being the doctrine thence derived (n. 6998, 7009, 7089).

AC (Potts) n. 7240 sRef Ex@6 @28 S0′ 7240. And it was in the day that Jehovah spoke unto Moses in the land of Egypt. That this signifies the state of the church then, when commandment was given through the law from the Divine to those who were of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, when yet they were in proximity to those who are in the hells, is evident from the signification of “day,” as being state (see n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 6110), here the state of the church, because this is the subject treated of; from the signification of “Jehovah spoke,” as being a command, here to those of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; from the representation of Moses, as being the law from the Divine (n. 6771, 6827); and from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being where they who were of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom were infested by falsities; that this was in the lower earth, which is near the hells, may be seen above (n. 7090). The land of Egypt, where the sons of Israel were, and which was called “Goshen,” signifies that lower earth; but where the Egyptians were, signifies the hells around, from which came the infestations by falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 7241 sRef Ex@6 @29 S0′ 7241. And Jehovah spoke unto Moses, saying. That this signifies instruction from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah speaking,” as being instruction anew (see n. 7226); and from the representation of Moses, as being the law from the Divine (n. 6771, 6827).

AC (Potts) n. 7242 sRef Ex@6 @29 S0′ 7242. I am Jehovah. That this signifies Divine confirmation, is evident from what was said above (n. 7192, 7202).

AC (Potts) n. 7243 sRef Ex@6 @29 S0′ 7243. Speak thou unto Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I speak unto thee. That this signifies warnings given from the things that flow in from the Divine, to those who infest by mere falsities, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” when it is to those who are in falsities, as being a warning (as above, n. 7220); from the representation of Pharaoh king of Egypt, as being those who infest by mere falsities (n. 7220, 7228); and from the signification of “all that I speak unto thee,” as being the things which flow in from the Divine.

AC (Potts) n. 7244 sRef Ex@6 @30 S0′ 7244. And Moses said before Jehovah. That this signifies thought about the law Divine with those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being thought (see n. 7094); and from the representation of Moses, as being the law Divine (n. 6723, 6752). That it denotes thought about the law Divine with those who are in falsities, is plain from the series as continued in what follows; for when the word “said” is used, and thereby is signified thought, that which follows is involved, here that the law Divine is impure to those who are in falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 7245 sRef Ex@6 @30 S0′ 7245. Behold, I am uncircumcised in lips. That this signifies that it is impure, namely, the law Divine to those who are in falsities, and that and how shall Pharaoh hear me, signifies that thus they who are in falsities will not receive, is evident from what was said above (n. 7224, 7225), where are the same words. Moses calling himself “uncircumcised in lips,” in the internal sense signifies that the law Divine appears impure to those who are in falsities (according to what was shown above, n. 7225); but in the historic sense, in which Moses as the head represents the posterity from Jacob, and that which is of the church with them (as above, n. 7041), “uncircumcised in lips” signifies that the Divine worship with that nation was such. For the worship with that nation was impure, because they worshiped external things, and utterly rejected internal ones, which are faith and charity; nay, they spat out the very knowledges of internal things, just as they did all those things which the rituals signified and represented. And as they were of this nature, their worship was impure, for they worshiped Jehovah from the love of self and the love of the world, but not from love to Him and from love toward the neighbor. In the historic sense, this worship is signified by Moses calling himself “uncircumcised in lips,” but in the internal sense the signification has been unfolded above (n. 7225).

AC (Potts) n. 7246 7246. ON THE INHABITANTS AND SPIRITS OF THE PLANET VENUS.
In the planet Venus there are two kinds of men, of contrary disposition, one kind savage and almost like wild beasts, and the other gentle and humane. They who are savage and almost like wild beasts appear on the side of the planet looking our way; but they who are gentle and humane, on the opposite side. Be it known, however, that they so appear according to the states of their life, for the state of life makes all the appearance of place and space.

AC (Potts) n. 7247 7247. In the idea of spirits the planet Venus appears to the left, a little behind, at some distance from this earth. It is said “in the idea of spirits” because neither the sun of the world nor any planet appears to any spirit; but spirits merely have an idea that they exist, and according to this idea they appear-the sun of the world behind them as something very dark, the planets not moving about, as in the world, but constant in their places (see n. 7171).

AC (Potts) n. 7248 7248. I have been told that the inhabitants of that planet who, when they die and become spirits, appear on this side, are very much delighted with plunder, and especially with eating of their plunder; their delight when they think about eating of their plunder was communicated to me, and I noticed that it was intense. That there have been inhabitants on this earth also of such a ferine nature, is plain from the histories of various nations, also from the inhabitants of the land of Canaan (1 Sam. 30:16), and likewise from the Jewish and Israelitish nation even in the time of David, in that they made yearly raids, and plundered the nations, and rejoiced over their prey. As regards these inhabitants of the planet Venus, they are indeed delighted with plunder, but yet are not cruel. They cast the men whom they rob into the water, and so put them to death, but they save as many as they can; and those whom they so put to death they afterward bury, a sign that they have some humanity. In this they differ from the Jews, who took delight in casting out those whom they slew, and exposing them to be devoured by the beasts of the forest and by the birds, and sometimes in putting them to death in a savage and cruel manner (2 Sam. 12:31). How much delight the Jews had in such things, it was also given me to perceive from the sphere of many of them communicated to me, who approached quickly and then fled away.

AC (Potts) n. 7249 7249. I was also told that the inhabitants of that earth are for the most part giants, the inhabitants of our earth reaching only to their navel; and also that those who appear on this side of that earth are stupid, making no inquiry about heaven, or about eternal life, but caring only for what concerns their land and their cattle.

AC (Potts) n. 7250 7250. Being of this character, when they come into the other life they are very much infested by falsities and evils. Their hells appear around that earth, and do not communicate with the hells of the evil of our earth, because they are of a wholly different genius and disposition; hence also their evils and falsities are of quite another kind. But they who are such that they can be saved are in places of vastation, and are there reduced to the extremity of despair; for evils and falsities of that kind cannot be removed in any other way. When they are in a state of despair, they cry out that they are beasts, brutes, abominations, hatreds, and thus that they are damned. Some of them when in such a state cry out also against heaven, but for this they are excused, because it is from despair. The Lord moderates it, lest they should break out into reproaches beyond certain fixed limits. When they have suffered to the utmost, as their bodily things are then as it were dead, they are at last saved.

AC (Potts) n. 7251 7251. I have also been told about them that when they lived on their earth they believed in a Supreme Creator, without a Mediator. These are they who are so vastated, and finally saved, when they have first been instructed and have received the instruction that the Lord is the only God, Savior, and Mediator. I have heard them confess that without a Mediator it would be impossible for them to be saved, because they are filthy and unworthy. I have also seen some of them, after suffering to the utmost, taken up into heaven, and when they were received there, I observed from them such a tenderness of gladness as drew tears from my eyes.

AC (Potts) n. 7252 7252. The inhabitants and spirits of Venus who appear on the other side of that earth, are of an almost contrary disposition, being gentle and humane. It was granted of the Lord that some of these spirits should come thence to me, and then they appeared near above the head. In talking with me they said that when they were in the world they acknowledged, and now more fully acknowledge, our Lord as their only God. They said that in their earth they had seen Him, walking among them, and they also represented in what manner they had seen Him.

AC (Potts) n. 7253 7253. These spirits have relation in the Grand Man to the memory of material things that corresponds to the memory of immaterial things which the spirits of the planet Mercury constitute (see the description of the spirits of Mercury, n. 7170).

AC (Potts) n. 7254 7254. At the end of the following chapter I will speak of the inhabitants and spirits of the planet Mars.

AC (Potts) n. 7255 7255. Exodus 7

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

Inasmuch as good makes heaven with man, and evil makes hell, it is of the utmost importance to know what good is, and what evil is. It has already been said that good is that which belongs to love to the Lord, and to charity toward the neighbor; and that evil is that which belongs to the love of self and the love of the world. Hence it follows that it is from the loves, and from these alone, that it can be known what good is, and what evil is.

AC (Potts) n. 7256 7256. All things in the universe which are according to Divine order have relation to good and truth; and all things in the universe which are contrary to Divine order have relation to evil and falsity. The reason is that the good and truth which proceed from the Divine make order, insomuch that they are order.

AC (Potts) n. 7257 7257. The good which is of love to the Lord is called “celestial good,” and the good which is of charity toward the neighbor is called “spiritual good.” What the difference is, and how great, between the celestial good which belongs to love to the Lord, and the spiritual good which belongs to charity toward the neighbor, will be told in what follows.

AC (Potts) n. 7258 7258. The doctrine of celestial good, which is that of love to the Lord, is the most ample and at the same time the most secret; but the doctrine of spiritual good, which is that of charity toward the neighbor, is also ample and secret, but less so than the doctrine of celestial good, which is the doctrine of love to the Lord. That the doctrine of charity is ample can be seen from the fact that charity is not the same with one as with another, and that one is not the neighbor the same as another.

AC (Potts) n. 7259 7259. As the doctrine of charity was so ample, the ancients, with whom the doctrine of charity was the very doctrine of the church, distinguished charity toward the neighbor into many classes, which they also subdivided, and gave a name to each class, and taught how charity was to be exercised toward those who are in one class, and how toward those in another; and in this way they reduced the doctrine of charity into order, and also the exercises of charity, that these might fall distinctly under the view of the understanding.

AC (Potts) n. 7260 7260. The names which they gave to those toward whom they were to exercise charity, were many; some they called blind, some lame, some maimed, some poor, also miserable and afflicted, some orphans, some widows; but in general they called those hungry to whom they were to give to eat, those thirsty to whom they were to give to drink, sojourners whom they were to gather in, naked whom they were to clothe, sick whom they were to visit, and in prison to whom they were to come (as to which see above, n. 4954-4959).

AC (Potts) n. 7261 7261. These names were given from heaven to the ancients who were of the church, and by those who were so named they understood those who were spiritually such. Their doctrine of charity taught who these were, and what kind of charity there was to be toward each.

AC (Potts) n. 7262 sRef Matt@22 @40 S0′ sRef Matt@22 @39 S0′ sRef Matt@22 @37 S0′ sRef Matt@22 @38 S0′ 7262. Hence it is that these same names are in the Word, and signify those who are such in the spiritual sense. In itself the Word is nothing but the doctrine of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor, as the Lord also teaches:

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God from all thy heart, and in all thy soul, and in all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. The second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. In these two commandments hang the law and the prophets (Matt. 22:37-40);
“the law and the prophets” denote the whole Word.

AC (Potts) n. 7263 7263. The reason why these same names are in the Word, is that they who were in external worship were to exercise charity toward such as were so named; and they who were in internal worship, toward such spiritually understood; thus that the simple might understand and do the Word simply, and the wise wisely; also in order that the simple might be initiated by means of the externals of charity into its internals.

EXODUS 7

1. And Jehovah said unto Moses, See, I have given thee a god to Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.
2. Thou shalt speak all that I command thee, and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, and let him send the sons of Israel out of his land.
3. And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt.
4. And Pharaoh will not hear you; and I will give My hand upon the Egyptians, and lead forth My armies, My people, the sons of Israel, out of the land of Egypt, with great judgments.
5. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah, when I stretch forth My hand upon Egypt, and lead forth the sons of Israel from the midst of them.
6. And Moses and Aaron did so; as Jehovah commanded them, so did they.
7. And Moses was a son of eighty years, and Aaron a son of three and eighty years, when they spoke unto Pharaoh.
8. And Jehovah said unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying,
9. When Pharaoh shall say unto you, saying, Give you a wonder, and thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh, it shall become a water-serpent.
10. And Moses and Aaron came unto Pharaoh, and they did so as Jehovah had commanded; and Aaron cast his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a water-serpent.
11. And Pharaoh called also the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did so with their enchantments.
12. And they cast forth every man his rod, and they became water-serpents; and Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods.
13. And Pharaoh’s heart was made firm, and he heard them not; as Jehovah had spoken.
14. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Pharaoh’s heart is made heavy, he refuseth to let the people go.
15. Go unto Pharaoh in the morning; behold he goeth out unto the waters; and stand thou to meet him near the bank of the river; and the rod which was turned into a serpent take in thy hand.
16. And thou shalt say unto him, Jehovah the God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, saying, Let My people go, that they may serve Me in the wilderness; and behold hitherto thou hast not heard.
17. Thus said Jehovah, In this thou shalt know that I am Jehovah; behold I smite with the rod that is in my hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned into blood.
18. And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians shall labor to drink waters from the river.
19. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thy hand over the waters of Egypt, over their streams, over their rivers, and over their pools, and over every gathering of their waters, and they shall be blood; and there shall be blood in all the land of Egypt, both in the woods and in the stones.
20. And Moses and Aaron did so, as Jehovah commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, unto the eyes of Pharaoh, and unto the eyes of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned into blood.
21. And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink water from the river; and there was blood in all the land of Egypt.
22. And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments; and Pharaoh’s heart was made firm, and he heard them not, as Jehovah had spoken.
23. And Pharaoh looked back, and came unto his house, and did not set his heart even to this.
24. And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for waters to drink; for they could not drink of the waters of the river.
25. And seven days were fulfilled after that Jehovah had smitten the river.
26.* And Jehovah said unto Moses, Come unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith Jehovah, Let My people go, and let them serve Me.
27. And if thou refuse to let them go, behold I will smite all thy border with frogs.
28. And the river shall make frogs to creep forth, and they shall go up and come into thy house, and into thy bedchamber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and into that of thy people, and into thine ovens, and into thy kneading-troughs.
29. And on thee, and on thy people, and on all thy servants, shall the frogs go up.
* Numbered as in the Hebrew; in the English text Chapter VIII. begins with this verse.

AC (Potts) n. 7264 sRef Ex@7 @0 S0′ 7264. THE CONTENTS.

The subject treated of in the internal sense in what follows is the vastation, and at last the damnation, of those who are in falsities and evils. The process of their devastation is described by the eleven plagues brought on the Egyptians and their land.

AC (Potts) n. 7265 sRef Ex@7 @0 S0′ 7265. In this chapter the subject treated of in the internal sense is the first three degrees of vastation. The first, which is that mere fallacies began to reign with them, whence came falsities, is described by the serpent into which the rod of Aaron was turned. The second, which is that truths themselves became falsities with them, and that falsities became truths, is described by the blood into which the waters were turned. The third degree, which is that from falsities they reasoned against the truths and goods of the church, is described by the frogs out of the river.

AC (Potts) n. 7266 sRef Ex@7 @6 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @2 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @5 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @7 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @3 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @1 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @4 S0′ 7266. THE INTERNAL SENSE.
Verses 1-7. And Jehovah said unto Moses, See, I have given thee a god to Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet. Thou shalt speak all that I command thee, and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, and let him send the sons of Israel out of his land. And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply My signs and My wonders in the land of Egypt. And Pharaoh will not hear you; and I will give My hand upon the Egyptians, and lead forth My armies, My people, the sons of Israel, out of the land of Egypt with great judgments. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah, when I stretch forth My hand upon the Egyptians, and lead forth the sons of Israel from the midst of them. And Moses and Aaron did so; as Jehovah commanded them, so did they. And Moses was a son of eighty years, and Aaron a son of three and eighty years, when they spoke unto Pharaoh. “And Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies instruction; “See, I have given thee a god to Pharaoh,” signifies the law Divine and its power over those who are in falsities; “and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet,” signifies the doctrine thence derived; “thou shalt speak all that I command thee,” signifies reception of the influx of the Divine, and communication; “and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh,” signifies the reception of the influx thence, and its communication with those who are in falsities; “and let him send the sons of Israel out of his land,” signifies that they should desist from infestation; “and I will harden Pharaoh’s heart,” signifies obstinacy from the evil of falsity; “and multiply My signs and My wonders,” signifies warnings of every kind, nor shall anything be wanting; “in the land of Egypt,” signifies where are they who infest; “and Pharaoh will not hear you,” signifies that they who are in falsities will not receive; “and I will give My hand upon the Egyptians,” signifies that therefore they shall be driven by the Divine power; “and lead forth My armies, My people, the sons of Israel,” signifies that they would be liberated who are in goods and truths; “out of the land of Egypt,” signifies from infestations; “with great judgments,” signifies according to the laws of order; “and the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah,” signifies that they shall be in fear of the Divine; “when I stretch forth My hand upon the Egyptians,” signifies when they observe the Divine power in themselves; “and lead forth the sons of Israel from the midst of them,” signifies and when they shall see those liberated who are of the spiritual church; “and Moses and Aaron did so; as Jehovah commanded them, so did they,” signifies that what things were said were also done; “and Moses was a son of eighty years,” signifies the state and quality of the law from the Divine; “and Aaron a son of three and eighty years,” signifies the state and quality of doctrine; “when they spoke unto Pharaoh,” signifies when these things were commanded.

AC (Potts) n. 7267 sRef Ex@7 @1 S0′ 7267. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies instruction, here what would be the procedure with those who are in falsities and infest, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah said,” as being instruction (see n. 7186).

AC (Potts) n. 7268 sRef Ex@7 @1 S0′ 7268. See, I have given thee a god to Pharaoh. That this signifies the law Divine, and its power over those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of “giving thee a god,” as being the Divine truth, or what is the same, the Divine law, and also its power (for in the Word where truth is treated of, and also the power of truth, the name “God” is used, but where good is treated of, the name “Jehovah,” see n. 300, 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3910, 3921, 4287, 4295, 4402, 7010); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities and infest (n. 6651, 6679, 6683). As to what further regards the signification of “God,” be it known that in the supreme sense “God” denotes the Divine which is above the heavens, but in the internal sense “God” denotes the Divine which is in the heavens. The Divine which is above the heavens is the Divine good, but the Divine in the heavens is the Divine truth; for from the Divine good proceeds the Divine truth, and makes heaven, and disposes it. For that which is properly called “heaven” is nothing else than the Divine formed there, because the angels who are in heaven are human forms recipient of the Divine, and constituting a common form, which is that of man.
sRef Ps@89 @8 S2′ sRef John@10 @35 S2′ sRef John@10 @34 S2′ sRef Ps@29 @1 S2′ sRef Ps@89 @7 S2′ sRef Ps@89 @6 S2′ sRef Ps@82 @6 S2′ [2] And because the Divine truth in the heavens is that which in the Word of the Old Testament is meant by “God,” in the original language God is called Elohim in the plural; and as the angels who are in the heavens are recipient of the Divine truth, they also are called “gods,” as in the following passages:
Who in heaven shall compare himself to Jehovah? or shall be likened to Jehovah among the sons of the gods? (Ps. 89:6).
Give to Jehovah, O ye sons of the gods, give to Jehovah glory and strength (Ps. 29:1).
I said, Ye are gods, and all of you sons of the Most High (Ps. 82:6).
Jesus said, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods? So He called them gods to whom the Word came (John 10:34-35).
And also in the passages where the Lord is called God of gods, and Lord of lords (Gen. 46:2-3; Deut. 10:17; Num. 16:22; Dan. 11:36; Ps. 136:2-3).
From all this it can be seen in what sense Moses is called a “god,” here a “god to Pharaoh,” and a “god to Aaron” (Exod. 4:16), namely, because Moses represented the Divine law, which is the Divine truth, and is called the “Word.” Hence also it is that Aaron is here called his “prophet,” and in a former passage his “mouth,” that is, one who utters in a form adapted to the understanding the Divine truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord, and which transcends all understanding. And as a “prophet” denotes one who teaches and utters Divine truth in a form adapted to the understanding, a “prophet” also denotes the doctrine of the church; of which in what now follows.

AC (Potts) n. 7269 sRef Ex@7 @1 S0′ 7269. Also Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet. That this signifies the doctrine thence derived, is evident from the signification of a “prophet,” as being the truth of doctrine, thus doctrine from the Word (see n. 2534). (That Aaron represents the doctrine of the church, or the doctrine of good and truth which is from the Word, see n. 6998, 7009, 7089.) As a “prophet” signifies doctrine, in a determinate sense it signifies one who teaches, according to what was said just above (see n. 7268e).

AC (Potts) n. 7270 sRef Ex@7 @2 S0′ 7270. Thou shalt speak all that I command thee; and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh. That this signifies the reception of the influx of the Divine and its communication, is evident from the representation of Moses, who was to speak, as being Divine truth; and from the representation of Aaron, as being the doctrine thence derived (see n. 7089); from the signification of “speaking,” as being influx and its reception (see n. 5797); and from the signification of “commanding” as also being influx (n. 5486, 5732), here the reception of influx. From all this it is evident that by “speaking” is signified the mediate influx of Divine truth into doctrine, that is, with one who teaches (for the meaning is that Moses – who denotes Divine truth – should speak to Aaron who denotes doctrine or one who teaches – that which Jehovah commanded, thus should speak to him who was to communicate it); and that by “commanding” is signified the immediate Divine influx into the Divine law which is represented by Moses.
[2] How these things are to be understood can be seen from what was said above (n. 7009, 7010), namely, that Moses represents the truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine, and Aaron the truth which proceeds mediately. He who does not know how the case is with order in successive things, cannot know how it is with influx; wherefore it must be briefly told. The truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord, being from the infinite Divine Itself, cannot possibly be received by any living substance which is finite, thus not by any angel; and therefore the Lord created successive things by which as media the Divine truth that proceeds immediately can be communicated. But the first in succession from this is more full of the Divine than can as yet be received by any living substance which is finite, thus by any angel, and therefore the Lord created another successive through which the Divine truth that proceeds immediately might be in part received; this successive is the truth Divine which is in heaven. The first two are above the heavens, and are as it were radiant belts of flame which encompass the sun, which is the Lord. Such is the successive order down to the heaven nearest the Lord, which is the third heaven, where are those who are innocent and wise. From this the successives are continued down to the ultimate heaven, and from the ultimate heaven down to the sensuous and bodily of man, which receives the influx last.
[3] From all this it is evident that there are continued successions from the First, that is, from the Lord, down to the ultimate things that are in man, nay, to the ultimate things that are in nature. The ultimate things in man, as also those in nature, are relatively inert, and thence cold, and are relatively general, and thence obscure. From this it is also evident that by means of these successions there is a continuous connection of all things with the First being. Influx is according to these successions, for the Divine truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine good, flows in successively; and in the way, or in connection with each new successive, it becomes more general, thus grosser and more obscure; and it becomes more slow, thus more inert and cold. From this it is clear what is the Divine order of successives, and thence of influxes.
[4] But be it well known that the truth Divine which flows into the third heaven nearest the Lord, also at the same time and without successive formation flows in down to the ultimates of order, and there from the First immediately also rules and provides each and all things; whereby the successives are held together in their order and connection. That this is so can also in some measure be seen from a maxim not unknown to the learned in the world, that there is only one substance which is substance, and that all other things are formations thence; and that in the formations that one only substance reigns, not only as form, but also as non-form, as in its origin. Unless this were so, a thing formed could not possibly subsist and act. But these things are said for the intelligent.

AC (Potts) n. 7271 sRef Ex@7 @2 S0′ 7271. And let him let the sons of Israel go out of his land. That this signifies that they should desist from infestation, is evident from the representation of Pharaoh, to whom those things were to be said, as being those who infest by falsities (see n. 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142); from the signification of “letting go,” as being that they should desist; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198).

AC (Potts) n. 7272 sRef Ex@7 @3 S0′ 7272. And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart. That this signifies obstinacy from the evil of falsity, is evident from the signification of “hardening,” as being obstinacy; that it denotes from the evil of falsity, is signified by the “heart of Pharaoh,” for by “heart” in the genuine sense is signified the good of celestial love (see n. 3313, 3887, 3889), and therefore in the opposite sense it denotes infernal evil; that it denotes the evil of falsity is because by Pharaoh are represented those who are in falsity. The evil of falsity is that which takes its origin from principles of falsity, such as, for example, that men would become holy through external things, as in the case of the Israelites and Jews through sacrifices, washings, sprinkling of blood; and that they would not become holy through charity and faith; and thus that they would be holy although they lived in hatred, revenge, robbery, cruelty, and the like. These evils are called “evils of falsity,” because they take their origin from principles of falsity.
[2] Take also as an example one who believes that faith alone saves, and that works of charity effect nothing for salvation; and also of one who believes that he may be saved even in the hour of death, howsoever he had lived during the whole course of his life, and from these principles lives without any charity, in contempt of others, in enmity and hatred against everyone who does not treat him with honor, in the desire of revenge, in the lust of depriving others of their goods, in unmercifulness, cunning, and deceit. These evils also are evils of falsity, because from falsity he has persuaded himself either that they are not evils, or that if they were evils, they would nevertheless be wiped away, provided that before breathing his last he should confess from apparent confidence the mediation of the Lord, and the wiping away of sins through the passion of His cross.
[3] Take also as an example those who in supplication approach dead men as saints, and thus adore them, and also their images; the evil of this worship is evil of falsity. They who do the evil of falsity, all believe that falsity is truth, and consequently that evil is either not evil, or is not condemnatory. In like manner those who believe that sins can be pardoned by men; and also those who believe that they can be introduced into heaven, in whatsoever sins they have been, that is, in whatsoever spiritual foulness and rottenness. In a word, the evils of falsity are as many as are the falsities of faith and of worship. These evils condemn, yet not so much as do the evils which originate in evil. The evils which originate in evil are those which are from cupidity rising up from the love of self and of the world.

AC (Potts) n. 7273 sRef Ex@7 @3 S0′ 7273. And I will multiply my signs and My wonders. That this signifies warnings of every kind, nor shall anything be wanting, is evident from the signification of “signs and wonders,” as being confirmations of the truth (see n. 3900, 6870, 7012), and also means of Divine power (n. 6910); here warnings; for thereby they both saw that they were in falsities, and saw the Divine power, and in this way were warned. The reason why it is said that to those who are in falsities warnings are given of every kind, nor shall anything be wanting, is that the condemnation of those who are in evils is not effected in a moment when they come into the other life, but after they have first been visited, that is, examined. The examinations are made in order that they themselves may take notice that they cannot but be condemned, because they have not lived differently, and also in order that spirits and angels may know that they have been of such a character; so that they can no longer be excused either by themselves or by others. The order in accordance with which they are examined is the order of truth Divine, which is such that nothing whatever is wanting. The order of truth Divine, which is for the evil who are being condemned, differs from that of truth Divine for the good who are being saved. The difference is, that the order for the evil who are being condemned, is of truth Divine separated from Divine good, thus from mercy, because they have not received the Divine good, and thus have rejected mercy. But the order which is for the good who are being saved, is of truth Divine conjoined with Divine good, thus with mercy; because they have received the Divine good, thus the mercy of the Lord. By degrees, as the evil are examined in accordance with order, so also are they judged and condemned. This shows that warnings of every kind are given, in order that nothing may be wanting before they are condemned to hell. These then are the things which are signified by the signs and wonders wrought in Egypt, before the firstborn were slain, and the Egyptians perished in the sea Suph; for the sea Suph denotes hell.

AC (Potts) n. 7274 sRef Ex@7 @3 S0′ 7274. In the land of Egypt. That this signifies where are they who infest, is evident from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being where they are who are in falsities, and infest (see n. 7240).

AC (Potts) n. 7275 sRef Ex@7 @4 S0′ 7275. And Pharaoh will not hear you. That this signifies that they who are in falsities will not receive, is evident from what was said above (n. 7224), where are the same words.

AC (Potts) n. 7276 sRef Ex@7 @4 S0′ 7276. And I will give My hand upon the Egyptians. That this signifies that therefore they shall be driven by the Divine power, is evident from the signification of “hand,” as being power (see n. 878, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 7011, 7188, 7189), and when Jehovah speaks of Himself and says “My hand,” as being Divine power; and from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who are in falsities and infest (of which above). Hence it is plain that by “I will give My hand upon the Egyptians” is signified that those who are in falsities will be driven by the Divine power.

AC (Potts) n. 7277 sRef Ex@7 @4 S0′ 7277. And I will lead forth My armies, My people, the sons of Israel. That this signifies that they were to be liberated who are in goods and truths, is evident from the signification of “leading forth,” as being to liberate; from the signification of “army,” as being all kinds of good in truths; from the signification of “people,” as being said of those who are in spiritual truth and good (see n. 1259, 1260, 3295, 3581, 4619), thus of those who are of the spiritual church (n. 2928, 7207); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (of which above, n. 7271), thus who are in goods and truths.

AC (Potts) n. 7278 sRef Ex@7 @4 S0′ 7278. Out of the land of Egypt. That this signifies from infestations, is evident from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being where they are who are in falsities and infest (see n. 7240, 7274), thus also infestations; for by “the land” is signified the nation itself, and by “nation,” in the internal sense, that which is of the nation, here therefore infestation.

AC (Potts) n. 7279 sRef Ex@7 @4 S0′ 7279. By great judgments. That this signifies according to the laws of order, is evident from what was said above (n. 7206).

AC (Potts) n. 7280 sRef Ex@7 @5 S0′ 7280. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah. That this signifies that they shall be in fear of the Divine, is evident from the signification of “knowing that I am Jehovah,” as being to be in fear of the Divine (of which below); and from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who are in falsities and infest. As regards the fear of the Divine in which they who are in falsities and infest will be, be it known that fear is the only means of restraining the infernals and holding them in bonds. For fear is a common bond, both for those who are upright, and for those who are evil; but for those who are upright the fear is internal, which is fear for the sake of salvation, namely, lest they should perish as to their souls, and so lest they should do anything contrary to conscience, that is, contrary to the truth and good which are of conscience; consequently they have fear lest they should do anything contrary to what is just and fair, thus contrary to the neighbor; but this is holy fear insofar as it is conjoined with the affection of charity, and still more as it is conjoined with love to the Lord. Fear then becomes like that of little children toward the parents whom they love. Then, insofar as they are in the good of love, so far the fear does not show itself; but insofar as they are not in good, so far it shows itself, and becomes anxiety. Such is the “fear of God,” so frequently spoken of in the Word.
[2] But with those who are evil there is no internal fear, namely, for the sake of salvation, and thence for the sake of conscience; for such fear they have utterly rejected in the world, both by their life, and by principles of falsity favoring their life; but instead of internal fear they have external fear, namely, lest they should be deprived of honors, of gain, or of reputation for the sake of these, lest they should be punished according to the laws, or be deprived of life. These are what are feared by men who are in evil, while they are in the world. As, when such men come into the other life, they cannot be restrained and held in bonds by internal fear, they are held by external fear, which is impressed on them by punishments. From this they are in fear of doing evil; and at last they are in fear of the Divine, but as before said, external fear, which is devoid of any desire to desist from doing evil from the affection of good, but only from dread of the penalties, which they at last feel horror at.
[3] From all this it can now be seen that fear is the only means of holding in bonds; and that external fear, which is fear of punishments, is the only means of restraining the evil; and that this is the cause of the torment of the evil in hell. For when the evil come into the other life, and when the external bonds which they had in the world are taken away from them, and they are left to their cupidities, they are then like wild beasts, and desire nothing more than to have dominion and to destroy everyone who does not favor them. This is the greatest delight of their life, for insofar as anyone loves himself, so far he hates others who do not favor him; and insofar as anyone is in hatred, so far he is in the delight of destroying; but in the world this is hidden.

AC (Potts) n. 7281 sRef Ex@7 @5 S0′ 7281. When I stretch forth My hand upon the Egyptians. That this signifies when they observe the Divine power in themselves, is evident from the signification of “hand,” when said of the Divine, as being Divine power (of which above, n. 7276), whence it is plain what it is “to sit on the right hand of God,” namely, omnipotence; and from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who are in falsities and infest (of which above).

AC (Potts) n. 7282 sRef Ex@7 @5 S0′ 7282. And lead forth the sons of Israel from the midst of them. That this signifies and when they shall see those liberated who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “leading forth,” as being to be liberated (as above, n. 7277); and from the signification of “the sons of Israel,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (see above, n. 7271).

AC (Potts) n. 7283 sRef Ex@7 @6 S0′ 7283. And Moses and Aaron did so; as Jehovah commanded them, so did they. That this signifies that what things were said were also done, can be seen without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 7284 sRef Ex@7 @7 S0′ 7284. And Moses was a son of eighty years. That this signifies the state and quality of the law from the Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the law from the Divine (see n. 6771, 6827); and from the signification of “eighty years,” as being the state and quality of the law from the Divine, namely, with those who are of the spiritual church at the first time of visitation. What “eighty” specifically signifies cannot be told, because it involves every state and quality of the law from the Divine then with them. That “eighty” denotes states of temptation, see n. 1963, but in this case “eighty” involves the same as “forty;” but as it is also composed of ten and eight multiplied together, the signification of this number must be sought from this fact also. (What “ten” signifies, see n. 576, 1906, 1988, 2284, 3107, 4638; and what “eight,” n. 2044, 2866; in general that all numbers signify things, and in fact the state and quality of these, n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 4495, 4670, 5265, 5291, 5335, 5708, 6175.)

AC (Potts) n. 7285 sRef Ex@7 @7 S0′ 7285. And Aaron was a son of three and eighty years. That this signifies the state and quality of doctrine, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the doctrine of the church (see n. 6998, 7009, 7089); and from the signification of the number “three and eighty,” as being the state and quality, namely, of this doctrine. But the specific state and quality cannot be known except from the reduction of this number into its simple numbers, and afterward from its application to those with whom doctrine is. (As to numbers in the Word further, see just above, n. 7284.)

AC (Potts) n. 7286 sRef Ex@7 @7 S0′ 7286. When they spoke unto Pharaoh. That this signifies when those things were commanded, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” as being a command (see n. 7240); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities and infest (n. 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142).

AC (Potts) n. 7287 sRef Ex@7 @8 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @9 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @10 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @13 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @12 S0′ 7287. Verses 8-13. And Jehovah said unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, When Pharaoh shall say unto you, saying, Give you a wonder, then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh; it shall become a water-serpent. And Moses and Aaron came unto Pharaoh; and they did so as Jehovah had commanded; and Aaron cast his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a water-serpent. And Pharaoh called also the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did so with their enchantments. And they cast forth every man his rod, and they became water-serpents; and Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods. And Pharaoh’s heart was made firm, and he heard them not; as Jehovah had spoken. “And Jehovah said unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying,” signifies instruction; “When Pharaoh shall say unto you,” signifies if they have doubt concerning the Divine; “saying, give you a wonder,” signifies and they therefore desire to be confirmed; “then thou shalt say unto Aaron,” signifies influx and communication; “Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh,” signifies the power which is shown; “it shall become a water-serpent,” signifies that thereby mere fallacies and the derivative falsities will reign among them; “and Moses and Aaron came unto Pharaoh, and they did so as Jehovah had commanded,” signifies the effect; “and Aaron cast his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a water-serpent,” signifies that mere fallacies and the derivative falsities would reign among them; “and Pharaoh called also the wise men and the sorcerers,” signifies abuse of Divine order; “and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did so with their enchantments,” signifies thus to appearance the same by perverting the ends of order; “and they cast forth every man his rod, and they became water-serpents,” signifies power from order that they became dull in respect to the noticing of truth; “and Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods,” signifies that this power was taken away from them; “and Pharaoh’s heart was made firm,” signifies obstinacy; “and he heard them not,” signifies that they who were in evils from falsities did not receive; “as Jehovah had spoken,” signifies prediction.

AC (Potts) n. 7288 sRef Ex@7 @8 S0′ 7288. And Jehovah said unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying. That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah said,” as being instruction (n. 6879, 6881, 6883, 6891).

AC (Potts) n. 7289 sRef Ex@7 @9 S0′ 7289. When Pharaoh shall say unto you. That this signifies if they have doubt concerning the Divine, is evident from what now follows, namely, “if Pharaoh shall say, Give you a wonder,” which words plainly imply doubt concerning the Divine; for to desire a wonder is to doubt until it is confirmed to the senses.

AC (Potts) n. 7290 sRef Ex@7 @9 S0′ 7290. Saying, Give you a wonder. That this signifies, and they therefore desire to be confirmed, is evident from the signification of “wonders and signs,” as being confirmations of truths (see n. 3900, 6870). As regards the wonders and signs treated of in what follows, be it known that they were done among such as were in external worship, and did not desire to know anything about internal worship, for they who were in such worship had to be driven by external means. This is the reason why miracles were done among the Israelitish and Jewish people, for they were in external worship only. In the absence of their desire for internal worship they had to be in external, in order that they might represent holy things in outward ones, and that in this way there might be communication with heaven as by something of a church, for correspondences, representatives, and significatives conjoin the natural world with the spiritual. This is the reason why so many miracles were done in that nation.
sRef John@20 @29 S2′ [2] But miracles are not done among those who are in internal worship, that is, in charity and faith, because to these they are hurtful, for miracles compel belief, and what is compelled does not remain, but is dissipated. The inward things of worship, which are faith and charity, must be implanted in freedom, for then they are appropriated, and what is so appropriated remains; whereas that which is implanted in compulsion, remains outside the internal man in the external, because nothing enters into the internal man except by means of intellectual ideas, which are reasons; for the ground which there receives is an enlightened rational. Hence it is that no miracles are wrought at this day. That they would be hurtful, can be seen from what has been said; for they drive men to believe, and fix their ideas in the external man that the case is so; and if the internal man afterward denies that which the miracles have confirmed, there results an opposition and collision of the internal and external man; and finally when the ideas derived from miracles are dissipated, there is effected a conjunction of falsity and truth, and thus a profanation. From this it is evident how injurious at the present day are miracles in a church in which the inward things of worship have been disclosed. These moreover are the things signified by the Lord’s words to Thomas:
Because thou hast seen Me, Thomas, thou hast believed; blessed are they who see not, and believe (John 20:29);
thus they are blessed who do not believe through miracles.
[3] But miracles are not injurious to those who are in external worship without internal, for with such there can be no opposition of the internal and external man, thus no collision, consequently no profanation. That miracles do not contribute anything to faith, may be sufficiently evident from the miracles wrought among the people of Israel in Egypt, and in the wilderness, in that they had no effect at all upon them. Although that people had recently seen so many miracles in Egypt, and afterward the sea Suph divided, and the Egyptians sunk therein; the pillar of a cloud going before them by day, and the pillar of fire by night; the manna daily raining down from heaven and although they saw Mount Sinai smoking, and heard Jehovah speaking thence, besides other miracles, nevertheless in the midst of such things they fell away from all faith, and from the worship of Jehovah to the worship of a calf (Exod. 32); from which it is plain what is the effect of miracles.
sRef Luke@16 @31 S4′ [4] Still less would be their effect at this day, when it is not acknowledged that there is anything from the spiritual world, and when everything of the kind which takes place, and which is not attributed to nature, is denied; for denial universally reigns against the Divine influx and government in the earth. And therefore if the man of the church were at this day to see the veriest Divine miracles, he would first bring them down into nature, and there defile them, and afterward would reject them as phantasms, and finally would laugh at all who attributed them to the Divine, and not to nature. That miracles are of no effect is also evident from the Lord’s words in Luke:
If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead (Luke 16:31).

AC (Potts) n. 7291 sRef Ex@7 @9 S0′ 7291. And thou shalt say unto Aaron. That this signifies influx and communication, namely, of the law Divine which Moses represents, with the doctrine which Aaron represents, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by Moses to Aaron, as being influx and communication (see n. 6291). “Saying” here signifies the same as “speaking,” namely, both influx and communication (that “speaking” has this signification, see n. 7270). This influx and communication cannot be expressed in the historical part of the Word except by “saying,” and “speaking.” That the law Divine which Moses represents flowed into the doctrine which Aaron represents, is because the law Divine is internal truth, and doctrine is external truth; and it is a general rule that internal things flow into external things, and not vice versa, because internal things are purer and simple in comparison, while external things are gross, for they are the generals of internal things.

AC (Potts) n. 7292 sRef Ex@7 @9 S0′ 7292. Take thy rod, and cast it before Pharaoh. That this signifies the power which is shown, is evident from the signification of a “rod,” as being power (n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936, 6947, 7011, 7026); and from the signification of “casting before Pharaoh,” as being to show; for that which is cast before the eyes is shown.

AC (Potts) n. 7293 sRef Ex@7 @9 S0′ 7293. It shall become a water-serpent. That this signifies that thereby mere fallacies and the derivative falsities will reign among them, is evident from the signification of a “serpent,” as being the sensuous and bodily (see n. 6949), thence fallacies, for the sensuous and bodily, separated from the rational, that is, not subordinate to it, is full of fallacies, so that it is scarcely anything but fallacies (see n. 6948, 6949). It is a water-serpent that is here signified, for in the original, “serpent” is here expressed by the same term as “whale,” which is the largest fish of the sea, and a “whale” signifies memory-knowledges in general. As therefore by the “Egyptians” are signified falsities from fallacies, this word signifies a serpent, that is, a water- serpent, because it stands for the whale that is in the waters, and because the waters of Egypt are falsities.
sRef Ezek@29 @3 S2′ sRef Ezek@32 @2 S2′ [2] That Pharaoh or Egypt is called a “whale” is evident in Ezekiel:
Speak and say, Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Behold I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great whale that lieth in the midst of his rivers (Ezek. 29:3).
Son of man, take up a lamentation upon Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say unto him, Thou art become like a young lion of the nations; and thou art as whales in the seas; and thou hast come forth with thy streams, thou hast troubled thy streams (Ezek. 32:2).
In these passages by a “whale” are signified memory-knowledges in general, by which, because they are from the sensuous man, the things that belong to faith are perverted. That a “whale” denotes memory-knowledge in general, is because a “fish” denotes memory-knowledge in particular (see n. 40, 991). And as “whales” signify memory-knowledges perverting the truths of faith, by them are also signified reasonings from fallacies, whence come falsities.
sRef Ps@74 @13 S3′ sRef Isa@27 @1 S3′ sRef Ps@74 @14 S3′ [3] Such things are signified by “whales” in David:
Thou didst break through the sea by thy strength; Thou hast broken the heads of the whales upon the waters (Ps. 74:13).
Like things are signified also by “leviathan” in Isaiah:
In that day Jehovah with His hard and great and strong sword will visit upon leviathan the long serpent, and upon leviathan the crooked serpent, and will slay the whales that are in the sea (Isa. 27:1).
And in David:
Thou hast broken in pieces the heads of leviathan, Thou gavest him to be meat to the people Ziim (Ps. 74:14).
“Leviathan” in a good sense denotes reason from truths, in Job 41; reason from truths is opposite to reasonings from falsities.
sRef Mal@1 @3 S4′ sRef Jer@9 @11 S4′ sRef Isa@35 @7 S4′ sRef Isa@13 @22 S4′ sRef Isa@34 @13 S4′ [4] And as by “whales” are signified reasonings from fallacies perverting truths, by “water-serpents,” which are expressed by the same word in the original, are signified the falsities themselves from the fallacies from which come reasonings, and by means of which come perversions. Falsities are signified by these serpents in the following passages:
Iim shall answer in her palaces, and serpents in the palaces of delights (Isa. 13:22).
Thorns shall come up in her palaces, the thistle and the brier in the fortresses thereof; that it may be a habitation of serpents, a court for the daughters of the owl (Isa. 34:13).
In the inhabitation of serpents, her couch, shall be grass for reed and rush (Isa. 35:7).
I will make Jerusalem heaps, a dwelling-place of serpents (Jer. 9:11).
I made the mountains of Esau a waste, and his heritage for the serpents of the wilderness (Mal. 1:3).
sRef Rev@12 @15 S5′ sRef Rev@12 @5 S5′ sRef Rev@12 @9 S5′ sRef Rev@12 @13 S5′ [5] In these passages “serpents” denote falsities from which are reasonings. The same are also signified by “dragons;” but “dragons” denote reasonings from the loves of self and of the world, thus from the cupidities of evil, which pervert not only truths, but also goods. These reasonings come forth from those who in heart deny the truths and goods of faith, but in mouth confess them for the sake of the lust of exercising command and of making profit, thus also from those who profane truths and goods. Both are meant by “the dragon, the old serpent, which is called the Devil and Satan, which seduceth the whole world” (Rev. 12:9); and also by the same dragon, which persecuted the woman who brought forth a son that was caught up unto God and unto His throne (Rev. 12:5); and which cast out of his mouth water as a river, that he might swallow up the woman (verse 15).
sRef Rev@12 @16 S6′ [6] The “son” that the woman brought forth is the Divine truth at this day unfolded; the “woman” is the church; “the dragon, the serpent,” denotes those who will persecute; “the water as a river which the dragon would cast out,” denotes the falsities from evil and the reasonings thence, by which they will attempt to destroy the woman, that is, the church; but that they will effect nothing, is described by, “the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out” (verse 16).

AC (Potts) n. 7294 sRef Ex@7 @10 S0′ 7294. And Moses and Aaron came unto Pharaoh, and they did so as Jehovah had commanded. That this signifies the effect, can be seen without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 7295 sRef Ex@7 @10 S0′ 7295. And Aaron cast his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a water-serpent. That this signifies that mere fallacies and the derivative falsities would reign among them, is evident from the signification of “casting a rod,” as being to show power (of which just above, n. 7292); from the representation of Pharaoh and his servants, as being those who infest by falsities; and from the signification of “water-serpents,” as being fallacies and the consequent falsities (of which also just above, n. 7293).
[2] This prophetic sign signifies the first warning to desist given to those who infest. For when the evil who in the other life infest the upright, first come there from the world, they have good spirits and angels adjoined to them, as when they lived as men in the body; for even evil men have also angels with them, in order that they may be able, if they will, to turn themselves to heaven, and to receive influx thence and be reformed. It is for this reason (everything of the life following them) that at first they are associated with angels. But when from their life in the world they are such that they cannot receive the influx of truth and good from heaven, then the angels and good spirits gradually recede from them; and as these recede, they become less and less rational; for to be rational comes through heaven from the Lord.
[3] The first degree of the taking away and deprivation of the influx of truth and good is here described by the rod of Aaron being turned into a serpent, whereby is signified that mere fallacies would reign, and the falsities thence derived. The second degree is described by the waters of Egypt being turned into blood, whereby is signified that truths themselves were falsified. The third degree is that from the waters there crept forth frogs, whereby are signified reasonings from mere falsities; and so on. By such degrees also are the evil in the other life deprived of the understanding of truth and good.

AC (Potts) n. 7296 sRef Isa@19 @11 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @11 S0′ 7296. And Pharaoh called also the wise men and the sorcerers. That this signifies abuse of Divine order, is evident from the signification of “the wise men,” as being those who are in the knowledge of spiritual things, and of their correspondence with natural things; they who investigated and taught such things were called “wise” among them, for they were things mystical. And because the Egyptians paid great attention to such things, they called themselves “son of the wise,” and “of the kings of old,” as is plain in Isaiah:
How say ye unto Pharaoh, A son of the wise am I, a son of kings of old (Isa. 19:11).
The Egyptians called the knowledges of things “wisdom,” as also did the Chaldeans (Jer. 50:35). And from the signification of “sorcerers,” as being those who pervert Divine order, thus who pervert the laws of order. That sorcery and magic are nothing else, can be seen from sorcerers, especially in the other life where they abound. For they who in the life of the body have practiced cunning, and have devised various arts for defrauding others, and at last from their success have attributed all things to their own prudence, in the other life learn magic, which is nothing but abuse of Divine order, especially of correspondences. For it is according to Divine order that each and all things correspond; as for example, the hands, arms, and shoulders correspond to power, and from this so does a rod; and therefore they form for themselves rods, and also representatively present shoulders, arms, and hands, and in this way exercise magical power; and so in thousands of other things. There is abuse of order and of correspondences when things of order are not applied to good ends, but to evil ones, as to that of exercising command over others, and to that of destroying; for the end of order is salvation, thus to do good to all. From this then it is evident what is meant by the abuse of order which is signified by “sorcerers.”

AC (Potts) n. 7297 sRef Ex@7 @11 S0′ 7297. And they also, the magicians of Egypt, did so with their enchantments. That this signifies the same in appearance by perverting the ends of order, is evident from the signification of “they also did,” when said of the magicians of Egypt, as being to present the like in appearance, for things that flow from order are not altered by abuse, but appear the same as to the external form, yet not as to the internal form, for they are contrary to the ends of order; and from the signification of “enchantments,” as being the very arts of perverting order. By “sorcerers,” and “enchantments,” when mentioned in the Word, is signified the art of presenting falsities so that they appear as truths, and of presenting truths so that they appear as falsities, which is especially done by means of fallacies.
sRef Nahum@3 @1 S2′ sRef Nahum@3 @4 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @9 S2′ sRef Isa@57 @3 S2′ sRef Isa@47 @12 S2′ [2] Such is the signification of “sorceries,” and “enchantments,” in the following passages:
Yet these two things shall come to thee in a moment in one day, the loss of children, and widowhood; in their completeness shall they come upon thee, by reason of the multitude of thy sorceries, and for the exceeding greatness of thine enchantments. Stand firm in thine enchantments, and in the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast labored from thy youth (Isa. 47:9, 12);
speaking of Babel and the Chaldeans.
Draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress, the seed of an adulterer and a harlot (Isa. 57:3).
Woe to the city of bloods, for the multitude of the whoredoms of the well-favored* harlot, the mistress of sorceries, that selleth nations through her whoredoms, and families through her sorceries (Nah. 3:1, 4).
“the city of bloods” denotes the falsification of truth; “whoredoms,” the falsified good of truth; “sorceries,” the arts of presenting falsities as truths, and truths as falsities.
sRef Micah@5 @10 S3′ sRef Micah@5 @11 S3′ sRef Micah@5 @12 S3′ sRef Mal@3 @5 S3′ sRef Rev@18 @23 S3′ [3] In Malachi:
I will come near to you to judgment, and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers (Mal. 3:5).
With thine enchantment were all the nations seduced (Rev. 18:23).
speaking of Babylon. In Micah:
I will cut off thy horses out of the midst of thee, and will destroy thy chariots; and I will cut off the cities of thy land, and will destroy all thy strongholds; and I will cut off sorceries out of thy hand (Micah 5:10-12).
From all these passages it is evident that by “sorceries” are signified the arts of presenting truths as falsities, and falsities as truths; for by “the horses that were to be cut off” are signified intellectual things (see n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321, 6125, 6534); by “the chariots that were to be destroyed” are signified doctrinal things of truth (n. 2760, 5321); by “the cities of the land that were also to be cut off” are signified the truths of the church (that “cities” are truths, see n. 2268, 2451, 2712, 2943, 4492, 4493; and that “land” is the church, n. 662, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577); by “strongholds” are signified truths insofar as they defend goods. From all this then it can be known what is signified by the “sorceries that were to be cut off from the hand,” namely, the arts of presenting truths as falsities, and falsities as truths; these arts also correspond to the phantasies whereby the evil in the other life present before the eyes beautiful things as ugly, and ugly things as beautiful; which phantasies are also a species of sorceries, for they also are abuses and perversions of Divine order.
* The Latin here is boni causa, “for the sake of good,” and the same reading is found in Arcana Coelestia n. 9188:5. But in n. 6978, Swedenborg writes boni grotia, which would make the phrase read in English “the harlot good in favor,” or “the well-favored harlot,” as in the English Bible.

AC (Potts) n. 7298 sRef Ex@7 @12 S0′ 7298. And they cast every man his rod, and they became water-serpents. That this signifies power from order that they became dull in respect to the noticing of truth, is evident from the signification of “casting a rod,” as being the exhibition of power (see n. 7292); and from the signification of “water-serpents,” as being falsities from fallacies (see n. 7293), here dullness in respect to the noticing of truth, for in proportion as fallacies cause truths not to be noticed, so is dullness induced. Such dullness is also induced by magicians in the other life, and this by the abuse and perversion of order, for they know how to take away the influx of heaven, and when this is taken away there is dullness in the noticing of truth; and they also know how to induce fallacies, and to present them in a light like the light of truth, and at the same time to obscure the real truths; they likewise know how to inject what is persuasive, and thus to dull the noticing of truth; not to mention other methods. When there is dullness, falsities appear as truths, such falsities being signified by “sorceries” and “enchantments.” From all this it is evident how magicians can present what is in appearance the same.
[2] Be it further known that it is according to the laws of order that no one ought to be persuaded about truth in a moment, that is to say, that truth should be so confirmed in a moment as to leave no doubt whatever about it; because the truth which is so impressed becomes persuasive truth, and is devoid of any extension, and also of any yielding quality. Such truth is represented in the other life as hard, and as such that it does not admit good into it so as to become applicable. Hence it is that as soon as in the other life any truth is presented before good spirits by a manifest experience, there is soon afterward presented something opposite which causes doubt. In this way it is given them to think about it, and to consider whether it be so, and to collect reasons, and thus to bring that truth into their minds rationally. By this there is effected an extension in the spiritual sight in respect to that truth, even to its opposites; and thence it sees and perceives in the understanding all the quality of the truth, and thence can admit influx from heaven according to the states of the objects, for truths receive various forms according to the circumstances. This is the reason why the magicians were allowed to do as Aaron did; for thereby doubt was excited among the sons of Israel about the miracle, whether it was Divine; and thus an opportunity was given them of thinking and considering whether it was Divine, and of finally confirming themselves that it was so.

AC (Potts) n. 7299 sRef Ex@7 @12 S0′ 7299. And Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods. That this signifies that this power was taken away from them, is evident from the signification of “swallowing up,” as being to take away; and from the signification of a “rod,” as being power (see above, n. 7292). Moreover from the magicians in the other life there is taken away the power to abuse order and to pervert its laws. This is done in two ways, one being that by the Lord’s Divine power the angels annihilate their magical productions, and this when they employ them to do evil to the upright (the angelic power from the Lord being so great that it instantly dissipates all such things); and the other is that the magic is altogether taken away from them, so that they can no longer exhibit anything of the kind.

AC (Potts) n. 7300 sRef Ex@7 @13 S0′ 7300. And Pharaoh’s heart was made firm. That this signifies obstinacy, is evident from the signification of the “heart being made firm,” as being obstinacy (as above, n. 7272).

AC (Potts) n. 7301 sRef Ex@7 @13 S0′ 7301. And he heard them not. That this signifies that they who were in evils from falsities did not receive, is evident from what was said above (n. 7224, 7275); for by Pharaoh, of whom it is here said that “he did not hear,” are represented those who are in falsities and infest; and insofar as they infest, so far they are in evil from falsities; for infestation is from evil, and is effected by means of falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 7302 sRef Ex@7 @13 S0′ 7302. As Jehovah had spoken. That this signifies according to the prediction, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 7303 sRef Ex@7 @22 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @20 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @16 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @23 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @19 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @17 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @21 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @18 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @15 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @14 S0′ sRef Ex@7 @24 S0′ 7303. Verses 14-24. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Pharaoh’s heart is made heavy, he refuseth to let the people go. Go unto Pharaoh in the morning; behold he goeth out unto the waters; and stand thou to meet him near the bank of the river; and the rod which was turned into a serpent take in thy hand. And thou shalt say unto him, Jehovah the God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, saying, Let My people go, that they may serve Me in the wilderness; and behold hitherto thou hast not heard. Thus said Jehovah, In this thou shalt know that I am Jehovah; behold I smite with the rod that is in my hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned into blood. And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall stink; and the Egyptians shall labor to drink waters from the river. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod and stretch out thy hand over the waters of Egypt, over their streams, over their rivers, and over their pools, and over every gathering of their waters, and they shall be blood; and there shall be blood in all the land of Egypt, both in the woods and in the stones. And Moses and Aaron did so, as Jehovah commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, unto the eyes of Pharaoh, and unto the eyes of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned into blood. And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink water from the river; and there was blood in all the land of Egypt. And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments; and Pharaoh’s heart was made hard, and he heard them not, as Jehovah had spoken. And Pharaoh looked back, and came unto his house, and did not set his heart even to this. And all the Egyptians digged round about the river for waters to drink; for they could not drink of the waters of the river. “And Jehovah said unto Moses” signifies Divine instruction; “Pharaoh’s heart is made heavy, he refuseth to let the people go,” signifies that they obstinately determined not to release those whom they infest; “go unto Pharaoh in the morning,” signifies elevation to things more confirmatory; “behold he goeth out unto the waters,” signifies that then they who were infesting would be in falsities from fallacies; “and stand thou to meet him near the bank of the river,” signifies influx according to the state; “and the rod that was turned into a serpent take in thy hand,” signifies power like the former; “and thou shalt say unto him,” signifies command; “Jehovah the God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, saying,” signifies from the Divine of the church to those who were infesting; “Let My people go,” signifies that they should release; “that they may serve Me in the wilderness,” signifies worship in what is obscure; “and behold hitherto thou hast not heard,” signifies no obedience; “thus said Jehovah, In this thou shalt know that I am Jehovah,” signifies that they may be in fear of the Divine; “behold, I smite with the rod that is in my hand upon the waters which are in the river,” signifies power over the falsities which are from fallacies; “and they shall be turned into blood,” signifies that they shall falsify truths; “and the fish that is in the river shall die,” signifies that the memory-knowledge of truth shall be extinguished; “and the river shall stink,” signifies aversion for it; “and the Egyptians shall labor to drink waters from the river,” signifies that they would desire to know scarcely anything about it; “and Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies execution; “Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod and stretch out thy hand over the waters of Egypt,” signifies power against the falsities of those who infest; “over their streams, over their rivers,” signifies against the things of doctrine; “and over their pools,” signifies against the memory-knowledges that were of service to them; “and over every gathering of their waters,” signifies where there is any falsity; “and they shall be blood,” signifies that they shall falsify truths; “and there shall be blood in all the land of Egypt,” signifies total falsification; “both in woods and in stones,” signifies of the good that is of charity and of the truth that is of faith; “and Moses and Aaron did so as Jehovah commanded,” signifies the effect; “and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river,” signifies strong power against the falsities; “unto the eyes of Pharaoh, and unto the eyes of his servants,” signifies in the notice of all who were infesting; “and all the waters that were in the river were turned into blood,” signifies the consequent falsification of all truth; “and the fish that was in the river died,” signifies the memory-knowledge of truth also extinguished; “and the river stank,” signifies aversion; “and the Egyptians could not drink water from the river,” signifies that they desired to know scarcely anything about it; “and there was blood in all the land of Egypt,” signifies total falsification; “and the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments,” signifies that their falsifiers fashioned the like by abusing order; “and Pharaoh’s heart was made hard,” signifies obstinacy; “and he heard them not,” signifies no reception and no obedience; “as Jehovah had spoken,” signifies according to the prediction; “and Pharaoh looked back, and came unto his house,” signifies thought and reflection from falsities; “and did not set his heart even to this,” signifies resistance from the will, and the consequent obstinacy; “and all the Egyptians digged round about the river for waters to drink,” signifies a thorough search for truth which they might apply to falsities; “for they could not drink of the waters of the river,” signifies no application from mere falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 7304 sRef Ex@7 @14 S0′ 7304. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies Divine instruction, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when anything is commanded anew, as being instruction (see n. 7186, 7267, 7288), here Divine instruction, because “Jehovah said,” namely, instruction how to act further.

AC (Potts) n. 7305 sRef Ex@7 @14 S0′ 7305. Pharaoh’s heart is made heavy, he refuseth to let the people go. That this signifies that they obstinately determined not to release those whom they infest, is evident from the signification of “the heart being made heavy,” as also being “made firm,” and “hardened,” as being obstinacy (as above, n. 7272, 7300); from the signification of “refusing to let go,” as being not to release; and from the representation of Pharaoh, of whom this is said, as being those who infest (of which above).

AC (Potts) n. 7306 sRef Ex@7 @15 S0′ 7306. Go unto Pharaoh in the morning. That this signifies elevation to things more confirmatory, is evident from the signification of “going,” or “entering to Pharaoh,” as being communication (see n. 7000), here communication of things confirmatory that it is the Divine which warns them to desist from infestations; and from the signification of “morning,” as being a state of enlightenment and revelation (see n. 3458, 3723, 5097, 5740), here elevation, because predicated of those who are in falsities and who cannot be enlightened, but can be elevated in respect to attention. The reason why they who are in falsities cannot be enlightened, is that falsities reject and extinguish all the light which enlightens, which light is received solely by truths.

AC (Potts) n. 7307 sRef Ex@7 @15 S0′ 7307. Behold he goeth out unto the waters. That this signifies that then they who were infesting would be in falsities from fallacies, is evident from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest (of which above); and from the signification of “waters,” here the waters of Egypt, as being falsities from fallacies. That these falsities, or falsities from this origin, are here signified, is because by the “serpent into which the rod of Aaron was turned” these falsities are signified (see n. 7293). (That “waters” denote truths, and in the opposite sense falsities, see n. 739, 790, 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668; and that the “river of Egypt” denotes falsity, n. 6693.)

AC (Potts) n. 7308 sRef Ex@7 @15 S0′ 7308. And stand thou to meet him near the bank of the river. That this signifies influx according to the state, is evident from the signification of “standing to meet,” as being influx, for when it is said of the law Divine which is represented by Moses, that it should “stand to meet” those who are in falsities and infest, who are represented by Pharaoh, nothing else can be signified by “standing to meet” than influx and thence reception, and thus a noticing; and from the signification of “the bank of the river,” as being the state of falsity in which they were who were infesting. That the “river of Egypt” denotes falsity (see n. 6693), here falsity from fallacies (n. 7307); but the “bank,” which is like a containant, because it surrounds and includes, denotes the state of this falsity; for everything has its state, in which and according to which it is.

AC (Potts) n. 7309 sRef Ex@7 @15 S0′ 7309. And the rod that was turned into a serpent take in thy hand. That this signifies power like the former, is evident from the signification of a “rod,” as being power (n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936, 7026); that it is power like the former, is signified by his taking the rod that was turned into a serpent; and from the signification of “hand,” as also being power, but spiritual power, from which comes the natural power signified by a “rod” (n. 6947, 7011).

AC (Potts) n. 7310 sRef Ex@7 @16 S0′ 7310. And thou shalt say unto him. That this signifies a command, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by the law Divine that is represented by Moses to those who are in falsities who are represented by Pharaoh, as being a command.

AC (Potts) n. 7311 sRef Ex@7 @16 S0′ 7311. Jehovah the God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee, saying. That this signifies from the Divine of the church to those who were infesting, is evident from the signification of “the Hebrews,” as being the things of the church (see n. 5136, 6675, 6684, 6738); the Divine of the church is “Jehovah the God of the Hebrews,” and “Jehovah God” is the Lord, “Jehovah” as to Divine good, and “God” as to Divine truth; and from the signification of “hath sent me unto thee,” as being to those who infest. That by Pharaoh to whom Jehovah sent are represented those who infest, has often been shown above.

AC (Potts) n. 7312 sRef Ex@7 @16 S0′ 7312. Let My people go. That this signifies that they should release, is evident without explication.

AC (Potts) n. 7313 sRef Ex@7 @16 S0′ 7313. That they may serve Me in the wilderness. That this signifies worship in what is obscure, is evident from the signification of “serving Jehovah,” as being worship; and from the signification of a “wilderness,” as being that which is not inhabited and cultivated (see n. 2708, 3900); in the spiritual sense that which is obscure in respect to the good and truth of faith. That “wilderness” here denotes such obscurity is because in general they of the spiritual church, who are represented by the sons of Israel, are in obscurity in respect to the truths of faith (n. 2715, 2716, 2718, 2831, 2849, 2935, 2937, 3833, 4402, 6289, 6500, 6865, 6945, 7233); specifically because they are in obscurity when they emerge from a state of infestations and temptations. For they who are in infestations are surrounded by falsities, and are shaken like a reed by the wind, thus from doubt to affirmative, and from affirmative to doubt; and therefore when they newly ascend out of this state they are in obscurity, but this obscurity is then gradually enlightened. As there is such a state with those who are being infested, therefore the sons of Israel were brought into the wilderness in order that they might represent this state, in which were those of the spiritual church before the Lord’s coming; and also the state in which they who are of that church are at this day, and are being vastated in respect to falsities.

AC (Potts) n. 7314 sRef Ex@7 @16 S0′ 7314. And behold hitherto thou hast not heard. That this signifies no obedience, is evident from the signification of “to hear,” as being obedience (see n. 2542, 3869, 5017, 5471, 5475, 7216); thus “not to hear” denotes no obedience.

AC (Potts) n. 7315 7315. Thus said Jehovah, In this thou shalt know that I am Jehovah. That this signifies that they should be in fear of the Divine, is evident from what was said above (n. 7280), where are the like words.

AC (Potts) n. 7316 7316. Behold I smite with the rod that is in my hand upon the waters which are in the river. That this signifies power over the falsities which are from fallacies, is evident from the signification of “the rod,” as being power (see above, n. 7309); and from the signification of “the waters which are in the river,” as being falsities from fallacies (of which also above, n. 7307).

AC (Potts) n. 7317 7317. And they shall be turned into blood. That this signifies that they shall falsify truths, is evident from the signification of “blood,” as being truth falsified (see n. 4735, 6978); for “blood” in the genuine sense denotes the truth proceeding from the Lord, thus the holy of faith; this is signified by “blood” in the Holy Supper; but in the opposite sense “blood” denotes violence done to Divine truth, and as this violence is done by means of falsifications, “blood” denotes the falsification of truth. From what is here said, and from what follows, it can be seen who are specifically represented by Pharaoh, that is, who are specifically meant by those who infest, namely, those within the church who have made a profession of faith, and have also persuaded themselves that faith saves, and yet have lived contrary to the precepts of faith; in a word, those who have been in persuasive faith and in a life of evil.
sRef Luke@13 @25 S2′ sRef Matt@7 @22 S2′ sRef Matt@7 @24 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @26 S2′ sRef Matt@7 @26 S2′ sRef Matt@7 @23 S2′ sRef Luke@13 @27 S2′ [2] When these come into the other life they bring with them the principles that they are to be introduced into heaven because they have been born within the church, have been baptized, have had the Word and doctrine therefrom which they have professed, and especially because they have professed the Lord, and because He suffered for their sins, and thus saved those within the church who have from doctrine professed Him. When these persons come fresh from the world into the other life they do not desire to know anything about the life of faith and of charity, but make it of no account, saying that because they have had faith, all evils of life have been wiped off and washed away by the blood of the Lamb. When they are told that these things are contrary to the Lord’s words in Matthew, where He says, “Many will say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied through Thy name, and through Thy name have cast out devils, and in Thy name have done many mighty deeds? But then will I confess, I know you not; depart from Me ye workers of iniquity; everyone that heareth My words and doeth them, I will liken to a prudent man, and everyone that heareth My words, and doeth them not, I will liken unto a foolish man” (Matt. 7:22-26); and in Luke, “Then shall ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us; but He answering shall say to them, I know you not whence ye are; then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in Thy presence, and Thou hast taught in our streets; but He shall say, I say unto you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from Me all ye workers of iniquity” (Luke 13:25-27), they reply that by these are meant no others than such as have been in miraculous faith, but not in the faith of the church.
[3] Yet the same after some time begin to know that no others are let into heaven than they who have lived the life of faith, thus who have had charity toward the neighbor; and when they begin to know this, then they begin to despise the teachings of their faith, and also their faith itself; for their faith was not faith, but only the knowledge of such things as are of faith; and was not for the sake of life, but for the sake of gain and honors. Consequently what they have had of the knowledge of faith they then despise, and also reject; and presently they cast themselves into falsities that are contrary to the truths of faith. Into this state the life of those is turned who have confessed faith, and have lived a life contrary to faith. These are they who in the other life infest the upright by means of falsities, thus who are specifically meant by “Pharaoh.”

AC (Potts) n. 7318 sRef Ex@7 @18 S0′ 7318. And the fish that is in the river shall die. That this signifies that the memory-knowledge of truth shall be extinguished, is evident from the signification of “the fish,” as being memory-knowledge (see n. 40, 991), here the memory-knowledge of truth, because it is said that it should die, because in waters turned into blood, by which is signified that it would be extinguished through falsification; and from the signification of “dying,” as being to be extinguished. What the falsification of truth is shall be illustrated by some examples. Truth is falsified when from reasonings it is concluded and said that because no one can do what is good from himself, therefore good effects nothing toward salvation. Truth is also falsified when it is said that all the good which a man does regards himself and is done for the sake of recompense, and this being so, works of charity are not to be done. Truth is falsified when it is said that because all good is from the Lord, therefore man ought to do nothing of good, but should await influx. Truth is falsified when it said that truth can exist in a man without the good which is of charity, thus faith without charity. Truth is falsified when it is said that no one can enter into heaven except one who is miserable and poor; also when it is said, unless he gives all he has to the poor, and reduces himself to miseries.
[2] Truth is falsified when it is said that everyone can be admitted into heaven from mercy, no matter how he has lived. Truth is still more falsified when it is said that there has been given to man the power of admitting into heaven whomsoever he pleases. Truth is falsified when it is said that sins are wiped and washed away like filth by water; and truth is still more falsified when it is said that man has the power of remitting sins, and that when they have been remitted, they are altogether wiped away, and the man is pure. Truth is falsified when it is said that the Lord has taken all sins upon Himself, and so has taken them away, and that thus man can be saved, no matter what his life is. Truth is falsified when it is said that no one is saved except one who is within the church. The reasonings by which such falsification is effected, are that they who are within the church have been baptized, have the Word, know about the Lord, about the resurrection, life eternal, heaven, and hell, and thus they know what the faith is by which they can be justified. There are countless such things as these, for there is not a single truth which cannot be falsified, and the falsification confirmed by reasonings from fallacies.

AC (Potts) n. 7319 sRef Ex@7 @18 S0′ 7319. And the river shall stink. That this signifies aversion for it, is evident from the signification of “stinking,” as being aversion (see n. 7161); and from the signification of “river,” here the river of Egypt turned into blood, as being truth falsified. Be it known that in the other life nothing is more abominable, and consequently nothing has a more offensive stench, than profaned truth; it is like the stench of a carcass, which arises when living flesh dies. For falsity has no bad smell unless it is applied to truth; nor evil unless it is applied to good; the quality of each being made sensible, not from itself, but from its opposite; from which it can be seen how great is the stench of profaned truth. Profaned truth is falsity conjoined with truth; and falsified truth is falsity not conjoined but adjoined to truth, and ruling over truth.

AC (Potts) n. 7320 sRef Ex@7 @18 S0′ 7320. And the Egyptians shall labor to drink waters from the river. That this signifies that they would desire to know scarcely anything about it, is evident from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who falsify truths; and from the signification of “drinking,” as being to be instructed in truths (see n. 3069, 3772, 4017, 4018), hence “to labor to drink” denotes not to desire to be instructed, thus to desire to know scarcely anything, that is, about truths; and from the signification of the “waters of the river,” as being falsities (of which above, n. 7307), here falsified truths. From all this it is evident that by “the Egyptians laboring to drink waters from the river” is signified that they who are in falsities from fallacies desire to know scarcely anything about truths, thus that they have aversion for them. The cause of the aversion is that the truths which are perverted by falsities, still fight secretly and silently, and labor to shake off the falsities, and thus cause annoyance; for if the falsities are removed a little, together with their faith, truths condemn.

AC (Potts) n. 7321 sRef Ex@7 @19 S0′ 7321. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies execution, is evident from the things which now follow, for “Jehovah said” involves them.

AC (Potts) n. 7322 sRef Ex@7 @19 S0′ 7322. Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod and stretch out thy hand over the waters of Egypt. That this signifies power against the falsities of those who infest, is evident from the signification of a “rod,” as being natural power, and from the signification of the “hand,” as being spiritual power (of which above, n. 7309), hence “to take a rod and stretch out the hand” denotes to exercise spiritual power by means of natural power; and from the signification of “the waters of Egypt,” as being the falsities which infest (of which also above, n. 7307).

AC (Potts) n. 7323 sRef Ex@7 @19 S0′ 7323. Over their streams, over their rivers. That this signifies against the doctrinal things of falsity, is evident from the signification of “streams” and “rivers,” as being things of doctrine; for “waters” denote falsities (see n. 7307), and therefore “streams and rivers,” which are collections of water, are doctrinal things, here of falsity. That “streams” denote that which is of intelligence, thus of truth, see n. 2702, 3051; hence in the opposite sense, they denote that which is contrary to intelligence, thus that which is of falsity.

AC (Potts) n. 7324 sRef Ex@7 @19 S0′ sRef Isa@35 @7 S1′ sRef Isa@35 @6 S1′ 7324. And over their pools. That this signifies against the memory-knowledges that were of service to them, is evident from the signification of “pools,” as being memory-knowledges that are of service to the truths of doctrine, and in the opposite sense memory-knowledges that are of service to falsities of doctrine. “Pools,” when mentioned in the Word, in the spiritual sense signify intelligence from the knowledges of good and truth, for “pools” there mean waters gathered together, or lakes; and waters gathered together, and lakes, denote in the complex the knowledges through which is intelligence, as in Isaiah:
Out of the wilderness shall waters break out, and rivers in the plain of the wilderness, and the dry place shall become a pool, and the thirsty one springs of waters (Isa. 35:6-7).
sRef Ps@114 @8 S2′ sRef Isa@41 @18 S2′ sRef Isa@42 @15 S2′ sRef Ps@107 @35 S2′ sRef Ps@114 @7 S2′ sRef Ps@107 @33 S2′ [2] In the same:
I will open rivers upon the hillsides, and I will set fountains in the midst of the valleys; I will make the wilderness a pool of waters, and the dry land springs of waters (Isa. 41:18).
where “to make the wilderness a pool of waters,” denotes to give the knowledges of good and truth, and thence intelligence, where before they were not. In the same:
I will lay waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herbage; and I will make the rivers islands, and will dry up the pools (Isa. 42:15);
where “pools” have a like signification.
sRef Isa@19 @8 S3′ sRef Isa@19 @6 S3′ sRef Isa@19 @10 S3′ [3] So in David:
Jehovah turneth rivers into a wilderness, and watersprings into a dry place; He turneth a wilderness into a pool of waters, and a land of drought into watersprings (Ps. 107:33, 35).
Thou travailest, O earth, from be